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Sample records for basal expression levels

  1. Basal HIF-1a expression levels are not predictive for radiosensitivity of human cancer cell lines

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    Schilling, D.; Multhoff, G.; Helmholtz Center Munich, CCG - Innate Immunity in Tumor Biology, Munich; Bayer, C.; Emmerich, K.; Molls, M.; Vaupel, P.; Huber, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1a in tumors are reported to be associated with tumor progression and resistance to therapy. To examine the impact of HIF-1a on radioresistance under normoxia, the sensitivity towards irradiation was measured in human tumor cell lines that differ significantly in their basal HIF-1a levels. HIF-1a levels were quantified in lysates of H1339, EPLC-272H, A549, SAS, XF354, FaDu, BHY, and CX- tumor cell lines by ELISA. Protein levels of HIF-1a, HIF-2a, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX), and GAPDH were assessed by Western blot analysis. Knock-down experiments were performed using HIF-1a siRNA. Clonogenic survival after irradiation was determined by the colony forming assay. According to their basal HIF-1a status, the tumor cell lines were divided into low (SAS, XF354, FaDu, A549, CX-), intermediate (EPLC-272H, BHY), and high (H1339) HIF-1a expressors. The functionality of the high basal HIF-1a expression in H1339 cells was proven by reduced CA IX expression after knocking-down HIF-1a. Linear regression analysis revealed no correlation between basal HIF-1a levels and the survival fraction at either 2 or 4 Gy in all tumor cell lines investigated. Our data suggest that basal HIF-1a levels in human tumor cell lines do not predict their radiosensitivity under normoxia. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of basal gene expression trends over a diurnal cycle in Xiphophorus maculatus skin, brain and liver.

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    Lu, Yuan; Reyes, Jose; Walter, Sean; Gonzalez, Trevor; Medrano, Geraldo; Boswell, Mikki; Boswell, William; Savage, Markita; Walter, Ronald

    2018-06-01

    Evolutionarily conserved diurnal circadian mechanisms maintain oscillating patterns of gene expression based on the day-night cycle. Xiphophorus fish have been used to evaluate transcriptional responses after exposure to various light sources and it was determined that each source incites distinct genetic responses in skin tissue. However, basal expression levels of genes that show oscillating expression patterns in day-night cycle, may affect the outcomes of such experiments, since basal gene expression levels at each point in the circadian path may influence the profile of identified light responsive genes. Lack of knowledge regarding diurnal fluctuations in basal gene expression patterns may confound the understanding of genetic responses to external stimuli (e.g., light) since the dynamic nature of gene expression implies animals subjected to stimuli at different times may be at very different stages within the continuum of genetic homeostasis. We assessed basal gene expression changes over a 24-hour period in 200 select Xiphophorus gene targets known to transcriptionally respond to various types of light exposure. We identified 22 genes in skin, 36 genes in brain and 28 genes in liver that exhibit basal oscillation of expression patterns. These genes, including known circadian regulators, produced the expected expression patterns over a 24-hour cycle when compared to circadian regulatory genes identified in other species, especially human and other vertebrate animal models. Our results suggest the regulatory network governing diurnal oscillating gene expression is similar between Xiphophorus and other vertebrates for the three Xiphophorus organs tested. In addition, we were able to categorize light responsive gene sets in Xiphophorus that do, and do not, exhibit circadian based oscillating expression patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment.

  4. miRNA-135b Contributes to Triple Negative Breast Cancer Molecular Heterogeneity: Different Expression Profile in Basal-like Versus non-Basal-like Phenotypes.

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    Uva, Paolo; Cossu-Rocca, Paolo; Loi, Federica; Pira, Giovanna; Murgia, Luciano; Orrù, Sandra; Floris, Matteo; Muroni, Maria Rosaria; Sanges, Francesca; Carru, Ciriaco; Angius, Andrea; De Miglio, Maria Rosaria

    2018-01-01

    The clinical and genetic heterogeneity of Triple Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) and the lack of unambiguous molecular targets contribute to the inadequacy of current therapeutic options for these variants. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small highly conserved regulatory endogenous non-coding RNA, which can alter the expression of genes encoding proteins and may play a role in the dysregulation of cellular pathways. Our goal was to improve the knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of TNBC subgroups analyzing the miRNA expression profile, and to identify new prognostic and predictive biomarkers. We conducted a human miRNome analysis by TaqMan Low Density Array comparing different TNBC subtypes, defined by immunohistochemical basal markers EGFR and CK5/6. RT-qPCR confirmed differential expression of microRNAs. To inspect the function of the selected targets we perform Gene Ontology and KEGG enrichment analysis. We identified a single miRNA signature given by miR-135b expression level, which was strictly related to TNBC with basal-like phenotype. miR-135b target analysis revealed a role in the TGF-beta, WNT and ERBB pathways. A significant positive correlation was identified between neoplastic proliferative index and miR-135b expression. These findings confirm the oncogenic roles of miR-135b in the pathogenesis of TNBC expressing basal markers. A potential negative prognostic role of miR-135b overexpression might be related to the positive correlation with high proliferative index. Our study implies potential clinical applications: miR-135b could be a potential therapeutic target in basal-like TNBCs.

  5. House dust mite-specific immunotherapy alters the basal expression of T regulatory and FcεRI pathway genes.

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    Pevec, Branko; Radulovic Pevec, Mira; Stipic Markovic, Asja; Batista, Irena; Rijavec, Matija; Silar, Mira; Kosnik, Mitja; Korosec, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells and IgE-mediated signaling pathways could play important roles in the induction of allergen tolerance during house dust mite-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (HDM-SCIT). Our aim was to compare the basal expression levels of Treg, T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 transcription factors and components involved in IgE-mediated signaling in healthy subjects with those in HDM-allergic patients both untreated and successfully treated with HDM-SCIT. Thirty-nine HDM-allergic patients who completed a 3- to 5-year course of mite extract SCIT, 20 mite-allergic controls and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. The efficacy of SCIT was monitored using skin-prick tests (SPTs), total immunoglobulin E (tIgE), specific IgE (sIgE), sIgG(4), nasal challenge and visual analog scale (VAS) scores at several time points. The mRNA levels of forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), T-BET, GATA-3, FcεRI, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) and SH2 domain-containing inositol phosphatase (SHIP) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR using nonstimulated whole blood samples. Decreased wheal sizes and VAS scores, negative challenges and increased sIgG(4) levels indicated that SCIT was effective in the treated patients. Basal expression levels of FOXP3 and GATA-3 decreased and T-BET levels increased in both treated patients and in healthy controls compared to untreated patients. The IgE-mediated pathway kinases Syk and PI3K exhibited reduced expression, whereas SHIP phosphatase levels were elevated in both treated patients and healthy controls relative to untreated patients. The expression levels of FcεRI were not significantly altered. Immunotherapy using HDM extracts results in a modification of the basal expression levels of several IgE-related signaling factors and induces a highly significant upregulation of Th1-response and downregulation of Th2-response transcription factors. Interestingly, this therapy also appears to reduce the basal

  6. Serum Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Bilateral Basal Ganglia Calcification.

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    Demiryurek, Bekir Enes; Gundogdu, Asli Aksoy

    2018-02-14

    The idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr syndrome) may occur due to senility. Fetuin-A is a negative acute phase reactant which inhibits calcium-phosphorus precipitation and vascular calcification. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether serum fetuin-A levels correlate with bilateral basal ganglia calcification. Forty-five patients who had bilateral basal ganglia calcification on brain CT were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and 45 age and gender-matched subjects without basal ganglia calcification were included for the control group. Serum fetuin-A levels were measured from venous blood samples. All participants were divided into two groups; with and without basal ganglia calcification. These groups were divided into subgroups regarding age (18-32 and 33-45 years of age) and gender (male, female). We detected lower levels of serum fetuin-A in patients with basal ganglia calcification compared with the subjects without basal ganglia calcification. In all subgroups (female, male, 18-32 years and 33-45 years), mean fetuin-A levels were significantly lower in patients with basal ganglia calcification (p = 0.017, p = 0.014, p = 0.024, p = 0.026, p = 0.01 respectively). And statistically significantly lower levels of fetuin-A was found to be correlated with the increasing densities of calcification in the calcified basal ganglia group (p-value: <0.001). Considering the role of fetuin-A in tissue calcification and inflammation, higher serum fetuin-A levels should be measured in patients with basal ganglia calcification. We believe that the measurement of serum fetuin-A may play a role in the prediction of basal ganglia calcification as a biomarker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative expression analysis of selected transcription factors in pavement, basal and trichome cells of mature leaves from Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Schliep, Martin; Ebert, Berit; Simon-Rosin, Ulrike; Zoeller, Daniela; Fisahn, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Gene expression levels of several transcription factors from Arabidopsis thaliana that were described previously to be involved in leaf development and trichome formation were analysed in trichome, basal and pavement cells of mature leaves. Single cell samples of these three cells types were collected by glass micro-capillaries. Real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used to analyse expression patterns of the following transcription factors: MYB23, MYB55, AtHB1, FILAMENTOUS FLOWER (FIL)/YABBY1 (YAB1), TRIPTYCHON (TRY) and CAPRICE (CPC). A difference in the expression patterns of TRY and CPC was revealed. Contrary to the CPC expression pattern, no transcripts of TRY could be detected in pavement cells. FIL/YAB1 was exclusively expressed in trichome cells. AtHB1 was highly expressed throughout all three cell types. MYB55 was higher expressed in basal cells than in trichome and pavement cells. MYB23 showed a pattern of low expression in pavement cells, medium in basal cells and high expression in trichomes. Expression patterns obtained by single cell sampling and real-time RT-PCR were compared to promoter GUS fusions of the selected transcription factors. Therefore, we regenerated two transgenic Arabidopsis lines that expressed the GUS reporter gene under control of the promoters of MYB55 and YAB1. In conclusion, despite their function in leaf morphogenesis, all six transcription factors were detected in mature leaves. Furthermore, single cell sampling and promoter GUS staining patterns demonstrated the predominant presence of MYB55 in basal cells as compared to pavement cells and trichomes.

  8. Basal p53 expression is indispensable for mesenchymal stem cell integrity.

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    Boregowda, Siddaraju V; Krishnappa, Veena; Strivelli, Jacqueline; Haga, Christopher L; Booker, Cori N; Phinney, Donald G

    2018-03-01

    Marrow-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) serve as a functional component of the perivascular niche that regulates hematopoiesis. They also represent the main source of bone formed in adult bone marrow, and their bifurcation to osteoblast and adipocyte lineages plays a key role in skeletal homeostasis and aging. Although the tumor suppressor p53 also functions in bone organogenesis, homeostasis, and neoplasia, its role in MSCs remains poorly described. Herein, we examined the normal physiological role of p53 in primary MSCs cultured under physiologic oxygen levels. Using knockout mice and gene silencing we show that p53 inactivation downregulates expression of TWIST2, which normally restrains cellular differentiation to maintain wild-type MSCs in a multipotent state, depletes mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and suppresses ROS generation and PPARG gene and protein induction in response to adipogenic stimuli. Mechanistically, this loss of adipogenic potential skews MSCs toward an osteogenic fate, which is further potentiated by TWIST2 downregulation, resulting in highly augmented osteogenic differentiation. We also show that p53 - /- MSCs are defective in supporting hematopoiesis as measured in standard colony assays because of decreased secretion of various cytokines including CXCL12 and CSF1. Lastly, we show that transient exposure of wild-type MSCs to 21% oxygen upregulates p53 protein expression, resulting in increased mitochondrial ROS production and enhanced adipogenic differentiation at the expense of osteogenesis, and that treatment of cells with FGF2 mitigates these effects by inducing TWIST2. Together, these findings indicate that basal p53 levels are necessary to maintain MSC bi-potency, and oxygen-induced increases in p53 expression modulate cell fate and survival decisions. Because of the critical function of basal p53 in MSCs, our findings question the use of p53 null cell lines as MSC surrogates, and also implicate dysfunctional

  9. Evaluation of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

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    Ding, Yu; Li, Juan; Yu, Yongguo; Yang, Peirong; Li, Huaiyuan; Shen, Yongnian; Huang, Xiaodong; Liu, Shijian

    2018-03-28

    This study aimed to identify the predictive value of basal sex hormone levels for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis in girls. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation tests were performed and evaluated in a total of 1750 girls with development of secondary sex characteristics. Correlation analyses were conducted between basal sex hormones and peak luteinizing hormone (LH) levels ≥5 IU/L during the GnRH stimulation test. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for basal levels of LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH, and estradiol (E2) before the GnRH stimulation test were plotted. The area under the curve (AUC) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were measured for each curve. The maximum AUC value was observed for basal LH levels (0.77, 95% CI: 0.74-0.79), followed by basal FSH levels (0.73, 95% CI: 0.70-0.75), the basal LH/FSH ratio (0.68, 95% CI: 0.65-0.71), and basal E2 levels (0.61, 95% CI: 0.59-0.64). The appropriate cutoff value of basal LH levels associated with a positive response of the GnRH stimulation test was 0.35 IU/L, with a sensitivity of 63.96% and specificity of 76.3% from the ROC curves when Youden's index showed the maximum value. When 100% of patients had peak LH levels ≥5 IU/L, basal LH values were >2.72 IU/L, but the specificity was only 5.45%. Increased basal LH levels are a significant predictor of a positive response during the GnRH stimulation test for assessing activation of the HPG axis in most girls with early pubertal signs.

  10. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

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    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  11. Basal cell carcinoma: PD-L1/PD-1 checkpoint expression and tumor regression after PD-1 blockade.

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    Lipson, Evan J; Lilo, Mohammed T; Ogurtsova, Aleksandra; Esandrio, Jessica; Xu, Haiying; Brothers, Patricia; Schollenberger, Megan; Sharfman, William H; Taube, Janis M

    2017-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies that block immune regulatory proteins such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) have demonstrated remarkable efficacy in controlling the growth of multiple tumor types. Unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinoma, however, has largely gone untested. Because PD-Ligand-1 (PD-L1) expression in other tumor types has been associated with response to anti-PD-1, we investigated the expression of PD-L1 and its association with PD-1 expression in the basal cell carcinoma tumor microenvironment. Among 40 basal cell carcinoma specimens, 9/40 (22%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor cells, and 33/40 (82%) demonstrated PD-L1 expression on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and associated macrophages. PD-L1 was observed in close geographic association to PD-1+ tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. Additionally, we present, here, the first report of an objective anti-tumor response to pembrolizumab (anti-PD-1) in a patient with metastatic PD-L1 (+) basal cell carcinoma, whose disease had previously progressed through hedgehog pathway-directed therapy. The patient remains in a partial response 14 months after initiation of therapy. Taken together, our findings provide a rationale for testing anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma, either as initial treatment or after acquired resistance to hedgehog pathway inhibition.

  12. Differential expression patterns of metastasis suppressor proteins in basal cell carcinoma.

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    Bozdogan, Onder; Yulug, Isik G; Vargel, Ibrahim; Cavusoglu, Tarik; Karabulut, Ayse A; Karahan, Gurbet; Sayar, Nilufer

    2015-08-01

    Basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) are common malignant skin tumors. Despite having a significant invasion capacity, they metastasize only rarely. Our aim in this study was to detect the expression patterns of the NM23-H1, NDRG1, E-cadherin, RHOGDI2, CD82/KAI1, MKK4, and AKAP12 metastasis suppressor proteins in BCCs. A total of 96 BCC and 10 normal skin samples were included for the immunohistochemical study. Eleven frozen BCC samples were also studied by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to detect the gene expression profile. NM23-H1 was strongly and diffusely expressed in all types of BCC. Significant cytoplasmic expression of NDRG1 and E-cadherin was also detected. However, AKAP12 and CD82/KAI1 expression was significantly decreased. The expressions of the other proteins were somewhere between the two extremes. Similarly, qRT-PCR analysis showed down-regulation of AKAP12 and up-regulation of NM23-H1 and NDRG1 in BCC. Morphologically aggressive BCCs showed significantly higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression scores and lower CD82/KAI1 scores than non-aggressive BCCs. The relatively preserved levels of NM23-H1, NDRG1, and E-cadherin proteins may have a positive effect on the non-metastasizing features of these tumors. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Protein profile of basal prostate epithelial progenitor cells--stage-specific embryonal antigen 4 expressing cells have enhanced regenerative potential in vivo.

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    Höfner, Thomas; Klein, Corinna; Eisen, Christian; Rigo-Watermeier, Teresa; Haferkamp, Axel; Sprick, Martin R

    2016-04-01

    The long-term propagation of basal prostate progenitor cells ex vivo has been very difficult in the past. The development of novel methods to expand prostate progenitor cells in vitro allows determining their cell surface phenotype in greater detail. Mouse (Lin(-)Sca-1(+) CD49f(+) Trop2(high)-phenotype) and human (Lin(-) CD49f(+) TROP2(high)) basal prostate progenitor cells were expanded in vitro. Human and mouse cells were screened using 242 anti-human or 176 antimouse monoclonal antibodies recognizing the cell surface protein profile. Quantitative expression was evaluated at the single-cell level using flow cytometry. Differentially expressed cell surface proteins were evaluated in conjunction with the known CD49f(+)/TROP2(high) phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells and characterized by in vivo sandwich-transplantation experiments using nude mice. The phenotype of basal prostate progenitor cells was determined as CD9(+)/CD24(+)/CD29(+)/CD44(+)/CD47(+)/CD49f(+)/CD104(+)/CD147(+)/CD326(+)/Trop2(high) of mouse as well as human origin. Our analysis revealed several proteins, such as CD13, Syndecan-1 and stage-specific embryonal antigens (SSEAs), as being differentially expressed on murine and human CD49f(+) TROP2(+) basal prostate progenitor cells. Transplantation experiments suggest that CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(high) human prostate basal progenitor cells to be more potent to regenerate prostate tubules in vivo as compared with CD49f(+) TROP2(high) or CD49f(+) TROP2(high) SSEA-4(low) cells. Determination of the cell surface protein profile of functionally defined murine and human basal prostate progenitor cells reveals differentially expressed proteins that may change the potency and regenerative function of epithelial progenitor cells within the prostate. SSEA-4 is a candidate cell surface marker that putatively enables a more accurate identification of the basal PESC lineage. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by

  14. Association of basal serum androgen levels with ovarian response and ICSI cycle outcome.

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    Abide Yayla, C; Ozkaya, E; Kayatas Eser, S; Sanverdi, I; Devranoglu, B; Kutlu, T

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive value of basal serum testosterone (T) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels during follicular phase for ovarian response and outcome in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles of women with diminished ovarian reserve. We prospectively gathered data of basal serum androgen levels and ICSI cycle characteristics of 120 women with diminished ovarian reserve. Association of basal serum T and DHEAS levels with ovarian response was analyzed. Basal T and DHEAS levels were similar between pregnant and non-pregnant cases (P > 0.05). There were significant differences between groups with and without successful embryo implantation in terms of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), gonadotropin starting and total dose, and peak estradiol level (P stimulation due to unresponsiveness (n = 26, 21.7%), no oocyte at oocyte pickup (n = 11, 9.2%), no mature oocyte (n = 6, 5%), and failure of fertilization or embryo development (n = 15, 12.5%). Basal androgen levels were not significant predictors for any of the cycle outcome. AMH level was a significant predictor for failure of fertilization or embryo development (AUC 0.722, P = 0.01) and cancelation of stimulation (AUC 0.801, P stimulation (AUC 0.774, P basal T and DHEAS levels have no value in predicting any of the cycle outcome parameters.

  15. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  16. Intracochlear Position of Cochlear Implants Determined Using CT Scanning versus Fitting Levels: Higher Threshold Levels at Basal Turn.

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    van der Beek, Feddo B; Briaire, Jeroen J; van der Marel, Kim S; Verbist, Berit M; Frijns, Johan H M

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the intracochlear position of cochlear implants on the clinical fitting levels were analyzed. A total of 130 adult subjects who used a CII/HiRes 90K cochlear implant with a HiFocus 1/1J electrode were included in the study. The insertion angle and the distance to the modiolus of each electrode contact were determined using high-resolution CT scanning. The threshold levels (T-levels) and maximum comfort levels (M-levels) at 1 year of follow-up were determined. The degree of speech perception of the subjects was evaluated during routine clinical follow-up. The depths of insertion of all the electrode contacts were determined. The distance to the modiolus was significantly smaller at the basal and apical cochlear parts compared with that at the middle of the cochlea (p basal end of the cochlea (3.4 dB). Additionally, the M-levels, which were fitted in our clinic using a standard profile, also increased toward the basal end, although with a lower amplitude (1.3 dB). Accordingly, the dynamic range decreased toward the basal end (2.1 dB). No correlation was found between the distance to the modiolus and the T-level or the M-level. Furthermore, the correlation between the insertion depth and stimulation levels was not affected by the duration of deafness, age at implantation or the time since implantation. Additionally, the T-levels showed a significant correlation with the speech perception scores (p stimulation levels of the cochlear implants were affected by the intracochlear position of the electrode contacts, which were determined using postoperative CT scanning. Interestingly, these levels depended on the insertion depth, whereas the distance to the modiolus did not affect the stimulation levels. The T-levels increased toward the basal end of the cochlea. The level profiles were independent of the overall stimulation levels and were not affected by the biographical data of the patients, such as the duration of deafness, age at

  17. Claudin 1 expression in basal-like breast cancer is related to patient age

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    Blanchard, Anne A; Ma, Xiuli; Dueck, Kevin J; Penner, Carla; Cooper, Steven C; Mulhall, Drew; Murphy, Leigh C; Leygue, Etienne; Myal, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Defects in tight junctions, gate-keepers of the integrity of the epidermal barrier function, are known to contribute to cancer development. As such, enhancing our understanding of how the expression of proteins involved in these junctions is regulated in cancer, remains a priority. Although the expression of one of these proteins, claudin 1, is down regulated in most invasive human breast cancers (HBC), we have recently shown that high levels of claudin 1, characterized tumors belonging to the very aggressive basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) subtype. In these tumors, the claudin 1 protein, usually localized in the cell membrane, is often mislocalized to the cytoplasm. To examine the clinical relevance of this observation, we have generated and analyzed an invasive HBC tissue microarray consisting of 151 breast tumor samples; 79 of which presented a basal-like phenotype (i.e. ER-ve, PR-ve HER2-ve, CK5/6 or EGFR+ve). We also interrogated the outcome of claudin 1 knockdown in a human BLBC cell line, BT-20. Immunohistochemical analysis of this patient cohort revealed a significant association between high claudin 1 expression and BLBCs in women 55 years of age and older. Interestingly, no significant association was found between claudin 1 and nodal involvement, tumor grade or tumor size. Regression analysis however, showed a significant positive association between claudin 1 and claudin 4, even though claudin 4 did not significantly correlate with patient age. Claudin 1 knockdown in BT-20 cells resulted in decreased cell migration. It also significantly altered the expression of several genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT); in particular, SERPINE 1 (PAI1) and SSP1 (osteopontin), known to inhibit EMT and cancer cell migration. Conversely, genes known to maintain EMT through their interaction, SNAIL2, TCF4 and FOXC2 were significantly down regulated. The association of high claudin 1 protein levels observed in tumors derived from older women with

  18. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Cichocki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  19. Basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

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    Garcez, Anderson; Leite, Heloísa Marquardt; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Watte, Guilherme; Canuto, Raquel; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2018-05-17

    To perform a qualitative synthesis (systematic review) and quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) to summarize the evidence regarding the relationship between basal cortisol levels and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults. A systematic search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases for observational studies on the association between basal cortisol levels and MetS. The quality of individual studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa score. A random effects model was used to report pooled quantitative results and the I 2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. Egger's and Begg's tests were used to evaluate publication bias. Twenty-six studies (19 cross-sectional and seven case-control) met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. The majority was classified as having a low risk of bias and used established criteria for the diagnosis of MetS. Twenty-one studies provided data on basal cortisol levels as continuous values and were included in the meta-analysis; they comprised 35 analyses and 11,808 subjects. Pooled results showed no significant difference in basal cortisol levels between subjects with and without MetS (standardized mean difference [SMD] = 0.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-0.11 to 0.14). There was high heterogeneity between the studies when all comparisons were considered (I 2  = 83.1%;p meta-analysis of studies evaluating saliva samples showed no significantly lower basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS (SMD=-0.18, 95% CI=-0.37 to 0.01), whereas those studies that evaluated serum samples (SMD = 0.11, 95% CI=-0.02 to 0.24) and urine samples (SMD = 0.73, 95% CI=-0.40 to 1.86) showed no significantly higher basal cortisol levels among subjects with MetS. In the subgroup and meta-regression analyses, a significant difference in basal cortisol levels was observed according to study design, population base, age, gender, cortisol level assessment method, and study quality. This systematic review

  20. A Transcriptional Regulatory Network Containing Nuclear Receptors and Long Noncoding RNAs Controls Basal and Drug-Induced Expression of Cytochrome P450s in HepaRG Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Bao, Yifan; Piekos, Stephanie C; Zhu, Kexin; Zhang, Lirong; Zhong, Xiao-Bo

    2018-07-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes are responsible for metabolizing drugs. Expression of P450s can directly affect drug metabolism, resulting in various outcomes in therapeutic efficacy and adverse effects. Several nuclear receptors are transcription factors that can regulate expression of P450s at both basal and drug-induced levels. Some long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) near a transcription factor are found to participate in the regulatory functions of the transcription factors. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a transcriptional regulatory network containing nuclear receptors and lncRNAs controlling both basal and drug-induced expression of P450s in HepaRG cells. Small interfering RNAs or small hairpin RNAs were applied to knock down four nuclear receptors [hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 α (HNF1 α ), hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α (HNF4 α ), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR)] as well as two lncRNAs [HNF1 α antisense RNA 1 (HNF1 α -AS1) and HNF4 α antisense RNA 1 (HNF4 α -AS1)] in HepaRG cells with or without treatment of phenobarbital or rifampicin. Expression of eight P450 enzymes was examined in both basal and drug-induced levels. CAR and PXR mainly regulated expression of specific P450s. HNF1 α and HNF4 α affected expression of a wide range of P450s as well as other transcription factors. HNF1 α and HNF4 α controlled the expression of their neighborhood lncRNAs, HNF1 α -AS1 and HNF4 α -AS1, respectively. HNF1 α -AS1 and HNF4 α -AS1 was also involved in the regulation of P450s and transcription factors in diverse manners. Altogether, our study concludes that a transcription regulatory network containing the nuclear receptors and lncRNAs controls both basal and drug-induced expression of P450s in HepaRG cells. Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Distinct choline metabolic profiles are associated with differences in gene expression for basal-like and luminal-like breast cancer xenograft models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moestue, Siver A; Borgan, Eldrid; Huuse, Else M; Lindholm, Evita M; Sitter, Beathe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Engebraaten, Olav; Mælandsmo, Gunhild M; Gribbestad, Ingrid S

    2010-01-01

    Increased concentrations of choline-containing compounds are frequently observed in breast carcinomas, and may serve as biomarkers for both diagnostic and treatment monitoring purposes. However, underlying mechanisms for the abnormal choline metabolism are poorly understood. The concentrations of choline-derived metabolites were determined in xenografted primary human breast carcinomas, representing basal-like and luminal-like subtypes. Quantification of metabolites in fresh frozen tissue was performed using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HR MAS MRS). The expression of genes involved in phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) metabolism was retrieved from whole genome expression microarray analyses. The metabolite profiles from xenografts were compared with profiles from human breast cancer, sampled from patients with estrogen/progesterone receptor positive (ER+/PgR+) or triple negative (ER-/PgR-/HER2-) breast cancer. In basal-like xenografts, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) concentrations were higher than phosphocholine (PCho) concentrations, whereas this pattern was reversed in luminal-like xenografts. These differences may be explained by lower choline kinase (CHKA, CHKB) expression as well as higher PtdCho degradation mediated by higher expression of phospholipase A2 group 4A (PLA2G4A) and phospholipase B1 (PLB1) in the basal-like model. The glycine concentration was higher in the basal-like model. Although glycine could be derived from energy metabolism pathways, the gene expression data suggested a metabolic shift from PtdCho synthesis to glycine formation in basal-like xenografts. In agreement with results from the xenograft models, tissue samples from triple negative breast carcinomas had higher GPC/PCho ratio than samples from ER+/PgR+ carcinomas, suggesting that the choline metabolism in the experimental models is representative for luminal-like and basal-like human breast cancer. The differences in choline metabolite

  2. Transcriptional Profiling of Cholinergic Neurons From Basal Forebrain Identifies Changes in Expression of Genes Between Sleep and Wake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikonova, Elena V; Gilliland, Jason DA; Tanis, Keith Q; Podtelezhnikov, Alexei A; Rigby, Alison M; Galante, Raymond J; Finney, Eva M; Stone, David J; Renger, John J; Pack, Allan I; Winrow, Christopher J

    2017-06-01

    To assess differences in gene expression in cholinergic basal forebrain cells between sleeping and sleep-deprived mice sacrificed at the same time of day. Tg(ChAT-eGFP)86Gsat mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under control of the choline acetyltransferase (Chat) promoter were utilized to guide laser capture of cholinergic cells in basal forebrain. Messenger RNA expression levels in these cells were profiled using microarrays. Gene expression in eGFP(+) neurons was compared (1) to that in eGFP(-) neurons and to adjacent white matter, (2) between 7:00 am (lights on) and 7:00 pm (lights off), (3) between sleep-deprived and sleeping animals at 0, 3, 6, and 9 hours from lights on. There was a marked enrichment of ChAT and other markers of cholinergic neurons in eGFP(+) cells. Comparison of gene expression in these eGFP(+) neurons between 7:00 am and 7:00 pm revealed expected differences in the expression of clock genes (Arntl2, Per1, Per2, Dbp, Nr1d1) as well as mGluR3. Comparison of expression between spontaneous sleep and sleep-deprived groups sacrificed at the same time of day revealed a number of transcripts (n = 55) that had higher expression in sleep deprivation compared to sleep. Genes upregulated in sleep deprivation predominantly were from the protein folding pathway (25 transcripts, including chaperones). Among 42 transcripts upregulated in sleep was the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein. Cholinergic cell signatures were characterized. Whether the identified genes are changing as a consequence of differences in behavioral state or as part of the molecular regulatory mechanism remains to be determined. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Expression of the alpha 6 beta 4 integrin by squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas: possible relation to invasive potential?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossen, K; Dahlstrøm, K K; Mercurio, A M

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the expression of alpha 6 beta 4 integrin, a carcinoma laminin receptor in ten squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and ten basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) of the skin in order to examine whether changes in alpha 6 beta 4 integrin expression may be related to invasive and metastatic...... potential. Monoclonal antibodies specific for each subunit were applied on cryosections, using a three step indirect peroxidase technique. In normal epidermis the basal cells expressed both the alpha 6 and the beta 4 subunits, and the expression was polarized against the basement membrane. In SCCs...

  4. [Immunohistochemical study of the specific features of expression of matrix metalloproteinases 1, 9 in the photoaged skin, the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, E V; Snarskaya, E S; Zavalishina, L E; Tkachenko, S B

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) mediate the degradation of all types of collagens and other extracellular matrix components (elastin, proteoglycans, and laminin), their synthesis and accumulation play a key role in the hydrolysis of basement membrane. MMPs are involved in a wide range of proteolytic processes in the presence of different physiological and pathological changes, including inflammation, wound healing, angiogenesis, and carcinogenesis. to study the specific features of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression in different stages of skin photoaging, in the foci of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma by immunohistochemical examination. 12 samples of the healthy skin (6 samples of the eyelid skin with Glogau grade II photoaging; 6 ones of eyelid skin with Glogau grades III-IV photoaging) and biopsies from 8 foci of actinic keratosis and from 8 ones of basal cell carcinoma were examined. A positive reaction to MMPs was shown as different brown staining intensity in the cytoplasm of keratinocytes/tumor cells. MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded in 67% of the histological specimens of the Glogau grade III photoaged skin and in 100% of those of Glogau grade IV. In the foci of actinic keratosis, the expression of MMP-1 was observed in 62.5% of cases and that of MMP-9 was seen in 87.5%. In basal cell carcinoma, the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 was detected in all investigated samples. The immunomorphological findings are indicative of the important role of the level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression that is associated with the degree of progression of skin photoaging processes. Minimal MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was recorded even in grades III-IV photoaging and in the foci of actinic keratosis. Intense MMP-1 and MMP-9 expression was detected in malignant skin epithelial neoplasms as different clinicomorphological types of basal cell carcinoma.

  5. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  6. Characterization of heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Basal expression and response to pro-oxidant exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holowiecki, Andrew; O'Shields, Britton; Jenny, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    While heme is an important cofactor for numerous proteins, it is highly toxic in its unbound form and can perpetuate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase enzymes (HMOX1 and HMOX2) degrade heme into biliverdin and carbon monoxide, with biliverdin subsequently being converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb). As a result of the teleost-specific genome duplication event, zebrafish have paralogs of hmox1 (hmox1a and hmox1b) and hmox2 (hmox2a and hmox2b). Expression of all four hmox paralogs and two bvr isoforms were measured in adult tissues (gill, brain and liver) and sexually dimorphic differences were observed, most notably in the basal expression of hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb in liver samples. hmox1a, hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male liver tissues in response to 96 h cadmium exposure (20 μM). hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male brain samples, but only hmox2a was significantly reduced in male gill samples in response to the 96 h cadmium exposure. hmox paralogs displayed significantly different levels of basal expression in most adult tissues, as well as during zebrafish development (24 to 120 hpf). Furthermore, hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were significantly induced in zebrafish eleutheroembryos in response to multiple pro-oxidants (cadmium, hemin and tert-butylhydroquinone). Knockdown of Nrf2a, a transcriptional regulator of hmox1a, was demonstrated to inhibit the Cd-mediated induction of hmox1b and bvrb. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms of hmox and bvr transcriptional regulation in zebrafish, providing initial evidence of the partitioning of function of the hmox paralogs. - Highlights: • hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb are sexually dimorphic in expression. • hmox paralogs were induced in adult tissues by cadmium exposure. • hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were induced by multiple pro-oxidants zebrafish embryos. • Differential expression of zebrafish hmox paralogs suggest

  7. Characterization of heme oxygenase and biliverdin reductase gene expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio): Basal expression and response to pro-oxidant exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holowiecki, Andrew [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Molecular Cardiovascular Biology Division and Heart Institute, Cincinnati Children' s Research Foundation, Cincinnati, OH (United States); O' Shields, Britton [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Jenny, Matthew J., E-mail: mjjenny@ua.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    While heme is an important cofactor for numerous proteins, it is highly toxic in its unbound form and can perpetuate the formation of reactive oxygen species. Heme oxygenase enzymes (HMOX1 and HMOX2) degrade heme into biliverdin and carbon monoxide, with biliverdin subsequently being converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase (BVRa or BVRb). As a result of the teleost-specific genome duplication event, zebrafish have paralogs of hmox1 (hmox1a and hmox1b) and hmox2 (hmox2a and hmox2b). Expression of all four hmox paralogs and two bvr isoforms were measured in adult tissues (gill, brain and liver) and sexually dimorphic differences were observed, most notably in the basal expression of hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb in liver samples. hmox1a, hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male liver tissues in response to 96 h cadmium exposure (20 μM). hmox2a and hmox2b were significantly induced in male brain samples, but only hmox2a was significantly reduced in male gill samples in response to the 96 h cadmium exposure. hmox paralogs displayed significantly different levels of basal expression in most adult tissues, as well as during zebrafish development (24 to 120 hpf). Furthermore, hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were significantly induced in zebrafish eleutheroembryos in response to multiple pro-oxidants (cadmium, hemin and tert-butylhydroquinone). Knockdown of Nrf2a, a transcriptional regulator of hmox1a, was demonstrated to inhibit the Cd-mediated induction of hmox1b and bvrb. These results demonstrate distinct mechanisms of hmox and bvr transcriptional regulation in zebrafish, providing initial evidence of the partitioning of function of the hmox paralogs. - Highlights: • hmox1a, hmox2a, hmox2b and bvrb are sexually dimorphic in expression. • hmox paralogs were induced in adult tissues by cadmium exposure. • hmox1a, hmox1b and bvrb were induced by multiple pro-oxidants zebrafish embryos. • Differential expression of zebrafish hmox paralogs suggest

  8. Spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and sleep deprivation differently induce Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a DNA methylation and transcripts levels in the basal forebrain and frontal cortex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventskovska, Olena; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Karpova, Nina N

    2015-04-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) regulates neuronal plasticity, slow wave activity and sleep homeostasis. Environmental stimuli control Bdnf expression through epigenetic mechanisms, but there are no data on epigenetic regulation of Bdnf by sleep or sleep deprivation. Here we investigated whether 5-methylcytosine (5mC) DNA modification at Bdnf promoters p1, p4 and p9 influences Bdnf1, Bdnf4 and Bdnf9a expression during the normal inactive phase or after sleep deprivation (SD) (3, 6 and 12 h, end-times being ZT3, ZT6 and ZT12) in rats in two brain areas involved in sleep regulation, the basal forebrain and cortex. We found a daytime variation in cortical Bdnf expression: Bdnf1 expression was highest at ZT6 and Bdnf4 lowest at ZT12. Such variation was not observed in the basal forebrain. Also Bdnf p1 and p9 methylation levels differed only in the cortex, while Bdnf p4 methylation did not vary in either area. Factorial analysis revealed that sleep deprivation significantly induced Bdnf1 and Bdnf4 with the similar pattern for Bdnf9a in both basal forebrain and cortex; 12 h of sleep deprivation decreased 5mC levels at the cortical Bdnf p4 and p9. Regression analysis between the 5mC promoter levels and the corresponding Bdnf transcript expression revealed significant negative correlations for the basal forebrain Bdnf1 and cortical Bdnf9a transcripts in only non-deprived rats, while these correlations were lost after sleep deprivation. Our results suggest that Bdnf transcription during the light phase of undisturbed sleep-wake cycle but not after SD is regulated at least partially by brain site-specific DNA methylation. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Immunohistochemical expression of CD 10 in Cutaneous basal ,and Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIAD, H.A.; HANOUT, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: CD 10 is a zinc-dependent metallo peptidase known as common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA). Although CD I 0 expression has been investigated in some cutaneous tumors, to our knowledge, data regarding its expression in cutaneous epithelial neoplasms are very limited. We aimed to determine the immunohistochemical expression of Cd 10 in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (Succ) and to associate it with the available clinico pathological parameters in both tumors. Patients and Methods: This study included 16 Succ and 21 BCC cases (17 solid type, 2 morphea type and 2 adenoid basal types). BCC cases were divided into 12 cases with microscopic infiltrative base and 9 cases with well-circumscribed base. The localization of anti-CD 10 to the tumor and/or stromal cells was determined in each case. Results: Positive CD 10 staining was identified as brown cytoplasmic, with or without cell membrane staining. In all the 16 SCC cases, tumor cells failed to stain with CD 10 in contrast to the stromal cells that showed CD 10 expression in 13 cases (81%). In BCC cases, the expression of CD 10 was noted in tumor cells in 10 cases (476%) and in stromal cells of 20 cases (95.24%). Most of CD 10+ (7/10) BCC showed well-circumscribed deep margin, however, most of CD 10- cases (9/11) showed infiltrating base (p=0.030). BCCs with infiltrating deep margins (12 cases) tended to show CD 10 negative basaloid cells (9/12) and CD 10 positive stromal cells (12/12) (p=0.0003). Conclusion: From our results we suggest that CD 10 might be a useful immunohistochemical marker to differentiate between BCC and SCC. At least, if tumor cells were CD 10 positive, this would favor BCC over SCC. Absence of CD 10 in all the SCC and in infiltrating BCC together with its overexpression in the surrounding stromal cells might confer invasive properties to such tumors. However, its relation to other poor prognostic factors needs larger studies to be confirmed

  10. Loss of Dickkopf 3 Promotes the Tumorigenesis of Basal Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lorsy

    Full Text Available Dickkopf 3 (DKK3 has been associated with tumor suppression of various tumor entities including breast cancer. However, the functional impact of DKK3 on the tumorigenesis of distinct molecular breast cancer subtypes has not been considered so far. Therefore, we initiated a study analyzing the subtype-specific DKK3 expression pattern as well as its prognostic and functional impact with respect to breast cancer subtypes. Based on three independent tissue cohorts including one in silico dataset (n = 30, n = 463 and n = 791 we observed a clear down-regulation of DKK3 expression in breast cancer samples compared to healthy breast tissue controls on mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, most abundant reduction of DKK3 expression was detected in the highly aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Analyzing a large in silico dataset comprising 3,554 cases showed that low DKK3 mRNA expression was significantly associated with reduced recurrence free survival (RFS of luminal and basal-like breast cancer cases. Functionally, DKK3 re-expression in human breast cancer cell lines led to suppression of cell growth possibly mediated by up-regulation of apoptosis in basal-like but not in luminal-like breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, ectopic DKK3 expression in mesenchymal basal breast cancer cells resulted in partial restoration of epithelial cell morphology which was molecularly supported by higher expression of epithelial markers like E-Cadherin and down-regulation of mesenchymal markers such as Snail 1. Hence, we provide evidence that down-regulation of DKK3 especially promotes tumorigenesis of the aggressive basal breast cancer subtype. Further studies decoding the underlying molecular mechanisms of DKK3-mediated effects may help to identify novel targeted therapies for this clinically highly relevant breast cancer subtype.

  11. Ezh2 represses the basal cell lineage during lung endoderm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snitow, Melinda E; Li, Shanru; Morley, Michael P; Rathi, Komal; Lu, Min Min; Kadzik, Rachel S; Stewart, Kathleen M; Morrisey, Edward E

    2015-01-01

    The development of the lung epithelium is regulated in a stepwise fashion to generate numerous differentiated and stem cell lineages in the adult lung. How these different lineages are generated in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion remains poorly understood, although epigenetic regulation probably plays an important role. We show that the Polycomb repressive complex 2 component Ezh2 is highly expressed in early lung development but is gradually downregulated by late gestation. Deletion of Ezh2 in early lung endoderm progenitors leads to the ectopic and premature appearance of Trp63+ basal cells that extend the entire length of the airway. Loss of Ezh2 also leads to reduced secretory cell differentiation. In their place, morphologically similar cells develop that express a subset of basal cell genes, including keratin 5, but no longer express high levels of either Trp63 or of standard secretory cell markers. This suggests that Ezh2 regulates the phenotypic switch between basal cells and secretory cells. Together, these findings show that Ezh2 restricts the basal cell lineage during normal lung endoderm development to allow the proper patterning of epithelial lineages during lung formation. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The Wnt receptor, Lrp5, is expressed by mouse mammary stem cells and is required to maintain the basal lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha M Badders

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic Wnt signaling induces increased stem/progenitor cell activity in the mouse mammary gland, followed by tumor development. The Wnt signaling receptors, Lrp5/6, are uniquely required for canonical Wnt activity. Previous data has shown that the absence of Lrp5 confers resistance to Wnt1-induced tumor development.Here, we show that all basal mammary cells express Lrp5, and co-express Lrp6 in a similar fashion. Though Wnt dependent transcription of key target genes is relatively unchanged in mammary epithelial cell cultures, the absence of Lrp5 specifically depletes adult regenerative stem cell activity (to less than 1%. Stem cell activity can be enriched by >200 fold (over 80% of activity, based on high Lrp5 expression alone. Though Lrp5 null glands have apparent normal function, the basal lineage is relatively reduced (from 42% basal/total epithelial cells to 22% and Lrp5-/- mammary epithelial cells show enhanced expression of senescence-associated markers in vitro, as measured by expression of p16(Ink4a and TA-p63.This is the first single biomarker that has been demonstrated to be functionally involved in stem cell maintenance. Together, these results demonstrate that Wnt signaling through Lrp5 is an important component of normal mammary stem cell function.

  13. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and...

  14. High-level expression of Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase from recombinant Escherichia coli with auto-induction: effect of lac operator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Nie

    Full Text Available Pullulanase plays an important role in specific hydrolysis of branch points in amylopectin and is generally employed as an important enzyme in starch-processing industry. So far, however, the production level of pullulanase is still somewhat low from wide-type strains and even heterologous expression systems. Here the gene encoding Bacillus naganoensis pullulanase was amplified and cloned. For expression of the protein, two recombinant systems, Escherichia coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul and E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul, were constructed, both bearing T7 promoter and signal peptide sequence, but different in the existance of lac operator and lacI gene encoding lac repressor. Recombinant pullulanase was initially expressed with the activity of up to 14 U/mL by E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-20b(+-pul with IPTG induction in LB medium, but its expression level reduced continually with the extension of cryopreservation time and basal expression was observed. However, E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul , involving lac operator downstream of T7 promoter to regulate foreign gene transcription, exhibited pullulanase activity consistently without detected basal expression. By investigating the effect of lac operator, basal expression of foreign protein was found to cause expression instability and negative effect on production of target protein. Thus double-repression strategy was proposed that lac operators in both chromosome and plasmid were bound with lac repressor to repress T7 RNA polymerase synthesis and target protein expression before induction. Consequently, the total activity of pullulanase was remarkably increased to 580 U/mL with auto-induction by lac operator-involved E. coli BL21(DE3/pET-22b(+-pul. When adding 0.6% glycine in culture, the extracellular production of pullulanase was significantly improved with the extracellular activity of 502 U/mL, which is a relatively higher level achieved to date for extracellular production of pullulanase. The

  15. Epigenetic control of the basal-like gene expression profile via Interleukin-6 in breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrugno Valentina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal-like carcinoma are aggressive breast cancers that frequently carry p53 inactivating mutations, lack estrogen receptor-α (ERα and express the cancer stem cell markers CD133 and CD44. These tumors also over-express Interleukin 6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine that stimulates the growth of breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. Results Here we show that p53 deficiency in breast cancer cells induces a loss of methylation at IL-6 proximal promoter region, which is maintained by an IL-6 autocrine loop. IL-6 also elicits the loss of methylation at the CD133 promoter region 1 and of CD44 proximal promoter, enhancing CD133 and CD44 gene transcription. In parallel, IL-6 induces the methylation of estrogen receptor (ERα promoter and the loss of ERα mRNA expression. Finally, IL-6 induces the methylation of IL-6 distal promoter and of CD133 promoter region 2, which harbour putative repressor regions. Conclusion We conclude that IL-6, whose methylation-dependent autocrine loop is triggered by the inactivation of p53, induces an epigenetic reprogramming that drives breast carcinoma cells towards a basal-like/stem cell-like gene expression profile.

  16. Induction of chemokine receptor CXCR4 expression by transforming growth factor-β1 in human basal cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Sheen, Yi-Shuan; Cha, Shih-Ting; Hu, Yeh-Fang; Tan, Ching-Ting; Chiu, Hsien-Ching; Chang, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Min-Wei; Kuo, Min-Liang; Jee, Shiou-Hwa

    2013-11-01

    Higher CXCR4 expression enhances basal cell carcinoma (BCC) invasion and angiogenesis. The underlying mechanism of increased CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC is still not well understood. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the regulation of CXCR4 expression in invasive BCC. We used qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, Western blot, and flow cytometric analyses to examine different CXCR4 levels among the clinical samples, co-cultured BCC cells and BCC cells treated with recombinant transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Immunohistochemical studies were used to demonstrate the correlation between TGF-β1 and CXCR4 expressions. The signal transduction pathway and transcriptional regulation were confirmed by treatments with chemical inhibitors, neutralizing antibodies, or short interfering RNAs, as well as luciferase reporter activity. Invasive BCC has higher TGF-β1 and CTGF levels compared to non-invasive BCC. Non-contact dermal fibroblasts co-culture with human BCC cells also increases the expression of CXCR4 in BCC cells. Treatment with recombinant human TGF-β1, but not CTGF, enhanced the CXCR4 levels in time- and dose-dependent manners. The protein level and surface expression of CXCR4 in human BCC cells was increased by TGF-β1 treatment. TGF-β1 was intensely expressed in the surrounding fibroblasts of invasive BCC and was positively correlated with the CXCR4 expression of BCC cells. The transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 by TGF-β1 is mediated by its binding to the TGF-β receptor II and phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2)-ETS-1 pathway. TGF-β1 induces upregulation of CXCR4 in human BCC cells by phosphorylation of ERK1/2-ETS-1 pathway. Copyright © 2013 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Choline acetyltransferase expression during periods of behavioral activity and across natural sleep-wake states in the basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M A; McCarley, R W; Shiromani, P J

    1999-01-01

    The present study examined whether the expression of the messenger RNA encoding the protein responsible for acetylcholine synthesis is associated with sleep-wakefulness. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were analysed using a semi-quantitative assay in which reverse transcription was coupled to complementary DNA amplification using the polymerase chain reaction. To examine the relationship between steady-state messenger RNA and behavioral activity, rats were killed during the day (4.00 p.m.) or night (4.00 a.m.), and tissue from the vertical and horizontal limbs of the diagonal bands of Broca was analysed. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were higher during the day than during the night. The second study examined more closely the association between choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels and individual bouts of wakefulness, slow-wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep. Choline acetyltransferase messenger RNA levels were low during wakefulness, intermediate in slow-wave sleep and high during rapid eye movement sleep. In contrast, protein activity, measured at a projection site of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, was higher during wakefulness than during sleep. These findings suggest that choline acetyltransferase protein and messenger RNA levels exhibit an inverse relationship during sleep and wakefulness. The increased messenger RNA expression during sleep is consistent with a restorative function of sleep.

