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Sample records for basal hepatic glucose

  1. A variant in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose, increased basal hepatic glucose production and increased insulin release after oral and intravenous glucose loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, C S; Grarup, N; Krarup, N T;

    2009-01-01

    An association between elevated fasting plasma glucose and the common rs560887 G allele in the G6PC2/ABCB11 locus has been reported. In Danes we aimed to examine rs560887 in relation to plasma glucose and serum insulin responses following oral and i.v. glucose loads and in relation to hepatic...... glucose production during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Furthermore, we examined rs560887 for association with impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes and components of the metabolic syndrome....

  2. Brain Glucose Metabolism Controls Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Tony K.T.

    2007-01-01

    Brain glucose-sensing mechanisms are implicated in the regulation of feeding behavior and hypoglycemic-induced hormonal counter-regulation. This commentary discusses recent findings indicating that the brain senses glucose to regulate both hepatic glucose and lipid production.

  3. Hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John G

    2016-06-01

    The liver has a central role in the regulation of systemic glucose and lipid fluxes during feeding and fasting and also relies on these substrates for its own energy needs. These parallel requirements are met by coordinated control of carbohydrate and lipid fluxes into and out of the Krebs cycle, which is highly tuned to nutrient availability and heavily regulated by insulin and glucagon. During progression of type 2 diabetes, hepatic carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis fluxes become elevated, thus contributing to hyperglycaemia and hypertriacylglycerolaemia. Over this interval there are also significant fluctuations in hepatic energy state. To date, it is not known to what extent abnormal glucose and lipid fluxes are causally linked to altered energy states. Recent evidence that the glucose-lowering effects of metformin appear to be mediated by attenuation of hepatic energy generation places an additional spotlight on the interdependence of hepatic biosynthetic and oxidative fluxes. The transition from fasting to feeding results in a significant re-direction of hepatic glucose and lipid fluxes and may also incur a temporary hepatic energy deficit. At present, it is not known to what extent these variables are additionally modified by type 2 diabetes and/or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Thus, there is a compelling need to measure fluxes through oxidative, gluconeogenic and lipogenic pathways and determine their relationship with hepatic energy state in both fasting and fed conditions. New magnetic resonance-based technologies allow these variables to be non-invasively studied in animal models and humans. This review summarises a presentation given at the symposium entitled 'The liver in focus' at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Kenneth Cusi, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3952-1 , and by Hannele Yki-Järvinen, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3944-1 ) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Michael

  4. Portal infusion of escitalopram enhances hepatic glucose disposal in conscious dogs

    OpenAIRE

    An, Zhibo; Moore, Mary C.; Winnick, Jason J.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Lautz, Margaret; Smith, Marta; Rodewald, Tiffany; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2009-01-01

    To examine whether escitalopram enhances net hepatic glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic clamp, studies were performed in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs. The experimental period was divided into P1 (0–90 min) and P2 (90–270 min). During P1 and P2 somatostatin (to inhibit insulin and glucagon secretion), 4X basal intraportal insulin, basal intraportal glucagon, and peripheral glucose (2X hepatic glucose load) were infused. Saline was infused intraportally during P1 in all groups...

  5. FOXN3 regulates hepatic glucose utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, Santhosh; Zinkhan, Erin K.; Hill, Jonathon T.; Yost, H. Joseph; Schlegel, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY A SNP (rs8004664) in the first intron of the FOXN3 gene is associated with human fasting blood glucose. We find that carriers of the risk allele have higher hepatic expression of the transcriptional repressor FOXN3. Rat Foxn3 protein and zebrafish foxn3 transcripts are downregulated during fasting, a process recapitulated in human HepG2 hepatoma cells. Transgenic overexpression of zebrafish foxn3 or human FOXN3 increases zebrafish hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression, whole-larval free glucose, and adult fasting blood glucose, and also decreases expression of glycolytic genes. Hepatic FOXN3 overexpression suppresses expression of mycb, whose ortholog MYC is known to directly stimulate expression of glucose-utilization enzymes. Carriers of the rs8004664 risk allele have decreased MYC transcript abundance. Human FOXN3 binds DNA sequences in the human FOXN3 and zebrafish mycb loci. We conclude that the rs8004664 risk allele drives excessive expression of FOXN3 during fasting and that FOXN3 regulates fasting blood glucose. PMID:27292639

  6. Modeling changes in glucose and glycerol rates of appearance when true basal rates of appearance cannot be readily determined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, Laura; Bergman, Bryan C; Nadeau, Kristen J; Cree-Green, Melanie

    2016-03-01

    Advancing diabetes care requires accurate physiological assessments. Hyperinsulinemic clamps with stable isotope tracers can simultaneously measure insulin's ability to suppress lipolysis and hepatic glucose release. Traditionally, these methods require an assessment of basal glucose and glycerol rate of appearance (Ra). Basal Ra is challenging to measure in insulin-dependent diabetes, where exogenous insulin required to maintain normoglycemia can raise peripheral insulin concentrations sufficiently to suppress basal Ra. Thus we identified two alternative statistical approaches to describe changes in glucose and glycerol Ra that are less reliant on basal assessments. Sixteen youths (4 type 1 diabetic, 4 type 2 diabetic, 4 lean controls, and 4 obese nondiabetic) underwent a four-phase ("basal" and 10, 16, and 80 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with glucose and glycerol tracers. Glucose and glycerol Ra were calculated per phase. A statistical method, the standard two-stage (STS) algorithm, was applied to the individual log insulin vs. Ra curves to calculate a single predicted Ra value. A population-based mixed-effects model (MEM) compared the group average Ra with log insulin curves and described individual deviations from group means and was used to calculate individual predicted Ra. Both models were applied to the participant data, and predicted Ras at the mean insulin concentration per phase (10 for glycerol, 16 for glucose) were calculated, with good agreement between observed and predicted values. In our data set, the MEM was better able to detect group differences. Both STS and MEM can model lipolysis and endogenous glucose release in insulin-dependent states when basal Ra cannot be accurately measured. PMID:26714848

  7. Abnormal transient rise in hepatic glucose production after oral glucose in non-insulin-dependent diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, A; Litchfield, A; Fabris, S; Proietto, J

    1995-05-01

    A transient rise in hepatic glucose production (HGP) after an oral glucosa load has been reported in some insulin-resistant states such as in obese fa/fa Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether this rise in HGP also occurs in subjects with established non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Glucose kinetics were measured basally and during a double-label oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in 12 NIDDM subjects and 12 non-diabetic 'control' subjects. Twenty minutes after the glucose load, HGP had increased 73% above basal in the NIDDM subjects (7.29 +/- 0.52 to 12.58 +/- 1.86 mumol/kg/min, P < 0.02). A transient rise in glucagon (12 pg/ml above basal, P < 0.004) occurred at a similar time. In contrast, the control subjects showed no rise in HGP or plasma glucagon. HGP began to suppress 40-50 min after the OGTT in both the NIDDM and control subjects. A 27% increase in the rate of gut-derived glucose absorption was also observed in the NIDDM group, which could be the result of increased gut glucose absorption or decreased first pass extraction of glucose by the liver. Therefore, in agreement with data in animal models of NIDDM, a transient rise in HGP partly contributes to the hyperglycemia observed after an oral glucose load in NIDDM subjects. PMID:7587920

  8. Mechanism by which hyperglycemia inhibits hepatic glucose production in conscious rats. Implications for the pathophysiology of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetti, L.; Giaccari, A; Barzilai, N; Howard, K; Sebel, G; Hu, M.

    1993-01-01

    To examine the relationship between the plasma glucose concentration (PG) and the pathways of hepatic glucose production (HGP), five groups of conscious rats were studied after a 6-h fast: (a) control rats (PG = 8.0 +/- 0.2 mM); (b) control rats (PG = 7.9 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin and insulin replaced at the basal level; (c) control rats (PG = 18.1 +/- 0.2 mM) with somatostatin, insulin replaced at the basal level, and glucose infused to acutely raise plasma glucose by 10 mM; (d) control ...

  9. Hepatic glucose sensing is required to preserve β cell glucose competence.

    OpenAIRE

    Seyer, Pascal; Vallois, David; Poitry-Yamate, Carole; Schutz, Frédéric; Metref, Salima; Tarussio, David; Maechler, Pierre; Staels, Bart; Lanz, Bernard; Grueter, Rolf; Decaris, Julie; Turner, Scott; Da Costa, Anabela; Preitner, Frédéric; Minehira, Kaori

    2013-01-01

    Liver glucose metabolism plays a central role in glucose homeostasis and may also regulate feeding and energy expenditure. Here we assessed the impact of glucose transporter 2 (Glut2) gene inactivation in adult mouse liver (LG2KO mice). Loss of Glut2 suppressed hepatic glucose uptake but not glucose output. In the fasted state, expression of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and its glycolytic and lipogenic target genes was abnormally elevated. Feeding, energy expenditu...

  10. Glucose abnormalities in hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jee-Fu; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Chuang, Wan-Long

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the most important causes of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma and has a tremendous impact on public health worldwide. HCV is both hepatotropic and lymphotropic. Replication of HCV in diseased extrahepatic organs and tissues may either trigger latent autoimmunity or induce autoimmune disorders. In addition to established liver injury, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is an important feature of extrahepatic metabolic disorders which is attributed to HCV infection. It also has some impact on the disease activity, disease course, clinical outcomes, and treatment efficacy of antiviral therapy. Previous experimental and clinical findings have highly suggested that HCV per se is diabetogenic. The cause-effect interaction between a common endocrine disorder and an infectious disease is an important issue to elucidate. Although the precise mechanisms whereby HCV infection leads to insulin resistance (IR) and glucose abnormalities are not entirely clear, it differs from the usual pathogenesis of T2DM in those with non-HCV liver diseases. This review initially highlights epidemiological and pathophysiological studies addressing the mutual link between chronic HCV infection (CHC) and T2DM. The characteristics of glucose abnormalities in this special population are depicted from the current evidence. The mutual roles of IR and CHC with respect to the prediction of treatment efficacy, how treatment response affects IR, and the role of pancreatic beta cell function in the entire suite are discussed. With the rapid progression of antiviral therapy for CHC in the past decade, we have also listed some points of future perspective in this issue. PMID:23347806

  11. Glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang; Shih-Tzer Tsai; Jiing-Chyuan Luo; Shou-Dong Lee; Full-Young Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C and to evaluate the relationship between interferon (IFN)treatment and glucose intolerance in these patients.METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study was done to evaluate the prevalence of glucose intolerance in Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from the outpatient clinic of Department of Family Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Chronic hepatitis C was defined as persistent presence of anti-HCV and persistent elevation of liver transaminase for at least 1.5 folds for at least 6 months. Moreover, patients were further categorized into normal fasting glucose and glucose intolerance (diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose) according to the diagnostic criteria of American Diabetic Association. RESULTS: Totally, 359 Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C were enrolled (212 males and 147 females, mean age=58.1±13.0 years). One hundred and twenty-three patients (34.3 %) had various forms of IFN treatment. One hundred and twenty-five patients (34.6 %)had glucose intolerance, including 99 patients (27.6 %) with DM and 26 patients (7.0 %) with impaired fasting glucose.Tn comparison with those with normal fasting glucose levels,patients with chronic hepatitis C with glucose intolerance were significantly older, had a significantly higher body mass index, and they were more likely to suffer from obesity, to have family history of diabetes and to have had previous IFN treatment. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression revealed significantly that age ≥ 57 years, obesity,previous history of IFN treatment and the presence of family history of diabetes were independent risk factors associated with the presence of glucose intolerance in chronic hepatitis C patients.CONCLUSION: In conclusion, 34.6 % of Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis C had glucose intolerance. Chronic hepatitis C patients who

  12. Glucose Enhances Basal or Melanocortin-Induced cAMP-Response Element Activity in Hypothalamic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, Andreas; Wicht, Kristina; Boekhoff, Ingrid; Glas, Evi; Lauffer, Lisa; Mückter, Harald; Gudermann, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)-induced activation of the cAMP-response element (CRE) via the CRE-binding protein in hypothalamic cells promotes expression of TRH and thereby restricts food intake and increases energy expenditure. Glucose also induces central anorexigenic effects by acting on hypothalamic neurons, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. It has been proposed that glucose activates the CRE-binding protein-regulated transcriptional coactivator 2 (CRTC-2) in hypothalamic neurons by inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs), but whether glucose directly affects hypothalamic CRE activity has not yet been shown. Hence, we dissected effects of glucose on basal and MSH-induced CRE activation in terms of kinetics, affinity, and desensitization in murine, hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells that stably express a CRE-dependent reporter gene construct. Physiologically relevant increases in extracellular glucose enhanced basal or MSH-induced CRE-dependent gene transcription, whereas prolonged elevated glucose concentrations reduced the sensitivity of mHypoA-2/10-CRE cells towards glucose. Glucose also induced CRCT-2 translocation into the nucleus and the AMPK activator metformin decreased basal and glucose-induced CRE activity, suggesting a role for AMPK/CRTC-2 in glucose-induced CRE activation. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-induced down-regulation of CRTC-2 expression decreased glucose-induced CRE-dependent reporter activation. Of note, glucose also induced expression of TRH, suggesting that glucose might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis via the regulation of hypothalamic CRE activity. These findings significantly advance our knowledge about the impact of glucose on hypothalamic signaling and suggest that TRH release might account for the central anorexigenic effects of glucose and could represent a new molecular link between hyperglycaemia and thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27144291

  13. Sugarcoated isolation: evidence that social avoidance is linked to higher basal glucose levels and higher consumption of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Ein-Dor, Tsachi; Coan, James A.; Reizer, Abira; Gross, Elizabeth B.; Dahan, Dana; Wegener, Meredyth A.; Carel, Rafael; Cloninger, Claude R.; Zohar, Ada H

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The human brain adjusts its level of effort in coping with various life stressors as a partial function of perceived access to social resources. We examined whether people who avoid social ties maintain a higher fasting basal level of glucose in their bloodstream and consume more sugar-rich food, reflecting strategies to draw more on personal resources when threatened. Methods: In Study 1 (N = 60), we obtained fasting blood glucose and adult attachment orientations data. In Study 2...

  14. The GLP-1 Analogue Exenatide Improves Hepatic and Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in Diabetic Rats: Tracer Studies in the Basal State and during Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic Clamp

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    Hui Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 analogues (e.g., exenatide increase insulin secretion in diabetes but less is known about their effects on glucose production or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Methods. Four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: nondiabetic (control, C; nondiabetic + exenatide (C + E; diabetic (D; diabetic + exenatide (D + E with diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high fat diet. Infusion of 3-3H-glucose and U-13C-glycerol was used to measure basal rates of appearance (Ra of glucose and glycerol and gluconeogenesis from glycerol (GNG. During hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, glucose uptake into gastrocnemius muscles was measured with 2-deoxy-D-14C-glucose. Results. In the diabetic rats, exenatide reduced the basal Ra of glucose (P<0.01 and glycerol (P<0.01 and GNG (P<0.001. During the clamp, Ra of glucose was also reduced, whereas the rate of disappearance of glucose increased and there was increased glucose uptake into muscle (P<0.01 during the clamp. In the nondiabetic rats, exenatide had no effect. Conclusion. In addition to its known effects on insulin secretion, administration of the GLP-1 analogue, exenatide, is associated with increased inhibition of gluconeogenesis and improved glucose uptake into muscle in diabetic rats, implying improved hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  15. Dysregulated hepatic expression of glucose transporters in chronic disease: contribution of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase to hepatic glucose uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Sumera; Liaskou, Evaggelia; Fear, Janine; Garg, Abhilok; Reynolds, Gary; Claridge, Lee; Adams, David H; Newsome, Philip N; Lalor, Patricia F

    2014-12-15

    Insulin resistance is common in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). Serum levels of soluble vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) are also increased in these patients. The amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 stimulates glucose uptake via translocation of transporters to the cell membrane in adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. We aimed to document human hepatocellular expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and to determine if VAP-1 activity influences receptor expression and hepatic glucose uptake. Quantitative PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to study human liver tissue and cultured cells. We also used tissue slices from humans and VAP-1-deficient mice to assay glucose uptake and measure hepatocellular responses to stimulation. We report upregulation of GLUT1, -3, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9, -10, -11, -12, and -13 in CLD. VAP-1 expression and enzyme activity increased in disease, and provision of substrate to hepatic VAP-1 drives hepatic glucose uptake. This effect was sensitive to inhibition of VAP-1 and could be recapitulated by H2O2. VAP-1 activity also altered expression and subcellular localization of GLUT2, -4, -9, -10, and -13. Therefore, we show, for the first time, alterations in hepatocellular expression of glucose and fructose transporters in CLD and provide evidence that the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity of VAP-1 modifies hepatic glucose homeostasis and may contribute to patterns of GLUT expression in chronic disease. PMID:25342050

  16. Clofibrate improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed rats but decreases hepatic glucose consumption capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gustafson, LA; Kuipers, F; Wiegman, C; Sauerwein, HP; Romijn, JA; Meijer, AJ

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: High-fat (HF) diets cause glucose intolerance. Fibrates improve glucose tolerance. We have tried to obtain information on possible hepatic mechanisms contributing to this effect. Methods: Rats were fed a HF diet, isocaloric with the control diet, for 3 weeks without or with clofibra

  17. Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Kim, Hye-Soon; Shon, Ho-Sang; Jeon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Taek; Han, Sung-Min; Chung, Choon-Hee; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Soon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients. Materials and Methods The present study was a...

  18. Hyperintense basal ganglia lesions on T1-weighted MR images in asymptomatic patients with hepatic dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial MRI findings in four patients who had hepatic dysfunction, including one with sole hepatic form of Wilson's disease, were reported. The MR examinations revealed bilateral, symmetric hyperintensity in the globus pallidus, subthalamic nuclei and mesencephalon on T1-weighted images with no corresponding abnormality on T2-weighted sequences. The basal ganglia were normal on CT examinations in all patients. None of the patients had the clinical findings of hepatic encephalopathy. The MR findings in our patients did not correlate with the degree or duration of hepatic dysfunction. (orig.)

  19. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  20. Restoration of Hepatic Glucokinase Expression Corrects Hepatic Glucose Flux and Normalizes Plasma Glucose in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Tracy P.; Catlin, ReEtta L.; Chan, Robert; Fujimoto, Yuka; Sasaki, Noriyasu; Printz, Richard L.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Shiota, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—We examined in 20-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats whether restoration of hepatic glucokinase (GK) expression would alter hepatic glucose flux and improve hyperglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—ZDF rats were treated at various doses with an adenovirus that directs the expression of rat liver GK (AdvCMV-GKL) dose dependently, and various metabolic parameters were compared with those of nondiabetic lean littermates (ZCL rats) before and during a hyperglycemic clamp. Viral...

  1. TCF7L2 involvement in estradiol- and progesterone-modulated islet and hepatic glucose homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fengqin; Ling, Qi; Ye, Dan; Zhang, Zhe; Shu, Jing; Chen, Guoping; Fei, Yang; Li, Chengjiang

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of TCF7L2, a key regulator of glucose homeostasis, in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4)-modulated glucose metabolism, mouse insulinoma cells (MIN6) and human liver cancer cells (hepG2 and HUH7) were treated with physiological concentrations of E2 or P4 in the up- and down-regulation of TCF7L2. Insulin/proinsulin secretion was measured in MIN6 cells, while glucose uptake and production were evaluated in liver cancer cells. E2 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion under both basal and stimulated conditions, whereas P4 increased insulin/proinsulin secretion only under glucose-stimulated conditions. An antagonistic effect, possibly concentration-dependent, of E2 and P4 on the regulation of islet glucose metabolism was observed. After E2 or P4 treatment, secretion of insulin/proinsulin was positively correlated with TCF7L2 protein expression. When TCF7L2 was silenced, E2- or P4-promoted insulin/proinsulin secretion was significantly weakened. Under glucotoxicity conditions, overexpression of TCF7L2 increased insulin secretion and processing. In liver cancer cells, E2 or P4 exposure elevated TCF7L2 expression, enhanced the activity of insulin signaling (pAKT/pGSK), reduced PEPCK expression, subsequently increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and decreased glucose production. Silencing TCF7L2 eliminated effects of E2 or P4. In conclusion, TCF7L2 regulates E2- or P4-modulated islet and hepatic glucose metabolism. The results have implications for glucose homeostasis in pregnancy. PMID:27108846

  2. Altered or Impaired Immune Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in WNIN/GR-Ob Rat: An Obese Rat Model with Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Bandaru, Prathibha; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Nappanveettil, Giridharan

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is shown to increase the incidence and severity of infectious diseases and individuals seem to exhibit poor antibody response to vaccination due to several inherent immune defects. With the increasing prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) seen in obese individuals, the present study was aimed to investigate the basal immune response and immune response upon Hepatitis B vaccination (HBV) in an obese rat model WNIN/GR-Ob with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Decreased proporti...

  3. Interleukin 6 stimulates hepatic glucose release from prelabeled glycogen pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytokines, derived from a wide variety of cell types, are now believed to initiate many of the physiological responses accompanying the inflammatory phase that follows either Gram-negative septicemia or thermal injury. Because hypoglycemia (after endotoxic challenge) and hyperglycemia (after thermal injury) represent well-characterized responses to these injuries, we sought to determine whether hepatic glycogen metabolism could be altered by specific cytokines. Cultured adult rat hepatocytes were prelabeled with [14C]glucose for 24 h, a procedure that resulted in the labeling of hepatic glycogen pools that subsequently could be depleted (with concomitant [14C]glucose release) by either glucagon or norepinephrine. After the addition of a highly concentrated human monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM) or various cytokines to these prelabeled cells, [14C]glucose release was stimulated by MCM and recombinant human interleukin 6 (IL-6) but was not stimulated by other cytokines tested. Furthermore, only antisera to IL-6 were capable of reducing the glucose-releasing factor activity found in MCM. These data therefore suggest a novel glucoregulatory role for IL-6

  4. Interleukin 6 stimulates hepatic glucose release from prelabeled glycogen pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, D.G. (Shriners Burns Institute, Galveston, TX (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Cytokines, derived from a wide variety of cell types, are now believed to initiate many of the physiological responses accompanying the inflammatory phase that follows either Gram-negative septicemia or thermal injury. Because hypoglycemia (after endotoxic challenge) and hyperglycemia (after thermal injury) represent well-characterized responses to these injuries, we sought to determine whether hepatic glycogen metabolism could be altered by specific cytokines. Cultured adult rat hepatocytes were prelabeled with ({sup 14}C)glucose for 24 h, a procedure that resulted in the labeling of hepatic glycogen pools that subsequently could be depleted (with concomitant ({sup 14}C)glucose release) by either glucagon or norepinephrine. After the addition of a highly concentrated human monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM) or various cytokines to these prelabeled cells, ({sup 14}C)glucose release was stimulated by MCM and recombinant human interleukin 6 (IL-6) but was not stimulated by other cytokines tested. Furthermore, only antisera to IL-6 were capable of reducing the glucose-releasing factor activity found in MCM. These data therefore suggest a novel glucoregulatory role for IL-6.

  5. Combined use of basal insulin analog and acarbose reduces postprandial glucose in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun; Ahn, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Lee, Dae-Ho; Kim, Hye-Soon; Shon, Ho-Sang; Jeon, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Tae-Hwa; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jae-Taek; Han, Sung-Min; Chung, Choon-Hee; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Min; Lee, Soon-Hee; Kwon, Min-Jeong; Kim, Tae-kyun; Namgoong, Il-Seong; Kim, Eun-Sook; Jung, In-Kyung; Moon, Sung-Dae; Han, Je-Ho; Kim, Chong-Hwa; Cho, Eun-Hee; Kim, Ki-Young; Park, Hee-Baek; Lee, Ki-Sang; Lee, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Kang, Cheol-Min; Jeon, Byung-Sook; Song, Min-Seop; Yun, Seung-Baik; Chung, Hyung-Keun; Seong, Jong-Ho; Jeong, Jin-Yi; Cha, Bong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Aims/Introduction Early initiation of basal insulin therapy is recommended for normalizing fasting blood glucose in type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, basal insulin treatment might not adequately control postprandial glucose levels. The present study evaluated whether the combination of the α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, and basal insulin improved blood glucose control under daily-life treatment conditions in a large sample of Korean patients. Materials and Methods The present study was a multicenter, prospective, observational study under daily-life treatment conditions. A total of 539 patients with type 2 diabetes who were treated with basal insulin and additional acarbose were enrolled and followed up for 20 weeks. Changes in hemoglobin A1c, fasting and postprandial blood glucose were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the observation period. The physician and patient satisfaction of the combination treatment and safety were assessed. Results Hemoglobin A1c decreased by 0.55 ± 1.05% from baseline (P < 0.0001). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were reduced by 0.89 ± 3.79 and 2.59 ± 4.77 mmol/L (both P < 0.0001). The most frequently reported adverse drug reactions were flatulence (0.37%) and abnormal gastrointestinal sounds (0.37%), and all were mild in intensity and transient. In the satisfaction evaluation, 79.0% of physicians and 77.3% of patients were ‘very satisfied’ or ‘satisfied’ with the combined basal insulin and acarbose therapy. Conclusions Combination therapy of basal insulin and acarbose in patients with type 2 diabetes improved glucose control, and had no drug-specific safety concerns, suggesting that the treatment might benefit individuals who cannot control blood glucose with basal insulin alone. PMID:25802730

  6. Use of deuterium labelled glucose in evaluating the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, M.N.; Masuoka, L.K.; deRopp, J.S.; Jones, A.D.

    1989-03-15

    Deuterium labelled glucose has been used to study the pathway of hepatic glycogen synthesis during the fasted-refed transition in rats. Deuterium enrichment of liver glycogen was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance as well as mass spectroscopy. Sixty minutes after oral administration of deuterated glucose to fasted rats, the portal vein blood was fully enriched with deuterated glucose. Despite this, less than half of the glucose molecules incorporated into liver glycogen contained deuterium. The loss of deuterium label from glucose is consistent with hepatic glycogen synthesis by an indirect pathway requiring prior metabolism of glucose. The use of deuterium labelled glucose may prove to be a useful probe to study hepatic glycogen metabolism. Its use may also find application in the study of liver glycogen metabolism in humans by a noninvasive means.

  7. Basal insulin therapy strategy is superior to premixed insulin therapy in the perioperative period blood glucose management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qing-xian; LOU Fu-chen; WANG Ping; LIU Qian; WANG Kun; ZHANG Li; ZHU Lei

    2013-01-01

    Background The probability and risk of operations increase in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.For diabetic patients,blood glucose control is a key factor to improving the prognosis of surgery.During perioperative period,insulin therapy is usually advised to be used for surgical patients with type 2 diabetes.However,the insulin regimen which one is better remains controversial.In this study,we estimated the efficacy,safety and advantage of different insulin therapy strategy during perioperative period.Methods A total of 1086 cases of surgical patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus enrolled in the present study.According to the glucose level at admission,all patients were divided into relatively high glucose group (group A,fasting blood glucose (FBG) <13.9 mmol/L) and higher glucose group (group B,FBG >13.9 mmol/L).Patients in group A randomly accepted premixed insulin twice a day,or basal insulin plus oral medications,and were divided into group A1 and A2 respectively.Patients in group B randomly received premixed insulin twice daily,basal insulin plus oral hypoglycemic agents,or basal insulin plus preprandial insulin,and were divided into group B1,B2 and B3 respectively.The data of the preoperative preparation time,the daily doses of insulin used in different periods,postoperative incision healed installments,hypoglycemic events,the total hospitalization time,postoperative complications were all collected and statistically analyzed.Results Compared the main outcome measures in groups treated by premixed insulin therapy,both in preoperative preparation and postoperative period,the daily insulin dosage and the frequency of hypoglycemic events were decreased in groups treated by basal insulin therapy (P <0.05).The preoperative preparation time and the total hospitalization time in groups with basal insulin therapy were shorter than that in groups with premixed insulin therapy (P <0.05).The incision healing rate of stage Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅲ among different

  8. Effect of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by lipid-infusion in awake rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Li; Gang-Yi Yang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the influence of hepatic glucose production on acute insulin resistance induced by a lipid infusion in awake rats.METHODS: A hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp was established in awake chronically catheterized rats. Two groups of rats were studied either with a 4-h intraarterial infusion of lipid/heparin or saline. Insulin-mediated peripheral and hepatic glucose metabolism was assessed by hyperinsulinaemiceuglycaemic clamp combined with [3-3H]-glucose infusion.RESULTS: During hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp,there was a significant increase in plasma free fatty acid (FFA, from 741.9±50.6 to 2346.4±238.5 μmol/L, P<0.01) in lipid-infused group. The glucose infusion rates (GIR) in the lipid infusion rats, compared to control rats, were significantly reduced (200-240 min average: lipid infusion; 12.6±1.5 vs control; 34.0±1.6 mg/kg.min, P<0.01), declining to - 35%of the corresponding control values during the last time of the clamp (240 min: lipid infusion; 12.0±1.9 vs control;34.7±1.7 mg/kg.min, P<0.0001). At the end of clamp study,the hepatic glucose production (HGP) in control rats was significantly suppressed (88%) from 19.0±4.5 (basal) to 2.3±0.9 mg/kg.min (P<0.01). The suppressive effect of insulin on HGP was significantly blunted in the lipid-infused (P<0.05). The rate of glucose disappearance (GRd) was a slight decrease in the lipid-infused rats compared with controls during the clamp.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that lipid infusion could induces suppression of hepatic glucose production, impairs the abilities of insulin to suppress lipolysis and mediate glucose utilization in peripheral tissue. Therefore, we conclude that lipid-infusion induces an acute insulin resistance in vivo.

  9. Resting energy expenditure and glucose, protein and fat oxidation in severe chronic virus hepatitis B patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To study and determine the resting energy ex- penditure (REE) and oxidation rates of glucose, fat and protein in severe chronic hepatitis B patients. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with liver diseases were categorized into three groups: 16 in the acute hepatitis group, 56 in the severe chronic hepatitis group, and 28 in the cirrhosis group. The REE and the oxidation rates of glucose, fat and protein were as- sessed by indirect heat measurement using the CCM-D nutritive metabolic investigation system. RESULTS: The REE of the severe chronic hepatitis group (20.7 ± 6.1 kcal/d per kg) was significantly lower than that of the acute hepatitis group (P = 0.014). The respiratory quotient (RQ) of the severe chronic hepatitis group (0.84 ± 0.06) was significantly lower than that of the acute hepatitis and cirrhosis groups (P = 0.001). The glucose oxidation rate of the severe hepatitis group (39.2%) was significantly lower than that of the acute hepatitis group and the cirrhosis group (P < 0.05), while the fat oxidation rate (39.8%) in the severe hepatitis group was markedly higher than that of the other two groups (P < 0.05). With improve- ment of liver function, the glucose oxidation rate in- creased from 41.7% to 60.1%, while the fat oxidation rate decreased from 26.3% to 7.6%. CONCLUSION: The glucose oxidation rate is signifi- cantly decreased, and a high proportion of energy is provided by fat in severe chronic hepatitis. These re- sues warrant a large clinical trail to assess the optimal nutritive support therapy for patients with severe liver disease.

  10. Effect of sepsis on VLDL kinetics: responses in basal state and during glucose infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gram-negative sepsis on the kinetics and oxidation of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acids was assessed in conscious dogs in the normal state and 24 h after infusion of live Escherichia coli. VLDL, labeled with [2-3H]glycerol and [1-14C]palmitic acid, was used to trace VLDL kinetics and oxidation, and [1-13C]palmitic acid bound to albumin was infused simultaneously to quantify kinetics and oxidation of free fatty acid (FFA) in plasma. Sepsis caused a fivefold increase in the rate of VLDL production (RaVLDL). In the control dogs, the direct oxidation of VLDL-fatty acids was not an important contributor to their overall energy metabolism, but in dogs with sepsis, 17% of the total rate of CO2 production could be accounted for by VLDL-fatty acid oxidation. When glucose was infused into dogs with insulin and glucagon levels clamped at basal levels (by means of infusion of somatostatin and replacement of the hormones), RaVLDL increased significantly in the control dogs, but it did not increase further in dogs with sepsis. The authors conclude that the increase in triglyceride concentration in fasting dogs with gram-negative sepsis is the result of an increase in VLDL production and that the fatty acids in VLDL can serve as an important source of energy in sepsis

  11. Synergistic Inhibitory Effects of Hypoxia and Iron Deficiency on Hepatic Glucose Response in Mouse Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyeyoung; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Robert C; Gao, Yan; Sink, Sandy; Cox, James; McClain, Donald A

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxia and iron both regulate metabolism through multiple mechanisms, including hypoxia-inducible transcription factors. The hypoxic effects on glucose disposal and glycolysis are well established, but less is known about the effects of hypoxia and iron deficiency on hepatic gluconeogenesis. We therefore assessed their effects on hepatic glucose production in mice. Weanling C57BL/6 male mice were fed an iron-deficient (4 ppm) or iron-adequate (35 ppm) diet for 14 weeks and were continued in normoxia or exposed to hypoxia (8% O2) for the last 4 weeks of that period. Hypoxic mice became hypoglycemic and displayed impaired hepatic glucose production after a pyruvate challenge, an effect accentuated by an iron-deficient diet. Stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factors under hypoxia resulted in most glucose being converted into lactate and not oxidized. Hepatic pyruvate concentrations were lower in hypoxic mice. The decreased hepatic pyruvate levels were not caused by increased utilization but rather were contributed to by decreased metabolism from gluconeogenic amino acids. Pyruvate carboxylase, which catalyzes the first step of gluconeogenesis, was also downregulated by hypoxia with iron deficiency. Hypoxia, and more so hypoxia with iron deficiency, results in hypoglycemia due to decreased levels of hepatic pyruvate and decreased pyruvate utilization for gluconeogenesis. These data highlight the role of iron levels as an important determinant of glucose metabolism in hypoxia. PMID:26993063

  12. Effect of basal insulin combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and complications in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Qing Guo; Chen-Ru Zhang; Ai-Ge Yang; Fan Liu; Shan-Shan Dong; Yan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of basal insulin combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and complications in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes.Methods:A total of 135 cases of patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes who were treated in our hospital from July 2012 to January 2015 were enrolled as research subjects and divided into observation group 66 cases and control group 69 cases according to different treatment methods. Control group received acarbose therapy alone, observation group received basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy, and then differences in blood glucose level, oxidative stress indicators, nerve conduction velocity, vascular injury and inflammatory factor levels of two groups were compared.Results:FPG, 2hPG and HbA1C levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group; AGE-P, MDA and NADPH levels were lower than those of control group, and SOD level was higher than that of control group; median MNCV, ulnar MNCV, tibial MNCV, median SNCV and sural SNCV levels were higher than those of control group; sVCAM-1, hs-CRP and IL-6 levels were lower than those of control group. Conclusion:Basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy for patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes can effectively optimize the levels of blood glucose and complication-related factors, and it has active clinical significance.

  13. Portal Vein Glucose Entry Triggers a Coordinated Cellular Response That Potentiates Hepatic Glucose Uptake and Storage in Normal but Not High-Fat/High-Fructose–Fed Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Coate, Katie C.; Kraft, Guillaume; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss W.; Peter J Roach; Shiota, Masakazu; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The cellular events mediating the pleiotropic actions of portal vein glucose (PoG) delivery on hepatic glucose disposition have not been clearly defined. Likewise, the molecular defects associated with postprandial hyperglycemia and impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) following consumption of a high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFFD) are unknown. Our goal was to identify hepatocellular changes elicited by hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, and PoG signaling in normal chow-fed (CTR) and HFFD-fed d...

  14. Effects of guar gum and cellulose on glucose absorption, hormonal release and hepatic metabolism in the pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, C. S.; Malmlof, K.

    1992-01-01

    Six Large White pigs (mean body-weight 59 (SE 1.7) kg) were surgically fitted with permanent catheters in the portal vein, the brachiocephalic artery and the right hepatic vein, as well as with electromagnetic flow probes around the portal vein and the hepatic artery, and allowed to recover. The non-anaesthetized animals were given a basal non-fibre diet (diet A) alone or together with 60 g guar gum/kg (diet B) or 150 g purified cellulose/kg (diet C) by substitution for mica. The diets were given for weekly periods and according to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. On the last day of each such adaptation period, test meals of 800 g were given before blood sampling. Sampling was continued for 8 h. Guar gum strongly reduced glucose apparent absorption without changing the absorption and the hepatic uptake profiles. Production rates of insulin, gastric inhibitory polypeptide and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were lowest after guar gum ingestion. However, the reductions in peripheral blood insulin levels caused by guar gum were not associated with a change in hepatic insulin extraction. IGF-1 appeared to be strongly secreted by the gut, whereas the liver had a net uptake of the peptide. Ingestion of guar gum increased the hepatic extraction coefficient of gut-produced IGF-1. Guar gum ingestion appeared also to decrease glucagon secretion. Cellulose at the level consumed had very few effects on the variables considered. It is suggested that the modulation of intestinal mechanisms by guar gum was sufficient to mediate the metabolic effects described.

  15. Precore/basal core promoter mutants and hepatitis B viral DNA levels as predictors for liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myron J Tong; Lawrence M Blatt; Jia-Horng Kao; Jason Tzuying Cheng; William G Corey

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a retrospective study in 400 chronic hepatitis B patients in order to identify hepatitis B viral factors associated with complications of liver disease or development of hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: The mean follow-up time was 83.6 ± 39.6mo. Alpha-fetoprotein test and abdominal ultrasound were used for cancer surveillance. Hepatitis B basal core promoter mutants, precore mutants, genotypes,hepatitis B viral DNA (HBV DNA) level and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were measured. Univariate analysis and logistic regression were used to assess odds ratios for viral factors related to liver deaths and hepatocellular carcinoma development.RESULTS: During follow-up, 38 patients had liver deaths not related to hepatocellular carcinoma. On multivariate analysis, older age [odds ratio: 95.74 (12.13-891.31);P < 0.0001], male sex [odds ratio: 7.61 (2.20-47.95);P = 0.006], and higher log10 HBV DNA [odds ratio:4.69 (1.16-20.43); P < 0.0001] were independently predictive for these liver related deaths. Also, 31 patients developed hepatocellular carcinoma. Multivariate analysis showed that older age [odds ratio: 26.51 (2.36-381.47);P = 0.007], presence of precore mutants [odds ratio:4.23 (1.53-19.58); P = 0.02] and presence of basal core promoter mutants [odds ratio: 2.93 (1.24-7.57); P =0.02] were independent predictors for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma.CONCLUSION: Our results show that high levels of baseline serum HBV DNA are associated with nonhepatocellular carcinoma-related deaths of liver failure,while genetic mutations in the basal core promoter and precore regions are predictive for development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Hormonal Regulation Of Hepatic Glucose Production In Health And Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hua V.; Accili, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    We review mechanisms that regulate production of glucose by the liver, focusing on areas of budding consensus, and endeavoring to provide a candid assessment of lingering controversies. We also attempt to reconcile data from tracer studies in humans and large animals with the growing compilation of mouse knockouts that display changes in glucose production. A clinical hallmark of diabetes, excessive glucose production remains key to its treatment. Hence, we attempt to integrate emerging pathw...