  18. Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose em carcinoma basocelular Markers expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília de Pádua Dornelas Corrêa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O carcinoma basocelular é o câncer mais comum em humanos. Estudos que utilizam recursos da biologia molecular e genética, associados à histomorfologia, permitem a identificação de fatores de risco no desenvolvimento de lesões mais recorrentes e agressivas. OBJETIVO: Correlacionar a expressão dos marcadores de apoptose (p53 e Bcl-2 e proliferação celular (Ki-67 e PCNA com os indicadores histológicos de gravidade do tumor. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se cinco amostras das formas nodular, morfeiforme e superficial, respectivamente, e um grupo-controle com três pacientes livres de lesão. Empregou-se o teste de Mann-Whitney na comparação da expressão desses marcadores com a forma de apresentação do carcinoma basocelular. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a marcação do Bcl-2 foi expressiva nos CBCs ditos agressivos (variantes morfeiforme e nodular. Dos tumores estudados, 66,7% (n = 10 indicaram fortemente o p53. Nossos resultados mostram maior expressão do Ki-67 no carcinoma basocelular nodular e superficial, sem expressão nos controles. O PCNA mostrou forte marcação em todos os tipos de tumores e nos controles. CONCLUSÃO: Os achados nos permitem concluir que o Bcl-2 e o p53 apresentam tendência para diagnosticar gravidade do carcinoma basocelular e o Ki-67, por seu comportamento variável, não pode ser considerado como marcador de gravidade, assim como o PCNA, que não foi um bom marcador de proliferação celular.BACKGROUND: - Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of human cancer. Studies employing molecular and genetic biology techniques, associated with histomorphology, lead to the identification of risk factors in the development of more recurring and aggressive lesions. OBJECTIVE - To correlate markers expression of apoptosis (p53 and bcl-2 and cell proliferation (Ki-67 and PCNA with histological indicators of tumor severity. METHODS - Five samples of the nodular, morpheaform and superficial types of carcinoma

  19. Basal C-peptide Level as a Surrogate Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sung-Tae Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have revealed that C-peptide induces smooth muscle cell proliferation and causes human atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether the basal C-peptide levels correlate with cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.MethodsData was obtained from 467 patients with T2DM from two institutions who were followed for four years. The medical findings of all patients were reviewed, and patients with creatinine >1.4 mg/dL, any inflammation or infection, hepatitis, or type 1 DM were excluded. The relationships between basal C-peptide and other clinical values were statistically analyzed.ResultsA simple correlation was found between basal C-peptide and components of metabolic syndrome (MS. Statistically basal C-peptide levels were significantly higher than the three different MS criteria used in the present study, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III of the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP's, World Health Organization (WHO, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria (NCEP-ATP III, P=0.001; IDF, P<0.001; WHO, P=0.029. The multiple regression analysis between intima-media thickness (IMT and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide significantly correlated with IMT (P=0.043, while the analysis between the 10-year coronary heart disease risk by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide did not correlate with IMT (P=0.226.ConclusionBasal C-peptide is related to cardiovascular predictors (IMT of T2DM, suggesting that basal C-peptide does provide a further indication of cardiovascular disease.

  20. 50 Hz hippocampal stimulation in refractory epilepsy: Higher level of basal glutamate predicts greater release of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavus, Idil; Widi, Gabriel A; Duckrow, Robert B; Zaveri, Hitten; Kennard, Jeremy T; Krystal, John; Spencer, Dennis D

    2016-02-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation on brain glutamate release in humans is unknown. Glutamate is elevated at baseline in the epileptogenic hippocampus of patients with refractory epilepsy, and increases during spontaneous seizures. We examined the effect of 50 Hz stimulation on glutamate release and its relationship to interictal levels in the hippocampus of patients with epilepsy. In addition, we measured basal and stimulated glutamate levels in a subset of these patients where stimulation elicited a seizure. Subjects (n = 10) were patients with medically refractory epilepsy who were undergoing intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) evaluation in an epilepsy monitoring unit. Electrical stimulation (50 Hz) was delivered through implanted hippocampal electrodes (n = 11), and microdialysate samples were collected every 2 min. Basal glutamate, changes in glutamate efflux with stimulation, and the relationships between peak stimulation-associated glutamate concentrations, basal zero-flow levels, and stimulated seizures were examined. Stimulation of epileptic hippocampi in patients with refractory epilepsy caused increases in glutamate efflux (p = 0.005, n = 10), and 4 of ten patients experienced brief stimulated seizures. Stimulation-induced increases in glutamate were not observed during the evoked seizures, but rather were related to the elevation in interictal basal glutamate (R(2) = 0.81, p = 0.001). The evoked-seizure group had lower basal glutamate levels than the no-seizure group (p = 0.04), with no stimulation-induced change in glutamate efflux (p = 0.47, n = 4). Conversely, increased glutamate was observed following stimulation in the no-seizure group (p = 0.005, n = 7). Subjects with an atrophic hippocampus had higher basal glutamate levels (p = 0.03, n = 7) and higher stimulation-induced glutamate efflux. Electrical stimulation of the epileptic hippocampus either increased extracellular glutamate efflux or induced seizures. The magnitude of stimulated

  1. Caffeine and REM sleep deprivation: Effect on basal levels of signaling molecules in area CA1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Alhaider, Ibrahim A

    2016-03-01

    We have investigated the neuroprotective effect of chronic caffeine treatment on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of sleep-deprived rats. Animals in the caffeine groups were treated with caffeine in drinking water (0.3g/l) for four weeks before they were REM sleep-deprived for 24h in the Modified Multiple Platforms paradigm. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of plasticity- and memory-related signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed significant down regulation of the basal levels of phosphorylated- and total-CaMKII, phosphorylated- and total-CREB as well as those of BDNF and CaMKIV in sleep deprived rats. All these changes were completely prevented in rats that chronically consumed caffeine. The present findings suggest an important neuroprotective property of caffeine in sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  3. Sal-like 4 (SALL4) suppresses CDH1 expression and maintains cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itou, Junji; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kiyotsugu; Toi, Masakazu

    2013-09-17

    In cell cultures, the dispersed phenotype is indicative of the migratory ability. Here we characterized Sal-like 4 (SALL4) as a dispersion factor in basal-like breast cancer. Our shRNA-mediated SALL4 knockdown system and SALL4 overexpression system revealed that SALL4 suppresses the expression of adhesion gene CDH1, and positively regulates the CDH1 suppressor ZEB1. Cell behavior analyses showed that SALL4 suppresses intercellular adhesion and maintains cell motility after cell-cell interaction and cell division, which results in the dispersed phenotype. Our findings indicate that SALL4 functions to suppress CDH1 expression and to maintain cell dispersion in basal-like breast cancer. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Immunohistochemical Characteristics of Triple Negative/Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Emel Ebru PALA; Ümit BAYOL; Süheyla CUMURCU; Elif KESKİN

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers.Material and Method: We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytoke...

  5. Associations between basal cortisol levels and memory retrieval in healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Sandra; Hartmann, Francina; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F; Rasch, Björn

    2013-11-01

    Cortisol is known to affect memory processes. On the one hand, stress-induced or pharmacologically induced elevations of cortisol levels enhance memory consolidation. On the other hand, such experimentally induced elevations of cortisol levels have been shown to impair memory retrieval. However, the effects of individual differences in basal cortisol levels on memory processes remain largely unknown. Here we tested whether individual differences in cortisol levels predict picture learning and recall in a large sample. A total of 1225 healthy young women and men viewed two different sets of emotional and neutral pictures on two consecutive days. Both sets were recalled after a short delay (10 min). On Day 2, the pictures seen on Day 1 were additionally recalled, resulting in a long-delay (20 hr) recall condition. Cortisol levels were measured three times on Days 1 and 2 via saliva samples before encoding, between encoding and recall as well as after recall testing. We show that stronger decreases in cortisol levels during retrieval testing were associated with better recall performance of pictures, regardless of emotional valence of the pictures or length of the retention interval (i.e., 10 min vs. 20 hr). In contrast, average cortisol levels during retrieval were not related to picture recall. Remarkably during encoding, individual differences in average cortisol levels as well as changes in cortisol did not predict memory recall. Our results support previous findings indicating that higher cortisol levels during retrieval testing hinders recall of episodic memories and extend this view onto interindividual changes in basal cortisol levels.

  6. YB-1 facilitates basal and 5-fluorouracil-inducible expression of the human major vault protein (MVP) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Ulrike; Bergmann, Stephan; Scheffer, George L; Scheper, Rik J; Royer, Hans-Dieter; Schlag, Peter M; Walther, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    Vaults have been suggested to play a direct role in multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs. The human major vault protein (MVP) also known as lung resistance-related protein (LRP) represents the predominant component of vaults that may be involved in the defense against xenobiotics. Here, we demonstrate that besides MDR-related cytostatics, also the non-MDR-related drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was able to induce MVP mRNA and protein expression. Treatment with 5-FU amplified the binding activity and interaction of the transcription factor Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) with the Y-box of the human MVP gene promoter in a time-dependent manner. 5-FU also induced reporter expressions driven by a panel of newly generated MVP promoter deletion mutants. Interestingly, stably YB-1 overexpressing cell clones showed enhanced binding of YB-1 to the Y-box motif, associated with enhanced basal as well as 5-FU-inducible MVP promoter-driven reporter expressions. Moreover, transduction of YB-1 cDNA led to increased expression of endogenous MVP protein. Under physiological conditions, we observed a strong coexpression of MVP and YB-1 in human colon carcinoma specimen. In summary, our data demonstrate a direct involvement of YB-1 in controlling basal and 5-FU-induced MVP promoter activity. Therefore, YB-1 is directly linked to MVP-mediated drug resistance.

  7. Changes in Hepatic TRβ Protein Expression, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Long-Chain Acylcarnitine Levels During Chronic Hyperthyroidism and Triiodothyronine Withdrawal in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kenji; Sinha, Rohit Anthony; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Iannucci, Liliana Felicia; Zhou, Jin; Kovalik, Jean-Paul; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Refetoff, Samuel; Sng, Judy Chia Ghee; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Yen, Paul Michael

    2017-06-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) has important roles in regulating hepatic metabolism. It was previously reported that most hepatic genes activated by a single triiodothyronine (T3) injection became desensitized after multiple injections, and that approximately 10% of target genes did not return to basal expression levels after T3 withdrawal, despite normalization of serum TH and thyrotropin (TSH) levels. To determine the possible mechanism(s) for desensitization and incomplete recovery of hepatic target gene transcription and their effects on metabolism, mRNA and/or protein expression levels of key regulators of TH action were measured, as well as metabolomic changes after chronic T3 treatment and withdrawal. Adult male mice were treated with daily injections of T3 (20 μg/100 g body weight) for 14 days followed by the cessation of T3 for 10 days. Livers were harvested at 6 hours, 24 hours, and 14 days after the first T3 injection, and at 10 days after withdrawal, and then analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and metabolomics. Although TH receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNAs decreased slightly after chronic T3 treatment, only TRβ protein decreased before returning to basal expression level after withdrawal. The expression of other regulators of TH action was unchanged. TRβ protein expression was also decreased in adult male monocarboxylate transporter-8 (Mct8)-knockout mice, an in vivo model of chronic intrahepatic hyperthyroidism. Previously, increased hepatic long-chain acylcarnitine levels were found after acute TH treatment. However, in this study, long-chain acylcarnitine levels were unchanged after chronic T3, and paradoxically increased after T3 withdrawal. Pathway analyses of the previous microarray results showed upregulation of lipogenic genes after acute T3 treatment and withdrawal. Phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase also decreased after T3 withdrawal. Decreased hepatic TRβ protein expression occurred

  8. Elevated basal progesterone levels are associated with increased preovulatory progesterone rise but not with higher pregnancy rates in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Mehmet Firat; Erdem, Mehmet; Mutlu, Ilknur; Bulut, Berk; Erdem, Ahmet

    2017-09-01

    To ascertain the association between basal progesterone (P) levels and the occurrence of preovulatory progesterone rise (PPR) and clinical pregnancy rates (CPRs) in ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonists. Serum P levels of 464 patients were measured on day 2 and day of hCG of cycles. Cycles with basal P levels>1.6ng/mL were cancelled. All embryos were cryopreserved in cycles with P levels≥2ng/mL on the day of hCG. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of PPR (P>1.5ng/mL) and CPR with regard to basal P. Basal P levels were significantly higher in cycles with PPR than in those without PPR (0.63±0.31 vs. 0.48±0.28ng/mL). Area under the curve for basal P according to ROC analysis to discriminate between elevated and normal P levels on the day of hCG was 0.65 (0.58-0.71 95% CI, pcycles with and without PPR was 0.65ng/mL. Cycles with basal P levels above 0.65ng/mL had a significantly higher incidence of PPR (30.9% vs. 13.5%) but similar clinical and cumulative pregnancy rates (38.8% vs. 31.1% and 41.7% vs. 32.6%, respectively) in comparison to cycles with basal P levels below 0.65ng/mL. In multivariate regression analysis, basal P levels, LH level on the first day of antagonist administration, and estradiol levels on the day of hCG trigger were the variables that predicted PPR. Basal P levels were associated with increased incidence of PPR but not with CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. High-level expression, purification and characterization of a constitutively active thromboxane A2 receptor polymorphic variant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Xu

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs exhibit some level of basal signaling even in the absence of a bound agonist. This basal or constitutive signaling can have important pathophysiological roles. In the past few years, a number of high resolution crystal structures of GPCRs have been reported, including two crystal structures of constitutively active mutants (CAM of the dim-light receptor, rhodopsin. The structural characterizations of CAMs are impeded by the lack of proper expression systems. The thromboxane A2 receptor (TP is a GPCR that mediates vasoconstriction and promotes thrombosis in response to the binding of thromboxane. Here, we report on the expression and purification of a genetic variant and CAM in TP, namely A160T, using tetracycline-inducible HEK293S-TetR and HEK293S (GnTI¯-TetR cell lines. Expression of the TP and the A160T genes in these mammalian cell lines resulted in a 4-fold increase in expression to a level of 15.8 ±0.3 pmol of receptor/mg of membrane protein. The receptors expressed in the HEK293S (GnTI(--TetR cell line showed homogeneous glycosylation. The functional yield of the receptors using a single step affinity purification was 45 µg/10⁶ cells. Temperature- dependent secondary structure changes of the purified TP and A160T receptors were characterized using circular dichroism (CD spectropolarimetry. The CD spectra shows that the loss of activity or thermal sensitivity that was previously observed for the A160T mutant, is not owing to large unfolding of the protein but rather to a more subtle effect. This is the first study to report on the successful high-level expression, purification, and biophysical characterization of a naturally occurring, diffusible ligand activated GPCR CAM.

  10. Down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression in association with DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Shigeru; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Tanzawa, Hideki; Sugita, Katsuo; Kita, Kazuko; Suzuki, Nobuo

    2005-01-01

    Fibroblast cells derived from nevoid basal carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients show increased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Genes, whose expression is modulated in association with the DNA synthesis induction, were searched by using PCR-based mRNA differential display analysis in one of the NBCCS cell lines, NBCCS1 cells. Decreased levels of SMT3A gene expression were found in X-ray-irradiated NBCCS1 cells. This decrease was also shown by RT-PCR analysis in another cell line, NBCCS3 cells. In addition to NBCCS cells, normal fibroblast cells showed the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation when they were treated with antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for SMT3A. However, treatment of normal fibroblasts with the random oligonucleotides (RO) resulted in decreased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Thus, down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression may be involved in the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in the NBCCS cells at least tested

  11. Down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression in association with DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugaya, Shigeru [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Nakanishi, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Sugita, Katsuo [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Education, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoi, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kita, Kazuko [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Suzuki, Nobuo [Department of Environmental Biochemistry, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)]. E-mail: nobuo@faculty.chiba-u.jp

    2005-10-15

    Fibroblast cells derived from nevoid basal carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) patients show increased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Genes, whose expression is modulated in association with the DNA synthesis induction, were searched by using PCR-based mRNA differential display analysis in one of the NBCCS cell lines, NBCCS1 cells. Decreased levels of SMT3A gene expression were found in X-ray-irradiated NBCCS1 cells. This decrease was also shown by RT-PCR analysis in another cell line, NBCCS3 cells. In addition to NBCCS cells, normal fibroblast cells showed the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation when they were treated with antisense oligonucleotides (AO) for SMT3A. However, treatment of normal fibroblasts with the random oligonucleotides (RO) resulted in decreased levels of DNA synthesis after X-ray irradiation. Thus, down-regulation of SMT3A gene expression may be involved in the DNA synthesis induction after X-ray irradiation in the NBCCS cells at least tested.

  12. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-01-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects

  13. Protein expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Poswar, Fabiano; de Carvalho Fraga, Carlos Alberto; Gomes, Emisael Stênio Batista; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; de-Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena

    2015-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are 2 skin neoplasms with distinct potentials to invasion and metastasis. Actinic keratosis (AK) is a precursor lesion of SCC. Immunohistochemistry was performed to evaluate the expression of MMP-2 and MT1-MMP in samples of BCC (n = 29), SCC (n = 12), and AK (n = 13). The ratio of positive cells to total cells was used to quantify the staining. Statistical significance was considered under the level P < .05. We found a higher expression of MMP-2 in tumor stroma and parenchyma of SCC as compared to BCC. The expression of this protein was also similar between SCC and its precursor actinic keratosis, and it was higher in the stroma of high-risk BCC when compared to low-risk BCC. MT1-MMP, which is an activator of MMP-2, was similarly expressed in all groups. Our results suggest that MMP-2 expression may contribute to the distinct invasive patterns seen in SCC and BCC. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Increase of bcl-2 Protein Expression in Aggressive Basal Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck

    OpenAIRE

    Cláudia CAZAL; Mariana Roesch ELY; Ana Paula Veras SOBRAL; Wilton Wilney Nascimento PADILHA

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the bcl-2 protein expression in 22 cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCC) of the head and neck, and to compare it with its aggressive behavior. Method: Tumors were histologically classified in non-aggressive (BCC 1) and aggressive (BCC 2) and then submitted to the immunohistochemistry technique with the streptavidin-biotin peroxidase method using the anti-bcl-2 antibody. Results: After proceeding to morphological analysis, sixteen tumors (72.7%) w...

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, N K; Tilak Raj, T N; Mukunda, K S; Rajashekar Reddy, V

    2012-10-01

    The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  17. MOLECULAR BASIS OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND CYCLIN E EXPRESSION INTERDEPENDENCE IN BASAL-LIKE SUBTYPE OF INVASIVE BREAST CARCINOMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariamidze, A; Gogiashvili, L; Khardzeishvili, O; Javakhishvili, T; Makaridze, D

    2018-03-01

    Aim of the study was the simultaneous assessment of EGFR and Cyclin E in "basal-like" carcinoma group, in order to establish their interactivity in the aspect of the age and grade of the tumor, taking into account the common parallel HER2+ samples. The study involved postoperative and/or biopsy material (paraffin blocks) of 237 patients from archived data, who were operated due to breast cancer (National Cancer Center of Tbilisi, 2008-2012 years). In TNBC group and "basal-like" tumor subgroup expression of ESFR, Cyclin E and Cytokeratins 5/6 and 17 were shown advanced activity of processes and high dependence to patients age. Taking into account all above mentioned, the immunohistochemical profile of "basal-like" type of breast cancer is defined mostly by sensitivity to cytokeratins CK5,6/17 and EGFR. In addition, the defected synthesis and activity of the latter, which is actually observed in "basal-like" carcinoma, leads to increased malignancy grade and mitotic activity, which creates the phenotypic and group characteristics for this type of carcinomas overall.

  18. Chronic Stress Decreases Basal Levels of Memory-Related Signaling Molecules in Area CA1 of At-Risk (Subclinical) Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkadhi, Karim A; Tran, Trinh T

    2015-08-01

    An important factor that may affect the severity and time of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is chronic stress. Epidemiological studies report that chronically stressed individuals are at an increased risk for developing AD. The purpose of this study was to reveal whether chronic psychosocial stress could hasten the appearance of AD symptoms including changes in basal levels of cognition-related signaling molecules in subjects who are at risk for the disease. We investigated the effect of chronic psychosocial stress on basal levels of memory-related signaling molecules in area CA1 of subclinical rat model of AD. The subclinical symptomless rat model of AD was induced by osmotic pump continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of 160 pmol/day Aβ1-42 for 14 days. Rats were chronically stressed using the psychosocial stress intruder model. Western blot analysis of basal protein levels of important signaling molecules in hippocampal area CA1 showed no significant difference between the subclinical AD rat model and control rat. Following six weeks of psychosocial stress, molecular analysis showed that subclinical animals subjected to stress have significantly reduced basal levels of p-CaMKII and decreased p-CaMKII/t-CaMKII ratio as well as decreased basal levels of p-CREB, total CREB, and BDNF. The present results suggest that these changes in basal levels of signaling molecules may be responsible for impaired learning, memory, and LTP in this rat model, which support the proposition that chronic stress may accelerate the emergence of AD in susceptible individuals.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  20. NCAM (CD56) expression in keratin-producing odontogenic cysts: aberrant expression in KCOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Sirera, Beatriz; Forner-Navarro, Leopoldo; Vera-Sempere, Francisco

    2015-02-12

    To investigate immunohistochemically the expression of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), which has been identified as a signaling receptor with frequent reactivity in ameloblastomas (AB), in a series of keratin-producing odontogenic cysts (KPOCs). Immunohistochemical expression of NCAM, using a monoclonal antibody, was determined in a series of 58 KPOCs comprising 12 orthokeratinized odontogenic cysts (OOCs) and 46 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs), corresponding to 40 non-syndromic KCOT (NS-KCOTs) and 6 syndromic KCOT (S-KCOTs), associated with nevic basocellular syndrome (NBCS). NCAM expression was negative in all OOCs, but 36.45% of KCOTs exhibited focal and heterogeneous expression at the basal cell level, as well as in basal budding areas and the basal cells of daughter cysts. The latter two locations were especially applicable to S-KCOTs, with focal NCAM reactivity occurring in 66.66% of cases. Aberrant NCAM expression, in KCOTs but especially in S-KCOTs, together with its immunomorphological location, suggests that this adhesion molecule and signaling receptor plays a role in the pathogenesis of KCOTs, with a probable impact on lesional recurrence.

  1. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

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    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W. (Genentech, San Francisco, CA (USA))

    1990-10-12

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF.

  2. Widespread expression of BDNF but not NT3 by target areas of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, H.S.; Hains, J.M.; Laramee, G.R.; Rosenthal, A.; Winslow, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) are homologs of the well-known neurotrophic factor nerve growth factor. The three members of this family display distinct patterns of target specificity. To examine the distribution in brain of messenger RNA for these molecules, in situ hybridization was performed. Cells hybridizing intensely to antisense BDNF probe were located throughout the major targets of the rat basal forebrain cholinergic system, that is, the hippocampus, amygdala, and neocortex. Strongly hybridizing cells were also observed in structures associated with the olfactory system. The distribution of NT3 mRNA in forebrain was much more limited. Within the hippocampus, labeled cells were restricted to CA2, the most medial portion of CA1, and the dentate gyrus. In human hippocampus, cells expressing BDNF and mRNA are distributed in a fashion similar to that observed in the rat. These findings point to both basal forebrain cholinergic cells and olfactory pathways as potential central targets for BDNF

  3. Adenoid basal hyperplasia of the uterine cervix: a lesion of reserve cell type, distinct from adenoid basal carcinoma.

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    Kerdraon, Olivier; Cornélius, Aurélie; Farine, Marie-Odile; Boulanger, Loïc; Wacrenier, Agnès

    2012-12-01

    Adenoid basal hyperplasia is an underrecognized cervical lesion, resembling adenoid basal carcinoma, except the absence of deep invasion into the stroma. We report a series of 10 cases, all extending less than 1 mm from the basement membrane. Our results support the hypothesis that adenoid basal hyperplasia arises from reserve cells of the cervix. Lesions were found close to the squamocolumnar junction, in continuity with the nearby subcolumnar reserve cells. They shared the same morphology and immunoprofile using a panel of 4 antibodies (keratin 5/6, keratin 14, keratin 7 and p63) designed to differentiate reserve cells from mature squamous cells and endocervical columnar cells. We detected no human papillomavirus infection by in situ hybridization targeting high-risk human papillomavirus, which was concordant with the absence of immunohistochemical p16 expression. We demonstrated human papillomavirus infection in 4 (80%) of 5 adenoid basal carcinoma, which is in the same range as previous studies (88%). Thus, adenoid basal hyperplasia should be distinguished from adenoid basal carcinoma because they imply different risk of human papillomavirus infection and of subsequent association with high-grade invasive carcinoma. In our series, the most reliable morphological parameters to differentiate adenoid basal hyperplasia from adenoid basal carcinoma were the depth of the lesion and the size of the lesion nests. Furthermore, squamous differentiation was rare in adenoid basal hyperplasia and constant in adenoid basal carcinoma. Finally, any mitotic activity and/or an increase of Ki67 labeling index should raise the hypothesis of adenoid basal carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. p53 and PCNA Expression in Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors Compared with Selected Odontogenic Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedmajidi, Maryam; Nafarzadeh, Shima; Siadati, Sepideh; Shafaee, Shahryar; Bijani, Ali; Keshmiri, Nazanin

    2013-01-01

    p53 and PCNA expression in keratocystic odontogenic tumors compared with selected odontogenic cysts Summary: The aim of this study was to evaluate p53 and PCNA expression in different odontogenic lesions regarding their different clinical behaviors. Slices prepared from 94 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks (25 radicular cysts (RC), 23 dentigerous cysts (DC), 23 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOT) and 23 calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors (CCOT)) were stained with p53 and PCNA antibodies using immunohistochemistry procedure. The highest level of p53 expression was in the basal layer of RC, and the highest level of PCNA expression was in the suprabasal layer of KCOT. The differences of p53 expression in basal and suprabasal layers as well as PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer were significant but there was no significant difference in PCNA expression in the basal layer of these lesions. The expression of p53 in the basal layer of RC was higher than in other cysts. This may be due to intensive inflammatory infiltration. Also, the high level of PCNA expression in the suprabasal layer of KCOT may justify its neoplastic nature and tendency to recurrence. KCOT and calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors did not show similar expression of studied biomarkers. PMID:24551811

  5. Expression of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in basal cell carcinoma and in the response to medical treatments.

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    Cristina Pellegrini

    Full Text Available Several immune-related markers have been implicated in basal cell carcinoma (BCC pathogenesis. The BCC inflammatory infiltrate is dominated by Th2 cytokines, suggesting a specific state of immunosuppression. In contrast, regressing BCC are characterized by a Th1 immune response with IFN-γ promoting a tumor suppressive activity. IL-23/Th17-related cytokines, as interleukin (IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22, play a significant role in cutaneous inflammatory diseases, but their involvement in skin carcinogenesis is controversial and is poorly investigated in BCC. In this study we investigated the expression of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 cytokines in BCC at the protein and mRNA level and their modulation during imiquimod (IMQ treatment or photodynamic therapy (PDT. IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and quantitative Real Time PCR in 41 histopathologically-proven BCCs (28 superficial and 13 nodular from 39 patients. All BCC samples were analyzed at baseline and 19 of 41 also during medical treatment (9 with IMQ 5% cream and 10 with MAL-PDT. Association between cytokines expression and clinico-pathological variables was evaluated. Higher levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-23 and IL-22 were found in BCCs, mainly in the peritumoral infiltrate, compared to normal skin, with the expression being correlated to the severity of the inflammatory infiltrate. IFN-γ production was higher in superficial BCCs compared to nodular BCCs, while IL-17 was increased in nodular BCCs. A significant correlation was found between IFN-γ and IL-17 expression with both cytokines expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells. An increase of all cytokines occurred during the inflammatory phase induced by IMQ and at the early time point of PDT treatment, with significant evidence for IFN-γ, IL-23, and IL-22. Our results confirm the role of IFN-γ and support the involvement of IL-23/Th17-related cytokines in BCC pathogenesis and in the inflammatory response

  6. CD200-expressing human basal cell carcinoma cells initiate tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmont, Chantal S; Benketah, Antisar; Reed, Simon H; Hawk, Nga V; Telford, William G; Ohyama, Manabu; Udey, Mark C; Yee, Carole L; Vogel, Jonathan C; Patel, Girish K

    2013-01-22

    Smoothened antagonists directly target the genetic basis of human basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common of all cancers. These drugs inhibit BCC growth, but they are not curative. Although BCC cells are monomorphic, immunofluorescence microscopy reveals a complex hierarchical pattern of growth with inward differentiation along hair follicle lineages. Most BCC cells express the transcription factor KLF4 and are committed to terminal differentiation. A small CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation that represents 1.63 ± 1.11% of all BCC cells resides in small clusters at the tumor periphery. By using reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assays, we determined that tumor initiating cell frequencies approximate one per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200(+) CD45(-) BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200(+) CD45(-) cells, representing ~1,500-fold enrichment. CD200(-) CD45(-) BCC cells were unable to form tumors. These findings establish a platform to study the effects of Smoothened antagonists on BCC tumor initiating cell and also suggest that currently available anti-CD200 therapy be considered, either as monotherapy or an adjunct to Smoothened antagonists, in the treatment of inoperable BCC.

  7. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism

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    Wen-Bo Wang

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  8. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

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    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  9. Development and Application of a Microfluidics-Based Panel in the Basal/Luminal Transcriptional Characterization of Archival Bladder Cancers.

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    Doris Kim

    Full Text Available In the age of personalized medicine stratifying tumors into molecularly defined subtypes associated with distinctive clinical behaviors and predictable responses to therapies holds tremendous value. Towards this end, we developed a custom microfluidics-based bladder cancer gene expression panel for characterization of archival clinical samples. In silico analysis indicated that the content of our panel was capable of accurately segregating bladder cancers from several public datasets into the clinically relevant basal and luminal subtypes. On a technical level, our bladder cancer panel yielded robust and reproducible results when analyzing formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. We applied our panel in the analysis of a novel set of 204 FFPE samples that included non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBCs, muscle invasive disease (MIBCs, and bladder cancer metastases (METs. We found NMIBCs to be mostly luminal-like, MIBCs to include both luminal- and basal-like types, and METs to be predominantly of a basal-like transcriptional profile. Mutational analysis confirmed the expected enrichment of FGFR3 mutations in luminal samples, and, consistently, FGFR3 IHC showed high protein expression levels of the receptor in these tumors. Our bladder cancer panel enables basal/luminal characterization of FFPE tissues and with further development could be used for stratification of bladder cancer samples in the clinic.

  10. Expression of p75NGFR, a Proliferative and Basal Cell Marker, in the Buccal Mucosa Epithelium during Re-epithelialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Akihiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Lee, Jong-Min; Higa, Kazunari; Shinozaki, Naoshi; Jung, Han-Sung; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the expression of p75 NGFR , a proliferative and basal cell marker, in the mouse buccal mucosa epithelium during wound healing in order to elucidate the role of epithelial stem cells. Epithelial defects were generated in the epithelium of the buccal mucosa of 6-week-old mice using CO 2 laser irradiation. BrdU was immediately administered to mice following laser irradiation. They were then sacrificed after 1, 3, 7, and 14 days. Paraffin sections were prepared and the irradiated areas were analyzed using immunohistochemistry with anti-p75 NGFR , BrdU, PCNA, and CK14 antibodies. During re-epithelialization, PCNA (–)/p75 NGFR (+) cells extended to the wound, which then closed, whereas PCNA (+)/p75 NGFR (+) cells were not observed at the edge of the wound. In addition, p75 NGFR (–)/CK14 (+), which reflected the presence of post-mitotic differentiating cells, was observed in the supra-basal layers of the extended epithelium. BrdU (+)/p75 NGFR (+), which reflected the presence of epithelial stem cells, was detected sparsely in buccal basal epithelial cells after healing, and disappeared after 7 days. These results suggest that p75 NGFR (+) keratinocytes are localized in the basal layer, which contains oral epithelial stem cells, and retain the ability to proliferate in order to regenerate the buccal mucosal epithelium

  11. High-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus interna nucleus modulates GFRα1 gene expression in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Duncun Xun Kiat; Tan, Yong Chee; Tan, Jiayi; Too, Heng Phon; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2014-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the efficacy of DBS is clear, its precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. The glial cell line derived factor (GDNF) family of ligands has been shown to confer neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons, and putaminal infusion of GDNF have been investigated in PD patients with promising results. Despite the potential therapeutic role of GDNF in alleviating motor symptoms, there is no data on the effects of electrical stimulation on GDNF-family receptor (GFR) expression in the basal ganglia structures. Here, we report the effects of electrical stimulation on GFRα1 isoforms, particularly GFRα1a and GFRα1b. Wistar rats underwent 2 hours of high frequency stimulation (HFS) at the globus pallidus interna nucleus. A control group was subjected to a similar procedure but without stimulation. The HFS group, sacrificed 24 hours after treatment, had a threefold decrease in mRNA expression level of GFRα1b (p=0.037), but the expression level reverted to normal 72 hours after stimulation. Our preliminary data reveal the acute effects of HFS on splice isoforms of GFRα1, and suggest that HFS may modulate the splice isoforms of GFRα1a and GFRα1b to varying degrees. Going forward, elucidating the interactions between HFS and GFR may shed new insights into the complexity of GDNF signaling in the nervous system and lead to better design of clinical trials using these signaling pathways to halt disease progression in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of X-rays and hypothermia on basal and stress levels of circulatory adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demajo, M.; Ivanisevic-Milovanovic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Basal and stress values of plasma ACTH were studied in: 1. normal controls (N), 2. hypothermic controls (NH), 3. Irradiated with 9.6 Gy of X-rays in the head region (9.6 Gy) and 4. hypothermic irradiated with 9.6 Gy (9.6 GyH). A lower basal level of ACTH (p<0.05) was detected in 9.6 Gy animals compared to the other groups, between which there was no significant difference (p<0.05). The stress response of ACTH in relation to the basal level was highest in N (323.92%), the lowest in 9.6 Gy animals (67.41%). The significant increase of ACTH stress response (p<0.001) was detected in the group 9.6 GyH (118.83%) compared to 9.6 Gy. In conclusion, a single dose of X-rays significantly reduced ACTH i circulation, while hypothermia shows a significant protective effect. (author)

  13. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, J.M.; Chinaglia, G.; Rigo, M.; Ulrich, J.; Probst, A.

    1991-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo ( 125 I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease

  14. RNA Helicase DDX5 Regulates MicroRNA Expression and Contributes to Cytoskeletal Reorganization in Basal Breast Cancer Cells

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    Wang, Daojing; Huang, Jing; Hu, Zhi

    2011-11-15

    RNA helicase DDX5 (also p68) is involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism and serves as a transcriptional co-regulator, but its functional role in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we report an integrative biology study of DDX5 in breast cancer, encompassing quantitative proteomics, global MicroRNA profiling, and detailed biochemical characterization of cell lines and human tissues. We showed that protein expression of DDX5 increased progressively from the luminal to basal breast cancer cell lines, and correlated positively with that of CD44 in the basal subtypes. Through immunohistochemistry analyses of tissue microarrays containing over 200 invasive human ductal carcinomas, we observed that DDX5 was upregulated in the majority of malignant tissues, and its expression correlated strongly with those of Ki67 and EGFR in the triple-negative tumors. We demonstrated that DDX5 regulated a subset of MicroRNAs including miR-21 and miR-182 in basal breast cancer cells. Knockdown of DDX5 resulted in reorganization of actin cytoskeleton and reduction of cellular proliferation. The effects were accompanied by upregulation of tumor suppressor PDCD4 (a known miR-21 target); as well as upregulation of cofilin and profilin, two key proteins involved in actin polymerization and cytoskeleton maintenance, as a consequence of miR-182 downregulation. Treatment with miR-182 inhibitors resulted in morphologic phenotypes resembling those induced by DDX5 knockdown. Using bioinformatics tools for pathway and network analyses, we confirmed that the network for regulation of actin cytoskeleton was predominantly enriched for the predicted downstream targets of miR-182. Our results reveal a new functional role of DDX5 in breast cancer via the DDX5→miR-182→actin cytoskeleton pathway, and suggest the potential clinical utility of DDX5 and its downstream MicroRNAs in the theranostics of breast cancer.

  15. Evaluation of Basal Serum Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Cortisol Levels and Their Relationship with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Male Patients with Idiopathic Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Bo; She, Fei; Xie, Li-Fang; Yan, Wen-Hua; Ouyang, Jin-Zhi; Wang, Bao-An; Ma, Hang-Yun; Zang, Li; Mu, Yi-Ming

    2016-05-20

    Prolonged gonadal hormone deficiency in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) may produce adverse effects on the endocrine homeostasis and metabolism. This study aimed to compare basal serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels between male IHH patients and healthy controls. Moreover, this study compared the basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with and without nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and also evaluated the relationship between basal HPA axis and NAFLD in male IHH patients. This was a retrospective case-control study involving 75 Chinese male IHH patients (mean age 21.4 ± 3.8 years, range 17-30 years) and 135 healthy controls after matching for gender and age. All subjects underwent physical examination and blood testing for serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, ACTH, and cortisol and biochemical tests. Higher basal serum ACTH levels (8.25 ± 3.78 pmol/L vs. 6.97 ± 2.81 pmol/L) and lower cortisol levels (366.70 ± 142.48 nmol/L vs. 452.82 ± 141.53 nmol/L) were observed in male IHH patients than healthy subjects (all pIHH patients also showed higher metabolism parameters and higher prevalence rate of NAFLD (34.9% vs. 4.4%) than the controls (all P IHH patients with NAFLD than those without NAFLD (all P IHH patients. Furthermore, NAFLD was independently associated with ACTH levels in male IHH patients by multiple linear regression analysis. The male IHH patients showed higher basal serum ACTH levels and lower cortisol levels than matched healthy controls. NAFLD was an independent associated factor for ACTH levels in male IHH patients. These preliminary findings provided evidence of the relationship between basal serum ACTH and NAFLD in male IHH patients.

  16. Partial denervation of sub-basal axons persists following debridement wounds to the mouse cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajoohesh-Ganji, Ahdeah; Pal-Ghosh, Sonali; Tadvalkar, Gauri; Kyne, Briana M; Saban, Daniel R; Stepp, Mary Ann

    2015-11-01

    Although sensory reinnervation occurs after injury in the peripheral nervous system, poor reinnervation in the elderly and those with diabetes often leads to pathology. Here we quantify sub-basal axon density in the central and peripheral mouse cornea over time after three different types of injury. The mouse cornea is highly innervated with a dense array of sub-basal nerves that form a spiral called the vortex at the corneal center or apex; these nerves are readily detected within flat mounted corneas. After anesthesia, corneal epithelial cells were removed using either a dulled blade or a rotating burr within an area demarcated centrally with a 1.5 mm trephine. A third wound type, superficial trephination, involved demarcating the area with the 1.5 mm trephine but not removing cells. By 7 days after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon density returns to control levels; by 28 days the vortex reforms. Although axon density is similar to control 14 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, defects in axon morphology at the corneal apex remain. After 14 days, axons retract from the center leaving the sub-basal axon density reduced by 37.2 and 36.8% at 28 days after dulled blade and rotating burr wounding, respectively, compared with control. Assessment of inflammation using flow cytometry shows that persistent inflammation is not a factor in the incomplete reinnervation. Expression of mRNAs encoding 22 regeneration-associated genes involved in axon targeting assessed by QPCR reveals that netrin-1 and ephrin signaling are altered after wounding. Subpopulations of corneal epithelial basal cells at the corneal apex stop expressing ki67 as early as 7 days after injury and by 14 and 28 days after wounding, many of these basal cells undergo apoptosis and die. Although sub-basal axons are restored to their normal density and morphology after superficial trephination, sub-basal axon recovery is partial after debridement wounds. The increase in corneal

  17. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

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    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  18. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  19. Interindividual differences in stress sensitivity: basal and stress-induced cortisol levels differentially predict neural vigilance processing under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; Klumpers, Floris; Everaerd, Daphne; Kooijman, Sabine C; van Wingen, Guido A; Fernández, Guillén

    2016-04-01

    Stress exposure is known to precipitate psychological disorders. However, large differences exist in how individuals respond to stressful situations. A major marker for stress sensitivity is hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis function. Here, we studied how interindividual variance in both basal cortisol levels and stress-induced cortisol responses predicts differences in neural vigilance processing during stress exposure. Implementing a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover design, 120 healthy male participants were exposed to a stress-induction and control procedure, followed by an emotional perception task (viewing fearful and happy faces) during fMRI scanning. Stress sensitivity was assessed using physiological (salivary cortisol levels) and psychological measures (trait questionnaires). High stress-induced cortisol responses were associated with increased stress sensitivity as assessed by psychological questionnaires, a stronger stress-induced increase in medial temporal activity and greater differential amygdala responses to fearful as opposed to happy faces under control conditions. In contrast, high basal cortisol levels were related to relative stress resilience as reflected by higher extraversion scores, a lower stress-induced increase in amygdala activity and enhanced differential processing of fearful compared with happy faces under stress. These findings seem to reflect a critical role for HPA-axis signaling in stress coping; higher basal levels indicate stress resilience, whereas higher cortisol responsivity to stress might facilitate recovery in those individuals prone to react sensitively to stress. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Androgen receptor status is a prognostic marker in non-basal triple negative breast cancers and determines novel therapeutic options.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Gasparini

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancers are a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by poor patient survival and lack of targeted therapeutics. Androgen receptor has been associated with triple negative breast cancer pathogenesis, but its role in the different subtypes has not been clearly defined. We examined androgen receptor protein expression by immunohistochemical analysis in 678 breast cancers, including 396 triple negative cancers. Fifty matched lymph node metastases were also examined. Association of expression status with clinical (race, survival and pathological (basal, non-basal subtype, stage, grade features was also evaluated. In 160 triple negative breast cancers, mRNA microarray expression profiling was performed, and differences according to androgen receptor status were analyzed. In triple negative cancers the percentage of androgen receptor positive cases was lower (24.8% vs 81.6% of non-triple negative cases, especially in African American women (16.7% vs 25.5% of cancers of white women. No significant difference in androgen receptor expression was observed in primary tumors vs matched metastatic lesions. Positive androgen receptor immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with tumor grade (p<0.01 and associated with better overall patient survival (p = 0.032 in the non-basal triple negative cancer group. In the microarray study, expression of three genes (HER4, TNFSF10, CDK6 showed significant deregulation in association with androgen receptor status; eg CDK6, a novel therapeutic target in triple negative cancers, showed significantly higher expression level in androgen receptor negative cases (p<0.01. These findings confirm the prognostic impact of androgen receptor expression in non-basal triple negative breast cancers, and suggest targeting of new androgen receptor-related molecular pathways in patients with these cancers.

  1. Deep RNA-Seq analysis reveals unexpected features of human prostate basal epithelial cells

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    Dingxiao Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men [1]. The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells, which are constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here, for the first time, we describe a whole-genome transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal populations by using deep RNA sequencing (GSE67070 [2]. Combined with comprehensive molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene expression profiles account for their distinct functional phenotypes. Strikingly, in contrast to luminal cells, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neural and neuronal development, and RNA processing. Of clinical relevance, the treatment failed castration-resistant and anaplastic prostate cancers molecularly resemble a basal-like phenotype. We also identified genes associated with patient clinical outcome. Therefore, we provide a gene expression resource for understanding human prostate epithelial lineages, and link the cell-type specific gene signatures to subtypes of prostate cancer development. Keywords: Prostate epithelial cells, Basal cells, Luminal cells, RNA-seq

  2. Particular features of angiogenesis in lesions in patients suffering from basal cell epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Khlebnikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell epithelioma is one of the most frequent malignant skin neoplasms. Angiogenesis plays an important part in the development of basal cell epithelioma. The article presents a review of the angiogenesis of this tumor with the help the immunohistochemistry analysis using CD31 and CD34 markers. The authors established a reliable relationship between the number of vessels expressing CD31 and those expressing CD34 in the superficial and nodular forms of the tumor as well as superficial, multi-center, nodular and infiltrative basal cell epitheliomas. A comparison of the number of vessels expressing CD31 and CD34 markers in different histological types made revealed a trend to their growth in the infiltrative type vs. superficial, multi-center and nodular ones.

  3. Identification of hamster inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) promoter sequences that influence basal and inducible iNOS expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga, Omar A.; Travi, Bruno L.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh; Melby, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    IFN-γ/LPS-activated hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) macrophages express significantly less iNOS (NOS2) than activated mouse macrophages, which contributes to the hamster's susceptibility to intracellular pathogens. We determined a mechanism responsible for differences in iNOS promoter activity in hamsters and mice. The HtPP (1.2 kb) showed low basal and inducible promoter activity when compared with the mouse, and sequences within a 100-bp region (−233 to −133) of the mouse and hamster promoters influenced this activity. Moreover, within this 100 bp, we identified a smaller region (44 bp) in the mouse promoter, which recovered basal promoter activity when swapped into the hamster promoter. The mouse homolog (100-bp region) contained a cis-element for NF-IL-6 (−153/−142), which was absent in the hamster counterpart. EMSA and supershift assays revealed that the hamster sequence did not support the binding of NF-IL-6. Introduction of a functional NF-IL-6 binding sequence into the hamster promoter or its alteration in the mouse promoter revealed the critical importance of this transcription factor for full iNOS promoter activity. Furthermore, the binding of NF-IL-6 to the iNOS promoter (−153/−142) in vivo was increased in mouse cells but was reduced in hamster cells after IFN-γ/LPS stimulation. Differences in the activity of the iNOS promoters were evident in mouse and hamster cells, so they were not merely a result of species-specific differences in transcription factors. Thus, we have identified unique DNA sequences and a critical transcription factor, NF-IL-6, which contribute to the overall basal and inducible expression of hamster iNOS. PMID:22517919

  4. Lithium ions induce prestalk-associated gene expression and inhibit prespore gene expression in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorien J.M.; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van; Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Spek, Wouter; Schaap, Pauline

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Li+ on two types of cyclic AMP-regulated gene expression and on basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (Ins(1,4,5)P3) levels. Li+ effectively inhibits cyclic AMP-induced prespore gene expression, half-maximal inhibition occurring at about 2mM-LiCl.

  5. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an ...

  6. Temporal changes of CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the basal ganglia as a possible structure-specific plasticity process in 6-OHDA lesioned rats.

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    Gabriela P Chaves-Kirsten

    Full Text Available The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in several neurobiological processes, including neurodegeneration, neuroprotection and neuronal plasticity. The CB1 cannabinoid receptors are abundantly expressed in the basal ganglia, the circuitry that is mostly affected in Parkinson's Disease (PD. Some studies show variation of CB1 expression in basal ganglia in different animal models of PD, however the results are quite controversial, due to the differences in the procedures employed to induce the parkinsonism and the periods analyzed after the lesion. The present study evaluated the CB1 expression in four basal ganglia structures, namely striatum, external globus pallidus (EGP, internal globus pallidus (IGP and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr of rats 1, 5, 10, 20, and 60 days after unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine injections, that causes retrograde dopaminergic degeneration. We also investigated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, parvalbumin, calbindin and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD expression to verify the status of dopaminergic and GABAergic systems. We observed a structure-specific modulation of CB1 expression at different periods after lesions. In general, there were no changes in the striatum, decreased CB1 in IGP and SNpr and increased CB1 in EGP, but this increase was not sustained over time. No changes in GAD and parvalbumin expression were observed in basal ganglia, whereas TH levels were decreased and the calbindin increased in striatum in short periods after lesion. We believe that the structure-specific variation of CB1 in basal ganglia in the 6-hydroxydopamine PD model could be related to a compensatory process involving the GABAergic transmission, which is impaired due to the lack of dopamine. Our data, therefore, suggest that the changes of CB1 and calbindin expression may represent a plasticity process in this PD model.

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  8. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  9. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1988-01-01

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  10. [Immunohistochemical characteristics of triple negative/basal-like breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pala, Emel Ebru; Bayol, Ümit; Cumurcu, Süheyla; Keskın, Elif

    2012-01-01

    Triple-negative-breast-cancer that accounts for 10-20% of all breast carcinomas is defined by the lack of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, HER2 expression, and agressive clinical behavior. Triple-negative-breast-cancer is categorized into basal like and other types. The basal-like subtype is characterized by the expression of myoepithelial/basal markers. We studied 41 immunohistochemically triplenegative- breast-cancer patients to determine EGFR, Cytokeratine 5/6, p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 expression profiles, HER2 and Chromosome 17 centromere gene status by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. Histological type was invasive ductal carcinoma in 90.2% of the tumors. p53, Ki67, GCDFP-15 mean positivity rates were 55.6%, 51.7%, and 3.2%, respectively. GCDFP-15 positivity was noted in 8 cases of which 6 were Cytokeratine 5/6 negative. The cut-off value for Cytokeratine 5/6 positivity was 5%. EGFR immunoreactivity was grouped into 0, 1+ as negative; 2+, 3+ as positive categories. Cytokeratine 5/6 was positive in 56,1%, EGFR was positive in 51.2% of the patients. The relation between Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expression was statistically significant (p < 0.01). None of the cases showed HER2 amplification by fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization method. GCDFP-15 alone is not a useful marker to detect the metastasis of basaloid type breast cancers. Cytokeratine 5/6 and EGFR expressions showed correlation so these markers are reliable to diagnose basaloid type tumors with a 5% cut-off value.