  17. Hepatitis B virus subgenotypes and basal core promoter mutations in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andi Utama; Sigit Purwantomo; Marlinang Diarta Siburian; Rama Dhenni; Rino Alvani Gani; Irsan Hasan; Andri Sanityoso; Upik Anderiani Miskad; Fardah Akil; Irawan Yusuf; Wenny Astuti Achwan; Soewignjo Soemohardjo; Syafruddin AR Lelosutan; Ruswhandi Martamala; Benyamin Lukito; Unggul Budihusodo; Laurentius Adrianus Lesmana; Ali Sulaiman; Susan Tai

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To identify the distribution of hepatitis B virus(HBV) subgenotype and basal core promoter(BCP) mutations among patients with HBV-associated liver disease in Indonesia.METHODS:Patients with chronic hepatitis (CH,n=61),liver cirrhosis (LC,n = 62),and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC,n = 48) were included in this study.HBV subgenotype was identified based on S or preS gene sequence,and mutations in the HBx gene including the overlapping BCP region were examined by direct sequencing.RESULTS:HBV genotype B (subgenotypes B2,B3,B4,B5 and B7) the major genotype in the samples,accounted for 75.4%,71.0% and 75.0% of CH,LC and HCC patients,respectively,while the genotype C(subgenotypes C1,C2 and C3) was detected in 24.6%,29.0%,and 25.0% of CH,LC,and HCC patients,respectively.Subgenotypes B3 (84.9%) and C1 (82.2%) were the main subgenotype in HBV genotype B and C,respectively.Serotype adw2 (84.9%) and adrq+(89.4%) were the most prevalent in HBV genotype B and C,respectively.Double mutation (A1762T/G1764A) in the BCP was significantly higher in LC (59.7%) and HCC (54.2%) than in CH (19.7%),suggesting that this mutation was associated with severity of liver disease.The T1753V was also higher in LC (46.8%),but lower in HCC (22.9%) and CH (18.0%),suggesting that this mutation may be an indicator of cirrhosis.CONCLUSION:HBV genotype B/B3 and C/C1 are the major genotypes in Indonesia.Mutations in BCP,such as A1762T/G1764A and T1753V,might have an association with manifestations of liver disease.

  18. A Novel 3D Liver Organoid System for Elucidation of Hepatic Glucose Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yanhua; Zhang, Guoliang; Shen, Chong; Uygun, Korkut; Yarmush, Martin L.; Meng, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic glucose metabolism is a key player in diseases such as obesity and diabetes as well as in antihyperglycemic drugs screening. Hepatocytes culture in two-dimensional configurations is limited in vitro model for hepatocytes to function properly, while truly practical platforms to perform three-dimensional (3D) culture are unavailable. In this work, we present a practical organoid culture method of hepatocytes for elucidation of glucose metabolism under nominal and stress conditions. Empl...

  19. Reduction of TIP47 improves hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Patel, Rajesh T.; Rao, Vandana; Dhir, Ravindra; Graham, Mark J.; Crooke, Rosanne M.; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2012-01-01

    Lipid droplets in the liver are coated with the perilipin family of proteins, notably adipocyte differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and tail-interacting protein of 47 kDa (TIP47). ADRP is increased in hepatic steatosis and is associated with hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance. We have shown that reducing ADRP in the liver via antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) treatment attenuates steatosis and improves insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. We hypothesized that T...

  20. β2-Adrenergic receptor ablation modulates hepatic lipid accumulation and glucose tolerance in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yun; Shu, Zhen-Ju; Xue, Xiaoling; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Katz, Michael S; Kamat, Amrita

    2016-06-01

    Catecholamines acting through β-adrenergic receptors (β1-, β2-, β3-AR subtypes) modulate important biological responses in various tissues. Our previous studies suggest a role for increased hepatic β-AR-mediated signaling during aging as a mediator of hepatic steatosis, liver glucose output, and insulin resistance in rodents. In the current study, we have utilized β2-AR knockout (KO) and wildtype (WT) control mice to define further the role of β2-AR signaling during aging on lipid and glucose metabolism. Our results demonstrate for the first time that age-related increases in hepatic triglyceride accumulation and body weight are attenuated upon β2-AR ablation. Although no differences in plasma triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids or insulin levels were detected between old WT and KO animals, an age-associated increase in hepatic expression of lipid homeostasis regulator Cidea was significantly reduced in old KO mice. Interestingly, we also observed a shift from reduced glucose tolerance in young adult KO animals to significantly improved glucose tolerance in old KO when compared to age-matched WT mice. These results provide evidence for an important role played by β2-ARs in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism during aging. The effect of β2-AR ablation on caloric intake during aging is currently not known and requires investigation. Future studies are also warranted to delineate the β2-AR-mediated mechanisms involved in the control of lipid and glucose homeostasis, especially in the context of a growing aging population. PMID:26952573

  1. Insulin secretion, insulin action, and hepatic glucose production in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Vaag, A.; Henriksen, J E; Madsbad, S; Holm, N; Beck-Nielsen, H.

    1995-01-01

    12 identical twin pairs discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) were studied for insulin sensitivity (euglycemic insulin clamp, 40 mU/m2 per min), hepatic glucose production (HGP, [3-3H]glucose infusion), and insulin secretion (oral glucose tolerance test and hyperglycemic [12 mM] clamp, including glucagon administration). Five of the nondiabetic twins had normal and seven had impaired glucose tolerance. 13 matched, healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes ...

  2. Bisphenol A impairs hepatic glucose sensing in C57BL/6 male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Perreault

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Glucose sensing (eg. glucokinase activity becomes impaired in the development of type 2 diabetes, the etiology of which is unclear. Estrogen can stimulate glucokinase activity, whereas the pervasive environmental pollutant bisphenol A (BPA can inhibit estrogen action, hence we aimed to determine the effect of BPA on glucokinase activity directly. METHODS: To evaluate a potential acute effect on hepatic glucokinase activity, BPA in water (n = 5 vs. water alone (n = 5 was administered at the EPA's purported "safe dose" (50 µg/kg by gavage to lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice. Two hours later, animals were euthanized and hepatic glucokinase activity measured over glucose levels from 1-20 mmol/l in liver homogenate. To determine the effect of chronic BPA exposure on hepatic glucokinase activity, lean 6-month old male C57BL/6 mice were provided with water (n = 15 or water with 1.75 mM BPA (∼50 µg/kg/day; n = 14 for 2 weeks. Following the 2-week exposure, animals were euthanized and glucokinase activity measured as above. RESULTS: Hepatic glucokinase activity was signficantly suppressed after 2 hours in animals given an oral BPA bolus compared to those who received only water (p = 0.002-0.029 at glucose 5-20 mmol/l; overall treatment effect p<0.001. Exposure to BPA over 2 weeks also suppressed hepatic glucokinase activity in exposed vs. unexposed mice (overall treatment effect, p = 0.003. In both experiments, the Hill coefficient was higher and Vmax lower in mice treated with BPA. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Both acute and chronic exposure to BPA significantly impair hepatic glucokinase activity and function. These findings identify a potential mechanism for how BPA may increase risk for diabetes.

  3. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin-converti......The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin......-converting enzyme (ACE) blockade] or without (control) administration of the ACE inhibitor enalapril (10 mg iv). Splanchnic blood flow was estimated by indocyanine green, and splanchnic substrate exchange was determined by the arteriohepatic venous difference. Exercise led to an approximately 20-fold increase (P ...-blockade group vs. the control group, hormones, metabolites, VO(2), and RER followed the same pattern of changes in ACE-blockade and control groups during exercise. Splanchnic blood flow (at rest: 1.67 +/- 0.12, ACE blockade; 1.59 +/- 0.18 l/min, control) decreased during moderate exercise (0.78 +/- 0.07, ACE...

  4. Cerebral glucose utilisation in hepatitis C virus infection-associated encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Heeren, Meike; Weissenborn, Karin; Arvanitis, Dimitrios; Bokemeyer, Martin; Goldbecker, Annemarie; Tountopoulou, Argyro; Peschel, Thomas; Grosskreutz, Julian; Hecker, Hartmut; Buchert, Ralph; Berding, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently show neuropsychiatric symptoms. This study aims to help clarify the neurochemical mechanisms behind these symptoms and to add further proof to the hypothesis that HCV may affect brain function. Therefore, 15 patients who reported increasing chronic fatigue, mood alterations, and/or cognitive decline since their HCV infection underwent neurologic and neuropsychological examination, magnetic resonance imaging, 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose p...

  5. Berberine improves glucose metabolism in diabetic rats by inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xia

    Full Text Available Berberine (BBR is a compound originally identified in a Chinese herbal medicine Huanglian (Coptis chinensis French. It improves glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. The mechanisms involve in activation of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK and improvement of insulin sensitivity. However, it is not clear if BBR reduces blood glucose through other mechanism. In this study, we addressed this issue by examining liver response to BBR in diabetic rats, in which hyperglycemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by high fat diet. We observed that BBR decreased fasting glucose significantly. Gluconeogenic genes, Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, were decreased in liver by BBR. Hepatic steatosis was also reduced by BBR and expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS was inhibited in liver. Activities of transcription factors including Forkhead transcription factor O1 (FoxO1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1 and carbohydrate responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP were decreased. Insulin signaling pathway was not altered in the liver. In cultured hepatocytes, BBR inhibited oxygen consumption and reduced intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP level. The data suggest that BBR improves fasting blood glucose by direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver. This activity is not dependent on insulin action. The gluconeogenic inhibition is likely a result of mitochondria inhibition by BBR. The observation supports that BBR improves glucose metabolism through an insulin-independent pathway.

  6. Defective Glycogenesis Contributes Toward the Inability to Suppress Hepatic Glucose Production in Response to Hyperglycemia and Hyperinsulinemia in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Tracy P.; Fujimoto, Yuka; Donahue, E P; Printz, Richard L.; Houseknecht, Karen L.; Treadway, Judith L.; Shiota, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Examine whether normalizing net hepatic glycogenesis restores endogenous glucose production and hepatic glucose phosphorylation in response to diabetic levels of plasma glucose and insulin in Zucker diabetic fatty rats (ZDF). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Hepatic glucose and intermediate fluxes (µmol ⋅ kg−1 ⋅ min−1) were measured with and without a glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor (GPI) using [2-3H]glucose, [3-3H]glucose, and [U-14C]alanine in 20 h-fasted conscious ZDF and their lean ...

  7. Increased activity of the glucose cycle in the liver: early characteristic of type 2 diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Efendić, S; Wajngot, A; Vranić, M

    1985-01-01

    The aims were to assess in the mild, lean, type 2 diabetics the activity of the hepatic futile cycle (glucose cycling) in the basal state and during an infusion of glucose and the overall contribution of futile cycling and the relative contributions of the liver and the periphery to excessive hyperglycemia during a glucose challenge. To determine hepatic futile cycling, we studied seven healthy controls (C) and eight mild, lean, type 2 diabetics with decreased oral glucose tolerance test and ...

  8. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingpu Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1, DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1 and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1. All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and liver TG, as well as activities of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and aspartate transaminase (AST; DNJ also alleviated macrovesicular steatosis and decreased tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels in liver tissue. Furthermore, DNJ treatment significantly increased hepatic glycogen content, the activities of hexokinase (HK, pyruvate kinase (PK in liver tissue, and decreased the activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, glycogen phosphorylase (GP, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK. Moreover, DNJ increased the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K on p85, protein kinase B (PKB on Ser473, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β on Ser9, and inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase (GS on Ser645 in liver tissue of db/db mice. These results demonstrate that DNJ can increase hepatic insulin sensitivity via strengthening of the insulin-stimulated PKB/GSK-3β signal pathway and by modulating glucose metabolic enzymes in db/db mice. Moreover, DNJ also can improve lipid homeostasis and attenuate hepatic steatosis in db/db mice.

  9. Postprandial insulin action relies on meal composition and hepatic parasympathetics: dependency on glucose and amino acids: Meal, parasympathetics & insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Ricardo A; Gaspar, Joana M; Lamarão, Iva; Lautt, W Wayne; Macedo, M Paula

    2016-01-01

    Insulin sensitivity (IS) increases following a meal. Meal composition affects postprandial glucose disposal but still remains unclear which nutrients and mechanisms are involved. We hypothesized that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids stimulate hepatic parasympathetic nerves, potentiating insulin action. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were 24 h fasted and anesthetized. Two series of experiments were performed. (A) IS was assessed before and after liquid test meal administration (10 ml.kg(-1), intraenteric): glucose + amino acids + lipids (GAL, n=6); glucose (n=5); amino acids (n=5); lipids (n=3); glucose + amino acids (GA, n=9); amino acids + lipids (n=3); and glucose + lipids (n=4). (B) Separately, fasted animals were submitted to hepatic parasympathetic denervation (DEN); IS was assessed before and after GAL (n=4) or GA administration (n=4). (A) Both GAL and GA induced significant insulin sensitization. GAL increased IS from 97.9±6.2 mg glucose/kg bw (fasting) to 225.4±18.3 mg glucose/kg bw (Pmeals potentiated IS. (B) GAL and GA did not induce a significant insulin sensitization in DEN animal. To achieve maximal insulin sensitization following a meal, it is required that gut-absorbed glucose and amino acids trigger a vagal reflex that involves hepatic parasympathetic nerves. PMID:26410344

  10. Hepatic Notch1 deletion predisposes to diabetes and steatosis via glucose-6-phosphatase and perilipin-5 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Dill, Michael T; Provenzano, Angela; Makowska, Zuzanna; Krol, Ilona; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Semela, David; Tornillo, Luigi; Marra, Fabio; Heim, Markus H; Duong, François H T

    2016-09-01

    Notch signaling pathways have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. However, the role of hepatic Notch signaling in glucose and lipid metabolism remains unclear and needs further investigation as it might be a candidate therapeutic target in metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We used hepatocyte-specific Notch1 knockout (KO) mice and liver biopsies from NASH and NAFLD patients to analyze the role of Notch1 in glucose and lipid metabolism. Hepatocyte-specific Notch1 KO mice were fed with a high fat diet (HFD) or a regular diet (RD). We assessed the metabolic phenotype, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and liver histology. Hepatic mRNA expression was profiled by Affymetrix Mouse Gene arrays and validated by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR). Akt phosphorylation was visualized by immunoblotting. Gene expression was analyzed in liver biopsies from NASH, NAFLD, and control patients by qPCR. We found that Notch1 KO mice had elevated fasting glucose. Gene expression analysis showed an upregulation of glucose-6-phosphatase, involved in the final step of gluconeogenesis and glucose release from glycogenolysis, and perilipin-5, a regulator of hepatic lipid accumulation. When fed with an HFD KO mice developed overt diabetes and hepatic steatosis. Akt was highly phosphorylated in KO animals and the Foxo1 target gene expression was altered. Accordingly, a reduction in Notch1 and increase in glucose-6-phosphatase and perilipin-5 expression was observed in liver biopsies from NAFLD/NASH compared with controls. Notch1 is a regulator of hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis. Hepatic impairment of Notch1 expression may be involved in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD/NASH. PMID:27428080

  11. 1-Deoxynojirimycin Alleviates Liver Injury and Improves Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in db/db Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Qingpu Liu; Xuan Li; Cunyu Li; Yunfeng Zheng; Fang Wang; Hongyang Li; Guoping Peng

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) on liver injury and hepatic glucose metabolism in db/db mice. Mice were divided into five groups: normal control, db/db control, DNJ-20 (DNJ 20 mg·kg−1·day−1), DNJ-40 (DNJ 40 mg·kg−1·day−1) and DNJ-80 (DNJ 80 mg·kg−1·day−1). All doses were treated intravenously by tail vein for four weeks. DNJ was observed to significantly reduce the levels of serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein choleste...

  12. Co-ordination of hepatic and adipose tissue lipid metabolism after oral glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Simonsen, L; Wiggins, D; Humphreys, S M; Frayn, K N; Powell, D; Gibbons, G F

    1999-01-01

    The integration of lipid metabolism in the splanchnic bed and in subcutaneous adipose tissue before and after ingestion of a 75 g glucose load was studied by Fick's principle in seven healthy subjects. Six additional subjects were studied during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Release of non...... NEFA was significantly lower than that for output of VLDL, implying depletion of hepatic TAG stores during the experiment. In the hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments, there was on average suppression of splanchnic VLDL-TAG output although between-person variability was marked. This suppression could be...... explained by a very low supply of NEFA during the clamp. We conclude that there is an integrated pattern of metabolism in splanchnic and adipose tissues in the postabsorptive and post-glucose states. Flux of NEFA from adipose tissue drives splanchnic NEFA uptake. Splanchnic VLDL-TAG secretion appears to be...

  13. Evidence for dual control mechanism regulating hepatic glucose output in nondiabetic men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors previously reported a fall in hepatic glucose output (HGO) during sleep accompanied by reductions in glucose utilization (Rd) and free fatty acids (FFAs). This study was undertaken to determine the potential role of changes in Rd and FFA on HGO in nondiabetic men. To determine if the fall in HGO during sleep could be reversed by FFA elevation, seven nondiabetic men underwent [3-3H]glucose infusions from 2200 to 0800, with heparin (90 mU.kg-1.min-1) added at 0200. Glucose appearance (Ra) fell from 11.7 ± 1.1 at 2430 to 8.9 ± 0.8 mumol.kg-1.min-1 (P less than 0.05) at 0200. The fall in Ra was associated with decreases in FFA (0.57 ± 0.10 to 0.48 ± 0.07 mM) and glycerol (0.08 ± 0.01 to 0.06 ± 0.01 mM). Infusion of heparin significantly increased FFA and glycerol (1.09 ± 0.21 and 0.11 ± 0.01 mM, respectively, P less than 0.01) and resulted in a significant fall in plasma alanine, suggesting that gluconeogenesis had been increased. However, rates of glucose turnover were indistinguishable from overnight studies without heparin. In additional studies (n = 6), intralipid and heparin-induced FFA elevation (from 0.61 ± 0.07 to 0.95 ± 0.05 mM, P less than 0.01) stimulated gluconeogenesis ([U-14C]alanine to glucose) twofold (188 ± 22% increase compared to 114 ± 6% in saline control studies, P less than 0.01). However, despite increasing gluconeogenesis, overall HGO did not change (10.6 ± 0.5 vs. 10.7 ± 0.6 mumol.kg-1.min-1) during lipid infusion

  14. Absence of perilipin 2 prevents hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance and ceramide accumulation in alcohol-fed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotonya M Carr

    Full Text Available Perilipin 2 (Plin2 is a lipid droplet protein that has roles in both lipid and glucose homeostasis. An increase in Plin2 in liver is associated with the development of steatosis, glucose intolerance, and ceramide accumulation in alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the role of Plin2 on energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis in wildtype and Plin2 knockout (Plin2KO mice chronically fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol or control diet for six weeks.We performed in vivo measurements of energy intake and expenditure; body composition; and glucose tolerance. After sacrifice, liver was dissected for histology and lipid analysis.We found that neither genotype nor diet had a significant effect on final weight, body composition, or energy intake between WT and Plin2KO mice fed alcohol or control diets. Additionally, alcohol feeding did not affect oxygen consumption or carbon dioxide production in Plin2KO mice. We performed glucose tolerance testing and observed that alcohol feeding failed to impair glucose tolerance in Plin2KO mice. Most notably, absence of Plin2 prevented hepatic steatosis and ceramide accumulation in alcohol-fed mice. These changes were related to downregulation of genes involved in lipogenesis and triglyceride synthesis.Plin2KO mice chronically fed alcohol are protected from hepatic steatosis, glucose intolerance, and hepatic ceramide accumulation, suggesting a critical pathogenic role of Plin2 in experimental alcoholic liver disease.

  15. Interaction Between the Central and Peripheral Effects of Insulin in Controlling Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Conscious Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Kraft, Guillaume; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Williams, Phillip E.; Lautz, Margaret; Farmer, Tiffany; Donahue, E. Patrick; Cherrington, Alan D.; Edgerton, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of hypothalamic insulin action to the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in the presence of a normal liver/brain insulin ratio (3:1) is unknown. Thus, we assessed the role of central insulin action in the response of the liver to normal physiologic hyperinsulinemia over 4 h. Using a pancreatic clamp, hepatic portal vein insulin delivery was increased three- or eightfold in the conscious dog. Insulin action was studied in the presence or absence of intracerebroventricularl...

  16. Hepatic rather than cardiac steatosis relates to glucose intolerance in women with prior gestational diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Winhofer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased myocardial lipid accumulation has been described in patients with pre- and overt type 2 diabetes and could underlie the development of left-ventricular dysfunction in metabolic diseases (diabetic cardiomyopathy. Since women with prior gestational diabetes (pGDM display a generally young population at high risk of developing diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications, we aimed to assess whether myocardial lipid accumulation can be detected at early stages of glucose intolerance and relates to markers of hepatic steatosis (Fatty Liver Index, cardiac function, insulin sensitivity and secretion. METHODS: Myocardial lipid content (MYCL, left-ventricular function (1H-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy and -imaging, insulin sensitivity/secretion (oral glucose tolerance test and the fatty liver index (FLI were assessed in 35 pGDM (45.6±7.0 years, 28.3±4.8 kg/m2 and 14 healthy control females (CON; 44.7±9.8 years, 26.1±2.5 kg/m2, matching for age and body-mass-index (each p>0.1. RESULTS: Of 35 pGDM, 9 displayed normal glucose tolerance (NGT, 6 impaired glucose regulation (IGR and 20 had been already diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2DM. MYCL and cardiac function were comparable between pGDM and CON; in addition, no evidence of left-ventricular dysfunction was observed. MYCL was inversely correlated with the ejection fraction in T2DM (R = -0.45, p<0.05, while the FLI was tightly correlated with metabolic parameters (such as HbA1C, fasting plasma glucose and HDL-cholesterol and rose along GT-groups. CONCLUSIONS: There is no evidence of cardiac steatosis in middle-aged women with prior gestational diabetes, suggesting that cardiac complications might develop later in the time-course of diabetes and may be accelerated by the co-existence of further risk factors, whereas hepatic steatosis remains a valid biomarker for metabolic diseases even in this rather young female cohort.

  17. EFFECTS OF GLUCOSE-INFUSION ON HORMONE-SECRETION AND HEPATIC GLUCOSE-PRODUCTION DURING HEAVY EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIERSMA, MML; VISSING, J; STEFFENS, AB; GALBO, H

    1993-01-01

    Blood-borne metabolic feedback vs. neural feedforward regulation of glucose homeostasis during exercise was investigated by infusing glucose and [H-3]glucose for glucose appearance determination intravenously in rats running for 20 min at 28 m/min [almost-equal-to 85% of maximal 02 consumption (VO2m

  18. Pathways of hepatic glycogen formation in humans following ingestion of a glucose load in the fed state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative contributions of the direct and the indirect pathways to hepatic glycogen formation following a glucose load given to humans four hours after a substantial breakfast have been examined. Glucose loads labeled with [6-(14)C]glucose were given to six healthy volunteers along with diflunisal (1 g) or acetaminophen (1.5 g), drugs excreted in urine as glucuronides. Distribution of 14C in the glucose unit of the glucuronide was taken as a measure of the extent to which glucose was deposited directly in liver glycogen (ie, glucose----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) rather than indirectly (ie, glucose----C3-compound----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen). The maximum contribution to glycogen formation by the direct pathway was estimated to be 77% +/- 4%, which is somewhat higher than previous estimates in humans fasted overnight (65% +/- 1%, P less than 0.05). Thus, the indirect pathway of liver glycogen formation following a glucose load is operative in both the overnight fasted and the fed state, although its contribution may be somewhat less in the fed state

  19. The influence of social status on hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Kirkpatrick, Sheryn; Massarsky, Andrey; Pearce, Brenda; Saliba, Sarah; Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Moon, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chronic social stress on hepatic glycogen metabolism were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by comparing hepatocyte glucose production, liver glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity, and liver β-adrenergic receptors in dominant, subordinate, control, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. Hepatocyte glucose production in subordinate fish was approximately half that of dominant fish, reflecting hepatocyte glycogen stores in subordinate trout that were just 16% of those in dominant fish. Fasting and/or chronic elevation of cortisol likely contributed to these differences based on similarities among subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. However, calculation of the "glycogen gap"--the difference between glycogen stores used and glucose produced--suggested an enhanced gluconeogenic potential in subordinate fish that was not present in fasted or cortisol-treated trout. Subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated trout also exhibited similar GP activities (both total activity and that of the active or a form), and these activities were in all cases significantly lower than those in control trout, perhaps reflecting an attempt to protect liver glycogen stores or a modified capacity to activate GP. Dominant trout exhibited the lowest GP activities (20%-24% of the values in control trout). Low GP activities, presumably in conjunction with incoming energy from feeding, allowed dominant fish to achieve the highest liver glycogen concentrations (double the value in control trout). Liver membrane β-adrenoceptor numbers (assessed as the number of (3)H-CGP binding sites) were significantly lower in subordinate than in dominant trout, although this difference did not translate into attenuated adrenergic responsiveness in hepatocyte glucose production in vitro. Transcriptional regulation, likely as a result of fasting, was indicated by significantly lower β(2)-adrenoceptor relative mRNA levels in subordinate and fasted trout. Collectively, the data

  20. Decreased hepatic glucose production in obese rats by dipeptidyl peptidase-Ⅳ inhibitor sitagliptin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Ying-li; ZHOU De-quan; ZHAI Hua-ling; WU Hui; GUO Zeng-kui

    2012-01-01

    Background Dipeptidyl peptidase-Ⅳ (DPP-4) inhibitors are now used to improve postprandial glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.However,their effects on hepatic glucose production (HGP) in obesity are not clear.This study was designed to test the hypothesis that gluconeogenesis and HGP can be modulated by DPP-4 inhibitors in obesity.Methods Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into four groups,each on a different diet:general rat chow,n=10 (G);G+sitagliptin,n=10; high fat chow (obesity),n=10 (55% fat calories,HFO); HFO+sitagliptin,n=10.After 10 weeks,the rats were fasted overnight and glucose metabolism was determined using 3-3H-glucose and 14C-glycerol as tracers.Results Glycerol rate of appearance (P<0.00001),plasma glycerol (P<0.05) and free fatty acid (FFA) (P<0.05)concentrations,and HGP (P<0.05) were decreased in HFO+sitagliptin group compared with HFO group,but there was no significant difference between G and G+sitagliptin groups (P>0.05).Gluconeogenesis in HFO group was five times of that in G rats (P<0.01),but was significantly declined in HFO+sitagliptin group (P<0.0001).Conclusions Gluconeogenesis and HGP were inhibited by sitagliptin in high fat-induced obese rats due to decreased glycerol availability,which was a result of reduced glycerol release from adipose tissues.The finding suggests that sitagliptin is potentially useful for controlling fasting glucose in obesity,thereby delaying or preventing the development of diabetes.

  1. DSA-guided percutaneous injection of hypertonic glucose or ethanol for sclerotherapy of giant hepatic cysts: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy of DSA-guided percutaneous injection of hypertonic glucose or ethanol combined with catheter directed drainage for the treatment of giant hepatic cysts. Methods: A total of seventy-three cases of single hepatic cysts with complete clinical data were retrospectively selected. Injection of hypertonic glucose was employed for sclerotherapy in 27 patients (group A), while sclerotherapy with ethanol injection was adopted in 46 patients (group B). Cyst diameters ranged from 8.3 cm to 15.8 cm. Under DSA guidance, puncturing injection of sclerotic agents and catheter directed drainage and aspiration were carried out for all lesions. The therapeutic efficacy at 3, 6 and 12 months were evaluated and the results were compared between the two groups. Results: The therapeutic procedure was successfully accomplished in all 73 cases. The puncturing success rate of the hepatic cysts was 100%. No significant difference in the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy existed between the two groups, and the P values were 0.526, 0.713 and 0.613, respectively (P>0.05). Conclusion: In treating giant hepatic cysts with sclerotherapy, the 3-month, 6-month and 12-month therapeutic efficacy of using hypertonic glucose as sclerotic agent are not significantly different from those of using ethanol as sclerotic agent. As the use of hypertonic glucose carries less disagreeable feeling it is more suitable for the debilitated and aged patients. (authors)

  2. Hepatitis B virus basal core promoter mutations show lower replication fitness associated with cccDNA acetylation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumbi, Lemonica; Pollicino, Teresa; Raimondo, Giovanni; Stampoulis, Dimitrios; Khakoo, Salim; Karayiannis, Peter

    2016-07-15

    In chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, variants with mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) and precore region predominate and associate with more severe disease forms. Studies on their effect on viral replication remain controversial. Increasing evidence shows that epigenetic modifications of cccDNA regulate HBV replication and disease outcome. Here we determined the transcription and viral replication efficiency of well-defined BCP and precore mutations and their effect on cccDNA epigenetic control. HBV monomers bearing BCP mutations A1762T/G1764A and A1762T/G1764A/C1766T, and precore mutations G1896A, G1899A and G1896A/G1899A, were transfected into HepG2 cells using a plasmid-free approach. Viral RNA transcripts were detected by Northern blot hybridization and RT PCR, DNA replicative intermediates by Southern blotting and RT PCR, and viral release was measured by ELISA. Acetylation of cccDNA-bound histones was assessed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (ChIP) assay and methylation of cccDNA by bisulfite sequencing. BCP mutations resulted in low viral release, mRNA transcription and pgRNA/cccDNA ratios that paralleled the acetylation of cccDNA-bound H4 histone and inversely correlated with the HDAC1 recruitment onto cccDNA. Independently of the mutations, cccDNA was a target for methylation, accompanied by the upregulation of DNMT1 expression and DNMT1 recruitment onto cccDNA. Our results suggest that BCP mutations decrease viral replication capacity possibly by modulating the acetylation and deacetylation of cccDNA-bound histones while precore mutations do not have a significant effect on viral replication. These data provide evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the regulation of HBV viral replication. PMID:27132039

  3. Neutralization of glucagon by antiserum as a tool in glucagon physiology. Lack of depression of basal blood glucose after antiserum treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Galbo, H; Richter, Erik

    1978-01-01

    The method of producing experimental glucagon deficiency by administration of glucagon antiserum was evaluated in rats. A pool of antisera was prepared, the affinity of which exceeded that of the glucagon receptors of liver cell membranes, whereas the binding capacity of the volume used amounted ...... lowered beyond detection limit. The data indicate that the absolute concentration of glucagon in plasma is of minor importance for the maintenance of basal blood glucose in the rat....... exogenous glucagon was abolished. Antiserum treatment, however, had no effect on blood glucose in rats fasted for 3 and 10 h, in chemically sympathectomized and adrenomedullectomized rats, and in 48-h-fasted, acutely adrenalectomized rats. The antiserum was found to contain 460 nmol/liter of antibody......-bound glucagon, originating in the rabbit in which the antiserum was raised. However, antibody preparations from which the bound glucagon had been effectively removed were equally ineffective in lowering the basal blood glucose in rats, although in three-fourths of the rats the concentration of free glucagon was...

  4. Early enhancements of hepatic and later of peripheral insulin sensitivity combined with increased postprandial insulin secretion contribute to improved glycemic control after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Jørgensen, Nils Bruun;

    2014-01-01

    after RYGB. Participants were included after a preoperative diet induced total weight loss of -9.2±1.2%. Hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity were assessed using the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp combined with glucose tracer technique and beta-cell function evaluated in response...... to an intravenous glucose-glucagon challenge as well as an oral glucose load. Already within 1 week, RYGB reduced basal glucose production, improved basal hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased insulin clearance highlighting the liver as an important organ responsible for the early effects on glucose metabolism...

  5. The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Nachar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glycogen synthase (GS activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines.

  6. The reduction in hepatic insulin clearance after oral glucose is not mediated by gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Gallwitz, Baptist; Siepmann, Nina;

    2003-01-01

    -eight healthy subjects (27 male, 51 female, 43+/-11 years) were subjected to (a). an oral glucose tolerance test and (b). an intravenous injection of 20 pmol GIP/kg body weight, with capillary and venous blood samples collected over 30 min for insulin, C-peptide and GIP (specific immunoassays). Following GIP......Since the C-peptide/insulin ratio is reduced after oral glucose ingestion, the incretin hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been assumed to decrease hepatic insulin extraction. It was the aim of the present study to evaluate the effects of GIP on insulin extraction. Seventy...

  7. Human monoclonal antibodies against glucagon receptor improve glucose homeostasis by suppression of hepatic glucose output in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Dong Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Glucagon is an essential regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP, which provides an alternative therapeutic target for managing type 2 diabetes with glucagon antagonists. We studied the effect of a novel human monoclonal antibody against glucagon receptor (GCGR, NPB112, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODS: The glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of NPB112 were investigated in DIO mice with human GCGR for 11 weeks, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was conducted to measure HGP. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal injection of NPB112 with 5 mg/kg effectively decreased blood glucose levels in DIO mice for 5 days. A significant reduction in blood glucose was observed in DIO mice treated with NPB112 at a dose ≥5 mg/kg for 6 weeks, and its glucose-lowering effect was dose-dependent. Long-term administration of NPB112 also caused a mild 29% elevation in glucagon level, which was returned to the normal range after discontinuation of treatment. The clamp study showed that DIO mice injected with NPB112 at 5 mg/kg were more insulin sensitive than control mice, indicating amelioration of insulin resistance by treatment with NPB112. DIO mice treated with NPB112 showed a significant improvement in the ability of insulin to suppress HGP, showing a 33% suppression (from 8.3 mg/kg/min to 5.6 mg/kg/min compared to the 2% suppression (from 9.8 mg/kg/min to 9.6 mg/kg/min in control mice. In addition, no hypoglycemia or adverse effect was observed during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A novel human monoclonal GCGR antibody, NPB112, effectively lowered the glucose level in diabetic animal models with mild and reversible hyperglucagonemia. Suppression of excess HGP with NPB112 may be a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  8. β-aminoisobutyric acid attenuates hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucose/lipid metabolic disturbance in mice with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Xiang Shi; Ming-Xia Zhao; Xiao-Dong Shu; Xiao-Qing Xiong; Jue-Jin Wang; Xing-Ya Gao; Qi Chen; Yue-Hua Li; Yu-Ming Kang; Guo-Qing Zhu

    2016-01-01

    β-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) is a nature thymine catabolite, and contributes to exercise-induced protection from metabolic diseases. Here we show the therapeutical effects of BAIBA on hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and glucose/lipid metabolic disturbance in diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was induced by combined streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat diet (HFD) in mice. Oral administration of BAIBA for 4 weeks reduced blood glucose and lipids levels, hepatic key enzymes of gluconeogenesis a...

  9. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farswan, Mamta; MAZUMDER, PAPIYA MITRA; Percha, V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) ...

  10. Effect of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial hepatic glucose metabolism in the conscious dog

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Werner, Ulrich; Smith, Marta S.; Farmer, Tiffany D.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the GLP-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on postprandial glucose disposition was examined in conscious dogs to identify mechanisms for its improvement of meal tolerance in humans and examine the tissue disposition of meal-derived carbohydrate. Catheterization for measurement of hepatic balance occurred ≈16 days before study. After being fasted overnight, dogs received a subcutaneous injection of 1.5 μg/kg lixisenatide or vehicle (saline, control; n = 6/group). Thirty minutes late...

  11. Activity of hepatic but not skeletal muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase enzyme is depressed by intravenous glucose infusions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Trad, B; Wittek, T; Gäbel, G; Fürll, M; Reisberg, K; Aschenbach, J R

    2010-12-01

    A positive energy balance in dairy cows pre-partum may decrease hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) enzyme activity, which might contribute to disturbances of lipid metabolism post-partum. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether skeletal muscle CPT activity can also be downregulated during positive energy balance. Mid-lactating dairy cows were maintained on intravenous infusion of either saline (control) or glucose solutions that increased linearly over 24 days, remained at the 24-day level until day 28 and were suspended thereafter. Liver and skeletal muscle biopsies, as well as four diurnal blood samples, were taken on days 0, 8, 16, 24, and 32, representing infusion levels equivalent to 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 0% of the net energy for lactation (NE(L)) requirement respectively. Glucose infusion increased serum insulin concentrations on day 16 and 24 while plasma glucose levels were increased at only a single time point on day 24. Serum beta-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations decreased between day 8 and 24; whereas changes in non-esterified fatty acids were mostly insignificant. Total lipid contents of liver and skeletal muscle were not affected by treatment. Hepatic CPT activity decreased with glucose infusion (by 35% on day 24) and remained decreased on day 32. Hepatic expression levels of CPT-1A and CPT-2 mRNA were not significantly altered but tended to reflect the changes in enzyme activity. In contrast to the liver, no effect of glucose infusion was observed on skeletal muscle CPT activity. We conclude that suppression of CPT activity by positive energy balance appears to be specific for the liver in mid-lactating dairy cows. PMID:20546068

  12. Cocoa-rich diet ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by modulating insulin signaling and glucose homeostasis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Martín, María Ángeles; Escrivá, Fernando; Álvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Ramos, Sonia

    2015-07-01

    Insulin resistance is the primary characteristic of type 2 diabetes and results from insulin signaling defects. Cocoa has been shown to exert anti-diabetic effects by lowering glucose levels. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this preventive activity and whether cocoa exerts potential beneficial effects on the insulin signaling pathway in the liver remain largely unknown. Thus, in this study, the potential anti-diabetic properties of cocoa on glucose homeostasis and insulin signaling were evaluated in type 2 diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Male ZDF rats were fed a control or cocoa-rich diet (10%), and Zucker lean animals received the control diet. ZDF rats supplemented with cocoa (ZDF-Co) showed a significant decrease in body weight gain, glucose and insulin levels, as well as an improved glucose tolerance and insulin resistance. Cocoa-rich diet further ameliorated the hepatic insulin resistance by abolishing the increased serine-phosphorylated levels of the insulin receptor substrate 1 and preventing the inactivation of the glycogen synthase kinase 3/glycogen synthase pathway in the liver of cocoa-fed ZDF rats. The anti-hyperglycemic effect of cocoa appeared to be at least mediated through the decreased levels of hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and increased values of glucokinase and glucose transporter 2 in the liver of ZDF-Co rats. Moreover, cocoa-rich diet suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 activation caused by insulin resistance. These findings suggest that cocoa has the potential to alleviate both hyperglycemia and hepatic insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic ZDF rats. PMID:25814291

  13. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haoyong Yu; Weiping Jia; ZengKui Guo

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans w...

  14. Caffeamide 36-13 Regulates the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice on Glucose Transporter 4, AMPK Phosphorylation, and Regulated Hepatic Glucose Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of (E-3-[3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-1-(piperidin-1-ylprop-2-en-1-one] (36-13 (TS, one of caffeic acid amide derivatives, on high-fat (HF- fed mice. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the control (CON group and the experimental group, which was firstly fed a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into four groups and was given TS orally (including two doses or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. Blood, skeletal muscle, and tissues were examined by measuring glycaemia and dyslipidemia-associated events. TS effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin, leptin, and free fatty acid (FFA and weights of visceral fa; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TS treatment significantly increased the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in skeletal muscle; TS also significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in liver, whereas it reduced the expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase. Moreover, TS enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK both in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by TS resulted in enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, contrasting with diminished gluconeogenesis in liver. TS exhibits hypolipidemic effect by decreasing the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS. Thus, antidiabetic properties of TS occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production by PEPCK and G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TS in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, and FAS and phosphorylation of AMPK.

  15. Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (proglucagon 78-107amide) on hepatic glucose production in healthy man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Nielsen, M T; Hilsted, J;

    1994-01-01

    /L during the infusion, changes that were within physiologic limits. In a control experiment only saline was infused. During GLP-1 infusion, plasma glucose level decreased significantly (from 5.3 +/- 0.1 to 4.7 +/- 0.1 and 4.3 +/- 0.1 pmol/L at the end of the two infusion periods). Despite this, plasma......The newly discovered intestinal hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) (proglucagon 78-107amide), stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon secretion in man and may therefore be anticipated to influence hepatic glucose production. To study this, we infused synthetic GLP-1 sequentially at...... rates of 25 and 75 pmol.kg-1.h-1 into eight healthy volunteers after an overnight fast and measured plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and glucagon and glucose turnover by a technique involving infusion of 3-3H-glucose. Plasma levels of GLP-1 increased by 21.3 +/- 3.1 and 75.4 +/- 3.2 pmol...

  16. Association of Mutations in the Basal Core Promoter and Pre-core Regions of the Hepatitis B Viral Genome and Longitudinal Changes in HBV Level in HBeAg Negative Individuals: Results From a Cohort Study in Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Besharat, Sima; Poustchi, Hossein; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Freedman, Neal David; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although certain HBV mutations are known to affect the expression of Hepatitis e antigen, their association with HBV viral level or clinical outcomes is less clear. Objectives: We evaluated associations between different mutations in the Basal Core promoter (BCP) and Pre-core (PC) regions of HBV genome and subsequent changes in HBV viral DNA level over seven years in a population of untreated HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB) participants in Northeast of Iran. Materials and...

  17. Fisetin improves glucose homeostasis through the inhibition of gluconeogenic enzymes in hepatic tissues of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasath, Gopalan Sriram; Pillai, Subramanian Iyyam; Subramanian, Sorimuthu Pillai

    2014-10-01

    Liver plays a vital role in blood glucose homeostasis. Recent studies have provided considerable evidence that hepatic glucose production (HGP) plays an important role in the development of fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes. From this perspective, diminution of HGP has certainly been considered for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we have analyzed the modulatory effects of fisetin, a flavonoid of strawberries, on the expression of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in STZ induced experimental diabetic rats. The physiological criterions such as food and fluid intake were regularly monitored. The levels of blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin were analyzed. The mRNA and protein expression levels of gluconeogenic genes such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were determined by immunoblot as well as PCR analysis. Diabetic group of rats showed significant increase in food and water intake when compared with control group of rats. Upon oral administration of fisetin as well as gliclazide to diabetic group of rats, the levels were found to be decreased. Oral administration of fisetin (10 mg/kg body weight) to diabetic rats for 30 days established a significant decline in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels and a significant increase in plasma insulin level. The mRNA and protein expression levels of gluconeogenic genes, such as phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), were decreased in liver tissues upon treatment with fisetin. The results of the present study suggest that fisetin improves glucose homeostasis by direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis in liver. PMID:25064342

  18. Correction of Diabetic Hyperglycemia and Amelioration of Metabolic Anomalies by Minicircle DNA Mediated Glucose-Dependent Hepatic Insulin Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tausif Alam

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is caused by immune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. Commonly used insulin injection therapy does not provide a dynamic blood glucose control to prevent long-term systemic T1DM-associated damages. Donor shortage and the limited long-term success of islet transplants have stimulated the development of novel therapies for T1DM. Gene therapy-based glucose-regulated hepatic insulin production is a promising strategy to treat T1DM. We have developed gene constructs which cause glucose-concentration-dependent human insulin production in liver cells. A novel set of human insulin expression constructs containing a combination of elements to improve gene transcription, mRNA processing, and translation efficiency were generated as minicircle DNA preparations that lack bacterial and viral DNA. Hepatocytes transduced with the new constructs, ex vivo, produced large amounts of glucose-inducible human insulin. In vivo, insulin minicircle DNA (TA1m treated streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated euglycemia when fasted or fed, ad libitum. Weight loss due to uncontrolled hyperglycemia was reversed in insulin gene treated diabetic rats to normal rate of weight gain, lasting ∼1 month. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGT demonstrated in vivo glucose-responsive changes in insulin levels to correct hyperglycemia within 45 minutes. A single TA1m treatment raised serum albumin levels in diabetic rats to normal and significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia. Elevated serum levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were restored to normal or greatly reduced in treated rats, indicating normalization of liver function. Non-viral insulin minicircle DNA-based TA1m mediated glucose-dependent insulin production in liver may represent a safe and promising approach to treat T1DM.

  19. In vivo measurements of whole body (WB) and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism under basal and euglycemic insulin clamp (Clamp) by combined PET and stable isotope (SI) tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim/Background: Primed-constant infusion of SI labeled tracers is a classic technique for studying metabolism at the WB level, however, this procedure provides no information about the metabolism of specific tissues. In contrast PET provides primarily tissue specific data. In this study, we combined PET with SI techniques to measure glucose metabolism in WB and lower limb skeletal muscle (LLM) of humans under Basal and Clamp conditions. Methods and Materials: Four healthy volunteers (73.0 ± 6.0 kg, mean ± sem) were studied. After fasting overnight, each subject was injected with 10 mCi of 18FDG and serial 1.0 min. PET images of the mid-thigh region were acquired over 90 min. Arterial blood samples were collected in parallel. Glucose metabolic rate (GM) was calculated with a 3-compartment / 4 rate constant model; LC assumed to be 1.0. A primed constant infusion of [6,6, 2H2]glucose was performed in parallel with the PET measurements. On another day, the PET and SI measurements were repeated under clamp conditions. All results are expressed as mean ± sem. Results: The glucose kinetics in whole body and in low limb skeletal muscles are shown. Under in vivo conditions, Clamp caused: 1) a 10.2 ± 2.3 fold increase in GM by LLM but only a 4.7 ± 0.4 fold increase in GM by MB. 2) Increased contribution of LLM to WB GM, indicating that LLM GM is more sensitive to insulin compared with anterior LLM (extensors). Discussion: The study demonstrated the unique advantages of using PET to study substrate metabolism in specific tissues in human subjects: i) It is less invasive than the conventional A-V difference and muscle biopsy method. ii) It provides a more detailed picture of substrate metabolism in different parts of the muscle in the same limb, as compared to one spot muscle biopsy. Data in demonstrated that GM in posterior LLM is more sensitive to insulin than that in anterior LLM. iii) It can detect substrate metabolism in deep muscles which cannot be reached by biopsy

  20. Metformin improves postprandial glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout fed dietary carbohydrates : a link with the induction of hepatic lipogenic capacities ?

    OpenAIRE

    Panserat, Stephane; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Seiliez, Iban; Lansard, Marine; Plagnes- Juan, Elisabeth; VACHOT, Christiane; Aguirre, Pierre; Larroquet, Laurence; Chavernac, G.; Médale, Françoise; Corraze, Geneviève; Kaushik, Sadasivam; Moon, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    Panserat S, Skiba-Cassy S, Seiliez I, Lansard M, Plagnes-Juan E, Vachot C, Aguirre P, Larroquet L, Chavernac G, Medale F, Corraze G, Kaushik S, Moon TW. Metformin improves postprandial glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout fed dietary carbohydrates: a link with the induction of hepatic lipogenic capacities? Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297: R707-R715, 2009. First published June 24, 2009; doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00120.2009.-Carnivorous fish are poor users of dietary carbohydrates and are...

  1. Removal of intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue improves glucose tolerance in rats: role of hepatic triglyceride storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Michelle T; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J; Woods, Stephen C

    2011-10-24

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-visceral adipose depots since the latter drains into systemic but not portal circulation. To assess this we surgically decreased visceral white adipose tissue (~0.5 g VWATx) and compared the effects to removal of non-visceral epididymal fat (~4 g; EWATx), combination removal of visceral and non-visceral fat (~4.5 g; EWATx/VWATx) and sham-operated controls, in chow-fed rats. At 8 weeks after surgery, only the groups with visceral fat removed had a significantly improved glucose tolerance, although 8 times more fat was removed in EWATx compared with VWATx. This suggests that mechanisms controlling glucose metabolism are relatively more sensitive to reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass. Groups with visceral fat removed also had significantly decreased hepatic lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and triglyceride content compared with controls, while carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1A) was decreased in all fat-removal groups. In a preliminary experiment, we assessed the opposite hypothesis; i.e., we transplanted excess visceral fat from a donor rat to the visceral cavity (omentum and mesentery), which drains into the hepatic portal vein, of a recipient rat but observed no major metabolic effect. Overall, our results indicate surgical removal of intra-abdominal fat improves glucose tolerance through mechanism that may be mediated by reductions in liver triglyceride. PMID:21683727

  2. Free fatty acid-induced PP2A hyperactivity selectively impairs hepatic insulin action on glucose metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Galbo

    Full Text Available In type 2 Diabetes (T2D free fatty acids (FFAs in plasma are increased and hepatic insulin resistance is "selective", in the sense that the insulin-mediated decrease of glucose production is blunted while insulin's effect on stimulating lipogenesis is maintained. We investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathogenic paradox. Primary rat hepatocytes were exposed to palmitate for twenty hours. To establish the physiological relevance of the in vitro findings, we also studied insulin-resistant Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rats. While insulin-receptor phosphorylation was unaffected, activation of Akt and inactivation of the downstream targets Glycogen synthase kinase 3α (Gsk3α and Forkhead box O1 (FoxO1 was inhibited in palmitate-exposed cells. Accordingly, dose-response curves for insulin-mediated suppression of the FoxO1-induced gluconeogenic genes and for de novo glucose production were right shifted, and insulin-stimulated glucose oxidation and glycogen synthesis were impaired. In contrast, similar to findings in human T2D, the ability of insulin to induce triglyceride (TG accumulation and transcription of the enzymes that catalyze de novo lipogenesis and TG assembly was unaffected. Insulin-induction of these genes could, however, be blocked by inhibition of the atypical PKCs (aPKCs. The activity of the Akt-inactivating Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A was increased in the insulin-resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PP2A by specific inhibitors increased insulin-stimulated activation of Akt and phosphorylation of FoxO1 and Gsk3α. Finally, PP2A mRNA levels were increased in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, while PP2A activity was increased in liver and muscle tissue in insulin-resistant ZDF rats. In conclusion, our findings indicate that FFAs may cause a selective impairment of insulin action upon hepatic glucose metabolism by increasing PP2A activity.

  3. Regulatory role of hexosamine biosynthetic pathway on hepatic cancer stem cell marker CD133 under low glucose conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shu-Hai; Liu, Tengfei; Ming, Xiaoyan; Tang, Zhi; Fu, Li; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Kanawati, Basem; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Cai, Zongwei

    2016-02-01

    Cancer was hypothesized to be driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs), but the metabolic determinants of CSC-like phenotype still remain elusive. Here, we present that hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) at least in part rescues cancer cell fate with inactivation of glycolysis. Firstly, metabolomic analysis profiled cellular metabolome in CSCs of hepatocellular carcinoma using CD133 cell-surface marker. The metabolic signatures of CD133-positive subpopulation compared to CD133-negative cells highlighted HBP as one of the distinct metabolic pathways, prompting us to uncover the role of HBP in maintenance of CSC-like phenotype. To address this, CSC-like phenotypes and cell survival were investigated in cancer cells under low glucose conditions. As a result, HBP inhibitor azaserine reduced CD133-positive subpopulation and CD133 expression under high glucose condition. Furthermore, treatment of N-Acetylglucosamine in part restores CD133-positive subpopulation when either 2.5 mM glucose in culture media or glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose in HCC cell lines was applied, enhancing CD133 expression as well as promoting cancer cell survival. Together, HBP might be a key metabolic determinant in the functions of hepatic CSC marker CD133.

  4. Brain MR imaging in patients with hepatic cirrhosis: relationship between high intensity signal in basal ganglia on T1-weighted images and elemental concentrations in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, the globus pallidus and putamen show high intensity on T1-weighted MRI. While the causes of this high signal have been thought to include paramagnetic substances, especially manganese, no evidence for this has been presented. Autopsy in four cases of hepatic cirrhosis permitted measurement of metal concentrations in brain and histopathological examination. In three cases the globus pallidus showed high intensity on T1-weighted images. Mean manganese concentrations in globus pallidus, putamen and frontal white matter were 3.03 ± 0.38, 2.12 ± 0.37, and 1.38 ± 0.24 (μg/g wet weight), respectively, being approximately four- to almost ten-fold the normal values. Copper concentrations in globus pallidus and putamen were also high, 50 % more than normal. Calcium, iron, zinc and magnesium concentrations were all normal. The fourth case showed no abnormal intensity in the basal ganglia and brain metal concentrations were all normal. Histopathologically, cases with showing high signal remarkable atrophy, necrosis, and deciduation of nerve cells and proliferation of glial cells and microglia in globus pallidus. These findings were similar to those in chronic manganese poisoning. On T1-weighted images, copper deposition shows no abnormal intensity. It is therefore inferred that deposition of highly concentrations of manganese may caused high signal on T1-weighted images and nerve cell death in the globus pallidus. (orig.). With 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Reducing Liver Fat by Low Carbohydrate Caloric Restriction Targets Hepatic Glucose Production in Non-Diabetic Obese Adults with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyong Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD impairs liver functions, the organ responsible for the regulation of endogenous glucose production and thus plays a key role in glycemic homeostasis. Therefore, interventions designed to normalize liver fat content are needed to improve glucose metabolism in patients affected by NAFLD such as obesity. Objective: this investigation is designed to determine the effects of caloric restriction on hepatic and peripheral glucose metabolism in obese humans with NAFLD. Methods: eight non-diabetic obese adults were restricted for daily energy intake (800 kcal and low carbohydrate (<10% for 8 weeks. Body compositions, liver fat and hepatic glucose production (HGP and peripheral glucose disposal before and after the intervention were determined. Results: the caloric restriction reduced liver fat content by 2/3 (p = 0.004. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat, body weight, BMI, waist circumference and fasting plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid concentrations all significantly decreased (p < 0.05. The suppression of post-load HGP was improved by 22% (p = 0.002 whereas glucose disposal was not affected (p = 0.3. Fasting glucose remained unchanged and the changes in the 2-hour plasma glucose and insulin concentration were modest and statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Liver fat is the only independent variable highly correlated to HGP after the removal of confounders. Conclusion: NAFLD impairs HGP but not peripheral glucose disposal; low carbohydrate caloric restriction effectively lowers liver fat which appears to directly correct the HGP impairment.

  6. Hepatic Glucose Production Increases in Response to Metformin Treatment in the Glycogen-depleted State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Damkier, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Brøsen, Kim

    with two reduced-function alleles) were fasted for 42 h twice. In one of the periods, before the fasting, the volunteers were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily for seven days. Parameters of whole-body glucose metabolism were assessed using [3-3^H] glucose, indirect calorimetry and...... of glucagon (p=0.03) and cortisol (p=0.002). There was no effect of reduced-function OCT1 alleles on any of these measures. In the glycogen-depleted fasting state, metformin stimulates glycolytic glucose utilization and lactate production. This may trigger a rise in glucose counterregulatory hormones...

  7. Effect of Phlomis persica on glucose levels and hepatic enzymatic antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sarkhail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanol extract of the aerial parts of Phlomis persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae (PPE was studied to evaluate the effects of antidiabetic potential, by measuring fasting blood glucose, insulin, total antioxidant power (TAP, using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, lipid peroxidation (using thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Oral administration of PPE at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once a day for 10 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose and an increase in serum insulin levels, in comparison with diabetic control group. It also prevented diabetes-induced loss in body weight. Hepatic TAP increased and TBARS decreased following PPE treatments. The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg increased the activity of hepatic SOD, CAT, and GPx in diabetic rats. It is concluded that PPE has antidiabetic potential that is comparable with glibenclamide. In conclusion, the results of the present study show positive effects of P. persica on experimental diabetes and thus the antidiabetic effect of PPE is related to its potential to inhibit hepatocellular oxidative stress.

  8. Effects of dry period length on milk production, body condition, metabolites, and hepatic glucose metabolism in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Losand, B; Tuchscherer, A; Rehbock, F; Blum, E; Yang, W; Bruckmaier, R M; Sanftleben, P; Hammon, H M

    2015-03-01

    Dry period (DP) length affects energy metabolism around calving in dairy cows as well as milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of the study was to investigate milk production, body condition, metabolic adaptation, and hepatic gene expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in Holstein cows (>10,000 kg milk/305 d) with 28- (n=18), 56- (n=18), and 90-d DP (n=22) length (treatment groups) in a commercial farm. Cows were fed total mixed rations ad libitum adjusted for far-off (not for 28-d DP) and close-up DP and lactation. Milk yield was recorded daily and body condition score (BCS), back fat thickness (BFT), and body weight (BW) were determined at dry off, 1 wk before expected and after calving, and on wk 2, 4, and 8 postpartum (pp). Blood samples were taken on d -56, -28, -7, 1, 7, 14, 28, and 56 relative to calving to measure plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones. Liver biopsies (n=11 per treatment) were taken on d -10 and 10 relative to calving to determine glycogen and total liver fat concentration (LFC) and to quantify mRNA levels of pyruvate carboxylase (PC), cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase. Time course of milk yield during first 8 wk in lactation differed among treatment. Milk protein content was higher in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Milk fat to protein ratio was highest and milk urea was lowest in 90-d DP cows. Differences in BW, BFT, and BCS were predominantly seen before calving with greatest BW, BFT, and BCS in 90-d DP cows. Plasma concentrations of NEFA and BHBA were elevated during the transition period in all cows, and the greatest increase pp was seen in 90-d DP cows. Plasma glucose concentration decreased around calving and was greater in 28-d than in 90-d DP cows. Dry period length also affected plasma concentrations of urea, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase. Plasma insulin concentration decreased around calving in all cows, but insulin concentration pp was

  9. Irisin Is Regulated by CAR in Liver and Is a Mediator of Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Li; Shen, Jing; Liu, Qinhui; Zhang, Yuwei; Kuang, Jiangying; Pu, Shiyun; Cheng, Shihai; Zou, Min; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Changtao; Qu, Aijuan; He, Jinhan

    2016-05-01

    Irisin, a hormone proteolytically processed from fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), has been reported to induce the browning of sc adipocytes by increasing the level of uncoupling protein 1. In this study, we showed that activation of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor induced FNDC5 mRNA expression in the liver and increased the circulating level of irisin in mice. FNDC5/irisin is a direct transcriptional target of constitutive androstane receptor. Hepatic-released irisin functioned as a paracrine/autocrine factor that inhibited lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis via the Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase pathway. Adenovirus-overexpressed irisin improved hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in genetic-induced obese mice. Irisin transgenic mice were also protected against high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel pathway in regulating FNDC5/irisin expression and identify a physiological role for this hepatic hormone in glucose and lipid homeostasis. PMID:27007446

  10. Hepatic Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 1 Is Required for Efficient Regulation of Gluconeogenesis and Whole-Body Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Lawrence R; Sultana, Mst Rasheda; Rauckhorst, Adam J; Oonthonpan, Lalita; Tompkins, Sean C; Sharma, Arpit; Fu, Xiaorong; Miao, Ren; Pewa, Alvin D; Brown, Kathryn S; Lane, Erin E; Dohlman, Ashley; Zepeda-Orozco, Diana; Xie, Jianxin; Rutter, Jared; Norris, Andrew W; Cox, James E; Burgess, Shawn C; Potthoff, Matthew J; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-10-01

    Gluconeogenesis is critical for maintenance of euglycemia during fasting. Elevated gluconeogenesis during type 2 diabetes (T2D) contributes to chronic hyperglycemia. Pyruvate is a major gluconeogenic substrate and requires import into the mitochondrial matrix for channeling into gluconeogenesis. Here, we demonstrate that the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) comprising the Mpc1 and Mpc2 proteins is required for efficient regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Liver-specific deletion of Mpc1 abolished hepatic MPC activity and markedly decreased pyruvate-driven gluconeogenesis and TCA cycle flux. Loss of MPC activity induced adaptive utilization of glutamine and increased urea cycle activity. Diet-induced obesity increased hepatic MPC expression and activity. Constitutive Mpc1 deletion attenuated the development of hyperglycemia induced by a high-fat diet. Acute, virally mediated Mpc1 deletion after diet-induced obesity decreased hyperglycemia and improved glucose tolerance. We conclude that the MPC is required for efficient regulation of gluconeogenesis and that the MPC contributes to the elevated gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia in T2D. PMID:26344103

  11. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farswan Mamta

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ at a dose of 90mg/kg, i.p. in neonates. Different extracts of cassia glauca (100mg/kg, p.o. were administered to the diabetic rats. Acetone extract was found to lower the serum glucose level significantly in diabetic rats. Further, the acetone extract was subjected to column chromatography and four fractions were obtained on the basis of TLC. All the four fractions (100mg/kg, p.o. were administered to the diabetic rats. Fraction 1 (F1 caused the maximum reduction in the blood glucose level. The results of the test were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (5mg/kg, p.o.. Results: Fraction 1 of acetone extract caused a significant reduction in the levels of hepatic enzyme Aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT, creatine kinase (CK, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conclusion: Improvement in the blood sugar level and normalization of liver functions by Cassia glauca indicates that the plant has hepatoprotective potential, along with antidiabetic activity, and it provides a scientific rationale for the use of Cassia glauca as an antidiabetic agent.

  12. Deletion of hepatic FoxO1/3/4 genes in mice significantly impacts on glucose metabolism through downregulation of gluconeogenesis and upregulation of glycolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Xiong

    Full Text Available Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fasting and non-fasting conditions and they manifested better glucose and pyruvate tolerance on regular chow diet. After challenged by a high-fat diet, wild-type mice developed type 2 diabetes, but LTKO mice remained euglycemic and insulin-sensitive. To understand the underlying mechanisms, we examined the roles of SIRT6 (Sirtuin 6 and Gck (glucokinase in the FoxO-mediated glucose metabolism. Interestingly, ectopic expression of SIRT6 in the liver only reduced gluconeogenesis in wild-type but not LTKO mice whereas knockdown of Gck caused glucose intolerance in both wild-type and LTKO mice. The data suggest that both decreased gluconeogenesis and increased glycolysis may contribute to the overall glucose phenotype in the LTKO mice. Collectively, FoxO1/3/4 transcription factors play important roles in hepatic glucose homeostasis.

  13. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Harada

    Full Text Available Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker. These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

  14. Hepatic autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, Peter; Hother-Nielsen, Ole; Beck-Nielsen, Henning;

    2007-01-01

    The effect of increased glycogenolysis, simulated by galactose's conversion to glucose, on the contribution of gluconeogenesis (GNG) to hepatic glucose production (GP) was determined. The conversion of galactose to glucose is by the same pathway as glycogen's conversion to glucose, i.e., glucose 1......-phosphate --> glucose 6-phosphate --> glucose. Healthy men (n = 7) were fasted for 44 h. At 40 h, hepatic glycogen stores were depleted. GNG then contributed approximately 90% to a GP of approximately 8 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1). Galactose, 9 g/h, was infused over the next 4 h. The contribution of GNG to GP.......5 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) and then returned to approximately 9 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1), while plasma glucose concentration increased from approximately 4.5 to 5.3 mM, accompanied by a rise in plasma insulin concentration. Over 50% of the galactose infused was accounted for in blood glucose and hepatic...

  15. Profiling the control of hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism for evaluating novel strategies of insulin delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Ana Francisca Leal Silva

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder that results from a dysfunction of insulin secretion (type 1) and/or sensitivity (type 2). Type 1 and in many cases type 2 diabetic patients require daily insulin injections to control blood glucose levels and retard the appearance of diabetes-related complications. The liver plays a central role in the context of whole-body glucose homoeostasis and fuel management in general. Under physiological conditions, insulin is released by the pancr...

  16. Deletion of Hepatic FoxO1/3/4 Genes in Mice Significantly Impacts on Glucose Metabolism through Downregulation of Gluconeogenesis and Upregulation of Glycolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xiwen Xiong; Rongya Tao; DePinho, Ronald A.; X Charlie Dong

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead transcription factors FoxO1/3/4 have pleiotrophic functions including anti-oxidative stress and metabolism. With regard to glucose metabolism, most studies have been focused on FoxO1. To further investigate their hepatic functions, we generated liver-specific FoxO1/3/4 knockout mice (LTKO) and examined their collective impacts on glucose homeostasis under physiological and pathological conditions. As compared to wild-type mice, LTKO mice had lower blood glucose levels under both fast...

  17. Tissue Inhibitor Of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Is Required for High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance and Hepatic Steatosis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Even Fjære

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1 are elevated in obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as steatosis, but the metabolic role of TIMP-1 is unclear. Here we investigated how the presence or absence of TIMP-1 affected the development of diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice.Timp1 knockout (TKO and wild type (TWT mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD. We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy expenditure, oral glucose tolerance, as well as insulin tolerance. In addition, the histology of liver and adipose tissues was examined and expression of selected genes involved in lipid metabolism and inflammation in liver and adipose tissues was determined by RT-qPCR.TKO mice gained less weight and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation.Collectively, our results indicate that TIMP-1 contributes to the development of diet-induced hepatic steatosis and glucose intolerance and may be a potential therapeutic target.

  18. Reduction of hepatic insulin clearance after oral glucose ingestion is not mediated by glucagon-like peptide 1 or gastric inhibitory polypeptide in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Holst, Jens Juul; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Nauck, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Changes in hepatic insulin clearance can occur after oral glucose or meal ingestion. This has been attributed to the secretion and action of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1. Given the recent availability of drugs based on incretin hormones, such clearance...

  19. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930140 Hepatocyte stimulator peptide and itsclinical significance in viral hepatitis.ZHOUWeiping(周卫平),et al.Instit Viral Hepatitis,Chongqing Med Univ,630010.Chin J InternMed 1992;31(10):626-628.Hepatocyte stimulator peptide(HSP)is anewly developed hepatic stimulator substance.Its monoclonal antibodies have been obtained inour laboratory.In this study,HSP was deter-mined in the sera of 315 subjects including pa-

  20. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 is required for high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjære, Even; Andersen, Charlotte; Myrmel, Lene Secher;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) are elevated in obesity and obesity-related disorders, such as steatosis, but the metabolic role of TIMP-1 is unclear. Here we investigated how the presence or absence of TIMP-1 affected the development of diet......-induced glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis using the Timp1 null mice. METHODS: Timp1 knockout (TKO) and wild type (TWT) mice were fed chow, high-fat diet (HFD) or intermediate fat and sucrose diet (IFSD). We determined body weight, body composition, lipid content of the liver, energy intake, energy...... and had lower energy efficiency than TWT mice when fed HFD, but not when fed chow or IFSD. Importantly, TKO mice were protected from development of HFD- as well as IFSD-induced glucose intolerance, hepatic steatosis, and altered expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and inflammation...

  1. In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-(3- sup 3 H)glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, G.P.; Veech, R.L.; Passonneau, J.V.; Huang, M.T. (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (USA))

    1990-09-25

    Male Wistar fed rats were chronically cannulated and fed ground chow for 2 h for 6 days. On the 7th post-operative day, blood was simultaneously drawn from the portal and hepatic veins over a 2-h feeding period. The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique. In separate experiments, 200 microCi of (3-3H)glucose was added to the food in order to determine the contribution of D-glucose and 3-C precursors to newly synthesized glycogen. The 22-h fasting plasma portal vein concentrations of D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine were 4.8 +/- 0.03, 0.81 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively (n = 5). The fasting hepatic vein plasma concentrations were 5.1 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.19 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively. The portal-hepatic vein gradients after 22 h were -0.24, +0.16, and +0.01 mM for D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine, respectively. At 20 min after beginning the meal, the respective gradients were +2.2, +0.53, and +0.44 mM, indicating hepatic uptake of all glycogen precursors. Of the total carbon from the three major precursors entering the liver as C-6, D-glucose contributed 82%, while alanine and lactate contributed 18% at 20 min. As portal vein D-glucose and L-alanine levels exceeded 6.65 +/- 0.69 and 0.32 +/- 0.07 mM, respectively, the portal-hepatic venous gradient became positive and increased linearly with portal concentrations. The glycogen concentration in the liver increased from a 22-h fast value of 5 mumol of glucosyl units/g wet weight to 101 +/- 7 mumol/g 2 h after the meal. The mean specific activity of portal vein plasma of (3-3H)glucose was 11,490 +/- 1,180 dpm/mumol (+/- S.E.) and that in the glycogen isolated from liver was 8,175 +/- 785 dpm/mumol of glycosyl units 2 h after the meal. The specific activity of liver (3H)glycogen relative to glucose after the meal was 0.73 +/- 0.08.

  2. In vivo portal-hepatic venous gradients of glycogenic precursors and incorporation of D-[3-3H]glucose into liver glycogen in the awake rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male Wistar fed rats were chronically cannulated and fed ground chow for 2 h for 6 days. On the 7th post-operative day, blood was simultaneously drawn from the portal and hepatic veins over a 2-h feeding period. The position of the hepatic vein cannula was verified using a tritiated water washout technique. In separate experiments, 200 microCi of [3-3H]glucose was added to the food in order to determine the contribution of D-glucose and 3-C precursors to newly synthesized glycogen. The 22-h fasting plasma portal vein concentrations of D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine were 4.8 +/- 0.03, 0.81 +/- 0.06, and 0.20 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively (n = 5). The fasting hepatic vein plasma concentrations were 5.1 +/- 0.2, 0.70 +/- 0.15 and 0.19 +/- 0.03 mM, respectively. The portal-hepatic vein gradients after 22 h were -0.24, +0.16, and +0.01 mM for D-glucose, L-lactate, and L-alanine, respectively. At 20 min after beginning the meal, the respective gradients were +2.2, +0.53, and +0.44 mM, indicating hepatic uptake of all glycogen precursors. Of the total carbon from the three major precursors entering the liver as C-6, D-glucose contributed 82%, while alanine and lactate contributed 18% at 20 min. As portal vein D-glucose and L-alanine levels exceeded 6.65 +/- 0.69 and 0.32 +/- 0.07 mM, respectively, the portal-hepatic venous gradient became positive and increased linearly with portal concentrations. The glycogen concentration in the liver increased from a 22-h fast value of 5 mumol of glucosyl units/g wet weight to 101 +/- 7 mumol/g 2 h after the meal. The mean specific activity of portal vein plasma of [3-3H]glucose was 11,490 +/- 1,180 dpm/mumol (+/- S.E.) and that in the glycogen isolated from liver was 8,175 +/- 785 dpm/mumol of glycosyl units 2 h after the meal. The specific activity of liver [3H]glycogen relative to glucose after the meal was 0.73 +/- 0.08

  3. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009209 Effects of chronic hepatitis B virus infection on human hepatic cytochrome P450 2C9.ZHO Fuping(周福平),et al.Dept Infect Dis,Shanghai Changzheng Hosp,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Infect Dis,2009;27(2):94-98.

  4. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970349 Primary structure and variability of partialsequences in nonstructural gene 5 region of hepatitis Gvirus, CHANG Jinhong(常锦红), et al. Hepatol Instis,People’s Hosp, Beijing Med Univ, Beijing, 100044. NatlMed J China 1997; 77(3): 178-182. Objective: To sequence partial genome of hepatitis G

  5. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920691 The determination of serum hepa-titis B virus DNA by polymerase chain rea-ction in hepatitis B patients treated withalpha-interferon. XU. Jianye(徐建业), et al.Centr Lab, Chongqing Cancer Instit, 630030.Chin J Intern Med, 1992; 31(5): 278-280. To clarify the status of HBV in serum of

  6. Remodelling of the hepatic epigenetic landscape of glucose-intolerant rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandel, Lucie; Lepais, Olivier; Arbenoits, Eva; Véron, Vincent; Dias, Karine; Zion, Marie; Panserat, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The rainbow trout, a carnivorous fish, displays a 'glucose-intolerant' phenotype revealed by persistent hyperglycaemia when fed a high carbohydrate diet (HighCHO). Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene activity and is closely related to environmental changes and thus to metabolism adjustments governed by nutrition. In this study we first assessed in the trout liver whether and how nutritional status affects global epigenome modifications by targeting DNA methylation and histone marks previously reported to be affected in metabolic diseases. We then examined whether dietary carbohydrates could affect the epigenetic landscape of duplicated gluconeogenic genes previously reported to display changes in mRNA levels in trout fed a high carbohydrate diet. We specifically highlighted global hypomethylation of DNA and hypoacetylation of H3K9 in trout fed a HighCHO diet, a well-described phenotype in diabetes. g6pcb2 ohnologs were also hypomethylated at specific CpG sites in these animals according to their up-regulation. Our findings demonstrated that the hepatic epigenetic landscape can be affected by both nutritional status and dietary carbohydrates in trout. The mechanism underlying the setting up of these epigenetic modifications has now to be explored in order to improve understanding of its impact on the glucose intolerant phenotype in carnivorous teleosts. PMID:27561320

  7. Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us Home About GLMA Membership Resources Advocacy Lesbian Health Fund Conference Newsroom Support GLMA About GLMA Membership Resources Advocacy Lesbian Health Fund Conference Newsroom Support GLMA Site Search Hepatitis ...

  8. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon reduces hepatic glucose output and improves long-term glycemic control in diabetic ob/ob mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Heidi; Brand, Christian L; Neschen, Susanne;

    2006-01-01

    synthesis. Glucagon mAb treatment for 5 days lowered plasma glucose and triglyceride levels, whereas 14 days of glucagon mAb treatment reduced A1C. In conclusion, acute and subchronic neutralization of endogenous glucagon improves glycemic control, thus supporting the contention that glucagon antagonism may......In type 2 diabetes, glucagon levels are elevated in relation to the prevailing insulin and glucose levels. The relative hyperglucagonemia is linked to increased hepatic glucose output (HGO) and hyperglycemia. Antagonizing the effects of glucagon is therefore considered an attractive target for...... treatment of type 2 diabetes. In the current study, effects of eliminating glucagon signaling with a glucagon monoclonal antibody (mAb) were investigated in the diabetic ob/ob mouse. Acute effects of inhibiting glucagon action were studied by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and by measurement of HGO...

  9. Branched chain enriched amino acid versus glucose treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. A double-blind study of 65 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Hendrik; Gluud, C; Hardt, F;

    1990-01-01

    We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or i...... the amino acid group, but not in the glucose group. Thus, the branched chain enriched amino acid supplement did not change the prognosis for wake-up, but had other effects on the cerebral state and on nitrogen homeostasis.......We studied the effects of infusion of a branched chain enriched amino acid mixture versus glucose on acute hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Sixty-five patients were randomly treated with 1 g/kg per day of an amino acid mixture with 40% branched chain contents (32 patients), or...... isocaloric glucose (33 patients) for a maximum of 16 days. The regimens further included glucose infusion to a total of 26.5 kcal/kg per day and lactulose. The patients took part in the study for 5-6 days. In each group 17 patients woke up. In the amino acid group eleven died and four developed renal failure...

  10. Acute viral hepatitis E presenting with haemolytic anaemia and acute renal failure in a patient with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Laxmikant Ramkumarsingh; Aggarwal, Amitesh; Jain, Piyush; Rajpal, Surender; Agarwal, Mukul P

    2015-10-01

    The association of acute hepatitis E viral (HEV) infection with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency leading to extensive intravascular haemolysis is a very rare clinical entity. Here we discuss such a patient, who presented with acute HEV illness, developed severe intravascular haemolysis and unusually high levels of bilirubin, complicated by acute renal failure (ARF), and was later on found to have a deficiency of G6PD. The patient recovered completely with haemodialysis and supportive management. PMID:25500531

  11. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi; Mohsen Ghasemi; Bamdad Zendehbad; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Alireza Golshan; Mousa Al-Reza Hadjzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesity gene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lip...

  12. Protective effect of Cassia glauca Linn. on the serum glucose and hepatic enzymes level in streptozotocin induced NIDDM in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farswan Mamta; Mazumder Papiya; Percha V

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective effect of Cassia glauca leaf extracts on normal and non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) in rats. The study was further carried out to investigate the effect of different fractions of the active extract of Cassia glauca, on normal and NIDDM rats, and the effect of active fraction on the blood glucose and hepatic enzymes level. Methods: Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (S...

  13. Hepatic and Extrahepatic Insulin Clearance Are Differentially Regulated: Results From a Novel Model-Based Analysis of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, David C; Bergman, Richard N; Chung, Stephanie T; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-06-01

    Insulin clearance is a highly variable and important factor that affects circulating insulin concentrations. We developed a novel model-based method to estimate both hepatic and extrahepatic insulin clearance using plasma insulin and C-peptide profiles obtained from the insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test. Data from 100 African immigrants without diabetes (mean age 38 years, body weight 81.7 kg, fasting plasma glucose concentration 83 mg/dL, and fasting insulin concentration 37 pmol/L) were used. Endogenous insulin secretion (calculated by C-peptide deconvolution) and insulin infusion rates were used as inputs to a new two-compartment model of insulin kinetics and hepatic and extrahepatic clearance parameters were estimated. Good agreement between modeled and measured plasma insulin profiles was observed (mean normalized root mean square error 6.8%), and considerable intersubject variability in parameters of insulin clearance among individuals was identified (the mean [interquartile range] for hepatic extraction was 25.8% [32.7%], and for extrahepatic insulin clearance was 20.7 mL/kg/min [11.7 mL/kg/min]). Parameters of insulin clearance were correlated with measures of insulin sensitivity and acute insulin response to glucose. The method described appears promising for future research aimed at characterizing variability in insulin clearance and the mechanisms involved in the regulation of insulin clearance. PMID:26993071

  14. Hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008449 A cross-sectional survey of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-infected patients. MA Jianxin(马建新), et al.Dept Infect Dis, Shanghai Public Health Clin Center, Shanghai 201508. Chin J Intern Med 2008;47(7):574-577. Objective To assess the prevalence of occult HBV infection in HIV-infected patients.

  15. Both GLP-1 and GIP are insulinotropic at basal and postprandial glucose levels and contribute nearly equally to the incretin effect of a meal in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Krarup, Thure; Madsbad, Sten;

    2003-01-01

    . Total and intact incretin hormone concentrations during the clamp studies were higher compared to the meal test, but within physiological limits. Glucose infusion alone significantly inhibited glucagon secretion, which was further inhibited by GLP-1 but not by GIP infusion. We conclude that during......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are both incretin hormones regulating postprandial insulin secretion. Their relative importance in this respect under normal physiological conditions is unclear, however, and the aim of the present investigation...... was to evaluate this. Eight healthy male volunteers (mean age: 23 (range 20-25) years; mean body mass index: 22.2 (range 19.3-25.4) kg/m2) participated in studies involving stepwise glucose clamping at fasting plasma glucose levels and at 6 and 7 mmol/l. Physiological amounts of either GIP (1.5 pmol...

  16. Zinc transporter ZIP14 functions in hepatic zinc, iron and glucose homeostasis during the innate immune response (endotoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolunay Beker Aydemir

    Full Text Available ZIP14 (slc39A14 is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn(2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe(2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14(-/- mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14(-/- mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14(-/- mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14-/- mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14(-/- phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  17. Zinc Transporter ZIP14 Functions in Hepatic Zinc, Iron and Glucose Homeostasis during the Innate Immune Response (Endotoxemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker Aydemir, Tolunay; Chang, Shou-Mei; Guthrie, Gregory J.; Maki, Alyssa B.; Ryu, Moon-Suhn; Karabiyik, Afife; Cousins, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    ZIP14 (slc39A14) is a zinc transporter induced in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli. ZIP14 induction accompanies the reduction in serum zinc (hypozincemia) of acute inflammation. ZIP14 can transport Zn2+ and non-transferrin-bound Fe2+ in vitro. Using a Zip14−/− mouse model we demonstrated that ZIP14 was essential for control of phosphatase PTP1B activity and phosphorylation of c-Met during liver regeneration. In the current studies, a global screening of ZIP transporter gene expression in response to LPS-induced endotoxemia was conducted. Following LPS, Zip14 was the most highly up-regulated Zip transcript in liver, but also in white adipose tissue and muscle. Using ZIP14−/− mice we show that ZIP14 contributes to zinc absorption from the gastrointestinal tract directly or indirectly as zinc absorption was decreased in the KOs. In contrast, Zip14−/− mice absorbed more iron. The Zip14 KO mice did not exhibit hypozincemia following LPS, but do have hypoferremia. Livers of Zip14−/− mice had increased transcript abundance for hepcidin, divalent metal transporter-1, ferritin and transferrin receptor-1 and greater accumulation of iron. The Zip14−/− phenotype included greater body fat, hypoglycemia and higher insulin levels, as well as increased liver glucose and greater phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and increased GLUT2, SREBP-1c and FASN expression. The Zip14 KO mice exhibited decreased circulating IL-6 with increased hepatic SOCS-3 following LPS, suggesting SOCS-3 inhibited insulin signaling which produced the hypoglycemia in this genotype. The results are consistent with ZIP14 ablation yielding abnormal labile zinc pools which lead to increased SOCS-3 production through G-coupled receptor activation and increased cAMP production as well as signaled by increased pSTAT3 via the IL-6 receptor, which inhibits IRS 1/2 phosphorylation. Our data show the role of ZIP14 in the hepatocyte is multi-functional since zinc and iron trafficking are

  18. Maternal High-Fat Diet Modulates Hepatic Glucose, Lipid Homeostasis and Gene Expression in the PPAR Pathway in the Early Life of Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal dietary modifications determine the susceptibility to metabolic diseases in adult life. However, whether maternal high-fat feeding can modulate glucose and lipid metabolism in the early life of offspring is less understood. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms that influence the phenotype. Using C57BL/6J mice, we examined the effects on the offspring at weaning from dams fed with a high-fat diet or normal chow diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. Gene array experiments and quantitative real-time PCR were performed in the liver tissues of the offspring mice. The offspring of the dams fed the high-fat diet had a heavier body weight, impaired glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased serum cholesterol and hepatic steatosis at weaning. Bioinformatic analyses indicated that all differentially expressed genes of the offspring between the two groups were mapped to nine pathways. Genes in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR signaling pathway were verified by quantitative real-time PCR and these genes were significantly up-regulated in the high-fat diet offspring. A maternal high-fat diet during pregnancy and lactation can modulate hepatic glucose, lipid homeostasis, and gene expression in the PPAR signaling in the early life of offspring, and our results suggested that potential mechanisms that influences this phenotype may be related partially to up-regulate some gene expression in the PPAR signalling pathway.