  11. Gene Expression and Proteome Analysis as Sources of Biomarkers in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Mihaela Adriana; Voiculescu, Suzana; Rosca, Adrian E.; Moraru, Liliana; Greabu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the world's leading skin cancer in terms of frequency at the moment and its incidence continues to rise each year, leading to profound negative psychosocial and economic consequences. UV exposure is the most important environmental factor in the development of BCC in genetically predisposed individuals, this being reflected by the anatomical distribution of lesions mainly on sun-exposed skin areas. Early diagnosis and prompt management are of crucial importance in order to prevent local tissue destruction and subsequent disfigurement. Although various noninvasive or minimal invasive techniques have demonstrated their utility in increasing diagnostic accuracy of BCC and progress has been made in its treatment options, recurrent, aggressive, and metastatic variants of BCC still pose significant challenge for the healthcare system. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling of tumor cells and of tumoral microenvironment in various tissues strongly suggests that certain molecules involved in skin cancer pathogenic pathways might represent novel predictive and prognostic biomarkers in BCC. PMID:27578920

  12. Gene Expression and Proteome Analysis as Sources of Biomarkers in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Lupu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the world’s leading skin cancer in terms of frequency at the moment and its incidence continues to rise each year, leading to profound negative psychosocial and economic consequences. UV exposure is the most important environmental factor in the development of BCC in genetically predisposed individuals, this being reflected by the anatomical distribution of lesions mainly on sun-exposed skin areas. Early diagnosis and prompt management are of crucial importance in order to prevent local tissue destruction and subsequent disfigurement. Although various noninvasive or minimal invasive techniques have demonstrated their utility in increasing diagnostic accuracy of BCC and progress has been made in its treatment options, recurrent, aggressive, and metastatic variants of BCC still pose significant challenge for the healthcare system. Analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiling of tumor cells and of tumoral microenvironment in various tissues strongly suggests that certain molecules involved in skin cancer pathogenic pathways might represent novel predictive and prognostic biomarkers in BCC.

  13. Acupuncture inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in the basal ganglia of rats with cerebral hemorrhage

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    Wei Zou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Notch pathway activation maintains neural stem cells in a proliferating state and increases nerve repair capacity. To date, studies have rarely focused on changes or damage to signal transduction pathways during cerebral hemorrhage. Here, we examined the effect of acupuncture in a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage. We examined four groups: in the control group, rats received no treatment. In the model group, cerebral hemorrhage models were established by infusing non-heparinized blood into the brain. In the acupuncture group, modeled rats had Baihui (DU20 and Qubin (GB7 acupoints treated once a day for 30 minutes. In the DAPT group, modeled rats had 0.15 μg/mL DAPT solution (10 mL infused into the brain. Immunohistochemistry and western blot results showed that acupuncture effectively inhibits Notch1 and Hes1 protein expression in rat basal ganglia. These inhibitory effects were identical to DAPT, a Notch signaling pathway inhibitor. Our results suggest that acupuncture has a neuroprotective effect on cerebral hemorrhage by inhibiting Notch-Hes signaling pathway transduction in rat basal ganglia after cerebral hemorrhage.

  14. Airway Basal Cell Heterogeneity and Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynds, Robert E; Janes, Sam M

    2017-09-01

    Basal cells are stem/progenitor cells that maintain airway homeostasis, enact repair following epithelial injury, and are a candidate cell-of-origin for lung squamous cell carcinoma. Heterogeneity of basal cells is recognized in terms of gene expression and differentiation capacity. In this Issue, Pagano and colleagues isolate a subset of immortalized basal cells that are characterized by high motility, suggesting that they might also be heterogeneous in their biophysical properties. Motility-selected cells displayed an increased ability to colonize the lung in vivo The possible implications of these findings are discussed in terms of basal cell heterogeneity, epithelial cell migration, and modeling of metastasis that occurs early in cancer evolution. Cancer Prev Res; 10(9); 491-3. ©2017 AACR See related article by Pagano et al., p. 514 . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Correlation of mRNA and protein levels: Cell type-specific gene expression of cluster designation antigens in the prostate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Eric W

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Expression levels of mRNA and protein by cell types exhibit a range of correlations for different genes. In this study, we compared levels of mRNA abundance for several cluster designation (CD genes determined by gene arrays using magnetic sorted and laser-capture microdissected human prostate cells with levels of expression of the respective CD proteins determined by immunohistochemical staining in the major cell types of the prostate – basal epithelial, luminal epithelial, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial – and for prostate precursor/stem cells and prostate carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemical stains of prostate tissues from more than 50 patients were scored for informative CD antigen expression and compared with cell-type specific transcriptomes. Results: Concordance between gene and protein expression findings based on 'present' vs. 'absent' calls ranged from 46 to 68%. Correlation of expression levels was poor to moderate (Pearson correlations ranged from 0 to 0.63. Divergence between the two data types was most frequently seen for genes whose array signals exceeded background (> 50 but lacked immunoreactivity by immunostaining. This could be due to multiple factors, e.g. low levels of protein expression, technological sensitivities, sample processing, probe set definition or anatomical origin of tissue and actual biological differences between transcript and protein abundance. Conclusion: Agreement between these two very different methodologies has great implications for their respective use in both molecular studies and clinical trials employing molecular biomarkers.

  16. Expression of drebrin, an actin binding protein, in basal cell carcinoma, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Yoko; Iwamoto, Ikuko; Kanoh, Hiroyuki; Seishima, Mariko; Nagata, Koh-ichi

    2014-06-01

    Drebrin, an F-actin binding protein, is known to play important roles in cell migration, synaptogenesis and neural plasticity. Although drebrin was long thought to be specific for neuronal cells, its expression has recently been reported in non-neuronal cells. As for skin-derived cells, drebrin was shown to be enriched at adhering junctions (AJs) in cultured primary keratinocytes and also be highly expressed in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Since BCC and two types of benign neoplasm, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma, are considered to derive from the same origin, follicular germinative cells, it is sometimes difficult to morphologically distinguish BCC from trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma. In this study, we performed immunohistochemical staining of drebrin in BCC, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma, to examine whether drebrin could serve as a biomarker for BCC diagnosis. In western blotting, drebrin was detected highly and moderately in the lysates from a squamous cell carcinoma cell line, DJM-1, and normal human epidermis, respectively. In immunofluorescence analyses, drebrin was colocalized with markers of AJs and tight junctions in DJM-1 cells and detected at cell-cell junction areas of human normal epidermis tissue. We then examined the distribution patterns of drebrin in BCC, trichoblastoma and trichoepithelioma. In BCC tissues, intense and homogeneous drebrin expression was observed mainly at tumor cell-cell boundaries. In contrast, drebrin was stained only weakly and non-homogeneously in trichoblastoma and trichoepthelioma tissue samples. For differential diagnosis of BCC, drebrin may be a novel and useful marker.

  17. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  18. c-Myc over-expression in Ramos Burkitt's lymphoma cell line predisposes to iron homeostasis disruption in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habel, Marie-Eve; Jung, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma is an aggressive B-cell neoplasm resulting from deregulated c-myc expression. We have previously shown that proliferation of Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines such as Ramos is markedly reduced by iron treatment. It has been shown that iron induces expression of c-myc which, owing to its transcriptional regulatory functions, regulates genes involved in iron metabolism. Transient enhancement of c-myc expression by iron could increase the expression of genes involved in iron incorporation, which could lead to an accumulation of intracellular free iron. Here, we have investigated whether cells with a high basal level of c-Myc were more likely to accumulate free iron. Our results suggest that the basal level of c-Myc in Ramos cells is twofold higher than what is seen in HL-60 cells. Moreover, in Ramos cells, where c-Myc is expressed at a high level, H-ferritin expression is down-regulated, transferrin receptor (CD71) expression is increased, and ferritin translation is inhibited. These modifications in iron metabolism, resulting from the strong basal expression of c-Myc, and amplified by iron addition, could lead to a disruption in homeostasis and consequently to growth arrest

  19. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crabs Claw (CRC YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and characterized from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. and Zucc. Maxim. A phylogenetic analysis of EsCRC and previously identified CRC-like genes placed EsCRC within the basal eudicot lineage. Gene expression results suggest that EsCRC is involved in the development of sepals and carpels, but not nectaries. Phenotypic complementation of the Arabidopsis mutant crc-1 was achieved by constitutive expression of EsCRC. In addition, over-expression of EsCRC in Arabidopsis and tobacco gave rise to abaxially curled leaves. Transgenic results together with the gene expression analysis suggest that EsCRC may maintain a conserved function in carpel development and also play a novel role related to sepal formation. Absence of EsCRC and ElCRC expression in nectaries further indicates that nectary development in non-core eudicots is unrelated to expression of CRC-like genes.

  20. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in basal eudicot species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Wenjun; Li, Zhineng; Lv, Haiyan; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-08

    The Crabs Claw (CRC) YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and characterized from Epimedium sagittatum (Sieb. and Zucc.) Maxim. A phylogenetic analysis of EsCRC and previously identified CRC-like genes placed EsCRC within the basal eudicot lineage. Gene expression results suggest that EsCRC is involved in the development of sepals and carpels, but not nectaries. Phenotypic complementation of the Arabidopsis mutant crc-1 was achieved by constitutive expression of EsCRC. In addition, over-expression of EsCRC in Arabidopsis and tobacco gave rise to abaxially curled leaves. Transgenic results together with the gene expression analysis suggest that EsCRC may maintain a conserved function in carpel development and also play a novel role related to sepal formation. Absence of EsCRC and ElCRC expression in nectaries further indicates that nectary development in non-core eudicots is unrelated to expression of CRC-like genes.

  1. High basal Wnt signaling is further induced by PI3K/mTor inhibition but sensitive to cSRC inhibition in mammary carcinoma cell lines with HER2/3 overexpression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans-Sprang, Elpetra P. M.; Gracanin, Ana; Mol, Jan A.

    2015-01-01

    Elevated basal, ligand-independent, Wnt signaling in some canine breast cancer cells is not caused by classical mutations in APC, β-Catenin or GSK3β but, at least partially, by enhanced LEF1 expression. We examined the expression and function of EGFR/HER-regulated pathways on the ligand-independent Wnt signaling. Twelve canine mammary tumor cell lines with previously reported differential basal Wnt activity were used. The expression levels of genes related to EGF-signaling were analyzed by cluster analysis. Cell lines with a combined overexpression of EGF-related genes and enhanced basal Wnt activity were treated with PI3K/mTor or cSRC inhibitors or transfected with a construct expressing wild-type PTEN. Subsequently, effects were measured on Wnt activity, cell proliferation, gene expression and protein level. High basal Wnt/LEF1 activity was associated with overexpression of HER2/3, ID1, ID2, RAC1 and HSP90 together with low to absent cMET and PTEN mRNA expression, suggesting a connection between Wnt- and HER-signaling pathways. Inhibition of the HER-regulated PI3K/mTor pathway using the dual PI3K/mTor inhibitor BEZ235 or the mTor inhibitor Everolimus® resulted in reduced cell proliferation. In the cell line with high basal Wnt activity, however, an unexpected further increased Wnt activity was found that could be greatly reduced after inhibition of the HER-regulated cSRC activity. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTor pathway was associated with enhanced expression of β-Catenin, Axin2, MUC1, cMET, EGFR and HER2 and a somewhat increased β-Catenin protein content, whereas cSRC inhibition was associated with slightly enhanced HER3 and SLUG mRNA expression. A high protein expression of HER3 was found only in a cell line with high basal Wnt activity. High basal Wnt activity in some mammary cancer cell lines is associated with overexpression of HER-receptor related genes and HER3 protein, and the absence of PTEN. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTor pathway further stimulated

  2. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

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    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  3. Serum estradiol levels associated with specific gene expression patterns in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haakensen, Vilde D; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Helland, Åslaug; Bjøro, Trine; Lüders, Torben; Riis, Margit; Bukholm, Ida K; Kristensen, Vessela N; Troester, Melissa A; Homen, Marit M; Ursin, Giske

    2011-01-01

    High serum levels of estradiol are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Little is known about the gene expression in normal breast tissue in relation to levels of circulating serum estradiol. We compared whole genome expression data of breast tissue samples with serum hormone levels using data from 79 healthy women and 64 breast cancer patients. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) was used to identify differentially expressed genes and multivariate linear regression was used to identify independent associations. Six genes (SCGB3A1, RSPO1, TLN2, SLITRK4, DCLK1, PTGS1) were found differentially expressed according to serum estradiol levels (FDR = 0). Three of these independently predicted estradiol levels in a multivariate model, as SCGB3A1 (HIN1) and TLN2 were up-regulated and PTGS1 (COX1) was down-regulated in breast samples from women with high serum estradiol. Serum estradiol, but none of the differentially expressed genes were significantly associated with mammographic density, another strong breast cancer risk factor. In breast carcinomas, expression of GREB1 and AREG was associated with serum estradiol in all cancers and in the subgroup of estrogen receptor positive cases. We have identified genes associated with serum estradiol levels in normal breast tissue and in breast carcinomas. SCGB3A1 is a suggested tumor suppressor gene that inhibits cell growth and invasion and is methylated and down-regulated in many epithelial cancers. Our findings indicate this gene as an important inhibitor of breast cell proliferation in healthy women with high estradiol levels. In the breast, this gene is expressed in luminal cells only and is methylated in non-BRCA-related breast cancers. The possibility of a carcinogenic contribution of silencing of this gene for luminal, but not basal-like cancers should be further explored. PTGS1 induces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production which in turn stimulates aromatase expression and hence increases the

  4. Differential senescence capacities in meibomian gland carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Leilei; Huang, Xiaolin; Zhu, Xiaowei; Ge, Shengfang; Gilson, Eric; Jia, Renbing; Ye, Jing; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-15

    Meibomian gland carcinoma (MGC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are common eyelid carcinomas that exhibit highly dissimilar degrees of proliferation and prognoses. We address here the question of the differential mechanisms between these two eyelid cancers that explain their different outcome. A total of 102 confirmed MGC and 175 diagnosed BCC cases were analyzed. Twenty confirmed MGC and twenty diagnosed BCC cases were collected to determine the telomere length, the presence of senescent cells, and the expression levels of the telomere capping shelterin complex, P53, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah1. Decreased protein levels of the shelterin subunits, shortened telomere length, over-expressed Ki-67, and Bcl2 as well as mutations in P53 were detected both in MGC and BCC. It suggests that the decreased protein levels of the shelterin complex and the shortened telomere length contribute to the tumorigenesis of MGC and BCC. However, several parameters distinguish MGC from BCC samples: (i) the mRNA level of the shelterin subunits decreased in MGC but it increased in BCC; (ii) P53 was more highly mutated in MGC; (iii) Siah1 mRNA was over-expressed in BCC; (iv) BCC samples contain a higher level of senescent cells; (v) Ki-67 and Bcl2 expression were lower in BCC. These results support a model where a preserved P53 checkpoint in BCC leads to cellular senescence and reduced tumor proliferation as compared to MGC. © 2015 UICC.

  5. Inverse Relationship of the CMKLR1 Relative Expression and Chemerin Serum Levels in Obesity with Dysmetabolic Phenotype and Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda-Isadora Corona-Meraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In obesity there is a subclinical chronic low-grade inflammatory response where insulin resistance (IR may develop. Chemerin is secreted in white adipose tissue and promotes low-grade inflammatory process, where it expressed CMKLR1 receptor. The role of chemerin and CMKLR1 in inflammatory process secondary to obesity is not defined yet. Methods. Cross-sectional study with 134 individuals classified as with and without obesity by body mass index (BMI and IR. Body fat storage measurements and metabolic and inflammatory markers were measured by routine methods. Soluble chemerin and basal levels of insulin by ELISA and relative expression of CMKLR1 were evaluated with qPCR and 2-ΔΔCT method. Results. Differences (P<0.05 were observed between obesity and lean individuals in body fat storage measurements and metabolic-inflammatory markers. Both CMKLR1 expression and chemerin levels were increased in obesity without IR. Soluble chemerin levels correlate with adiposity and metabolic markers (r=8.8% to 38.5%, P<0.05. Conclusion. The increment of CMKLR1 expression was associated with insulin production. Increased serum levels of chemerin in obesity were observed, favoring a dysmetabolic response. The results observed in this study suggest that both chemerin and CMKLR1 have opposite expression in the context of low-grade inflammatory response manifested in the development of IR.

  6. Heterogeneity of limbal basal epithelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Yasutaka; Li, Wei; Chen, Ying-Ting; He, Hua; Chen, Szu-yu; Kheirkah, Ahmad; Zhu, Ying-Tien; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2010-11-01

    Although corneal epithelial stem cells (SCs) are located at the limbus between the cornea and the conjunctiva, not all limbal basal epithelial cells are SCs. Using 2 dispase digestions to remove different amounts of limbal basal epithelial cells for cross-sections, flat mounts, and cytospin preparations, double immunostaining to pancytokeratins (PCK) and vimentin (Vim) identified 3 p63+ epithelial progenitors such as PCK-/Vim+, PCK/Vim, and PCK-/Vim+ and 1 p63+ mesenchymal cell, PCK-/Vim+. PCK-/Vim- progenitors had the smallest cell size were 10-20 times more enriched on collagen I-coated dishes in the 5-minute rapid adherent fraction that contained the highest percentage of p63+ cells but the lowest percentage of cytokeratin12+ cells, and gave rise to high Ki67 labeling and vivid clonal growth. In contrast, PCK+/Vim+ and PCK+/Vim- progenitors were found more in the slow-adherent fraction and yielded poor clonal growth. PCK/Vim progenitors and clusters of PCK-/Vim+ mesenchymal cells, which were neither melanocytes nor Langerhans cells, were located in the limbal basal region. Therefore, differential expression of PCK and Vim helps identify small PCK-/Vim- cells as the most likely candidate for SCs among a hierarchy of heterogeneous limbal basal progenitors, and their close association with PCK-/Vim+ presumed "niche" cells.

  7. Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the breast, high grade with basal phenotype, literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enaam Junainah

    Full Text Available Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC is a rare type of breast carcinoma resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma of other sites. this type of tumors usually characterized by the exhibiting dual cell population of luminal and basaloid with specific growth pattern Most of these sub types are triple-negative with basal-like breast features (tumors that are devoid of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression, and express basal cell markers, they are usually low-grade but can be high grade, clinical behavior is indolent despite the nuclear grade, lymph node involvement or distant metastases which is rarely occur. Treatment is either simple mastectomy or lumpectomy. Chemotherapy, radiation and hormonal treatment have limited used in those cases. Keywords: Adenoid cystic carcinoma, Breast, Triple-negative and basal-like phenotype

  8. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  10. A basal stem cell signature identifies aggressive prostate cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bryan A.; Sokolov, Artem; Uzunangelov, Vladislav; Baertsch, Robert; Newton, Yulia; Graim, Kiley; Mathis, Colleen; Cheng, Donghui; Stuart, Joshua M.; Witte, Owen N.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from numerous cancers suggests that increased aggressiveness is accompanied by up-regulation of signaling pathways and acquisition of properties common to stem cells. It is unclear if different subtypes of late-stage cancer vary in stemness properties and whether or not these subtypes are transcriptionally similar to normal tissue stem cells. We report a gene signature specific for human prostate basal cells that is differentially enriched in various phenotypes of late-stage metastatic prostate cancer. We FACS-purified and transcriptionally profiled basal and luminal epithelial populations from the benign and cancerous regions of primary human prostates. High-throughput RNA sequencing showed the basal population to be defined by genes associated with stem cell signaling programs and invasiveness. Application of a 91-gene basal signature to gene expression datasets from patients with organ-confined or hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer revealed that metastatic small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma was molecularly more stem-like than either metastatic adenocarcinoma or organ-confined adenocarcinoma. Bioinformatic analysis of the basal cell and two human small cell gene signatures identified a set of E2F target genes common between prostate small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and primary prostate basal cells. Taken together, our data suggest that aggressive prostate cancer shares a conserved transcriptional program with normal adult prostate basal stem cells. PMID:26460041

  11. Impact of Basal Conditions on Grounding-Line Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koellner, S. J.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Muto, A.; Holschuh, N.; Nowicki, S.

    2017-12-01

    An often-made assumption included in ice-sheet models used for sea-level projections is that basal rheology is constant throughout the domain of the simulation. The justification in support of this assumption is that physical data for determining basal rheology is limited and a constant basal flow law can adequately approximate current as well as past behavior of an ice-sheet. Prior studies indicate that beneath Thwaites Glacier (TG) there is a ridge-and-valley bedrock structure which likely promotes deformation of soft tills within the troughs and sliding, more akin to creep, over the harder peaks; giving rise to a spatially variable basal flow law. Furthermore, it has been shown that the stability of an outlet glacier varies with the assumed basal rheology, so accurate projections almost certainly need to account for basal conditions. To test the impact of basal conditions on grounding-line evolution forced by ice-shelf perturbations, we modified the PSU 2-D flowline model to enable the inclusion of spatially variable basal rheology along an idealized bedrock profile akin to TG. Synthetic outlet glacier "data" were first generated under steady-state conditions assuming a constant basal flow law and a constant basal friction coefficient field on either a linear or bumpy sloping bed. In following standard procedures, a suite of models were then initialized by assuming different basal rheologies and then determining the basal friction coefficients that produce surface velocities matching those from the synthetic "data". After running each of these to steady state, the standard and full suite of models were forced by drastically reducing ice-shelf buttressing through side-shear and prescribed basal-melting perturbations. In agreement with previous findings, results suggest a more plastic basal flow law enhances stability in response to ice-shelf perturbations by flushing ice from farther upstream to sustain the grounding-zone mass balance required to prolong the

  12. Luminal epithelial cells within the mammary gland can produce basal cells upon oncogenic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, S M; Haricharan, S; Johnston, A N; Toneff, M J; Reddy, J P; Dong, J; Bu, W; Li, Y

    2016-03-17

    In the normal mammary gland, the basal epithelium is known to be bipotent and can generate either basal or luminal cells, whereas the luminal epithelium has not been demonstrated to contribute to the basal compartment in an intact and normally developed mammary gland. It is not clear whether cellular heterogeneity within a breast tumor results from transformation of bipotent basal cells or from transformation and subsequent basal conversion of the more differentiated luminal cells. Here we used a retroviral vector to express an oncogene specifically in a small number of the mammary luminal epithelial cells and tested their potential to produce basal cells during tumorigenesis. This in-vivo lineage-tracing work demonstrates that luminal cells are capable of producing basal cells on activation of either polyoma middle T antigen or ErbB2 signaling. These findings reveal the plasticity of the luminal compartment during tumorigenesis and provide an explanation for cellular heterogeneity within a cancer.

  13. Proximal tubule-specific glutamine synthetase deletion alters basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Osis, Gunars; Handlogten, Mary E.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Chaudhry, Farrukh A.; Verlander, Jill W.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) catalyzes the recycling of NH4+ with glutamate to form glutamine. GS is highly expressed in the renal proximal tubule (PT), suggesting ammonia recycling via GS could decrease net ammoniagenesis and thereby limit ammonia available for net acid excretion. The purpose of the present study was to determine the role of PT GS in ammonia metabolism under basal conditions and during metabolic acidosis. We generated mice with PT-specific GS deletion (PT-GS-KO) using Cre-loxP techniques. Under basal conditions, PT-GS-KO increased urinary ammonia excretion significantly. Increased ammonia excretion occurred despite decreased expression of key proteins involved in renal ammonia generation. After the induction of metabolic acidosis, the ability to increase ammonia excretion was impaired significantly by PT-GS-KO. The blunted increase in ammonia excretion occurred despite greater expression of multiple components of ammonia generation, including SN1 (Slc38a3), phosphate-dependent glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and Na+-coupled electrogenic bicarbonate cotransporter. We conclude that 1) GS-mediated ammonia recycling in the PT contributes to both basal and acidosis-stimulated ammonia metabolism and 2) adaptive changes in other proteins involved in ammonia metabolism occur in response to PT-GS-KO and cause an underestimation of the role of PT GS expression. PMID:27009341

  14. Enrichment of CD44 in basal-type breast cancer correlates with EMT, cancer stem cell gene profile, and prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu HX

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanxiao Xu,1 Yijun Tian,1 Xun Yuan,1 Yu Liu,2 Hua Wu,1 Qian Liu,1 Gen Sheng Wu,3,4 Kongming Wu1 1Department of Oncology, 2Department of Geriatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Oncology, 4Department of Pathology, Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that serves as the receptor for the extracellular matrix component hyaluronic acid. CD44 has been reported to play key roles in cell proliferation, motility, and survival, but its role in breast cancer remains controversial. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis. A total of 23 published Gene Expression Omnibus databases were included to evaluate the association between CD44 mRNA expression and clinicopathological characteristics or prognosis of the patients with breast cancer. Our analysis revealed that CD44 expression was associated with clinicopathological features, including the histological grade, estrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 status. Higher levels of CD44 expression were observed in the basal subtype of breast cancer both at the mRNA and protein levels (odds ratio [OR] =2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.72–2.52; OR =2.11, 95% CI: 1.67–2.68. Patients with CD44 overexpression exhibited significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio =1.27; 95% CI: 1.04–1.55. Whole gene profile analysis revealed that CD44 expression was enriched in basal-type breast cancer and correlated with epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell gene profiles. In summary, our analyses indicated that CD44 potentially might be a prognostic marker for breast cancer and thus can serve as a therapeutic target for basal-type breast cancer. Keywords: breast cancer, CD44, survival prediction, meta

  15. Dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis in patients with basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirseren, Duriye Deniz; Cicek, Cagla; Alisik, Murat; Demirseren, Mustafa Erol; Aktaş, Akın; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to measure and compare the dynamic thiol/disulphide homeostasis of patients with basal cell carcinoma and healthy subjects with a newly developed and original method. Thirty four patients attending our outpatient clinic and clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as nodular basal cell carcinoma, and age and gender matched 30 healthy individuals have been involved in the study. Thiol/disulphide homeostasis tests have been measured with a novel automatic spectrophotometric method developed and the results have been compared statistically. Serum native thiol and disulphide levels in the patient and control group show a considerable variance statistically (p = 0.028, 0.039, respectively). Total thiol levels do not reveal a considerable variation (p = 0.094). Disulphide/native thiol ratios and native thiol/total thiol ratios also show a considerable variance statistically (p = 0.012, 0.013, 0.010, respectively). Thiol disulphide homeostasis in patients with basal cell carcinoma alters in the way that disulphide gets lower and thiols get higher. Thiol/disulphide level is likely to have a role in basal cell carcinoma pathogenesis.

  16. Reduced basal and novelty-induced levels of activity-regulated cytoskeleton associated protein (Arc) and c-Fos mRNA in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    to a novel open field environment was compromised in different neocortical areas and the hippocampal formation in APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice characterized by pronounced accumulation and deposition of beta amyloid (Aβ). Notably, the basal level of Arc and c-fos mRNA in the neocortex was significantly lower...... in APP/PS1ΔE9 compared to wild-type mice. Novelty exposure induced an increase in Arc and c-Fos mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal cortex, and hippocampal formation in both APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic and wild-type mice. However, novelty-induced IEG expression did not reach the same levels...... in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, which is most pronounced in cortical regions, indicating that a decreased functional response in IEG expression could be partly responsible for the cognitive deficits observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease....

  17. Basal Forebrain Gating by Somatostatin Neurons Drives Prefrontal Cortical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nelson; Alonso, Alejandra; Morales, Cristian; Espinosa, Pedro; Chávez, Andrés E; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2017-11-17

    The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior. Optogenetic inactivation of somatostatin neurons in vivo rapidly modified neural activity in the basal forebrain, with the consequent enhancement and desynchronization of activity in the prefrontal cortex, reflected in both neuronal spiking and network oscillations. Cortical activation was partially dependent on cholinergic transmission, suppressing slow waves and potentiating gamma oscillations. In addition, recruitment dynamics was cell type-specific, with interneurons showing similar temporal profiles, but stronger responses than pyramidal cells. Finally, optogenetic stimulation of quiescent animals during resting periods prompted locomotor activity, suggesting generalized cortical activation and increased arousal. Altogether, we provide physiological and behavioral evidence indicating that somatostatin neurons are pivotal in gating the synaptic output of the basal forebrain, thus indirectly controlling cortical operations via both cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Basal salivary oxytocin level predicts extra- but not intra-personal dimensions of emotional intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Nancy S; Max, Laura K

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of literature suggests that oxytocin is an important mediator of social cognition, but much of the research to date has relied on pharmaceutical administration methods that can raise oxytocin to artificially high levels. The present study builds upon previous work by examining whether basal oxytocin level predicts intra- and extra-personal (i.e., self- and other-focused) elements of emotional intelligence (EI), independent of shared variance with current mood. The sample included 71 healthy young adults (46 women). Assessment measures included the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test Version 2.0 (MSCEIT), the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, and the Profile of Mood States. Peripheral oxytocin levels were examined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay from saliva after solid phase extraction. Oxytocin level was unrelated to TMMS scores but was positively associated with performance in the Experiential EI domain of the MSCEIT. However, total mood disturbance was positively related to MSCEIT scores. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that oxytocin level added unique variance to the prediction of MSCEIT performance beyond that of current mood. These results confirm an association between endogenous levels of oxytocin in healthy adults and a subset of EI abilities, including extra-personal emotion recognition and the channeling of emotions to enhance social proficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of basal and eye-flush tears for the analysis of cat tear proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Evans, Margaret D M; Madigan, Michele C; Markoulli, Maria; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F

    2011-02-01

    To identify a rapid and effective tear collection method providing sufficient tear volume and total protein content (TPC) for analysis of individual proteins in cats. Domestic adult short-haired cats (12-37 months; 2.7-6.6 kg) were used in the study. Basal tears without stimulation and eye-flush tears after instillation of saline (10 μl) were collected using microcapillary tubes from animal eyes either unwounded control or wounded with 9-mm central epithelial debridement giving four groups with n = 3. Tear comparisons were based on total time and rate for tear collection, TPC using micro bicinchoninic acid (BCA), tear immunoglobulin A (IgA), total matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 concentration using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and MMP-9 activity. Eye-flush tears were collected significantly faster than basal tears in wounded eyes with higher rates for tear collection in unwounded control and wounded eyes. TPC was significantly lower in eye-flush tears compared to basal tears. The relative proportion of tear IgA normalized to TPC (% IgA of TPC) was not significantly different between basal and eye-flush tears. In unwounded control eyes, MMP-9 was slightly higher in eye-flush than in basal tears; activity of MMP-9 in both tear types was similar. In wounded eyes, eye-flush tears showed highest MMP-9 levels and activity on Day 1, which subsequently decreased to Day 7. MMP-9 activity in basal tears from wounded eyes did not display changes in expression. Eye-flush tears can be collected rapidly providing sufficient tear volume and TPC. This study also indicates that eye-flush tears may be more suitable than basal tears for the analysis of MMPs following corneal wounding. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  20. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2002-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  1. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2003-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  2. The Basal Cell Marker p63 and Prostate Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Signoretti, Sabina

    2004-01-01

    ...(s) involved in prostate carcinogenesis. The p53-homologue p63 is selectively expressed in the basal cell compartment of a variety of epithelial tissues and p63 deficient mice show severe defects in the development of epithelial organs...

  3. Activity of the rat osteocalcin basal promoter in osteoblastic cells is dependent upon homeodomain and CP1 binding motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towler, D A; Bennett, C D; Rodan, G A

    1994-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the transcriptional machinery responsible for osteoblast-specific gene expression should provide tools useful for understanding osteoblast commitment and differentiation. We have defined three cis-elements important for basal activity of the rat osteocalcin (OC) promoter, located at about -200 to -180, -170 to -138, and -121 to -64 relative to the transcription initiation site. A motif (TCTGATTGTGT) present in the region between -200 and -170 that binds a multisubunit CP1/NFY/CBF-like CAAT factor complex contributes significantly to high level basal activity and presumably functions as the CAAT box for the rat OC promoter. We show that the region -121 to 32 is sufficient to confer osteoblastic cell type specificity in transient transfection assays of cultured cell lines using luciferase as a reporter. The basal promoter is active in rodent osteoblastic cell lines, but not in rodent fibroblastic or muscle cell lines. Although the rat OC box (-100 to -74) contains a CAAT motif, we could not detect CP1-like CAAT factor binding to this region. In fact, we demonstrate that a Msx-1 (Hox 7.1) homeodomain binding motif (ACTAATTG; bottom strand) in the 3'-end of the rat OC box is necessary for high level activity of the rat OC basal promoter in osteoblastic cells. A nuclear factor that recognizes this motif appears to be present in osteoblastic ROS 17/2.8 cells, which produce OC, but not in fibroblastic ROS 25/1 cells, which fail to express OC. This ROS 17/2.8 nuclear factor also recognizes the A/T-rich DNA cognates of the homeodomain-containing POU family of transcription factors. Taken together, these data suggest that a ubiquitous CP1-like CAAT factor and a cell type-restricted homeodomain containing (Msx or POU family) transcription factor interact with the proximal rat OC promoter to direct appropriate basal OC transcription in osteoblastic cells.

  4. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  5. Expressão da E-caderina em carcinoma de células escamosas e no tumor de células basais de cães E-cadherin expression in squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell tumors in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Franchi João

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As caderinas compreendem uma classe de moléculas de adesão celular expressa na superfície de todas as camadas epidérmicas. A E-caderina é a principal caderina envolvida na adesão celular epitelial. A redução de sua expressão está envolvida na progressão de alguns tipos de câncer, no potencial metastático e ainda na definição do prognóstico, principalmente nos carcinomas. O carcinoma de células escamosas e o tumor de células basais são neoplasias cutâneas malignas que afetam os cães. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a expressão da E-caderina no carcinoma de células escamosas (n=20 e no tumor de células basais (n=15, buscando-se relacionar sua expressão ao comportamento biológico desses tumores. Os carcinomas de células escamosas apresentaram significativa redução da expressão da molécula comparado aos tumores de células basais, quando avaliado pelo teste de Fisher (P=0,0039. Também foi observado que células neoplásicas mais diferenciadas apresentaram coloração mais intensa que as menos diferenciadas. Em conclusão, sugere-se que a expressão reduzida da E-caderina em tumores cutâneos pode indicar maior poder infiltrativo e consequentemente mau prognóstico na espécie canina.The cadherins are a group of cellular adhesion molecules that are expressed on the surface of all epidermic layer. The E-cadherin is the main cadherin involved in epithelial cellular adhesion; the decrease in its expression is related to the progression of some types of cancer, to its metastatic characteristics, and to the prognosis, specially carcinomas. The squamous cell carcinoma and the basal cells tumors are a malignant epithelial neoplasm which affects dogs. The goal of this study was to evaluate E-cadherin's expression in canine tissues that were classified as squamous cell carcinoma or basal cell tumor, and to find a correlation with the biological behavior of the tumors. The squamous cell carcinomas showed significantly

  6. Immunoreactivity for alpha-smooth muscle actin characterizes a potentially aggressive subgroup of little basal cell carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Faa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is a very common malignant skin tumor that rarely metastatizes, but is often locally aggressive. Several factors, like large size (more than 3 cm, exposure to ultraviolet rays, histological variants, level of infiltration and perineural or perivascular invasion, are associated with a more aggressive clinical course. These morphological features seem to be more determinant in mideface localized BCC, which frequently show a significantly higher recurrence rate. An immunohistochemical profile, characterized by reactivity of tumor cells for p53, Ki67 and alpha-SMA has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour in large BCCs. The aim of this study was to verify if also little (less than 3 cm basal cell carcinomas can express immunohistochemical markers typical for an aggressive behaviour.

  7. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  8. Immunohistochemical Expression of P53 Protein in Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinicopathological Study of 66 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladim and iacute;r Barto and scaron;

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nuclear expression of p53 protein is associated with a biological behavior in a variety of human malignancies. In cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC, however, many studies have provided conflicting results in this regard. We aimed to determine whether there is relationship between p53 expression and different histologic subtypes of BCC, and whether it may indicate tumor aggressiveness. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples from 66 cutaneous BCCs from 57 patients were collected. P53 expression was demonstrated by immunohistochemical staining using the anti-p53 antibody. Among them, 52 cases were also evaluated for Ki-67 antigen. Results: Immunoreactivity of p53 protein varied in the range of 0 to 100% of total tumor tissue (mean value 46.0%. The expression exceeding 5% of cancer tissue (positive staining was found in 54 BCCs (81.8%. Within this group, there were 25 cases (37.9% with low and 29 cases (43.9% with high expression. In superficial, superficial-nodular, nodular, nodular-infiltrative and infiltrative BCCs, p53 protein positivity was found in 100% (8/8, 80% (8/10, 70.4% (19/27, 88.2% (15/17 and 100% (4/4, respectively. We did not reveal a significant correlation between the extent of p53 protein expression and BCC subtypes except for nodular BCC, in which a number of negative cases (8/27, 29.6% were just above the threshold of statistical significance (P = 0.04. After merging cancers into non-aggressive and aggressive growth phenotype, no association with expression of p53 protein was found. There was no relationship between p53 protein expression and topographical sites after they have been gathered into sun-exposed and sun-protected locations. We did not observe any association between expression of p53 protein and Ki-67 antigen. Conclusion: In cutaneous BCC, the expression of p53 protein does not seem to reflect a biological behavior and tumor aggressiveness. Therefore, in a routine dermatopathological practice

  9. Cocoa Enriched Diets Enhance Expression of Phosphatases and Decrease Expression of Inflammatory Molecules in Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Ryan J.; Durham, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of trigeminal nerves and release of neuropeptides that promote inflammation are implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. The overall response of trigeminal nerves to peripheral inflammatory stimuli involves a balance between enzymes that promote inflammation, kinases, and those that restore homeostasis, phosphatases. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of a cocoa-enriched diet on the expression of key inflammatory proteins in trigeminal ganglion neurons under basal and inflammatory conditions. Rats were fed a control diet or an isocaloric diet enriched in cocoa for 14 days prior to an injection of noxious stimuli to cause acute or chronic excitation of trigeminal neurons. In animals fed a cocoa-enriched diet, basal levels of the mitogen-activated kinase (MAP) phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 were elevated in neurons. Importantly, the stimulatory effects of acute or chronic peripheral inflammation on neuronal expression of the MAPK p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) were significantly repressed in response to cocoa. Similarly, dietary cocoa significantly suppressed basal neuronal expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) as well as stimulated levels of the inducible form of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), proteins implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine and TMJ disorders. To our knowledge, this is first evidence that a dietary supplement can cause upregulation of MKP, and that cocoa can prevent inflammatory responses in trigeminal ganglion neurons. Furthermore, our data provide evidence that cocoa contains biologically active compounds that would be beneficial in the treatment of migraine and TMJ disorders. PMID:20138852

  10. Giant morphea-form basal cell carcinoma of the umbilicus: Successful debulking with vismodegib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orduz Robledo, Mariana; Lebas, Eve; Reginster, Marie-Annick; Baghaie, Mahmoud; Groves, Sabine; Nikkels, Arjen F

    2018-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the umbilicus is very rare. The nodular subtype is the main representative. Giant basal cell carcinomas represent around 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. The hedgehog pathway inhibitor vismodegib is indicated for advanced basal cell carcinoma and CD56-negative immunostaining seems indicative for successful treatment. A 54-year-old man presented a 10 cm × 14 cm large and 4.5 cm deep morphea-form basal cell carcinoma with faint immunohistochemical CD56 expression arising from the umbilicus. A sequential treatment was initiated with debulking using vismodegib 150 mg per day for 4 months, followed by reconstructive surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a giant basal cell carcinoma of the morphea-form type of the umbilicus. The sequential treatment plan reduces the duration of vismodegib inherent adverse effects and significantly reduces the tumor mass prior to surgery. Besides increasing adherence to vismodegib treatment, this approach facilitates the surgical technique and improves cosmetic outcome.

  11. Comparing serum basal and follicular fluid levels of anti-Mullerian hormone as a predictor of in vitro fertilization outcomes in patients with and without polycystic ovary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somayeh Arabzadeh; Ghamartaj Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes by anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) measurement is getting increasing attention from clinicians. This study compares the relationship between serum or intrafollicular AMH levels and IVF outcomes in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).This prospective study was carried out in two university-based fertility clinics. Serum samples were collected on cycle day 3 and follicular fluid (FF) was collected on the day of oocyte retrieval from 26 women with PCOS and 42 normo-ovulatory controls. AMH levels were measured in the samples using immunoenzymatic assay. The relationship between serum or FF AMH levels and IVF outcomes, including number of oocytes retrieved, oocyte maturation rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, high quality grade embryo rate, and biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates were further assessed.Median serum basal AMH and FF AMH levels were significantly higher in the PCOS group as compared to controls, the values being 14.2 ng/mL vs. 3.2 ng/mL (P<.001) and 8.2 ng/g protein vs. 4.7 ng/g protein (P<.01), respectively. In both groups, serum basal AMH levels showed a positive correlation with number of oocytes retrieved (r=0.323; P=.037 in control vs. r=0.529; P=.005 in PCOS). In the control group, there was a positive relationship between serum basal AMH levels and percentage of matured oocytes (r = 0.331; P=.032) and implantation rate (r=0.305; P=.05).Serum basal, and not intrafollicular, AMH levels may be a good predictive factor for quantitative and qualitative IVF outcomes in normo-ovulatory, but not in PCOS patients (Author).

  12. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  13. Ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transduction during grain filling in apical and basal spikelets of compact-and lax-panicle rice (Oryza sativa cultivars

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    Sudhanshu Sekhar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grain yields in modern super rice cultivars do not always meet the expectations because many spikelets are located on secondary branches in closely packed homogeneous distribution in these plants, and they do not fill properly. The factors limiting grain filling of such spikelets, especially in the lower panicle branches, are elusive. Two long-duration rice cultivars differing in panicle density, Mahalaxmi (compact and Upahar (lax were cultivated in an open field plot. Grain filling, ethylene production and constitutive expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers in apical and basal spikelets of the panicle were compared during the early post-anthesis stage, which is the most critical period for grain development. In another experiment, a similar assessment was made for the medium-duration cultivars compact-panicle OR-1918 and lax-panicle Lalat. Grain weight of the apical spikelets was always higher than that of the basal spikelets. This gradient of grain weight was wide in the compact-panicle cultivars and narrow in the lax-panicle cultivars. Compared to apical spikelets, the basal spikelets produced more ethylene at anthesis and retained the capacity for post-anthesis expression of ethylene receptors and ethylene signal transducers longer. High ethylene production enhanced the expression of the RSR1 gene, but reduced expression of the GBSS1 gene. Ethylene inhibited the partitioning of assimilates of developing grains resulting in low starch biosynthesis and high accumulation of soluble carbohydrates. It is concluded that an increase in grain/spikelet density in rice panicles reduces apical dominance to the detriment of grain filling by production of ethylene and/or enhanced perception of the ethylene signal. Ethylene could be a second messenger for apical dominance in grain filling. The manipulation of the ethylene signal would possibly improve rice grain yield.

  14. Plasmids encoding PKI(1-31), a specific inhibitor of cAMP-stimulated gene expression, inhibit the basal transcriptional activity of some but not all cAMP-regulated DNA response elements in JEG-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, J R; Deutsch, P J; Price, D J; Habener, J F; Avruch, J

    1989-11-25

    Plasmids that encode a bioactive amino-terminal fragment of the heat-stable inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, PKI(1-31), were employed to characterize the role of this protein kinase in the control of transcriptional activity mediated by three DNA regulatory elements in the JEG-3 human placental cell line. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human collagenase gene contains the heptameric sequence, 5'-TGAGTCA-3', previously identified as a "phorbol ester" response element. Reporter genes containing either the intact 1.2-kilobase 5'-flanking sequence from the human collagenase gene or just the 7-base pair (bp) response element, when coupled to an enhancerless promoter, each exhibit both cAMP and phorbol ester-stimulated expression in JEG-3 cells. Cotransfection of either construct with plasmids encoding PKI(1-31) inhibits cAMP-stimulated but not basal- or phorbol ester-stimulated expression. Pretreatment of cells with phorbol ester for 1 or 2 days abrogates completely the response to rechallenge with phorbol ester but does not alter the basal expression of either construct; cAMP-stimulated expression, while modestly inhibited, remains vigorous. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human chorionic gonadotropin-alpha subunit (HCG alpha) gene has two copies of the sequence, 5'-TGACGTCA-3', contained in directly adjacent identical 18-bp segments, previously identified as a cAMP-response element. Reporter genes containing either the intact 1.5 kilobase of 5'-flanking sequence from the HCG alpha gene, or just the 36-bp tandem repeat cAMP response element, when coupled to an enhancerless promoter, both exhibit a vigorous cAMP stimulation of expression but no response to phorbol ester in JEG-3 cells. Cotransfection with plasmids encoding PKI(1-31) inhibits both basal and cAMP-stimulated expression in a parallel fashion. The 5'-flanking sequence of the human enkephalin gene mediates cAMP-stimulated expression of reporter genes in both JEG-3 and CV-1 cells. Plasmids

  15. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

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    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  16. Research of psycho-emotional stability in the basal emotions matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav T. Volov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the analysis of psycho-emotional state estimation, which is based on the facial feedback monitoring. The myographic research data revealed qualitative and quantitative singularities of epileptics on the range of basal emotion indicators which have been received on the matrix method way basis and model of quality diagnostics. For the calibration method the study involved healthy subjects. Beforehand myographic cards were developed to measure the tone of facial muscles during the trial of six basal emotions. The experiment was arranged in such a way as to reflect the work of reverse afferentation emotions. Ahe amplitude-frequency characteristics of the samples and emotional reactions of involuntary reactions were identical. Therefore samples of complementary development of natural emotions were tried: the first test stage included efferent synthesis, the second stage used afferent synthesis. Defining features of emotional response was carried out on the basis of the model of quality diagnostics of emotions. The chiral effects were identified: mimic pattern emotions in both samples. This effect allowed to separate violations of the personal response from the specific pattern, which blocks the effects of restrictions and other emotions. The matrix method allowed to produce quantitative estimates of mental and emotional state on the basis of instrumental measurements of basal emotions. In the group of epileptics, on the facial expression level emotional blocks are identified which are connected with ceral effects (repented characteristic deviation of emotional patterns in the two probes. Additionally differences on quantitative estimations between the epileptics reactions and healthy individuals are revealed.

  17. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  18. Curcumin – A Potent Inhibitor of Galectin-3 Expression

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    Jerka Dumić

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of galectin-3, a b-galactoside binding lectin, was found to be affected by different kinds of stressors, and is strongly modified in numerous physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Although no precise regulatory mechanisms of galectin-3 expression are unraveled, transcription factors AP-1 (activator protein 1 and NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa B play an important role in these processes. Activities of both transcription factors are affected by curcumin, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma species. We have analyzed the impact of curcumin on the expression of galectin-3 in glioblastoma cells under basal conditions and under stress invoked by the cell exposure to alkylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG and ultraviolet C (UV-C light. Galectin-3 level was measured by western-blot technique using M3/38 monoclonal antibody. Curcumin has decreased the basal level of galectin-3, while the pretreatment of cells with curcumin has considerably reduced the inducible effect of UV-C radiation and abolished the inducible effect of alkylating agent. Thus, curcumin has been identified as a potent inhibitor of galectin-3 expression.

  19. Effects of treadmill running on extracellular basal levels of glutamate and GABA at dentate gyrus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisi, Parham; Alaei, Hojjatallah; Babri, Shirin; Sharifi, Mohammad Reza; Mohaddes, Gisue; Soleimannejad, Elaheh; Rashidi, Bahman

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the effects of treadmill running on extracellular basal levels of glutamate and GABA at dentate gyrus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. METHODS: After 12 weeks of diabetes induction and exercise period, extracellular levels of glutamate and GABA were investigated. RESULTS: The results showed that glutamate levels were significantly decreased in diabetes-rest group comparing to the control-rest and the diabetes-exercise groups. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support the possibility that treadmill running is helpful in alleviating neurotransmitter homeostasis and alterations in transmission in diabetes mellitus. PMID:21526077

  20. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

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    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  1. Motor phenotype and magnetic resonance measures of basal ganglia iron levels in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzeck, Nico; Singh-Curry, Victoria; Eckart, Cindy; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Perry, Richard J; Bain, Peter G; Düzel, Emrah; Husain, Masud

    2013-12-01

    In Parkinson's disease the degree of motor impairment can be classified with respect to tremor dominant and akinetic rigid features. While tremor dominance and akinetic rigidity might represent two ends of a continuum rather than discrete entities, it would be important to have non-invasive markers of any biological differences between them in vivo, to assess disease trajectories and response to treatment, as well as providing insights into the underlying mechanisms contributing to heterogeneity within the Parkinson's disease population. Here, we used magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether Parkinson's disease patients exhibit structural changes within the basal ganglia that might relate to motor phenotype. Specifically, we examined volumes of basal ganglia regions, as well as transverse relaxation rate (a putative marker of iron load) and magnetization transfer saturation (considered to index structural integrity) within these regions in 40 individuals. We found decreased volume and reduced magnetization transfer within the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease patients compared to healthy controls. Importantly, there was a positive correlation between tremulous motor phenotype and transverse relaxation rate (reflecting iron load) within the putamen, caudate and thalamus. Our findings suggest that akinetic rigid and tremor dominant symptoms of Parkinson's disease might be differentiated on the basis of the transverse relaxation rate within specific basal ganglia structures. Moreover, they suggest that iron load within the basal ganglia makes an important contribution to motor phenotype, a key prognostic indicator of disease progression in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hu, Yu-Chen [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Tsan [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Division of Hepatobiliarypancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kee-Lung, E-mail: Chang.KeeLung@msa.hinet.net [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24 h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Highlights: ► Arecoline has potential to prevent against basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. ► It has more effectiveness on BCC as compared with a human keratinocyte cell line. ► Mechanisms involved including reducing tumor cells’ survival factor IL-6, ► Decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase, enhancing tumor suppressor factor p53, ► Eliciting G2/M

  3. COX-1 vs. COX-2 as a determinant of basal tone in the internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, Márcio A F; Rattan, Neeru; Rattan, Satish

    2009-02-01

    Prostanoids, produced endogenously via cyclooxygenases (COXs), have been implicated in the sustained contraction of different smooth muscles. The two major types of COXs are COX-1 and COX-2. The COX subtype involved in the basal state of the internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle tone is not known. To identify the COX subtype, we examined the effect of COX-1- and COX-2-selective inhibitors, SC-560 and rofecoxib, respectively, on basal tone in the rat IAS. We also determined the effect of selective deletion of COX-1 and COX-2 genes (COX-1(-/-) and COX-2(-/-) mice) on basal tone in murine IAS. Our data show that SC-560 causes significantly more efficacious and potent concentration-dependent decreases in IAS tone than rofecoxib. In support of these data, significantly higher levels of COX-1 than COX-2 mRNA were found in the IAS. In addition, higher levels of COX-1 mRNA and protein were expressed in rat IAS than rectal smooth muscle. In wild-type mice, IAS tone was decreased 41.4 +/- 3.4% (mean +/- SE) by SC-560 (1 x 10(-5) M) and 5.4 +/- 2.2% by rofecoxib (P IAS from wild-type mice and significantly less (0.080 +/- 0.015 mN/mg) in the IAS from COX-1(-/-) mice (P IAS tone.

  4. Immune defense of wild-caught Norway rats is characterized by increased levels of basal activity but reduced capability to respond to further immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkov, Ivana; Popov Aleksandrov, Aleksandra; Subota, Vesna; Kataranovski, Dragan; Kataranovski, Milena

    2018-03-01

    Studies of wild animals' immunity often use comparison with laboratory-raised individuals. Using such an approach, various data were obtained concerning wild Norway rat's immunity. Lower or higher potential of immune system cells to respond to activation stimuli were shown, because of analysis of disparate parameters and/ or small number of analyzed individuals. Inconsistent differences between laboratory and wild rats were shown too, owing to great response variability in wild rats. We hypothesized that wild rats will express more intense immune activity compared to their laboratory counterparts which live in a less demanding environment. To test this, we analyzed the circulating levels of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), a mediator which has a central role in host immune defense. In addition, we examined the activity of the central immune organ, the spleen, including cell proliferation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-17 (IL-17), which are major effectors of cellular adaptive immune response. In order to obtain reasonable insight into the immunity of wild Norway rats, analysis was conducted on a much larger number of individuals compared to other studies. Higher levels of plasma IL-6, higher spleen mass, cellularity and basal IFN-γ production concomitantly with lower basal production of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) revealed more intense immune activity in the wild compared to laboratory rats. However, lower responsiveness of their spleen cells' proinflammatory cytokine production to concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation, along with preserved capacity of IL-10 response, might be perceived as an indication of wild rats' reduced capability to cope with incoming environmental stimuli, but also as a means to limit tissue damage. © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Melatonin Distribution Reveals Clues to Its Biological Significance in Basal Metazoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopin, Modi; Levy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Although nearly ubiquitous in nature, the precise biological significance of endogenous melatonin is poorly understood in phylogenetically basal taxa. In the present work, we describe insights into the functional role of melatonin at the most “basal” level of metazoan evolution. Hitherto unknown morphological determinants of melatonin distribution were evaluated in Nematostella vectensis by detecting melatonin immunoreactivity and examining the spatial gene expression patterns of putative melatonin biosynthetic and receptor elements that are located at opposing ends of the melatonin signaling pathway. Immuno-melatonin profiling indicated an elaborate interaction with reproductive tissues, reinforcing previous conjectures of a melatonin-responsive component in anthozoan reproduction. In situ hybridization (ISH) to putative melatonin receptor elements highlighted the possibility that the bioregulatory effects of melatonin in anthozoan reproduction may be mediated by interactions with membrane receptors, as in higher vertebrates. Another intriguing finding of the present study pertains to the prevalence of melatonin in centralized nervous structures. This pattern may be of great significance given that it 1) identifies an ancestral association between melatonin and key neuronal components and 2) potentially implies that certain effects of melatonin in basal species may be spread widely by regionalized nerve centers. PMID:23300630

  6. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  7. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2014-08-17

    Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas. To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome. Pubmed was used to search the following terms: axillary basal cell carcinoma and basal cell nevus syndrome. The papers and their citations were evaluated. Basal cell nevus syndrome patients with basal cell carcinoma of the axilla were observed in two women; this represents 2.5% (2 of 79) of the patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma. Both women had pigmented tumors that were histologically nonaggressive. The cancers did not recur after curettage or excision. Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla has only been described in 79 individuals; two of the patients were women with pigmented tumors who had basal cell nevus syndrome. Similar to other patients with axillary basal cell carcinoma, the tumors were histologically nonaggressive and did not recur following treatment. Whether PTCH1 gene mutation predisposes basal cell nevus patients to develop axillary basal cell carcinomas remains to be determined.

  8. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2016-12-17

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer's disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer's disease.

  9. Do basal Ganglia amplify willed action by stochastic resonance? A model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Srinivasa Chakravarthy

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia are usually attributed a role in facilitating willed action, which is found to be impaired in Parkinson's disease, a pathology of basal ganglia. We hypothesize that basal ganglia possess the machinery to amplify will signals, presumably weak, by stochastic resonance. Recently we proposed a computational model of Parkinsonian reaching, in which the contributions from basal ganglia aid the motor cortex in learning to reach. The model was cast in reinforcement learning framework. We now show that the above basal ganglia computational model has all the ingredients of stochastic resonance process. In the proposed computational model, we consider the problem of moving an arm from a rest position to a target position: the two positions correspond to two extrema of the value function. A single kick (a half-wave of sinusoid, of sufficiently low amplitude given to the system in resting position, succeeds in taking the system to the target position, with high probability, only at a critical noise level. But for suboptimal noise levels, the model arm's movements resemble Parkinsonian movement symptoms like akinetic rigidity (low noise and dyskinesias (high noise.

  10. Isolation of basal membrane proteins from BeWo cells and their expression in placentas from fetal growth-restricted pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Soo-Young; Hwang, Jae Ryoung; Lee, Yoonna; Choi, Suk-Joo; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Sadovsky, Yoel; Roh, Cheong-Rae

    2016-03-01

    The syncytiotrophoblast, a key barrier between the mother and fetus, is a polarized epithelium composed of a microvillus and basal membrane (BM). We sought to characterize BM proteins of BeWo cells in relation to hypoxia and to investigate their expression in placentas from pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction (FGR). We isolated the BM fraction of BeWo cells by the cationic colloidal silica method and identified proteins enriched in this fraction by mass spectrometry. We evaluated the effect of hypoxia on the expression and intracellular localization of identified proteins and compared their expression in BM fractions of FGR placentas to those from normal pregnancies. We identified BM proteins from BeWo cells. Among BM proteins, we further characterized heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1), and ribophorin II (RPN2), based on their relevance to placental biology. Hypoxia enhanced the localization of these proteins to the BM of BeWo cells. HO-1, VDAC1, and RPN2 were selectively expressed in the human placental BM fraction. C-terminally truncated HO-1 was identified in placental BM fractions, and its BM expression was significantly reduced in FGR placentas than in normal placentas. Interestingly, a truncated HO-1 construct was predominantly localized in the BM in response to hypoxia and co-localized with VDAC1 in BeWo cells. Hypoxia increased the BM localization of HO-1, VDAC1, and RPN2 proteins. FGR significantly reduced the expression of truncated HO-1, which was surmised to co-localize with VDAC1 in hypoxic BeWo cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Elevated YAP and its downstream targets CCN1 and CCN2 in basal cell carcinoma: impact on keratinocyte proliferation and stromal cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Taihao; Xu, Yiru; Qin, Zhaoping; Robichaud, Patrick; Betcher, Stephanie; Calderone, Ken; He, Tianyuan; Johnson, Timothy M; Voorhees, John J; Fisher, Gary J

    2014-04-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator of hippo signaling pathway, which plays an important role in organ size control and tumorigenesis. Here we report that YAP and its downstream transcriptional targets CCN1 and CCN2 are markedly elevated in keratinocytes in human skin basal cell carcinoma tumor islands. In human keratinocytes, knockdown of YAP significantly reduced expression of CCN1 and CCN2, and repressed proliferation and survival. This inhibition of proliferation and survival was rescued by restoration of CCN1 expression, but not by CCN2 expression. In basal cell carcinoma stroma, CCN2-regulated genes type I collagen, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin were highly expressed. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy revealed increased tissue stiffness in basal cell carcinoma stroma compared to normal dermis. These data provide evidence that up-regulation of YAP in basal cell carcinoma impacts both aberrant keratinocyte proliferation, via CCN1, and tumor stroma cell activation and stroma remodeling, via CCN2. Targeting YAP and/or CCN1 and CCN2 may provide clinical benefit in basal cell carcinoma. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Breast Augmentation Scar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa R; Cresce, Nicole D; Russell, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    We report a case of a 46-year-old female who presented with a persistent lesion on the inferior right breast. The lesion was located within the scar from a breast augmentation procedure 12 years ago. The lesion had been treated as several conditions with no improvement. Biopsy revealed a superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma, and the lesion was successfully removed with Mohs micrographic surgery. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a surgical scar is exceedingly rare with only 13 reported cases to date. This is the first reported case of basal cell carcinoma arising in a breast augmentation scar. We emphasize the importance of biopsy for suspicious lesions or those refractory to treatment, particularly those lesions that form within a scar. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  13. Endocytosis-independent function of clathrin heavy chain in the control of basal NF-κB activation.

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    Man Lyang Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes involved in a variety of biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, stress responses and cell proliferation. Constitutive or excessive NF-κB activity has been associated with inflammatory disorders and higher risk of cancer. In contrast to the mechanisms controlling inducible activation, the regulation of basal NF-κB activation is not well understood. Here we test whether clathrin heavy chain (CHC contributes to the regulation of basal NF-κB activity in epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA interference to reduce endogenous CHC expression, we found that CHC is required to prevent constitutive activation of NF-κB and gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed constitutive nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit p65 in absence of stimulation after CHC knockdown. Elevated basal p65 nuclear localization is caused by constitutive phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα through an IκB kinase α (IKKα-dependent mechanism. The role of CHC in NF-κB signaling is functionally relevant as constitutive expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, whose expression is regulated by NF-κB, was found after CHC knockdown. Disruption of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chemical inhibition or depletion of the μ2-subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein AP-2, and knockdown of clathrin light chain a (CHLa, failed to induce constitutive NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, showing that CHC acts on NF-κB independently of endocytosis and CLCa. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHC functions as a built-in molecular brake that ensures a tight control of basal NF-κB activation and gene expression in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential link between a defect in CHC expression and chronic inflammation disorder and cancer.

  14. Expressão de metaloproteinases de matriz e de seus inibidores teciduais em carcinomas basocelulares Expression of matrix metalloproteinasis and their tissue inhibitors in basal cell carcinoma

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    Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Aproximadamente 80% das neoplasias malignas de pele não-melanomas são carcinomas basocelulares (CBC. Apesar das raras metástases, esses tumores são localmente agressivos. As metaloproteinases de matriz (MMPs, especialmente as MMP-2 e 9, são importantes no processo de invasão. Em contrapartida, os inibidores teciduais das MMPs (TIMPs têm como principal função a inibição dessas enzimas. OBJETIVO: Investigar a associação de variáveis clinicopatológicas de pacientes portadores de CBC com a expressão de MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 e TIMP-2. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 31 casos de CBC, sendo então obtidos, retrospectivamente, os dados referentes a idade, sexo e tamanho da lesão. Cortes histológicos das lesões foram submetidos a reação imuno-histoquímica pela técnica estreptavidina-biotina-peroxidase para detecção dos antígenos de interesse. Índices de imunomarcação foram construídos e comparados com os dados previamente obtidos. RESULTADOS: Observou-se correlação significativa entre idade e tamanho da lesão (R = 0,532; p = 0,008. Não foram observadas correlações significativas entre as outras variáveis e a expressão imuno-histoquímica dos antígenos de interesse. CONCLUSÃO: A expressão das metaloproteinases e de seus inibidores teciduais não parece ser influenciada pelos parâmetros investigados. Estudos adicionais são necessários para melhor compreensão de sua associação com o comportamento biológico do CBC.INTRODUCTION: Approximately 80% of non-melanoma skin neoplasias are basal cell carcinomas (BCC. Although metastasis is rare, BBC carcinomas are locally aggressive tumors. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, mainly MMP-2 and MMP-9, play an important role on the invasion process. On the other hand, tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs have the main function of inhibiting these enzymes. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of clinical-pathological variables of BCC patients with the

  15. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Milne, Michael R.; Waldvogel, Henry J.; Faull, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27999310

  16. Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Andrea Kwakowsky

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The basal forebrain is home to the largest population of cholinergic neurons in the brain. These neurons are involved in a number of cognitive functions including attention, learning and memory. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs are particularly vulnerable in a number of neurological diseases with the most notable being Alzheimer’s disease, with evidence for a link between decreasing cholinergic markers and the degree of cognitive impairment. The neurotrophin growth factor system is present on these BFCNs and has been shown to promote survival and differentiation on these neurons. Clinical and animal model studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on neurodegeneration in BFCNs. It is believed that E2 interacts with neurotrophin signaling on cholinergic neurons to mediate these beneficial effects. Evidence presented in our recent study confirms that altering the levels of circulating E2 levels via ovariectomy and E2 replacement significantly affects the expression of the neurotrophin receptors on BFCN. However, we also showed that E2 differentially regulates neurotrophin receptor expression on BFCNs with effects depending on neurotrophin receptor type and neuroanatomical location. In this review, we aim to survey the current literature to understand the influence of E2 on the neurotrophin system, and the receptors and signaling pathways it mediates on BFCN. In addition, we summarize the physiological and pathophysiological significance of E2 actions on the neurotrophin system in BFCN, especially focusing on changes related to Alzheimer’s disease.

  17. Basal Cell Carcinoma with Myoepithelial Differentiation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2018-01-17

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer. Myoepithelial cells are specialized epithelial cells. Basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation is a rare tumor. A 71-year-old man with a basal cell carcinoma with myoepithelial differentiation that presented as an asymptomatic red papule of two months duration on his forehead is described. Including the reported patient, this variant of basal cell carcinoma has been described in 16 patients: 11 men and five women. The patients ranged in age at diagnosis from 43 years to 83 years; the median age at diagnosis was 66 years. All of the tumors were located on the face-most were papules or nodules of less than 10 x 10 mm. Their pathology demonstrated two components: one was that of a typical basal cell carcinoma and the other was myoepithelioma-like in which the tumor cells were plasmacytoid or signet ring in appearance and contained abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm or hyaline inclusions or both. The myoepithelial tumor cells had variable immunohistochemical expression that included not only cytokeratin but also actin, glial fibrillary acid protein, S100, and vimentin. The most common clinical impression, prior to biopsy, was a basal cell carcinoma. The pathologic differential diagnosis included cutaneous mixed sweat gland tumor of the skin, myoepithelioma, myoepithelial carcinoma, and tumors that contain a prominent signet ring cell component (such as metastatic gastrointestinal and breast carcinoma, melanoma, plasmacytoid squamous cell carcinoma, and T-cell lymphoma). Mohs micrographic surgical excision, with complete removal of the tumor, was recommended for treatment of the carcinoma.

  18. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A

    2012-12-01

    The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field.

  19. Characterization of basal-like subtype in a Danish consecutive primary breast cancer cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinalis, Savvas; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Talman, Maj Lis

    2018-01-01

    of this separate entity is needed. Material and methods: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 1560 tumors from patients with primary breast cancer. Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and associated with basic clinical characteristics...... and aggregated expression levels in the hallmark gene sets. Results: Of the 1560 samples, 168 were classified basal-like and 120 patients were screened for BRCA1/2 mutations, resulting in 19 BRCA1/2 carriers, 95 non-carriers and six patients carried variants of unknown significance. The BRCA1/2 carriers were...... significantly younger and there were no carriers above 60 years of age. The tumors showed a loss in DNA-repair profile, as well as an upregulation in proliferative cancer signaling pathways. A robust molecular signature for identification of the BRCA1/2 - carriers was infeasible in the current cohort. Patients...

  20. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  1. Expression of p53 Target Genes in the Early Phase of Long-Term Potentiation in the Rat Hippocampal CA1 Area

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    Vladimir O. Pustylnyak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression plays an important role in the mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP, which is a widely accepted experimental model of synaptic plasticity. We have studied the expression of at least 50 genes that are transcriptionally regulated by p53, as well as other genes that are related to p53-dependent processes, in the early phase of LTP. Within 30 min after Schaffer collaterals (SC tetanization, increases in the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, which are upregulated by p53, and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of Bcl2, which are downregulated by p53, were observed. The inhibition of Mdm2 by nutlin-3 increased the basal p53 protein level and rescued its tetanization-induced depletion, which suggested the involvement of Mdm2 in the control over p53 during LTP. Furthermore, nutlin-3 caused an increase in the basal expression of Bax and a decrease in the basal expression of Bcl2, whereas tetanization-induced changes in their expression were occluded. These results support the hypothesis that p53 may be involved in transcriptional regulation during the early phase of LTP. We hope that the presented data may aid in the understanding of the contribution of p53 and related genes in the processes that are associated with synaptic plasticity.

  2. Aspirin inhibits interleukin 1-induced prostaglandin H synthase expression in cultured endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, K.K.; Sanduja, R.; Tsai, A.L.; Ferhanoglu, B.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandin H (PGH) synthase is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxane, and prostacyclin. In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells, interleukin 1 (IL-1) is known to induce the synthesis of this enzyme, thereby raising the level of PGH synthase protein severalfold over the basal level. Pretreatment with aspirin at low concentrations inhibited more than 60% of the enzyme mass and also the cyclooxygenase activity in IL-1-induced cells with only minimal effects on the basal level of the synthase enzyme in cells without IL-1. Sodium salicylate exhibited a similar inhibitory action whereas indomethacin had no apparent effect. Similarly low levels of aspirin inhibited the increased L-[ 35 S]methionine incorporation into PGH synthase that was induced by IL0-1 and also suppressed expression of the 2.7-kilobase PGH synthase mRNA. These results suggest that in cultured endothelial cells a potent inhibition of eicosanoid biosynthetic capacity can be effected by aspirin or salicylate at the level of PGH synthase gene expression. The aspirin effect may well be due to degradation of salicylate

  3. Basal serum pancreatic polypeptide is dependent on age and gender in an adult population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimnes Damholt, M; Rasmussen, B K; Hilsted, L

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first epidemiologically based study of basal levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide (s-PP). The basal level of serum PP has become a field of interest mainly due to the role of PP as an endocrine tumour marker, and as a marker of pancreatic neuroendocrine function after pancreas...... a monospecific radioimmunoassay. Fasting serum pancreatic polypeptide depended on age and gender. The results demonstrated that fasting pancreatic polypeptide levels increase exponentially with age. Fitted separately for each sex, basal serum pancreatic polypeptide was found to increase by approximately 3% per...... reports on the fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide are most likely due to lack of adjustment for age and gender. Thus, variation due to age and gender should be considered in evaluating fasting levels of serum pancreatic polypeptide. Whether similar considerations are important when evaluating...

  4. The predictive nature of transcript expression levels on protein expression in adult human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2017-04-24

    Next generation sequencing methods are the gold standard for evaluating expression of the transcriptome. When determining the biological implications of such studies, the assumption is often made that transcript expression levels correspond to protein levels in a meaningful way. However, the strength of the overall correlation between transcript and protein expression is inconsistent, particularly in brain samples. Following high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses of adult human brain samples, we compared the correlation in the expression of transcripts and proteins that support various biological processes, molecular functions, and that are located in different areas of the cell. Although most categories of transcripts have extremely weak predictive value for the expression of their associated proteins (R 2 values of < 10%), transcripts coding for protein kinases and membrane-associated proteins, including those that are part of receptors or ion transporters, are among those that are most predictive of downstream protein expression levels. The predictive value of transcript expression for corresponding proteins is variable in human brain samples, reflecting the complex regulation of protein expression. However, we found that transcriptomic analyses are appropriate for assessing the expression levels of certain classes of proteins, including those that modify proteins, such as kinases and phosphatases, regulate metabolic and synaptic activity, or are associated with a cellular membrane. These findings can be used to guide the interpretation of gene expression results from primate brain samples.

  5. A genome-wide siRNA screen identifies proteasome addiction as a vulnerability of basal-like triple-negative breast cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocca, Fabio; Altschuler, Gabriel; Tan, Shen Mynn; Mendillo, Marc L.; Yan, Haoheng; Jerry, D. Joseph; Kung, Andrew L.; Hide, Winston; Ince, Tan A.; Lieberman, Judy

    2013-01-01

    Summary Basal-like triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) have poor prognosis. To identify basal-like TNBC dependencies, a genome-wide siRNA lethality screen compared two human breast epithelial cell lines transformed with the same genes - basal-like BPLER and myoepithelial HMLER. Expression of the screen’s 154 BPLER dependency genes correlated with poor prognosis in breast, but not lung or colon, cancer. Proteasome genes were overrepresented hits. Basal-like TNBC lines were selectively sensitive to proteasome inhibitor drugs relative to normal epithelial, luminal and mesenchymal TNBC lines. Proteasome inhibition reduced growth of established basal-like TNBC tumors in mice and blocked tumor-initiating cell function and macrometastasis. Proteasome addiction in basal-like TNBCs was mediated by NOXA and linked to MCL-1 dependence. PMID:23948298

  6. Basal Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in the Prediction of Stimulation Parameters and Cycle Outcome in Cycling Patients Undergoing in Vitro Fertilization

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    Özlem Moraloğlu

    2010-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Basal serum T levels during IVF have a positive correlation with part of the stimulation parameters including number of oocytes retrieved and the number of oocytes transferred. However, neither T nor SHBG has any affect on fertilization or pregnancy rates.

  7. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  8. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Gorlin's Patients: a Matter of Fibroblasts-Led Protumoral Microenvironment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gache, Yannick; Brellier, Florence; Rouanet, Sophie; Al-Qaraghuli, Sahar; Goncalves-Maia, Maria; Burty-Valin, Elodie; Barnay, Stéphanie; Scarzello, Sabine; Ruat, Martial; Sevenet, Nicolas; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Magnaldo, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest tumor in human. About 70% sporadic BCCs bear somatic mutations in the PATCHED1 tumor suppressor gene which encodes the receptor for the Sonic Hedgehog morphogen (SHH). PATCHED1 germinal mutations are associated with the dominant Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS), a major hallmark of which is a high susceptibility to BCCs. Although the vast majority of sporadic BCCs arises exclusively in sun exposed skin areas, 40 to 50% BCCs from NBCCS patients develop in non photo-exposed skin. Since overwhelming evidences indicate that microenvironment may both be modified by- and influence the- epithelial tumor, we hypothesized that NBCCS fibroblasts could contribute to BCCs in NBCCS patients, notably those developing in non photo-exposed skin areas. The functional impact of NBCCS fibroblasts was then assessed in organotypic skin cultures with control keratinocytes. Onset of epidermal differentiation was delayed in the presence of primary NBCCS fibroblasts. Unexpectedly, keratinocyte proliferation was severely reduced and showed high levels of nuclear P53 in both organotypic skin cultures and in fibroblast-led conditioning experiments. However, in spite of increased levels of senescence associated β-galactosidase activity in keratinocytes cultured in the presence of medium conditioned by NBCCS fibroblasts, we failed to observe activation of P16 and P21 and then of bona fide features of senescence. Constitutive extinction of P53 in WT keratinocytes resulted in an invasive phenotype in the presence of NBCCS fibroblasts. Finally, we found that expression of SHH was limited to fibroblasts but was dependent on the presence of keratinocytes. Inhibition of SHH binding resulted in improved epidermal morphogenesis. Altogether, these data suggest that the repertoire of diffusible factors (including SHH) expressed by primary NBCCS fibroblasts generate a stress affecting keratinocytes behavior and epidermal homeostasis. Our findings

  9. Synchronized Progression of Prestin Expression and Auditory Brainstem Response during Postnatal Development in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Hang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prestin is the motor protein expressed in the cochlear outer hair cells (OHCs of mammalian inner ear. The electromotility of OHCs driven by prestin is responsible for the cochlear amplification which is required for normal hearing in adult animals. Postnatal expression of prestin and activity of OHCs may contribute to the maturation of hearing in rodents. However, the temporal and spatial expression of prestin in cochlea during the development is not well characterized. In the present study, we examined the expression and function of prestin from the OHCs in apical, middle, and basal turns of the cochleae of postnatal rats. Prestin first appeared at postnatal day 6 (P6 for basal turn, P7 in middle turn, and P9 for apical turn of cochlea. The expression level increased progressively over the next few days and by P14 reached the mature level for all three segments. By comparison with the time course of the development of auditory brainstem response for different frequencies, our data reveal that prestin expression synchronized with the hearing development. The present study suggests that the onset time of hearing may require the expression of prestin and is determined by the mature function of OHCs.

  10. The expression of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall of prehepatic portal hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei-Dong; Liu, Yanzhang; Lin, Nan; Xu, Ruiyun

    2011-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding of portal hypertension cases may result from gastric mucosal lesions due to portal hypertensive gastropathy. The pathological changes in the vessels of the gastric wall are very important in the pathogenesis of portal hypertensive gastropathy. However, the mechanisms of these pathological changes are not completely understood. In this study, we examined the expression levels of PEDF and VEGF in the gastric wall in rats with prehepatic portal hypertension. Eighteen healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into groups A and B. Group A was used to establish the prehepatic portal hypertensive model and group B to evaluate a sham surgery. The VEGF and PEDF expression in the rat gastric wall were detected by immunohistochemical staining and western blotting. VEGF and PEDF were mainly expressed in the basal layer of the mucosal glands. The expression levels of VEGF and PEDF in group A were higher than that in group B at 7, 10 and 14 days after surgery. The expression levels of VEFG and PEDF in group B did not show significant changes. The results from the present study showed a significantly elevated expression of both VEGF and PEDF in the gastric walls during the development of portal hypertension. The expression of these proteins was mainly located in the basal layer of the gastric mucosa.

  11. Complex Dynamics in the Basal Ganglia: Health and Disease Beyond the Motor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Daniela S; Darbin, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    The rate and oscillatory hypotheses are the two main current frameworks of basal ganglia pathophysiology. Both hypotheses have emerged from research on movement disorders sharing similar conceptualizations. These pathological conditions are classified either as hypokinetic or hyperkinetic, and the electrophysiological hallmarks of basal ganglia dysfunction are categorized as prokinetic or antikinetic. Although nonmotor symptoms, including neurobehavioral symptoms, are a key manifestation of basal ganglia dysfunction, they are uncommonly accounted for in these models. In patients with Parkinson's disease, the broad spectrum of motor symptoms and neurobehavioral symptoms challenges the concept that basal ganglia disorders can be classified into two categories. The profile of symptoms of basal ganglia dysfunction is best characterized by a breakdown of information processing, accompanied at an electrophysiological level by complex alterations of spiking activity from basal ganglia neurons. The authors argue that the dynamics of the basal ganglia circuit cannot be fully characterized by linear properties such as the firing rate or oscillatory activity. In fact, the neuronal spiking stream of the basal ganglia circuit is irregular but has temporal structure. In this context, entropy was introduced as a measure of probabilistic irregularity in the temporal organization of neuronal activity of the basal ganglia, giving place to the entropy hypothesis of basal ganglia pathology. Obtaining a quantitative characterization of irregularity of spike trains from basal ganglia neurons is key to elaborating a new framework of basal ganglia pathophysiology.

  12. Quantitative Analyses of Core Promoters Enable Precise Engineering of Regulated Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Christopher; Chen, Ximin; Lin, Meng-Yin; Chen, Yvonne Y.

    2016-01-01

    Inducible transcription systems play a crucial role in a wide array of synthetic biology circuits. However, the majority of inducible promoters are constructed from a limited set of tried-and-true promoter parts, which are susceptible to common shortcomings such as high basal expression levels (i.e., leakiness). To expand the toolbox for regulated mammalian gene expression and facilitate the construction of mammalian genetic circuits with precise functionality, we quantitatively characterized a panel of eight core promoters, including sequences with mammalian, viral, and synthetic origins. We demonstrate that this selection of core promoters can provide a wide range of basal gene expression levels and achieve a gradient of fold-inductions spanning two orders of magnitude. Furthermore, commonly used parts such as minimal CMV and minimal SV40 promoters were shown to achieve robust gene expression upon induction, but also suffer from high levels of leakiness. In contrast, a synthetic promoter, YB_TATA, was shown to combine low basal expression with high transcription rate in the induced state to achieve significantly higher fold-induction ratios compared to all other promoters tested. These behaviors remain consistent when the promoters are coupled to different genetic outputs and different response elements, as well as across different host-cell types and DNA copy numbers. We apply this quantitative understanding of core promoter properties to the successful engineering of human T cells that respond to antigen stimulation via chimeric antigen receptor signaling specifically under hypoxic environments. Results presented in this study can facilitate the design and calibration of future mammalian synthetic biology systems capable of precisely programmed functionality. PMID:26883397

  13. DNA endoreduplication, RNA and protein synthesis during growth and development of the antheridial basal cell in Chara vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, S.; Maszewski, J.

    1994-01-01

    Cytophotometric measurements of nuclear DNA contents and morphometric analyses indicate that the level of endo polyploidy plays an important role in determining the maximum size, transcriptional and translational activity that the antheridial basal cell attains during successive stages of spermatogenesis in Chara vulgaris. During the proliferative period of antheridial development, the metabolic activity of basal cell, expressed as the total incorporation of radioactive uridine and leucine was found to increase gradually with the increasing DNA C-values, yet both the synthesis of RNA and then the synthesis of proteins become reduced at the stage preceding spermiogenesis. In accordance with some earlier data, the obtained results seem to support the hypothesis that regulatory mechanisms of symplasmic connections between the antheridium and a thallus participate in the regulation of morphogenesis of the male sex organs in Chara. (author). 15 refs, 13 figs

  14. Downregulation of the Sonic Hedgehog/Gli pathway transcriptional target Neogenin-1 is associated with basal cell carcinoma aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Bárbara S; Adolphe, Christelle; Lois, Pablo; Navarrete, Nelson; Solís, Natalia; Bustamante, Eva; Gac, Patricio; Cabané, Patricio; Gallegos, Ivan; Wainwright, Brandon J; Palma, Verónica

    2017-10-13

    Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most diagnosed cancers worldwide. It develops due to an unrestrained Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) signaling activity in basal cells of the skin. Certain subtypes of BCC are more aggressive than others, although the molecular basis of this phenomenon remains unknown. We have previously reported that Neogenin-1 (NEO1) is a downstream target gene of the SHH/GLI pathway in neural tissue. Given that SHH participates in epidermal homeostasis, here we analyzed the epidermal expression of NEO1 in order to identify whether it plays a role in adult epidermis or BCC. We describe the mRNA and protein expression profile of NEO1 and its ligands (Netrin-1 and RGMA) in human and mouse control epidermis and in a broad range of human BCCs. We identify in human BCC a significant positive correlation in the levels of NEO1 receptor, NTN-1 and RGMA ligands with respect to GLI1 , the main target gene of the canonical SHH pathway. Moreover, we show via cyclopamine inhibition of the SHH/GLI pathway of ex vivo cultures that NEO1 likely functions as a downstream target of SHH/GLI signaling in the skin. We also show how Neo1 expression decreases throughout BCC progression in the K14-Cre:Ptch1 lox/lox mouse model and that aggressive subtypes of human BCC exhibit lower levels of NEO1 than non-aggressive BCC samples. Taken together, these data suggest that NEO1 is a SHH/GLI target in epidermis. We propose that NEO1 may be important in tumor onset and is then down-regulated in advanced BCC or aggressive subtypes.

  15. Influence of HLA-C Expression Level on HIV Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apps, Richard; Qi, Ying; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chen, Haoyan; Gao, Xiaojiang; Thomas, Rasmi; Yuki, Yuko; Del Prete, Greg Q.; Goulder, Philip; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brumme, Chanson J.; John, Mina; Mallal, Simon; Nelson, George; Bosch, Ronald; Heckerman, David; Stein, Judy L.; Soderberg, Kelly A.; Moody, M. Anthony; Denny, Thomas N.; Zeng, Xue; Fang, Jingyuan; Moffett, Ashley; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Goedert, James J.; Buchbinder, Susan; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; McLaren, Paul; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Walker, Bruce; Michael, Nelson L.; Weintrob, Amy; Wolinsky, Steven; Liao, Wilson; Carrington, Mary

    2013-01-01

    A variant upstream of human leukocyte antigen C (HLA-C) shows the most significant genome-wide effect on HIV control in European Americans and is also associated with the level of HLA-C expression. We characterized the differential cell surface expression levels of all common HLA-C allotypes and tested directly for effects of HLA-C expression on outcomes of HIV infection in 5243 individuals. Increasing HLA-C expression was associated with protection against multiple outcomes independently of individual HLA allelic effects in both African and European Americans, regardless of their distinct HLA-C frequencies and linkage relationships with HLA-B and HLA-A. Higher HLA-C expression was correlated with increased likelihood of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and frequency of viral escape mutation. In contrast, high HLA-C expression had a deleterious effect in Crohn’s disease, suggesting a broader influence of HLA expression levels in human disease. PMID:23559252

  16. Age Differences of Salivary Alpha-Amylase Levels of Basal and Acute Responses to Citric Acid Stimulation Between Chinese Children and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ze-Min; Chen, Long-Hui; Zhang, Min; Lin, Jing; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Wei-Wen; Yang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-01-01

    It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1) copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated) in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount) in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount) and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number × total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount, and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  17. Age differences of salivary alpha-amylase levels of basal and acute responses to citric acid stimulation between Chinese children and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemin eYang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear how salivary alpha-amylase (sAA levels respond to mechanical stimuli in different age groups. In addition, the role played by the sAA gene (AMY1 copy number and protein expression (glycosylated and non-glycosylated in sAA activity has also been rarely reported. In this study, we analyzed saliva samples collected before and after citric acid stimulation from 47 child and 47 adult Chinese subjects. We observed that adults had higher sAA activity and sAA glycosylated levels (glycosylated sAA amount/total sAA amount in basal and stimulated saliva when compared with children, while no differences were found in total or glycosylated sAA amount between them. Interestingly, adults showed attenuated sAA activity levels increase over those of children after stimulation. Correlation analysis showed that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount were all positively correlated with sAA activity before and after stimulation in both groups. Interestingly, correlation r between sAA levels (glycosylated sAA amount and total sAA amount and sAA activity decreased after stimulation in children, while adults showed an increase in correlation r. In addition, the correlation r between AMY1 copy number×total sAA amount and sAA activity was higher than that between AMY1 copy number, total sAA amount and sAA activity, respectively. Taken together, our results suggest that total sAA amount, glycosylated sAA amount, and the positive interaction between AMY1 copy number and total sAA amount are crucial in influencing sAA activity before and after stimulation in children and adults.

  18. Circulating basal anti-Müllerian hormone levels as predictor of ovarian response in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardo, Luciano G; Gelbaya, Tarek A; Wilkinson, Hannah; Roberts, Stephen A; Yates, Allen; Pemberton, Phil; Laing, Ian

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical value of basal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) measurements compared with other available determinants, apart from chronologic age, in the prediction of ovarian response to gonadotrophin stimulation. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine and an IVF unit. Women undergoing their first cycle of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Basal levels of FSH and AMH as well as antral follicle count (AFC) were measured in 165 subjects. All patients were followed prospectively and their cycle outcomes recorded. Predictive value of FSH, AMH, and AFC for extremes of ovarian response to stimulation. Out of the 165 women, 134 were defined as normal responders, 15 as poor responders, and 16 as high responders. Subjects in the poor response group were significantly older then those in the other two groups. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels and AFC were markedly raised in the high responders and decreased in the poor responders. Compared with FSH and AFC, AMH performed better in the prediction of excessive response to ovarian stimulation-AMH area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC(AUC)) 0.81, FSH ROC(AUC) 0.66, AFC ROC(AUC) 0.69. For poor response, AMH (ROC(AUC) 0.88) was a significantly better predictor than FSH (ROC(AUC) 0.63) but not AFC (ROC(AUC) 0.81). AMH prediction of ovarian response was independent of age and PCOS. Anti-Müllerian hormone cutoffs of >3.75 ng/mL and stimulation with exogenous gonadotrophins. Overall, this biomarker is superior to basal FSH and AFC, and has the potential to be incorporated in to work-up protocols to predict patient's ovarian response to treatment and to individualize strategies aiming at reducing the cancellation rate and the iatrogenic complications of COH.

  19. Lipid-rich histology in a basal-type immunoprofile breast carcinoma: histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Maiello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe the clinicopathological and morphological features of an unusual breast carcinoma classifiable as a lipid-rich variant of ductal invasive carcinoma, with a basal-type immunohistochemical profile. Basal-type breast cancers show no hormonal receptor expression, rarely over-express HER-2 but exhibit molecular high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit positivity. Special stains and histochemistry tests were used to elucidate the nature of vescicles in the neoplastic cells. Sudan IV was performed on formalin-fixed tissue. Commercially available antibodies tested were: ER, PgR, EGFR, HER2, c-kit, high molecular weight cytokeratins. Cytoplasmic lipids were highlighted as red-orange droplets on Sudan IV staining. As for immunohistochemistry, the tumor showed no reactivity to ER, PgR and HER2 (triple negative, and diffuse and strong positivity to high weight cytokeratins, EGFR and c-kit, such as a basal-type breast carcinoma. A basaloid phenotype in a lipid-rich carcinoma has not been previously reported.

  20. Hydrostatic Pressure Regulates MicroRNA Expression Levels in Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Cultures via the Wnt/β-Catenin Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cheleschi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical loading and hydrostatic pressure (HP regulate chondrocytes’ metabolism; however, how mechanical stimulation acts remain unclear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs play an important role in cartilage homeostasis, mechanotransduction, and in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA. This study investigated the effects of a cyclic HP (1–5 MPa, in both normal and OA human chondrocytes, on the expression of miR-27a/b, miR-140, miR-146a/b, and miR-365, and of their target genes (MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, IGFBP-5, and HDAC-4. Furthermore, we assessed the possible involvement of Wnt/β-catenin pathway in response to HP. Chondrocytes were exposed to HP for 3h and the evaluations were performed immediately after pressurization, and following 12, 24, and 48 h. Total RNA was extracted and used for real-time PCR. β-catenin was detected by Western blotting analysis and immunofluorescence. In OA chondrocytes, HP induced a significant increase (p < 0.01 of the expression levels of miR-27a/b, miR-140, and miR-146a, and a significant reduction (p < 0.01 of miR-365 at all analyzed time points. MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4 were significantly downregulated following HP, while no significant modification was found for IGFBP-5. β-catenin levels were significantly increased (p < 0.001 in OA chondrocytes at basal conditions and significantly reduced (p < 0.01 by HP. Pressurization did not cause any significant modification in normal cells. In conclusion, in OA chondrocytes, HP restores the expression levels of some miRNAs, downregulates MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, and HDAC-4, and modulates the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation.

  1. Differential expression of oil palm pathology genes during interactions with Ganoderma boninense and Trichoderma harzianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Fahimeh; Abdullah, Siti Nor Akmar; Khodavandi, Alireza; Abdullah, Faridah; Yusuf, Umi Kalsom; Chong, Pei Pei

    2011-07-01

    The expression profiles of Δ9 stearoyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase (SAD1 and SAD2) and type 3 metallothionein (MT3-A and MT3-B) were investigated in seedlings of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) artificially inoculated with the pathogenic fungus Ganoderma boninense and the symbiotic fungus Trichoderma harzianum. Expression of SAD1 and MT3-A in roots and SAD2 in leaves were significantly up-regulated in G. boninense inoculated seedlings at 21 d after treatment when physical symptoms had not yet appeared and thereafter decreased to basal levels when symptoms became visible. Our finding demonstrated that the SAD1 expression in leaves was significantly down-regulated to negligible levels at 42 and 63 d after treatment. The transcripts of MT3 genes were synthesized in G. boninense inoculated leaves at 42 d after treatment, and the analyses did not show detectable expression of these genes before 42 d after treatment. In T. harzianum inoculated seedlings, the expression levels of SAD1 and SAD2 increased gradually and were stronger in roots than leaves, while for MT3-A and MT3-B, the expression levels were induced in leaves at 3d after treatment and subsequently maintained at same levels until 63d after treatment. The MT3-A expression was significantly up-regulated in roots at 3d after treatment and thereafter were maintained at this level. Both SAD and MT3 expression were maintained at maximum levels or at levels higher than basal. This study demonstrates that oil palm was able to distinguish between pathogenic and symbiotic fungal interactions, thus resulting in different transcriptional activation profiles of SAD and MT3 genes. Increases in expression levels of SAD and MT3 would lead to enhanced resistance against G. boninense and down-regulation of genes confer potential for invasive growth of the pathogen. Differences in expression profiles of SAD and MT3 relate to plant resistance mechanisms while supporting growth enhancing effects of symbiotic T. harzianum

  2. Implications of basal micro-earthquakes and tremor for ice stream mechanics: Stick-slip basal sliding and till erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. Grace; Tulaczyk, Slawek; Schwartz, Susan Y.; Walter, Jacob I.; Winberry, J. Paul

    2018-03-01

    The Whillans Ice Plain (WIP) is unique among Antarctic ice streams because it moves by stick-slip. The conditions allowing stick-slip and its importance in controlling ice dynamics remain uncertain. Local basal seismicity previously observed during unstable slip is a clue to the mechanism of ice stream stick-slip and a window into current basal conditions, but the spatial extent and importance of this basal seismicity are unknown. We analyze data from a 2010-2011 ice-plain-wide seismic and GPS network to show that basal micro-seismicity correlates with large-scale patterns in ice stream slip behavior: Basal seismicity is common where the ice moves the least between unstable slip events, with small discrete basal micro-earthquakes happening within 10s of km of the central stick-slip nucleation area and emergent basal tremor occurring downstream of this area. Basal seismicity is largely absent in surrounding areas, where inter-slip creep rates are high. The large seismically active area suggests that a frictional sliding law that can accommodate stick-slip may be appropriate for ice stream beds on regional scales. Variability in seismic behavior over inter-station distances of 1-10 km indicates heterogeneity in local bed conditions and frictional complexity. WIP unstable slips may nucleate when stick-slip basal earthquake patches fail over a large area. We present a conceptual model in which basal seismicity results from slip-weakening frictional failure of over-consolidated till as it is eroded and mobilized into deforming till.

  3. An autocrine ATP release mechanism regulates basal ciliary activity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Navarrete, Camilo; Fuentes, Christian; Villalón, Manuel; Barrera, Nelson P

    2017-07-15

    Extracellular ATP, in association with [Ca 2+ ] i regulation, is required to maintain basal ciliary beat frequency. Increasing extracellular ATP levels increases ciliary beating in airway epithelial cells, maintaining a sustained response by inducing the release of additional ATP. Extracellular ATP levels in the millimolar range, previously associated with pathophysiological conditions of the airway epithelium, produce a transient arrest of ciliary activity. The regulation of ciliary beat frequency is dependent on ATP release by hemichannels (connexin/pannexin) and P2X receptor activation, the blockage of which may even stop ciliary movement. The force exerted by cilia, measured by atomic force microscopy, is reduced following extracellular ATP hydrolysis. This result complements the current understanding of the ciliary beating regulatory mechanism, with special relevance to inflammatory diseases of the airway epithelium that affect mucociliary clearance. Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are locally released by the airway epithelium and stimulate ciliary activity in a [Ca 2+ ] i -dependent manner after mechanical stimulation of ciliated cells. However, it is unclear whether the ATP released is involved in regulating basal ciliary activity and mediating changes in ciliary activity in response to chemical stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ciliary beating forces in primary cultures from mouse tracheal epithelium, using videomicroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Extracellular ATP levels and [Ca 2+ ] i were measured by luminometric and fluorimetric assays, respectively. Uptake of ethidium bromide was measured to evaluate hemichannel functionality. We show that hydrolysis of constitutive extracellular ATP levels with apyrase (50 U ml -1 ) reduced basal CBF by 45% and ciliary force by 67%. The apyrase effect on CBF was potentiated by carbenoxolone, a hemichannel inhibitor, and oxidized ATP, an

  4. Basaloid Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Subclassification into Basal, Ductal, and Mixed Subtypes Based on Comparison of Clinico-pathologic Features and Expression of p53, Cyclin D1, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, p16, and Human Papillomavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Ja Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC is a rare variant of squamous cell carcinoma with distinct pathologic characteristics. The histogenesis of BSCC is not fully understood, and the cancer has been suggested to originate from a totipotent primitive cell in the basal cell layer of the surface epithelium or in the proximal duct of secretory glands. Methods Twenty-six cases of head and neck BSCC from Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, reported during a 14-year-period were subclassified into basal, ductal, and mixed subtypes according to the expression of basal (cytokeratin [CK] 5/6, p63 or ductal markers (CK7, CK8/18. The cases were also subject to immunohistochemical study for CK19, p53, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and p16 and to in situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV, and the results were clinico-pathologically compared. Results Mixed subtype (12 cases was the most common, and these cases showed hypopharyngeal predilection, older age, and higher expression of CK19, p53, and EGFR than other subtypes. The basal subtype (nine cases showed frequent comedo-necrosis and high expression of cyclin D1. The ductal subtype (five cases showed the lowest expression of p53, cyclin D1, and EGFR. A small number of p16- and/or HPV-positive cases were not restricted to one subtype. BSCC was the cause of death in 19 patients, and the average follow-up period for all patients was 79.5 months. Overall survival among the three subtypes was not significantly different. Conclusions The results of this study suggest a heterogeneous pathogenesis of head and neck BSCC. Each subtype showed variable histology and immunoprofiles, although the clinical implication of heterogeneity was not determined in this study.

  5. Sensory Neuropeptides and Endogenous Opioids Expression in Human Dental Pulp with Asymptomatic Inflammation: In Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Chavarria-Bolaños

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study quantified the expression of substance P (SP, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, β-endorphins (β-End, and methionine-enkephalin (Met-Enk in human dental pulp following orthodontic intrusion. Methods. Eight patients were selected according to preestablished inclusion criteria. From each patient, two premolars (indicated for extraction due to orthodontic reasons were randomly assigned to two different groups: the asymptomatic inflammation group (EXPg, which would undergo controlled intrusive force for seven days, and the control group (CTRg, which was used to determine the basal levels of each substance. Once extracted, dental pulp tissue was prepared to determine the expression levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids by radioimmunoassay (RIA. Results. All samples from the CTRg exhibited basal levels of both neuropeptides and endogenous opioids. By day seven, all patients were asymptomatic, even when all orthodontic-intrusive devices were still active. In the EXPg, the SP and CGRP exhibited statistically significant different levels. Although none of the endogenous opioids showed statistically significant differences, they all expressed increasing trends in the EXPg. Conclusions. SP and CGRP were identified in dental pulp after seven days of controlled orthodontic intrusion movement, even in the absence of pain.

  6. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  7. Chondrogenic potential of human mesenchymal stem cells and expression of Slug transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Anna T; Niada, Stefania; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Torreggiani, Elena; Arrigoni, Elena; Lisignoli, Gina; Piva, Roberta

    2015-06-01

    The scientific literature rarely reports experimental failures or inconsistent outcomes in the induction of cell differentiation; however, researchers commonly experience poor or unsuccessful responses to differentiating agents when culturing stem cells. One way of investigating the underlying reasons for such responses is to look at the basal expression levels of specific genes in multipotent stem cells before the induction of differentiation. In addition to shedding light on the complex properties of stem cells and the molecular modulation of differentiation pathways, this strategy can also lead to the development of important time- and money-saving tools that aid the efficient selection of cellular specimens--in this case, stem cells that are more prone to differentiate towards specific lineages and are therefore more suitable for cell-based therapeutic protocols in regenerative medicine. To address this latter aspect, this study focused on understanding the reasons why some human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) samples are less efficient at differentiating towards chondrogenesis. This study shows that analysis of the basal expression levels of Slug, a negative regulator of chondrogenesis in hMSC, provides a rapid and simple tool for distinguishing stem cell samples with the potential to form a cartilage-like matrix, and that are therefore suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. It is shown that high basal levels of Slug prevent the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs, even in the presence of transforming growth factor-β and elevated levels of Sox9. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Basal and dynamic relationships between implicit power motivation and estradiol in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated basal and reciprocal relationships between implicit power motivation (n Power), a preference for having impact and dominance over others, and both salivary estradiol and testosterone in women. 49 participants completed the Picture Story Exercise, a measure of n Power. During a laboratory contest, participants competed in pairs on a cognitive task and contest outcome (win vs. loss) was experimentally varied. Estradiol and testosterone levels were determined in saliva samples collected at baseline and several times post-contest, including 1 day post-contest. n Power was positively associated with basal estradiol concentrations. The positive correlation between n Power and basal estradiol was stronger in single women, women not taking oral contraceptives, or in women with low-CV estradiol samples than in the overall sample of women. Women's estradiol responses to a dominance contest were influenced by the interaction of n Power and contest outcome: estradiol increased in power-motivated winners but decreased in power-motivated losers. For power-motivated winners, elevated levels of estradiol were still present the day after the contest. Lastly, n Power and estradiol did not correlate with self-reported dominance and correlated negatively with self-reported aggression. Self-reported dominance and aggression did not predict estradiol changes as a function of contest outcome. Overall, n Power did not predict basal testosterone levels or testosterone changes as a function of dominance contest outcome.

  9. Tunable Control of an Escherichia coli Expression System for the Overproduction of Membrane Proteins by Titrated Expression of a Mutant lac Repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Keun; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Oh Cheol; Kim, Jihyun F; Yoon, Sung Ho

    2017-09-15

    Most inducible expression systems suffer from growth defects, leaky basal induction, and inhomogeneous expression levels within a host cell population. These difficulties are most prominent with the overproduction of membrane proteins that are toxic to host cells. Here, we developed an Escherichia coli inducible expression system for membrane protein production based on titrated expression of a mutant lac repressor (mLacI). Performance of the mLacI inducible system was evaluated in conjunction with commonly used lac operator-based expression vectors using a T7 or tac promoter. Remarkably, expression of a target gene can be titrated by the dose-dependent addition of l-rhamnose, and the expression levels were homogeneous in the cell population. The developed system was successfully applied to overexpress three membrane proteins that were otherwise difficult to produce in E. coli. This gene expression control system can be easily applied to a broad range of existing protein expression systems and should be useful in constructing genetic circuits that require precise output signals.