  19. Glucose Supply and Insulin Demand Dynamics of Antidiabetic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Adelman, Martin H.; Paladino, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background For microvascular outcomes, there is compelling historical and contemporary evidence for intensive blood glucose reduction in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is also strong evidence to support macrovascular benefit with intensive blood glucose reduction in T1DM. Similar evidence remains elusive for T2DM. Because cardiovascular outcome trials utilizing conventional algorithms to attain intensive blood glucose reduction have not demonstrated superiority to less aggressive blood glucose reduction (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial), it should be considered that the means by which the blood glucose is reduced may be as important as the actual blood glucose. Methods By identifying quantitative differences between antidiabetic agents on carbohydrate exposure (CE), hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG), insulin resistance (IR), peripheral glucose uptake (PGU), and peripheral insulin exposure (PIE), we created a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the effect of the agents on the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic. Glucose supply was defined as the cumulative percentage decrease in CE, increase in HGU, decrease in GNG, and decrease in IR, while insulin demand was defined as the cumulative percentage increase in PIE and PGU. With the glucose supply and insulin demand effects of each antidiabetic agent summated, the glucose supply (numerator) was divided by the insulin demand (denominator) to create a value representative of the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic (SD ratio). Results Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (1.25), metformin (2.20), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs; 1.25–1.32) demonstrate a greater effect on glucose supply (SD ratio >1), while secretagogues (0.69–0.81), basal insulins (0.77

  20. Diminished hepatic insulin removal in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peripheral insulin and C-peptide levels during oral glucose load were measured in 20 obese and 23 normal weight nondiabetic subjects. The fasting C-peptide to insulin molar ratios (Cp/I), as well as the relation between incremental areas of the two polypeptides (ACp-AI)/ACp, were used as relative measures of the hepatic insulin extraction (HIE). The insulin and C-peptide basal levels as well as incremental areas under plasma curves were higher in the obese subjects (P<0.001). HIE was lower in obeses than in controls assessed in the fasting state (P<0.05), as well as after glucose load (P<0.001). Nevertheless, obeses and controls with similar insulin fasting levels showed identical hepatic insulin extraction in fasting or after glucose load. HIE was independent of obesity degree, but was related to insulin basal levels (r=-0.60, P<0.01). This study suggests the hypothesis that the decreased hepatic insulin extraction in obeses is a result of the chronically increased insulin delivery to the liver and is not a consequence of obesity, although a contributory role cannot be ruled out

  1. Free fatty acid-induced hepatic insulin resistance is attenuated following lifestyle intervention in obese individuals with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M;

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans.......The objective of the study was to examine the effects of an exercise/diet lifestyle intervention on free fatty acid (FFA)-induced hepatic insulin resistance in obese humans....

  2. Effects of β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate supplementation to sows in late gestation on absorption and hepatic metabolism of glucose and amino acids during transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flummer, Christine; Lyby, H; Storli, K S;

    2012-01-01

    A multicatheter sow model was established to study the effects of dietary β-hydroxy β-methyl butyrate (HMB) supplementation on net portal flux (NPF) and net hepatic flux (NHF) of HMB, glucose, and the AA Ala, Gly, Ile, Leu, Phe, Tyr, and Val. Eight second parity sows were fitted with permanent...... experiment, and 4 HMB sows were fed the control diet supplemented with 15 mg Ca(HMB)2/kg BW mixed in one third of the morning meal from day –10 until parturition. Net portal flux of HMB was affected by treatment (Trt; P < 0.01) and peaked in the HMB sows at 6.9 mmol/h 30 min after the morning meal and then...... decreased towards preprandial level (0.0 mmol/h) 3.5 h after the meal, revealing that dietary HMB was rapidly absorbed from the intestine. The NHF of HMB tended to be affected by Trt (P = 0.06) showing a small hepatic uptake of HMB (1.1 mmol/h) in HMB sows. Net portal flux of glucose and all measured AA...

  3. The T allele of rs7903146 TCF7L2 is associated with impaired insulinotropic action of incretin hormones, reduced 24 h profiles of plasma insulin and glucagon, and increased hepatic glucose production in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, K; Jensen, C B; Schou, J H;

    2009-01-01

    h glucose, insulin and glucagon profiles; OGTT; mixed meal test; IVGTT; hyperglycaemic clamp with co-infusion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP); and a euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamp combined with glucose tracer infusion to study hepatic and......-phase insulinotropic action of GLP-1 (p = 0.03) and GIP (p = 0.07) during a 7 mmol/l hyperglycaemic clamp. Secretion of GLP-1 and GIP during the mixed meal test was normal. Despite elevated hepatic glucose production, carriers of the T allele had significantly reduced 24 h glucagon concentrations (p < 0.02) suggesting......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We studied the physiological, metabolic and hormonal mechanisms underlying the elevated risk of type 2 diabetes in carriers of TCF7L2 gene. METHODS: We undertook genotyping of 81 healthy young Danish men for rs7903146 of TCF7L2 and carried out various beta cell tests including: 24...

  4. The PPARα/γ Agonist, Tesaglitazar, Improves Insulin Mediated Switching of Tissue Glucose and Free Fatty Acid Utilization In Vivo in the Obese Zucker Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Wallenius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic flexibility was assessed in male Zucker rats: lean controls, obese controls, and obese rats treated with the dual peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR agonist, tesaglitazar, 3 μmol/kg/day for 3 weeks. Whole body glucose disposal rate ( and hepatic glucose output (HGO were assessed under basal fasting and hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp conditions using [3,3H]glucose. Indices of tissue specific glucose utilization ( were measured at basal, physiological, and supraphysiological levels of insulinemia using 2-deoxy-D-[2,6-3H]glucose. Finally, whole body and tissue specific FFA and glucose utilization and metabolic fate were evaluated under basal and hyperinsulinemic conditions using a combination of [U-13C]glucose, 2-deoxy-D-[U-14C]glucose, [U-14C]palmitate, and [9,10-3H]-(R-bromopalmitate. Tesaglitazar improved whole body insulin action by greater suppression of HGO and stimulation of compared to obese controls. This involved increased insulin stimulation of in fat and skeletal muscle as well as increased glycogen synthesis. Tesaglitazar dramatically improved insulin mediated suppression of plasma FFA level, whole body turnover (, and muscle, liver, and fat utilization. At basal insulin levels, tesaglitazar failed to lower HGO or compared to obese controls. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that tesaglitazar has a remarkable ability to improve insulin mediated control of glucose and FFA fluxes in obese Zucker rats.

  5. Non-invasive estimation of hepatic glucose uptake from [{sup 18}F]FDG PET images using tissue-derived input functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudomi, N.; Jaervisalo, M.J.; Borra, R.; Viljanen, A.; Viljanen, T.; Knuuti, J. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Kiss, J.; Savunen, T. [University of Turku, Department of Surgery, Turku (Finland); Iida, H. [National Cardiovascular Center-Research Institute, Department of Investigative Radiology, Advanced Medical Engineering Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Nuutila, P. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Department of Medicine, Turku (Finland); Iozzo, P. [University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The liver is perfused through the portal vein and hepatic artery. Quantification of hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) using PET requires the use of an input function for both the hepatic artery and portal vein. The former can be generally obtained invasively, but blood withdrawal from the portal vein is not practical in humans. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new technique to obtain quantitative HGU by estimating the input function from PET images. Normal pigs (n = 12) were studied with [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, in which arterial and portal blood time-activity curves (TAC) were determined invasively to serve as reference measurements. The present technique consisted of two characteristics, i.e. using a model input function and simultaneously fitting multiple liver tissue TACs from images by minimizing the residual sum of square between the tissue TACs and fitted curves. The input function was obtained from the parameters determined from the fitting. The HGU values were computed by the estimated and measured input functions and compared between the methods. The estimated input functions were well reproduced. The HGU values, ranging from 0.005 to 0.02 ml/min per ml, were not significantly different between the two methods (r = 0.95, p < 0.001). A Bland-Altman plot demonstrated a small overestimation by the image-derived method with a bias of 0.00052 ml/min per g for HGU. The results presented demonstrate that the input function can be estimated directly from the PET image, supporting the fully non-invasive assessment of liver glucose metabolism in human studies. (orig.)

  6. Keratin 8/18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal versus cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulation of hexokinase status and insulin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Jasmin; Loranger, Anne; Gilbert, Stéphane [Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l' Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec), 9 McMahon, Québec, Qc, Canada G1R 2J6 (Canada); Faure, Robert [Département de Pédiatrie, Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (Centre Mère-Enfant), Québec, Qc, Canada G1V 4G2 (Canada); Marceau, Normand, E-mail: normand.marceau@crhdq.ulaval.ca [Centre de recherche en cancérologie de l' Université Laval and Centre de recherche du CHUQ (L' Hôtel-Dieu de Québec), 9 McMahon, Québec, Qc, Canada G1R 2J6 (Canada)

    2013-02-15

    As differentiated cells, hepatocytes primarily metabolize glucose for ATP production through oxidative phosphorylation of glycolytic pyruvate, whereas proliferative hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells undergo a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis despite oxygen availability. Keratins, the intermediate filament (IF) proteins of epithelial cells, are expressed as pairs in a lineage/differentiation manner. Hepatocyte and HCC (hepatoma) cell IFs are made solely of keratins 8/18 (K8/K18), thus providing models of choice to address K8/K18 IF functions in normal and cancerous epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate distinctive increases in glucose uptake, glucose-6-phosphate formation, lactate release, and glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatocytes and/or hepatoma cells versus their respective IF-containing counterparts. We also show that the K8/K18-dependent glucose uptake/G6P formation is linked to alterations in hexokinase I/II/IV content and localization at mitochondria, with little effect on GLUT1 status. In addition, we find that the insulin-stimulated glycogen formation in normal hepatocytes involves the main PI-3 kinase-dependent signaling pathway and that the K8/K18 IF loss makes them more efficient glycogen producers. In comparison, the higher insulin-dependent glycogen formation in K8/K18 IF-lacking hepatoma cells is associated with a signaling occurring through a mTOR-dependent pathway, along with an augmentation in cell proliferative activity. Together, the results uncover a key K8/K18 regulation of glucose metabolism in normal and cancerous hepatic cells through differential modulations of mitochondrial HK status and insulin-mediated signaling.

  7. Proximity to Delivery Alters Insulin Sensitivity and Glucose Metabolism in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Barbara; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Vaughan, Owen R; Ozanne, Susan E; Voshol, Peter; Sferruzzi-Perri, Amanda N; Fowden, Abigail L

    2016-04-01

    In late pregnancy, maternal insulin resistance occurs to support fetal growth, but little is known about insulin-glucose dynamics close to delivery. This study measured insulin sensitivity in mice in late pregnancy at day 16 (D16) and near term at D19. Nonpregnant (NP) and pregnant mice were assessed for metabolite and hormone concentrations, body composition by DEXA, tissue insulin signaling protein abundance by Western blotting, glucose tolerance and utilization, and insulin sensitivity using acute insulin administration and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with [(3)H]glucose infusion. Whole-body insulin resistance occurred in D16 pregnant dams in association with basal hyperinsulinemia, insulin-resistant endogenous glucose production, and downregulation of several proteins in hepatic and skeletal muscle insulin signaling pathways relative to NP and D19 values. Insulin resistance was less pronounced at D19, with restoration of NP insulin concentrations, improved hepatic insulin sensitivity, and increased abundance of hepatic insulin signaling proteins. At D16, insulin resistance at whole-body, tissue, and molecular levels will favor fetal glucose acquisition, while improved D19 hepatic insulin sensitivity will conserve glucose for maternal use in anticipation of lactation. Tissue sensitivity to insulin, therefore, alters differentially with proximity to delivery in pregnant mice, with implications for human and other species. PMID:26740602

  8. Absence of Perilipin 2 Prevents Hepatic Steatosis, Glucose Intolerance and Ceramide Accumulation in Alcohol-Fed Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Rotonya M.; Peralta, Giselle; Yin, Xiaoyan; Ahima, Rexford S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Perilipin 2 (Plin2) is a lipid droplet protein that has roles in both lipid and glucose homeostasis. An increase in Plin2 in liver is associated with the development of steatosis, glucose intolerance, and ceramide accumulation in alcoholic liver disease. We investigated the role of Plin2 on energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis in wildtype and Plin2 knockout (Plin2KO) mice chronically fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid ethanol or control diet for six weeks. Methods We performed...

  9. Basal 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the relationship between basal 18F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with 18F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  10. Basal {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography as a prognostic biomarker in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Vicente, Ana Maria; Soriano Castrejon, Angel [University General Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Department, Ciudad Real (Spain); Lopez-Fidalgo, Jesus Fernando; Amo-Salas, Mariano [University of Castilla-La Mancha, Department of Mathematics, Ciudad Real (Spain); Mar Munoz Sanchez, Maria del [Virgen de la Luz Hospital, Oncology Department, Cuenca (Spain); Alvarez Cabellos, Ruth [Virgen de la Salud Hospital, Oncology Department, Toledo (Spain); Espinosa Aunion, Ruth [La Mancha Centro Hospital, Oncology Department, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    To explore the relationship between basal {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT information in breast tumours and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This prospective, multicentre study included 198 women diagnosed with LABC. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT prior to treatment. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in tumor (T), lymph nodes (N) and the N/T ratio was obtained in all cases. Stage according to PET/CT imaging (metabolic stage) and conventional imaging techniques (clinical stage) was established. During follow-up, patient status was established (disease free status or not). The relationship between all the variables and overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. A ROC analysis was performed to obtain a cut-off value of SUVmax that was useful in the prediction of outcome. The mean SUVmax ± SD values in the primary tumour, lymph nodes and the SUVmax N/T index were 7.40 ± 5.57, 4.17 ± 4.74 and 0.73 ± 1.20, respectively. Higher semiquantitative metabolic values were found in more advanced metabolic and clinical stages. During follow-up, 78.4 % of patients were free of disease. Significant relationships were observed between SUVT and SUVN and patient status. With respect to OS and DFS, significant differences were detected for the metabolic stage. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that using the cut-off values, a primary-tumour SUVmax ≥ 6.05 or a nodal SUVmax ≥2.25 were significantly correlated with DFS and OS. PET imaging with {sup 18}F-FDG offers prognostic information for LABC that can be obtained preoperatively and noninvasively. (orig.)

  11. Acute inhibition of hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase does not affect gluconeogenesis but directs gluconeogenic flux toward glycogen in fasted rats - A pharmacological study with the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, TH; van der Sluijs, FH; Wiegman, CH; Baller, JFW; Gustafson, LA; Burger, HJ; Herling, AW; Kuipers, F; Meijer, AJ; Reijngoud, DJ

    2001-01-01

    Effects of acute inhibition of glucose-6-phosphatase activity by the chlorogenic acid derivative S4048 on hepatic carbohydrate fluxes were examined in isolated rat hepatocytes and in vivo in rats. Fluxes were calculated using tracer dilution techniques and mass isotopomer distribution analysis in pl

  12. Effect of exogenous leptin on serum levels of lipids, glucose, renal and hepatic variables in both genders of obese and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Hayatdavoudi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leptin exerts various effects on appetite and body weight. Disruption of the obesitygene is precedent to fatness. Insulin or glucose elevates leptin, but streptozotocin reduces it. However, controversial data exist for the effects of leptin on diabetes and leptin level in each gender. Leptin can damage the kidney function but little evidence exists for its hepatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the probable sex-dependent differences in blood sugar levels, lipid profile, and renal and hepatic biochemical factors in the obesity and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after leptin administration. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were randomly divided into two groups, namely obese and diabetic rats. Each group was further divided into male and female subgroups. Extra fat and carbohydrate was added to the diet to induce obesity. Furthermore, streptozotocin (55 mg/kg, IP was injected to induce diabetes. The treatment groups received leptin (0.1 mg/kg SC for 10 days, and then, blood samples were taken from the orbital sinus for laboratory evaluations. Results: Leptin resulted in a significant weight loss in both sexes (P

  13. Regional differences in adipocyte lactate production from glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having shown that lactate is an important product of glucose metabolism by rat epididymal adipocytes, the authors investigated possible regional differences in adipocyte lactate production and the role of the animals' nutritional state and stage of development. [U-14C]glucose metabolism, lactate production, and response to insulin were measured in fat cells isolated from four adipose regions from young lean and older fatter rats, killed either in the fed state or after fasting for 48 h. In the absence of insulin, mesenteric fat cells from either age group metabolized significantly more glucose per cell and converted more glucose to lactate than cells from other depots, regardless of nutritional state. Adipocytes from fasted lean rats showed a significant increase in the relative glucose conversion to lactate in all depots when compared with cells from fed lean rats. Fasting of older fatter rats, however, had limited effects on the relative adipocyte glucose conversion to lactate since lactate production was already high. Mesenteric fat cells had the lowest relative response to insulin, possibly due to the high basal rate of glucose metabolism. These findings indicate that differences exist among adipose regions in the rates of glucose metabolism, lactate production and response to insulin. The anatomical location of the mesenteric adipose depot, coupled with a high metabolic rate and blood perfusion, suggests that mesenteric adipocytes may provide a unique and more direct contribution of metabolic substrates for hepatic metabolism than adipocytes from other depots

  14. Removal of Intra-abdominal Visceral Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Tolerance in Rats: Role of Hepatic Triglyceride Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Michelle T.; Shi, Haifei; Seeley, Randy J.; Woods, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong link between increased visceral fat and metabolic syndrome. In rodents, removal of intra-abdominal but non-visceral fat improves insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, though previous studies make an imprecise comparison to human physiology because actual visceral fat was not removed. We hypothesize that nutrient release from visceral adipose tissue may have greater consequences on metabolic regulation than nutrient release from non-vis...

  15. The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Abir Nachar; Diane Vallerand; Lina Musallam; Louis Lavoie; Alaa Badawi; John Arnason; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada) to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) and glycogen synthase (GS) activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK), Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) were probed by Western blot. Seven of...

  16. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  17. Ethnic Differences in Insulin Sensitivity, β-Cell Function, and Hepatic Extraction Between Japanese and Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jonas B; Dalla Man, Chiara; Overgaard, Rune V;

    2014-01-01

    a cross-sectional study with oral glucose tolerance tests to assess β-cell function, hepatic insulin extraction, and insulin sensitivity. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS included 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasian subjects. MAIN OUTCOMES: Measures of β-cell function, hepatic extraction, and insulin...... sensitivity were assessed using C-peptide, glucose, and insulin minimal models. RESULTS: Basal β-cell function (Φ(b)) was lower in Japanese compared with Caucasians (P < .01). In subjects with IGT, estimates of the dynamic (Φ(d)) and static (Φ(s)) β-cell responsiveness were significantly lower in the Japanese...... compared with Caucasians (P < .05). In contrast, values of insulin action showed higher sensitivity in the Japanese IGT subjects. Hepatic extraction was similar in NGT and IGT groups but higher in Japanese type 2 diabetic subjects (P < .01). Despite differences in insulin sensitivity, β-cell function, and...

  18. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1) Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Asako; Locher, Lena; Tienken, Reka; Meyer, Ulrich; Dänicke, Sven; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP) by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively). Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON) or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA) g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC) or low (LC) concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation) relative to expected calving date (d-42) to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1) and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at Pdairy cows in early lactation. PMID:26800252

  19. Surgical removal of visceral fat reverses hepatic insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilai, N; She, L; Liu, B Q; Vuguin, P; Cohen, P; Wang, J; Rossetti, L

    1999-01-01

    We directly examined whether visceral fat (VF) modulates hepatic insulin action by randomizing moderately obese (body wt approximately 400 g) Sprague-Dawley rats to either surgical removal of epididymal and perinephric fat pads (VF-; n = 9) or a sham operation (VF+; n = 11). Three weeks later, total VF was fourfold increased (8.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.3 g, P fat mass (determined using 3H2O) was not significantly different. The rates of insulin infusion required to maintain plasma glucose levels and basal hepatic glucose production in the presence of hepatic-pancreatic clamp were markedly decreased in VF- compared with VF+ rats (0.57 +/- 0.02 vs. 1.22 +/- 0.19 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1), P removal of VF pads also resulted in marked decreases in the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (by 72%) and leptin (by 60%) in subcutaneous fat. We conclude that visceral fat is a potent modulator of insulin action on hepatic glucose production and gene expression. PMID:9892227

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  1. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  2. Associations between Forkhead Box O1 (FoxO1 Expression and Indicators of Hepatic Glucose Production in Transition Dairy Cows Supplemented with Dietary Nicotinic Acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asako Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1 is a transcription factor which promotes hepatic glucose production (HGP by up-regulating the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes in monogastric species. The activity of FoxO1 is inhibited by insulin-induced phosphorylation. The aims of the present study were to find associations between FoxO1 expression and variables associated with HGP as affected by feeding regimen in dairy cows during the transition period. Twenty one healthy German Holstein cows were allocated to four groups (LC-CON, HC-CON, LC-NA with 5 cows/group and HC-NA with 6 cows/group, respectively. Cows received 0 (LC-CON and HC-CON or 24 (LC-NA and HC-NA g/d nicotinic acid with high (HC or low (LC concentrate proportion from -42 days (-41.8 + 4.8; mean + standard deviation relative to expected calving date (d-42 to d24. Liver biopsy was taken at d-42, 1, 21, and 100. The total protein expression of FoxO1 (tFoxO1 and the extent of phosphorylation of FoxO1 at serine 256 (pFoxO1 were analysed semiquantitatively by Western Blotting. The expression of hepatic mRNA of FoxO1 and seven genes associated with HGP was measured by real-time RT-PCR. Mixed model and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical evaluation with the level of significance at P<0.05. No dietary effect was observed either on feed intake, energy balance, or on the concentration of blood metabolites. Neither time nor diet affected the expression of FoxO1 total protein and mRNA. A NA × concentrate interaction was found in pFoxO1. However, no corresponding dietary effect was found in the mRNA expression of investigated genes. Different patterns of correlations between FoxO1-related variables and investigated indicators for HGP were found at d21 and 100. The results indicated that the regulation of HGP did not take place on the levels of mRNA and protein expression and the phosphorylation of FoxO1 in dairy cows in early lactation.

  3. Effects of glucose ingestion on hepatic hemodynamics in patients with liver disease by per-rectal portal scintigraphy using sup 99m TcO sub 4 sup - (direct intramural administration of radioisotope method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuka, Isando; Ohe, Takashi; Harada, Takashi (Dokkyo Univ., Mibu, Tochigi (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    Effect of glucose (225 ml, 300 kcal) ingestion on hepatic hemodynamics was studied in ten patients with liver cirrhosis and eight patients with non cirrhotic liver disease by per-rectal portal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (direct intramural administration of radioisotope method). Initial portal blood flow index (IP) and collateral index (CI) were calculated from the time activity curve of heart and liver. The value of IP was not significantly changed between before and after glucose ingestion in cases of liver cirrhosis (before: 0.0160{+-}0.0016, after: 0.0204{+-}0.0106). In cases of non cirrhotic liver disease, the value of IP was significantly increased after glucose ingestion (before: 0.0381{+-}0.0145, after: 0.0544{+-}0.0194, p<0.02). These findings suggested increase in portal blood flow via inferior mesenteric vein to the cardiac blood flow. The value of CI before glucose ingestion was significantly increased in cases of liver cirrhosis (0.751{+-}0.156) compared with that in cases of non cirrhotic liver disease (0.517{+-}0.122), but no significant difference in values after glucose ingestion was found between these two groups. (author).

  4. Glucose and fructose 6-phosphate cycle in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have determined the rate of glucose cycling by comparing turnovers of [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose under basal conditions and during a glucose infusion. Moreover, the activity of the fructose 6-phosphate cycle was assessed by comparing [3-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose. The study included eight lean subjects with normal glucose tolerance. They participated in two randomly performed investigations. In one experiment [2-3H]- and [6-3H]glucose were given simultaneously, while in the other only [3-3H]glucose was given. The basal rate of glucose cycling was 0.32 +/- 0.08 mg X kg-1 X min-1 or 17% of basal glucose production (P less than 0.005). During glucose infusion the activity of endogenous glucose cycling did not change but since glucose production was suppressed it amounted to 130% of glucose production. The basal fructose 6-phosphate cycle could be detected only in three subjects and was suppressed during glucose infusion. In conclusion, the glucose cycle is active in healthy humans both in basal conditions and during moderate hyperglycemia. In some subjects, the fructose 6-phosphate cycle also appears to be active. Thus it is preferable to use [6-3H]glucose rather than [3-3H]glucose when measuring glucose production and particularly when assessing glucose cycle

  5. Modulating Effects of Chlorogenic Acid on Lipids and Glucose Metabolism and Expression of Hepatic Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-a in Golden Hamsters Fed on High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU-YUAN LI; CUI-QING CHANG; FU-YING MA; CHANG-LONG YU

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on lipid and glucose metabolism under a high dietary fat burden and to explore the possible role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) in these effects. Methods Twenty male golden hamsters were randomly divided into CGA treatment group (n=10, given peritoneal injection of CGA solution prepared with PBS, 80 mg CGA/kg body weight daily), and control group (n=10, given PBS i.p. at the average volume of the treatment group). Animals in both groups were given 15% high fat diet. Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the level of biochemical parameters in fasting serum and tissues and the expression of hepatic mRNA and protein PPAR-a were determined. Results Eight weeks after treatment with CGA, the levels of fasting serum triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (FSG), and insulin (FSI) were significantly lower in the GGA treatment group than in the control group. CGA also led to higher activity of hepatic lipase (HL), lower contents of TG and FFA in liver, and lower activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CGA significantly elevated significantly elevated the expression level of mRNA and protein expression in hepatic PPAR-α. Conclusion CGA can modify lipids and glucose metabolism, which may be attributed to PPAR-αfacilitated lipid clearance in liver and improved insulin sensitivity.

  6. Glucose metabolism in non-diabetic and insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with end-stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O

    1991-02-01

    Chronic uremia is frequently associated with an impaired carbohydrate tolerance. During the past decade considerable progress have been made in characterizing and quantifying this biochemical abnormality in end-stage renal failure (ESRF). Primarily, this has been possible by means of the glucose clamp technique which basically makes it possible to evaluate insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Combined with the use of tracer dilution technique, hepatic vein catheterization technique, infusion of somatostatin, forearm or leg techniques and indirect calorimetry, insight into several other major parameters of glucose kinetics has been achieved; i.e. insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU), glucose-induced glucose uptake (GIGU), hepatic glucose production (HGP) splanchnic glucose uptake and oxidative and nonoxidative glucose disposal. Of course, these extra facets make the clamp procedure less feasible to accomplish for technical reasons and demand an extensive knowledge of the limitations of these methods. One major factor behind the reduced glucose tolerance in uremia is an impaired sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) in peripheral tissues, mainly in skeletal muscle. In non-dialysed uremic patients the insulin dose-response curve is characterized by a decreased maximal response and by a rightward shift. In general, the insulin resistance is pronounced, but a few weeks on maintenance hemodialysis (HD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are enough to improve insulin action significantly. Occasionally, IMGU has been found normal in patients on long-term HD. In contrast to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, basal glucose turnover is normal in patients with ESRF. The ability of glucose to enhance its own uptake is difficult to measure in human studies, because even small amounts of insulin is able to modulate GIGU profoundly. At basal insulinemia, however, GIGU is markedly impaired in uremia. Recently, it has been suggested

  7. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  8. Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrune Philippe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency (G6P deficiency, or glycogen storage disease type I (GSDI, is a group of inherited metabolic diseases, including types Ia and Ib, characterized by poor tolerance to fasting, growth retardation and hepatomegaly resulting from accumulation of glycogen and fat in the liver. Prevalence is unknown and annual incidence is around 1/100,000 births. GSDIa is the more frequent type, representing about 80% of GSDI patients. The disease commonly manifests, between the ages of 3 to 4 months by symptoms of hypoglycemia (tremors, seizures, cyanosis, apnea. Patients have poor tolerance to fasting, marked hepatomegaly, growth retardation (small stature and delayed puberty, generally improved by an appropriate diet, osteopenia and sometimes osteoporosis, full-cheeked round face, enlarged kydneys and platelet dysfunctions leading to frequent epistaxis. In addition, in GSDIb, neutropenia and neutrophil dysfunction are responsible for tendency towards infections, relapsing aphtous gingivostomatitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Late complications are hepatic (adenomas with rare but possible transformation into hepatocarcinoma and renal (glomerular hyperfiltration leading to proteinuria and sometimes to renal insufficiency. GSDI is caused by a dysfunction in the G6P system, a key step in the regulation of glycemia. The deficit concerns the catalytic subunit G6P-alpha (type Ia which is restricted to expression in the liver, kidney and intestine, or the ubiquitously expressed G6P transporter (type Ib. Mutations in the genes G6PC (17q21 and SLC37A4 (11q23 respectively cause GSDIa and Ib. Many mutations have been identified in both genes,. Transmission is autosomal recessive. Diagnosis is based on clinical presentation, on abnormal basal values and absence of hyperglycemic response to glucagon. It can be confirmed by demonstrating a deficient activity of a G6P system component in a liver biopsy. To date, the diagnosis is most

  9. Alteration of de novo glucose production contributes to fasting hypoglycaemia in Fyn deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yingjuan; Tarabra, Elena; Yang, Gong-She; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Palacios, Gustavo; Kurland, Irwin J; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Bastie, Claire C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that glucose disposal is increased in the Fyn knockout (FynKO) mice due to increased insulin sensitivity. FynKO mice also display fasting hypoglycaemia despite decreased insulin levels, which suggested that hepatic glucose production was unable to compensate for the increased basal glucose utilization. The present study investigates the basis for the reduction in plasma glucose levels and the reduced ability for the liver to produce glucose in response to gluconeogenic substrates. FynKO mice had a 5-fold reduction in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) gene and protein expression and a marked reduction in pyruvate, pyruvate/lactate-stimulated glucose output. Remarkably, de novo glucose production was also blunted using gluconeogenic substrates that bypass the PEPCK step. Impaired conversion of glycerol to glucose was observed in both glycerol tolerance test and determination of the conversion of (13)C-glycerol to glucose in the fasted state. α-glycerol phosphate levels were reduced but glycerol kinase protein expression levels were not changed. Fructose-driven glucose production was also diminished without alteration of fructokinase expression levels. The normal levels of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate observed in the FynKO liver extracts suggested normal triose kinase function. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (aldolase) mRNA or protein levels were normal in the Fyn-deficient livers, however, there was a large reduction in liver fructose-6-phosphate (30-fold) and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (7-fold) levels as well as a reduction in glucose-6-phosphate (2-fold) levels. These data suggest a mechanistic defect in the allosteric regulation of aldolase activity. PMID:24312371

  10. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  11. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  12. Liver Glycogen Loading Dampens Glycogen Synthesis Seen in Response to Either Hyperinsulinemia or Intraportal Glucose Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jason J.; An, Zhibo; Kraft, Guillaume; Ramnanan, Christopher J.; Irimia, Jose M.; Smith, Marta; Lautz, Margaret; Roach, Peter J.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of liver glycogen loading on net hepatic glycogen synthesis during hyperinsulinemia or hepatic portal vein glucose infusion in vivo. Liver glycogen levels were supercompensated (SCGly) in two groups (using intraportal fructose infusion) but not in two others (Gly) during hyperglycemic-normoinsulinemia. Following a 2-h control period during which fructose infusion was stopped, there was a 2-h experimental period in which the response to hyperglycemia plus either 4× basal insulin (INS) or portal vein glucose infusion (PoG) was measured. Increased hepatic glycogen reduced the percent of glucose taken up by the liver that was deposited in glycogen (74 ± 3 vs. 53 ± 5% in Gly+INS and SCGly+INS, respectively, and 72 ± 3 vs. 50 ± 6% in Gly+PoG and SCGly+PoG, respectively). The reduction in liver glycogen synthesis in SCGly+INS was accompanied by a decrease in both insulin signaling and an increase in AMPK activation, whereas only the latter was observed in SCGly+PoG. These data indicate that liver glycogen loading impairs glycogen synthesis regardless of the signal used to stimulate it. PMID:22923473

  13. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  14. Isolation and structural characterization of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside from ethyl acetate extract of Hydnocarpus alpina and its hypoglycemic effect by attenuating hepatic key enzymes of glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, Rangachari; Vendan, Subramanian Ezhil; Aravinthan, Adithan; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Hydnocarpus alpina Wt. (Flacourtiaceae) (H. alpina) is a large tree traditionally used to treat leprosy; it also posses antidiabetic property. The present study was undertaken to isolate, characterize and to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of 2R, 3R taxifolin 3-O-rhamnoside. (rhamnoside) and its impact on carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg). Oral administration of rhamnoside for 21 days significantly reduced food intake, calorie intake, blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and improved plasma insulin levels. Administration of rhamnoside showed significant increase in the body weight, body composition (Lean body weight (LBW) and retro body fat), glycolytic hexokinase, glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase levels where as significant decrease was observed in the levels of glucose-6-phosphatase fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase in diabetic treated rats. Further, administration of rhamnoside significantly improved the glycogen content, glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase, suggesting the antihyperglycemic potential of rhamnoside in diabetic rats. The results obtained were compared with glibenclamide a standard hypoglycaemic drug. Immunohistopathological study of pancreas revealed increased number of β-cells and insulin granules in diabetes-induced rats after treatment with rhamnoside for 21 days. Furthermore, Co-administration of rhamnoside (50 mg/kg) with nifedipine (13.6 mg/kg), a Ca(2+)ion channel blocker, or nicorandil (6.8 mg/kg), an ATP-sensitive K(+) ion channel opener, reveals the insulin secretion property of rhamnoside via a K(+)-ATP channels dependent pathway in diabetic rats. In conclusion, rhamnoside normalized blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, key hepatic enzymes and glycogen content by increasing insulin secretion via K

  15. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2009-01-01

    Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism.......Six periparturient Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic and whole-body glucose metabolism....

  16. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Arrieta-Cruz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH. In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance.

  17. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrieta-Cruz, Isabel; Su, Ya; Gutiérrez-Juárez, Roger

    2016-02-01

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine or valine in rats and assessed whole body glucose kinetics under basal conditions and during euglycemic pancreatic clamps. Furthermore, because high fat diet (HFD) consumption is known to interfere with central glucoregulation, we also asked whether the action of BCAAs was affected by HFD. We fed rats a lard-rich diet for a short interval and examined their response to central leucine. The results showed that both isoleucine and valine individually lowered blood glucose by decreasing liver glucose production. Furthermore, the action of the BCAA leucine was markedly attenuated by HFD feeding. We conclude that all three BCAAs centrally modulate glucose metabolism in the liver and that their action is disrupted by HFD-induced insulin resistance. PMID:26891318

  18. Infliximab treatment prevents hyperglycemia and the intensification of hepatic gluconeogenesis in an animal model of high fat diet-induced liver glucose overproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karissa Satomi Haida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of infliximab on gluconeogenesis in an animal model of diet-induced liver glucose overproduction was investigated. The mice were treated with standard diet (SD group or high fat diet (HFD group. HFD group were randomly divided and treated either with saline (100 µl/dose, ip, twice a day or infliximab (10 µg in 100 µl saline per dose, ip, twice a day, i.e., 0.5 mg/kg per day. SD group also received saline. The treatment with infliximab or saline started on the first day of the introduction of the HFD and was maintained during two weeks. After this period, the mice were fasted (15 h and anesthetized. After laparotomy, blood was collected for glucose determination followed by liver perfusion in which L-alanine (5 mM was used as gluconeogenic substrate. HFD group treated with saline showed higher (p < 0.05 liver glucose production from L-alanine and fasting hyperglycemia. However, these metabolic changes were prevented by infliximab treatment. Therefore, this study suggested that infliximab could prevent the glucose overproduction and hyperglycemia related with glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Does overnight normalization of plasma glucose by insulin infusion affect assessment of glucose metabolism in Type 2 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staehr, P; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, O;

    2003-01-01

    turnover rates were quantified by adjusted primed-constant 3-3H-glucose infusions, and insulin action was assessed in 4-h euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic (40 mU m-2 min-1) clamp studies using labelled glucose infusates (Hot-GINF). RESULTS: Basal plasma glucose levels (mean +/- sd) were 5.5 +/- 0.5 and 10...... from basal rates of Rd, assessment of glucose turnover rates in euglycaemic clamp studies of Type 2 diabetic patients is not dependent on the method by which plasma glucose levels are lowered........7 +/- 2.9 mmol/l in the + ON and - ON studies, respectively, and were clamped at -5.5 mmol/l. Basal rates of glucose production (GP) were similar in the + ON and - ON studies, 83 +/- 13 vs. 85 +/- 14 mg m-2 min-1 (NS), whereas basal rates of glucose disappearance (Rd) were lower in the + ON than in the...

  20. Saponins from Platycodon grandiflorum inhibit hepatic lipogenesis through induction of SIRT1 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in high-glucose-induced HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-09-01

    Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of CKS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and hepatic lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. CKS suppressed high-glucose-induced lipid accumulation and inhibited high-glucose-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the use of a pharmacological AMPK inhibitor revealed that AMPK is essential for the suppression of SREBP-1c expression in CKS-treated cells. Finally, the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ) and SIRT1 was necessary for CKS-enhanced activation of AMPK. These results indicate that CKS prevents lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through SIRT1 and CaMKKβ/AMPK activation. Using CKS to target AMPK activation may provide a promising approach for the prevention lipogenesis. PMID:23578622

  1. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young; Nam, Myoung Soo; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. PMID:23319015

  2. Glucose Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Glucose Tests Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... the meaning of other test results. Fasting Blood Glucose Glucose Level Indication From 70 to 99 mg/ ...