  10. Proteomic Comparison of Basal Endosperm in Maize miniature1 Mutant and its Wild-type Mn1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eSilva-Sanchez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing endosperm in maize seed is a major site for biosynthesis and storage of starch and proteins, and of immense economic importance for its role in food, feed and biofuel production. The basal part of endosperm performs a major role in solute, water and nutrition acquisition from mother plant to sustain these functions. The miniature1 (mn1 mutation is a loss-of-function mutation of the Mn1-encoded cell wall invertase that is entirely expressed in the basal endosperm and is essential for many of the metabolic and signaling functions associated with metabolically released hexose sugars in developing endosperm. Here we report a comparative proteomic study between Mn1 and mn1 basal endosperm to better understand basis of pleiotropic effects on many diverse traits in the mutant. Specifically, we used iTRAQ based quantitative proteomics combined with Gene Ontology and bioinformatics to understand functional basis of the proteomic information. A total of 2518 proteins were identified from soluble and cell wall associated protein fractions; of these 131 proteins were observed to be differentially expressed in the two genotypes. The main functional groups of proteins that were significantly different were those involved in the carbohydrate metabolic and catabolic process, and cell homeostasis. The study constitutes the first proteomic analysis of basal endosperm cell layers in relation to endosperm growth and development in maize.

  11. Heteroepitaxial growth of basal plane stacking fault free a-plane GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieneke, Matthias; Hempel, Thomas; Noltemeyer, Martin; Witte, Hartmut; Dadgar, Armin; Blaesing, Juergen; Christen, Juergen; Krost, Alois [Otto-von-Guericke Universitaet Magdeburg, FNW/IEP, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Growth of light emitting quantum-wells based on a-plane GaN is a possibility to reduce or even to avoid polarization correlated luminescence red shift and reduction of radiative recombination efficiency. But until now heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN films are characterized by a poor crystalline quality expressed by a high density of basal plane stacking faults (BSF) and partial dislocations. We present Si doped a-plane GaN films grown on r-plane sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy using high temperature AlGaN nucleation layers. FE-SEM images revealed three dimensionally grown GaN crystallites sized up to tenth micrometer in the basal plane and a few tenth micrometers along the c-axes. Though, the full width at half maxima of the X-ray diffraction {omega}-scans of the in-plane GaN(1 anti 100) and GaN(0002) Bragg reflections exhibited a very high crystal quality. Furthermore, luminescence spectra were dominated by near band gap emission, while there was no separated peak of the basal plane stacking fault. In summary we present heteroepitaxially grown a-plane GaN without an evidence of basal plane stacking faults in X-ray diffraction measurements and luminescence spectra.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  13. Salicylic acid regulates basal resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makandar, Ragiba; Nalam, Vamsi J; Lee, Hyeonju; Trick, Harold N; Dong, Yanhong; Shah, Jyoti

    2012-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a destructive disease of cereal crops such as wheat and barley. Previously, expression in wheat of the Arabidopsis NPR1 gene (AtNPR1), which encodes a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA) signaling, was shown to reduce severity of FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum. It was hypothesized that SA signaling contributes to wheat defense against F. graminearum. Here, we show that increased accumulation of SA in fungus-infected spikes correlated with elevated expression of the SA-inducible pathogenesis-related 1 (PR1) gene and FHB resistance. In addition, FHB severity and mycotoxin accumulation were curtailed in wheat plants treated with SA and in AtNPR1 wheat, which is hyper-responsive to SA. In support of a critical role for SA in basal resistance to FHB, disease severity was higher in wheat expressing the NahG-encoded salicylate hydroxylase, which metabolizes SA. The FHB-promoting effect of NahG was overcome by application of benzo (1,2,3), thiadiazole-7 carbothioic acid S-methyl ester, a synthetic functional analog of SA, thus confirming an important role for SA signaling in basal resistance to FHB. We further demonstrate that jasmonate signaling has a dichotomous role in wheat interaction with F. graminearum, constraining activation of SA signaling during early stages of infection and promoting resistance during the later stages of infection.

  14. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E.; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A.; Gray, Joe W.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-01-01

    HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression were validated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis than those with low levels

  15. The expression level of HJURP has an independent prognostic impact and predicts the sensitivity to radiotherapy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhi; Huang, Ge; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Gu, Shenda; Lenburg, Marc E; Pai, Melody; Bayani, Nora; Blakely, Eleanor A; Gray, Joe W; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2010-06-25

    Introduction: HJURP (Holliday Junction Recognition Protein) is a newly discovered gene reported to function at centromeres and to interact with CENPA. However its role in tumor development remains largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of HJURP in breast cancer and its correlation with radiotherapeutic outcome. Methods: We measured HJURP expression level in human breast cancer cell lines and primary breast cancers by Western blot and/or by Affymetrix Microarray; and determined its associations with clinical variables using standard statistical methods. Validation was performed with the use of published microarray data. We assessed cell growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells after radiation using high-content image analysis. Results: HJURP was expressed at higher level in breast cancer than in normal breast tissue. HJURP mRNA levels were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Scarff-Bloom-Richardson (SBR) grade, age and Ki67 proliferation indices, but not with pathologic stage, ERBB2, tumor size, or lymph node status. Higher HJURP mRNA levels significantly decreased disease-free and overall survival. HJURP mRNA levels predicted the prognosis better than Ki67 proliferation indices. In a multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression, including clinical variables as covariates, HJURP mRNA levels remained an independent prognostic factor for disease-free and overall survival. In addition HJURP mRNA levels were an independent prognostic factor over molecular subtypes (normal like, luminal, Erbb2 and basal). Poor clinical outcomes among patients with high HJURP expression werevalidated in five additional breast cancer cohorts. Furthermore, the patients with high HJURP levels were much more sensitive to radiotherapy. In vitro studies in breast cancer cell lines showed that cells with high HJURP levels were more sensitive to radiation treatment and had a higher rate of apoptosis

  16. Alterations in Neuronal Activity in Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Circuits in the Parkinsonian State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eGalvan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials, electroencephalograms or electrocorticograms. Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation therapy.

  17. Alterations in neuronal activity in basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits in the parkinsonian state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Adriana; Devergnas, Annaelle; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Parkinson’s disease and in animal models of this disorder, neurons in the basal ganglia and related regions in thalamus and cortex show changes that can be recorded by using electrophysiologic single-cell recording techniques, including altered firing rates and patterns, pathologic oscillatory activity and increased inter-neuronal synchronization. In addition, changes in synaptic potentials or in the joint spiking activities of populations of neurons can be monitored as alterations in local field potentials (LFPs), electroencephalograms (EEGs) or electrocorticograms (ECoGs). Most of the mentioned electrophysiologic changes are probably related to the degeneration of diencephalic dopaminergic neurons, leading to dopamine loss in the striatum and other basal ganglia nuclei, although degeneration of non-dopaminergic cell groups may also have a role. The altered electrical activity of the basal ganglia and associated nuclei may contribute to some of the motor signs of the disease. We here review the current knowledge of the electrophysiologic changes at the single cell level, the level of local populations of neural elements, and the level of the entire basal ganglia-thalamocortical network in parkinsonism, and discuss the possible use of this information to optimize treatment approaches to Parkinson’s disease, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy. PMID:25698937

  18. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  19. Basal-topographic control of stationary ponds on a continuously moving landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, J.A.; McKenna, J.P.; Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado has been moving for at least the last few hundred years and has multiple ponds on its surface. We have studied eight ponds during 30 trips to the landslide between July 1998 and July 2007. During each trip, we have made observations on the variability in pond locations and water levels, taken ground-based photographs to document pond water with respect to moving landslide material and vegetation, conducted Global Positioning System surveys of the elevations of water levels and mapped pond sediments on the landslide surface. Additionally, we have used stereo aerial photographs taken in October 1939, October 1940 and July 2000 to measure topographic profiles of the eight pond locations, as well as a longitudinal profile along the approximate centerline of the landslide, to examine topographic changes over a 60- to 61-year period of time. Results from field observations, analyses of photographs, mapping and measurements indicate that all pond locations have remained spatially stationary for 60-300 years while landslide material moves through these locations. Water levels during the observation period were sensitive to changes in the local, spring-fed, stream network, and to periodic filling of pond locations by sediment from floods, hyperconcentrated flows, mud flows and debris flows. For pond locations to remain stationary, the locations must mimic depressions along the basal surface of the landslide. The existence of such depressions indicates that the topography of the basal landslide surface is irregular. These results suggest that, for translational landslides that have moved distances larger than the dimensions of the largest basal topographic irregularities (about 200 m at Slumgullion), landslide surface morphology can be used as a guide to the morphology of the basal slip surface. Because basal slip surface morphology can affect landslide stability, kinematic models and stability

  20. Evaluation of the Level of Zinc and Malondialdehyde in Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Ziba; Djalali, Mahmoud; Javanbakht, Mohammad Hasan; Fathi, Mojtaba; Zarei, Mahnaz; Foladsaz, Koorosh

    2017-08-01

    Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) is one of the most common skin cancers in the world and that use to lifestyle, increasing chemical pollutions, environmental factors and poor nutrition. The most important cause of this cancer is oxidative stress and free radicals so antioxidant activities for the body are so important. The aim of this study was to determine the variation of zinc and (Malondialdehyde) MDA in BCC patients. This study has been performed on case and control patients from 2013 to 2014. The samples were collected from cell carcinoma patients at Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. We evaluated the level of zinc with the use of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) method. Besides, we evaluated MDA with colorimetric assay. The concentration of MDA was significantly higher in case group in comparison to control group ( P =0.001). In addition, case group had lower concentration of zinc than the control group ( P =0.000). There was no correlation between MDA and body mass index (BMI) and between zinc and BMI. All the patients with BCC showed a significant MDA serum in comparison with control group. However, significant decrease in zinc serum of the patients was seen that is because of consuming zinc during oxidative stress process so topical use of zinc in the form of 2+ ions could be effective on antioxidant protection against the sun UV radiation.

  1. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Michael T; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A; Horner, Richard L

    2015-10-07

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K(+) (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitro inhibited the acid-sensitive K(+) current, indicating a functionally coupled signaling mechanism. We then studied the role of TASK channels in modulating electrocortical activity in vivo using freely behaving wild-type (n = 12) and ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice (n = 12), the latter lacking TASK-1/3 channels on cholinergic neurons. TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly altered endogenous electroencephalogram oscillations in multiple frequency bands. We then identified the effect of TASK channel deletion during microperfusion of histamine into the basal forebrain. In non-rapid eye movement sleep, TASK channel deletion on cholinergic neurons significantly attenuated the histamine-induced increase in 30-50 Hz activity, consistent with TASK channels contributing to histamine action on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. In contrast, during active wakefulness, histamine significantly increased 30-50 Hz activity in ChAT-Cre:TASK(f/f) mice but not wild-type mice, showing that the histamine response depended upon the prevailing cortical arousal state. In summary, we identify TASK channel modulation in response to histamine receptor activation in vitro, as well as a role of TASK channels on cholinergic neurons in modulating endogenous oscillations in the electroencephalogram and the electrocortical response to histamine at the basal forebrain in vivo. Attentive states and cognitive function are associated with the generation of γ EEG activity. Basal forebrain

  2. Gastric intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia: a morphological and biologic evaluation in a large Chinese cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Xiaoyan; Zhou, Weixun; Xiao, Yu; Nakatsuka, Laura N; Chen, Jie; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2013-04-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia can display cytoarchitectural atypia that falls short of qualifying for dysplasia but can be classified as indefinite for dysplasia. Yet few studies have evaluated the prevalence, the morphologic, and biologic characteristics of this variant. Out of a cohort of 554 biopsies with chronic atrophic gastritis and/or dysplasia, we categorized the cases as either (1) simple intestinal metaplasia; (2) intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia; (3) intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia; and (4) gastric dysplasia. The relationship between the subtypes and various clinicopathologic features, mucin immunophenotypes, and biologic characteristics was evaluated. The final cohort consisted of 424 cases of simple intestinal metaplasia, 93 intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia, 16 intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia, and 21 gastric dysplasia. Intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia had a prevalence of 2.8% and similar to gastric dysplasia, 3.7%. Both of these lesions were similar in body/fundus distribution (12.5%) and paucity of goblet cells (68.8%). Intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia and gastric dysplasia seem to share some biologic similarities but with a lower frequency of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression (25% versus 62%), p53 expression (6.3% versus 47.6%), and increased Ki-67 index on surface/pit and isthmus in intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia. Alternatively, simple intestinal metaplasia and intestinal metaplasia with hyperplasia did not differ statistically with regard to the various characteristics evaluated. We concluded that gastric intestinal metaplasia can be divided into 2 broad categories that are readily defined by cytoarchitectural and biologic characteristics. Based on the characteristics of intestinal metaplasia with basal gland atypia and in keeping with others, we confirm that this subtype could represent a preneoplastic lesion that needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2013

  3. Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Arnab; Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen; Belmonte, Rodrigo; Budge, Susan; Lopez Garcia, Angela; Kolmogorova, Aljona; Lee, Keunsook K; Martin, Brennan D; Ribeiro, Antonio; Bebes, Attila; Yuecel, Raif; Gow, Neil A R; Munro, Carol A; MacCallum, Donna M; Quinn, Janet; Brown, Alistair J P

    2017-05-01

    Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress. We addressed this using a set of congenic barcoded C. albicans strains that include doxycycline-conditional tetON-CAT1 expressors. We show that high basal catalase levels, rather than CAT1 induction following stress imposition, reduce ROS accumulation and cell death, thereby promoting resistance to acute peroxide or combinatorial stress. This conclusion is reinforced by our analyses of phenotypically diverse clinical isolates and the impact of stochastic variation in catalase expression upon stress resistance in genetically homogeneous C. albicans populations. Accordingly, cat1Δ cells are more sensitive to neutrophil killing. However, we find that catalase inactivation does not attenuate C. albicans virulence in mouse or invertebrate models of systemic candidiasis. Furthermore, our direct comparisons of fitness in vitro using isogenic barcoded CAT1, cat1Δ and tetON-CAT1 strains show that, while ectopic catalase expression confers a fitness advantage during peroxide stress, it confers a fitness defect in the absence of stress. This fitness defect is suppressed by iron supplementation. Also high basal catalase levels induce key iron assimilatory functions (CFL5, FET3, FRP1, FTR1). We conclude that while high basal catalase levels enhance peroxide stress resistance, they place pressure on iron homeostasis through an elevated cellular demand

  4. Oxidant production and SOD1 protein expression in single skeletal myofibers from Down syndrome mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M. Cowley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is a genetic condition caused by the triplication of chromosome 21. Persons with DS exhibit pronounced muscle weakness, which also occurs in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Oxidative stress is thought to be an underlying factor in the development of DS-related pathologies including muscle dysfunction. High-levels of oxidative stress have been attributed to triplication and elevated expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1; a gene located on chromosome 21. The elevated expression of SOD1 is postulated to increase production of hydrogen peroxide and cause oxidative injury and cell death. However, it is unknown whether SOD1 protein expression is associated with greater oxidant production in skeletal muscle from Ts65Dn mice. Thus, our objective was to assess levels of SOD1 expression and oxidant production in skeletal myofibers from the flexor digitorum brevis obtained from Ts65Dn and control mice. Measurements of oxidant production were obtained from myofibers loaded with 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH2-DA in the basal state and following 15 min of stimulated unloaded contraction. Ts65Dn myofibers exhibited a significant decrease in basal DCF emissions (p 0.05. Myofibers from Ts65Dn mice tended to be smaller and myonuclear domain was lower (p < 0.05. In summary, myofibers from Ts65Dn mice exhibited decreased basal DCF emissions that were coupled with elevated protein expression of SOD1. Stimulated contraction in isolated myofibers did not affect DCF emissions in either group. These findings suggest the skeletal muscle dysfunction in the adult Ts65Dn mouse is not associated with skeletal muscle oxidative stress.

  5. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  6. Basal progesterone level as the main determinant of progesterone elevation on the day of hCG triggering in controlled ovarian stimulation cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaleo, Enrico; Corti, Laura; Vanni, Valeria Stella; Pagliardini, Luca; Ottolina, Jessica; De Michele, Francesca; La Marca, Antonio; Viganò, Paola; Candiani, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Modest increases of serum progesterone at human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) cycles have been shown to have a negative impact on pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify early predictors of progesterone elevation at hCG. Pregnancy outcome of 303 consecutive patients undergoing COH and fresh day-3 embryo transfer was analysed. Considering the non-linear relationship between progesterone at hCG triggering and pregnancy outcomes, partial area under the curve (pAUC) analysis was used to implement marker identification potential of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis was then performed to identify predictors of progesterone rise. Pregnancy outcomes could be predicted by pAUC analysis (pAUC = 0.58, 95 % CI 0.51-0.66, p = 0.02) and a significant detrimental cut-off could be calculated (progesterone at hCG > 1.35 ng/ml). Total dose of rFSH administered, E2 level at hCG but mostly basal progesterone level (OR = 12.21, 95 % CI 1.82-81.70) were predictors of progesterone rise above the cut-off. Basal progesterone is shown to be the main prognostic factor for progesterone elevation. This observation should be taken into consideration in the clinical management of IVF/ICSI cycles to improve pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Calcium regulates caveolin-1 expression at the transcriptional level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Kan, Qi-Ming; Li, Yan; Liu, Dan; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Sato, Toshinori; Yamagata, Sadako; Yamagata, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Caveolin-1 expression is regulated by calcium signaling at the transcriptional level. ► An inhibitor of or siRNA to L-type calcium channel suppressed caveolin-1 expression. ► Cyclosporine A or an NFAT inhibitor markedly reduced caveolin-1 expression. ► Caveolin-1 regulation by calcium signaling is observed in several mouse cell lines. -- Abstract: Caveolin-1, an indispensable component of caveolae serving as a transformation suppressor protein, is highly expressed in poorly metastatic mouse osteosarcoma FBJ-S1 cells while highly metastatic FBJ-LL cells express low levels of caveolin-1. Calcium concentration is higher in FBJ-S1 cells than in FBJ-LL cells; therefore, we investigated the possibility that calcium signaling positively regulates caveolin-1 in mouse FBJ-S1 cells. When cells were treated with the calcium channel blocker nifedipine, cyclosporin A (a calcineurin inhibitor), or INCA-6 (a nuclear factor of activated T-cells [NFAT] inhibitor), caveolin-1 expression at the mRNA and protein levels decreased. RNA silencing of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C resulted in suppression of caveolin-1 expression. This novel caveolin-1 regulation pathway was also identified in mouse NIH 3T3 cells and Lewis lung carcinoma cells. These results indicate that caveolin-1 is positively regulated at the transcriptional level through a novel calcium signaling pathway mediated by L-type calcium channel/Ca 2+ /calcineurin/NFAT.

  8. Red Dot Basal Cell Carcinoma: Report of Cases and Review of This Unique Presentation of Basal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2017-03-22

    Red dot basal cell carcinoma is a unique variant of basal cell carcinoma. Including the three patients described in this report, red dot basal cell carcinoma has only been described in seven individuals. This paper describes the features of two males and one female with red dot basal cell carcinoma and reviews the characteristics of other patients with this clinical subtype of basal cell carcinoma. A 70-year-old male developed a pearly-colored papule with a red dot in the center on his nasal tip. A 71-year-old male developed a red dot surrounded by a flesh-colored papule on his left nostril. Lastly, a 74-year-old female developed a red dot within an area of erythema on her left mid back. Biopsy of the lesions all showed nodular and/or superficial basal cell carcinoma. Correlation of the clinical presentation and pathology established the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma. The tumors were treated by excision using the Mohs surgical technique. Pubmed was searched with the keyword: basal, cell, cancer, carcinoma, dot, red, and skin. The papers generated by the search and their references were reviewed. Red dot basal cell carcinoma has been described in three females and two males; the gender was not reported in two patients. The tumor was located on the nose (five patients), back (one patient) and thigh (one patient). Cancer presented as a solitary small red macule or papule; often, the carcinoma was surrounded by erythema or a flesh-colored papule. Although basal cell carcinomas usually do not blanch after a glass microscope slide is pressed against them, the red dot basal cell carcinoma blanched after diascopy in two of the patients, resulting in a delay of diagnosis in one of these individuals. Dermoscopy may be a useful non-invasive modality for evaluating skin lesions when the diagnosis of red dot basal cell carcinoma is considered. Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice; in some of the patients, the ratio of the area of the postoperative wound to that

  9. Changes in gene expression in PBMCs profiles of PPARα target genes in obese and non-obese individuals during fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicidade, Ingrid; Marcarini, Juliana Cristina; Carreira, Clísia Mara; Amarante, Marla Karine; Afman, Lydia A; Mantovani, Mário Sérgio; Ribeiro, Lúcia Regina

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has risen dramatically and the World Health Organization estimates that 700 million people will be obese worldwide by 2015. Approximately, 50% of the Brazilian population above 20 years of age is overweight, and 16% is obese. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the expression of PPARα target genes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and free fatty acids (FFA) in obese and non-obese individuals after 24 h of fasting. We first presented evidence that Brazilian people exhibit expression changes in PPARα target genes in PBMCs under fasting conditions. Q-PCR was utilized to assess the mRNA expression levels of target genes. In both groups, the FFA concentrations increased significantly after 24 h of fasting. The basal FFA mean concentration was two-fold higher in the obese group compared with the non-obese group. After fasting, all genes evaluated in this study showed increased expression levels compared with basal expression in both groups. However, our results reveal no differences in gene expression between the obese and non-obese, more studies are necessary to precisely delineate the associated mechanisms, particularly those that include groups with different degrees of obesity and patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 because the expression of the main genes that are involved in β-oxidation and glucose level maintenance are affected by these factors. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Unusual interleukin-1 and -6 expression in fetal cartilage is associated with placental abnormalities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Klepacz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Unusual expression of interleukin-1alpha, -1beta and -6 was previously found in the epiphyseal cartilage of rat fetuses prenatally exposed to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e., ibuprofen, piroxicam, tolmetin and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (DFU. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of placenta in such phenomenon. Morphology of the organ, thickness of basal and labyrinth layer, immunoexpression of COX isoenzymes were examined, and confronted with maternal biochemical data and fetal developmental parameters. Higher maternal urea level, as well as lower placental weight and labyrinth thickness were found in the group of fetuses who revealed expression of genes coded the selected interleukins, when compared with the xenobiotic-exposed pups without the selected genes expression and untreated control. A significant correlation between placental weight and maternal total protein or urea level was revealed. Histological changes like inflammatory infiltration and calcification were observed sporadically. Location and intensity of COX-1 staining was similar in all cases. However, more intense COX-2 staining for majority of cells of the basal zone and in dispersed giant cells of the labyrinth was found in inflamed organs. It could be concluded that abnormal expression of the selected interleukins is associated with low placental weight and decrease of its thickness, especially labyrinth zone, as well as with high maternal urea level.

  11. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  12. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-05-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs.

  13. Regulation of hemeoxygenase-1 gene expression by Nrf2 and c-Jun in tertiary butylhydroquinone-stimulated rat primary astrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin-Sun; Kim, Hee-Sun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • tBHQ increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels in rat primary astrocytes. • tBHQ enhanced HO-1 gene transcription in an ARE-dependent manner. • tBHQ increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun to ARE. • Nrf2 and c-Jun are involved in the differential modulation of HO-1 expression. • Nrf2 and c-Jun regulate HO-1 expression via their coordinated interaction. - Abstract: Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a phase II antioxidant enzyme that is primarily involved in detoxification and cytoprotection in a variety of tissues. However, the mechanism underlying HO-1 gene expression remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of HO-1 expression in primary cultured astrocytes by using the natural antioxidant compound tertiary butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). We found that tBHQ increased HO-1 mRNA and protein levels. Promoter analysis revealed that tBHQ enhanced HO-1 gene transcription in an antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent manner. In addition, tBHQ increased the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of Nrf2 and c-Jun to ARE. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) experiments demonstrated that Nrf2 and c-Jun are involved in the differential modulation of HO-1 expression. Thus, Nrf2 knockdown reduced the basal level of HO-1 expression but did not affect the fold induction by tBHQ. On the other hand, knockdown of c-Jun diminished tBHQ-mediated induction of HO-1 without affecting basal expression. The data suggest that Nrf2 generally modulates the basal expression of HO-1, while c-Jun mediates HO-1 induction in response to tBHQ. The results of co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated a physical interaction between Nrf2 and c-Jun in tBHQ-treated astrocytes. The results suggest that Nrf2 and c-Jun regulate HO-1 expression via their coordinated interaction in tBHQ-treated rat primary astrocytes

  14. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  15. Combination therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: adding empagliflozin to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ahmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM management is complex, with few patients successfully achieving recommended glycemic targets with monotherapy, most progressing to combination therapy, and many eventually requiring insulin. Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are an emerging class of antidiabetes agents with an insulin-independent mechanism of action, making them suitable for use in combination with any other class of antidiabetes agents, including insulin. This review evaluates a 78-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating the impact of empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, as add-on to basal insulin in patients with inadequate glycemic control on basal insulin, with or without metformin and/or a sulfonylurea. Empagliflozin added on to basal insulin resulted in significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels compared with placebo. Empagliflozin has previously been shown to induce weight loss, and was associated with sustained weight loss in this study. This combination therapy was well tolerated, with similar levels of hypoglycemic adverse events in the empagliflozin and placebo groups over the 78-week treatment period. Urinary tract infections and genital infections, side effects associated with SGLT2 inhibitors, were reported more commonly in the empagliflozin group; however, such events led to treatment discontinuation in very few patients. These findings suggest that, with their complementary mechanisms of action, empagliflozin added on to basal insulin may be a useful treatment option in patients on basal insulin who need additional glycemic control without weight gain.

  16. Connective tissue growth factor is necessary for retinal capillary basal lamina thickening in diabetic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Esther J.; van Zijderveld, Rogier; Roestenberg, Peggy; Lyons, Karen M.; Goldschmeding, Roel; Klaassen, Ingeborg; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Schlingemann, Reinier O.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental prevention of basal lamina (BL) thickening of retinal capillaries ameliorates early vascular changes caused by diabetes. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is upregulated early in diabetes in the human retina and is a potent inducer of expression of BL components. We hypothesize

  17. Expression of semaphorin 3A in the rat corneal epithelium during wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Naoyuki; Ko, Ji-Ae; Morita, Yukiko; Nishida, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The neural guidance protein semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed in corneal epithelial cells of the adult rat. We have now further investigated the localization of Sema3A in the normal rat corneal epithelium as well as changes in its expression pattern during wound healing after central corneal epithelial debridement. The expression pattern of Sema3A was compared with that of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), the gap-junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), or the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Sema3A was present predominantly in the membrane of basal and wing cells of the intact corneal epithelium. The expression of Sema3A at the basal side of basal cells was increased in the peripheral epithelium compared with that in the central region. Sema3A was detected in all layers at the leading edge of the migrating corneal epithelium at 6 h after central epithelial debridement. The expression of Sema3A was markedly up-regulated in the basal and lateral membranes of columnar basal cells apparent in the thickened, newly healed epithelium at 1 day after debridement, but it had largely returned to the normal pattern at 3 days after debridement. The expression of ZO-1 was restricted to superficial epithelial cells and remained mostly unchanged during the wound healing process. The expression of Cx43 in basal cells was down-regulated at the leading edge of the migrating epithelium but was stable in the remaining portion of the epithelium. Ki67 was not detected in basal cells of the central epithelium at 1 day after epithelial debridement, when Sema3A was prominently expressed. Immunoblot analysis showed that the abundance of Sema3A in the central cornea was increased 1 day after epithelial debridement, whereas that of ZO-1 or Cx43 remained largely unchanged. This increase in Sema3A expression was accompanied by up-regulation of the Sema3A coreceptor neuropilin-1. Our observations have thus shown that the expression of

  18. Diagnostic value of CD10 and Bcl2 expression in distinguishing cutaneous basal cell carcinoma from squamous cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballah, Mohammad A; Ahmed, Rehab-Allah

    2015-12-01

    The distinction between cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and seborrheic keratosis (SK), which are common entities in clinical practice, can be difficult clinically and histologically. CD10 and Bcl2 antigens are important factors in tumor growth, survival and spread. The aim of the present study is to define the frequency of CD10 and Bcl2 expression in such cutaneous tumors and its relation to the clinicopathological characteristics as well as their possible diagnostic utility. CD10 and Bcl2 immunohistochemistry was performed on 30 BCC, 20 SCC and 15 SK. 93.3% of SK cases and 53.3% of BCC cases showed significant expression of CD10 in tumor cells when compared either with each other or with SCC cases (100% negative). Stromal CD10 expression was positive in 50% of BCC cases and 75% of SCC cases. Stromal CD10 expression was significantly higher in high risk BCC and BCC with infiltrating deep margins; furthermore, it showed a significant positive correlation with grade of SCC. A significant inverse correlation between CD10 expression in stromal and tumor cells of BCC was present. Bcl2 was significantly expressed in 93.3% of SK cases and 80% of BCC cases when compared with SCC cases (100% negative). It was found that for distinguishing BCC from SK, only CD10 expression in tumor cells provided a high diagnostic value with positive likelihood ratio (PLR) was 7.00. In addition, CD10 and Bcl2 expression in tumor cells could give convincing diagnostic value to distinguish SCC from SK (PLR=15.00 for each marker). Moreover, for differentiating BCC from SCC, only Bcl2 in the tumor cells could provide a high diagnostic value (PLR=5.5). In conclusion, CD10 and Bcl2 can help in differentiating cutaneous BCC from SK and SCC. The overexpression of CD10 in the stromal cells of SCC and some variants of BCC suggests the invasive properties of such tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Global dysrhythmia of cerebro-basal ganglia-cerebellar networks underlies motor tics following striatal disinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCairn, Kevin W; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2013-01-09

    Motor tics, a cardinal symptom of Tourette syndrome (TS), are hypothesized to arise from abnormalities within cerebro-basal ganglia circuits. Yet noninvasive neuroimaging of TS has previously identified robust activation in the cerebellum. To date, electrophysiological properties of cerebellar activation and its role in basal ganglia-mediated tic expression remain unknown. We performed multisite, multielectrode recordings of single-unit activity and local field potentials from the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and primary motor cortex using a pharmacologic monkey model of motor tics/TS. Following microinjections of bicuculline into the sensorimotor putamen, periodic tics occurred predominantly in the orofacial region, and a sizable number of cerebellar neurons showed phasic changes in activity associated with tic episodes. Specifically, 64% of the recorded cerebellar cortex neurons exhibited increases in activity, and 85% of the dentate nucleus neurons displayed excitatory, inhibitory, or multiphasic responses. Critically, abnormal discharges of cerebellar cortex neurons and excitatory-type dentate neurons mostly preceded behavioral tic onset, indicating their central origins. Latencies of pathological activity in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex substantially overlapped, suggesting that aberrant signals may be traveling along divergent pathways to these structures from the basal ganglia. Furthermore, the occurrence of tic movement was most closely associated with local field potential spikes in the cerebellum and primary motor cortex, implying that these structures may function as a gate to release overt tic movements. These findings indicate that tic-generating networks in basal ganglia mediated tic disorders extend beyond classical cerebro-basal ganglia circuits, leading to global network dysrhythmia including cerebellar circuits.

  20. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  1. The plateau zokors' learning and memory ability is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ben-Yuan; Wei, Lian; Sun, Sheng-Zhen; Wang, Duo-Wei; Wei, Deng-Bang

    2014-04-25

    Plateau zokor (Myospalax baileyi) is a subterranean mammal. Plateau zokor has high learning and memory ability, and can determine the location of blocking obstacles in their tunnels. Forkhead box p2 (FOXP2) is a transcription factor implicated in the neural control of orofacial coordination and sensory-motor integration, particularly with respect to learning, memory and vocalization. To explore the association of foxP2 with the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor, the cDNA of foxP2 of plateau zokor was sequenced; by using plateau pika as control, the expression levels of foxP2 mRNA and FOXP2 protein in brain of plateau zokor were determined by real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively; and the location of FOXP2 protein in the brain of plateau zokor was determined by immunohistochemistry. The result showed that the cDNA sequence of plateau zokor foxP2 was similar to that of other mammals and the amino acid sequences showed a relatively high degree of conservation, with the exception of two particular amino acid substitutions [a Gln (Q)-to-His (H) change at position 231 and a Ser (S)-to-Ile (I) change at position 235]. Higher expression levels of foxP2 mRNA (3-fold higher) and FOXP2 protein (>2-fold higher) were detected in plateau zokor brain relative to plateau pika brain. In plateau zokor brain, FOXP2 protein was highly expressed in the cerebral cortex, thalamus and the striatum (a basal ganglia brain region). The results suggest that the high learning and memory ability of plateau zokor is related to the high expression levels of foxP2 in the brain.

  2. High-level expression of human insulin receptor cDNA in mouse NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittaker, J.; Okamoto, A.K.; Thys, R.; Bell, G.I.; Steiner, D.F.; Hofmann, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In order to develop a simple, efficient system for the high-level expression of human insulin receptors in eukaryotic cells, a full-length human kidney insulin receptor cDNA was inserted into a bovine papilloma virus vector under the control of the mouse metallothionein promoter. After transfection of mouse NIH 3T3 cells with this construct, seven cell lines expressing insulin receptors were isolated; two cell lines had more than 10 6 receptors per cell. The cell line with the highest 125 I-insulin binding (NIH 3T3 HIR3.5) had 6 x 10 6 receptors with a K/sub d/ of 10 -9 M. This level was not dependent on exposure to metals but could be increased further to 2 x 10 7 receptors per cell by addition of sodium butyrate to the culture medium. The α and β subunits had apparent molecular weights of 147,000 and 105,000, respectively (compared to 135,000 and 95,000 in IM-9 human lymphocytes), values identical to those of the α and β subunits of the insulin receptors of nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells. This size difference was due to altered carbohydrate composition, as N-glycanase digestion reduced the apparent receptor subunit size of the transfected cells and IM-9 lymphocytes to identical values. The alteration in N-linked oligosaccharide composition could not be ascribed to differences in the kinetics of posttranslational processing of the insulin receptors, which was comparable to that of other cells studied. The basal rate of glycogen synthesis in the cells overexpressing insulin receptors was increased 4- to 5-fold compared with controls. Low levels of added insulin (0.1 nM) caused a 50% increase in the rate of glycogen synthesis

  3. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  4. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR, and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers were allotted into three groups (n = 100 and each divided into five replications (n = 20. Control group (Ctr birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  5. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Imran Rashid; Ying, Huang; Yajing, Sun; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Weifen, Li; Ping, Li; Bloch, Dost Muhammad; Wenhua, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  6. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  7. Transcriptomic profiling of diverse Aedes aegypti strains reveals increased basal-level immune activation in dengue virus-refractory populations and identifies novel virus-vector molecular interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available Genetic variation among Aedes aegypti populations can greatly influence their vector competence for human pathogens such as the dengue virus (DENV. While intra-species transcriptome differences remain relatively unstudied when compared to coding sequence polymorphisms, they also affect numerous aspects of mosquito biology. Comparative molecular profiling of mosquito strain transcriptomes can therefore provide valuable insight into the regulation of vector competence. We established a panel of A. aegypti strains with varying levels of susceptibility to DENV, comprising both laboratory-maintained strains and field-derived colonies collected from geographically distinct dengue-endemic regions spanning South America, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia. A comparative genome-wide gene expression microarray-based analysis revealed higher basal levels of numerous immunity-related gene transcripts in DENV-refractory mosquito strains than in susceptible strains, and RNA interference assays further showed different degrees of immune pathway contribution to refractoriness in different strains. By correlating transcript abundance patterns with DENV susceptibility across our panel, we also identified new candidate modulators of DENV infection in the mosquito, and we provide functional evidence for two potential DENV host factors and one potential restriction factor. Our comparative transcriptome dataset thus not only provides valuable information about immune gene regulation and usage in natural refractoriness of mosquito populations to dengue virus but also allows us to identify new molecular interactions between the virus and its mosquito vector.

  8. Hierarchical prediction errors in midbrain and basal forebrain during sensory learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Sandra; Mathys, Christoph; Brodersen, Kay H; Kasper, Lars; Piccirelli, Marco; den Ouden, Hanneke E M; Stephan, Klaas E

    2013-10-16

    In Bayesian brain theories, hierarchically related prediction errors (PEs) play a central role for predicting sensory inputs and inferring their underlying causes, e.g., the probabilistic structure of the environment and its volatility. Notably, PEs at different hierarchical levels may be encoded by different neuromodulatory transmitters. Here, we tested this possibility in computational fMRI studies of audio-visual learning. Using a hierarchical Bayesian model, we found that low-level PEs about visual stimulus outcome were reflected by widespread activity in visual and supramodal areas but also in the midbrain. In contrast, high-level PEs about stimulus probabilities were encoded by the basal forebrain. These findings were replicated in two groups of healthy volunteers. While our fMRI measures do not reveal the exact neuron types activated in midbrain and basal forebrain, they suggest a dichotomy between neuromodulatory systems, linking dopamine to low-level PEs about stimulus outcome and acetylcholine to more abstract PEs about stimulus probabilities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The AAA protein spastin possesses two levels of basal ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiangyu; Lin, Zhijie; Fan, Guanghui; Lu, Jing; Hou, Yongfei; Habai, Gulijiazi; Sun, Linyue; Yu, Pengpeng; Shen, Yuequan; Wen, Maorong; Wang, Chunguang

    2018-04-30

    The AAA ATPase spastin is a microtubule-severing enzyme that plays important roles in various cellular events including axon regeneration. Herein, we found that the basal ATPase activity of spastin is negatively regulated by spastin concentration. By determining a spastin crystal structure, we demonstrate the necessity of intersubunit interactions between spastin AAA domains. Neutralization of the positive charges in the microtubule-binding domain (MTBD) of spastin dramatically decreases the ATPase activity at low concentration, although the ATP-hydrolyzing potential is not affected. These results demonstrate that, in addition to the AAA domain, the MTBD region of spastin is also involved in regulating ATPase activity, making interactions between spastin protomers more complicated than expected. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  10. Increases in extracellular serotonin and dopamine metabolite levels in the basal forebrain during sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, J.C.; Leenaars, C.H.; Kostin, A.; van Someren, E.J.W.; Porrka-Heiskanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) is an important mediator of cortical arousal, which is innervated by all ascending arousal systems. During sleep deprivation (SD) a site-specific accumulation of sleep factors in the BF results in increased sleep pressure (Kalinchuk et al., 2006; Porkka-Heiskanen et al.,

  11. Basal levels and diurnal variations of some hormones and metabolites in blood of dairy cows treated daily with rbSTin early and late lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurgen Blum

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The variations of basal value (before morning feeding at 3-4 days interval and daily pattern (on 4and 18day of treat-  ment with 8 blood collections within 24h of hormones and metabolites were studied in four dairy cows; 2 in early and  2 in late lactation, which were alternatively injected daily for a period of 21 days with 26.3 mg rbST or saline.  The rbST  injection significantly increased the basal and daily levels of GH, IGF-I in both stages of lactation. Daily levels of NEFA  were significantly increased by rbST in both stages of lactation and their variations, due to the effect of meals, were coun-  teracted by the rbST; the higher level of NEFA allowed a greater sparing of glucose, the blood level of which resulted  higher (P  blood urea level (P  ticular the high availability of glucose, determined a significantly higher blood level of insulin and T3, and lower level of  glucagon. Despite the similar GH, IGF-I and NEFA increases observed in the cows treated in early and late lactation, other  metabolic and endocrine consequences resulted more evident in late lactation. Furthermore, some of these variations  were affected by the forage meals. It can be concluded, therefore, that the changes occurring in the blood subsequent  to a rbST treatment are not equal to those which occur at the start of lactation; moreover, they are affected by the daily  feeding pattern and perhaps by the stage of  lactation. 

  12. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, K.; Ishikawa, K.; Takahashi, N.; Furusawa, T.; Sakai, K. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Medicine (Japan); Ito, J.; Tokiguchi, S. [Department of Radiology, Niigata University Faculty of Dentistry (Japan); Morii, K. [Department of Neurosurgery, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan); Yamada, M. [Department of Pathology, Niigata University Brain Research Institute (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  13. LOX: Inferring level of expression from diverse methods of census sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2010-06-10

    Summary: We present LOX (Level Of eXpression) that estimates the Level Of gene eXpression from high-throughput-expressed sequence datasets with multiple treatments or samples. Unlike most analyses, LOX incorporates a gene bias model that facilitates integration of diverse transcriptomic sequencing data that arises when transcriptomic data have been produced using diverse experimental methodologies. LOX integrates overall sequence count tallies normalized by total expressed sequence count to provide expression levels for each gene relative to all treatments as well as Bayesian credible intervals. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. LOX: Inferring level of expression from diverse methods of census sequencing

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang; Ló pez-Girá ldez, Francesc Francisco; Townsend, Jeffrey P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: We present LOX (Level Of eXpression) that estimates the Level Of gene eXpression from high-throughput-expressed sequence datasets with multiple treatments or samples. Unlike most analyses, LOX incorporates a gene bias model that facilitates integration of diverse transcriptomic sequencing data that arises when transcriptomic data have been produced using diverse experimental methodologies. LOX integrates overall sequence count tallies normalized by total expressed sequence count to provide expression levels for each gene relative to all treatments as well as Bayesian credible intervals. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of basal media, salt concentrations, antioxidant supplements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    antioxidants than MS, LS and D basal media. Five different levels of N6 medium salts (10, 30, 50, 70 and 100%) were tested, and the highest transformation efficiency was 15.9% under a 50% salt concentration, followed by 6.4% transformation efficiency with 70 and 3.2% under 100% salt conditions. More than 95% of ...

  16. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  17. Significance of left ventricular apical-basal muscle bundle identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, Christiane; Chan, Raymond H.; Crean, Andrew; Rakowski, Harry; Rowin, Ethan J.; Care, Melanie; Deva, Djeven; Williams, Lynne; Appelbaum, Evan; Gibson, C. Michael; Lesser, John R.; Haas, Tammy S.; Udelson, James E.; Manning, Warren J.; Siminovitch, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has improved diagnostic and management strategies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by expanding our appreciation for the diverse phenotypic expression. We sought to characterize the prevalence and clinical significance of a recently identified accessory left ventricular (LV) muscle bundle extending from the apex to the basal septum or anterior wall (i.e. apical-basal). Methods and results CMR was performed in 230 genotyped HCM patients (48 ± 15...

  18. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma: how much can we rely on dermatoscopy to differentiate from non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas? Analysis of 1256 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husein-ElAhmed, Husein

    2018-03-01

    The behaviour of each basal cell carcinoma is known to be different according to the histological growth pattern. Among these aggressive lesions, sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are the most common type. This is a challenging-to-treat lesion due to its deep tissue invasion, rapid growth, risk of metastasis and overall poor prognosis if not diagnosed in early stages. To investigate if sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas are diagnosed later compared to non-sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma Method: All lesions excised from 2000 to 2010 were included. A pathologist classified the lesions in two cohorts: one with specimens of non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (superficial, nodular and pigmented), and other with sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma. For each lesion, we collected patient's information from digital medical records regarding: gender, age when first attending the clinic and the tumor location. 1256 lesions were included, out of which 296 (23.6%) corresponded to sclerodermiform basal cell carcinoma, whereas 960 (76.4%) were non-aggressive subtypes of basal cell carcinoma. The age of diagnosis was: 72.78±12.31 years for sclerodermiform basal cell and 69.26±13.87 years for non-aggressive basal cell carcinoma (Pbasal cell carcinomas are diagnosed on average 3.52 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas. Sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas were diagnosed 3.40 years and 2.34 years later than non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas in younger and older patients respectively (P=.002 and P=.03, respectively). retrospective design. The diagnostic accuracy and primary clinic conjecture of sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas is quite low compared to other forms of basal cell carcinoma such as nodular, superficial and pigmented. The dermoscopic vascular patterns, which is the basis for the diagnosis of non-melanocytic nonpigmented skin tumors, may not be particularly useful in identifying sclerodermiform basal cell carcinomas in early stages

  19. Obesity-driven prepartal hepatic lipid accumulation in dairy cows is associated with increased CD36 and SREBP-1 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodanović, Radiša; Korićanac, Goran; Vujanac, Ivan; Djordjević, Ana; Pantelić, Marija; Romić, Snježana; Stanimirović, Zoran; Kirovski, Danijela

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that obesity in dairy cows enhanced expression of proteins involved in hepatic fatty acid uptake and metabolism. Sixteen Holstein-Friesian close-up cows were divided into 2 equal groups based on their body condition score (BCS) as optimal (3.25≤BCS≤3.5) and high (4.0≤BCS≤4.25). Intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and liver biopsies were carried out at day 10 before calving. Blood samples were collected before (basal) and after glucose infusion, and glucose, insulin and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels were determined at each sample point. In addition, β-hydroxybutyrate and triglycerides levels were measured in the basal samples. The liver biopsies were analyzed for total lipid content and protein expression of insulin receptor beta (IRβ), fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1). Basal glucose and insulin were higher in high-BCS cows, which coincided with higher circulating triglycerides and hepatic lipid content. Clearance rate and AUC for NEFA during GTT were higher in optimal-BCS cows. The development of insulin resistance and fatty liver in obese cows was paralleled by increased hepatic expression of the IRβ, CD36 and SREBP-1. These results suggest that increased expression of hepatic CD36 and SREBP-1 is relevant in the obesity-driven lipid accumulation in the liver of dairy cows during late gestation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of basal TSH determinations based on the intravenous TRH stimulation test: an evaluation of 2570 tests and comparison with the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncayo, Helga; Dapunt, Otto; Moncayo, Roy

    2007-08-02

    Basal TSH levels reflect the metabolic status of thyroid function, however the definition and interpretation of the basal levels of TSH is a matter of controversial debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate basal TSH levels in relation to the physiological response to i.v. TRH stimulation. A series of 2570 women attending a specialized endocrine unit were evaluated. A standardized i.v. TRH stimulation test was carried out by applying 200 mug of TRH. TSH levels were measured both in the basal and the 30 minute blood sample. The normal response to TRH stimulation had been previously determined to be an absolute value lying between 2.5 and 20 mIU/l. Both TSH values were analyzed by cross tabulation. In addition the results were compared to reference values taken from the literature. Basal TSH values were within the normal range (0.3 to 3.5 mIU/l) in 91,5% of cases, diminished in 3,8% and elevated in 4.7%. Based on the response to TRH, 82.4% were considered euthyroid, 3.3% were latent hyperthyroid, and 14.3% were latent hypothyroid. Combining the data on basal and stimulated TSH levels, latent hypothyroidism was found in the following proportions for different TSH levels: 5.4% for TSH basal TSH levels in relation to latent hypothyroidism. A grey area can be identified for values between 3.0 and 3.5 mIU/l.

  1. Phenotypic spectrum of probable and genetically-confirmed idiopathic basal ganglia calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Gaël; Pottier, Cyril; Charbonnier, Camille; Guyant-Maréchal, Lucie; Le Ber, Isabelle; Pariente, Jérémie; Labauge, Pierre; Ayrignac, Xavier; Defebvre, Luc; Maltête, David; Martinaud, Olivier; Lefaucheur, Romain; Guillin, Olivier; Wallon, David; Chaumette, Boris; Rondepierre, Philippe; Derache, Nathalie; Fromager, Guillaume; Schaeffer, Stéphane; Krystkowiak, Pierre; Verny, Christophe; Jurici, Snejana; Sauvée, Mathilde; Vérin, Marc; Lebouvier, Thibaud; Rouaud, Olivier; Thauvin-Robinet, Christel; Rousseau, Stéphane; Rovelet-Lecrux, Anne; Frebourg, Thierry; Campion, Dominique; Hannequin, Didier

    2013-11-01

    revealed that the total calcification scores correlated positively with age in controls and patients, but increased more rapidly with age in patients. The expected total calcification score was greater in SLC20A2 than PDGFRB mutation carriers, beyond the effect of the age alone. No patient with a PDGFRB mutation exhibited a cortical or a vermis calcification. The total calcification score was more severe in symptomatic versus asymptomatic individuals. We provide the first phenotypical description of a case series of patients with idiopathic basal ganglia calcification since the identification of the first causative genes. Clinical and radiological diversity is confirmed, whatever the genetic status. Quantification of calcification is correlated with the symptomatic status, but the location and the severity of the calcifications don't reflect the whole clinical diversity. Other biomarkers may be helpful in better predicting clinical expression.

  2. Light-Induced Alterations in Basil Ganglia Kynurenic Acid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroufe, Angela E.; Whittaker, J. A.; Patrickson, J. W.; Orr, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    The metabolic synthesis, release and breakdown of several known CNS neurotransmitters have been shown to follow a circadian pattern entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle. The levels of excitatory amino acid (EAA) transmitters such as glutamate, have been shown to vary with environmental lighting conditions. Kynurenic Acid (KA), an endogenous tryptophan metabolite and glutamate receptor antagonist, has been reported to have neuroprotective effects against EAA-induced excitotoxic cell damage. Changes in KA's activity within the mammalian basal ganglia has been proposed as being contributory to neurotoxicity in Huntington's Disease. It is not known whether CNS KA levels follow a circadian pattern or exhibit light-induced fluctuations. However, because the symptoms of certain degenerative motor disorders seem to fluctuate with daily 24 hour rhythm, we initiated studies to determine if basal ganglia KA were influenced by the daily light/dark cycle and could influence motor function. Therefore in this study, HPLC-EC was utilized to determine if basal ganglia KA levels in tissue extracts from adult male Long-Evans rats (200-250g) entrained to 24 and 48 hours constant light and dark conditions, respectively. Samples were taken one hour before the onset of the subjective day and one hour prior to the onset of the subjective night in order to detect possible phase differences in KA levels and to allow for accumulation of factors expressed in association with the light or dark phase. Data analysis revealed that KA levels in the basal ganglia vary with environmental lighting conditions; being elevated generally during the dark. Circadian phase differences in KA levels were also evident during the subjective night and subjective day, respectively. Results from these studies are discussed with respect to potential cyclic changes in neuronal susceptibility to excitotoxic damage during the daily 24 hour cycle and its possible relevance to future therapeutic approaches in

  3. Stat5 signaling specifies basal versus stress erythropoietic responses through distinct binary and graded dynamic modalities.