  3. Dexamethasone increases glucose cycling, but not glucose production, in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We established that measurement of glucose fluxes through glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase; hepatic total glucose output, HTGO), glucose cycling (GC), and glucose production (HGP), reveals early diabetogenic changes in liver metabolism. To elucidate the mechanism of the diabetogenic effect of glucocorticoids, we treated eight healthy subjects with oral dexamethasone (DEX; 15 mg over 48 h) and measured HTGO with [2-3H]glucose and HGP with [6-3H]glucose postabsorptively and during a 2-h glucose infusion (11.1 mumol.kg-1.min-1). [2-3H]- minus [6-3H]glucose equals GC. DEX significantly increased plasma glucose, insulin, C peptide, and HTGO, while HGP was unchanged. In controls and DEX, glucose infusion suppressed HTGO (82 vs. 78%) and HGP (87 vs. 91%). DEX increased GC postabsorptively (three-fold) P less than 0.005 and during glucose infusion (P less than 0.05) but decreased metabolic clearance and glucose uptake (Rd), which eventually normalized, however. Because DEX increased HTGO (G-6-Pase) and not HGP (glycogenolysis + gluconeogenesis), we assume that DEX increases HTGO and GC in humans by activating G-6-Pase directly, rather than by expanding the glucose 6-phosphate pool. Hyperglycemia caused by peripheral effects of DEX can also contribute to an increase in GC by activating glucokinase. Therefore, measurement of glucose fluxes through G-6-Pase and GC revealed significant early effects of DEX on hepatic glucose metabolism, which are not yet reflected in HGP

  4. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells

  5. Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Pil [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Khanal, Tilak; Song, Gye Young [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Myoung Soo [College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Sun [Molecular Cancer Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Chul; Lee, Young Chun [Division of Food Science, International University of Korea, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hye Gwang, E-mail: hgjeong@cnu.ac.kr [Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway. - Highlights: ► CKS attenuated fat accumulation in HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. ► CKS and its major component, platycodin D, inhibited the levels of SREBP-1 and FAS. ► CKS and platycodin D increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC. ► Platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKKβ in HepG2 cells.

  6. Effect of acute negative and positive energy balance on basal very-low density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bellou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute reduction in dietary energy intake reduces very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG concentration. Although chronic dietary energy surplus and obesity are associated with hypertriglyceridemia, the effect of acute overfeeding on VLDL-TG metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute negative and positive energy balance on VLDL-TG metabolism in healthy women. DESIGN: Ten healthy women (AGE: 22.0±2.9 years, BMI: 21.2±1.3 kg/m(2 underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i isocaloric feeding (control ii hypocaloric feeding with a dietary energy restriction of 2.89±0.42 MJ and iii hypercaloric feeding with a dietary energy surplus of 2.91±0.32 MJ. The three diets had the same macronutrient composition. RESULTS: Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentrations decreased by ∼26% after hypocaloric feeding relative to the control trial (P = 0.037, owing to decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate (by 21%, P = 0.023 and increased VLDL-TG plasma clearance rate (by ∼12%, P = 0.016. Hypercaloric feeding increased plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.042 but had no effect on VLDL-TG concentration and kinetics compared to the control trial. CONCLUSION: Acute dietary energy deficit (∼3MJ leads to hypotriglyceridemia via a combination of decreased hepatic VLDL-TG secretion and increased VLDL-TG clearance. On the other hand, acute dietary energy surplus (∼3MJ does not affect basal VLDL-TG metabolism but disrupts glucose homeostasis in healthy women.

  7. The Relationships between Metabolic Disorders (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, and Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Computed Tomography-Based Indices of Hepatic Steatosis or Visceral Fat Accumulation in Middle-Aged Japanese Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutoshi Fujibayashi

    Full Text Available Most studies on the relationships between metabolic disorders (hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance and hepatic steatosis (HS or visceral fat accumulation (VFA have been cross-sectional, and thus, these relationships remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to clarify the relationships between components of metabolic disorders and HS/VFA.The participants were 615 middle-aged men who were free from serious liver disorders, diabetes, and HS/VFA and underwent multiple general health check-ups at our institution between 2009 and 2013. The data from the initial and final check-ups were used. HS and VFA were assessed by computed tomography. HS was defined as a liver to spleen attenuation ratio of ≤1.0. VFA was defined as a visceral fat cross-sectional area of ≥100 cm2 at the level of the navel. Metabolic disorders were defined using Japan's metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria. The participants were divided into four groups based on the presence (+ or absence (- of HS/VFA. The onset rates of each metabolic disorder were compared among the four groups.Among the participants, 521, 55, 24, and 15 were classified as HS(-/VFA(-, HS(-/VFA(+, HS(+/VFA(-, and HS(+/VFA(+, respectively, at the end of the study. Impaired glucose tolerance was more common among the participants that exhibited HS or VFA (p = 0.05. On the other hand, dyslipidemia was more common among the participants that displayed VFA (p = 0.01.It is likely that VFA is associated with impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia, while HS might be associated with impaired glucose tolerance. Unfortunately, our study failed to detect associations between HS/VFA and metabolic disorders due to the low number of subjects that exhibited fat accumulation. Although our observational study had major limitations, we consider that it obtained some interesting results. HS and VFA might affect different metabolic disorders. Further large-scale longitudinal studies

  8. 基础胰岛素联合阿卡波糖对初诊老年糖尿病患者血糖水平及并发症的影响%Effect of basal insul in combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and compl ications in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉卿; 张趁茹; 杨爱格; 刘璠; 董闪闪; 康岩; 王丽娜

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of basal insulin combined with acarbose on blood glucose level and complica-tions in patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes.Methods:A total of 135 cases with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes who were treated in our hospital from July 2012 to January 201 5 were enrolled as research subjects and divided into observation group (66 cases)and control group (69 cases)according to different treatment methods.Control group received acarbose thera-py alone,observation group received basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy,and then differences in blood glucose level, oxidative stress indicators,nerve conduction velocity,vascular injury and inflammatory factor levels of two groups were com-pared.Results:FPG,2hPG and HbA1C levels of observation group after treatment were lower than those of control group (P<0.05);AGE-P,MDA and NADPH levels were lower than those of control group,and SOD level was higher than that of control group (P <0.05 );median MNCV,ulnar MNCV,tibial MNCV,median SNCV and sural SNCV levels were higher than those of control group (P <0.05);sVCAM-1,hs-CRP and IL-6 levels were lower than those of control group (P <0.05). Conclusion:Basal insulin combined with acarbose therapy for patients with newly diagnosed elderly diabetes can effectively opti-mize the levels of blood glucose and complication-related factors,and it has active clinical significance.%目的::分析基础胰岛素联合阿卡波糖对初诊老年糖尿病患者血糖水平及并发症情况的影响.方法:2012年7月~2015年1月间河北医科大学第一医院收治的初诊老年糖尿病患者135例作为研究对象,按照治疗方式不同分为观察组66例,对照组69例.对照组患者接受单纯阿卡波糖治疗,观察组患者接受基础胰岛素联合阿卡波糖治疗,对比两组患者的血糖水平、氧化应激指标、神经传导速度、血管损伤及炎症因子水平等差异.结果:治疗后观察组患者的 FPG

  9. Portal 5-hydroxytryptophan infusion enhances glucose disposal in conscious dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Mary Courtney; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Haruki; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Saito, Masayuki; Everett, Carrie A.; Smith, Marta S.; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2005-01-01

    Intraportal serotonin infusion enhances net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during glucose infusion but blunts nonhepatic glucose uptake and can cause gastrointestinal discomfort and diarrhea at high doses. Whether the serotonin precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) could enhance NHGU without gastrointestinal side effects during glucose infusion was examined in conscious 42-h-fasted dogs, using arteriovenous difference and tracer ([3-3H]glucose) techniques. Experiments consisted of equilibratio...

  10. Association between risk factors, basal viral load, virus genotype and the degree of liver fibrosis with the response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Vuk R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hepatitis C is an important sociomedical problem worldwide due to frequent progression to chronic disease, occurrence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Standard pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin therapy results in resolution of infection only in 50% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the association of various factors with response to the therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. Age and sex of patients, inoculation risk factors, histopathological changes in the liver, viral load and HCV genotype were analyzed. Methods. The study included a group of 121 patients with chronic HCV infection. The treatment was carried out 24 weeks for virus genotype 2 and 3, and 48 weeks for genotype 1 and 4. The degree of histopathological changes in the liver was determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining, whereas polimerase chain reaction was used for HCV genotyping. Results. In the group of non-responding patients genotype 1 was represented with 100%, while in the other groups, although predominantly present, its percentage was lower. Unresponsiveness to therapy and relapse of disease were associated with higher viral load and advanced fibrosis. Intravenous use of psychoactive substances, as a risk factor, was present in a high percentage in the group of patients with sustained response, while blood transfusion and dialysis were leading risk factors in the group of relapse responders and non-responders. Conclusion. The results of our study showed that the treatment outcome of chronic HCV infection was associated with baseline HCV ribonucleic acid, HCV genotype, route of infection and the degree of histopathological changes in the liver. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41010

  11. Glucose Sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2006-01-01

    Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Glucose Sensing is the eleventh volume in the popular series Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy, edited by Drs. Chris D. Geddes and Joseph R. Lakowicz. This volume incorporates authoritative analytical fluorescence-based glucose sensing reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Glucose Sensing is an essential reference for any lab working in the analytical fluorescence glucose sensing field. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of glucose sensing, and diabetes care & management, will find this volume an invaluable resource. Topics in Fluorescence Spectroscopy Volume 11, Glucose Sensing Chapters include: Implantable Sensors for Interstitial Fluid Smart Tattoo Glucose Sensors Optical Enzyme-based Glucose Biosensors Plasmonic Glucose Sens...

  12. Effects of gastric bypass surgery on glucose absorption and metabolism during a mixed meal in glucose-tolerant individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Siv H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    after RYGB is rapid entry of glucose into the systemic circulation due to modified gastrointestinal anatomy, causing hypersecretion of insulin and other hormones influencing glucose disappearance and endogenous glucose production. METHODS: We determined glucose absorption and metabolism and the rate of...... RYGB. Endogenous glucose production was similar before and after surgery. Postoperative glucagon secretion increased and showed a biphasic response after RYGB. Adipose tissue basal rate of lipolysis was higher after RYGB. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: A rapid rate of absorption of ingested glucose into...... lipolysis before and 3 months after RYGB in obese glucose-tolerant individuals using the double-tracer technique during a mixed meal. RESULTS: After RYGB, the postprandial plasma glucose profile changed, with a higher peak glucose concentration followed by a faster return to lower than basal levels. These...

  13. Hepatitis Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B ...

  14. The effect of altitude hypoxia on glucose homeostasis in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, J J; Hansen, J M; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal;

    1997-01-01

    1. Exposure to altitude hypoxia elicits changes in glucose homeostasis with increases in glucose and insulin concentrations within the first few days at altitude. Both increased and unchanged hepatic glucose production (HGP) have previously been reported in response to acute altitude hypoxia...

  15. Coping with an exogenous glucose overload: glucose kinetics of rainbow trout during graded swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kevin; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2016-03-15

    This study examines how chronically hyperglycemic rainbow trout modulate glucose kinetics in response to graded exercise up to critical swimming speed (Ucrit), with or without exogenous glucose supply. Our goals were 1) to quantify the rates of hepatic glucose production (Ra glucose) and disposal (Rd glucose) during graded swimming, 2) to determine how exogenous glucose affects the changes in glucose fluxes caused by exercise, and 3) to establish whether exogenous glucose modifies Ucrit or the cost of transport. Results show that graded swimming causes no change in Ra and Rd glucose at speeds below 2.5 body lengths per second (BL/s), but that glucose fluxes may be stimulated at the highest speeds. Excellent glucoregulation is also achieved at all exercise intensities. When exogenous glucose is supplied during exercise, trout suppress hepatic production from 16.4 ± 1.6 to 4.1 ± 1.7 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1) and boost glucose disposal to 40.1 ± 13 μmol·kg(-1)·min(-1). These responses limit the effects of exogenous glucose to a 2.5-fold increase in glycemia, whereas fish showing no modulation of fluxes would reach dangerous levels of 114 mM of blood glucose. Exogenous glucose reduces metabolic rate by 16% and, therefore, causes total cost of transport to decrease accordingly. High glucose availability does not improve Ucrit because the fish are unable to take advantage of this extra fuel during maximal exercise and rely on tissue glycogen instead. In conclusion, trout have a remarkable ability to adjust glucose fluxes that allows them to cope with the cumulative stresses of a glucose overload and graded exercise. PMID:26719305

  16. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, J. W.; Denison, M. S.; Bloom, S E

    1983-01-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole...

  17. Phospholipase D1 Mediates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling for Glucose Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong Hyun; Park, Ji-Man; Yea, Kyungmoo; Kim, Hyun Wook; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2010-01-01

    Background Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of gluc...

  18. Phospholipase D1 Mediates AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling for Glucose Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Jong Hyun Kim; Ji-Man Park; Kyungmoo Yea; Hyun Wook Kim; Pann-Ghill Suh; Sung Ho Ryu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis is maintained by a balance between hepatic glucose production and peripheral glucose utilization. In skeletal muscle cells, glucose utilization is primarily regulated by glucose uptake. Deprivation of cellular energy induces the activation of regulatory proteins and thus glucose uptake. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is known to play a significant role in the regulation of energy balances. However, the mechanisms related to the AMPK-mediated control of glu...

  19. Effects of pantethine supplementation to diets with different energy cereals on hepatic lipogenesis of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, J C; Tanaka, K; Ohtani, S; Collado, C M

    1987-02-01

    Effects on dietary pantethine supplementation on hepatic lipid accumulation and on the activities of lipogenic-related enzymes in the liver were studied in Single Comb White Leghorn laying hens fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets containing corn or barley as the carbohydrate source. Addition of 200 ppm pantethine to the corn-soy (CS) basal diet significantly reduced abdominal fat weight, liver triglyceride, as well as total cholesterol and 17 beta-estradiol concentrations in the plasma. Activities of citrate cleavage enzyme (EC 4.1.3.8; CCE) and fatty acid synthetase (FAS) in the liver were significantly reduced when the CS basal diet was supplemented with pantethine, but the activities of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.40; NADP-MDH) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49; G6PDH), were not significantly affected. However, liver triglyceride, total cholesterol, and 17 beta-estradiol concentrations in plasma as well as the activities of CCE, FAS, and NADP-MDH in liver were significantly lower in laying hens fed the barley-soy (BS) basal diet than in those fed the CS basal diet. Pantethine supplementation to the BS diet failed to show any significant effect on liver triglyceride content and on the hepatic activities of lipogenic-related enzymes. There were no significant differences in liver weight, rate of egg production, and egg weight among dietary treatments. these results suggest that dietary pantethine is effective in reducing the accumulation of liver and abdominal fat in laying hens fed a CS diet. PMID:3588494

  20. Dopamine agents for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker, Anders Ellekær; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Gluud, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with hepatic encephalopathy may present with extrapyramidal symptoms and changes in basal ganglia. These changes are similar to those seen in patients with Parkinson's disease. Dopamine agents (such as bromocriptine and levodopa, used for patients with Parkinson's disease) have...... therefore been assessed as a potential treatment for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of dopamine agents versus placebo or no intervention for patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SEARCH METHODS: Trials were identified through the Cochrane...... the trials followed participants after the end of treatment. Only one trial reported adequate bias control; the remaining four trials were considered to have high risk of bias. Random-effects model meta-analyses showed that dopamine agents had no beneficial or detrimental effect on hepatic...

  1. Glucose allostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Tataranni, P Antonio; Stefan, Norbert;

    2003-01-01

    In many organisms, normoglycemia is achieved by a tight coupling of nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta-cell (acute insulin response [AIR]) and the metabolic action of insulin to stimulate glucose disposal (insulin action [M]). It is widely accepted that in healthy...... individuals with normal glucose tolerance, normoglycemia can always be maintained by compensatorily increasing AIR in response to decreasing M (and vice versa). This has been mathematically described by the hyperbolic relationship between AIR and M and referred to as glucose homeostasis, with glucose...... chronic stress (insulin resistance), we propose to use the term "glucose allostasis." Allostasis (stability through change) ensures the continued homeostatic response (stability through staying the same) to acute stress at some cumulative costs to the system. With increasing severity and over time, the...

  2. Impact of rs361072 in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110beta gene on whole-body glucose metabolism and subunit protein expression in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel-Madsen, Rasmus; Poulsen, Pernille; Holmkvist, Johan;

    2010-01-01

    aim was to investigate the influence of rs361072 on in vivo glucose metabolism, skeletal muscle PI3K subunit protein levels, and type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The functional role of rs361072 was studied in 196 Danish healthy adult twins. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was...... assessed by a euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Basal and insulin-stimulated biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle, and tissue p110beta and p85alpha proteins were measured by Western blotting. The genetic association with type 2 diabetes and quantitative metabolic traits was investigated in...... infusion. rs361072 did not associate with insulin-stimulated peripheral glucose disposal despite a decreased muscle p85alpha:p110beta protein ratio (P(add) = 0.03) in G allele carriers. No association with HOMA-IR or type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 1.07, P = 0.5) was identified, and obesity did not interact...

  3. Switching from Twice-Daily Basal Insulin Injections to Once-Daily Insulin Degludec Injection for Basal-Bolus Insulin Regimen in Japanese Patients with Type 1 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yuka Tosaka; Akio Kanazawa; Fuki Ikeda; Mayu Iida; Junko Sato; Kazuhisa Matsumoto; Toyoyoshi Uchida; Yoshifumi Tamura; Takeshi Ogihara; Tomoya Mita; Tomoaki Shimizu; Hiromasa Goto; Chie Ohmura; Yoshio Fujitani; Hirotaka Watada

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of insulin degludec used for basal-bolus insulin regimen after switching from twice-daily basal insulin in Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The subjects were 22 type 1 diabetes patients treated with basal-bolus insulin regimen with twice-daily basal insulin. Basal insulin was switched to once-daily injection of insulin degludec with 10% dose reduction. HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were measured before and 12 weeks...

  4. Glucose turnover during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in liver-denervated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikines, K J; Sonne, B; Richter, Erik;

    1985-01-01

    The role of hepatic autonomic nerves in glucose production during hypoglycemia was studied. Selective, surgical denervation of the liver was performed in rats, which reduced hepatic norepinephrine concentrations by 96%. Hypoglycemia was induced by 250 mU of insulin intra-arterially in anesthetized...... concentration and rates of production and utilization of glucose were similar in denervated rats and control rats. Also hepatic glycogen depletion was similar in the groups. The lack of effect of denervation could not be ascribed to compensating changes in hormone or substrate levels. In adrenodemedullated rats...... lack of glucose recovery from hypoglycemia was accompanied by delayed normalization of glucose clearance. In fed rats, activity in hepatic autonomic nerves is not a primary mechanism increasing glucose production during acute hypoglycemia. Epinephrine enhances glucose recovery by decreasing glucose...

  5. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan. (author)

  6. Glucose production during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;

    1999-01-01

    The present study compared the arteriohepatic venous (a-hv) balance technique and the tracer-dilution method for estimation of hepatic glucose production during both moderate and heavy exercise in humans. Eight healthy young men (aged 25 yr; range, 23-30 yr) performed semisupine cycling for 40 min...... or by the tracer-dilution method, both at rest and during moderate and intense exercise (P > 0. 05). It is concluded that, during exercise in humans, determination of hepatic glucose production can be performed equally well with the two techniques....

  7. Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed? A health care provider will make a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis based on symptoms, a physical exam, blood tests, ... 2. A health care provider will make a diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis based on symptoms, a physical exam, blood tests, ...

  8. Hepatic ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic ischemia is a condition in which the liver does not get enough blood or oxygen, causing injury to ... pressure from any condition can lead to hepatic ischemia. Such conditions may include: Abnormal heart rhythms Dehydration ...

  9. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatitis viruses B and C can cause both acute and chronic infections. Chronic hepatitis B and C are serious health problems. They can lead to: Cirrhosis (suh-ROH-suhs) Liver failure Liver cancer Return to top How is viral ...

  10. Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis A, is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). The disease spreads through contact with ... washed in untreated water Putting into your mouth a finger or object that came into contact with ...

  11. Roles of the Gut in Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gribble, Fiona; Horowitz, Michael; Rayner, Chris K

    2016-06-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a major role in the regulation of postprandial glucose profiles. Gastric emptying is a highly regulated process, which normally ensures a limited and fairly constant delivery of nutrients and glucose to the proximal gut. The subsequent digestion and absorption of nutrients are associated with the release of a set of hormones that feeds back to regulate subsequent gastric emptying and regulates the release of insulin, resulting in downregulation of hepatic glucose production and deposition of glucose in insulin-sensitive tissues. These remarkable mechanisms normally keep postprandial glucose excursions low, regardless of the load of glucose ingested. When the regulation of emptying is perturbed (e.g., pyloroplasty, gastric sleeve or gastric bypass operation), postprandial glycemia may reach high levels, sometimes followed by profound hypoglycemia. This article discusses the underlying mechanisms. PMID:27222546

  12. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an inflammation of the liver. One type, hepatitis C, is caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It usually spreads through contact with ... childbirth. Most people who are infected with hepatitis C don't have any symptoms for years. If ...

  13. Abomasal amino acid infusion in postpartum dairy cows: Effect on whole-body, splanchnic, and mammary glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galindo, C; Larsen, Mogens; Ouellet, D R;

    2015-01-01

    Nine Holstein cows fitted with rumen cannulas and indwelling catheters in splanchnic blood vessels were used to study the effects of supplementing AA on milk lactose secretion, whole-body rate of appearance (WB-Ra) of glucose, and tissue metabolism of glucose, lactate, glycerol, and β...... AA with casein profile (AA-CN; n=5) in addition to the same basal diet. The AA-CN infusion started with half the maximal dose at 1 d in milk (DIM) and then steadily decreased from 791 to 226 g/d from DIM 2 to 29 to cover the estimated essential AA deficit. On DIM 5, 15, and 29, D[6,6-(2)H2]-glucose...... (23.7 mmol/h) was infused into a jugular vein for 5h, and 6 blood samples were taken from arterial, portal, hepatic, and mammary sources at 45-min intervals, starting 1h after the initiation of the D[6,6-(2)H2]glucose infusion. Trans-organ fluxes were calculated as veno-arterial differences times...

  14. Hypoksisk hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amadid, Hanan; Schiødt, Frank Vinholt

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), also known as ischaemic hepatitis or shock liver, is an acute liver injury caused by hepatic hypoxia. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and septic shock are the main underlying conditions. In each of these conditions, several haemodynamic mechanisms lead to hepatic...... hypoxia. A shock state is observed in only 50% of cases. Thus, shock liver and ischaemic hepatitis are misnomers. HH can be a diagnostic pitfall but the diagnosis can be established when three criteria are met. Prognosis is poor and prompt identification and treatment of the underlying conditions...

  15. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  16. Estimation of glucose carbon recycling in children with glycogen storage disease: A 13C NMR study using [U-13C]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A stable isotope procedure to estimate hepatic glucose carbon recycling and thereby elucidate the mechanism by which glucose is produced in patients lacking glucose 6-phosphatase is described. A total of 10 studies was performed in children with glycogen storage disease type I (GSD-I) and type III (GSD-III) and control subjects. A primed dose-constant nasogastric infusion of D-[U-13C]glucose or an infusion diluted with nonlabeled glucose solution was administered following different periods of fasting. Hepatic glucose carbon recycling was estimated from 13C NMR spectra. The values obtained for GSD-I patients coincided with the standard [U-13C]glucose dilution curve. These results indicate that the plasma glucose of GSD-I subjects comprises only a mixture of 99% 13C-enriched D-[U-13C]glucose and unlabeled glucose but lacks any recycled glucose. Significantly different glucose carbon recycling values were obtained for two GSD-III patients in comparison to GSD-I patients. The results eliminate a mechanism for glucose production in GSD-I children involving gluconeogenesis. However, glucose release by amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity would result in endogenous glucose production of non-13C-labeled and nonrecycled glucose carbon, as was found in this study. In GSD-III patients gluconeogenesis is suggested as the major route for endogenous glucose synthesis. The contribution of the triose-phosphate pathway in these patients has been determined

  17. Hepatitis Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406

  18. Hepatitis Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ogholikhan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver.

  19. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Charity H; Lee, Jane; Ruhlman, Melissa K

    2015-04-01

    Hyperglycemia is a common finding in surgical patients during the perioperative period. Factors contributing to poor glycemic control include counterregulatory hormones, hepatic insulin resistance, decreased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, use of dextrose-containing intravenous fluids, and enteral and parenteral nutrition. Hyperglycemia in the perioperative period is associated with increased morbidity, decreased survival, and increased resource utilization. Optimal glucose management in the perioperative period contributes to reduced morbidity and mortality. To readily identify hyperglycemia, blood glucose monitoring should be instituted for all hospitalized patients. PMID:25814110

  20. Modeling the effect of physical activity on postprandial glucose turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Schiavon, Michele

    2014-01-01

    In healthy subjects, glucose regulation relies on a complex control system that keeps blood glucose level within a narrow range around its basal value. A common element that offers a net benefit for most individuals with and without diabetes is regular physical activity, which is known to enhance insulin sensitivity, improve glycemic control and reduce the risk of cardiovascular mortality. Nowadays numerous studies have demonstrated increased rate of glucose uptake (Rd) and rate of endogenous...

  1. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis Can Strike Anyone Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... from all walks of life are affected by hepatitis, especially hepatitis C, the most common form of ...

  2. Basal or bolus dose, which is the key factor in CSII?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Nai-long; XUE Bing; LIN Peng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the value of HbA1c level evaluating the total daily basal insulin dose by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in 268 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 5-point capillary blood glucose was monitored in pre- and post-CSII and the insulin dose which could stabilize blood glucose was defmed as the total daily dose of insulin,including basal and bolus total dose. Correlation between HbA1c level and total daily dose of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was analyzed. Correlation between HbA1c level and 5-point capillary blood glucose was also analyzed. Results:Obvious correlation was observed between HbA1c level and the basal total daily dose of insulin if HbA1c was more than 9.3%(r=0.635, P<0.05). The average of 5-point capillary blood glucose was best correlated with HbA1c and fasting blood glucose next best. Conclusion: HbA1c level can forecast basal total daily dose of insulin in CSII.

  3. Hepatitis (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Hepatitis KidsHealth > For Parents > Hepatitis Print A A A ... to Call the Doctor en español Hepatitis About Hepatitis The word hepatitis simply means an inflammation of ...

  4. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engerix-B® ... a combination product containing Hepatitis A Vaccine, Hepatitis B Vaccine) ... What is hepatitis B?Hepatitis B is a serious infection that affects the liver. It is caused by the hepatitis B virus.In ...

  5. Influences of blood glucose excursion on the progression of chronic hepatitis B patients and nursing intervention%血糖漂移度对慢性乙型肝炎患者病情进展的影响及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁雪梅; 王霞; 陈丽慧; 郑洁

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influences of blood glucose excursion on the progression of chronic hepatitis B patient, and to explore the nursing intervention methods. Methods The study investigated 40 cases of chronic hepatitis B patients who admitted to the Fifth People′s Hospital of Wuxi from July 2012 to December 2014. After three days, with the help of the real-time continuous glucose monitor TA-DRb, the patients were divided into three groups including: high blood glucose excursion group ( group A, n =24 ); none blood glucose excursion group (group B, n=4);and low blood glucose excursion group (group C, n=12). The testing items included serum total bilirubin (TBiL), prothrombin time (PT), serum albumin (ALB), choline esterase ( CHE) and the level of insulin. Results In group A and C, TBiL and the level of insulin were higher;PT was longer;ALB and CHE were lower, compared with group B (P<0. 05). After the nursing intervention, TBiL, PT and the level of insulin reduced;ALB and CHE increased (P<0. 05). Conclusions The prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis B is affected by abnormal blood glucose, and the corresponding treatment and nursing care according to blood glucose excursion can effectively control the progression of the illness.%目的 分析血糖漂移度对慢性乙型肝炎患者病情进展的影响,并探讨护理干预方法. 方法 选取无锡市第五人民医院2012年7月-2014年12月收治的40例慢性乙型肝炎患者为研究对象,采用实时动态血糖监测仪TA-DRb监测患者的血糖,3 d后根据血糖监测值的不同将该组患者分为血糖高漂移组24例(A组)、血糖无漂移组4 例(B 组)、血糖低漂移组12 例(C 组),测定患者的血清总胆红素( TBiL)、凝血酶原时间( PT)、人血白蛋白( ALB)、胆碱酯酶( CHE)、胰岛素的水平. 结果 A、C两组患者的PT长于B组,TBiL、胰岛素水平高于B组,CHE、ALB低于B组,差异有统计学意义(P<0. 05);经相应的治疗

  6. Islet glucose metabolism and insulin release in two animal models of glucose intolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, Zong-Chao

    1999-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a complex and heterogenous disease resulting from the interaction of defects of both genetic and environmental origin. Abnormalities contributing to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes include impaired [beta]-cell function, peripheral insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. In the present study we have mainly used two animal models of glucose intolerance, i.e., spontaneously diabetic GK rats and transgenic mice with overexpressed gluco...

  7. Effect of adrenaline on glucose kinetics during exercise in adrenalectomised humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howlett, K; Galbo, H; Lorentsen, J;

    1999-01-01

    1. The role of adrenaline in regulating hepatic glucose production and muscle glucose uptake during exercise was examined in six adrenaline-deficient, bilaterally adrenalectomised humans. Six sex- and age-matched healthy individuals served as controls (CON). 2. Adrenalectomised subjects cycled...... measured using [3-3H]glucose. 3. Euglycaemia was maintained during exercise in CON and -ADR, whilst in +ADR plasma glucose was elevated. The exercise-induced increase in hepatic glucose production was similar in +ADR and -ADR; however, adrenaline infusion augmented the rise in hepatic glucose production...... early in exercise. Glucose uptake increased during exercise in +ADR and -ADR, but was lower and metabolic clearance rate was reduced in +ADR. 4. During exercise noradrenaline and glucagon concentrations increased, and insulin and cortisol concentrations decreased, but plasma levels were similar between...

  8. Hepatic fat is not associated with beta-cell function or postprandial free fatty acid response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkelijkhuizen, J.M.; Doesburg, T.; Girman, C.J.; Mari, A.; Rhodes, T.; Gastaldelli, A.; Nijpels, M.G.A.A.M.; Dekker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the association of hepatic fat with beta-cell function estimated from the oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that postprandial free fatty acid (FFA) suppression after a meal tolerance test (MTT) is linked to hepatic fat. Individuals with normal glucose me

  9. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  10. Palmitate stimulates glucose transport in rat adipocytes by a mechanism involving translocation of the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, R. W.; Ladenson, J. H.; Henriksen, E. J.; Holloszy, J. O.; McDonald, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    In rat adipocytes, palmitate: a) increases basal 2-deoxyglucose transport 129 +/- 27% (p less than 0.02), b) decreases the insulin sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) in low density microsomes and increases GLUT4 in plasma membranes and c) increases the activity of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. Palmitate-stimulated glucose transport is not additive with the effect of insulin and is not inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitors staurosporine and sphingosine. In rat muscle, palmitate: a) does not affect basal glucose transport in either the soleus or epitrochlearis and b) inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport by 28% (p less than 0.005) in soleus but not in epitrochlearis muscle. These studies demonstrate a potentially important differential role for fatty acids in the regulation of glucose transport in different insulin target tissues.

  11. Predominant role of gluconeogenesis in the hepatic glycogen repletion of diabetic rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Giaccari, A; Rossetti, L.

    1992-01-01

    Liver glycogen formation can occur via the direct (glucose----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) or indirect (glucose----C3 compounds----glucose-6-phosphate----glycogen) pathways. In the present study we have examined the effect of hyperglycemia on the pathways of hepatic glycogenesis, estimated from liver uridine diphosphoglucose (UDPglucose) specific activities, and on peripheral (muscle) glucose metabolism in awake, unstressed control and 90% pancreatectomized, diabetic rats. Under identical...

  12. Cerebral glucose metabolism in Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local cerebral glucose utilization was measured in patients with predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease using sup(18)F-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose and positron emission tomography. Preliminary results indicate the presence of asymmetric metabolic rates in the inferior basal ganglia. The structure comprising the largest portion of basal ganglia at this level is globus pallidus. These findings are consistent with metabolic studies on animals with unilateral nigrostriatal lesions in which pallidal hypermetabolism on the lesioned side has been demonstrated. Increased pallidal activity is likely secondary to a loss of inhibitory dopaminergic input to the striatum from substantia nigra

  13. Delta Hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fulya Gunsar

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that requires HBsAg for replication and transmission. It can cause acute or chronic hepatitis. Chronic infection with HDV is one of the most severe and difficult to treat forms of viral hepatitis. It has been estimated that there is a total of 15-20 million HDV carriers in the world. This review focuses on two fundamental aspects of HDV infection. On the one hand, epidemiological data are summarized, which are essential to understand the re...

  14. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  15. Glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Handberg, A; Beck-Nielsen, H;

    2000-01-01

    amplification (TSA) technique to detect the localization of glucose transporter expression in human skeletal muscle. We found expression of GLUT-1, GLUT-3, and GLUT-4 in developing human muscle fibers showing a distinct expression pattern. 1) GLUT-1 is expressed in human skeletal muscle cells during gestation...... muscle fibers, only GLUT-4 was expressed at significant levels. GLUT-1 immunoreactivity was below the detection limit in muscle fibers, indicating that this glucose transporter is of minor importance for muscle glucose supply. Thus we hypothesize that GLUT-4 also mediates basal glucose transport in...

  16. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlo...

  17. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  18. On the mechanism of metformin-inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐红菊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of metformin in inhibiting hepatic gluconeogenesis.Methods Primary hepatocytes of mice were isolated by a modified version of the collagenase method.The effect of metformin on glucose production in primary hepatocytes was detected by glucose oxidation method.The

  19. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When ... travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic ...

  20. Hepatic encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild and include: Breath with a musty or sweet odor Change in sleep patterns Changes in thinking ... 24411831 . Nevah MI, Fallon MB. Hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopumonary syndrome, and systemic complications of liver disease. ...

  1. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Symptoms to look for Caregiver Support Caregiver Stories Home › What is Hepatic Encephalopathy? Why Your Liver is ... questions about HE, one step at a time. Home About Us Ways to Give Contact Us Privacy ...

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stages of Hepatic Encephalopathy? What Triggers or Can Cause HE to Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? ... portosystemic encephalopathy or PSE, is a condition that causes temporary worsening of brain function in people with ...

  3. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get Worse? How is HE Diagnosed? Prior to Treatment Who treats HE? Preparing for your Medical Appointment Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering ...

  4. Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Indian subcontinent) Reside or work in a prison or correctional facility People with end-stage renal ... to monitor and reduce their drinking behavior. Glossary Definitions of terms commonly used with viral hepatitis and ...

  5. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Treatment Options Treatment Basics Treatment Medications Importance of Adhering to Your Treatment Plan Long-Term Considerations Patient Support Finding Support Services Peer Support Groups Financial Assistance Support for My Loved Ones Resources Find ...

  7. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hepatic Encephalopathy so you can tell your doctor right away if you think you may have it. ... American Liver Foundation © 2016 American Liver Foundation. All rights reserved. Funding for the HE123 - Diagnosis, Treatment and ...

  8. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  9. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  10. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  11. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  13. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used to detect current or past infection by hepatitis A , hepatitis ... samples for more than one kind of hepatitis virus at the same time. Antibody and antigen tests ...

  14. Hepatitis C and Incarceration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also the most common type in jails and prisons. What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a ... risk for Hepatitis C because many people in jails or prisons already have Hepatitis C. • The most ...

  15. Hepatitis A Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis A Testing Share this page: Was this page ... HAV-Ab total; Anti-HAV Formal name: Viral Hepatitis A Antibody Related tests: Hepatitis B Testing ; Hepatitis ...

  16. Hepatitis A FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis A FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook ...

  17. Protect Yourself from Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Liver Guard Your Liver Protect Yourself From Hepatitis Hepatitis can make you feel as if you have ... viruses that attack your lungs and respiratory system; hepatitis is a liver disease. Some forms of hepatitis ...

  18. Delta agent (Hepatitis D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis D virus ... Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is found only in people who carry the hepatitis B virus. HDV may make liver ... B virus but who never had symptoms. Hepatitis D infects about 15 million people worldwide. It occurs ...

  19. Hepatitis B Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working ... of people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See ...

  20. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of ... Stomach ache Nausea Diarrhea No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  1. Feature Hepatitis: Hepatitis Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature Hepatitis Hepatitis: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment & Prevention Past Issues / Spring 2009 ... No appetite Fever Headaches Diagnosis To check for hepatitis viruses, your doctor will test your blood. You ...

  2. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalle Anand Kumar

    Full Text Available Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM, fat free mass (FFM, muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30 were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6 or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R (n = 24; after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF% in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring.

  3. Chronic maternal vitamin B12 restriction induced changes in body composition & glucose metabolism in the Wistar rat offspring are partly correctable by rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kalle Anand; Lalitha, Anumula; Reddy, Umakar; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Sengupta, Shantanu; Raghunath, Manchala

    2014-01-01

    Maternal under-nutrition increases the risk of developing metabolic diseases. We studied the effects of chronic maternal dietary vitamin B12 restriction on lean body mass (LBM), fat free mass (FFM), muscle function, glucose tolerance and metabolism in Wistar rat offspring. Prevention/reversibility of changes by rehabilitating restricted mothers from conception or parturition and their offspring from weaning was assessed. Female weaning Wistar rats (n = 30) were fed ad libitum for 12 weeks, a control diet (n = 6) or the same with 40% restriction of vitamin B12 (B12R) (n = 24); after confirming deficiency, were mated with control males. Six each of pregnant B12R dams were rehabilitated from conception and parturition and their offspring weaned to control diet. While offspring of six B12R dams were weaned to control diet, those of the remaining six B12R dams continued on B12R diet. Biochemical parameters and body composition were determined in dams before mating and in male offspring at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of their age. Dietary vitamin B12 restriction increased body weight but decreased LBM% and FFM% but not the percent of tissue associated fat (TAF%) in dams. Maternal B12R decreased LBM% and FFM% in the male offspring, but their TAF%, basal and insulin stimulated glucose uptake by diaphragm were unaltered. At 12 months age, B12R offspring had higher (than controls) fasting plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and impaired glucose tolerance. Their hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme activities were increased. B12R offspring had increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant status. Changes in body composition, glucose metabolism and stress were reversed by rehabilitating B12R dams from conception, whereas rehabilitation from parturition and weaning corrected them partially, highlighting the importance of vitamin B12 during pregnancy and lactation on growth, muscle development, glucose tolerance and metabolism in the offspring. PMID:25398136

  4. Insulin resistance and decreased insulin response to glucose in lean type 2 diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Wajngot, Alexandre; Roovete, Arved; Vranić, Mladen; Luft, Rolf; Efendić, Suad

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the mechanism of decreased glucose tolerance in lean type 2 diabetics, glucose turnover in such subjects and controls was studied under basal conditions and during hyperglycemia induced by intravenous administration of glucose. The diabetics had decreased intravenous glucose tolerance and a fasting plasma glucose of 6-8 mM (108-144 mg/dl). Glucose was infused for 2 hr at 2 mg/kg per min in the controls (n = 16) and diabetics (n = 9). Furthermore, 11 healthy subjects...

  5. Activation of N-Methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) Receptors in the Dorsal Vagal Complex Lowers Glucose Production*

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Carol K. L.; Chari, Madhu; Su, Brenda B.; Cheung, Grace W.C.; Kokorovic, Andrea; Yang, Clair S.; Wang, Penny Y. T.; Lai, Teresa Y.Y.; Lam, Tony K.T.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is characterized by hyperglycemia due partly to increased hepatic glucose production. The hypothalamus regulates hepatic glucose production in rodents. However, it is currently unknown whether other regions of the brain are sufficient in glucose production regulation. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits, which are activated by co-agonist glycine and glutamate or aspartate, respectively. Here we report that direct administration of either co-ag...

  6. Predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-dan Zheng, Cheng-run Xu, Li Jiang, Ai-xia Dou, Kun Zhou, Lun-gen Lu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate predictors of hepatic steatosis in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients and their diagnostic values in hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. Methods: A total of 106 HBeAg-negative CHB patients with clinically and pathologically proven steatosis and 98 patients without steatosis were recruited into this study. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol (CHOL, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, albumin (Alb, globulin (Glb, HBV DNA, body mass index (BMI, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and pathological changes of the liver in inflammation, fibrosis and fatty deposition were examined in all patients. Results: The levels of BMI, HOMA-IR, FBG, insulin, TG, and CHOL were significantly higher in patients with steatosis than those without steatosis (all P<0.05. But ALT, AST and HBV DNA levels were significantly lower in patients with steatosis (all P<0.05. Logistic regression analysis showed that only FINS was a significant predictor for hepatic steatosis (P<0.05; FINS and Glb were significant predictors for hepatic inflammation (all P<0.05; BMI and TC were significant predictors for hepatic fibrosis (all P<0.05. Conclusions: Hepatic steatosis, a common disease in HBeAg-negative CHB patients, was positively associated with BMI, FBG, FINS, TG, TC, GGT, ALP and HOMA-IR. In these patients, the prevalence of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis was also increased.

  7. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  8. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.; Hoggenmueller, U.; Becker, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hofmann, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Fischer, R. [Medical Division Heinz Kalk-Klinik, Bad Kissingen (Germany); Kraus, M.; Scheurlen, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  9. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  10. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  11. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  12. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetic Eye Disease Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low ... actions can also help prevent hypoglycemia: Check blood glucose levels Knowing your blood glucose level can help ...

  13. Glucose test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... person with diabetes constantly manages their blood's sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels ...

  14. Insulin and insulin mutants stimulate glucose uptake in rat adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚矢音; 张新堂; 许英镐; 张信娜; 朱尚权

    1999-01-01

    A simple method to determine the in vitro biological activity of insulin by measuring glucose uptake in the rat adipocytes is presented here. In the presence of insulin, the glucose uptake is 5-6 times more than the basal control. And the uptake of D-[3-3H]-glucose is linear as the logarithm of insulin concentration from 0.2 μg/L to 1.0 μg/L. Glucose and 3-O-methyl-glucose inhibit D-[3-3H]-glucose uptake into adipocytes. By this method, the in vitro biological activity of [B2-Lys]-insulin and [B3-Lys]-insulin was measured to be 61.6% and 154% respectively, relative to that of insulin.

  15. Avaliação do glicogênio hepático correlacionado com glicose sérica em ratas castradas sob tratamento com tibolona Evaluation of hepatic glycogen correlated with serum glucose in castrated rats under tibolone treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porphirio José Soares Filho

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O glicogênio representa a forma de armazenamento de açúcares na célula animal, sendo estocada naturalmente no hepatócito. Em sua dinâmica metabólica ocorre participação de receptores, hormônios e enzimas que mantêm e equilibram os níveis séricos desse componente. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a influência da tibolona no metabolismo glicídico hepático por meio de avaliação da presença do glicogênio hepático e níveis séricos de glicose. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Utilizamos ao todo 14 ratas Wistar, em menopausa cirúrgica comprovada citologicamente, tratadas diariamente com tibolona (n = 9 ou com placebo (n = 5 durante 20 semanas. Efetuou-se avaliação dos pesos do animal e do fígado e dos níveis de glicose sérica. O estudo morfológico foi realizado em cortes histológicos de tecido hepático, corados com hematoxilina e eosina (HE e com ácido periódico de Schiff (PAS, com e sem amilase salivar. Para avaliação do glicogênio no fígado, utilizou-se grade de estudo morfológico (GEM, que delineia as regiões metabólicas e circulatórias do lóbulo hepático. RESULTADOS: O peso dos animais foi menor no Grupo Tibolona, com glicose sérica em níveis mais baixos; já o peso relativo do fígado foi significativamente maior (p INTRODUCTION: Glycogen serves as glucose storage in animals and it is naturally found in hepatocytes. Receptors, hormones and enzymes, which maintain and balance serum levels of this component, participate in its metabolic dynamics. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the influence of tibolone on the hepatic glycemic metabolism by assessing the presence of liver glycogen and serum glucose. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fourteen castrated Wistar rats, cytologically validated as surgical menopause models, were treated with tibolone (n = 9 or placebo (n = 5 for 20 weeks. Their body and liver weight and serum glucose levels were assessed. The morphologic study was performed in histological

  16. Extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with parkinsonism and symmetric hyperintense basal ganglia on T1 weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayalakshmi Sita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal high signal in the globus pallidus on T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain has been well described in patients with chronic liver disease. It may be related to liver dysfunction or portal-systemic shunting. We report a case of extra hepatic portal vein obstruction with portal hypertension and esophageal varices that presented with extra pyramidal features. T1 weighted MRI brain scans showed increased symmetrical signal intensities in the basal ganglia. Normal hepatic function in this patient emphasizes the role of portal- systemic communications in the development of these hyperintensities, which may be due to deposition of paramagnetic substances like manganese in the basal ganglia.

  17. Características manométricas do corpo esofágico em doentes diabéticos tipo 2 de acordo com a glicemia basal matinal Manometric characteristics of the esophageal body in type 2 diabetic patients according to baseline morning glucose

    OpenAIRE

    João Xavier Jorge; Cláudia Iracema Borges; Fernando Jorge Delgado; Edgard Augusto Panão; Álvaro Correia Coelho; Mário Amaral Simões; Carlos Costa Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Introdução:Recentes estudos referem que a glicemia basal influencia a atividade motora do esófago. Alguns autores recusam esse postulado. Pretende-se com este estudo contribuir para o conhecimento deste facto. Doentes e métodos:Estudou-se a atividade motora esofágica por manometria estacionária em 25 doentes diabéticos tipo 2 com idades compreendidas entre 44 e 81 anos (média de idades de 58,25 anos) com níveis glicémicos diferentes em jejum. Compararam-se as características das ondas esofági...

  18. Quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake: Normalise to blood glucose or scale to liver uptake?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A.M. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    To compare normalisation to blood glucose (BG) with scaling to hepatic uptake for quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake using the brain as a surrogate for tumours. Standardised uptake value (SUV) was measured over the liver, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex in 304 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The relationship between brain FDG clearance and SUV was theoretically defined. Brain SUV decreased exponentially with BG, with similar constants between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex (0.099-0.119 mmol/l{sup -1}) and similar to values for tumours estimated from the literature. Liver SUV, however, correlated positively with BG. Brain-to-liver SUV ratio therefore showed an inverse correlation with BG, well-fitted with a hyperbolic function (R = 0.83), as theoretically predicted. Brain SUV normalised to BG (nSUV) displayed a nonlinear correlation with BG (R = 0.55); however, as theoretically predicted, brain nSUV/liver SUV showed almost no correlation with BG. Correction of brain SUV using BG raised to an exponential power of 0.099 mmol/l{sup -1} also eliminated the correlation between brain SUV and BG. Brain SUV continues to correlate with BG after normalisation to BG. Likewise, liver SUV is unsuitable as a reference for tumour FDG uptake. Brain SUV divided by liver SUV, however, shows minimal dependence on BG. (orig.)

  19. Glucose enhances indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis without reducing primary sulfur assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Huiying; Cai, Congxi; Wei, Jia; Huang, Jirong; Chang, Jiaqi; Qian, Hongmei; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yanting; Sun, Bo; Wang, Bingliang; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glucose as a signaling molecule on induction of aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis was reported in our former study. Here, we further investigated the regulatory mechanism of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis by glucose in Arabidopsis. Glucose exerted a positive influence on indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which was demonstrated by induced accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and enhanced expression of related genes upon glucose treatment. Genetic analysis revealed that MYB34 and MYB51 were crucial in maintaining the basal indolic glucosinolate accumulation, with MYB34 being pivotal in response to glucose signaling. The increased accumulation of indolic glucosinolates and mRNA levels of MYB34, MYB51, and MYB122 caused by glucose were inhibited in the gin2-1 mutant, suggesting an important role of HXK1 in glucose-mediated induction of indolic glucosinolate biosynthesis. In contrast to what was known on the function of ABI5 in glucose-mediated aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, ABI5 was not required for glucose-induced indolic glucosinolate accumulation. In addition, our results also indicated that glucose-induced glucosinolate accumulation was due to enhanced sulfur assimilation instead of directed sulfur partitioning into glucosinolate biosynthesis. Thus, our data provide new insights into molecular mechanisms underlying glucose-regulated glucosinolate biosynthesis. PMID:27549907

  20. Impact of short-term high-fat feeding on glucose and insulin metabolism in young healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B.; Storgaard, Heidi;

    2009-01-01

    a control diet on hepatic and peripheral insulin action by a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, muscle mitochondrial function by (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and gene expression by qrt-PCR and microarray in 26 young men. Hepatic glucose production and fasting glucose levels increased...... significantly in response to overfeeding. However, peripheral insulin action, muscle mitochondrial function, and general and specific oxidative phosphorylation gene expression were unaffected by high-fat feeding. Insulin secretion increased appropriately to compensate for hepatic, and not for peripheral......, insulin resistance. High-fat feeding increased fasting levels of plasma adiponectin, leptin and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP). High-fat overfeeding increases fasting glucose levels due to increased hepatic glucose production. The increased insulin secretion may compensate for hepatic insulin resistance...

  1. Glucose turnover in kelp bass (Paralabrax sp.): in vivo studies with [6-3H,6-14C]glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    [6-3H,6-14C]glucose was injected via an indwelling arterial cannula in free-swimming, fed, and fasted kelp bass to determine hepatic glucose production, peripheral glucose uptake, minimal glucose mass, mean transit time, and the percent of carbon recycling under the two different nutritional states. Mean plasma glucose levels remained unchanged in fed and fasted fish (48 +- 8 vs. 43 +- 8 mg/100 ml). During steady-state conditions, glucose replacement rates of fed and fasted fish determined with [6-3H]glucose are similar (0.035 +- 0.006 vs. 0.025 +- 0.003 mg/min per 100 g) and do not differ from rates determined with [6-14C]glucose (0.035 +- 0.005 vs. 0.026 +- 0.002). The minimal glucose masses and the mean transit times determined with both isotopes are also similar suggesting that plasma glucose levels and glucose turnover are maintained in fish fasted up to 40 days with no apparent increase in carbon recycling. Nonsteady-state isotope experiments suggest that these fish can alter rates of hepatic glucose production and peripheral uptake in response to hyper- and hypoglycemia

  2. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  3. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  4. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  5. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  6. Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of brain function in people with advanced liver disease. When your liver is damaged it can no longer remove toxic substances from your blood. These toxins build up and can travel through your body until they reach your brain, causing mental and physical symptoms of HE. Hepatic Encephalopathy often ...

  7. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PA Berry; G Smith-Laing

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness,experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4). Anti-nuclear antibodies were detectable, and liver biopsy was compatible with autoimmune hepatitis. The observation supports the role of HAV as a trigger of autoimmune hepatitis. Studies in helper T-cell activity and antibody expression against hepatic proteins in the context of hepatitis A infection are summarized, and the concept of molecular mimicry with regard to other forms of viral hepatitis and autoimmunity is briefly explored.

  8. On neurocomputational models of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, it became evident that the basal ganglia is involved in cognitive as well as motor processes, including motor control, conditioning, working memory, and sequence learning. Systems-levels models attempt to explain what kinds of computations are employed by the basal ganglia. It is argued that the basal ganglia integrates information from different structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and decides on which motor response to execute. Learning such ...

  9. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  10. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  11. Pathological basal ganglia activity in movement disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...

  12. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  13. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  14. Glucose metabolism during fasting is altered in experimental porphobilinogen deaminase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collantes, María; Serrano-Mendioroz, Irantzu; Benito, Marina; Molinet-Dronda, Francisco; Delgado, Mercedes; Vinaixa, María; Sampedro, Ana; Enríquez de Salamanca, Rafael; Prieto, Elena; Pozo, Miguel A; Peñuelas, Iván; Corrales, Fernando J; Barajas, Miguel; Fontanellas, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) haploinsufficiency (acute intermittent porphyria, AIP) is characterized by neurovisceral attacks when hepatic heme synthesis is activated by endogenous or environmental factors including fasting. While the molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritional regulation of hepatic heme synthesis have been described, glucose homeostasis during fasting is poorly understood in porphyria. Our study aimed to analyse glucose homeostasis and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism during fasting in PBGD-deficient mice. To determine the contribution of hepatic PBGD deficiency to carbohydrate metabolism, AIP mice injected with a PBGD-liver gene delivery vector were included. After a 14 h fasting period, serum and liver metabolomics analyses showed that wild-type mice stimulated hepatic glycogen degradation to maintain glucose homeostasis while AIP livers activated gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis due to their inability to use stored glycogen. The serum of fasted AIP mice showed increased concentrations of insulin and reduced glucagon levels. Specific over-expression of the PBGD protein in the liver tended to normalize circulating insulin and glucagon levels, stimulated hepatic glycogen catabolism and blocked ketone body production. Reduced glucose uptake was observed in the primary somatosensorial brain cortex of fasted AIP mice, which could be reversed by PBGD-liver gene delivery. In conclusion, AIP mice showed a different response to fasting as measured by altered carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and modified glucose consumption in the brain cortex. Glucose homeostasis in fasted AIP mice was efficiently normalized after restoration of PBGD gene expression in the liver. PMID:26908609

  15. Expression of hepatic insulin receptor-β and glucose transporter-2 after gastric bypass in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus%胃转流术对2型糖尿病大鼠肝细胞胰岛素受体-β及葡萄糖转运蛋白-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴惧; 徐键; 尹敏; 尹家俊; 程楠

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察胃转流术(GBP)对自发性2型糖尿病大鼠(GK大鼠)肝细胞胰岛素受体-β(IR-β)及葡萄糖转运蛋白-2(GLUT-2)表达的影响,探讨其改善胰岛素抵抗的机制.方法 30只8周龄雄性GK大鼠随机分为手术组(10只)、假手术组(10只)、饮食配对组(10只),另8周龄雄性SD作为空白对照组(10只).检测和比较术前及术后4周各组大鼠空腹血糖(FPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)水平,计算术前及术后4周胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR),应用Western blot技术检测各组术后4周肝细胞IR-β、GLUT-2的表达.结果 GK手术组术后4周FPG水平[(5.13 ±0.22) mmol/L]明显低于术前(P<0.05);术后4周HOMA-IR[(2.16 ±0.18) mmol/L]明显降低(P<0.01);术后4周IR-β、GLUT-2表达明显增加(P<0.01).结论 GBP能上调2型糖尿病大鼠肝细胞胰岛素信号转导通路中IR-β及GLUT-2的表达,改善肝细胞胰岛素抵抗,提高胰岛素的敏感性.%Objective To investigate the expression of hepatic insulin receptor-β (IR-β) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) after gastric bypass (GBP) in rats with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus (GK rats) and to discuss the mechanisms of GBP improving insulin resistance.Methods Thirty 8-week-old male GK rats were randomly divided into 3 groups:the operation group (n =10),the sham operation group (n =10) and the diet pairing group (n =10).Ten 8-week-old male SD rats served as blank control group.The levels of fasting blood glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured and compared among the 4 groups before and at 4th weeks after the operation,and the HOMA-IR was calculated respectively,and then the rats were decapitated to retrieve the liver.The expression of hepatic IR-β and GLUT-2 was detected by Western blotting.Results In GK operation group,the FPG level [(5.13 ±0.22) mmol/L] decreased significantly after the operation (P < 0.05),and the HOMA-IR level [(2.16 ±0.18) mmol/L] decreased significantly too (P <0.01).The expression

  16. Hepatitis A vaccine associated with autoimmune hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, PA; Smith-Laing, G

    2007-01-01

    To describe a case of probable relapsing autoimmune hepatitis associated with vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV). A case report and review of literature were written concerning autoimmune hepatitis in association with hepatitis A and other hepatotropic viruses. Soon after the administration of formalin-inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, a man who had recently recovered from an uncharacterized but self-limiting hepatitic illness, experienced a severe deterioration (AST 1687 U/L, INR 1.4...

  17. Counter-attack on viral hepatitis. [Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prozesky, O.W. (Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Medical Virology); Jupp, P.G.; Joubert, J.J.; Taylor, M.B.; Grabow, W.O.K.

    1985-07-01

    The most highly developed radioimmunoassay test system in medical virology is proving of exceptional value in research aimed at controlling and eventually eradicating the scourge of human hepatitis. The use of radioimmunoassay in detecting hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis B (HBV) viruses is discussed. The hepatitis A virus is an enterovirus which infects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually transmitted by contaminated food, milk or water. Hepatitis B spreads mainly by the parenteral rate. Bedbugs and ticks are considered as possible transmitters of HBV. Another important contribution of radioimmunoassay is the ability to monitor the immune response of persons at risk who are vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  19. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  20. Blood Test: Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Test: Glucose KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Glucose Print A A A Text Size What's in ... de sangre: glucosa What It Is A blood glucose test measures the amount of glucose (the main ...

  1. The relationship between gluconeogenic substrate supply and glucose production in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between gluconeogenic precursor supply and glucose production has been investigated in 14-h and 86-h fasted humans. In protocols 1 and 2 [6,6-2H]glucose and [15N2]urea were infused to measure glucose and urea production rates (Ra) in response to infusions of glycerol and alanine. In protocol 3 first [15N]alanine, [3-13C]lactate, and [6,6-2H]glucose were infused before and during administration of dichloroacetate (DCA) to determine the response of glucose Ra to decreased fluxes of pyruvate, alanine, and lactate, then alanine was infused with DCA and glucose Ra measured. After a 14-h fast, neither alanine nor glycerol increased glucose Ra. Basal glucose Ra decreased by one-third after 86 h of fasting, yet glycerol and alanine infusions had no effect on glucose Ra. Glycerol always reduced urea Ra (P less than 0.05), suggesting that glycerol competitively inhibited gluconeogenesis from amino acids. DCA decreased the fluxes of pyruvate, alanine (P less than 0.01), and glucose Ra (P less than 0.01), which was prevented by alanine infusion. These findings suggest that (1) the reduction in glucose Ra after an 86-h fast is not because of a shortage of gluconeogenic substrate; (2) nonetheless, the importance of precursor supply to maintain basal glucose Ra is confirmed by the response to DCA; (3) an excess of one gluconeogenic substrate inhibits gluconeogenesis from others

  2. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  3. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  4. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  5. [Hepatic encephalopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Jérémie; Carrier, Paul; Debette-Gratien, Marilyne; Sobesky, Rodolphe; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a severe complication of liver cirrhosis and is an important therapeutic challenge, with a social and economic issue. If, now, the pathophysiology is not totally understood (main role of ammonia, but a better understanding of cerebral mechanisms), the clinical presentation is well-known. Some treatments are useful (disaccharides, treatment of the trigger) but their efficiency is limited. Nevertheless, the emergence of new treatments, such as non-absorbable antibiotics (rifaximin essentially), is an interesting therapeutic tool. PMID:26597584

  6. What Is Hepatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store What is hepatitis? Online Q&A Reviewed July 2016 Q: What ... Question and answer archives Submit a question World Hepatitis Day Know hepatitis - Act now Event notice Key ...

  7. Living with Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) infections. Back to top Living With Hepatitis C In past years, many individuals learned that they have HCV from a blood test during a routine physical or because they attempted ...

  8. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are available to protect against hepatitis A infection. Hepatitis A vaccination is recommended for all children older than age ... Saunders; 2016:chap 148. Sjogren MH, Bassett JT. Hepatitis A. In: ... Practices (ACIP); ACIP Child/Adolescent Immunization Work Group. ...

  9. Hepatitis Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Hepatitis Risk Assessment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Viral Hepatitis. ... at risk? Take this 5 minute Hepatitis Risk Assessment developed by the CDC and get a personalized ...

  10. Preventing hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus. You can take several steps to ... reduce your risk of spreading or catching the hepatitis A virus: Always wash your hands thoroughly after ...

  11. Drug-induced hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxic hepatitis ... to get liver damage. Some drugs can cause hepatitis with small doses, even if the liver breakdown ... liver. Many different drugs can cause drug-induced hepatitis. Painkillers and fever reducers that contain acetaminophen are ...

  12. Hepatitis C FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis C FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... URL - Redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance Populations & ...

  13. Hepatitis B FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis B FAQs for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... date URL - redirecting ... Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home Statistics & Surveillance ...

  14. Hepatitis B Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Hepatitis B Testing Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HBV Tests; Hep B; anti-HBs; Hepatitis B Surface Antibody; HBsAg; Hepatitis ...

  15. Glucose enhancement of memory is modulated by trait anxiety in healthy adolescent males

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael; Hii, Hilary; Foster, Jonathan; van Eekelen, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Glucose administration is associated with memory enhancement in healthy young individuals under conditions of divided attention at encoding. While the specific neurocognitive mechanisms underlying this ‘glucose memory facilitation effect’ are currently uncertain, it is thought that individual differences in glucoregulatory efficiency may alter an individual’s sensitivity to the glucose memory facilitation effect. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether basal hypothalamic–pituit...

  16. Comparison of association of diabetes mellitus in hepatitis C virus infection and hepatitis B virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: While patients with liver disease are known to have a higher prevalence of glucose intolerance, preliminary studies suggest that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may be an additional risk factor for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective: The presented study was aimed to study and determine a relationship between the relative proportions of Diabetes Mellitus in patients suffering from HCV infection. Study Design: This cross sectional study. Study Settings: Patients were registered from outdoor as well as indoor departments of different teaching hospitals (Services hospital Lahore and medical departments in Jinnah hospital, Mayo hospital, Sir Ganga Ram hospital) in Lahore, Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional study was comprised of age and sex matched 258 patients of viral hepatitis B infection and viral hepatitis C infection, conducted at Hepatitis Clinic Services Hospital, affiliated with Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Diagnosis of HBV was made with evidence of hepatitis B surface antigen, HCV infection was diagnosed if patient was sero positive for anti HCV (ELISA methods) and HCV - RNA (By PCR). Diabetes Mellitus was diagnosed after fulfilling the American Diabetic Association Criteria, from November, 2000 to September, 2002. Results: A total of 318 patients were registered, out of which 258 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 164 hepatitis C infected and 94 hepatitis B infected cases, 16.46% hepatitis C infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics while 4.25% hepatitis B infected cases were diagnosed as diabetics. Conclusion: This study concludes that there is high Association and relationship of Diabetes Mellitus with Hepatitis C virus infection as compared with Hepatitis B virus infection. (author)

  17. The effect of genetically engineered glucagon on glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Jørgensen, S; Hilsted, J

    1992-01-01

    appearance rate were far more protracted after i.m. glucagon than after i.v. glucose. These results suggest that genetically engineered glucagon and glucagon from pancreatic extraction have a similar effect on hepatic glucose production rate. Due to the protracted effect of intramuscular glucagon, a combined...

  18. Effect of Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test on Bone Turnover Markers in Adults with Normal Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shou-Kui; Wan, Jing-Bo; Jiang, Xiao-Hong; Zhu, Yong-Hua; Ma, Jin-Hong; Hua, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well known that enteral nutrients result in acute suppression of bone turnover markers (BTMs), and incretin hormones are believed to play a significant role in this physiological skeletal response. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of parenteral nutrients on BTMs. Our aim was to assess the influence of intravenous glucose on BTMs in adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Material/Methods We conducted 1-h intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) in 24 subjects with NGT. Blood samples were collected before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 60 min after administration of glucose, then serum levels of bone formation marker procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and resorption marker C-terminal cross-linking telopeptides of collagen type I (CTX) were measured. Results During IVGTT, the fasting CTX level fell gradually and reached a nadir of 80.4% of the basal value at 60 min. Conversely, the fasting P1NP level decreased mildly and reached a nadir of 90.6% of the basal value at 15 min, then gradually increased and reached 96.6% at 60 min. The CTX-to-P1NP ratio increased slightly and reached a peak of 104.3% of the basal value at 10 min, then fell gradually and reached a nadir of 83% at 60 min. Conclusions Our study indicates that intravenous glucose results in an acute suppression of BTMs in the absence of incretin hormones. The mechanism responsible for this needs further investigation. PMID:27447783

  19. Stimulation of splanchnic glucose production during exercise in humans contains a glucagon-independent component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coker, R H; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J;

    2001-01-01

    To determine the importance of basal glucagon to the stimulation of net splanchnic glucose output (NSGO) during exercise, seven healthy males performed cycle exercise during a pancreatic islet cell clamp. In one group (BG), glucagon was replaced at basal levels and insulin was adjusted to achieve...... euglycemia. In another group (GD), only insulin was replaced at the identical rate used in BG, and basal glucagon was not replaced. Exogenous glucose infusion was necessary to maintain euglycemia during exercise in BG and during rest and exercise in GD. Arterial glucagon was at least twofold greater in BG...... than in GD throughout the pancreatic islet cell clamp. Although basal NSGO remained stable in BG (2.5 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)), basal NSGO dropped by 70% in GD (0.7 +/- 0.3 mg. kg(-1) x min(-1)). NSGO was also greater in BG than in GD at 10 min of moderate exercise, most likely due...

  20. Hepatic steatosis is associated with increased hepatic FDG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The use of liver as a reference tissue for semi-quantification of tumour FDG uptake may not be valid in hepatic steatosis (HS). Previous studies on the relation between liver FDG uptake and HS have been contradictory probably because they ignored blood glucose (BG). Because hepatocyte and blood FDG concentrations equalize, liver FDG uptake parallels BG, which must therefore be considered when studying hepatic FDG uptake. We therefore re-examined the relation between HS and liver uptake taking BG into account. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 304 patients undergoing routine PET/CT with imaging 60 min post-FDG. Average standard uptake value (SUVave), maximum SUV (SUVmax) and CT density (index of HS) were measured in a liver ROI. Blood pool SUV was based on the left ventricular cavity (SUVLV). Correlations were assessed using least squares fitting of continuous data. Patients were also divided into BG subgroups (<4, 4–5, 5–6, 6–8, 8–10 and 10+ mmol/l). Results: SUVave, SUVmax and SUVLV displayed similar relations with BG. SUVmax/SUVLV, but not SUVave/SUVLV, correlated significantly with BG. SUVmax, but not SUVave, correlated inversely with CT density before and after adjusting for BG. SUVmax/SUVave correlated more strongly with CT density than SUVmax. CT density correlated inversely with SUVmax/SUVLV but positively with SUVave/SUVLV. Conclusions: Hepatic SUV is more influenced by BG than by HS. Its relation with BG renders it unsuitable as a reference tissue. Nevertheless, hepatic fat does correlate positively with liver SUV, although this is seen only with SUVmax because SUVave is ‘diluted’ by hepatic fat

  1. INFLUENCE OF PERI-ARTERIAL HEPATIC DENERVATION ON THE GLYCEMIC RESPONSE TO EXERCISE IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINDFELDT, J; BALKAN, B; VANDIJK, G; SCHEURINK, A; AHREN, B; STEFFENS, AB

    1993-01-01

    Exercise is known to increase hepatic glucose production. Previous studies have suggested that the sympathetic nerves only marginally contribute to this process. This study examined whether increased catecholamine response or increased adrenoceptor sensitivity might have affected previous results sh

  2. Supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows reduces endogenous glucose production during early lactation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hötger, Kristin; Hammon, Harald M.; Weber, Claudia; Görs, Solvig; Tröscher, Arnulf; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation causes milk fat depression in dairy cows, but CLA effects on glucose metabolism are not clear. The objective of the study was to investigate glucose metabolism, especially endogenous glucose production (eGP) and glucose oxidation (GOx), as well as hepatic genes involved in endogenous glucose production in Holstein cows supplemented either with 50 g of rumen-protected CLA (9% trans-10,cis-12 and 10% cis-9,trans-11; CLA; n=10) or 50...

  3. Four grams of glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Wasserman, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while ...

  4. CRTC2 (TORC2) Contributes to the Transcriptional Response to Fasting in the Liver but is Not Required for the Maintenance of Glucose Homeostasis

    OpenAIRE

    Le Lay, John; Tuteja, Geetu; White, Peter; Dhir, Ravindra; Ahima, Rexford; Kaestner, Klaus H.

    2009-01-01

    The liver contributes to glucose homeostasis by promoting either storage or production of glucose depending on the physiological state. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is a principal regulator of genes involved in coordinating the hepatic response to fasting, but its mechanism of gene activation remains controversial. We derived CRTC2-(CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2; previously TORC2) deficient mice to assess the contribution of this cofactor to hepatic glucose me...

  5. 含缓释淀粉的肠内营养对老年糖脂代谢和肝肾功能的影响%The effect of enterai nutrition containing slow.release starch on glucose and lipid metabolism,hepatic and renal function in aged patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 谢南姿; 沈艺; 罗帮镇; 王海峰

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch( Fresubin Diabetes) on glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic and renal function and nutritional status in aged patients. Methods: 136 aged patients were divided into 3 groups according to the feeding ways: the control group( normal oral diet), the study group 1 (additionally given Fresubin Diabetes orally), and the study group 2 ( fed with Fresubin Diabetes through the nasogastric tube). Total calories were around 30 kcal/( kg · d). Variables including fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum lipids, hepatic and renal function, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)and urinary protein series were measured two weeks after nutritional support. Results: Compared with the control group, the study group 2 had a significant lower 2-hour postprandial blood glucose (P =0.047) and the level of glycated hemoglobin was more close to normal range. The level of semm albumin in two study groups was lower, and the levels of serum globulin and hs-CRP were higher than in the control group. Conclusions: Aged patients may benefit from the enteral nutrition containing slow-release starch in glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic and renal function. It is recommended that the aged patients with reduced normal oral diet due to the illness be supported by the enteral nutrition as FresubinDiabetes.%目的:探讨含缓释淀粉的肠内营养(EN)制剂,对老年病人糖脂代谢、肝肾功能和营养状况的影响,寻找老年病人合理使用EN的效果评估方法和有效的临床检测指标.方法:将136例老年病人根据进食情况分为三组,以正常进食者作为对照(正常饮食组);因疾病导致进食量减少的病人,给予口服瑞代补充营养(加用EN组);因疾病不能进食者,给予瑞代经鼻饲提供EN(单用EN组).所有病人提供的总热量约126.5 kJ(30 kcal)/(kg·d).EN治疗2周后,检测病人空腹和餐后2

  6. Basal insulin delivery reduction for exercise in type 1 diabetes: finding the sweet spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, Hood; Leelarathna, Lalantha

    2016-08-01

    Exercise poses significant challenges to glucose management in type 1 diabetes. In spite of careful planning and manipulation of subcutaneous insulin administration, increased risk of hypoglycaemia and glycaemic variability during and after exercise may occur as a result of inherent delays in insulin action and impaired counter-regulatory hormone responses. Various strategies to mitigate this issue have been advocated in clinical practice, including ingestion of supplementary carbohydrate prior to exercise, reducing background and pre-meal insulin bolus and performing bouts of resistance/high intensity exercise before aerobic exercise. Insulin pump therapy, considered the most physiological form of insulin replacement for type 1 diabetes allows modulation of basal insulin delivery before, during and after exercise. However uncertainty remains regarding the optimal strategy to reduce basal insulin delivery and its efficacy. In this issue of Diabetologia, McAuley and colleagues (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3981-9 ) report on the impact of a 50% reduction of basal insulin delivery before, during and after moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. Results from this study may contribute to a better understanding of the effects of basal insulin delivery manipulation and may aid in devising therapeutic approaches for glucose management during exercise. PMID:27287376

  7. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  8. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  9. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  10. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... but it is not as effective as it should be. You ate more than planned or exercised ... glucose often. Ask your doctor how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should ...

  11. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and eAG Hypoglycemia (Low blood glucose) Hyperglycemia (High blood glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Diabetes Must Be Stopped - 2016-06-donation- ...

  12. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003671.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is a type of ...

  13. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ... you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ...

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose ... glucose) Dawn Phenomenon Checking for Ketones Tight Diabetes Control donate en -- Your Gift for Research Doubled - 2016- ...

  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: A A A ...

  18. The regulation of glucose transport in the heart of control and diabetic rats: With special emphasis on the glucose transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose transport regulation with insulin and high perfusion pressure in the perfused rat hearts from control and diabetic rat hearts was investigated. [3H]-cytochalasin B binding assay was used to study the distribution of glucose transporters within the subcellular membranes fractionated by linear sucrose density gradient centrifugation. In the present study, insulin increased glucose uptake in the perfused heart of control and diabetic animals. This coincided with an increase of glucose transporters on the plasma membrane. The increase in glucose transporters on the plasma membrane could not be accounted for by a decrease of glucose transporters from the microsomal membranes. High perfusion pressure did not change the number of glucose transporters on the plasma membrane compared to basal in the control and diabetic animals, though it increased glucose uptake above that observed for insulin in the control. Instead, high perfusion pressure altered the distribution of glucose transporters within the subcellular membranes in reverse to that with insulin, increasing an intermediate membrane pool believed to reside between the plasma membrane and microsomal membranes as well as the intracellular membrane pool

  19. CSF glucose test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose test - CSF; Cerebrospinal fluid glucose test ... The glucose level in the CSF should be 50 to 80 mg/100 mL (or greater than 2/3 of the blood sugar level). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... how often you should check and what your blood glucose levels should be. Checking your blood and then treating ... I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose level by exercising. However, if your blood glucose is ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  2. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page Text Size: ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood Glucose A1C ...

  3. Do Cinnamon Supplements Cause Acute Hepatitis?

    OpenAIRE

    Brancheau, Daniel; Patel, Brijesh; Zughaib, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 73 Final Diagnosis: Drug induced acute hepatitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain • diarrhea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: The use of herbal medications to treat various diseases is on the rise. Cinnamon has been reported to improve glycolated hemoglobin and serum glucose levels. When patients consider the benefit of such substances, they are often not aware of...

  4. Exercise and the Regulation of Hepatic Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Trefts, Elijah; Williams, Ashley S.; Wasserman, David H.

    2015-01-01

    The accelerated metabolic demands of the working muscle cannot be met without a robust response from the liver. If not for the hepatic response, sustained exercise would be impossible. The liver stores, releases, and recycles potential energy. Exercise would result in hypoglycemia if it were not for the accelerated release of energy as glucose. The energetic demands on the liver are largely met by increased oxidation of fatty acids mobilized from adipose tissue. Adaptations immediately follow...

  5. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (...

  6. Hepatitis B (HBV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Hepatitis B (HBV) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hepatitis B (HBV) Print A A A Text Size What's ... There are several different types of hepatitis . Hepatitis B is a type that can move from one ...

  7. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  8. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  9. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic ...

  11. Somatotopic Organization of the Primate Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei....

  12. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease Enable Javascript to ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder ...

  14. A metabolic link between mitochondrial ATP synthesis and liver glycogen metabolism: NMR study in rats re-fed with butyrate and/or glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauvieux Marie-Christine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Butyrate, end-product of intestinal fermentation, is known to impair oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver and could disturb glycogen synthesis depending on the ATP supplied by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytosolic glycolysis. Methods In 48 hr-fasting rats, hepatic changes of glycogen and total ATP contents and unidirectional flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis were evaluated by ex vivo 31P NMR immediately after perfusion and isolation of liver, from 0 to 10 hours after force-feeding with (butyrate 1.90 mg + glucose 14.0 mg.g-1 body weight or isocaloric glucose (18.2 mg.g-1 bw; measurements reflected in vivo situation at each time of liver excision. The contribution of energetic metabolism to glycogen metabolism was estimated. Results A net linear flux of glycogen synthesis (~11.10 ± 0.60 μmol glucosyl units.h-1.g-1 liver wet weight occurred until the 6th hr post-feeding in both groups, whereas butyrate delayed it until the 8th hr. A linear correlation between total ATP and glycogen contents was obtained (r2 = 0.99 only during net glycogen synthesis. Mitochondrial ATP turnover, calculated after specific inhibition of glycolysis, was stable (~0.70 ± 0.25 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww during the first two hr whatever the force-feeding, and increased transiently about two-fold at the 3rd hr in glucose. Butyrate delayed the transient increase (1.80 ± 0.33 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww to the 6th hr post-feeding. Net glycogenolysis always appeared after the 8th hr, whereas flux of mitochondrial ATP synthesis returned to near basal level (0.91 ± 0.19 μmol.min-1.g-1 liver ww. Conclusion In liver from 48 hr-starved rats, the energy need for net glycogen synthesis from exogenous glucose corresponds to ~50% of basal mitochondrial ATP turnover. The evidence of a late and transient increase in mitochondrial ATP turnover reflects an energetic need, probably linked to a glycogen cycling. Butyrate, known to reduce oxidative

  15. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; M. Klingenspor; White, C.R.; Jastroch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Su...

  16. Hepatic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The past several years have seen significant advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology. These advances have been particularly rewarding for the study of liver disease. Improved imaging and therapeutic procedures in oncology have generated changes in treatment protocols and in evaluating the results of therapy for hepatic malignancies. The enriched understanding of the anatomic and hemodynamic aspects of the portal system has greatly benefited patients with portal hypertension. Now physicians are confidently more aggressive in the therapeutic approach to the variceal bleeder, and they have modified their approach to the preservation of portal flow following shunt. All of the diagnostic modalities used to evaluate the liver are represented in this book. In its structure and organization this volume goes beyond a historical overview of imaging to present greater insight into the current state of the art, as well as possible future developments. Each chapter is designed to elucidate the advantages and weaknesses of the various diagnostic modalities

  17. Leptin regulates glutamate and glucose transporters in hypothalamic astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente-Martín, Esther; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Granado, Miriam; de Ceballos, María L.; Sánchez-Garrido, Miguel Ángel; Sarman, Beatrix; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; Argente-Arizón, Pilar; Díaz, Francisca; Argente, Jesús; Horvath, Tamas L.; Chowen, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells perform critical functions that alter the metabolism and activity of neurons, and there is increasing interest in their role in appetite and energy balance. Leptin, a key regulator of appetite and metabolism, has previously been reported to influence glial structural proteins and morphology. Here, we demonstrate that metabolic status and leptin also modify astrocyte-specific glutamate and glucose transporters, indicating that metabolic signals influence synaptic efficacy and glucose uptake and, ultimately, neuronal function. We found that basal and glucose-stimulated electrical activity of hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in mice were altered in the offspring of mothers fed a high-fat diet. In adulthood, increased body weight and fasting also altered the expression of glucose and glutamate transporters. These results demonstrate that whole-organism metabolism alters hypothalamic glial cell activity and suggest that these cells play an important role in the pathology of obesity. PMID:23064363

  18. The Effect of Basal Analog Insulin on the Glycemic Variability in Type 2 Diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Cander

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of insulin detemir and glargine on glycemic variability as determined by capillary blood glucose measurements in Type 2 diabetics treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Material and Method: A total of 64 insulin-naive type 2 diabetics with a HbA1c level of 7.5%-10% were included in the study. The patients were randomized into 3 groups according to the basal insulin analog started; Group 1 (n=22 was started on once-daily detemir, Group 2 (n=22 twice-daily detemir, and Group 3 (n=20 insulin glargine. Basal insulin doses were titrated according to the morning/evening fasting capillary blood glucose levels. Standard deviations of the 8-point intraday fasting and postprandial blood glucose values were compared. Results: The fasting blood glucose intraday standard deviation values showed an improvement of 22.4% in Group 1, 21.4% in Group 2, and 26.4% in Group 3, while the intraday standard deviation for the postprandial values showed an improvement of 14.4%, 15.2%, and 38.7%, respectively (p>0.05. The standard deviation values did not show statistical significance when the groups were compared with each other. Baseline HbA1c values and insulin doses negatively correlated with the glycemic variability. Dicussion: Basal insulin added to treatment in Type 2 diabetics provided an improvement of 14.4% to 38.7% in glycemic variability. There was no significant difference between insulin glargine and detemir regarding this effect. Turk Jem 2014; 2: 33-38

  19. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  20. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  1. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  2. Hepatitis Information for the Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Viral Hepatitis Contact Us Quick Links to Hepatitis ... A | B | C | D | E Viral Hepatitis Home ... Outbreaks State and Local Partners & Grantees Resource Center Hepatitis Information for the Public Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  3. Hepatitis B Blood Tests: FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 Billion People have been infected with Hepatitis B Worldwide The Hepatitis B Foundation is working on ... people living with hepatitis B. Learn About Hepatitis B in 10 Other Languages . Resource Video See More ...