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    Ermelinda Porpiglia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin (Epo-induced Stat5 phosphorylation (p-Stat5 is essential for both basal erythropoiesis and for its acceleration during hypoxic stress. A key challenge lies in understanding how Stat5 signaling elicits distinct functions during basal and stress erythropoiesis. Here we asked whether these distinct functions might be specified by the dynamic behavior of the Stat5 signal. We used flow cytometry to analyze Stat5 phosphorylation dynamics in primary erythropoietic tissue in vivo and in vitro, identifying two signaling modalities. In later (basophilic erythroblasts, Epo stimulation triggers a low intensity but decisive, binary (digital p-Stat5 signal. In early erythroblasts the binary signal is superseded by a high-intensity graded (analog p-Stat5 response. We elucidated the biological functions of binary and graded Stat5 signaling using the EpoR-HM mice, which express a "knocked-in" EpoR mutant lacking cytoplasmic phosphotyrosines. Strikingly, EpoR-HM mice are restricted to the binary signaling mode, which rescues these mice from fatal perinatal anemia by promoting binary survival decisions in erythroblasts. However, the absence of the graded p-Stat5 response in the EpoR-HM mice prevents them from accelerating red cell production in response to stress, including a failure to upregulate the transferrin receptor, which we show is a novel stress target. We found that Stat5 protein levels decline with erythroblast differentiation, governing the transition from high-intensity graded signaling in early erythroblasts to low-intensity binary signaling in later erythroblasts. Thus, using exogenous Stat5, we converted later erythroblasts into high-intensity graded signal transducers capable of eliciting a downstream stress response. Unlike the Stat5 protein, EpoR expression in erythroblasts does not limit the Stat5 signaling response, a non-Michaelian paradigm with therapeutic implications in myeloproliferative disease. Our findings show how the

  4. Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system produce motor tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Mannella, Francesco; Arbib, Michael A; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2017-03-01

    Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulated view where cerebellum and cortex, working closely in concert with basal ganglia, are also involved in tic production. Building on such evidence, this article proposes a computational model of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system to study how motor tics are generated in Tourette syndrome. In particular, the model: (i) reproduces the main results of recent experiments about the involvement of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system in tic generation; (ii) suggests an explanation of the system-level mechanisms underlying motor tic production: in this respect, the model predicts that the interplay between dopaminergic signal and cortical activity contributes to triggering the tic event and that the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical pathway may support the involvement of the cerebellum in tic production; (iii) furnishes predictions on the amount of tics generated when striatal dopamine increases and when the cortex is externally stimulated. These predictions could be important in identifying new brain target areas for future therapies. Finally, the model represents the first computational attempt to study the role of the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical links. Studying this non-cortex-mediated basal ganglia-cerebellar interaction could radically change our perspective about how these areas interact with each other and with the cortex. Overall, the model also shows the utility of casting Tourette syndrome within a system-level perspective rather than viewing it as related to the dysfunction of a single brain area.

  5. Dysfunctions of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system produce motor tics in Tourette syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Caligiore

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Motor tics are a cardinal feature of Tourette syndrome and are traditionally associated with an excess of striatal dopamine in the basal ganglia. Recent evidence increasingly supports a more articulated view where cerebellum and cortex, working closely in concert with basal ganglia, are also involved in tic production. Building on such evidence, this article proposes a computational model of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system to study how motor tics are generated in Tourette syndrome. In particular, the model: (i reproduces the main results of recent experiments about the involvement of the basal ganglia-cerebellar-thalamo-cortical system in tic generation; (ii suggests an explanation of the system-level mechanisms underlying motor tic production: in this respect, the model predicts that the interplay between dopaminergic signal and cortical activity contributes to triggering the tic event and that the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical pathway may support the involvement of the cerebellum in tic production; (iii furnishes predictions on the amount of tics generated when striatal dopamine increases and when the cortex is externally stimulated. These predictions could be important in identifying new brain target areas for future therapies. Finally, the model represents the first computational attempt to study the role of the recently discovered basal ganglia-cerebellar anatomical links. Studying this non-cortex-mediated basal ganglia-cerebellar interaction could radically change our perspective about how these areas interact with each other and with the cortex. Overall, the model also shows the utility of casting Tourette syndrome within a system-level perspective rather than viewing it as related to the dysfunction of a single brain area.

  6. Progression of urothelial carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder: a switch from luminal to basal phenotype and related therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Isabella; Schneider, Ursula; Grimm, Tobias; Karl, Alexander; Horst, David; Gaisa, Nadine T; Knüchel, Ruth; Garczyk, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    The stratification of bladder cancer into luminal and basal tumors has recently been introduced as a novel prognostic system in patient cohorts of muscle-invasive bladder cancer or high-grade papillary carcinomas. Using a representative immunohistochemistry panel, we analyzed luminal and basal marker expression in a large case series (n = 156) of urothelial carcinoma in situ (CIS), a precancerous lesion that frequently progresses to muscle-invasive disease. The majority of CIS cases was characterized by a positivity for luminal markers (aberrant cytokeratin (CK) 20 85% (132/156), GATA3 median Remmele score (score of staining intensity (0-3) multiplied with percentage of positive cells (0-4)): 12, estrogen receptor (ER) β Remmele score > 2: 88% (138/156), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) Dako score 3+ 32% (50/156), Her2 Dako score 2+ 33% (51/156)), and marginal expression of basal markers (CK5/6+ 2% (3/156), CK14+ 1% (2/156)). To further investigate phenotypic stability during disease progression, we compared 48 pairs of CIS and invasive tumors from the same biopsy. A highly significant loss of luminal marker expression (p < 0.001) was observed in the course of progression whereas an increase of basal marker expression (p < 0.01) was noted in the invasive compartment. Importantly, 91% of CIS cases demonstrated a positivity for at least one of the two predictive markers Her2 and ERβ, indicating that the analysis of Her2 and ERβ may help to identify CIS-patient subgroups prone to more efficient targeted treatment strategies. Larger prospective and biomarker-embedded clinical trials are needed to confirm and validate our preliminary findings.

  7. Overexpression of pucC improves the heterologous protein expression level in a Rhodobacter sphaeroides expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Chen, G; Ding, G; Zhao, Z; Dong, T; Hu, Z

    2015-04-27

    The Rhodobacter sphaeroides system has been used to express membrane proteins. However, its low yield has substantially limited its application. In order to promote the protein expression capability of this system, the pucC gene, which plays a crucial role in assembling the R. sphaeroides light-harvesting 2 complex (LH2), was overexpressed. To build a pucC overexpression strain, a pucC overexpression vector was constructed and transformed into R. sphaeroides CQU68. The overexpression efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. A well-used reporter β-glucuronidase (GUS) was fusion-expressed with LH2 to evaluate the heterologous protein expression level. As a result, the cell culture and protein in the pucC overexpression strain showed much higher typical spectral absorption peaks at 800 and 850 nm compared with the non-overexpression strain, suggesting a higher expression level of LH2-GUS fusion protein in the pucC overexpression strain. This result was further confirmed by Western blot, which also showed a much higher level of heterologous protein expression in the pucC overexpression strain. We further compared GUS activity in pucC overexpression and non-overexpression strains, the results of which showed that GUS activity in the pucC overexpression strain was approximately ten-fold that in the non-overexpression strain. These results demonstrate that overexpressed pucC can promote heterologous protein expression levels in R. sphaeroides.

  8. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  9. Salicylic acid is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci, but not for basal defense to this insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, C I; López-Climent, M F; Gómez-Cadenas, A; Kaloshian, I; Nombela, G

    2015-10-01

    Plant defense to pests or pathogens involves global changes in gene expression mediated by multiple signaling pathways. A role for the salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway in Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to aphids was previously identified and its implication in the resistance to root-knot nematodes is controversial, but the importance of SA in basal and Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to whitefly Bemisia tabaci had not been determined. SA levels were measured before and after B. tabaci infestation in susceptible and resistant Mi-1-containing tomatoes, and in plants with the NahG bacterial transgene. Tomato plants of the same genotypes were also screened with B. tabaci (MEAM1 and MED species, before known as B and Q biotypes, respectively). The SA content in all tomato genotypes transiently increased after infestation with B. tabaci albeit at variable levels. Whitefly fecundity or infestation rates on susceptible Moneymaker were not significantly affected by the expression of NahG gene, but the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci was lost in VFN NahG plants. Results indicated that whiteflies induce both SA and jasmonic acid accumulation in tomato. However, SA has no role in basal defense of tomato against B. tabaci. In contrast, SA is an important component of the Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci in tomato.

  10. TP53 supports basal-like differentiation of mammary epithelial cells by preventing translocation of deltaNp63 into nucleoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munne, Pauliina M.; Gu, Yuexi; Tumiati, Manuela; Gao, Ping; Koopal, Sonja; Uusivirta, Sanna; Sawicki, Janet; Wei, Gong-Hong; Kuznetsov, Sergey G.

    2014-04-01

    Multiple observations suggest a cell type-specific role for TP53 in mammary epithelia. We developed an in vitro assay, in which primary mouse mammary epithelial cells (mMECs) progressed from lumenal to basal-like phenotypes based on expression of Krt18 or ΔNp63, respectively. Such transition was markedly delayed in Trp53-/- mMECs suggesting that Trp53 is required for specification of the basal, but not lumenal cells. Evidence from human basal-like cell lines suggests that TP53 may support the activity of ΔNp63 by preventing its translocation from nucleoplasm into nucleoli. In human lumenal cells, activation of TP53 by inhibiting MDM2 or BRCA1 restored the nucleoplasmic expression of ΔNp63. Trp53-/- mMECs eventually lost epithelial features resulting in upregulation of MDM2 and translocation of ΔNp63 into nucleoli. We propose that TP63 may contribute to TP53-mediated oncogenic transformation of epithelial cells and shed light on tissue- and cell type-specific biases observed for TP53-related cancers.

  11. Directed differentiation of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yao; Qu, Zhuang-Yin; Cao, Shi-Ying; Li, Qi; Ma, Lixiang; Krencik, Robert; Xu, Min; Liu, Yan

    2016-06-15

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) play critical roles in learning, memory and cognition. Dysfunction or degeneration of BFCNs may connect to neuropathology, such as Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and dementia. Generation of functional BFCNs may contribute to the studies of cell-based therapy and pathogenesis that is related to learning and memory deficits. Here we describe a detail method for robust generation of BFCNs from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). In this method, BFCN progenitors are patterned from hESC or hiPSC-derived primitive neuroepithelial cells, with the treatment of sonic hedgehog (SHH) or combination with its agonist Purmorphamine, and by co-culturing with human astrocytes. At day 20, ∼90% hPSC-derived progenitors expressed NKX2.1, which is a transcriptional marker for MGE. Moreover, around 40% of NKX2.1+ cells co-expressed OLIG2 and ∼15% of NKX2.1+ cells co-expressed ISLET1, which are ventral markers. At day 35, ∼40% neurons robustly express ChAT, most of which are co-labeled with NKX2.1, ISLET1 and FOXG1, indicating the basal forebrain-like identity. At day 45, these neurons express mature neuronal markers MAP2, Synapsin, and VAChT. In this method, undefined conditions including genetic modification or cell-sorting are avoided. As a choice, feeder free conditions are used to avoid ingredients of animal origin. Moreover, Purmorphamine can be substituted for SHH to induce ventral progenitors effectively and economically. We provide an efficient method to generate BFCNs from multiple hPSC lines, which offers the potential application for disease modeling and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of alcohol and hydrogen peroxide on liver hepcidin gene expression in mice lacking antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase-1 or catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Findik, Duygu Dee; Lu, Sizhao

    2015-05-06

    This study investigates the regulation of hepcidin, the key iron-regulatory molecule, by alcohol and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in glutathione peroxidase-1 (gpx-1(-/-)) and catalase (catalase(-/-)) knockout mice. For alcohol studies, 10% ethanol was administered in the drinking water for 7 days. Gpx-1(-/-) displayed significantly higher hepatic H2O2 levels than catalase(-/-) compared to wild-type mice, as measured by 2'-7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The basal level of liver hepcidin expression was attenuated in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Alcohol increased H2O2 production in catalase(-/-) and wild-type, but not gpx-1(-/-), mice. Hepcidin expression was inhibited in alcohol-fed catalase(-/-) and wild-type mice. In contrast, alcohol elevated hepcidin expression in gpx-1(-/-) mice. Gpx-1(-/-) mice also displayed higher level of basal liver CHOP protein expression than catalase(-/-) mice. Alcohol induced CHOP and to a lesser extent GRP78/BiP expression, but not XBP1 splicing or binding of CREBH to hepcidin gene promoter, in gpx-1(-/-) mice. The up-regulation of hepatic ATF4 mRNA levels, which was observed in gpx-1(-/-) mice, was attenuated by alcohol. In conclusion, our findings strongly suggest that H2O2 inhibits hepcidin expression in vivo. Synergistic induction of CHOP by alcohol and H2O2, in the absence of gpx-1, stimulates liver hepcidin gene expression by ER stress independent of CREBH.

  13. Activity of the basal ganglia in Parkinson's disease estimated by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohye, Chihiro

    1995-01-01

    Positron emission tomographic (PET) studies on the local cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolic rate, glucose metabolic rate in the basal ganglia of Parkinson's disease are reviewed. PET has demonstrated that blood flow was decreased in the cerebral cortex, especially the frontal region, of Parkinson's disease and that specific change in blood flow or metabolic rate in the basal ganglia was detected only in patients with hemi-parkinsonism. In authors' study on PET using 18 FDG in patients with tremor type and rigid type Parkinson's disease, changes in blood flow and metabolic rate were minimal at the basal ganglia level in tremor type patients, but cortical blood flow was decreased and metabolic rate was more elevated in the basal ganglia in rigid type patients. These findings were correlated with depth micro-recordings obtained by stereotactic pallidotomy. PET studies have also revealed that activity in the nerve terminal was decreased with decreasing dopamine and that dopamine (mainly D 2 ) activity was remarkably increased. PET studies with specific tracers are promising in providing more accurate information about functional state of living human brain with minimal invasion to patients. (N.K.)

  14. Identification of Personalized Chemoresistance Genes in Subtypes of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Based on Functional Differences Using Pathway Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is clinically classified into several subtypes. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast cancer largely overlaps with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, and these two groups are generally studied together as a single entity. Differences in the molecular makeup of breast cancers can result in different treatment strategies and prognoses for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. Compared with other subtypes, basal-like and other ER+ breast cancer subtypes exhibit marked differences in etiologic factors, clinical characteristics and therapeutic potential. Anthracycline drugs are typically used as the first-line clinical treatment for basal-like breast cancer subtypes. However, certain patients develop drug resistance following chemotherapy, which can lead to disease relapse and death. Even among patients with basal-like breast cancer, there can be significant molecular differences, and it is difficult to identify specific drug resistance proteins in any given patient using conventional variance testing methods. Therefore, we designed a new method for identifying drug resistance genes. Subgroups, personalized biomarkers, and therapy targets were identified using cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes. We found that basal-like breast cancer could be further divided into at least four distinct subgroups, including two groups at risk for drug resistance and two groups characterized by sensitivity to pharmacotherapy. Based on functional differences among these subgroups, we identified nine biomarkers related to drug resistance: SYK, LCK, GAB2, PAWR, PPARG, MDFI, ZAP70, CIITA and ACTA1. Finally, based on the deviation scores of the examined pathways, 16 pathways were shown to exhibit varying degrees of abnormality in the various subgroups, indicating that patients with different subtypes of basal-like breast cancer can be characterized by differences in the functional status of

  15. Preferential control of basal dendritic protrusions by EphB2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Kayser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The flow of information between neurons in many neural circuits is controlled by a highly specialized site of cell-cell contact known as a synapse. A number of molecules have been identified that are involved in central nervous system synapse development, but knowledge is limited regarding whether these cues direct organization of specific synapse types or on particular regions of individual neurons. Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, and the majority of glutamatergic synapses occur on mushroom-shaped protrusions called dendritic spines. Changes in the morphology of these structures are associated with long-lasting modulation of synaptic strength thought to underlie learning and memory, and can be abnormal in neuropsychiatric disease. Here, we use rat cortical slice cultures to examine how a previously-described synaptogenic molecule, the EphB2 receptor tyrosine kinase, regulates dendritic protrusion morphology in specific regions of the dendritic arbor in cortical pyramidal neurons. We find that alterations in EphB2 signaling can bidirectionally control protrusion length, and knockdown of EphB2 expression levels reduces the number of dendritic spines and filopodia. Expression of wild-type or dominant negative EphB2 reveals that EphB2 preferentially regulates dendritic protrusion structure in basal dendrites. Our findings suggest that EphB2 may act to specify synapse formation in a particular subcellular region of cortical pyramidal neurons.

  16. Development of inducer-free expression plasmids based on IPTG-inducible promoters for Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Thi Minh; Phan, Trang Thi Phuong; Huynh, Thanh Kieu; Dang, Ngan Thi Kim; Huynh, Phuong Thi Kim; Nguyen, Tri Minh; Truong, Tuom Thi Tinh; Tran, Thuoc Linh; Schumann, Wolfgang; Nguyen, Hoang Duc

    2017-07-25

    Besides Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis is an important bacterial species for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant genes are inserted into shuttle expression vectors which replicate in both E. coli and in B. subtilis. The ligation products are first transformed into E. coli cells, analyzed for correct insertions, and the correct recombinant plasmids are then transformed into B. subtilis. A major problem using E. coli cells can be the strong basal level of expression of the recombinant protein which may interfere with the stability of the cells. To minimize this problem, we developed strong expression vectors being repressed in E. coli and inducer-free in B. subtilis. In general, induction of IPTG-inducible expression vectors is determined by the regulatory lacI gene encoding the LacI repressor in combination with the lacO operator on the promoter. To investigate the inducer-free properties of the vectors, we constructed inducer-free expression plasmids by removing the lacI gene and characterized their properties. First, we examined the ability to repress a reporter gene in E. coli, which is a prominent property facilitating the construction of the expression vectors carrying a target gene. The β-galactosidase (bgaB gene) basal levels expressed from Pgrac01-bgaB could be repressed at least twice in the E. coli cloning strain. Second, the inducer-free production of BgaB from four different plasmids with the Pgrac01 promoter in B. subtilis was investigated. As expected, BgaB expression levels of inducer-free constructs are at least 37 times higher than that of the inducible constructs in the absence of IPTG, and comparable to those in the presence of the inducer. Third, using efficient IPTG-inducible expression vectors containing the strong promoter Pgrac100, we could convert them into inducer-free expression plasmids. The BgaB production levels from the inducer-free plasmid in the absence of the inducer were at least 4.5 times higher than that of

  17. Sp1 and CREB regulate basal transcription of the human SNF2L gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yu; Jiang Baichun; Zou Yongxin; Gao Guimin; Shang Linshan; Chen Bingxi; Liu Qiji; Gong Yaoqin

    2008-01-01

    Imitation Switch (ISWI) is a member of the SWI2/SNF2 superfamily of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, which are involved in multiple nuclear functions, including transcriptional regulation, replication, and chromatin assembly. Mammalian genomes encode two ISWI orthologs, SNF2H and SNF2L. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms governing the expression of human SNF2L gene, we functionally examined the transcriptional regulation of human SNF2L promoter. Reporter gene assays demonstrated that the minimal SNF2L promoter was located between positions -152 to -86 relative to the transcription start site. In this region we have identified a cAMP-response element (CRE) located at -99 to -92 and a Sp1-binding site at -145 to -135 that play a critical role in regulating basal activity of human SNF2L gene, which were proven by deletion and mutation of specific binding sites, EMSA, and down-regulating Sp1 and CREB via RNAi. This study provides the first insight into the mechanisms that control basal expression of human SNF2L gene

  18. Transitional basal cells at the squamous-columnar junction generate Barrett’s oesophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ming; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Yongchun; Yang, Ying; Lu, Rong; Liu, Kuancan; Lin, Sijie; Lan, Xiaopeng; Wang, Haikun; Wu, Han; Zhu, Jian; Zhou, Zhongren; Xu, Jianming; Lee, Dong-Kee; Zhang, Lanjing; Lee, Yuan-Cho; Yuan, Jingsong; Abrams, Julian A.; Wang, Timothy G.; Sepulveda, Antonia R.; Wu, Qi; Chen, Huaiyong; Sun, Xin; She, Junjun; Chen, Xiaoxin; Que, Jianwen

    2017-01-01

    In several organ systems the transitional zone between different types of epithelia is a hotspot for pre-neoplastic metaplasia and malignancy1–3. However, the cell-of-origin for the metaplastic epithelium and subsequent malignancy, remains obscure1–3. In the case of Barrett’s oesophagus (BE), intestinal metaplasia occurs at the gastro-oesophageal junction, where stratified squamous epithelium transitions into simple columnar cells4. Based on different experimental models, several alternative cell types have been proposed as the source of the metaplasia, but in all cases the evidence is inconclusive and no model completely mimics BE with the presence of intestinal goblet cells5–8. Here, we describe a novel transitional columnar epithelium with distinct basal progenitor cells (p63+ KRT5+ KRT7+) in the squamous-columnar junction (SCJ) in the upper gastrointestinal tract of the mouse. We use multiple models and lineage tracing strategies to show that this unique SCJ basal cell population serves as a source of progenitors for the transitional epithelium. Moreover, upon ectopic expression of CDX2 these transitional basal progenitors differentiate into intestinal-like epithelium including goblet cells, thus reproducing Barrett’s metaplasia. A similar transitional columnar epithelium is present at the transitional zones of other mouse tissues, including the anorectal junction, and, importantly, at the gastro-oesophageal junction in the human gut. Acid reflux-induced oesophagitis and the multilayered epithelium (MLE) believed to be a precursor of BE are both characterized by the expansion of the transitional basal progenitor cells. Taken together our findings reveal the presence of a previously unidentified transitional zone in the epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract and provide evidence that the p63+ KRT7+ basal cells in this zone are the cell-of-origin for MLE and BE. PMID:29019984

  19. Acquired tolerance in cadmium-adapted lung epithelial cells: Roles of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathway and basal level of metallothionein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Andy T.Y.; Zhang Jian; Chiu, J.-F.

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium-resistant cells were developed in our laboratory with rat lung epithelial cells (LECs) by stepwise exposure of LECs to cadmium chloride from 1 μM to 20 μM after 20 passages. To investigate the Cd-resistant phenotype in a long-term perspective, cadmium-resistant cells adapted to 20 μM cadmium (Cd R ) were then cultured in the absence of cadmium for various passages [Cd R (-n)]. All these adapted cells were significantly protected from cadmium toxicity as compared to parental cadmium-sensitive LECs (Cd S ). The cadmium-resistant phenotype of adapted cells was relatively stable in the absence of cadmium for as long as 40 passages. Basal mRNA level of metallothionein-1 (MT-1) was dramatically higher in Cd R than in Cd R (-), which may account for the higher Cd-resistance of Cd R than Cd R (-). MT-1 mRNA level decreased drastically in Cd R after cadmium removal, suggesting that the high basal level of MT-1 in Cd R may be only partially responsible for cadmium-resistance. Treatment of cells with high levels of cadmium resulted in decreased phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) in adapted cells than in sensitive cells and this cadmium-induced JNK activity was blocked by JNK inhibitor II, SP600125. Ro318220, a strong activator of JNK, reverted cadmium-sensitive phenotype in adapted cells. Taken together, our results suggest that during cadmium adaptation, cells develop tolerance to cell death, generally due to perturbation of the JNK signaling pathway and the nonresponsiveness of JNK phosphorylation is critical for the Cd-tolerance in these cells

  20. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  1. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  2. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Elevated catalase expression in a fungal pathogen is a double-edged sword of iron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Pradhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most fungal pathogens of humans display robust protective oxidative stress responses that contribute to their pathogenicity. The induction of enzymes that detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS is an essential component of these responses. We showed previously that ectopic expression of the heme-containing catalase enzyme in Candida albicans enhances resistance to oxidative stress, combinatorial oxidative plus cationic stress, and phagocytic killing. Clearly ectopic catalase expression confers fitness advantages in the presence of stress, and therefore in this study we tested whether it enhances fitness in the absence of stress. We addressed this using a set of congenic barcoded C. albicans strains that include doxycycline-conditional tetON-CAT1 expressors. We show that high basal catalase levels, rather than CAT1 induction following stress imposition, reduce ROS accumulation and cell death, thereby promoting resistance to acute peroxide or combinatorial stress. This conclusion is reinforced by our analyses of phenotypically diverse clinical isolates and the impact of stochastic variation in catalase expression upon stress resistance in genetically homogeneous C. albicans populations. Accordingly, cat1Δ cells are more sensitive to neutrophil killing. However, we find that catalase inactivation does not attenuate C. albicans virulence in mouse or invertebrate models of systemic candidiasis. Furthermore, our direct comparisons of fitness in vitro using isogenic barcoded CAT1, cat1Δ and tetON-CAT1 strains show that, while ectopic catalase expression confers a fitness advantage during peroxide stress, it confers a fitness defect in the absence of stress. This fitness defect is suppressed by iron supplementation. Also high basal catalase levels induce key iron assimilatory functions (CFL5, FET3, FRP1, FTR1. We conclude that while high basal catalase levels enhance peroxide stress resistance, they place pressure on iron homeostasis through an

  4. Decreased UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in peripheral leukocytes from patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringborg, U.; Lambert, B.; Landergen, J.; Lewensohn, R.

    1981-01-01

    The uv-induced DNA repair synthesis in peripheral leukocytes from 7 patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome was compared to that in peripheral leukocytes from 5 patients with basal cell carcinomas and 39 healthy subjects. A dose response curve was established for each individual, and maximum DNA repair synthesis was used as a measure of the capacity for DNA repair. The patients with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome had about 25% lower level of maximum DNA repair synthesis as compared to the patients with basal cell carcinomas and control individuals. The possibility that DNA repair mechanisms may be involved in the etiology to the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is discussed

  5. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  6. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  7. Basal Metabolic Rate and Energy Expenditure of Rural Farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides an important baseline for the determination of an individual's total energy requirement. The study sought to establish human energy expenditure of rural farmers in Magubike village in Tanzania, through determination of BMR, physical activity level (PAL) and total energy ...

  8. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  9. Computerized tomographic diagnosis of basal skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tokutaro; Shimoyama, Ichiro; Endoh, Mitsutoshi; Ninchoji, Toshiaki; Uemura, Kenichi.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of basal skull fractures used to be difficult, particularly on the basis of routine skull roentgenography alone. We have now examined the diagnostic value of conventional computerized tomography in basal skull fractures. We studied 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures. We examined them based on at least one of the following computerized tomographic criteria for basal skull fractures: 1) fracture line(s), 2) intracranial air, 3) fluid in the paranasal sinuses, and 4) fluid in the middle ear, including the mastoid air cells. The signs of the fracture line and of the intracranial air are definite indications of basal skull fracture, but the signs of fluid in the paranasal sinuses and/or in the middle ear are not definite. When combined, however, with such other clinical signs as black eye, Battle's sign, CSF leakage, CSF findings, and profuse nasal or ear bleeding, the diagnosis is more reliable. Seventy cases (85.4%) in this series had basal skull fractures according to our computerized tomographic criteria. Among them , 26 cases (31.7%) were diagnosed with fracture lines, 17 cases (20.7%) with intracranial air, 16 cases (19.5%) with fluid in the paranasal sinuses, 10 cases (12.2%) with fluid in the middle ear, and one case (1.2%) with fluid in both. Twelve cases (14.6%) of the 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures could not have been diagnosed on our computerized tomographic criteria alone. We diagnosed them because of CSF leakage, CSF findings, surgical findings, etc. (author)

  10. Prediction of BRCA1 status in patients with breast cancer using estrogen receptor and basal phenotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakhani, Sunil R.; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Fulford, Laura; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; van der Vijver, Marc; Parry, Suzanne; Bishop, Timothy; Benitez, Javier; Rivas, Carmen; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hamann, Ute; Cornelisse, Cees J.; Devilee, Peter; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Nestle-Krämling, Carolin; Daly, Peter A.; Haites, Neva; Varley, Jenny; Lalloo, Fiona; Evans, Gareth; Maugard, Christine; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Olah, Edith; Gusterson, Barry A.; Pilotti, Silvana; Radice, Paolo; Scherneck, Siegfried; Sobol, Hagay; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Wagner, Teresa; Peto, Julian; Stratton, Michael R.; McGuffog, Lesley; Easton, Douglas F.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of breast cancers arising in patients with germ line BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations expressing basal markers and developing predictive tests for identification of high-risk patients. Histopathologic material from 182 tumors in BRCA1 mutation carriers, 63 BRCA2 carriers, and

  11. Identification of BCAP, a new protein associated with basal bodies and centrioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsard, Cecile; Seltzer, Virginie; Perret, Eric; Tournier, Frederic; Middendorp, Sandrine

    2007-05-01

    Cilia exert critical functions in numerous organisms, including that of cell motility, fluid transport and protozoan locomotion. Defects in this organelle can lead to lethal pathologies in humans, including primary ciliary dyskinesia. An understanding of the cilia formation process would lead to better characterization of defects involved in such pathologies. In the present study, we identified a gene encoding a novel human protein, BCAP for Basal body Centriole-Associated Protein, which shares homologies with a previously described protein, Outer Dense Fiber 2 (ODF2). ODF2, a major component of the sperm tail cytoskeleton, is required for the formation of mother centriole distal/subdistal appendages and the generation of primary cilia. Here, we show that the bcap gene contains 18 alternatively spliced exons and encodes five different isoforms, three long and two short ones. BCAP is preferentially expressed in cilia/flagella containing tissues. Moreover, its expression is correlated with cilia formation during mucociliary differentiation of human nasal epithelial cells. Using immunofluorescence analyses, BCAP was localized within basal bodies of ciliated cells and within centrioles of proliferating cells. In light of the several spliced isoforms of BCAP and the particular localization of the protein, BCAP isoforms could play distinct roles in cilia and in centrosomes.

  12. Expression of bcl-2 in the Epithelial Lining of Odontogenic Keratocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Jahanshahi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The aggressive nature and high recurrence rate of Odontogenic Keratocysts (OKCs may be due to unknown factors inherent in the epithelium or because of enzymatic activity in the fibrous wall. Bcl-2 protein is characterized by its ability to inhibit apoptosis.Purpose: The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of bcl-2 protein in OKCs and to compare it with the more common radicular and dentigerous cysts. The possible relationship between inflammation and bcl-2 expression was also investigated.Materials and Methods: Formalin fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections of 20 OKCs, 20 radicular and 20 dentigerous cysts were immunohistochemically analyzed for immunoreactivity of the bcl-2 protein.Results: Bcl-2 expression was observed in 19 OKCs (95%, one radicular cyst (5%and one dentigerous cyst (5%. There was no statistically significant relationship between inflammation and the number of bcl-2 positive cells. Immunoreactivity was mainly noted in the basal or basal/supra basal layers.Conclusion: Considering the fact that bcl-2 over expression may lead to increased survival of epithelial cells, present study may demonstrate a possible relationship between the aggressive nature of OKC and the intrinsic growth potential of its lining epithelium. Furthermore a basal/supra basal distribution of bcl-2 positive cells was seen in some odontogenic keratocysts which may have a significant impact on the behavior of this cyst.

  13. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymeropoulos, E T; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P B; McAllan, B M; Withers, K W; Klingenspor, M; White, C R; Jastroch, M

    2012-01-07

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Surprisingly, we found that the mitochondrial proton leak was greater in marsupials than in eutherians, although marsupials have lower BMRs. To verify our finding, we kept similar-sized individuals of a marsupial opossum (Monodelphis domestica) and a eutherian rodent (Mesocricetus auratus) species under identical conditions, and directly compared BMR and basal proton leak. We confirmed an approximately 40 per cent lower mass specific BMR in the opossum although its proton leak was significantly higher (approx. 60%). We demonstrate that the increase in BMR during eutherian evolution is not based on a general increase in the mitochondrial proton leak, although there is a similar allometric relationship of proton leak and BMR within mammalian groups. The difference in proton leak between endothermic groups may assist in elucidating distinct metabolic and habitat requirements that have evolved during mammalian divergence.

  14. Time-Dependent Expression of Arc and Zif268 after Acquisition of Fear Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Lonergan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Memory consolidation requires transcription and translation of new protein. Arc, an effector immediate early gene, and zif268, a regulatory transcription factor, have been implicated in synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory. This study explored the temporal expression profiles of these proteins in the rat hippocampus following fear conditioning. We observed a time-dependent increase of Arc protein in the dorsal hippocampus 30-to-90-minute post training, returning to basal levels at 4 h. Zif268 protein levels, however, gradually increased at 30-minute post training before peaking in expression at 60 minute. The timing of hippocampal Arc and zif268 expression coincides with the critical period for protein synthesis-dependent memory consolidation following fear conditioning. However, the expression of Arc protein appears to be driven by context exploration, whereas, zif268 expression may be more specifically related to associative learning. These findings suggest that altered Arc and zif268 expression are related to neural plasticity during the formation of fear memory.

  15. Lipoproteína (a está associada com níveis basais de insulina em pacientes com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 Lipoproteína (a está asociada a niveles basales de insulina en pacientes con Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 Lipoprotein (a is associated with basal insulin levels in patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shahid Habib

    2009-07-01

    Lipoprotein(a [Lp(a]. OBJECTIVE: This project aimed at studying the association between basal Insulin, Lipids and Lipoprotein(a levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. METHODS: Fasting blood samples were analyzed for Insulin, Lipoprotein(a, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels in 60 patients with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM and 28 healthy subjects. We divided patients into two groups based on basal insulin levels: > 10 µIU/ml and 10 µIU/ml when compared to those with basal insulin < 10 µIU/ml (p < 0.05. Regression analysis revealed a significant relationship of Lp(a with insulin levels (r = 0.262, p < 0.05 and Insulin Glucose ratio (r = 0.257, p < 0.05. CONCLUSION: Lp(a levels correlate inversely with insulin levels in Type 2 diabetic patients. Lp(a may be one of the cardiovascular risk factor in type 2 diabetic patients with longer duration of DM.

  16. Whole transcriptome expression of trigeminal ganglia compared to dorsal root ganglia in Rattus Norvegicus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette Johanna Antonia; Christensen, Rikke Elgaard; Pedersen, Sara Hougaard

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal ganglia (TG) subserving the head and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) subserving the rest of the body are homologous handling sensory neurons. Differences exist, as a number of signaling substances cause headache but no pain in the rest of the body. To date, very few genes involved...... in this difference have been identified. We aim to reveal basal gene expression levels in TG and DRG and detect genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between TG and DRG. RNA-Sequencing from six naïve rats describes the whole transcriptome expression profiles of TG and DRG. Differential expression analysis...... was followed by pathway analysis to identify DE processes between TG and DRG. In total, 64 genes had higher and 55 genes had lower expressed levels in TG than DRG. Higher expressed genes, including S1pr5 and Gjc2, have been related to phospholipase activity. The lower expressed genes, including several Hox...

  17. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modifies the expression of vesicular glutamate transporters in basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favier, Mathieu; Carcenac, Carole; Drui, Guillaume; Boulet, Sabrina; El Mestikawy, Salah; Savasta, Marc

    2013-12-05

    It has been suggested that glutamatergic system hyperactivity may be related to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1-3) import glutamate into synaptic vesicles and are key anatomical and functional markers of glutamatergic excitatory transmission. Both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 have been identified as definitive markers of glutamatergic neurons, but VGLUT 3 is also expressed by non glutamatergic neurons. VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 are thought to be expressed in a complementary manner in the cortex and the thalamus (VL/VM), in glutamatergic neurons involved in different physiological functions. Chronic high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is the neurosurgical therapy of choice for the management of motor deficits in patients with advanced PD. STN-HFS is highly effective, but its mechanisms of action remain unclear. This study examines the effect of STN-HFS on VGLUT1-3 expression in different brain nuclei involved in motor circuits, namely the basal ganglia (BG) network, in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats. Here we report that: 1) Dopamine(DA)-depletion did not affect VGLUT1 and VGLUT3 expression but significantly decreased that of VGLUT2 in almost all BG structures studied; 2) STN-HFS did not change VGLUT1-3 expression in the different brain areas of normal rats while, on the contrary, it systematically induced a significant increase of their expression in DA-depleted rats and 3) STN-HFS reversed the decrease in VGLUT2 expression induced by the DA-depletion. These results show for the first time a comparative analysis of changes of expression for the three VGLUTs induced by STN-HFS in the BG network of normal and hemiparkinsonian rats. They provide evidence for the involvement of VGLUT2 in the modulation of BG cicuits and in particular that of thalamostriatal and thalamocortical pathways suggesting their key role in its therapeutic effects for alleviating PD motor symptoms.

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvid, L G; Nielsen, M K F; Simonsen, C; Andersen, M; Caserotti, P

    2017-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We included 47 older men and women: n=22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7±5.4years, 55% women) and n=25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2±4.5years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of mBDNF and tBDNF were assessed (human ELISA kits) at baseline and post-intervention. At baseline, mBDNF and tBDNF levels were comparable in the two groups, TG and CG. Post-intervention, no significant within-group or between-group changes were observed in mBDNF or tBDNF. Moreover, when divided into responder tertiles based upon changes in mBDNF and tBDNF (i.e. decliners, maintainers, improvers), respectively, comparable findings were observed for TG and CG. Altogether, basal systemic levels of serum mBDNF and tBDNF are not affected in mobility-limited older adults following 12-weeks of power training, and do not appear to be a major mechanistic factor mediating neuroplasticity in mobility-limited older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M.

    1990-01-01

    Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis

  20. Ectopic Cdx2 expression in murine esophagus models an intermediate stage in the emergence of Barrett's esophagus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Kong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE is an intestinal metaplasia that occurs in the setting of chronic acid and bile reflux and is associated with a risk for adenocarcinoma. Expression of intestine-specific transcription factors in the esophagus likely contributes to metaplasia development. Our objective was to explore the effects of an intestine-specific transcription factor when expressed in the mouse esophageal epithelium. Transgenic mice were derived in which the transcription factor Cdx2 is expressed in squamous epithelium using the murine Keratin-14 gene promoter. Effects of the transgene upon cell proliferation and differentiation, gene expression, and barrier integrity were explored. K14-Cdx2 mice express the Cdx2 transgene in esophageal squamous tissues. Cdx2 expression was associated with reduced basal epithelial cell proliferation and altered cell morphology. Ultrastructurally two changes were noted. Cdx2 expression was associated with dilated space between the basal cells and diminished cell-cell adhesion caused by reduced Desmocollin-3 mRNA and protein expression. This compromised epithelial barrier function, as the measured trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER of the K14-Cdx2 epithelium was significantly reduced compared to controls (1189 Ohm*cm(2 ±343.5 to 508 Ohm*cm(2±92.48, p = 0.0532. Secondly, basal cells with features of a transitional cell type, intermediate between keratinocytes and columnar Barrett's epithelial cells, were observed. These cells had reduced keratin bundles and increased endoplasmic reticulum levels, suggesting the adoption of secretory-cell features. Moreover, at the ultrastructural level they resembled "Distinctive" cells associated with multilayered epithelium. Treatment of the K14-Cdx2 mice with 5'-Azacytidine elicited expression of BE-associated genes including Cdx1, Krt18, and Slc26a3/Dra, suggesting the phenotype could be advanced under certain conditions. We conclude that ectopic Cdx2 expression in

  1. Destructive impact of t-lymphocytes, NK and mast cells on basal cell layers: implications for tumor invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Hongyan; Hsiao, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Yiyu; Wang, Jinlian; Yin, Chao; Shen, Rong; Su, Yiping

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that the primary impact of immune cell infiltration into the normal or pre-invasive tissue component is associated with the physical destruction of epithelial capsules, which may promote tumor progression and invasion. Our current study attempted to further verify our previous observations and determine the primary type(s) of infiltrating immune cells and the possible mechanism associated with physical destructions of the epithelial capsules. In total, the study was conducted with 250 primary breast and prostate tumors, the primary immune cell of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), Natural killer cells (NK) and Mast cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, fluorescent labeling and apoptosis assay. qRT-PCR was used for gene expression analysis. Our current study assessed the physical disruption of these immune cells and potential impact on the epithelial capsule of human breast and prostate tumors. Our study yield several clinically-relevant findings that have not been studied before. (1) A vast majority of these infiltrating immune cells are distributed in the normal-appearing or pre-invasive tissue components rather than in invasive cancer tissues. (2) These cells often form rings or semilunar structures that either surround focally-disrupted basal cell layers or physically attach to the basal cells. (3) Basal cells physically associated with these immune cells generally displayed distinct signs of degeneration, including substantially elevated apoptosis, necrosis, and reduced tumor suppressor p63 expression. In contrast, luminal cells overlying focally disrupted basal cell layers had a substantially increased proliferation rate and elevated expression of stem cell markers compared to their adjacent morphologically similar counterparts that overlie a non-disrupted capsule. Our findings suggest that at the early stage of tumor invasion, CTL, NK and Mast cells are the main types of tumor infiltrating immune cells involved in focal

  2. High frequency stimulation of the entopeduncular nucleus sets the cortico-basal ganglia network to a new functional state in the dystonic hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, René; Charron, Giselle; Nadjar, Agnès; Aubert, Incarnation; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Hamann, Melanie; Richter, Angelika; Bezard, Erwan; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2009-09-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the internal pallidum is effective for the treatment of dystonia. Only few studies have investigated the effects of stimulation on the activity of the cortex-basal ganglia network. We here assess within this network the effect of entopeduncular nucleus (EP) HFS on the expression of c-Fos and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in the dt(sz)-hamster, a well-characterized model of paroxysmal dystonia. In dt(sz)-hamsters, we identified abnormal activity in motor cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. These structures have already been linked to the pathophysiology of human dystonia. EP-HFS (i) increased striatal c-Fos expression in controls and dystonic hamsters and (ii) reduced thalamic c-Fos expression in dt(sz)-hamsters. EP-HFS had no effect on COI expression. The present results suggest that EP-HFS induces a new network activity state which may improve information processing and finally reduces the severity of dystonic attacks in dt(sz)-hamsters.

  3. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  4. Evolutionary tuning of protein expression levels of a positively autoregulated two-component system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Gao

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellular adaptation relies on the development of proper regulatory schemes for accurate control of gene expression levels in response to environmental cues. Over- or under-expression can lead to diminished cell fitness due to increased costs or insufficient benefits. Positive autoregulation is a common regulatory scheme that controls protein expression levels and gives rise to essential features in diverse signaling systems, yet its roles in cell fitness are less understood. It remains largely unknown how much protein expression is 'appropriate' for optimal cell fitness under specific extracellular conditions and how the dynamic environment shapes the regulatory scheme to reach appropriate expression levels. Here, we investigate the correlation of cell fitness and output response with protein expression levels of the E. coli PhoB/PhoR two-component system (TCS. In response to phosphate (Pi-depletion, the PhoB/PhoR system activates genes involved in phosphorus assimilation as well as genes encoding themselves, similarly to many other positively autoregulated TCSs. We developed a bacteria competition assay in continuous cultures and discovered that different Pi conditions have conflicting requirements of protein expression levels for optimal cell fitness. Pi-replete conditions favored cells with low levels of PhoB/PhoR while Pi-deplete conditions selected for cells with high levels of PhoB/PhoR. These two levels matched PhoB/PhoR concentrations achieved via positive autoregulation in wild-type cells under Pi-replete and -deplete conditions, respectively. The fitness optimum correlates with the wild-type expression level, above which the phosphorylation output saturates, thus further increase in expression presumably provides no additional benefits. Laboratory evolution experiments further indicate that cells with non-ideal protein levels can evolve toward the optimal levels with diverse mutational strategies. Our results suggest that the natural

  5. Endocannabinergic modulation of interleukin-1β in mouse hippocampus under basal conditions and after in vivo systemic lipopolysaccharide stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csölle, Cecília; Sperlágh, Beáta

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids play an important role in the suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production in the periphery and brain. In this study, we explored whether endogenous activation of cannabinoid (CB) 1 receptors (CB1Rs) affects interleukin (IL)-1β levels in the mouse hippocampus under basal conditions and following stimulation with in vivo bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250 μg/kg i.p.). IL-1β levels were determined in the hippocampi of wild-type (WT), CB1R-/- and P2X₇ receptor (P2X₇R)-/- mice using an ELISA kit. Basal but not LPS-induced IL-1β levels were downregulated when CB1R function was abrogated by genetic deletion, suggesting that endocannabinoids contributed to basal IL-1β content in the mouse hippocampus. AM251 (3 mg/kg i.p.), an antagonist of CB1Rs, also inhibited basal IL-1β protein in WT but not in CB1R-/- mice. In the absence of P2X₇R, LPS-induced IL-1β production was lower, while the inhibitory effect of CB1R antagonists on basal IL-1β was significantly attenuated. The LPS-induced elevation in IL-1β production was decreased in the presence of AM251 and AM281, with no significant difference between WT and P2X₇R-/- mice. CB1Rs are responsible for the modulation of basal IL-1β levels in the hippocampus, while the effects of CB1 antagonists on systemic LPS-induced IL-1β concentrations are independent of CB1Rs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Subclinical hypothyroidism diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, You-Jeong; Kim, Chung-Hoon; Kwack, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) diagnosed by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulating test in infertile women with basal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L. This study was performed in 39 infertile women with ovulatory disorders (group 1) and 27 infertile women with male infertility only (group 2, controls) who had basal serum TSH levels of 2.5 to 5.0 mIU/L and a TRH stimulating test. Serum TSH levels were measured before TRH injection (TSH0) and also measured at 20 minutes (TSH1) and 40 minutes (TSH2) following intravenous injection of 400 µg TRH. Exaggerated TSH response above 30 mIU/L following TRH injection was diagnosed as SH. Group 1 was composed of poor responders (subgroup A), patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup B) and patients with WHO group II anovulation except poor responder or polycystic ovary syndrome (subgroup C). The prevalence of SH was significantly higher in group 1 of 46.2% (18/39) compared with 7.4% (2/27) in group 2 (P=0.001). TSH0, TSH1, and TSH2 levels were significantly higher in group 1 than the corresponding values in group 2 (Pstimulation test had better be performed in infertile women with ovulatory disorders who have TSH levels between 2.5 and 5.0 mIU/L for early detection and appropriate treatment of SH.

  7. Perception of Diabetic Patients Regarding Basal Bolus Insulin Injections and Outcome of its Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Sarfraz, A.; Mahar, S. A.; Alam, M.; Shaikh, S.; Shahid, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions regarding basal bolus insulin injections and the changes in blood glucose levels and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) before and after 3 months of such treatment in diabetic patients. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Endocrinology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from December 2014 to March 2015. Methodology: A total of 222 diabetic patients started on basal bolus insulin injection were enrolled and asked to answer 17 questions. Those with complications of diabetes were excluded. Fasting blood glucose (FBS), random blood glucose (RBS) and HbA1c levels were checked initially, and after 3 months of getting basal bolus insulin. Paired t-test and chi-square test were used for determining p-value with significance at p < 0.05. Results: Majority (n=217, 97.7 percentage) of the patients were previously taking other insulins. Before starting this treatment, the mean FBS was 260.5 ± 52.2 mg/dl, RBS was 385.5 percentage 47.61 mg/dl and HbA1c was 12.76 percentage 1.92 percentage. After 3 months of treatment, FBS improved to 117.9 ± 14.2 mg/dl, RBS was 156.7 ± 17.09 mg/dl and HbA1c was 7.72 ± 4.41 percentage (p < 0.001). Two hundred and sixteen (97.3 percentage) patients believed that basal bolus insulin was started as their diabetes worsened; 15 (70.70 percentage) thought that their blood glucose control would improve with the use of this form of insulin. One hundred and ninety four (87.4 percentage) had fear of needle injections. Perceptions regarding hypoglycemia with this form of insulin were observed in 157 (70.7 percentage). One hundred and twenty seven (84.1 percentage) of the females and 51 (71.8 percentage) of the males thought that the basal bolus insulin regimen was too expensive (p=0.032). Conclusion: There were many misconceptions in patients who were started on basal bolus insulin. Marked improvement in blood glucose levels and HbA1c were observed after the use of this

  8. Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Mark G; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    Although the mammalian basal ganglia have long been implicated in motor behavior, it is generally recognized that the behavioral functions of this subcortical group of structures are not exclusively motoric in nature. Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory. One prominent hypothesis is that this brain region mediates a form of learning in which stimulus-response (S-R) associations or habits are incrementally acquired. Support for this hypothesis is provided by numerous neurobehavioral studies in different mammalian species, including rats, monkeys, and humans. In rats and monkeys, localized brain lesion and pharmacological approaches have been used to examine the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning. In humans, study of patients with neurodegenerative diseases that compromise the basal ganglia, as well as research using brain neuroimaging techniques, also provide evidence of a role for the basal ganglia in habit learning. Several of these studies have dissociated the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning from those of a cognitive or declarative medial temporal lobe memory system that includes the hippocampus as a primary component. Evidence suggests that during learning, basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe memory systems are activated simultaneously and that in some learning situations competitive interference exists between these two systems.