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy ...

  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ...

  6. [Viral hepatitis in travellers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Cândida

    2007-01-01

    Considering the geographical asymmetric distribution of viral hepatitis A, B and E, having a much higher prevalence in the less developed world, travellers from developed countries are exposed to a considerable and often underestimated risk of hepatitis infection. In fact a significant percentage of viral hepatitis occurring in developed countries is travel related. This results from globalization and increased mobility from tourism, international work, humanitarian and religious missions or other travel related activities. Several studies published in Europe and North America shown that more than 50% of reported cases of hepatitis A are travel related. On the other hand frequent outbreaks of hepatitis A and E in specific geographic areas raise the risk of infection in these restricted zones and that should be clearly identified. Selected aspects related with the distribution of hepatitis A, B and E are reviewed, particularly the situation in Portugal according to the published studies, as well as relevant clinical manifestations and differential diagnosis of viral hepatitis. Basic prevention rules considering enteric transmitted hepatitis (hepatitis A and hepatitis E) and parenteral transmitted (hepatitis B) are reviewed as well as hepatitis A and B immunoprophylaxis. Common clinical situations and daily practice "pre travel" advice issues are discussed according to WHO/CDC recommendations and the Portuguese National Vaccination Program. Implications from near future availability of a hepatitis E vaccine, a currently in phase 2 trial, are highlighted. Potential indications for travellers to endemic countries like India, Nepal and some regions of China, where up to 30% of sporadic cases of acute viral hepatitis are caused by hepatitis E virus, are considered. Continued epidemiological surveillance for viral hepatitis is essential to recognize and control possible outbreaks, but also to identify new viral hepatitis agents that may emerge as important global health

  7. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  8. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  10. Restricted expression of the erythroid/brain glucose transporter isoform to perivenous hepatocytes in rats. Modulation by glucose.

    OpenAIRE

    Tal, M.; Schneider, D L; Thorens, B.; Lodish, H F

    1990-01-01

    The "erythroid/brain" glucose transporter (GT) isoform is expressed only in a subset of hepatocytes, those forming the first row around the terminal hepatic venules, while the "liver" GT is expressed in all hepatocytes. After 3 d of starvation, a three- to fourfold elevation of expression of the erythroid/brain GT mRNA and protein is detected in the liver as a whole; this correlates with the expression of this GT in more hepatocytes, those forming the first three to four rows around the hepat...

  11. Infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiographic abnormalities in infantile hepatic haemangioendothelioma are analysed on the basis of previous reports and on 3 new cases. It is emphasized that the high specificity of angiography of the hepatic artery should make other diagnostic procedures unnecessary. (Auth.)

  12. Hepatitis Foundation International

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... partner – it's your best friend. Welcome. The Hepatitis Foundation International (HFI) is a 501 (c) 3 non- ... and cures is your participation in the Hepatitis Foundation International Registry. Whether you are affected, a caregiver, ...

  13. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help diagnose viral infections (such as hepatitis or mononucleosis) or to monitor medications that can cause liver- ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Mononucleosis Hepatitis Blood Test: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT, or SGPT) ...

  14. Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Hepatitis B Vaccination Protection Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a pathogenic microorganism that can cause potentially life- threatening disease in humans. HBV infection is transmitted through exposure ...

  15. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  16. An availability of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain MRI was carried out in patients with chronic liver diseases. No abnormal findings were recognized in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, while 59.2% of cirrhotics showed a symmetrically strong signal in basal ganglia on T1 weighted image in MRI. This finding significantly related with lowered Fischer's ratio of serum amino acid, increased levels of serum phenylalanine, tyrosine and hyaluronic acid, prolonged prothrombin time and decreased platelet counts in the peripheral blood. Overt hepatic encephalopathy was observed in 6 of 34 patients with the strong signal in MRI during follow-up period, while none of patients without that finding developed hepatic encephalopathy. These results have indicated that the strong signal in basal ganglia on MRI appears in cirrhotic patients with severe liver dysfunction, and it is an useful index in the early diagnosis of latent hepatic encephalopathy. An improvement of this MRI finding was not observed by long-term oral administration of branched-chain amino acid. (author)

  17. Effects of Glucose Supplemental Level at Different Protein Levels on Growth Performance, Hepatic Glycolysis and Gluconeogenic Key Enzyme Activities of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea Richardson)%不同蛋白质水平下葡萄糖添加水平对大黄鱼生长性能、糖酵解和糖异生关键酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王猛强; 周飘苹; 黄文文; 周歧存

    2015-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同蛋白质水平下葡萄糖添加水平对大黄鱼生长性能、血清指标、肝脏糖酵解和糖异生关键酶活性、糖原含量以及消化酶活性的影响。采用2×3双因素试验设计,其中蛋白质水平设42%、48%2个水平,葡萄糖添加水平设10%、20%、30%3个水平,共配制6种试验饲料。每种饲料设3个重复,每个重复放养平均体重为(14.89±0.11) g的大黄鱼幼鱼50尾。试验期为8周。结果表明:饲料蛋白质水平和葡萄糖添加水平的交互作用对大黄鱼的增重率(WGR)和特定生长率(SGR)有显著影响(P0.05)。饲料蛋白质水平和葡萄糖添加水平的交互作用对大黄鱼肝脏葡萄糖激酶( GK)、6-磷酸果糖激酶( PFK)、丙酮酸激酶( PK)、葡萄糖-6-磷酸酶( G6Pase)、果糖-1,6-二磷酸酶( FBPase)及磷酸烯醇式丙酮酸羧激酶( PEPCK)活性有显著影响(P0.05)。由此得出,当蛋白质水平为42%时,随着饲料葡萄糖添加水平的升高,大黄鱼能够通过调节糖酵解和糖异生关键酶活性及肝糖原含量来维持血糖含量的平衡,改善对葡萄糖的利用能力;而当蛋白质水平为48%时,随着饲料葡萄糖添加水平的升高,大黄鱼对葡萄糖的利用能力降低。%An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of glucose supplemental level at differ-ent protein levels on growth performance, serum indices, hepatic glycolysis and gluconeogenic key enzyme ac-tivities, glycogen content and digestive enzyme activities of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea Richard-son) . Six experimental diets were formulated to contain two protein levels ( 42% and 48%, respectively) and three glucose supplemental levels ( 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively) . Each diet was randomly assigned to 3 replicates, and each replicate had 50 juvenile large yellow croaker with the average body weight of (14.89± 0.11) g. The results showed that weight gain rate ( WGR) and specific growth rate

  18. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  19. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  1. Alterations in blood glucose levels under hyperinsulinemia affect accumbens dopamine

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Hajnal, Andras

    2006-01-01

    Dopaminergic systems have been implicated in diabetes and obesity. Notwithstanding, the most basic relationship between dopamine and plasma insulin as well as glucose levels yet remains unknown. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on basal dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens of the rat under chloral hydrate anesthesia using acute microdialysis in combination with the hyperinsulinemic-glycemic clamping procedure. In Experiment 1, each...

  2. Monitor blood glucose - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100220.htm Monitoring blood glucose - Series—Monitoring blood glucose: Using a self-test meter To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Blood Sugar A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  3. Glucose monitoring during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Abdul

    2015-05-01

    In patients with diabetes who intend to fast during Ramadan, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is an important tool. During this month, a long established treatment regimen, including medications, physical activity and diet plan, is changed to achieve concordance with the rules of fasting. Without proper glucose monitoring, it is not possible to achieve good glycaemic control. PMID:26013788

  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Blood Glucose Testing Share: Print Page ... and-how-tos, In this section Living With Diabetes Treatment and Care Blood Glucose Testing Checking Your Blood ...

  5. Hepatic scintigraphy for leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with leptospirosis were investigated. Hepatic scintigraphy showed abnormal radiocolloidal distribution, with non-homogeneous concentration in all of them, and minimum to moderate splenic uptake. Hepatic scintigraphy is proved to be a good function test of the hepatic defeat system

  6. Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Antikchi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF is a rare disease that primarily involves hepatobiliary and renal systems. It is characterized by hepatic fibrosis, portal hypertension and renal cystic disease. We present a 22 years old man with fever, abdominal pain, icterus and hematemesis. On complete work up of the patient and liver with kidney biopsy, the diagnosis was congenital hepatic fibrosis.

  7. Leukemia inhibitory factor increases glucose uptake in mouse skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Nina; O'Neill, Hayley M; Kleinert, Maximilian; Schjerling, Peter; Vernet, Erik; Steinberg, Gregory R; Richter, Erik A; Jørgensen, Sebastian B

    2015-07-15

    Members of the IL-6 family, IL-6 and ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), have been shown to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle. However, the metabolic effects of another family member, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), are not well characterized. Effects of LIF on skeletal muscle glucose uptake and palmitate oxidation and signaling were investigated in ex vivo incubated mouse soleus and EDL muscles from muscle-specific AMPKα2 kinase-dead, muscle-specific SOCS3 knockout, and lean and high-fat-fed mice. Inhibitors were used to investigate involvement of specific signaling pathways. LIF increased muscle glucose uptake in dose (50-5,000 pM/l) and time-dependent manners with maximal effects at the 30-min time point. LIF increased Akt Ser(473) phosphorylation (P) in soleus and EDL, whereas AMPK Thr(172) P was unaffected. Incubation with parthenolide abolished LIF-induced glucose uptake and STAT3 Tyr(705) P, whereas incubation with LY-294002 and wortmannin suppressed both basal and LIF-induced glucose uptake and Akt Ser(473) P, indicating that JAK and PI 3-kinase signaling is required for LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. Incubation with rapamycin and AZD8055 indicated that mammalian target of rapamycin complex (mTORC)2, but not mTORC1, also is required for LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. In contrast to CNTF, LIF stimulation did not alter palmitate oxidation. LIF-stimulated glucose uptake was maintained in EDL from obese insulin-resistant mice, whereas soleus developed LIF resistance. Lack of SOCS3 and AMPKα2 did not affect LIF-stimulated glucose uptake. In conclusion, LIF acutely increased muscle glucose uptake by a mechanism potentially involving the PI 3-kinase/mTORC2/Akt pathway and is not impaired in EDL muscle from obese insulin-resistant mice. PMID:25968579

  8. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of enzyme immunoassay for hepatitis B virus DNA based on anti-double-stranded DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Garcia(Helsinki U); Bernal, M.C.; Leyva, A.; Piedrola, G.; Maroto, M C

    1995-01-01

    We have evaluated a new enzyme immunoassay technology to detect the products of PCR-based amplification that may be applicable to routine testing of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA. Two hundred eight serum samples were studied: 73 were basal samples and 135 were sequential serum samples from patients with chronic hepatitis, some of whom were being treated with alpha interferon. We compared the new detection method (PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay [DEIA]) with dot blot hybridization performed without p...

  10. Expression of hepatic insulin receptor substrate-2 and glucose transporter-2 in rats with type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass operation%胃转流术对2型糖尿病大鼠肝组织胰岛素受体底物-2、葡萄糖转运体-2表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓬波; 陈守坤; 张秀忠; 章红; 吕墩涛; 庄步强; 温雨晴; 丁伟超; 任泽强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) and glucose transporter-2 (GLUT-2) in rats with type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass operation (GBP),and explore the possible mechanism of GBP improving insulin resistance.Methods Healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into type 2 diabetes-operation group (DO group) and type 2 diabetes-control group (DC group) ; normal-operation group (NO group) and normal-control group (NC group).Plasma fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured respectively before and at 1st,2nd,4th and 8th week after operation.Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) was measured respectively before and at 8th week after operation.The expression of hepatic IRS-2 and GLUT-2 protein and mRNa was detected by using Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively at 8th week postoperation.Results The fasting blood glucose levels in DO group were decreased from the preoperative (20.21 ±2.14) mmol/L to (8.50 ±2.19) mmol/L (P <0.05) at 8th week after GBP.The QUICKI in DO group was increased dramaticly from preoperative 0.43 ± 0.02 to 0.55 ± 0.05 at 8th week postoperation (P < 0.05).As compared with DC group,the expression of IRS-2 and GLUT-2 protein and that of IRS-2 and GLUT-2 mRNA at 8th week after operation in DO group were increased by 43% and 40% (P <0.05),and 28% and 25% (P < 0.05) respectively.Conclusion The expression of hepatic IRS-2 and GLUT-2 in rats with type 2 diabetes after GBP was up-regulated,and meanwhile the insulin sensibility was improved.%目的 观察胃转流术(GBP)对2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠肝组织胰岛素受体底物-2(IRS-2)、葡萄糖转运体-2(GLUT-2)表达的影响,探讨GBP改善胰岛素抵抗的机制.方法 健康雄性SD大鼠随机分为糖尿病手术组(DO组)、糖尿病对照组(DC组)、正常手术组(NO组)、正常对照组(NC组).术前及术后第1、2、4、8周分别测各组空腹血糖(FPG

  11. Acute Chorea Characterized by Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in a Patient with Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim DOĞAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions associated with uremia presents with parkinsonism, altered mental status, and chorea in association with specific imaging findings in the basal ganglia. It is an uncommon syndrome seen generally in patients with diabetes mellitus and renal failure. We report a male patient with diabetes mellitus who received hemodialysis treatment 3 days a week for 5 years and suffered from choreic movements developed suddenly and associated with bilateral basal ganglia lesions. In the brain magnetic resonance (MR imaging, isointense was detected in sequence T1 in the bilateral basal ganglions and hyperintense lesion was determined in T2 and FLAIR sequences. The patient was administered daily hemodialysis and neuroleptic treatment. After intensified hemodialysis, his symptoms and follow-up brain MR imaging showed marked improvement. The underlying mechanism of such lesions may be associated with metabolic, as well as vascular factors. Acute choreic movements may be seen in patients with diabetic nephropathy and intensification of hemodialysis treatment along with blood glucose regulation may provide improvement in this syndrome.

  12. Activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease estimated by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies on the local cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolic rate, glucose metabolic rate in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. PET has demonstrated that blood flow was decreased in the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal region, of Parkinson's disease and that specific change in blood flow or metabolic rate in the basal ganglia was detected only in patients with hemi-parkinsonism. In authors' study on PET using 18FDG in patients with tremor type and rigid type Parkinson's disease, changes in blood flow and metabolic rate were minimal at the basal ganglia level in tremor type patients, but cortical blood flow was decreased and metabolic rate was more elevated in the basal ganglia in rigid type patients. These findings were correlated with depth micro-recordings obtained by stereotactic pallidotomy. PET studies have also revealed that activity in the nerve terminal was decreased with decreasing dopamine and that dopamine (mainly D2) activity was remarkably increased. PET studies with specific tracers are promising in providing more accurate information about functional state of living human brain with minimal invasion to patients. (N.K.)

  13. Basal C-peptide Level as a Surrogate Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Tae Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have revealed that C-peptide induces smooth muscle cell proliferation and causes human atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether the basal C-peptide levels correlate with cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.MethodsData was obtained from 467 patients with T2DM from two institutions who were followed for four years. The medical findings of all patients were reviewed, and patients with creatinine >1.4 mg/dL, any inflammation or infection, hepatitis, or type 1 DM were excluded. The relationships between basal C-peptide and other clinical values were statistically analyzed.ResultsA simple correlation was found between basal C-peptide and components of metabolic syndrome (MS. Statistically basal C-peptide levels were significantly higher than the three different MS criteria used in the present study, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III of the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP's, World Health Organization (WHO, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria (NCEP-ATP III, P=0.001; IDF, P<0.001; WHO, P=0.029. The multiple regression analysis between intima-media thickness (IMT and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide significantly correlated with IMT (P=0.043, while the analysis between the 10-year coronary heart disease risk by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide did not correlate with IMT (P=0.226.ConclusionBasal C-peptide is related to cardiovascular predictors (IMT of T2DM, suggesting that basal C-peptide does provide a further indication of cardiovascular disease.

  14. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  15. Anorexia and Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice With Hypothalamic Ablation of Glut4 Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Hongxia; Lu, Taylor Y.; McGraw, Timothy E.; Accili, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) uses glucose independent of insulin. Nonetheless, insulin receptors and insulin-responsive glucose transporters (Glut4) often colocalize in neurons (Glut4 neurons) in anatomically and functionally distinct areas of the CNS. The apparent heterogeneity of Glut4 neurons has thus far thwarted attempts to understand their function. To answer this question, we used Cre-dependent, diphtheria toxin–mediated cell ablation to selectively remove basal hypothalamic Glut4 ...

  16. Development of a Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rat Model for Studies on the Effects of Cinnamon on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A streptozotocin (STZ) dose response protocol using graded doses of STZ was utilized to develop a diabetic rat model. In addition to the presence of severe basal hyperglycemia, insulin responses to oral glucose showed no change from basal in rats given more than 45 mg of STZ/kg body wt. Oral gluc...

  17. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  18. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  19. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  20. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  1. PCAF Improves Glucose Homeostasis by Suppressing the Gluconeogenic Activity of PGC-1α

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Sun

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PGC-1α plays a central role in hepatic gluconeogenesis and has been implicated in the onset of type 2 diabetes. Acetylation is an important posttranslational modification for regulating the transcriptional activity of PGC-1α. Here, we show that PCAF is a pivotal acetyltransferase for acetylating PGC-1α in both fasted and diabetic states. PCAF acetylates two lysine residues K328 and K450 in PGC-1α, which subsequently triggers its proteasomal degradation and suppresses its transcriptional activity. Adenoviral-mediated expression of PCAF in the obese mouse liver greatly represses gluconeogenic enzyme activation and glucose production and improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Moreover, liver-specific knockdown of PCAF stimulates PGC-1α activity, resulting in an increase in blood glucose and hepatic glucose output. Our results suggest that PCAF might be a potential pharmacological target for developing agents against metabolic disorders associated with hyperglycemia, such as obesity and diabetes.

  2. The metabolic landscape of cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration: regional asymmetries studied with positron emission tomography.

    OpenAIRE

    Eidelberg, D.; Dhawan, V; Moeller, J R; Sidtis, J.J.; Ginos, J Z; Strother, S C; Cederbaum, J.; Greene, P; Fahn, S; Powers, J M

    1991-01-01

    Regional metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRGlc) was estimated using [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in five patients (four men, one woman; mean age 68; mean disease duration 2.4 years) with clinical findings consistent with the syndrome of cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD). Left-right rCMRGlc asymmetry, (L-R)/(L + R) x 100, was calculated for 13 grey matter regions and compared with regional metabolic data from 18 normal volunteers and nine patien...

  3. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    OpenAIRE

    G A Galkina; A. A. Voropay; M. A. Levkovich; S. V. Vorobiov; M V Komkova; N. V. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniM...

  4. Hepatic Hypertransaminasaemia of unknown Etiology Aclinico-pathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sayed El-Meghawry El Sayed*, Hany Abu Zeid*, Salah Mohamed

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic aminotransferases are sensitive indicators of liver cell injury. In some patients with persistent elevation of such enzymes; routine clinical, laboratory and serological data cannot establish the underlying causes. This study was designed to evaluate such patients both clinically and pathologically as a trial to reach the underlying etiology. Thirty patients with hepatic hypertransaminasaemia of unknown cause (18 females & 12 males, aged 18-50 years (mean age 37.7 4.6 years, together with ten controls (5 males & 5 females [matched in age and body mass index with patients]; were included in this study. Both patients and controls were subjected to full history taking, clinical examination, estimation of blood glucose and lipid profile, liver function tests, serum iron & ferrtin estimation, hepatitis viral markers (HBs Ag HCV-Ab, anti Epstien Barr (EBV and cytomegalovirus (CMV antibodies, abdominal ultrasonography (U/Sand needle liver biopsy (done only for 15 patients who approved undergoing it. The study revealed that 18 patients had non alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD (bright liver on U/S, eleven patients out of them underwent liver biopsy that showed simple hepatic steatosis in four of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other seven patients. Most of the eighteen patients with NAFLD were obese, diabetic and hypertensive. Four patients had positive serology for autoimmune hepatitis and two patients had positive serology for cytomegalovirus infection. All patients had normally ranged serum iron & ferritin. The remaining six patients had normal hepatic U/S and negative serology for different hepatic viruses; four of them underwent liver biopsy that revealed simple hepatic steatosis in two of them and non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH in the other two patients. Conclusion & recommendation: Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD was found to be the commonest cause of unexplained hepatic hypertransamina-saemia. However

  5. EFFECT OF AMLODIPINE ON ORAL GLUCOSE INDUCED GLYCEMIC CHANGES IN NORMAL ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sushma V. Naidu et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of amlodipine on blood glucose levels through oral glucose tolerance test in normoglycemic albino Rats and the magnitude of its effect on basal v/s glucose induced glycemic value compared to control.Methods: Rats were divided into control and test groups to study the effect of glucose induced glycemic changes in normal rats following oral administration of amlodipine. The control group received 1 ml of distilled water everyday, test group received amlodipine everyday in the dose of 1.5 mg/Kg BW for 3 days.On the third day, 2 hours after drug administration both groups were administered oral glucose in the dose of 0.6 gm/Kg BW. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 60 and 150 minutes after glucose administration by rat tail snipping method using ACCUCHEK glucometer.Results: The mean CBG of Test group is significantly higher(P<0.001 at all times of the glucose challenge i.e. 0, 60, 150 minutes from the time of glucose administration compared to control group. The optimal hyperglycemia was seen at 60 minutes which is 32.76% higher than the control group, followed by 0 minutes (29.41% and 150 minutes (7.92%. Conclusion: Amlodipine worsens glycaemic control in normal rats at all hours of glucose challenge. Extending this to human beings, whether with impaired glucose tolerance or overt diabetes mellitus, it is suggested to limit the use of amlodipine to situations unless absolutely necessary since it induces hyperglycaemia even in normoglycaemic rats by a postulated mechanism of inhibition of both basal and glucose induced insulin secretion significantly.

  6. Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Qianning; Pruznak, Anne M.; Huber, Danuta; Vary, Thomas C; Lang, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced testosterone as a result of catabolic illness or aging is associated with loss of muscle and increased adiposity. We hypothesized that these changes in body composition occur because of altered rates of protein synthesis under basal and nutrient-stimulated conditions that are tissue specific. The present study investigated such mechanisms in castrated male rats (75% reduction in testosterone) with demonstrated glucose intolerance. Over 9 wk, castration impaired body weight gain, which...

  7. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide-generating compounds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Donovan McGrowder; Dalip Ragoobirsingh; Paul Brown

    2006-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) influences adipogenesis, lipolysis and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. We investigated the effect of NO released from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes of normoglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. GSNO and SNAP at 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mM brought about a concentration-dependent increase in basal and insulin-stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake in adipocytes of normoglycaemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats. SNAP at 1.0 mM significantly elevated basal 2-deoxyglucose uptake (115.8 ± 10.4%) compared with GSNO at the same concentration (116.1 ± 9.4%; < 0.05) in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Conversely, SNAP at concentrations of 10 mM and 20 mM significantly decreased basal 2-deoxyglucose uptake by 50.0 ± 4.5% and 61.5 ± 7.2% respectively in adipocytes of STZ-induced diabetic rats ( < 0.05). GSNO at concentrations of 10 mM and 20 mM also significantly decreased basal 2-deoxyglucose uptake by 50.8 ± 6.4% and 55.2 ± 7.8% respectively in adipocytes of STZ-induced diabetic rats ( < 0.05). These observations indicate that NO released from GSNO and SNAP at 1 mM or less stimulates basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and at concentrations of 10 mM and 20 mM inhibits basal glucose uptake. The additive effect of GSNO or SNAP, and insulin observed in this study could be due to different mechanisms and warrants further investigation.

  8. What do the basal ganglia do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  9. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  10. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  11. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  12. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  13. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  14. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  15. Glucose and lipid metabolism in insulin resistance : an experimental study in fat cells

    OpenAIRE

    Burén, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is usually caused by a combination of pancreatic β-cell failure and insulin resistance in target tissues like liver, muscle and fat. Insulin resistance is characterised by an impaired effect of insulin to reduce hepatic glucose production and to promote glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. The focus of this study was to further elucidate cellular mechanisms for insulin resistance that may be of relevance for type 2 diabetes in humans. We used rat and human adipocytes as an es...

  16. Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Isoleucine and Valine and Impact of Diet Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Arrieta-Cruz; Ya Su; Roger Gutiérrez-Juárez

    2016-01-01

    Leucine has been shown to acutely inhibit hepatic glucose production in rodents by a mechanism requiring its metabolism to acetyl-CoA in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH). In the early stages, all branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are metabolized by a shared set of enzymes to produce a ketoacid, which is later metabolized to acetyl-CoA. Consequently, isoleucine and valine may also modulate glucose metabolism. To examine this possibility we performed intrahypothalamic infusions of isoleucine o...

  17. Fructose impairs glucose-induced hepatic triglyceride synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Boros Laszlo G; Yong William H; Young Stephen; Dhawan Tania; Huang Danshan; Heaney Anthony P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Obesity, type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia frequently coexist and are associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality. Consumption of refined carbohydrate and particularly fructose has increased significantly in recent years and has paralled the increased incidence of obesity and diabetes. Human and animal studies have demonstrated that high dietary fructose intake positively correlates with increased dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Metabolism of ...

  18. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly. What Causes Hyperglycemia? A number of ... enough insulin. Without insulin, your body can't use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down ...

  19. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us in the Fight for a Cure Your tax-deductible gift today can fund critical diabetes research ... t use glucose for fuel, so your body breaks down fats to use for energy. When your ...

  20. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type 2 Enroll ...

  1. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin Pregnancy 8 Tips for Caregivers Health Insurance Health ... glucose happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin ...

  2. Blood Glucose Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glucose NIH Medline Plus - Diabetes Spotlight FDA permits marketing of first system of mobile medical apps for ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  4. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  5. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene Women A1C Insulin ... Diabetes Pro: Professional Resources Online We Support Your Doctor Clinical Practice Guidelines Patient Education Materials Scientific Sessions ...

  6. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... avoid problems associated with hyperglycemia. How Do I Treat Hyperglycemia? You can often lower your blood glucose ... be a serious problem if you don't treat it, so it's important to treat as soon ...

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  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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  15. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... critical diabetes research and support vital diabetes education services that improve the lives of those with diabetes. $ ... glucose level. Cutting down on the amount of food you eat might also help. Work with your ...

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  17. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

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    Full Text Available ... the urine Frequent urination Increased thirst Part of managing your diabetes is checking your blood glucose often. ... events, such as eating breakfast, take on exaggerated importance. It's a world where a person needs a ...

  18. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille;

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... examined the secretion of gut hormones in cholecystectomized subjects to test the hypothesis that gallbladder emptying potentiates postprandial release of GLP-1. Ten cholecystectomized subjects and 10 healthy, age-, gender-, and body mass index-matched control subjects received a standardized fat......-rich liquid meal (2,200 kJ). Basal and postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), cholecystokinin (CCK), and gastrin were measured. Furthermore, gastric emptying and duodenal and serum...

  19. Glucose Monitoring During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    HAWKINS, J. SETH

    2010-01-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose in women with mild gestational diabetes has recently been proven to be useful in reducing the rates of fetal overgrowth and gestational weight gain. However, uncertainty remains with respect to the optimal frequency and timing of self-monitoring. A continuous glucose monitoring system may have utility in pregnant women with insulin-treated diabetes, especially for those women with blood sugars that are difficult to control or who experience nocturnal hypoglyce...

  20. Human blood glucose dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaghi, Farbod N.

    2007-01-01

    The control of blood glucose concentration has become central to the prevention of morbidity in diabetes. Currently sensors are becoming available to make available near continuous measurements of tissue glucose concentrations. Frequently measured values provide an opportunity to analyze the dynamics of these measurements in addition to statistical analysis. The dynamics can be used to verify sensor validity, to provide a physiologic control target, and serve as a tool to diagnose and monitor...

  1. Expression of hepatic glucose transporter-2 and glucokinase after gastric bypass in rats with spontaneous type 2 diabetes mellitus%胃旁路术对2型糖尿病大鼠肝脏葡萄糖转运体-2及葡萄糖激酶表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐键; 林杉; 尹家俊; 尹敏; 王伟; 聂哲群; 王亚东; 韩玉龙; 赵会庚

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of hepatic glucose transporter-2 ( GLUT-2 ) and glu-cokinase(GCK)after gastric bypass(GBP)in type 2 diabetes mellitus(T2DM)GK rats and to discuss the mecha-nism of GBP improving insulin resistance .Methods 30 male GK rats aged 8 weeks were randomly divided into 3 groups:the operation group(10 rats), the sham operation group(10 rats)and the diet control group(10 rats), and 10 male SD rats aged 8 weeks were made as blank control group .The levels of fasting plasma glucose ( FPG) and fasting insulin(FINS)were measured and compared among the 4 groups before and 1,2 and 4 weeks after the operation and then the rats were sacrificed to retrieve the liver .The expressions of GLUT-2 and GCK mRNA and protein were detected by PT-PCR and Western blot respectively .Results As for GK operation group ,FPG levels at the 1st, 2nd,and 4th week after surgery ((11.06 ±0.52) mmol/L,(7.49 ±0.34) mmol/L,(5.20 ±0.08) mmol/L)respectively)were all lower than that before surgery (all P<0.05),and FINS level at the 4th week after surgery increased from(11.90 ±0.75)mmol/L to(14.20 ±1.23)mmol/L(P<0.05).The expressions of GLUT-2 and GCK mRNA and protein significantly increased in GK operation group 4 weeks after surgery ( P<0.01 ) . Conclusion The expressions of hepatic GLUT-2 and GCK in insulin signal transmission in T2DM rats are up-regu-lated after GBP , which enhance the signal transmission of insulin receptor , and improves the insulin sensibility .%目的:观察胃旁路术(GBP)对自发性2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠(GK大鼠)肝细胞葡萄糖转运体-2(GLUT-2)及葡萄糖激酶(GCK)表达的影响,探讨其改善胰岛素抵抗的机制。方法30只8周龄雄性GK大鼠按照随机数字法分为手术组(10只)、假手术组(10只)、饮食配对组(10只),另8周龄雄性SD作为空白对照组(10只)。检测和比较术前及术后1、2、4周各组大鼠空腹血糖

  2. Transcriptional regulation of adipocyte hormone-sensitive lipase by glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe; Lucas, Stéphanie; Mairal, Aline; Sengenes, Coralie; Lafontan, Max; Vaulont, Sophie; Casado, Marta; Langin, Dominique

    2002-02-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mobilization of fatty acids from adipose tissue, thus determining the supply of energy substrates in the body. HSL mRNA was positively regulated by glucose in human adipocytes. Pools of stably transfected 3T3-F442A adipocytes were generated with human adipocyte HSL promoter fragments from -2,400/+38 to -31/+38 bp linked to the luciferase gene. A glucose-responsive region was mapped within the proximal promoter (-137 bp). Electromobility shift assays showed that upstream stimulatory factor (USF)-1 and USF2 and Sp1 and Sp3 bound to a consensus E-box and two GC-boxes in the -137-bp region. Cotransfection of the -137/+38 construct with USF1 and USF2 expression vectors produced enhanced luciferase activity. Moreover, HSL mRNA levels were decreased in USF1- and USF2-deficient mice. Site-directed mutagenesis of the HSL promoter showed that the GC-boxes, although contributing to basal promoter activity, were dispensable for glucose responsiveness. Mutation of the E-box led to decreased promoter activity and suppression of the glucose response. Analogs and metabolites were used to determine the signal metabolite of the glucose response. The signal is generated downstream of glucose-6-phosphate in the glycolytic pathway before the triose phosphate step. PMID:11812735

  3. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  4. Hepatic sarcoidosis complicating treatment-naive viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Aravinthan, Aloysious; Gelson, William; Limbu, Anita; Brais, Rebecca; Richardson, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic sarcoidosis is usually asymptomatic but rarely leads to adverse liver-related outcome. Co-existence of viral hepatitis and hepatic sarcoidosis is a rare, but recognised phenomenon. Obtaining a balance between immune suppression and anti-viral therapy may be problematic. Immunosuppression in the presence of viral hepatitis can lead to rapid deterioration of liver disease. Similarly, anti-viral therapy may exacerbate granulomatous hepatitis. Here we present two cases of viral hepatitis ...

  5. Biosensors for hepatitis B virus detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chun-Yan; Fu, Wei-Ling

    2014-09-21

    A biosensor is an analytical device used for the detection of analytes, which combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. Recently, an increasing number of biosensors have been used in clinical research, for example, the blood glucose biosensor. This review focuses on the current state of biosensor research with respect to efficient, specific and rapid detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV). The biosensors developed based on different techniques, including optical methods (e.g., surface plasmon resonance), acoustic wave technologies (e.g., quartz crystal microbalance), electrochemistry (amperometry, voltammetry and impedance) and novel nanotechnology, are also discussed. PMID:25253948

  6. Glucagon: acute actions on hepatic metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell A; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of impaired systemic control of glucose homeostasis, in part through the dysregulation of the hormone glucagon. Glucagon acts on the liver to increase glucose production through alterations in hepatic metabolism, and reducing the elevated glucagon signalling in diabetic patients is an attractive strategy for the treatment of hyperglycaemia. Here we review the actions of the hormone in the liver, focusing on the acute alterations of metabolic pathways. This review summarises a presentation given at the 'Novel data on glucagon' symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by two other reviews on topics from this symposium (by Mona Abraham and Tony Lam, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3950-3 , and by Young Lee and colleagues, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3965-9 ) and an overview by the Session Chair, Isabel Valverde (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-016-3946-z ). PMID:27115415

  7. Preventing hepatitis B or C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000401.htm Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and swelling of the liver. ...

  8. Hepatitis C: Information on Testing and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    HEPATITIS C Information on Testing & Diagnosis What is Hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a serious liver disease that results from infection with the Hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis C has been called a silent ...

  9. Effect of diet dilution ratio at early age on growth performance, carcass characteristics and hepatic lipogenesis of Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Wu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that proper diet dilution ratio at early age might improve feed conversion ratio (FCR and reduce body fat deposition of meat-type ducks. One hundred and fifty 1-day-old male and female White Pekin ducks (44.5±1.0 g were randomly assigned into three treatments with five replicates (pens of 10 birds each, respectively representing the experimental diets with 0 (control, 40 or 60% rice hulls inclusion in the basal diet between 8 and 14 d of age. The basal diet was fed before and after this period. The results showed that diluting the diet with 40% rice hulls increased (p 0.05 as the controls at 42 d of age. The diet diluted with 60% rice hulls resulted in lower (p < 0.05 body weight at market age than the other treatments. The diet with 40% rice hulls reduced (p < 0.05 skin with fat and abdominal fat pad, crude fat content in the carcass and in breast meat, and increased (p < 0.05 carcass crude protein at 42 d of age. These changes may be explained by the lower (p < 0.05 activities of hepatic malic dehydrogenase (MDH, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH and fatty acid synthetase (FAS enzymes both at 14 and 42 d of age in birds fed the diluted diets relative to the control birds. The results of this study indicate that feeding diets diluted with 40% rice hulls to Pekin ducks between 8 to 14 d of age may induce compensatory growth during the following recovery period, and may be used to improve FCR and to reduce body fat deposition at market age.

  10. Sexually acquired hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Brook, M.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To assess current knowledge of sexually transmitted viral hepatitis in relation to epidemiology, clinical presentation, management, and diagnosis with particular reference to resource-poor settings.

  11. Primary isolated hepatic tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated hepatic tuberculosis without pulmonary or bowel involvement is a diagnostic challenge and can cause considerable morbidity. A young lady from Lahore presented with fever, pain in right hypochondria, nausea and weight loss. CT scan of abdomen showed multiple small hypodense non-enhancing lesions and a heterogeneous texture of liver. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of hepatic tuberculosis. It was concluded a case of isolated hepatic tuberculosis without evidence of other primary sites involvement. It is important to consider tuberculosis in the differential diagnosis when suspecting lymphoproliferative or metastatic diseases in a patient with vague symptoms and abnormal hepatic texture on CT. (author)

  12. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  13. Delta Hepatitis in Denver

    OpenAIRE

    Rector, William G.; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Penley, Kent A.; Judson, Franklyn N.

    1988-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the mid-United States is not well defined. We tested 65 patients seen between 1983 and 1986 with HBV infection in Denver for evidence of coexisting HDV infection. Five patients had anti-delta (δ) antibody. The prevalence of HDV infection was higher in patients with chronic hepatitis B (4/37) than in patients with acute hepatitis B (1/28). The prevalence of HDV infection in male homosexual...

  14. Effect of glucocorticoid therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of glucocorticoids therapy upon glucose metabolism in COPD patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: Plasma glucose and insulin levels in COPD patients after intravenous administration of 10 mg dexamethasone daily for 5 days were determined oral with glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin release test (IRT). Results: 1) The levels of basal plasma glucose and insulin were significantly higher in severe hypoxemic group than those in moderate hypoxemic group (p 2 (r = -0.5242, p < 0.05). 2) The levels of plasma glucose in intermediate and severe hypoxemic groups were remarkable higher (p < 0.05) than those in mild group. The two peak times of glucose curve were observed at one and two hour after oral glucose load. 3) After the administration of glucocorticoids, at half an hour and one hour plasma glucose levels were significantly higher than those before, the peak time of glucose levels appeared earlier and the insulin release levels were higher than they were before therapy (p < 0.05). Conclusion: COPD patients with acute exacerbation complicated with hypoxemia had problems of impaired glucose tolerance. The administration of glucocorticoids made the impairment worse

  15. Lactate is a possible mediator of the glucose effect on platelet inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobzar, Gennadi; Mardla, Vilja; Samel, Nigulas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glucose has been found to impair the inhibition of platelets with aspirin and alter the basal activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in platelets. The aim of this work was to study the effects of glucose on the inhibitory pathways in activated platelets. A short-term incubation of glucose impaired the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by agents activating an NOS-dependent pathway, such as l-arginine, adenosine and α-tocopherol. However, glucose had no effect on the inhibition induced by iloprost and BW245C, agents that activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Potassium lactate attenuated the effects of the same inhibitors as glucose did. The inhibitors of glucose transport prevented the effect of glucose. Dichloroacetate, known to prevent the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and to decrease lactate in platelets, significantly attenuated the effect of glucose in platelets. The data support the suggestion that the effect of glucose on the inhibition of platelets by agents activating an NOS-dependent pathway is mediated by glucose metabolite lactate. PMID:23909711

  16. Implications of Hydrogen Sulfide in Glucose Regulation: How H2S Can Alter Glucose Homeostasis through Metabolic Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichette, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and its comorbidities continue to be a major health problem worldwide. Understanding the precise mechanisms that control glucose homeostasis and their dysregulation during diabetes are a major research focus. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as an important regulator of glucose homeostasis. This is achieved through its production and action in several metabolic and hormone producing organs including the pancreas, liver, and adipose. Of importance, H2S production and signaling in these tissues are altered during both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This review first examines how H2S is produced both endogenously and by gastrointestinal microbes, with a particular focus on the altered production that occurs during obesity and diabetes. Next, the action of H2S on the metabolic organs with key roles in glucose homeostasis, with a particular focus on insulin, is described. Recent work has also suggested that the effects of H2S on glucose homeostasis goes beyond its role in insulin secretion. Several studies have demonstrated important roles for H2S in hepatic glucose output and adipose glucose uptake. The mechanism of H2S action on these metabolic organs is described. In the final part of this review, future directions examining the roles of H2S in other metabolic and glucoregulatory hormone secreting tissues are proposed. PMID:27478532

  17. Effects of Estrogens on Adipokines and Glucose Homeostasis in Female Aromatase Knockout Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L Van Sinderen

    Full Text Available The maintenance of glucose homeostasis within the body is crucial for constant and precise performance of energy balance and is sustained by a number of peripheral organs. Estrogens are known to play a role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis. Aromatase knockout (ArKO mice are estrogen-deficient and display symptoms of dysregulated glucose metabolism. We aim to investigate the effects of estrogen ablation and exogenous estrogen administration on glucose homeostasis regulation. Six month-old female wildtype, ArKO, and 17β-estradiol (E2 treated ArKO mice were subjected to whole body tolerance tests, serum examination of estrogen, glucose and insulin, ex-vivo muscle glucose uptake, and insulin signaling pathway analyses. Female ArKO mice display increased body weight, gonadal (omental adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, and liver triglycerides, which were ameliorated upon estrogen treatment. Tolerance tests revealed that estrogen-deficient ArKO mice were pyruvate intolerant hence reflecting dysregulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. Analyses of skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissues supported a hepatic-based glucose dysregulation, with a down-regulation of Akt phosphorylation (a key insulin signaling pathway molecule in the ArKO liver, which was improved with E2 treatment. Concurrently, estrogen treatment lowered ArKO serum leptin and adiponectin levels and increased inflammatory adipokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα and interleukin 6 (IL6. Furthermore, estrogen deficiency resulted in the infiltration of CD45 macrophages into gonadal adipose tissues, which cannot be reversed by E2 treatment. This study describes the effects of estrogens on glucose homeostasis in female ArKO mice and highlights a primary phenotype of hepatic glucose dysregulation and a parallel estrogen modified adipokine profile.