  9. ppGpp Controls Global Gene Expression in Light and in Darkness in S. elongatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Puszynska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial and plant stringent response involves production of the signaling molecules guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate ((pppGpp, leading to global reorganization of gene expression. The function of the stringent response has been well characterized in stress conditions, but its regulatory role during unstressed growth is less studied. Here, we demonstrate that (pppGpp-deficient strains of S. elongatus have globally deregulated biosynthetic capacity, with increased transcription rate, translation rate, and cell size in unstressed conditions in light and impaired viability in darkness. Synthetic restoration of basal guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp levels is sufficient to recover transcriptional balance and appropriate cell size in light and to rescue viability in light/dark conditions, but it is insufficient to enable efficient dark-induced transcriptional shutdown. Our work underscores the importance of basal ppGpp signaling for regulation of cyanobacterial physiology in the absence of stress and for viability in energy-limiting conditions, highlighting that basal (pppGpp level is essential in cyanobacteria in the environmental light/dark cycle.

  10. Fos and jun proteins are specifically expressed during differentiation of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehic, Denis; Bakiri, Latifa; Ghannadan, Minoo; Wagner, Erwin F; Tschachler, Erwin

    2005-01-01

    Activator protein 1 (AP-1) proteins play key roles in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study we investigated the expression of Fos and Jun proteins in different models of terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes and in skin from psoriasis patients. All Jun and Fos proteins, with the exception of FosB, were efficiently expressed in keratinocytes in monolayer cultures. In contrast, in normal epidermis as well as in organotypic epidermal cultures, the expression pattern of AP-1 proteins was dependent on the differentiation stage. Fos proteins were readily detected in nuclei of keratinocytes of basal and suprabasal layers. JunB and JunD were expressed in all layers of normal epidermis. Interestingly, expression of c-Jun started suprabasally, then disappeared and became detectable again in distinct cells of the outermost granular layer directly at the transition zone to the stratum corneum. In psoriatic epidermis, c-Jun expression was prominent in both hyperproliferating basal and suprabasal keratinocytes, whereas c-Fos expression was unchanged. These data indicate that AP-1 proteins are expressed in a highly specific manner during terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and that the enhanced expression of c-Jun in basal and suprabasal keratinocytes might contribute to the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  11. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  12. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  13. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  14. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of novel inducible promoter/repressor systems for recombinant protein expression in Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiss, Silvia; Hörmann, Angelika; Tauer, Christopher; Sonnleitner, Margot; Egger, Esther; Grabherr, Reingard; Heinl, Stefan

    2016-03-10

    Engineering lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is of growing importance for food and feed industry as well as for in vivo vaccination or the production of recombinant proteins in food grade organisms. Often, expression of a transgene is only desired at a certain time point or period, e.g. to minimize the metabolic burden for the host cell or to control the expression time span. For this purpose, inducible expression systems are preferred, though cost and availability of the inducing agent must be feasible. We selected the plasmid free strain Lactobacillus plantarum 3NSH for testing and characterization of novel inducible promoters/repressor systems. Their feasibility in recombinant protein production was evaluated. Expression of the reporter protein mCherry was monitored with the BioLector(®) micro-fermentation system. Reporter gene mCherry expression was compared under the control of different promoter/repressor systems: PlacA (an endogenous promoter/repressor system derived from L. plantarum 3NSH), PxylA (a promoter/repressor system derived from Bacillus megaterium DSMZ 319) and PlacSynth (synthetic promoter and codon-optimized repressor gene based on the Escherichia coli lac operon). We observed that PlacA was inducible solely by lactose, but not by non-metabolizable allolactose analoga. PxylA was inducible by xylose, yet showed basal expression under non-induced conditions. Growth on galactose (as compared to exponential growth phase on glucose) reduced basal mCherry expression at non-induced conditions. PlacSynth was inducible with TMG (methyl β-D-thiogalactopyranoside) and IPTG (isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside), but also showed basal expression without inducer. The promoter PlacSynth was used for establishment of a dual plasmid expression system, based on T7 RNA polymerase driven expression in L. plantarum. Comparative Western blot supported BioLector(®) micro-fermentation measurements. Conclusively, overall expression levels were moderate (compared to a

  16. Codon usage and amino acid usage influence genes expression level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Prosenjit; Malakar, Arup Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2018-02-01

    Highly expressed genes in any species differ in the usage frequency of synonymous codons. The relative recurrence of an event of the favored codon pair (amino acid pairs) varies between gene and genomes due to varying gene expression and different base composition. Here we propose a new measure for predicting the gene expression level, i.e., codon plus amino bias index (CABI). Our approach is based on the relative bias of the favored codon pair inclination among the genes, illustrated by analyzing the CABI score of the Medicago truncatula genes. CABI showed strong correlation with all other widely used measures (CAI, RCBS, SCUO) for gene expression analysis. Surprisingly, CABI outperforms all other measures by showing better correlation with the wet-lab data. This emphasizes the importance of the neighboring codons of the favored codon in a synonymous group while estimating the expression level of a gene.

  17. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M; Michael, Michael Z; Watson, David I; Tan, Grace; Astill, David St J; Hummel, Richard; Hussey, Damian J

    2013-01-08

    Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis) is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett's oesophagus. Barrett's oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett's oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A). miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in oesophageal squamous mucosa of individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. These mi

  18. Protein Profiling of Isolated Leukocytes, Myofibroblasts, Epithelial, Basal, and Endothelial Cells from Normal, Hyperplastic, Cancerous, and Inflammatory Human Prostate Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraa I. Khamis, Kenneth A. Iczkowski, Ziad J. Sahab, Qing-Xiang Amy Sang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ neoplastic prostate cells are not lethal unless they become invasive and metastatic. For cells to become invasive, the prostate gland must undergo degradation of the basement membrane and disruption of the basal cell layer underneath the luminal epithelia. Although the roles of proteinases in breaking down the basement membrane have been well-studied, little is known about the factors that induce basal cell layer disruption, degeneration, and its eventual disappearance in invasive cancer. It is hypothesized that microenvironmental factors may affect the degradation of the basal cell layer, which if protected may prevent tumor progression and invasion. In this study, we have revealed differential protein expression patterns between epithelial and stromal cells isolated from different prostate pathologies and identified several important epithelial and stromal proteins that may contribute to inflammation and malignant transformation of human benign prostate tissues to cancerous tissues using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and proteomics methods. Cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 was downregulated in basal cells of benign prsotate. Caspase-1 and interleukin-18 receptor 1 were highly expressed in leukocytes of prostate cancer. Proto-oncogene Wnt-3 was downregulated in endothelial cells of prostatitis tissue and tyrosine phosphatase non receptor type 1 was only found in normal and benign endothelial cells. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase 14 was downregulated in myofibroblasts of prostatitis tissue. Interestingly, integrin alpha-6 was upregulated in epithelial cells but not detected in myofibroblasts of prostate cancer. Further validation of these proteins may generate new strategies for the prevention of basal cell layer disruption and subsequent cancer invasion.

  19. Expression pattern of wolframin, the WFS1 (Wolfram syndrome-1 gene) product, in common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Noriomi; Hosoya, Makoto; Oishi, Naoki; Okano, Hideyuki; Fujioka, Masato; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2016-08-03

    Wolfram syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder of the neuroendocrine system, known as DIDMOAD (Diabetes Insipidus, Diabetes Mellitus, Optic Atrophy and Deafness) syndrome, and considered an endoplasmic reticulum disease. Patients show mutations in WFS1, which encodes the 890 amino acid protein wolframin. Although Wfs1 knockout mice develop diabetes, their hearing level is completely normal. In this study, we examined the expression of wolframin in the cochlea of a nonhuman primate common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) to elucidate the discrepancy in the phenotype between species and the pathophysiology of Wolfram syndrome-associated deafness. The marmoset cochlea showed wolframin immunoreactivity not only in the spiral ligament type I fibrocytes, spiral ganglion neurons, outer hair cells, and supporting cells, but in the stria vascularis basal cells, where wolframin expression was not observed in the previous mouse study. Considering the absence of the deafness phenotype in Wfs1 knockout mice, the expression of wolframin in the basal cells of primates may play an essential role in the maintenance of hearing. Elucidating the function of wolframin protein in the basal cells of primates would be essential for understanding the pathogenesis of hearing loss in patients with Wolfram syndrome, which may lead to the discovery of new therapeutics.

  20. A Classic Case of Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattaprasad Dadhe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant inherited condition characterized mainly by basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratinizing odontogenic tumors, and other systemic anomalies. As these manifestations do not alter the patient′s lifestyle, most of the cases are diagnosed through oral abnormalities. A classic case of basal cell nevus syndrome fulfilling almost all the major and minor criteria has been reported here.

  1. Affective State Level Recognition in Naturalistic Facial and Vocal Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Hongying; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    Naturalistic affective expressions change at a rate much slower than the typical rate at which video or audio is recorded. This increases the probability that consecutive recorded instants of expressions represent the same affective content. In this paper, we exploit such a relationship to improve the recognition performance of continuous naturalistic affective expressions. Using datasets of naturalistic affective expressions (AVEC 2011 audio and video dataset, PAINFUL video dataset) continuously labeled over time and over different dimensions, we analyze the transitions between levels of those dimensions (e.g., transitions in pain intensity level). We use an information theory approach to show that the transitions occur very slowly and hence suggest modeling them as first-order Markov models. The dimension levels are considered to be the hidden states in the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) framework. Their discrete transition and emission matrices are trained by using the labels provided with the training set. The recognition problem is converted into a best path-finding problem to obtain the best hidden states sequence in HMMs. This is a key difference from previous use of HMMs as classifiers. Modeling of the transitions between dimension levels is integrated in a multistage approach, where the first level performs a mapping between the affective expression features and a soft decision value (e.g., an affective dimension level), and further classification stages are modeled as HMMs that refine that mapping by taking into account the temporal relationships between the output decision labels. The experimental results for each of the unimodal datasets show overall performance to be significantly above that of a standard classification system that does not take into account temporal relationships. In particular, the results on the AVEC 2011 audio dataset outperform all other systems presented at the international competition.

  2. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive

  3. Genome-Wide Tuning of Protein Expression Levels to Rapidly Engineer Microbial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Emily F; Winkler, James D; Weiss, Sophie J; Garst, Andrew D; Mutalik, Vivek K; Arkin, Adam P; Knight, Rob; Gill, Ryan T

    2015-11-20

    The reliable engineering of biological systems requires quantitative mapping of predictable and context-independent expression over a broad range of protein expression levels. However, current techniques for modifying expression levels are cumbersome and are not amenable to high-throughput approaches. Here we present major improvements to current techniques through the design and construction of E. coli genome-wide libraries using synthetic DNA cassettes that can tune expression over a ∼10(4) range. The cassettes also contain molecular barcodes that are optimized for next-generation sequencing, enabling rapid and quantitative tracking of alleles that have the highest fitness advantage. We show these libraries can be used to determine which genes and expression levels confer greater fitness to E. coli under different growth conditions.

  4. Original communication: Basal metabolic rate in children with a solid tumor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, den E.; Oeseburg, B.; Lippens, R.J.J.; Staveren, van W.A.; Sengers, R.C.A.; Hof, van 't M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the level of and changes in basal metabolic rate (BMR) in children with a solid tumour at diagnosis and during treatment in order to provide a more accurate estimate of energy requirements for nutritional support. Design: An observational study. Setting: Tertiary care at the

  5. Preferential antitumor effect of the Src inhibitor dasatinib associated with a decreased proportion of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive cells in breast cancer cells of the basal B subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe Mika

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have suggested that the Src inhibitor dasatinib preferentially inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells of the basal-like subtype. To clarify this finding and further investigate combined antitumor effects of dasatinib with cytotoxic agents, a panel of breast cancer cell lines of various subtypes was treated with dasatinib and/or chemotherapeutic agents. Methods Seven human breast cancer cell lines were treated with dasatinib and/or seven chemotherapeutic agents. Effects of the treatments on c-Src activation, cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis and the proportion of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH 1-positive cells were examined. Results The 50%-growth inhibitory concentrations (IC50s of dasatinib were much lower in two basal B cell lines than those in the other cell lines. The IC50s of chemotherapeutic agents were not substantially different among the cell lines. Dasatinib enhanced antitumor activity of etoposide in the basal B cell lines. Dasatinib induced a G1-S blockade with a slight apoptosis, and a combined treatment of dasatinib with etoposide also induced a G1-S blockade in the basal B cell lines. Dasatinib decreased the expression levels of phosphorylated Src in all cell lines. Interestingly, dasatinib significantly decreased the proportion of ALDH1-positive cells in the basal B cell lines but not in the other cell lines. Conclusions The present study indicates that dasatinib preferentially inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells of the basal B subtype associated with a significant loss of putative cancer stem cell population. A combined use of dasatinib with etoposide additively inhibits their growth. Further studies targeting breast cancers of the basal B subtype using dasatinib with cytotoxic agents are warranted.

  6. High-level transient expression of recombinant protein in lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Lawrence D; Wroblewski, Tadeusz; Ewing, Nicholas N; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2005-09-30

    Transient expression following agroinfiltration of plant tissue was investigated as a system for producing recombinant protein. As a model system, Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene was vacuum infiltrated into lettuce leaf disks. Infiltration with a suspension of 10(9) colony forming units/mL followed by incubation for 72 h at 22 degrees C in continuous darkness produced a maximum of 0.16% GUS protein based on dry tissue or 1.1% GUS protein based on total soluble protein. This compares favorably to expression levels for commercially manufactured GUS protein from transgenic corn seeds. A. tumefaciens culture medium pH between 5.6 and 7.0 and surfactant concentrations lettuce to produce GUS protein more rapidly, but final levels did not exceed the GUS production in leaves incubated in continuous darkness after 72 h at 22 degrees C. The kinetics of GUS expression during incubation in continuous light and dark were represented well using a logistic model, with rate constants of 0.30 and 0.29/h, respectively. To semi-quantitatively measure the GUS expression in large numbers of leaf disks, a photometric enhancement of the standard histochemical staining method was developed. A linear relationship with an R2 value of 0.90 was determined between log10 (% leaf darkness) versus log10 (GUS activity). Although variability in expression level was observed, agroinfiltration appears to be a promising technology that could potentially be scaled up to produce high-value recombinant proteins in planta. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-Min; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area. PMID:20523804

  8. A mammalianized synthetic nitroreductase gene for high-level expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohmann, Maik; Paulmann, Nils; Fleischhauer, Sebastian; Vowinckel, Jakob; Priller, Josef; Walther, Diego J

    2009-01-01

    The nitroreductase/5-(azaridin-1-yl)-2,4-dinitrobenzamide (NTR/CB1954) enzyme/prodrug system is considered as a promising candidate for anti-cancer strategies by gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) and has recently entered clinical trials. It requires the genetic modification of tumor cells to express the E. coli enzyme nitroreductase that bioactivates the prodrug CB1954 to a powerful cytotoxin. This metabolite causes apoptotic cell death by DNA interstrand crosslinking. Enhancing the enzymatic NTR activity for CB1954 should improve the therapeutical potential of this enzyme-prodrug combination in cancer gene therapy. We performed de novo synthesis of the bacterial nitroreductase gene adapting codon usage to mammalian preferences. The synthetic gene was investigated for its expression efficacy and ability to sensitize mammalian cells to CB1954 using western blotting analysis and cytotoxicity assays. In our study, we detected cytoplasmic protein aggregates by expressing GFP-tagged NTR in COS-7 cells, suggesting an impaired translation by divergent codon usage between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Therefore, we generated a synthetic variant of the nitroreductase gene, called ntro, adapted for high-level expression in mammalian cells. A total of 144 silent base substitutions were made within the bacterial ntr gene to change its codon usage to mammalian preferences. The codon-optimized ntro either tagged to gfp or c-myc showed higher expression levels in mammalian cell lines. Furthermore, the ntro rendered several cell lines ten times more sensitive to the prodrug CB1954 and also resulted in an improved bystander effect. Our results show that codon optimization overcomes expression limitations of the bacterial ntr gene in mammalian cells, thereby improving the NTR/CB1954 system at translational level for cancer gene therapy in humans

  9. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D

    2013-01-01

    ) . Mice with knockdown of filaggrin, or lack of functional histidase, show decreased epidermal trans-UCA levels and increased UVB-induced skin damage (5) . FLG mutation carriers also have 10% increased serum vitamin D levels suggesting increased penetration of UVB (6) . We evaluated the prevalence of FLG......Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  10. Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Y.; Hori, T.; Watanabe, T.; Takenobu, A.; Takigawa, H.; Kishimoto, M.; Tanaka, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 5-10% of primary intracranial germ cell tumors arise in basal ganglia and thalamus, where CT studies have been made. MR of the tumors in the pineal region, and to our knowledge, from one tumor in the basal ganglia were similar. In the present case, MR produced confusion in confirming diagnosis, which may require additional evidence from the clinical course, tumor markers, and CT images. (orig.)

  11. Identification of Human Cutaneous Basal Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Huw; Olivero, Carlotta; Patel, Girish K

    2018-04-20

    The cancer stem cell model states that a subset of tumor cells, called "cancer stem cells," can initiate and propagate tumor growth through self-renewal, high proliferative capacity, and their ability to recreate tumor heterogeneity. In basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we have shown that tumor cells that express the cell surface protein CD200 fulfill the cancer stem cell hypothesis. CD200+ CD45- BCC cells represent 0.05-3.96% of all BCC cells and reside in small clusters at the tumor periphery. Using a novel, reproducible in vivo xenograft growth assay, we determined that tumor-initiating cell (TIC) frequencies are approximately 1 per 1.5 million unsorted BCC cells. The CD200+ CD45- BCC subpopulation recreated BCC tumor growth in vivo with typical histological architecture and expression of sonic hedgehog-regulated genes. Reproducible in vivo BCC growth was achieved with as few as 10,000 CD200+ CD45- cells, representing ~1500-fold enrichment. The methods used to identify and purify CD200+ CD45- BCC cells, as well as characterize gene expression, are described herein.

  12. Following basal stem rot in young oil palm plantings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, G; Bridge, P D

    2005-01-01

    The PCR primer GanET has previously been shown to be suitable for the specific amplification of DNA from Ganoderma boninense. A DNA extraction and PCR method has been developed that allows for the amplification of the G. boninense DNA from environmental samples of oil palm tissue. The GanET primer reaction was used in conjunction with a palm-sampling programme to investigate the possible infection of young palms through cut frond base surfaces. Ganoderma DNA was detected in frond base material at a greater frequency than would be expected by comparison with current infection levels. Comparisons are made between the height of the frond base infected, the number of frond bases infected, and subsequent development of basal stem rot. The preliminary results suggest that the development of basal stem rot may be more likely to occur when young lower frond bases are infected.

  13. Basal Cell Ameloblastoma: A Rare Histological Variant of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameloblastomas are an inscrutable group of oral tumors. Basal cell ameloblastoma is a rare variant of ameloblastoma with very few cases reported until date. The tumor is composed of more primitive cells and has less conspicuous peripheral palisading. It shows remarkable similarity to basal cell carcinoma, basal cell ...

  14. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela, Reitsma; Brent, Doiron; Jonathan, Rubin

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus. PMID:22355287

  15. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Höfner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin−SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin−CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin.

  16. Cyclin D2 in the basal process of neural progenitors is linked to non-equivalent cell fates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunekawa, Yuji; Britto, Joanne M; Takahashi, Masanori; Polleux, Franck; Tan, Seong-Seng; Osumi, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division plays an indispensable role during corticogenesis for producing new neurons while maintaining a self-renewing pool of apical progenitors. The cellular and molecular determinants favouring asymmetric division are not completely understood. Here, we identify a novel mechanism for generating cellular asymmetry through the active transportation and local translation of Cyclin D2 mRNA in the basal process. This process is regulated by a unique cis-regulatory sequence found in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the mRNA. Unequal inheritance of Cyclin D2 protein to the basally positioned daughter cell with the basal process confers renewal of the apical progenitor after asymmetric division. Conversely, depletion of Cyclin D2 in the apically positioned daughter cell results in terminal neuronal differentiation. We demonstrate that Cyclin D2 is also expressed in the developing human cortex within similar domains, thus indicating that its role as a fate determinant is ancient and conserved. PMID:22395070

  17. Fetuin-A levels in hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bariş Onder Pamuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Fetuin-A is a protein secreted from the liver that inhibits arterial calcification deposition and can contribute to insulin resistance. Hyperthyroidism is also associated with insulin resistance. It is not known whether hyperthyroidism has an effect on fetuin-A levels. METHODS: We measured fetuin-A levels and homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance before hyperthyroidism treatment was initiated and after euthyroidism was achieved. A total of 42 patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were enrolled in this study. Fetuin-A, insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting blood glucose, free T3 (fT3, free T4 (fT4, and thyrotropin were measured before and after euthyroidism was established. RESULTS: Basal fasting blood glucose, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin, c-peptide, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance, fT3, fT4 and fetuin-A levels were significantly decreased after euthyroidism was achieved (Table 1. Basal fasting blood glucose (r:0.407, p:0.008, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (r:0.523, p<0.0001, insulin (r:0.479, p:0.001, homeostasis model of assessment-insulin resistance (r:0.541, p<0.0001, fT3 (r:0.492, p:0.001 and fT4 (r:0.473, p:0.002 were positively correlated with basal fetuin-A levels. Basal thyrotropin levels were significantly negatively correlated (r:-0.553, p<0.0001 with basal fetuin-A levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that hyperthyroidism influences fetuin-A levels.

  18. The terminal basal mitosis of chicken retinal Lim1 horizontal cells is not sensitive to cisplatin-induced cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi Fard, Shahrzad; Thyselius, Malin; All-Ericsson, Charlotta; Hallböök, Finn

    2014-01-01

    For proper development, cells need to coordinate proliferation and cell cycle-exit. This is mediated by a cascade of proteins making sure that each phase of the cell cycle is controlled before the initiation of the next. Retinal progenitor cells divide during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration, where they undergo S-phase on the basal side, followed by mitoses on the apical side of the neuroepithelium. The final cell cycle of chicken retinal horizontal cells (HCs) is an exception to this general cell cycle behavior. Lim1 expressing (+) horizontal progenitor cells (HPCs) have a heterogenic final cell cycle, with some cells undergoing a terminal mitosis on the basal side of the retina. The results in this study show that this terminal basal mitosis of Lim1+ HPCs is not dependent on Chk1/2 for its regulation compared to retinal cells undergoing interkinetic nuclear migration. Neither activating nor blocking Chk1 had an effect on the basal mitosis of Lim1+ HPCs. Furthermore, the Lim1+ HPCs were not sensitive to cisplatin-induced DNA damage and were able to continue into mitosis in the presence of γ-H2AX without activation of caspase-3. However, Nutlin3a-induced expression of p21 did reduce the mitoses, suggesting the presence of a functional p53/p21 response in HPCs. In contrast, the apical mitoses were blocked upon activation of either Chk1/2 or p21, indicating the importance of these proteins during the process of interkinetic nuclear migration. Inhibiting Cdk1 blocked M-phase transition both for apical and basal mitoses. This confirmed that the cyclin B1-Cdk1 complex was active and functional during the basal mitosis of Lim1+ HPCs. The regulation of the final cell cycle of Lim1+ HPCs is of particular interest since it has been shown that the HCs are able to sustain persistent DNA damage, remain in the cell cycle for an extended period of time and, consequently, survive for months.

  19. The {Delta}Np63 Proteins Are Key Allies of BRCA1 in the Prevention of Basal-Like Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Buckley, Niamh E

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the origin of basal-like breast cancers, an aggressive disease that is highly similar to BRCA1-mutant breast cancers. p63 family proteins that are structurally related to the p53 suppressor protein are known to function in stem cell regulation and stratified epithelia development in multiple tissues, and p63 expression may be a marker of basal-like breast cancers. Here we report that ΔNp63 isoforms of p63 are transcriptional targets for positive regulation by BRCA1. Our analyses of breast cancer tissue microarrays and BRCA1-modulated breast cancer cell lines do not support earlier reports that p63 is a marker of basal-like or BRCA1 mutant cancers. Nevertheless, we found that BRCA1 interacts with the specific p63 isoform ΔNp63γ along with transcription factor isoforms AP-2α and AP-2γ. BRCA1 required ΔNp63γ and AP-2γ to localize to an intronic enhancer region within the p63 gene to upregulate transcription of the ΔNp63 isoforms. In mammary stem\\/progenitor cells, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ΔNp63 expression resulted in genomic instability, increased cell proliferation, loss of DNA damage checkpoint control, and impaired growth control. Together, our findings establish that transcriptional upregulation of ΔNp63 proteins is critical for BRCA1 suppressor function and that defects in BRCA1-ΔNp63 signaling are key events in the pathogenesis of basal-like breast cancer. Cancer Res; 71(5); 1933-44. ©2011 AACR.

  20. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  1. Inclusion of Cocoa as a Dietary Supplement Represses Expression of Inflammatory Proteins in Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus in Response to Chronic Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Ryan J.; Denson, Jennifer E.; Durham, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Scope Central sensitization is implicated in the pathology of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMD) and other types of orofacial pain. We investigated the effects of dietary cocoa on expression of proteins involved in the development of central sensitization in the spinal trigeminal nucleus (STN) in response to inflammatory stimulation of trigeminal nerves. Methods and results Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a control diet or an isocaloric diet consisting of 10% cocoa powder 14 days prior to bilateral injection of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) into the temporomandibular joint to promote prolonged activation of trigeminal ganglion neurons and glia. While dietary cocoa stimulated basal expression of GLAST and MKP-1 when compared to animals on a normal diet, cocoa suppressed basal calcitonin gene-related peptide levels in the STN. CFA-stimulated levels of protein kinase A, P2X3, P-p38, GFAP, and OX-42, whose elevated levels in the STN are implicated in central sensitization, were repressed to near control levels in animals on a cocoa enriched diet. Similarly, dietary cocoa repressed CFA-stimulated inflammatory cytokine expression. Conclusion Based on our findings, we speculate that cocoa enriched diets could be beneficial as a natural therapeutic option for TMD and other chronic orofacial pain conditions. PMID:23576361

  2. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M V Ah-Fong

    Full Text Available Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  3. Functional importance of GLP-1 receptor species and expression levels in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lotte Bjerre; Hastrup, Sven; Underwood, Christina Rye; Wulff, Birgitte Schjellerup; Fleckner, Jan

    2012-04-10

    Of the mammalian species, only the GLP-1 receptors of rat and human origin have been described and characterized. Here, we report the cloning of the homologous GLP-1 receptors from mouse, rabbit, pig, cynomolgus monkey and chimp. The GLP-1 receptor is highly conserved across species, thus underlining the physiological importance of the peptide hormone and its receptor across a wide range of mammals. We expressed the receptors by stable transfection of BHK cells, both in cell lines with high expression levels of the cloned receptors, as well as in cell lines with lower expression levels, more comparable to endogenous expression of these receptors. High expression levels of cloned GLP-1 receptors markedly increased the potency of GLP-1 and other high affinity ligands, whereas the K(d) values were not affected. For a low affinity ligand like the ago-allosteric modulator Compound 2, expression levels of the human GLP-1 receptor were important for maximal efficacy as well as potency. The two natural metabolites of GLP-1, GLP-1(9-37) and GLP-1(9-36)amide were agonists when tested on a cell line with high expression of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor, whereas they behaved as (low potent) antagonists on a cell line that expressed the receptor endogenously, as well as cells expressing a moderate level of the recombinant human GLP-1 receptor. The amide form was a more potent agonist than the free acid from. In conclusion, receptor expression level is an important parametre for selecting cell lines with cloned GLP-1 receptors for functional characterization of physiological and pharmaceutical ligands. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. BDNF expression in the hippocampus of maternally separated rats: does Bifidobacterium breve 6330 alter BDNF levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, E; Barrett, E; Grenham, S; Fitzgerald, P; Stanton, C; Ross, R P; Quigley, E M M; Cryan, J F; Dinan, T G

    2011-09-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is of interest because of its putative role in stress and psychiatric disorders. Maternal separation is used as an animal model of early-life stress and of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Animals exposed to the paradigm show altered gut function together with heightened levels of arousal and corticosterone. Some probiotic organisms have been shown to be of benefit in IBS and influence the brain-gut axis. Our objective was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on BDNF under basal conditions and in response to the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve 6330. The study implemented the maternal separation model which we have previously described. Polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation were performed to measure the effect of maternal separation on both BDNF total variants and BDNF splice variant (exon) IV in the hippocampus. Maternally separated and non-separated rats were treated with B. breve 6330, to investigate the effect of this probiotic on BDNF total variant and BDNF exon IV expression. Maternal separation increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 increased BDNF total variants (Pbreve 6330 did not alter BDNF levels in the maternally separated rats. Maternal separation caused a marked increase in BDNF in the hippocampus. While B. breve 6330 influenced BDNF in normal animals, it had no significant effect on BDNF in those which were maternally separated. We have demonstrated that an orally administered probiotic can influence hippocampal BDNF.

  5. The Arabidopsis DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed by basal phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipase C coupled to diacylglycerol kinase in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabila eDjafi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositide-dependent phospholipases C (PI-PLCs are activated in response to various stimuli. They utilize substrates provided by type III-Phosphatidylinositol-4 kinases (PI4KIII to produce inositol triphosphate and diacylglycerol (DAG that is phosphorylated into phosphatidic acid (PA by DAG-kinases (DGKs. The roles of PI4KIIIs, PI-PLCs and DGKs in basal signalling are poorly understood. We investigated the control of gene expression by basal PI-PLC pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana suspension cells. A transcriptome-wide analysis allowed the identification of genes whose expression was altered by edelfosine, 30 µM wortmannin or R59022, inhibitors of PI-PLCs, PI4KIIIs and DGKs, respectively. We found that a gene responsive to one of these molecules is more likely to be similarly regulated by the other two inhibitors. The common action of these agents is to inhibit PA formation, showing that basal PI-PLCs act, in part, on gene expression through their coupling to DGKs. Amongst the genes up-regulated in presence of the inhibitors, were some DREB2 genes, in suspension cells and in seedlings. The DREB2 genes encode transcription factors with major roles in responses to environmental stresses, including dehydration. They bind to C-repeat motifs, known as Drought-Responsive Elements, that are indeed enriched in the promoters of genes up-regulated by PI-PLC pathway inhibitors. PA can also be produced by phospholipases D (PLDs. We show that the DREB2 genes that are up-regulated by PI-PLC inhibitors are positively or negatively regulated, or indifferent, to PLD basal activity. Our data show that the DREB2 genetic pathway is constitutively repressed in resting conditions and that DGK coupled to PI-PLC is active in this process, in suspension cells and seedlings. We discuss how this basal negative regulation of DREB2 genes is compatible with their stress-triggered positive regulation.

  6. Relevance of detail in basal topography for basal slipperiness inversions: a case study on Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrke-Smith, Teresa M.; Gudmundsson, G. Hilmar; Farrell, Patrick E.

    2018-04-01

    Given high-resolution satellite-derived surface elevation and velocity data, ice-sheet models generally estimate mechanical basal boundary conditions using surface-to-bed inversion methods. In this work, we address the sensitivity of results from inversion methods to the accuracy of the bed elevation data on Pine Island Glacier. We show that misfit between observations and model output is reduced when high-resolution bed topography is used in the inverse model. By looking at results with a range of detail included in the bed elevation, we consider the separation of basal drag due to the bed topography (form drag) and that due to inherent bed properties (skin drag). The mean value of basal shear stress is reduced when more detailed topography is included in the model. This suggests that without a fully resolved bed a significant amount of the basal shear stress recovered from inversion methods may be due to the unresolved bed topography. However, the spatial structure of the retrieved fields is robust as the bed accuracy is varied; the fields are instead sensitive to the degree of regularisation applied to the inversion. While the implications for the future temporal evolution of PIG are not quantified here directly, our work raises the possibility that skin drag may be overestimated in the current generation of numerical ice-sheet models of this area. These shortcomings could be overcome by inverting simultaneously for both bed topography and basal slipperiness.

  7. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  8. [Correlation between RNA Expression Level and Early PMI in Human Brain Tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Y H; Ma, K J; Li, Z H; Gu, J; Bao, J Y; Yang, Z F; Gao, J; Zeng, Y; Tao, L; Chen, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore the correlation between the expression levels of several RNA markers in human brain tissue and early postmortem interval (PMI). Twelve individuals with known PMI (range from 4.3 to 22.5 h) were selected and total RNA was extracted from brain tissue. Eight commonly used RNA markers were chosen including β -actin, GAPDH, RPS29, 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA, U6 snRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b, and the expression levels were detected in brain tissue by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. The internal reference markers with stable expression in early PMI were screened using geNorm software and the relationship between its expression level and some relevant factors such as age, gender and cause of death were analyzed. RNA markers normalized by internal reference were inserted into the mathematic model established by previous research for PMI estimation using R software. Model quality was judged by the error rate calculated with estimated PMI. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b showed quite stable expression and their expression levels had no relation with age, gender and cause of death. The error rate of estimated PMI using β -actin was 24.6%, while GAPDH was 41.0%. 5S rRNA, miRNA-9 and miRNA-125b are suitable as internal reference markers of human brain tissue owing to their stable expression in early PMI. The expression level of β -actin correlates well with PMI, which can be used as an additional index for early PMI estimation. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  9. The level of CD147 expression correlates with cyclophilin-induced signalling and chemotaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constant Stephanie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies identified CD147 as the chemotactic receptor on inflammatory leukocytes for extracellular cyclophilins (eCyp. However, CD147 is not known to associate with signal transducing molecules, so other transmembrane proteins, such as proteoglycans, integrins, and CD98, were suggested as receptor or co-receptor for eCyp. CD147 is ubiquitously expressed on many cell types, but relationship between the level of CD147 expression and cellular responses to eCyp has never been analyzed. Given the role of eCyp in pathogenesis of many diseases, it is important to know whether cellular responses to eCyp are regulated at the level of CD147 expression. Results Here, we manipulated CD147 expression levels on HeLa cells using RNAi and investigated the signalling and chemotactic responses to eCypA. Both Erk activation and chemotaxis correlated with the level of CD147 expression, with cells exhibiting low level expression being practically unresponsive to eCypA. Conclusions Our results provide the first demonstration of a chemotactic response of HeLa cells to eCypA, establish a correlation between the level of CD147 expression and the magnitude of cellular responses to eCypA, and indicate that CD147 may be a limiting factor in the receptor complex determining cyclophilin-induced Erk activation and cell migration.

  10. Loss of function of Slc20a2 associated with familial idiopathic Basal Ganglia calcification in humans causes brain calcifications in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Schroder, H. D.; Hejbol, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Deleterious mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), were recently linked to FIBGC in almost 50% of the families...... reported worldwide. Here, we show that knockout of Slc20a2 in mice causes calcifications in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cortex, demonstrating that reduced PiT2 expression alone can cause brain calcifications....

  11. Somatostatin reduces 3H-thymidine incorporation and c-myc, but not thyroglobulin ribonucleic acid levels in human thyroid follicular cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    degli Uberti, E.C.; Hanau, S.; Rossi, R.; Piva, R.; Margutti, A.; Trasforini, G.; Pansini, G.; del Senno, L.

    1991-01-01

    The action of somatostatin (SRIH) on 3 H-thymidine (thy) incorporation and on c-myc and thyroglobulin RNA levels in a suspension of follicles from normal and goitrous human thyroid was examined. SRIH, at 10 - 7 M concentration, inhibited basal thy incorporation (maximally by 4 h lasting for up 24 h), which effect was greater in goiter than in normal thyroid and was also detected in growing adherent epithelial cells. Moreover, in a follicle suspension SRIH prevented TSH-stimulated thy incorporation, both in normal and in goitrous thyroid. Basal expression of c-myc RNA was not affected by SRIH in either tissue, whereas the TSH-stimulated c-myc RNA level was significantly reduced in goiter. No effect of SRIH was observed on basal or TSH-stimulated thyroglobulin RNA levels. SRIH did not alter basal cAMP concentrations in normal or goitrous follicles, but it significantly reduced TSH-stimulated cAMP accumulation both in normal thyroid and in goiter. Overall, our data indicate a direct inhibitory action of SRIH on growth, but not on differentiation, of human thyroid, probably by a mechanism not entirely cAMP dependent

  12. Effects of feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on plasma cytokines and mRNA expression of immune genes in the intestine of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghareeb, Khaled; Awad, Wageha A; Soodoi, Chimidtseren; Sasgary, Soleman; Strasser, Alois; Böhm, Josef

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the individual and combined effects of dietary deoxynivalenol (DON) and a microbial feed additive on plasma cytokine level and on the expression of immune relevant genes in jejunal tissues of broilers. A total of 40 broiler chicks were obtained from a commercial hatchery and divided randomly into four groups (10 birds per group). Birds were reared in battery cages from one day old for 5 weeks. The dietary groups were 1) control birds fed basal diet; 2) DON group fed basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/ kg feed; 3) DON + Mycofix group fed basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/ kg feed and supplemented with a commercial feed additive, Mycofix® Select (MS) (2.5 kg/ton of feed); 4) Mycofix group fed basal diet supplemented with MS (2.5 kg/ton of feed). At 35 days, the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) were quantified by ELISA test kits. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, IL-1β, interferon gamma (IFNγ), transforming growth factor beta receptor I (TGFBR1) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells 1 (NF-κβ1) in jejunum were quantified by qRT-PCR. The results showed that the plasma TNF-α decreased in response to DON, while in combination with MS, the effect of DON was reduced. DON down-regulated the relative gene expression of IL-1β, TGFBR1 and IFN-γ, and addition of MS to the DON contaminated diet compensates these effects on IL-1β, TGFBR1 but not for IFN-γ. Furthermore, supplementation of MS to either DON contaminated or control diet up-regulated the mRNA expression of NF-κβ1. In conclusion, DON has the potential to provoke and modulate immunological reactions of broilers and subsequently could increase their susceptibility to disease. The additive seemed to have almost as much of an effect as DON, albeit on different genes.

  13. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Hestiantoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Forty participating patients underwent IVF program, excluding smokers, patients with diabetic, morbid obesity, and severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Age, BMI, basal FSH, estradiol, leptin on the day of hCG administration, oocyte count on oocyte retrieval, the number of mature oocyte, and fertility rate were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine which eligible factors play role in predicting the successful of fertilization.Results: Significant correlation was found between basal FSH level and serum leptin/oocyte ratio on the day of hCG administration with successful fertilization. We found probability formula as follows: 1/(1+exp –(6.2 - 0.4(leptin serum/oocyte ratio - 0.8(basal FSH, with 77.8% sensitivity, 77.8% specificity, and AUC levels of 85.6% indicating strong predictability. Probability of successful fertilization related to basal FSH level of 5.90 mIU/mL and leptin serum/oocyte ratio of 3.98.Conclusion: The formula consisting of basal FSH and leptin serum/oocyte ratio on the day of trigger ovulation was capable in predicting the probability of successful fertilization in IVF procedure.

  14. Growth hormone-releasing factor induces c-fos expression in cultured primary pituitary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Mitchell, R L; Vale, W

    1987-01-01

    GH-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin regulates the secretion and biosynthesis of GH as well as the proliferation of GH-producing cells. In order to further characterize the mitogenic effect of GRF, we studied the expression of the proto-oncogene c-fos in primary pituitary cells. Maximal...... induction of c-fos mRNA was observed 20-60 min after stimulation with 5 nM GRF, returning to basal levels after 2 h. Somatostatin-14 (5 nM) partially inhibited the GRF induced c-fos expression. Forskolin and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate induced c-fos gene in cultured primary pituitary cells with similar...

  15. Computed tomography of calcification of the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Churl Min; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Soon Yong

    1981-01-01

    Calcifications of the basal ganglia are rarely found at routine autopsies and in skull radiographs. CT is superior to the plain skull radiographs in detecting intracranial attenuation differences and may be stated to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of intracranial calcifications. Of 5985 brain CT scans performed in Kyung Hee University Hospital during past 3 years, 36 cases were found to have high attenuation lesions suggesting calcifications within basal ganglia. 1. The incidence of basal ganglia calcification on CT scan was about 0.6%. 2. Of these 36 cases, 34 cases were bilateral and the remainder was unilateral. 3. The plain skull films of 23 cases showed visible calcification of basal ganglia in 3 cases (13%). 4. No specific metabolic disease was noted in the cases

  16. Effects of chlordiazepoxide and buspirone on plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in rats under basal and stress conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    The effects of the classical benzodiazepine (BDZ) anxiolytic drug chlordiazepoxide (CDP) and the non-BDZ anxiolytic agent buspirone (BUSP) on basal and stress-induced plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) release were investigated. Male Wistar rats provided with a

  17. Protein Expression Analyses at the Single Cell Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masae Ohno

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The central dogma of molecular biology explains how genetic information is converted into its end product, proteins, which are responsible for the phenotypic state of the cell. Along with the protein type, the phenotypic state depends on the protein copy number. Therefore, quantification of the protein expression in a single cell is critical for quantitative characterization of the phenotypic states. Protein expression is typically a dynamic and stochastic phenomenon that cannot be well described by standard experimental methods. As an alternative, fluorescence imaging is being explored for the study of protein expression, because of its high sensitivity and high throughput. Here we review key recent progresses in fluorescence imaging-based methods and discuss their application to proteome analysis at the single cell level.

  18. The Concerted Action of Type 2 and Type 3 Deiodinases Regulates the Cell Cycle and Survival of Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, Caterina; Ambrosio, Raffaele; De Stefano, Maria Angela; Di Girolamo, Daniela; Di Cicco, Emery; Cicatiello, Annunziata Gaetana; Mancino, Giuseppina; Porcelli, Tommaso; Raia, Maddalena; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Salvatore, Domenico; Dentice, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) mediate pleiotropic cellular processes involved in metabolism, cellular proliferation, and differentiation. The intracellular hormonal environment can be tailored by the type 1 and 2 deiodinase enzymes D2 and D3, which catalyze TH activation and inactivation respectively. In many cellular systems, THs exert well-documented stimulatory or inhibitory effects on cell proliferation; however, the molecular mechanisms by which they control rates of cell cycle progression have not yet been entirely clarified. We previously showed that D3 depletion or TH treatment influences the proliferation and survival of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. Surprisingly, we also found that BCC cells express not only sustained levels of D3 but also robust levels of D2. The aim of the present study was to dissect the contribution of D2 to TH metabolism in the BCC context, and to identify the molecular changes associated with cell proliferation and survival induced by TH and mediated by D2 and D3. We used the CRISPR/Cas9 technology to genetically deplete D2 and D3 in BCC cells and studied the consequences of depletion on cell cycle progression and on cell death. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis of synchronized cells, and the apoptosis rate by annexin V incorporation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that D2 inactivation accelerates cell cycle progression thereby enhancing the proportion of S-phase cells and cyclin D1 expression. Conversely, D3 mutagenesis drastically suppressed cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of BCC cells. Furthermore, the basal apoptotic rate was oppositely regulated in D2- and D3-depleted cells. Our results indicate that BCC cells constitute an example in which the TH signal is finely tuned by the concerted expression of opposite-acting deiodinases. The dual regulation of D2 and D3 expression plays a critical role in cell cycle progression and cell death by influencing cyclin D1-mediated

  19. Optogenetic Activation of the Sensorimotor Cortex Reveals "Local Inhibitory and Global Excitatory" Inputs to the Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Mitsunori; Sano, Hiromi; Sato, Shigeki; Ogura, Mitsuhiro; Mushiake, Hajime; Chiken, Satomi; Nakao, Naoyuki; Nambu, Atsushi

    2017-12-01

    To understand how information from different cortical areas is integrated and processed through the cortico-basal ganglia pathways, we used optogenetics to systematically stimulate the sensorimotor cortex and examined basal ganglia activity. We utilized Thy1-ChR2-YFP transgenic mice, in which channelrhodopsin 2 is robustly expressed in layer V pyramidal neurons. We applied light spots to the sensorimotor cortex in a grid pattern and examined neuronal responses in the globus pallidus (GP) and entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), which are the relay and output nuclei of the basal ganglia, respectively. Light stimulation typically induced a triphasic response composed of early excitation, inhibition, and late excitation in GP/EPN neurons. Other response patterns lacking 1 or 2 of the components were also observed. The distribution of the cortical sites whose stimulation induced a triphasic response was confined, whereas stimulation of the large surrounding areas induced early and late excitation without inhibition. Our results suggest that cortical inputs to the GP/EPN are organized in a "local inhibitory and global excitatory" manner. Such organization seems to be the neuronal basis for information processing through the cortico-basal ganglia pathways, that is, releasing and terminating necessary information at an appropriate timing, while simultaneously suppressing other unnecessary information. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  1. Expression analysis of the speech-related genes FoxP1 and FoxP2 and their relation to singing behavior in two songbird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianqian; Heston, Jonathan B.; Burkett, Zachary D.; White, Stephanie A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Humans and songbirds are among the rare animal groups that exhibit socially learned vocalizations: speech and song, respectively. These vocal-learning capacities share a reliance on audition and cortico-basal ganglia circuitry, as well as neurogenetic mechanisms. Notably, the transcription factors Forkhead box proteins 1 and 2 (FoxP1, FoxP2) exhibit similar expression patterns in the cortex and basal ganglia of humans and the zebra finch species of songbird, among other brain regions. Mutations in either gene are associated with language disorders in humans. Experimental knock-down of FoxP2 in the basal ganglia song control region Area X during song development leads to imprecise copying of tutor songs. Moreover, FoxP2 levels decrease naturally within Area X when zebra finches sing. Here, we examined neural expression patterns of FoxP1 and FoxP2 mRNA in adult Bengalese finches, a songbird species whose songs exhibit greater sequence complexity and increased reliance on audition for maintaining their quality. We found that FoxP1 and FoxP2 expression in Bengalese finches is similar to that in zebra finches, including strong mRNA signals for both factors in multiple song control nuclei and enhancement of FoxP1 in these regions relative to surrounding brain tissue. As with zebra finches, when Bengalese finches sing, FoxP2 is behaviorally downregulated within basal ganglia Area X over a similar time course, and expression negatively correlates with the amount of singing. This study confirms that in multiple songbird species, FoxP1 expression highlights song control regions, and regulation of FoxP2 is associated with motor control of song. PMID:24006346

  2. Stable Plastid Transformation for High-Level Recombinant Protein Expression: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili Gao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are a promising expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. However, low protein productivity remains a major obstacle that limits extensive commercialization of whole plant and plant cell bioproduction platform. Plastid genetic engineering offers several advantages, including high levels of transgenic expression, transgenic containment via maternal inheritance, and multigene expression in a single transformation event. In recent years, the development of optimized expression strategies has given a huge boost to the exploitation of plastids in molecular farming. The driving forces behind the high expression level of plastid bioreactors include codon optimization, promoters and UTRs, genotypic modifications, endogenous enhancer and regulatory elements, posttranslational modification, and proteolysis. Exciting progress of the high expression level has been made with the plastid-based production of two particularly important classes of pharmaceuticals: vaccine antigens, therapeutic proteins, and antibiotics and enzymes. Approaches to overcome and solve the associated challenges of this culture system that include low transformation frequencies, the formation of inclusion bodies, and purification of recombinant proteins will also be discussed.

  3. Transcript-level annotation of Affymetrix probesets improves the interpretation of gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Kang

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The wide use of Affymetrix microarray in broadened fields of biological research has made the probeset annotation an important issue. Standard Affymetrix probeset annotation is at gene level, i.e. a probeset is precisely linked to a gene, and probeset intensity is interpreted as gene expression. The increased knowledge that one gene may have multiple transcript variants clearly brings up the necessity of updating this gene-level annotation to a refined transcript-level. Results Through performing rigorous alignments of the Affymetrix probe sequences against a comprehensive pool of currently available transcript sequences, and further linking the probesets to the International Protein Index, we generated transcript-level or protein-level annotation tables for two popular Affymetrix expression arrays, Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array and Human Genome U133A Array. Application of our new annotations in re-examining existing expression data sets shows increased expression consistency among synonymous probesets and strengthened expression correlation between interacting proteins. Conclusion By refining the standard Affymetrix annotation of microarray probesets from the gene level to the transcript level and protein level, one can achieve a more reliable interpretation of their experimental data, which may lead to discovery of more profound regulatory mechanism.

  4. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  5. Caveolin-1 expression as a prognostic marker in triple negative breast cancers of Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Joe; Thike, Aye Aye; Ikeda, Murasaki; Lim, Jeffrey Chun Tatt; Lee, Bernett; Nakamura, Seigo; Iqbal, Jabed; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by their lack of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Although heterogeneous, the majority are aggressive and treatment options are limited. Caveolin acts as tumour suppressor or promoter depending on the cancer type. In this study, we aimed to determine if the expression levels of the candidate biomarker caveolin-1 on stromal or tumour cells were associated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcomes in TNBCs from an ethnically diverse cohort of Asian women. Tumour specimens from 699 women with TNBC were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis of the frequency and intensity of caveolin-1 expression in tumour and stromal cells. A subset of 141 tumour samples also underwent Nanostring measurement of CAV1 mRNA. Results were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcomes. Expression of caveolin-1 in stromal cells was observed in 14.4% of TNBC cases. TNBCs of the basal-like phenotype (85% of samples) were significantly more likely to exhibit stromal cell caveolin-1 expression (p=0.028), as were those with a trabecular growth pattern (p=0.007). Lack of stromal caveolin-1 expression in both TNBCs and those with the basal-like phenotype was significantly associated with worse overall survival (p=0.009 and p=0.026, respectively): accordingly, increasing mRNA levels of CAV1 in TNBC samples predicted better overall survival. Caveolin-1 expression on TNBC tumour cells was not associated with clinical outcome. Stromal, but not tumoural, caveolin-1 expression is significantly associated with survival in Asian women with TNBC. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hematoma: A report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Pranshu; Grewal, Sarvpreet Singh; Gupta, Bharat; Jain, Vikas; Sobti, Harman

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic Basal ganglia hemorrhage is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage, and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively.