  18. Significance of glucagon for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogenolysis during exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Holst, J J;

    1981-01-01

    The significance of glucagon and of the sympatho-adrenal system for insulin secretion and hepatic glycogen depletion during exercise was studied. Male rats were either adrenodemedullated and chemically sympathectomized with 6-hydroxydopamine (SX) or sham-treated (C). During light ether anesthesia...... attached (2% of body weight). Then cardiac blood was drawn for analysis of glucose, insulin and glucagon, and a sample of the liver was collected. In both CA and CN rats, the blood glucose concentration tended to increase (p less than 0.1) during exercise, whereas hepatic glycogen depletion and the plasma...... insulin concentration were lower in CA rats compared to CN rats. In SX rats, the blood glucose concentration did not increase during exercise, and in SXA but not in SXN rats, the hepatic glucogen depletion was lower than in CN rats. The plasma insulin concentration was consistently higher in SX rats than...

  19. Direct pathway for hepatic glycogenesis predominates in meal-fed rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pathway for hepatic glycogen synthesis in the postprandial state was studied in meal-fed rats chronically cannulated in the portal vein. The rate of glycogen synthesis in livers of rats meal-fed for seven days was found to be about 1 umol/g/min. Plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein was generally below 8 mM before meal-feeding and could reach up to 12 mM at the end of the meal-feeding. Studies on the hepatic-portal (H-P) difference of plasma glucose showed that liver released glucose in the fasted state and could either extract or release glucose after feeding, depending on plasma glucose concentration in the portal vein. The cross-over concentration for the transition was found to be 8 mM. The relative importance of the direct vs indirect pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen was determined by injecting [3-3H,U-14C]-glucose into the portal vein at the end of meal-feeding. Six minutes after the injection, the ratio of 3H/14C in glycogen-glucose was found to be 83-92% of the ratio in liver free glucose. The H-P differences of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, and alanine during feeding were determined. It was found that the H-P difference of [glc] was about 9 times greater than the combined total of Δ [lac], Δ [pyr], and Δ [ala] as early as 10 minutes after the onset of feeding. It is concluded that the direct pathway for the replenishment of hepatic glycogen is predominant and can account for more than 80% of the total glycogen synthesized in vivo in the postprandial state, in contrast to the result of < 30% reported previously by Newgard et al in acute traumatized rats

  20. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  1. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  2. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior

  3. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  4. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  5. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U-14C-glucose and 1,2, 13C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model

  6. Response to glucose and lipid infusions in sepsis: a kinetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.H.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    The kinetics and oxidation of glucose and free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism were assessed in control and Escherichia coli septicemic dogs by using primed, constant infusions of U-/sup 14/C-glucose and 1,2, /sup 13/C-palmitic acid. In the controls, the infusion of glucose suppressed endogenous glucose production completely, whereas, in the septic dogs, only a 30% suppression of glucose production occurred. The ability of the septic dogs to oxidize endogenous or exogenous glucose was decreased significantly. The basal rate of appearance of FFA was significantly higher in the septic dogs, but their ability to oxidize FFA was comparable to that of the control dogs; therefore, the basal rate of FFA oxidation was higher in the septic dogs. These studies indicate that septic dogs have a decreased capacity to oxidize glucose, but that they retain their ability to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. Because the rate of lipolysis was increased in sepsis, lipid was the predominate energy substrate in this septic model.

  7. Alopecia Due to Hepatitis Virus Infections (Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C)

    OpenAIRE

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia is an important problem in medical trichology. Sometimes, alopecia can be due to complicated etiologies including infections. In this article, the details of alopecia due to some important hepatitis viral infections (hepatitis B and hepatitis C) were specifically focused.

  8. Gallic acid ameliorates hyperglycemia and improves hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats fed a high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Da-Wei; Chang, Wen-Chang; Wu, James Swi-Bea; Shih, Rui-Wen; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we investigated the hypoglycemic effect of plant gallic acid (GA) on glucose uptake in an insulin-resistant cell culture model and on hepatic carbohydrate metabolism in rats with a high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetes. Our hypothesis is that GA ameliorates hyperglycemia via alleviating hepatic insulin resistance by suppressing hepatic inflammation and improves abnormal hepatic carbohydrate metabolism by suppressing hepatic gluconeogenesis and enhancing the hepatic glycogenesis and glycolysis pathways in HFD-induced diabetic rats. Gallic acid increased glucose uptake activity by 19.2% at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL in insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes. In HFD-induced diabetic rats, GA significantly alleviated hyperglycemia, reduced the values of the area under the curve for glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test, and reduced the scores of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index. The levels of serum C-peptide and fructosamine and cardiovascular risk index scores were also significantly decreased in HFD rats treated with GA. Moreover, GA up-regulated the expression of hepatic insulin signal transduction-related proteins, including insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, Akt/protein kinase B, and glucose transporter 2, in HFD rats. Gallic acid also down-regulated the expression of hepatic gluconeogenesis-related proteins, such as fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, and up-regulated expression of hepatic glycogen synthase and glycolysis-related proteins, including hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and aldolase, in HFD rats. Our findings indicate that GA has potential as a health food ingredient to prevent diabetes mellitus. PMID:26547672

  9. Quantitative comparison of pathways of hepatic glycogen repletion in fed and fasted humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of fasting vs. refeeding on hepatic glycogen repletion by the direct pathway, i.e., glucose----glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P)----glycogen, was determined. Acetaminophen was administered during an infusion of glucose labeled with [1-13C]- and [6-14C]glucose into four healthy volunteers after an overnight fast and into the same subjects 4 h after breakfast. 13C enrichments in C-1 and C-6 of glucose formed from urinary acetaminophen glucuronide compared with enrichments in C-1 and C-6 of plasma glucose provided an estimate of glycogen formation by the direct pathway. The specific activity of glucose from the glucuronide compared with the specific activity of the plasma glucose, along with the percentages of 14C in C-1 and C-6 of the glucose from the glucuronide, also provided an estimate of the amount of glycogen formed by the direct pathway. The estimates were similar. Those from [6-14C]glucose would have been higher than from [1-13C]glucose if the pentose cycle contribution to overall glucose utilization had been significant. After an overnight fast, during the last hour of infusion, 49 +/- 3% of the glycogen formed was formed via the direct pathway. After breakfast, at similar plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, the percentage increased to 69 +/- 7% (P less than 0.02). Thus the contributions of the pathways to hepatic glycogen formation depend on the dietary state of the individual. For a dietary regimen in which individuals consume multiple meals per day containing at least a moderate amount of carbohydrates most glycogen synthesis occurs by the direct pathway

  10. Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egede, M B; Henriksen, J-E; Durck, T T;

    2014-01-01

    development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release. METHODS: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance...... test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined. RESULTS: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs......AIMS: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the...

  11. How to monitor blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Trisha

    2016-01-27

    Rationale and key points Capillary blood glucose monitoring is an essential component of diabetes care. Blood glucose tests provide important information about how the body is controlling blood glucose metabolism, and the effect of glucose-lowering medicines, illness and stress. ▶ The nurse should consider the rationale for testing blood glucose each time they perform a test, and reflect on the result, taking into consideration the patient's blood glucose target range and recommended care guidelines. ▶ Blood glucose testing times and testing frequency should be planned to suit the glucose-lowering medicine regimen and the clinical situation. Reflective activity Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. What you have gained from this article. 2. How this article will influence your practice when monitoring blood glucose. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26967884

  12. Comparison of Liver Fat Indices for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Kahl, Sabine; Strassburger, Klaus; Nowotny, Bettina; Livingstone, Roshan; Klueppelholz, Birgit; Kessel, Kathrin; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Giani, Guido; Hoffmann, Barbara; Pacini, Giovanni; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Roden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hepatic steatosis, defined as increased hepatocellular lipid content (HCL), associates with visceral obesity and glucose intolerance. As exact HCL quantification by H-1-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-1-MRS) is not generally available, various clinical indices are increasingly used to predict steatosis. Objective: The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of NAFLD liver fat score (NAFLD-LFS), hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI) against H-1-MRS and th...

  13. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  14. The Sun's immutable basal quiet atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, W.; Wallace, L.

    2003-02-01

    We employ limb darkening, spectral energy distribution (color), and center-disk spectrum line strength to investigate photospheric temporal variability. Current limb-darkening curves agree to 1% with past observations taken at different epochs extending back to 1975. Concerning color, from the data of Labs and Neckel (Cox, 1999) we deduce that the solar limb is 1000 Å more red than disk center. But when integrated over the entire disk to represent the Sun-as-a-star, the color shift is only 30 Å. Color is therefore not a very sensitive indicator of full-disk photospheric change. We examine the center-disk time series for C 5380 Å and Fe 5379 Å equivalent width and the Ca K index. The ratio C 5380/Fe 5379 in equivalent width is 0.4221+0.00011 (+/-0.00003) y-1, indicating secular change but with no cycle modulation. Converted to temperature this variance amounts to +/-0.028 K. This is in contrast to the full-disk cycle modulation of these lines reported by Gray and Livingston (1997b). Ca K index also exhibits no cycle variation at disk center. Taking into account these findings, plus the small fraction of the photosphere occupied by magnetic elements as revealed in high-resolution G-band pictures, we suggest that cycle magnetic fields thread through the basal atmosphere without physical effect; that the basal quiet atmosphere is observationally immutable to the magnetic cycle within the limits given above.

  15. OPTIMAL REGIMENS OF THE BASAL-BOLUS INSULIN THERAPY IN ADOLESCENTS WITH TYPE 1 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Galkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine peculiarities in regimens of the pump insulin therapy and to reveal the optimal basal-to-bolus insulin ratio that are necessary for achieving optimal glycemic control in adoles-cents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM.  82 adolescents at the age of 14–18 with T1DM, using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII from 5 months to 7.5 years were monitored with continuous glucose monitoring (CGM system «Guar-dian Real Time» or CGM system, built in MiniMed Paradigm Revel System 722 (Medtronic Minimed, USA. Assessing the quality of glycaemic control was based on the level of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. The results of CGM were reviewed and average for 3 days performances: total daily dose of insulin, dose of basal and bolus insulin, basal-to-bolus insulin ratio, carbohydrate content of the meal, expressed in BE, carbohydrate ratio, insulin sensitivity factor were determined. The patients were subdivided into 2 groups: group 1 – adolescents with the optimal/suboptimal glycemic control (n = 55, 2 – adolescents with long-standing poorly controlled T1DM (n = 27. Average total daily dose of basal insulin (U in a day, U per kg in a day in adolescents group 1 was significantly higher, com-pared with patients in group 2 (р = 0.043; р = 0.038 respectively. Patients in group 2 received more car-bohydrates with a meal intake and had higher doses of average total daily bolus insulin. The average ba-sal-to-bolus ratio from group 1 patients was 51/49%, compared with group 2 patients – 45/55% (р = 0.026.  An important condition for achieving optimal glycemic control is a high level of compliance and skills of adolescents. Optimal well-balanced basal-to-bolus insulin ratio in adolescents with T1DM on CSII, which can provide improvements in blood glucose management and reducing the risk of complications of the disease, is 51/49%. 

  16. Comparison of clinical types of Wilson's disease and glucose metabolism in extrapyramidal motor brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, W; Barthel, H; Hesse, S; Grahmann, F; Kühn, H-J; Wagner, A; Villmann, T

    2002-07-01

    In Wilson's disease a disturbed glucose metabolism especially in striatal and cerebellar areas has been reported. This is correlated with the severity of extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS). These findings are only based on a small number of patients. Up to now it is unknown whether EPS are caused by various patterns of disturbed basal ganglia glucose metabolism. We investigated 37 patients and 9 normal volunteers to characterize the disturbed glucose metabolism in Wilson's disease more precisely. The glucose metabolism was determined in 5 cerebellar and cerebral areas (putamen, caput nuclei caudati, cerebellum, midbrain and thalamic area) by using (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose-Positron-Emission-Tomography ( [(18)F]FDG-PET). The database was evaluated by a cluster analysis. Additionally, the severity extrapyramidal motor symptoms were judged by a clinical score system. Three characteristic patterns of glucose metabolism in basal ganglia were obtained. Two of them may be assigned to patients with neurological symptoms whereas the third cluster corresponds to most patients without EPS or normal volunteers. The clusters can be identified by characteristic consumption rates in this 5 brain areas. The severity of EPS can not clearly be assigned to one of the clusters with disturbed glucose metabolism. However, the most severe cases are characterized by the lowest consumption in the striatal area. When there is marked improvement of EPS impaired glucose consumption reveals a persistent brain lesion. Finally, the neurological symptoms in Wilson's disease are caused by (at least) two different patterns of disturbed glucose metabolism in basal ganglia and cerebellum. The severity of EPS seems to be determined by a disturbed consumption in the striatal area. PMID:12140675

  17. Defective glucose and lipid metabolism in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy involve liver, muscle tissue and pancreatic beta-cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Dela, Flemming;

    2005-01-01

    ), 18 patients without lipodystrophy on HAART (NONLIPO) and seven patients who were naive to antiretroviral therapy (NAIVE) respectively). beta-cell function was evaluated by an intravenous glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE separately, LIPO displayed markedly reduced ratio...... of limb to trunk fat (RLF; > 34%, P < 0.001), hepatic insulin sensitivity (> 40%, P < 0.03), incremental glucose disposal (>50%, P < 0.001) and incremental exogenous glucose storage (>50%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, LIPO displayed reduced incremental glucose oxidation (P < 0.01), increased clamp free...... fatty acids (P < 0.05) and attenuated insulin-mediated suppression of lipid oxidation (P < 0.05) compared with NONLIPO. In combined study groups, RLF correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (r = 0.69), incremental glucose disposal (r = 0.71) and incremental exogenous glucose storage (r = 0.40), all...

  18. Nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Christiane; Kristensen, Peter Lommer; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background: A reliable method to detect biochemical nocturnal hypoglycemia is highly needed, especially in patients with recurrent severe hypoglycemia. We evaluated reliability of nocturnal continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in patients with type 1 diabetes at high risk of severe...... from 23:00 to 07:00 h for plasma glucose (PG) measurements (gold standard). Results: Valid data were obtained in 217 nights. The sensitivity of CGM was 65% (95% confidence interval, 53-77%) below 4 mmol/L, 40% (24-56%) below 3 mmol/L, and 17% (0-47%) below 2.2 mmol/L. PG and CGM readings correlated in...

  19. A randomized trial comparing the effect of weight loss and exercise training on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Jürs, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The majority of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) exhibit abnormal glucose metabolism, which is associated with mortality even at non-diabetic glucose levels. This trial aims to compare the effects of a considerable weight loss and exercise with limited weight loss on glucose...... followed by 2-4 weeks' weight maintenance diet. Glucose tolerance, insulin action, β-cell function and suppression of lipolysis were assessed using a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test. ISI-composite and ISI-HOMA (=1/HOMA-IR) were calculated as surrogate measures of whole-body and hepatic insulin sensitivity...

  20. Effect of training on insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and lipolysis in human adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stallknecht, B; Larsen, J J; Mikines, K J; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Galbo, H

    2000-01-01

    Training increases insulin sensitivity of both whole body and muscle in humans. To investigate whether training also increases insulin sensitivity of adipose tissue, we performed a three-step hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp in eight endurance-trained (T) and eight sedentary (S) young men...... [insulin infusion rates: 10,000 (step I), 20,000 (step II), and 150,000 (step III) microU x min(-1) x m(-2)]. Glucose and glycerol concentrations were measured in arterial blood and also by microdialysis in interstitial fluid in periumbilical, subcutaneous adipose tissue and in quadriceps femoris muscle...... (glucose only). Adipose tissue blood flow was measured by (133)Xe washout. In the basal state, adipose tissue blood flow tended to be higher in T compared with S subjects, and in both groups blood flow was constant during the clamp. The change from basal in arterial-interstitial glucose concentration...

  1. Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the same shot with other vaccines.Routine hepatitis B vaccination was recommended for some U.S. adults and children ... 95%, and by 75% in other age groups.Vaccination gives long-term protection from hepatitis B infection, possibly lifelong.

  2. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

  3. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  4. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis triggered by acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hiroto Tanaka; Hiroto Tujioka; Hiroki Ueda; Hiroko Hamagami; Youhei Kida; Masakazu Ichinose

    2005-01-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old woman presenting with jaundice as the chief complaint. She began vomiting on July 10, 2003.Jaundice was noted and admitted to our hospital for thorough testing. Tests on admission indicated severe hepatitis, based on: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), 1 076 IU/L; alanine aminotransferase (ALT), 1 400 IU/L; total bilirubin (TB), 20.9 mg/dL; and prothrombin time rate (PT%), 46.9%. Acute hepatitis A (HA) was diagnosed based on negative hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis C virus RNA and positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M HA antibody, but elevation of anti-nuclear antigen (×320) and IgG (3 112 mg/dL) led to suspicion of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Plasma exchange was performed for 3 d from July 17, and steroid pulse therapy was performed for 3 d starting on July 18, followed by oral steroid therapy. Liver biopsy was performed on August 5, and the results confirmed acute hepatitis and mild chronic inflammation. Levels of AST and ALT normalized,so dose of oral steroid was markedly reduced. Steroid therapy was terminated after 4 mo, as the patient had glaucoma. Starting 3 mo after cessation of steroid therapy,levels of AST and ALT began to increase again. Another liver biopsy was performed and AIH was diagnosed based on serum data and biopsy specimen. Oral steroid therapy was reinitiated. Levels of AST and ALT again normalized.The present case was thus considered to represent AIH triggered by acute HA.

  6. Role of liver nerves and adrenal medulla in glucose turnover of running rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, B; Mikines, K J; Richter, Erik;

    1985-01-01

    identical turnover rates and concentrations of glucose in plasma. During running, glucose production always rose rapidly to steady levels. The increase was not influenced by liver denervation but was halved by adrenodemedullation. Similarly, hepatic glycogen depletion was identical in denervated and control...... rats but reduced after adrenodemedullation. Early in exercise, glucose uptake rose identically in all groups and, in adrenodemedullated rats, matched glucose production. Accordingly, plasma glucose concentration increased in liver-denervated and control rats but was constant in adrenodemedullated rats....... Compensatory changes in hormone or substrate levels explaining the lack of effect of liver denervation were not found. In rats with intact adrenals, the plasma epinephrine concentration was increased after 2.5 min of running. It is concluded that, in rats carrying out exercise of moderate intensity...

  7. Association between whole blood mercury and glucose intolerance among adult Inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Charlotte; Valera, Beatriz; Nielsen, Nina O; Bjerregaard, Peter; Jørgensen, Marit E

    OBJECTIVES: The Arctic diet is partly constituted by traditional food characterized by top predator animals such as whales, walrus, and seals with high mercury content. Mercury exposure has been associated with glucose intolerance in Western populations. We studied the association between whole...... blood mercury and glucose intolerance in a highly exposed non-Western population METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 2640 Inuit (18+ years) with information on ancestry, smoking, waist circumference, total energy intake, and physical activity. Mercury, fasting- and 2-h plasma glucose, insulin, and c......-peptide were measured in blood. Fasting participants without diabetes were classified into normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glycemia, or type 2 diabetes. We calculated hepatic insulin resistance with homoeostatic model assessment - insulin resistance index, peripheral...

  8. Brain glucose sensing, glucokinase and neural control of metabolism and islet function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunnowo-Bada, E O; Heeley, N; Brochard, L; Evans, M L

    2014-09-01

    It is increasingly apparent that the brain plays a central role in metabolic homeostasis, including the maintenance of blood glucose. This is achieved by various efferent pathways from the brain to periphery, which help control hepatic glucose flux and perhaps insulin-stimulated insulin secretion. Also, critically important for the brain given its dependence on a constant supply of glucose as a fuel--emergency counter-regulatory responses are triggered by the brain if blood glucose starts to fall. To exert these control functions, the brain needs to detect rapidly and accurately changes in blood glucose. In this review, we summarize some of the mechanisms postulated to play a role in this and examine the potential role of the low-affinity hexokinase, glucokinase, in the brain as a key part of some of this sensing. We also discuss how these processes may become altered in diabetes and related metabolic diseases. PMID:25200293

  9. Emerging role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Eun; Song, Do Kyeong; Kim, Min-Seon

    2016-01-01

    Accumulated evidence from genetic animal models suggests that the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, has a key role in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. The brain integrates multiple metabolic inputs from the periphery through nutrients, gut-derived satiety signals and adiposity-related hormones. The brain modulates various aspects of metabolism, such as food intake, energy expenditure, insulin secretion, hepatic glucose production and glucose/fatty acid metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Highly coordinated interactions between the brain and peripheral metabolic organs are critical for the maintenance of energy and glucose homeostasis. Defective crosstalk between the brain and peripheral organs contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Here we comprehensively review the above topics, discussing the main findings related to the role of the brain in the homeostatic regulation of energy and glucose metabolism. PMID:26964832

  10. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  11. A Rare Hepatic Tumor; Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Akyildiz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary sarcomas of the liver account for about 1% of all liver tumors. Two basic histological forms of these sarcomas are hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma and angiosarcoma. Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma is a tumor of vascular origin that involves soft tissues and organs. Primary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of the liver was first described by Ishak in 1984 and has an incidence of 1/100,000. We present a 68-year-old female case referred to the pathology department with an initial diagnosis of cholangiocellular carcinoma and diagnosed with primary hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma with review of the literature.

  12. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In Memory In Honor Become a Member En Español Type 1 Type 2 About Us Online Community ... Page Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical ...

  13. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... produces daily around 4:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m.). What are the Symptoms of Hyperglycemia? The signs and symptoms include the following: High blood glucose High levels of sugar in the urine Frequent urination Increased ...

  14. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... html Learn More Join Ryan Reed & Drive Your Health Access tools to help actively manage your diabetes. ... .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == 'false') { $('.survey-form'). ...

  15. Blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Sarah

    2014-06-10

    I found the CPD article on blood glucose monitoring and management in acute stroke care interesting and informative. As I am a mental health nursing student, my knowledge of chronic physical conditions is limited, so I learned a lot. PMID:24894257

  16. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Hyperglycemia is the technical term for ... diabetes. Learn More: Stories of Courage, Love and Resilience - 2016-08-blog.html Learn More Stories of ...

  17. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIRAL HEPATITIS Information for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  18. Hexachlorobenzene impairs glucose metabolism in a rat model of porphyria cutanea tarda: a mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzetti, Marta Blanca; Taira, Maria Cristina; Lelli, Sandra Marcela; Viale, Leonor Carmen San Martin de [Departamento de Quimica Biologica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, C1428BGA, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dascal, Eduardo; Basabe, Juan Carlos [Centro de Investigaciones Endocrinologicas (CEDIE). Hospital de Ninos, Dr. Ricardo Gutierrez, C1425EDF, Ciudad Autonoma Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlobenzene (HCB), one of the most persistent environmental pollutants, induces porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). The aim of this work was to analyze the effect of HCB on some aspects of glucose metabolism, particularly those related to its neosynthesis in vivo. For this purpose, a time-course study on gluconeogenic enzymes, pyruvate carboxylase (PC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and on pyruvate kinase (PK), a glycolytic enzyme, was carried out. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, hepatic glycogen, tryptophan contents, and the pancreatic insulin secretion pattern stimulated by glucose were investigated. Oxidative stress and heme pathway parameters were also evaluated. HCB treatment decreased PC, PEPCK, and G-6-Pase activities. The effect was observed at an early time point and grew as the treatment progressed. Loss of 60, 56, and 37%, respectively, was noted at the end of the treatment when a considerable amount of porphyrins had accumulated in the liver as a result of drastic blockage of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (URO-D) (95% inhibition). The plasma glucose level was reduced (one-third loss), while storage of hepatic glucose was stimulated in a time-dependent way by HCB treatment. A decay in the normal plasma insulin level was observed as fungicide intoxication progressed (twice to four times lower). However, normal insulin secretion of perifused pancreatic Langerhans islets stimulated by glucose during the 3rd and 6th weeks of treatment did not prove to be significantly affected. HCB promoted a time-dependent increase in urinary chemiluminiscence (fourfold) and hepatic malondialdehide (MDA) content (fivefold), while the liver tryptophan level was only raised at the longest intoxication times. These results would suggest that HCB treatment does not cause a primary alteration in the mechanism of pancreatic insulin secretion and that the changes induced by the fungicide on insulin levels would be an adaptative

  19. Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes and Hepatitis B Vaccination Information for Diabetes Educators What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a contagious liver disease that results from ... Immunization Practices (ACIP) released new guidelines that recommend hepatitis B vaccination for all unvaccinated adults with diabetes who are ...

  20. Dopaminergic agonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with an impairment of the dopaminergic neurotransmission. Dopaminergic agonists may therefore have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  1. Glucocorticosteroids for viral hepatitis C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Mellerup, M T; Krogsgaard, K;

    2004-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection.......Hepatitis C virus may cause liver inflammation and fibrosis. It is not known whether glucocorticosteroids are beneficial or harmful for patients with hepatitis C infection....

  2. A compartmental model to quantitate in vivo glucose transport in the human forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glucose transport is a critical step in the control of glucose disposal that, until presently, has not been quantitated in vivo in humans. We have employed the perfused forearm and euglycemic insulin-clamp techniques in combination with a dual-tracer injection to measure basal and insulin-mediated glucose transport in six normal subjects. L-[3H]glucose, which is not transported, was used to trace extracellular glucose kinetics; 3-O-[14C]-methyl-D-glucose, transportable but not metabolizable, was used to monitor glucose movement across the cell membrane. After bolus intra-arterial injection of the two tracers, plasma samples were obtained every 15-30 s for 10 min from a deep forearm vein to determine the washout curves. A linear compartmental model was developed that accounts for blood flow heterogeneity. It consists of three parallel, two-compartment chains merging into the sampling compartment to which cellular compartments are appended. A priori identifiability analysis was performed. The uniquely identifiable parameterization includes the transport rate constants of glucose into and out of the cell. The model was identified using nonlinear least-squares parameter estimation. Transport parameters are estimated with very good precision, and their reproducibility is satisfactory. The model also allows the estimation of the mean arteriovenous transit times of both the extracellular and the transported tracer. The compartmental model provides a novel approach to investigate glucose transport in vivo in humans

  3. C-C Chemokine Receptor 2 Inhibitor Ameliorates Hepatic Steatosis by Improving ER Stress and Inflammation in a Type 2 Diabetic Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hong-Min; Lee, Eun Soo; Lee, Bo Ra; Yadav, Dhananjay; Kim, You Mi; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kyu Sang; Lee, Eun Young; Chung, Choon Hee

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Recently, hepatic steatosis has become more important because it occurs in the patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia and is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibitor has been reported to improve inflammation and glucose intolerance in diabetes, but its mechanisms remained unknown in hepatic steatosis. We examined whether CCR2 inhibito...

  4. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  5. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000528.htm Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is a condition ...

  6. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  7. How to achieve a predictable basal insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzhals, P

    2005-09-01

    The development of insulin analogues over the last two decades have aimed at optimising the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneously injected insulin for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. Rapid acting analogues were successfully engineered and marketed in the late 1990's. In engineering long-acting analogues it has been a particular challenge to obtain action profiles that would be predictable from day to day in the same person. The most recent approach has been to acylate the insulin molecule with a fatty acid which provides the insulin molecule with a specific affinity for albumin. The first clinically available agent of this type is insulin detemir. Pharmacological studies have shown that reversible albumin binding will protract absorption following subcutaneous injection but still allow the insulin molecule to be recognised by the insulin receptor following dissociation from the carrier protein. Moreover, the molecular features of insulin detemir are attractive in that the molecule can be formulated as a neutral aqueous solution and does not precipitate after injection. Together with an important buffering mechanism effected by plasma albumin binding, this explains a highly significant reduction of within-subject variability of pharmacodynamic response observed in repeat isoglycaemic clamp studies where insulin detemir was compared to other basal insulin products. No safety considerations have been identified in using albumin as an insulin carrier to protract and buffer insulin action. In assessing the clinical attractiveness of insulin analogues, it is furthermore critically important to consider how the molecular modifications impact efficacy and safety. A number of pharmacological studies have shown that insulin detemir overall retains the molecular pharmacological properties of native human insulin, including a physiological balance between metabolic and mitogenic potencies. Taken together, insulin detemir provides an attractive novel approach for

  8. Disruption of Adipose Rab10-Dependent Insulin Signaling Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazirani, Reema P; Verma, Akanksha; Sadacca, L Amanda; Buckman, Melanie S; Picatoste, Belen; Beg, Muheeb; Torsitano, Christopher; Bruno, Joanne H; Patel, Rajesh T; Simonyte, Kotryna; Camporez, Joao P; Moreira, Gabriela; Falcone, Domenick J; Accili, Domenico; Elemento, Olivier; Shulman, Gerald I; Kahn, Barbara B; McGraw, Timothy E

    2016-06-01

    Insulin controls glucose uptake into adipose and muscle cells by regulating the amount of GLUT4 in the plasma membrane. The effect of insulin is to promote the translocation of intracellular GLUT4 to the plasma membrane. The small Rab GTPase, Rab10, is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Here we demonstrate that both insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane are reduced by about half in adipocytes from adipose-specific Rab10 knockout (KO) mice. These data demonstrate that the full effect of insulin on adipose glucose uptake is the integrated effect of Rab10-dependent and Rab10-independent pathways, establishing a divergence in insulin signal transduction to the regulation of GLUT4 trafficking. In adipose-specific Rab10 KO female mice, the partial inhibition of stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes induces insulin resistance independent of diet challenge. During euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, there is no suppression of hepatic glucose production despite normal insulin suppression of plasma free fatty acids. The impact of incomplete disruption of stimulated adipocyte GLUT4 translocation on whole-body glucose homeostasis is driven by a near complete failure of insulin to suppress hepatic glucose production rather than a significant inhibition in muscle glucose uptake. These data underscore the physiological significance of the precise control of insulin-regulated trafficking in adipocytes. PMID:27207531

  9. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Mediates Glycemic Regulation by Hepatic JNK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Vernia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The cJun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK-signaling pathway is implicated in metabolic syndrome, including dysregulated blood glucose concentration and insulin resistance. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 is a target of the hepatic JNK-signaling pathway and may contribute to the regulation of glycemia. To test the role of FGF21, we established mice with selective ablation of the Fgf21 gene in hepatocytes. FGF21 deficiency in the liver caused marked loss of FGF21 protein circulating in the blood. Moreover, the protective effects of hepatic JNK deficiency to suppress metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed mice were not observed in mice with hepatocyte-specific FGF21 deficiency, including reduced blood glucose concentration and reduced intolerance to glucose and insulin. Furthermore, we show that JNK contributes to the regulation of hepatic FGF21 expression during fasting/feeding cycles. These data demonstrate that the hepatokine FGF21 is a key mediator of JNK-regulated metabolic syndrome.

  10. Glucose turnover, oxidation, and indices of recycling in severely traumatized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperglycemia is often seen in trauma patients and its etiology is not clearly understood. We have determined parameters of glucose metabolism by using simultaneous primed-constant intravenous infusion of both [6-3H] glucose and [U-14C] glucose in ten severely traumatized hypermetabolic subjects during the early flow phase of injury and in six post-absorptive normal volunteers. The mean rate of glucose production (determined by means of [6-3H] glucose) was 3.96 +/- 0.40 mg/kg/min in trauma patients, which was significantly (p = 0.025) higher than the value of 2.75 +/- 0.13 observed in normal volunteers. Glucose turnover rates determined with [U-14C] glucose as tracer were lower in all subjects. The difference between the turnover rates determined by the two tracers represents an index of recycling of glucose through three-carbon fragments. This recycling index was similar in both groups of subjects in amount (0.24 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.26 +/- 0.08 mg glucose/kg/min) but different when expressed as percentage of total glucose turnover (5.6 +/- 1.4% vs. 9.8 +/- 1.7%; p = 0.05). The absolute rates of glucose clearance, oxidation, and recycling were similar in stressed trauma patients and unstressed controls although the rate of production was increased by 44% due to injury. Post-trauma hyperglycemia was mainly due to an increased hepatic output of glucose and not due to a decreased ability of the tissue to extract glucose from the plasma. Hyperglycemia may be the driving force in the metabolic effects of injury

  11. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, J W; Denison, M S; Bloom, S E

    1983-06-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole-embryo and viscera preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 DI. Basal AHHase activity was equal to or greater than adult levels from 3 DI through hatching in all preparations (approximately 0.3-0.5 nmol/min per mg). A 3-fold increase in basal activity above adult values occurred at hatching. The onset of inducibility in chicken embryo liver between 5 and 6 DI was concomitant with hepatocyte differentiation. A developmental profile of 24-hr 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-induced AHHase activity showed 15- to 30-fold induction over controls from 7 DI through day 10 after hatching, with a maximum of 15 nmol/min per mg at 14 DI and day 1 after hatching, a specific activity greater than 50% greater than maximal induction in the adult. Embryonic AHHase activity was also induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and sodium phenobarbital. Induction kinetics throughout embryonic development were similar to those reported for the adult chicken and other animals. These findings demonstrate development of a mixed-function oxidase system in very early embryogenesis and then in the liver as it differentiates. Liver AHHase activity is inducible throughout development and perinatally but such activity is under strict developmental regulation. The chicken embryo has adult levels of AHHase activity which would be sufficient to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens/carcinogens before and after hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:6407011

  12. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  13. Development of the insulin secretion mechanism in fetal and neonatal rat pancreatic B-cells: response to glucose, K+, theophylline, and carbamylcholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Mendonça

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the development of the insulin secretion mechanism in the pancreas of fetal (19- and 21-day-old, neonatal (3-day-old, and adult (90-day-old rats in response to stimulation with 8.3 or 16.7 mM glucose, 30 mM K+, 5 mM theophylline (Theo and 200 µM carbamylcholine (Cch. No effect of glucose or high K+ was observed on the pancreas from 19-day-old fetuses, whereas Theo and Cch significantly increased insulin secretion at this age (82 and 127% above basal levels, respectively. High K+ also failed to alter the insulin secretion in the pancreas from 21-day-old fetuses, whereas 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose significantly stimulated insulin release by 41 and 54% above basal levels, respectively. Similar results were obtained with Theo and Cch. A more marked effect of glucose on insulin secretion was observed in the pancreas of 3-day-old rats, reaching 84 and 179% above basal levels with 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, respectively. At this age, both Theo and Cch increased insulin secretion to close to two-times basal levels. In islets from adult rats, 8.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose, Theo, and Cch increased the insulin release by 104, 193, 318 and 396% above basal levels, respectively. These data indicate that pancreatic B-cells from 19-day-old fetuses were already sensitive to stimuli that use either cAMP or IP3 and DAG as second messengers, but insensitive to stimuli such as glucose and high K+ that induce membrane depolarization. The greater effect of glucose on insulin secretion during the neonatal period indicates that this period is crucial for the maturation of the glucose-sensing mechanism in B-cells.

  14. Hepatic glycogen can regulate hypoglycemic counterregulation via a liver-brain axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnick, Jason J; Kraft, Guillaume; Gregory, Justin M; Edgerton, Dale S; Williams, Phillip; Hajizadeh, Ian A; Kamal, Maahum Z; Smith, Marta; Farmer, Ben; Scott, Melanie; Neal, Doss; Donahue, E Patrick; Allen, Eric; Cherrington, Alan D

    2016-06-01

    Liver glycogen is important for the counterregulation of hypoglycemia and is reduced in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Here, we examined the effect of varying hepatic glycogen content on the counterregulatory response to low blood sugar in dogs. During the first 4 hours of each study, hepatic glycogen was increased by augmenting hepatic glucose uptake using hyperglycemia and a low-dose intraportal fructose infusion. After hepatic glycogen levels were increased, animals underwent a 2-hour control period with no fructose infusion followed by a 2-hour hyperinsulinemic/hypoglycemic clamp. Compared with control treatment, fructose infusion caused a large increase in liver glycogen that markedly elevated the response of epinephrine and glucagon to a given hypoglycemia and increased net hepatic glucose output (NHGO). Moreover, prior denervation of the liver abolished the improved counterregulatory responses that resulted from increased liver glycogen content. When hepatic glycogen content was lowered, glucagon and NHGO responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia were reduced. We conclude that there is a liver-brain counterregulatory axis that is responsive to liver glycogen content. It remains to be determined whether the risk of iatrogenic hypoglycemia in T1D humans could be lessened by targeting metabolic pathway(s) associated with hepatic glycogen repletion. PMID:27140398

  15. Roles of hepatic glucokinase in intertissue metabolic communication: Examination of novel liver-specific glucokinase knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Yoshifumi; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Yoshizawa, Tatsuya; Yamagata, Kazuya

    2015-05-01

    Glucokinase is expressed principally in pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, and catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, a rate-limiting step of glycolysis. To better understand the roles of hepatic glucokinase, we generated Gck knockout mice by ablating liver-specific exon 1b. The knockout mice exhibited impaired glucose tolerance, decreased hepatic glycogen content, and reduced Pklr and Fas gene expression in the liver, indicating that hepatic glucokinase plays important roles in glucose metabolism. It has also been reported that hepatic glucokinase regulates the expression of thermogenesis-related genes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and insulin secretion in response to glucose. However, the liver-specific Gck knockout mice displayed neither altered expression of thermogenesis-related genes in BAT nor impaired insulin secretion by β-cells under a normal chow diet. These results suggest that chronic suppression of hepatic glucokinase has a small influence on intertissue (liver-to-BAT as well as liver-to-β-cell) metabolic communication. PMID:25817793

  16. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in Ra was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (Rd), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on Ra is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of Rd; (2) basal Ra and Rd are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance

  17. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. (Helsinki Univ. and Research Labs. of the Finnish State Alcohol Co. (Finland))

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  18. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  19. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  20. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...