  7. Growth hormone increases vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Krarup; Fisker, Sanne; Dall, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    and 25 adult GH-deficient (GHD) patients randomized to GH treatment or placebo. Furthermore, we studied the direct effect of GH and IGF-I and serum from GH-treated subjects on basal and TNF alpha-stimulated expression of VCAM-1 and E-selectin on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Baseline...... levels of VCAM-1, but not E-selectin, were significantly lower in GHD patients than in healthy subjects (362 +/- 15 microg/liter vs. 516 +/- 21 microg/liter, P liter (95......% confidence interval: 95.0-208.7 microg/liter); P

  8. Identification and characterization of a gibberellin-regulated protein, which is ASR5, in the basal region of rice leaf sheaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hironori; Mahmood, Tariq; Matsuoka, Makoto; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2008-04-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) regulate growth and development in higher plants. To identify GA-regulated proteins during rice leaf sheath elongation, a proteomic approach was used. Proteins from the basal region of leaf sheath in rice seedling treated with GA(3) were analyzed by fluorescence two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. The levels of abscisic acid-stress-ripening-inducible 5 protein (ASR5), elongation factor-1 beta, translationally controlled tumor protein, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and a novel protein increased; whereas the level of RuBisCO subunit binding-protein decreased by GA(3) treatment. ASR5 out of these six proteins was significantly regulated by GA(3) at the protein level but not at the mRNA level in the basal region of leaf sheaths. Since this protein is regulated not only by abscisic acid but also by GA(3), these results indicate that ASR5 might be involved in plant growth in addition to stress in the basal regions of leaf sheaths.

  9. FACTOR-ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EXPRESSED EMOTION SCALE, A QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED TO MEASURE PERCEIVED EXPRESSED EMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; VANDERLUBBE, PM; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, C

    When the factor structure and psychometric qualities of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale, an instrument intended to assess patient's perceptions of expressed emotion, were evaluated, three moderately intercorrelated factors emerged, with good internal consistency; these were lack of emotional

  10. Autism and increased paternal age related changes in global levels of gene expression regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Alter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A causal role of mutations in multiple general transcription factors in neurodevelopmental disorders including autism suggested that alterations in global levels of gene expression regulation might also relate to disease risk in sporadic cases of autism. This premise can be tested by evaluating for changes in the overall distribution of gene expression levels. For instance, in mice, variability in hippocampal-dependent behaviors was associated with variability in the pattern of the overall distribution of gene expression levels, as assessed by variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in the hippocampus. We hypothesized that a similar change in variance might be found in children with autism. Gene expression microarrays covering greater than 47,000 unique RNA transcripts were done on RNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of children with autism (n = 82 and controls (n = 64. Variance in the distribution of gene expression levels from each microarray was compared between groups of children. Also tested was whether a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age, was associated with variance. A decrease in the variance in the distribution of gene expression levels in PBL was associated with the diagnosis of autism and a risk factor for autism, increased paternal age. Traditional approaches to microarray analysis of gene expression suggested a possible mechanism for decreased variance in gene expression. Gene expression pathways involved in transcriptional regulation were down-regulated in the blood of children with autism and children of older fathers. Thus, results from global and gene specific approaches to studying microarray data were complimentary and supported the hypothesis that alterations at the global level of gene expression regulation are related to autism and increased paternal age. Global regulation of transcription, thus, represents a possible point of convergence for multiple etiologies of autism and other

  11. Using a hybrid neuron in physiologically inspired models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Michael Thibeault

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of the basal ganglia has facilitated the creation of computational models that have contributed novel theories, explored new functional anatomy and demonstrated results complementing physiological experiments. However, the utility of these models extends beyond these applications. Particularly in neuromorphic engineering, where the basal ganglia's role in computation is important for applications such as power efficient autonomous agents and model-based control strategies. The neurons used in existing computational models of the basal ganglia however, are not amenable for many low-power hardware implementations. Motivated by a need for more hardware accessible networks, we replicate four published models of the basal ganglia, spanning single neuron and small networks, replacing the more computationally expensive neuron models with an Izhikevich hybrid neuron. This begins with a network modeling action-selection, where the basal activity levels and the ability to appropriately select the most salient input is reproduced. A Parkinson's disease model is then explored under normal conditions, Parkinsonian conditions and during subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. The resulting network is capable of replicating the loss of thalamic relay capabilities in the Parkinsonian state and its return under deep brain stimulation. This is also demonstrated using a network capable of action-selection. Finally, a study of correlation transfer under different patterns of Parkinsonian activity is presented. These networks successfully captured the significant results of the originals studies. This not only creates a foundation for neuromorphic hardware implementations but may also support the development of large-scale biophysical models. The former potentially providing a way of improving the efficacy of deep brain stimulation and the latter allowing for the efficient simulation of larger more comprehensive networks.

  12. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for luminal-basal fusions, and we identified EN1, TBX18, and TCF4 as candidate transcriptional regulators of the luminal-to-basal switch. Our findings highlight the remarkable epigenetic plasticity of breast cancer cells.

  13. Protein degradation rate is the dominant mechanism accounting for the differences in protein abundance of basal p53 in a human breast and colorectal cancer cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Lakatos

    Full Text Available We determine p53 protein abundances and cell to cell variation in two human cancer cell lines with single cell resolution, and show that the fractional width of the distributions is the same in both cases despite a large difference in average protein copy number. We developed a computational framework to identify dominant mechanisms controlling the variation of protein abundance in a simple model of gene expression from the summary statistics of single cell steady state protein expression distributions. Our results, based on single cell data analysed in a Bayesian framework, lends strong support to a model in which variation in the basal p53 protein abundance may be best explained by variations in the rate of p53 protein degradation. This is supported by measurements of the relative average levels of mRNA which are very similar despite large variation in the level of protein.

  14. Protein degradation rate is the dominant mechanism accounting for the differences in protein abundance of basal p53 in a human breast and colorectal cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Eszter; Salehi-Reyhani, Ali; Barclay, Michael; Stumpf, Michael P H; Klug, David R

    2017-01-01

    We determine p53 protein abundances and cell to cell variation in two human cancer cell lines with single cell resolution, and show that the fractional width of the distributions is the same in both cases despite a large difference in average protein copy number. We developed a computational framework to identify dominant mechanisms controlling the variation of protein abundance in a simple model of gene expression from the summary statistics of single cell steady state protein expression distributions. Our results, based on single cell data analysed in a Bayesian framework, lends strong support to a model in which variation in the basal p53 protein abundance may be best explained by variations in the rate of p53 protein degradation. This is supported by measurements of the relative average levels of mRNA which are very similar despite large variation in the level of protein.

  15. Determinants of intra-specific variation in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarzewski, Marek; Książek, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) provides a widely accepted benchmark of metabolic expenditure for endotherms under laboratory and natural conditions. While most studies examining BMR have concentrated on inter-specific variation, relatively less attention has been paid to the determinants of within-species variation. Even fewer studies have analysed the determinants of within-species BMR variation corrected for the strong influence of body mass by appropriate means (e.g. ANCOVA). Here, we review recent advancements in studies on the quantitative genetics of BMR and organ mass variation, along with their molecular genetics. Next, we decompose BMR variation at the organ, tissue and molecular level. We conclude that within-species variation in BMR and its components have a clear genetic signature, and are functionally linked to key metabolic process at all levels of biological organization. We highlight the need to integrate molecular genetics with conventional metabolic field studies to reveal the adaptive significance of metabolic variation. Since comparing gene expressions inter-specifically is problematic, within-species studies are more likely to inform us about the genetic underpinnings of BMR. We also urge for better integration of animal and medical research on BMR; the latter is quickly advancing thanks to the application of imaging technologies and 'omics' studies. We also suggest that much insight on the biochemical and molecular underpinnings of BMR variation can be gained from integrating studies on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which appears to be the major regulatory pathway influencing the key molecular components of BMR.

  16. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atarbashi Moghadam, Saede; Atarbashi Moghadam, Fazele; Eini, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (P = 0.86). Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells. PMID:24350278

  17. Immunohistochemical Analysis of P63 Expression in Odontogenic Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available P63 may have a role in tumorigenesis and cytodifferentiation of odontogenic lesions. We investigated the immunohistochemical expression of P63 in a total of 30 cases of odontogenic cysts and tumors. The percentage of positive cells was calculated in the lining of odontogenic cysts and islands of ameloblastoma. P63 expression was evident in all types of odontogenic lesions. P63 was expressed throughout the lining epithelium of odontogenic keratocyst except surface parakeratinized layer. In addition, calcifying odontogenic cyst showed P63 expression in all layers. In almost all radicular and dentigerous cysts, the basal and parabasal layers were immunoreactive. Peripheral cells of ameloblastoma expressed P63; however, stellate reticulum had weaker immunostaining. No significant difference in P63 expression was observed between studied lesions (. Expression of P63 in odontogenic lesions suggests that this protein is important in differentiation and proliferation of odontogenic epithelial cells. However, it seems that it could not be a useful marker to differentiate between aggressive and nonaggressive lesions. P63 also represents a progenitor or basal cell marker, and it is not expressed in mature differentiated cells.

  18. Long-term survival of women with basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast: a population-based cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Wenjing; Jirström, Karin; Johansson, Christine; Amini, Rose-Marie; Blomqvist, Carl; Agbaje, Olorunsola; Wärnberg, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Microarray gene-profiling of invasive breast cancer has identified different subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, HER2-overexpressing and basal-like groups. Basal-like invasive breast cancer is associated with a worse prognosis. However, the prognosis of basal-like ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is still unknown. Our aim was to study the prognosis of basal-like DCIS in a large population-based cohort. All 458 women with a primary DCIS diagnosed between 1986 and 2004, in Uppland and Västmanland, Sweden were included. TMA blocks were constructed. To classify the DCIS tumors, we used immunohistochemical (IHC) markers (estrogen-, progesterone-, HER2, cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor) as a surrogate for the gene expression profiling. The association with prognosis was examined for basal-like DCIS and other subtypes using Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression models. IHC data were complete for 392 women. Thirty-two were basal-like (8.2%), 351 were luminal or HER2-positive (89.5%) and 9 unclassified (2.3%). Seventy-six women had a local recurrence of which 34 were invasive. Another 3 women had general metastases as first event. Basal-like DCIS showed a higher risk of local recurrence and invasive recurrence 1.8 (Confidence interval (CI) 95%, 0.8-4.2) and 1.9 (0.7-5.1), respectively. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Also, no statistically significant increased risk was seen for triple-negative or high grade DCIS. Basal-like DCIS showed about a doubled, however not statistically significant risk for local recurrence and developing invasive cancer compared with the other molecular subtypes. Molecular subtyping was a better prognostic parameter than histopathological grade

  19. Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux on microRNA expression, location and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Cameron M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ulceration of the oesophageal squamous mucosa (ulcerative oesophagitis is a pathological manifestation of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and is a major risk factor for the development of Barrett’s oesophagus. Barrett’s oesophagus is characterised by replacement of reflux-damaged oesophageal squamous epithelium with a columnar intestinal-like epithelium. We previously reported discovery of microRNAs that are differentially expressed between oesophageal squamous mucosa and Barrett’s oesophagus mucosa. Now, to better understand early steps in the initiation of Barrett’s oesophagus, we assessed the expression, location and function of these microRNAs in oesophageal squamous mucosa from individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare miR-21, 143, 145, 194, 203, 205 and 215 expression levels in oesophageal mucosa from individuals without pathological gastro-oesophageal reflux to individuals with ulcerative oesophagitis. Correlations between microRNA expression and messenger RNA differentiation markers BMP-4, CK8 and CK14 were analyzed. The cellular localisation of microRNAs within the oesophageal mucosa was determined using in-situ hybridisation. microRNA involvement in proliferation and apoptosis was assessed following transfection of a human squamous oesophageal mucosal cell line (Het-1A. Results miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 levels were significantly higher in gastro-oesophageal reflux compared with controls. Elevated miR-143 expression correlated with BMP-4 and CK8 expression, and elevated miR-205 expression correlated negatively with CK14 expression. Endogenous miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was localised to the basal layer of the oesophageal epithelium. Transfection of miR-143, 145 and 205 mimics into Het-1A cells resulted in increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Conclusions Elevated miR-143, miR-145 and miR-205 expression was observed in

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyl 126 stimulates basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis of human adrenocortical H295R cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, L.-A.; Wang, P.-W.; Chang, Louis W.

    2004-01-01

    To understand the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on adrenal aldosterone biosynthesis, we have performed a systematical study to characterize the corresponding steroidogenic response of human adrenocortical cell line H295R to PCB126 exposure. We found that PCB126 at high concentrations stimulated basal and inducible aldosterone production. The aldosterone induction occurred concomitantly with activation of the CYP11B2 gene. Despite the fact that PCB126 acted in synergy with both potassium and angiotensin II (Ang II) in activation of aldosterone synthesis, PCB126 only modestly increased CYP11B2 mRNA expression in the presence of Ang II contrary to the synergistic transcriptional induction elicited by PCB126 and potassium. This implicated that PCB126 had differential interactions with the potassium and Ang II signaling systems in the regulation of aldosterone biosynthesis. In addition, high concentrations of PCB126 elevated transcriptional expression of the type I Ang II receptor (AT 1 ) and might thus sensitize the cellular Ang II responsiveness in both basal and inducible aldosterone biosynthesis. SF-1 was not involved in the PCB126-induced transcriptional regulation despite its importance in steroidogenic gene activation

  1. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shike; Zhang Yalin; Xu Derong; Zou Gaowei; Chen Dan; He Sujun; Zhou Lichao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  2. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  3. The mRNA expression of XRCC repair genes in mice after γ-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qin; Yue Jingyin; Li Jin; Mu Chuanjie; Fan Feiyue

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of XRCC repair genes in radioresistance of IRM-2 inbred mice. Methods: Northern hybridization was used to measure mRNA expression of XRCC1 and XRCC5 genes in IRM-2 inbred mice. ICR/JCL and 615 after exposure to different doses of γ-ray radiation at different postirradiation time. Results: The levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in control IRM-2 mice were higher significantly than those in their control parental mice (P<0.01 and P<0.05). The mRNA expression of XRCC genes in ICR/JCL and 615 mice all increased to some extent after exposure 1, 2 and 4 Gy radiation. But the levels were significantly higher at 2h postirradiation (P<0.05) . The levels of XRCC mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice did not increase significnatly compared with the control mice after exposure 1 and 2 Gy radiation. But the levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression increased markedly at 4Gy 1h postirradiation (P<0.05 and P<0.01). Conclusion: The basal levels of XRCC1 and XRCC5 mRNA expression in IRM-2 mice were high. The high level of XRCC5 mRNA expression was involved in the repair of DNA double strand breaks induced by higher dose radiation, which perhaps was one of radioresistance causes of IRM-2 mice. (authors)

  4. RhoA/ROCK pathway is the major molecular determinant of basal tone in intact human internal anal sphincter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Satish; Singh, Jagmohan

    2012-04-01

    The knowledge of molecular control mechanisms underlying the basal tone in the intact human internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for the pathophysiology and rational therapy for a number of debilitating rectoanal motility disorders. We determined the role of RhoA/ROCK and PKC pathways by comparing the effects of ROCK- and PKC-selective inhibitors Y 27632 and Gö 6850 (10(-8) to 10(-4) M), respectively, on the basal tone in the IAS vs. the rectal smooth muscle (RSM). Western blot studies were performed to determine the levels of RhoA/ROCK II, PKC-α, MYPT1, CPI-17, and MLC(20) in the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated forms, in the IAS vs. RSM. Confocal microscopic studies validated the membrane distribution of ROCK II. Finally, to confirm a direct relationship, we examined the enzymatic activities and changes in the basal IAS tone and p-MYPT1, p-CPI-17, and p-MLC(20), before and after Y 27632 and Gö 6850. Data show higher levels of RhoA/ROCK II and related downstream signal transduction proteins in the IAS vs. RSM. In addition, data show a significant correlation between the active RhoA/ROCK levels, ROCK enzymatic activity, downstream proteins, and basal IAS tone, before and after ROCK inhibitor. From these data we conclude 1) RhoA/ROCK and downstream signaling are constitutively active in the IAS, and this pathway (in contrast with PKC) is the critical determinant of the basal tone in intact human IAS; and 2) RhoA and ROCK are potential therapeutic targets for a number of rectoanal motility disorders for which currently there is no satisfactory treatment.

  5. Prolactin, TNF alpha and nitric oxide expression in nitroso-N-methylurea-induced-mammary tumours

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    Vegh Irene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The N-Nitrosomethylurea breast cancer model induced in rats is used for the study of carcinogenesis in mammary cancer, prostate, pancreas, etc. This model is very similar to human neoplastic disease. Methods The present experimental study was designed to assess whether metoclopramide administration has any effect on development of MNU-induced tumours, and evaluate the treatment of goserelin acetate on PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression. NMU was administered to female Wistar rats on 2 occasions (5 mg/100 g body w/rat. PRL and TNF alpha were performed by immune-assay. Nitric Oxide by semi automated-assay and ploidy analyses by flow cytometry. Results The administration of metoclopramide made the induction time shorter and increased the incidence and average of tumours per rat. Tumours development was inhibited by a goserelin chronic administration. The ploidy of adenocarcinoma was polyploid-aneuploid type (average S = 60%. It was higher basal PRL plasma levels in rats with NMU induced tumours than in basal controls without tumour (p Conclusion The increase of blood PRL levels in NMU-induced rats may be an indicator of a poor prognosis of mammary cancer evolution. The metoclopramide administration accelerates tumour growth. However goserelin administration achieves regression in tumour development associated to inhibition PRL, TNF alpha and NO expression.

  6. Dihydrotestostenone increase the gene expression of androgen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HNTEP cells were grown in basal medium and treated with DHT in different conditions. HNTEP cells under treatment with DHT (10-13 M) induced an increase in FHL-2 expression. In turn, high DHT concentrations (10-8 M) induced an increase in the expression SHP-1. The present data suggest that the SHP-1 and FHL-2 ...

  7. Effect of dietary restriction on metabolic, anatomic and molecular traits in mice depends on the initial level of basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzek, Pawel; Ksiazek, Aneta; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Konarzewski, Marek

    2012-09-15

    Dietary restriction (DR)-related delay of ageing is hypothesized to be mediated by the reduction of the metabolic rate (MR). However, studies on the effect of DR on MR have produced equivocal results. We demonstrated that this lack of congruency can be due to a variation in the initial level of MR within a given pool of experimental subjects. We subjected laboratory mice from two line types divergently selected for basal MR (BMR) to 30% DR lasting 6 months to test whether the effect of DR depends on the initial variation in BMR and peak MR. BMR and peak MR were independently affected by DR. The effect of DR was stronger in line types with higher initial levels of MR. Line-type-specific changes in the proportions of body components explained contrasting effects of DR on the mass-corrected BMR, which decreased in the high-BMR line type and did not change in the low-BMR line type. We conclude that the initial variation in MR can significantly affect response to DR. However, we found no association between the level of MR and mechanisms underlying the susceptibility to or protection against oxidative stress.

  8. Clinicopathological evaluation of radiation induced basal cell carcinoma

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    Meibodi Naser

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of skin neoplasms is one of the most important chronic complications of radiation therapy. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent carcinoma occurring at the region of the body to which radiotherapy was delivered. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histological aspects of basal cell carcinoma in patients with a history of radiotherapy. Materials and Methods: Medical records and microscopic slides of 80 patients with basal cell carcinoma who had received radiotherapy (1996-2006 were reviewed in pathology department of Imam Reza hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Collected data were analyzed statistically using descriptive test. Results: 60 men and 20 women were included, majority of them in their sixties. Plaque was the most common clinical pattern of basal cell carcinoma. Fifty one percent of the patients had pigmented and 42.5% had multiple lesions. Scalp was the most common site of involvement. Histologically, macronodular and pigmented carcinoma were the most predominant forms of basal cell carcinoma. Discussion: Majority of patients had scalp involvement and multiple lesions. Nodular and pigmented forms were the most common histological findings. We suggest the need for close supervision in patients with a history of radio therapy in the past.

  9. Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

    2012-08-22

    Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High epitope expression levels increase competition between T cells.

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    Almut Scherer

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical predictions and experimental findings suggest that T cell populations can compete with each other. There is some debate on whether T cells compete for aspecific stimuli, such as access to the surface on antigen-presenting cells (APCs or for specific stimuli, such as their cognate epitope ligand. We have developed an individual-based computer simulation model to study T cell competition. Our model shows that the expression level of foreign epitopes per APC determines whether T cell competition is mainly for specific or aspecific stimuli. Under low epitope expression, competition is mainly for the specific epitope stimuli, and, hence, different epitope-specific T cell populations coexist readily. However, if epitope expression levels are high, aspecific competition becomes more important. Such between-specificity competition can lead to competitive exclusion between different epitope-specific T cell populations. Our model allows us to delineate the circumstances that facilitate coexistence of T cells of different epitope specificity. Understanding mechanisms of T cell coexistence has important practical implications for immune therapies that require a broad immune response.

  11. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  12. Modulation of SOCS protein expression influences the interferon responsiveness of human melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesinski, Gregory B; Zimmerer, Jason M; Kreiner, Melanie; Trefry, John; Bill, Matthew A; Young, Gregory S; Becknell, Brian; Carson, William E III

    2010-01-01

    Endogenously produced interferons can regulate the growth of melanoma cells and are administered exogenously as therapeutic agents to patients with advanced cancer. We investigated the role of negative regulators of interferon signaling known as suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) in mediating interferon-resistance in human melanoma cells. Basal and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) or interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)-induced expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was evaluated by immunoblot analysis in a panel of n = 10 metastatic human melanoma cell lines, in human embryonic melanocytes (HEM), and radial or vertical growth phase melanoma cells. Over-expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins in melanoma cells was achieved using the PINCO retroviral vector, while siRNA were used to inhibit SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression. Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) was measured by intracellular flow cytometry and IFN-stimulated gene expression was measured by Real Time PCR. SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins were expressed at basal levels in melanocytes and in all melanoma cell lines examined. Expression of the SOCS1 and SOCS3 proteins was also enhanced following stimulation of a subset of cell lines with IFN-α or IFN-γ. Over-expression of SOCS proteins in melanoma cell lines led to significant inhibition of Tyr 701 -phosphorylated STAT1 (P-STAT1) and gene expression following stimulation with IFN-α (IFIT2, OAS-1, ISG-15) or IFN-γ (IRF1). Conversely, siRNA inhibition of SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression in melanoma cells enhanced their responsiveness to interferon stimulation. These data demonstrate that SOCS proteins are expressed in human melanoma cell lines and their modulation can influence the responsiveness of melanoma cells to IFN-α and IFN-γ

  13. Effects of inclusion levels of banana (Musa spp.) peelings on feed degradability and rumen environment of cattle fed basal elephant grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambi-Kasozi, Justine; Sabiiti, Elly Nyambobo; Bareeba, Felix Budara; Sporndly, Eva; Kabi, Fred

    2016-04-01

    The effect of feeding varying banana peeling (BP) levels on rumen environment and feed degradation characteristics was evaluated using three rumen fistulated steers in four treatments. The steers were fed BP at 0, 20, 40, and 60% levels of the daily ration with basal elephant grass (EG) to constitute four diets. Maize bran, cotton seed cake, and Gliricidia sepium were offered to make the diets iso-nitrogenous. The nylon bag technique was used to measure BP and EG dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h. Rumen fluid samples were collected to determine pH and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Effective DM, CP, and NDF degradabilities of BP ranged between 574 and 807, 629-802, and 527-689 g/kg, respectively, being lower at higher BP levels. Elephant grass degradability behaved similarly with relatively high effective CP degradability (548-569 g/kg) but low effective DM and NDF degradability (381-403 and 336-373 g/kg, respectively). Rumen pH and VFA reduced with increasing BP in the diets. Rumen pH dropped to 5.8 and 5.9 at the 40 and 60% BP feeding levels, respectively. Banana peelings were better degraded than EG but higher BP levels negatively affected feed degradability and rumen environment.

  14. Expression levels of chaperones influence biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and Pseudomonas putida Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, A-Hyong; Jeon, Eun-Yeong; Lee, Sun-Mee; Park, Jin-Byung

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrated for the first time that the archaeal chaperones (i.e., γ-prefoldin and thermosome) can stabilize enzyme activity in vivo. Ricinoleic acid biotransformation activity of recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Micrococcus luteus alcohol dehydrogenase and the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase improved significantly with co-expression of γ-prefoldin or recombinant themosome originating from the deep-sea hyperthermophile archaea Methanocaldococcus jannaschii. Furthermore, the degree of enhanced activity was dependent on the expression levels of the chaperones. For example, whole-cell biotransformation activity was highest at 12 µmol/g dry cells/min when γ-prefoldin expression level was approximately 46% of the theoretical maximum. This value was approximately two-fold greater than that in E. coli, where the γ-prefoldin expression level was zero or set to the theoretical maximum. Therefore, it was assumed that the expression levels of chaperones must be optimized to achieve maximum biotransformation activity in whole-cell biocatalysts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masayuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Kimura, Hirohiko

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  16. Full-length huntingtin levels modulate body weight by influencing insulin-like growth factor 1 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Xie, Yuanyun; Skotte, Niels Henning

    2010-01-01

    of the IGF-1 pathway in mediating the effect of htt on body weight. IGF-1 expression was examined in transgenic mouse lines expressing different levels of FL wild-type (WT) htt (YAC18 mice), FL mutant htt (YAC128 and BACHD mice) and truncated mutant htt (shortstop mice). We demonstrate that htt influences...... body weight by modulating the IGF-1 pathway. Plasma IGF-1 levels correlate with body weight and htt levels in the transgenic YAC mice expressing human htt. The effect of htt on IGF-1 expression is independent of CAG size. No effect on body weight is observed in transgenic YAC mice expressing...... and decreases the body weight of YAC128 animals to WT levels. Furthermore, given the ubiquitous expression of IGF-1 within the central nervous system, we also examined the impact of FL htt levels on IGF-1 expression in different regions of the brain, including the striatum, cerebellum of YAC18, YAC128...

  17. Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in Prostate Cancer and Hyperplasia: Immunohistochemical Analysis. ... Additionally, ER-α was not expressed in either luminal or basal cells in any of the 35 BPH cases. However ... Key Words: ER-α, ER-β, prostate, hyperplasia, premalignant, cancer, immunohistochemistry ...

  18. Amyloid in basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Westermark, Per

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of amyloid substance was studied in two different types of skin tumours: basal cell carcinoma and seborrheic keratosis. In 9 out of 49 cases of seborrheic keratosis amyloid substance was found. In the basal cell carcinomas, 194 out of 260 cases showed amyloid deposits, a rate...

  19. Genomic organization and tissue-specific expression of hepcidin in the pacific mutton hamlet, Alphestes immaculatus (Breder, 1936).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso-Silva, Jorge; Diamond, Gill; Macias-Rodriguez, Maria; Ascencio, Felipe

    2011-12-01

    Hepcidin is a cysteine-rich peptide involved in iron metabolism, inflammatory response and as antimicrobial peptide. Despite the fact that hepcidins have been identified in several fish species, only few have been completely characterized. This study, described the identification and complete molecular characterization of the hepcidin antimicrobial peptide 1 (HAMP1) gene of Alphestes immaculatus. Moreover, its specific expression level at both basal and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced conditions in different tissues was also determined by real-time PCR. Results showed that the HAMP1gene consists of three exons and two introns encoding a preprohepcidin composed of 90 aa (24 aa for signal peptide, 40 aa for prodomain and 26 aa for mature peptide). The promoter region analysis revealed a TATA box sequence and several putative transcription factor binding sites. A comparative analysis showed CEBPα, CEBPβ, NF-kB, HNF3, GATA-1 and c-Rel as the most common found in fishes. The mature peptide possesses a pI of 8.34, which is the average among fish hepcidin. In addition, the structural modeling showed a hairpin structure with four putative disulfide bonds. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that this hepcidin gene is a HAMP1 class, and is clustered into the same group with the Serranid fish Epinephelus moara and the Antarctic fish Lycodichthys dearborni. Finally, the relative expression levels showed high basal values in liver and muscle, whereas in LPS-induced fish the relative expression tendency changed, with the highest values in spleen and head kidney tissues. This study describes the completely characterized HAMP1 gene of A. immaculatus and their patterns of expression level at different conditions and in different tissues, showing by first time muscle hepcidin expression could be relevant in the immune response in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gibberellin-regulated gene in the basal region of rice leaf sheath encodes basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Setsuko; Takasaki, Hironori

    2009-07-01

    Genes regulated by gibberellin (GA) during leaf sheath elongation in rice seedlings were identified using the transcriptome approach. mRNA from the basal regions of leaf sheaths treated with GA3 was analyzed by high-coverage gene expression profiling. 33,004 peaks were detected, and 30 transcripts showed significant changes in the presence of GA3. Among these, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) was significantly upregulated. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that expression of AK073385 was controlled by GA3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (AK073385) is therefore involved in the regulation of gene expression by GA3.

  1. SCA-1 Expression Level Identifies Quiescent Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina N.F. Morcos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cell generation depends on continuous cellular output by the sequential hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC and progenitor populations that all contain quiescent and actively cycling cells. Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs express the surface molecule Stem cell antigen 1 (SCA-1/LY6A. Using histone 2B-red fluorescent fusion protein label retention and cell-cycle reporter mice, we demonstrate that high SCA-1 expression (SCA-1hi identifies not only quiescent HSCs but quiescent cells on all hierarchical levels within the lineage−SCA-1+KIT+ (LSK population. Each transplanted SCA-1hi HSPC population also displayed self-renewal potential superior to that of the respective SCA-1lo population. SCA-1 expression is inducible by type I interferon (IFN. We show, however, that quiescence and high self-renewal capacity of cells with brighter SCA-1 expression at steady state were independent of type I IFN signaling. We conclude that SCA-1 expression levels can be used to prospectively isolate functionally heterogeneous HSPC subpopulations.

  2. computed tomography features of basal ganglia and periventricular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV is probably the most common cause of basal ganglia and periventricular calcification today. on-enhanced computed tomography (NECT) shows diffuse cerebral atrophy in 90% of cases. Bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia calcification is seen in 30% of cases, but virtually never before 1 year of age.1. CMV (FIG.2).

  3. Effects of Basal Defoliation on Wine Aromas: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal defoliation, as one of the most common viticulture management practices to modify fruit zone microclimates, has been widely applied aiming at improving wine quality. Wine aroma contributes greatly to wine quality, yet the effects of basal defoliation on wine aromas show discrepancies according to previous studies. This study is a meta-analysis performed to dissect the factors related to the influence of basal defoliation on volatile compounds in wine. Timing of basal defoliation plays an important role in the concentration of varietal aromas in wine. Pre-veraison defoliation induces an increase in β-damascenone and linalool as well as a reduction in 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP. The effects of basal defoliation on certain volatile compounds relative to fermentation aromas in wine (1-hexanol, β-phenylethanol, 2-phenylethyl acetate, decanoic acid, and ethyl octanoate depend on grape maturity. There are also other factors, such as cultivar and climate conditions, that might be responsible for the effect of basal defoliation on wine aromas. The concentrations of isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid as well as ethyl isobutyrate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl isovalerate, and ethyl decanoate in wine are not markedly affected by basal defoliation. Due to limited studies included in this meta-analysis, more trials are needed to confirm the current findings.

  4. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  5. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; Delong, Mahlon R

    2011-07-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of 'motor' portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the 'limbic' basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Network effects of subthalamic deep brain stimulation drive a unique mixture of responses in basal ganglia output

    OpenAIRE

    Humphries, Mark D.; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a remarkably successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. High-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) within the basal ganglia is a main clinical target, but the physiological mechanisms of therapeutic STN DBS at the cellular and network level are unclear. We set out to begin to address the hypothesis that a mixture of responses in the basal ganglia output nuclei, combining regularized firing and inhibition, is a key contr...

  7. Basal ganglia, movement disorders and deep brain stimulation: advances made through non-human primate research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; Bergman, Hagai; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2018-03-01

    Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species. According to the current model of the basal ganglia circuitry, which was strongly influenced by studies in NHPs, the basal ganglia are viewed as components of segregated networks that emanate from specific cortical areas, traverse the basal ganglia, and ventral thalamus, and return to the frontal cortex. Based on the presumed functional domains of the different cortical areas involved, these networks are designated as 'motor', 'oculomotor', 'associative' and 'limbic' circuits. The functions of these networks are strongly modulated by the release of dopamine in the striatum. Striatal dopamine release alters the activity of striatal projection neurons which, in turn, influences the (inhibitory) basal ganglia output. In parkinsonism, the loss of striatal dopamine results in the emergence of oscillatory burst patterns of firing of basal ganglia output neurons, increased synchrony of the discharge of neighboring basal ganglia neurons, and an overall increase in basal ganglia output. The relevance of these findings is supported by the demonstration, in NHP models of parkinsonism, of the antiparkinsonian effects of inactivation of the motor circuit at the level of the subthalamic nucleus, one of the major components of the basal ganglia. This finding also contributed strongly to the revival of the use of surgical interventions to treat patients with Parkinson's disease. While ablative procedures were first used for this purpose, they have now been largely

  8. Yields, market values and n use efficiency (15n) in flue-cured tobacco influenced by basal fertilization time and n fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhijian; Tu Shuxin; Li Jinping; Chen Zhenguo; Xu Rubing; Cao Shiming; Li Jianping; Wang Xuelong; Chen Liangcun; Guo Li; Cao Xianglian; Hu Gongjun; Zhang Yunzheng

    2010-01-01

    A field experiment with 15 N isotope tracing micro-plots was carried out to study the effects of basal N fertilizer application time (0 d, 15 d, 30 d before the transplanting) on the yields, market values and N uptake, utilization and distribution in different organs of flue-cured tobacco (FCT) in two ecological tobacco production areas Zhaojiashan (N 31 degree 28', E 111 degree 15', 903 m above sea level) and Laowan (N 31 degree 27', E 111 degree 14', 1 130 m above sea level)] of Xiangfan city, Hubei province. The results showed that supplying N fertilizer significantly increased the yields and market values of FCT by 13%-40% and 14%-35% for the experimental site of Zhaojiashan (lower altitude ) and Laowan (higher altitude), respectively. Compared to applying basal fertilizer at 0 d before transplanting, applying basal fertilizer at 15-30 d before transplanting increased the market values by 10%-30% (P<0.05). And early application of basal N fertilizer (30 d before transplanting) increased N accumulation by 8%-26% as compared with that of applying basal N fertilizer at 0 d or 15 d before transplanting in the two ecological areas. There was no significant effects of basal N application time on N fertilizer efficiency in lower altitude site, but increasing by 3%-6% in higher altitude site. The proportion of fertilizer N to total N in FCT decreased by 8%-32% in lower altitude, but increased by 25%-32% in higher altitude when basal N fertilizer was supplied at 30d before transplanting., These results indicated that properly earlier supplication of basal N fertilizer could improve the N fertilizer efficiency, and thus increase the yields and market values of FCT, especially in higher altitude areas with less sunshine and lower temperature. (authors)

  9. Differential gene expression of wheat progeny with contrasting levels of transpiration efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Gang-Ping; McIntyre, C Lynne; Chapman, Scott; Bower, Neil I; Way, Heather; Reverter, Antonio; Clarke, Bryan; Shorter, Ray

    2006-08-01

    High water use efficiency or transpiration efficiency (TE) in wheat is a desirable physiological trait for increasing grain yield under water-limited environments. The identification of genes associated with this trait would facilitate the selection for genotypes with higher TE using molecular markers. We performed an expression profiling (microarray) analysis of approximately 16,000 unique wheat ESTs to identify genes that were differentially expressed between wheat progeny lines with contrasting TE levels from a cross between Quarrion (high TE) and Genaro 81 (low TE). We also conducted a second microarray analysis to identify genes responsive to drought stress in wheat leaves. Ninety-three genes that were differentially expressed between high and low TE progeny lines were identified. One fifth of these genes were markedly responsive to drought stress. Several potential growth-related regulatory genes, which were down-regulated by drought, were expressed at a higher level in the high TE lines than the low TE lines and are potentially associated with a biomass production component of the Quarrion-derived high TE trait. Eighteen of the TE differentially expressed genes were further analysed using quantitative RT-PCR on a separate set of plant samples from those used for microarray analysis. The expression levels of 11 of the 18 genes were positively correlated with the high TE trait, measured as carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C). These data indicate that some of these TE differentially expressed genes are candidates for investigating processes that underlie the high TE trait or for use as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for TE.

  10. Impact of surgery targeting the caudal intralaminar thalamic nuclei on the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Jouve, Loreline; Melon, Christophe; Salin, Pascal

    2009-02-16

    There is accumulating evidence that the centre median-parafascicular (CM/Pf) complex of the thalamus is implicated in basal ganglia-related movement disorders and notably in Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of the changes affecting CM/Pf on the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia in parkinsonian state remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we have examined the effects of excitotoxic lesion of CM/Pf and of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of nigral dopamine neurons, separately or in association, on gene expression of markers of neuronal activity in the rat basal ganglia (striatal neuropeptide precursors, GAD67, cytochrome oxidase subunit I) by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. CM/Pf lesion prevented the changes produced by the dopamine denervation in the components of the indirect pathway connecting the striatum to the output structures (striatopallidal neurons, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), and among the output structures, in the entopeduncular nucleus. Preliminary data on the effects of deep brain stimulation of CM/Pf in rats with nigral dopamine lesion show that this surgical approach produces efficient anti-akinetic effect associated with partial reversal of the dopamine lesion-induced increase in striatal preproenkephalin A mRNA levels, a marker of the striatopallidal neurons. These data, which provide substrates for the potential of CM/Pf surgery in the treatment of movement disorders, are discussed in comparison with the effects of lesion or deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, the currently preferred target for the surgical treatment of PD.

  11. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joshua P.; Peacock, Ryan W. S.; Lawhorn, Ingrid E. B.; Wang, Clifford L.

    2011-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evalua...

  12. Basal metabolic state governs AIF-dependent growth support in pancreatic cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Andrew J.; Wilkinson, Amanda S.; Wilkinson, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), named for its involvement in cell death pathways, is a mitochondrial protein that regulates metabolic homeostasis. In addition to supporting the survival of healthy cells, AIF also plays a contributory role to the development of cancer through its enzymatic activity, and we have previously shown that AIF preferentially supports advanced-stage prostate cancer cells. Here we further evaluated the role of AIF in tumorigenesis by exploring its function in pancreatic cancer, a disease setting that most often presents at an advanced stage by the time of diagnosis. A bioinformatics approach was first employed to investigate AIF mRNA transcript levels in pancreatic tumor specimens vs. normal tissues. AIF-deficient pancreatic cancer cell lines were then established via lentiviral infection. Immunoblot analysis was used to determine relative protein quantities within cells. Cell viability was measured by flow cytometry; in vitro and Matrigel™ growth/survival using Coulter™ counting and phase contrast microscopy; and glucose consumption in the absence and presence of Matrigel™ using spectrophotometric methods. Archival gene expression data revealed a modest elevation of AIF transcript levels in subsets of pancreatic tumor specimens, suggesting a possible role in disease progression. AIF expression was then suppressed in a panel of five pancreatic cancer cell lines that display diverse metabolic phenotypes. AIF ablation selectively crippled the growth of cells in vitro in a manner that directly correlated with the loss of mitochondrial respiratory chain subunits and altered glucose metabolism, and these effects were exacerbated in the presence of Matrigel™ substrate. This suggests a critical metabolic role for AIF to pancreatic tumorigenesis, while the spectrum of sensitivities to AIF ablation depends on basal cellular metabolic phenotypes. Altogether these data indicate that AIF supports the growth and survival of metabolically defined

  13. Development of multigene expression signature maps at the protein level from digitized immunohistochemistry slides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Metzger

    Full Text Available Molecular classification of diseases based on multigene expression signatures is increasingly used for diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction of response to therapy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC is an optimal method for validating expression signatures obtained using high-throughput genomics techniques since IHC allows a pathologist to examine gene expression at the protein level within the context of histologically interpretable tissue sections. Additionally, validated IHC assays may be readily implemented as clinical tests since IHC is performed on routinely processed clinical tissue samples. However, methods have not been available for automated n-gene expression profiling at the protein level using IHC data. We have developed methods to compute expression level maps (signature maps of multiple genes from IHC data digitized on a commercial whole slide imaging system. Areas of cancer for these expression level maps are defined by a pathologist on adjacent, co-registered H&E slides, allowing assessment of IHC statistics and heterogeneity within the diseased tissue. This novel way of representing multiple IHC assays as signature maps will allow the development of n-gene expression profiling databases in three dimensions throughout virtual whole organ reconstructions.

  14. Basal Serum Calcitonin, After Calcium Stimulation, and in the Needle Washout of Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Mild or Moderate Basal Hypercalcitoninemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, P W; Calsolari, M R

    2017-02-01

    This prospective study evaluated the concentrations of basal serum calcitonin (Ctn), Ctn after stimulation with calcium, and Ctn in the needle washout (FNA-Ctn) as predictors of sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) in patients with thyroid nodules and basal Ctn between 10 and 100 pg/ml. Forty-one patients were included in the study. MTC was diagnosed in only 6 patients (14.6%). None of the patients with basal Ctn≤24.6 pg/ml (n=26) or stimulated Ctn≤186.5 pg/ml (n=21) had MTC. All patients without MTC had basal Ctnstimulated Ctnbasal Ctn between 24.6 and 47 pg/ml (n=12), 3 (25%) had MTC. Among patients with stimulated Ctn between 186.5 and 655.2 pg/ml (n=18), 4 (22.2%) had MTC. FNA-Ctn distinguished nodules that were MTC (n=6) from those that were not (n=60), without overlapping results. In the calcium stimulation test, 19 patients (46.3%) reported some adverse effect, but none of them was severe or required specific treatment. Our results highlight that in patients without a history suspicious for MTC, mild or moderate basal hypercalcitoninemia should not establish the diagnosis of this tumor. Depending on the concentration found, basal Ctn should be sufficient to define patient management. In doubtful cases, FNA-Ctn seems to be the best diagnostic test. Calcium stimulation testing was safe, but more studies are needed to determine the Ctn cutoff after stimulation with calcium. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Naringin promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells by up-regulating Foxc2 expression via the IHH signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fei-Xiang; Du, Shi-Xin; Liu, De-Zhong; Hu, Qin-Xiao; Yu, Guo-Yong; Wu, Chu-Cheng; Zheng, Gui-Zhou; Xie, Da; Li, Xue-Dong; Chang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Naringin is an active compound extracted from Rhizoma Drynariae, and studies have revealed that naringin can promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). In this study, we explored whether naringin could promote osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by upregulating Foxc2 expression via the Indian hedgehog (IHH) signaling pathway. BMSCs were cultured in basal medium, basal medium with naringin, osteogenic induction medium, osteogenic induction medium with naringin and osteogenic induction medium with naringin in the presence of the IHH inhibitor cyclopamine (CPE). We examined cell proliferation by using a WST-8 assay, and differentiation by Alizarin Red S staining (for mineralization) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. In addition, we detected core-binding factor α1 (Cbfα1), osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) and Foxc2 expression by using RT-PCR. We also determined Foxc2 and IHH protein levels by western blotting. Naringin increased the mineralization of BMSCs, as shown by Alizarin red S assays, and induced ALP activity. In addition, naringin significantly increased the mRNA levels of Foxc2, Cbfα1, OCN, and BSP, while decreasing PPARγ2 mRNA levels. Furthermore, the IHH inhibitor CPE inhibited the osteogenesis-potentiating effects of naringin. Naringin increased Foxc2 and stimulated the activation of IHH, as evidenced by increased expression of proteins that were inhibited by CPE. Our findings indicate that naringin promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs by up-regulating Foxc2 expression via the IHH signaling pathway.

  16. Sensitivity of grounding line dynamics to basal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardini, O.; Brondex, J.; Chauveau, G.; Gillet-chaulet, F.; Durand, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the context of a warming climate, the dynamical contribution of Antarctica to future sea level rise is still tainted by high uncertainties. Among the processes entering these uncertainties is the link between basal hydrology, friction and grounding line dynamics. Recent works have shown how sensitive is the response of the grounding line retreat to the choice of the form of the friction law. Indeed, starting from the same initial state, grounding line retreat rates can range over almost two orders of magnitude depending on the friction law formulation.Here, we use a phenomenological law that depends on the water pressure and allows a continuous transition from a Weertman-type friction at low water pressure to a Coulomb-type friction at high water pressure. This friction law depends on two main parameters that control the Weertman and Coulomb regimes. The range of values for these two parameters is only weakly physically constrained, and it can be shown that, for a given basal shear stress, different couples of parameters can conduct to the same sliding velocity. In addition, we show that close to the grounding line where basal water pressure is high, determining these two parameters might conduct to an ill-posed inverse problem with no solution.The aim of this presentation is to discuss a methodology to guide the choice of the two friction parameters and explore the sensitivity of the grounding line dynamics to this initial choice. We present results obtained both on a synthetic configuration used by the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison exercise and for the Amundsen sea sector using the experiments proposed by InitMIP-Antarctica, the first exercise in a series of ISMIP6 ice-sheet model intercomparison activities.

  17. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  18. Rootletin interacts with C-Nap1 and may function as a physical linker between the pair of centrioles/basal bodies in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Adamian, Michael; Li, Tiansen

    2006-02-01

    Rootletin, a major structural component of the ciliary rootlet, is located at the basal bodies and centrosomes in ciliated and nonciliated cells, respectively. Here we investigated its potential role in the linkage of basal bodies/centrioles and the mechanism involved in such linkages. We show that rootletin interacts with C-Nap1, a protein restricted at the ends of centrioles and functioning in centrosome cohesion in interphase cells. Their interaction in vivo is supported by their colocalization at the basal bodies/centrioles and coordinated association with the centrioles during the cell cycle. Ultrastructural examinations demonstrate that rootletin fibers connect the basal bodies in ciliated cells and are present both at the ends of and in between the pair of centrioles in nonciliated cells. The latter finding stands in contrast with C-Nap1, which is present only at the ends of the centrioles. Transient expression of C-Nap1 fragments dissociated rootletin fibers from the centrioles, resulting in centrosome separation in interphase. Overexpression of rootletin in cells caused multinucleation, micronucleation, and irregularity of nuclear shape and size, indicative of defects in chromosome separation. These data suggest that rootletin may function as a physical linker between the pair of basal bodies/centrioles by binding to C-Nap1.

  19. Design of chimeric expression elements that confer high-level gene activity in chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroca, Rodrigo; Howell, Katharine A; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2013-02-01

    Non-green plastids, such as chromoplasts, generally have much lower activity of gene expression than chloroplasts in photosynthetically active tissues. Suppression of plastid genes in non-green tissues occurs through a complex interplay of transcriptional and translational control, with the contribution of regulation of transcript abundance versus translational activity being highly variable between genes. Here, we have investigated whether the low expression of the plastid genome in chromoplasts results from inherent limitations in gene expression capacity, or can be overcome by designing appropriate combinations of promoters and translation initiation signals in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR). We constructed chimeric expression elements that combine promoters and 5'-UTRs from plastid genes, which are suppressed during chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion in Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) fruit ripening, either just at the translational level or just at the level of mRNA accumulation. These chimeric expression elements were introduced into the tomato plastid genome by stable chloroplast transformation. We report the identification of promoter-UTR combinations that confer high-level gene expression in chromoplasts of ripe tomato fruits, resulting in the accumulation of reporter protein GFP to up to 1% of total cellular protein. Our work demonstrates that non-green plastids are capable of expressing genes to high levels. Moreover, the chimeric cis-elements for chromoplasts developed here are widely applicable in basic and applied research using transplastomic methods. © 2012 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 in chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasupriya, Alapati; Rao, Donimukkala Bheemalingeswara; Ravikanth, Manyam; Kumar, Nalabolu Govind; Ramachandran, Cinnamanoor Rajmani; Saraswathi, Thillai Rajashekaran

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix is a complex integrated system responsible for the physiologic properties of connective tissue. Collagen is the major extracellular component that is altered in pathologic conditions, mainly periodontitis. The destruction involves proteolytic enzymes, primarily matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which play a key role in mediating and regulating the connective tissue destruction in periodontitis. The study group included 40 patients with clinically diagnosed chronic periodontitis. The control group included 20 patients with clinically normal gingiva covering impacted third molars undergoing extraction or in areas where crown-lengthening procedures were performed. MMP-13 expression was demonstrated using immunohistochemistry in all the gingival biopsies, and the data were analyzed statistically. MMP-13 expression was observed more in chronic periodontitis when compared with normal gingiva. MMP-13 expression was expressed by fibroblasts, lymphocytes, macrophages, plasma cells, and basal cells of the sulcular epithelium. Comparative evaluation of all the clinical and histologic parameters with MMP-13 expression showed high statistical significance with Spearman correlation coefficient. Elevated levels of MMP-13 may play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. There is a direct correlation of increased expression of MMP-13 with various clinical and histologic parameters in disease severity.

  1. Basal body and striated rootlet changes in primate macular retinal pigmented epithelium after low level diffuse argon laser radiation. Final report 1981-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuschereba, S.T.; Zwick, H.; Stuck, B.E.; Beatrice, E.S.

    1982-09-01

    Basal bodies or centrioles (BB - microtubule organizing centers) and striated rootlets (SR - bundles of 60 A action-like filaments) have a close association in primate retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. The frequency of occurrence of these structures was evaluated in the macular RPE after repeated exposure to low level diffuse argon laser radiation (DALR). The awake chaired animal's head was restrained and positioned near the center of the 0.75 m hemisphere which was diffusely irradiated with 514.5 nm laser radiation. The right eye of each subject was occluded during the two-hour exposure session. The first subject received 24 cumulative hours of exposure, the second, 40 hours and the third, 42 hours.

  2. Use of basal stimulation at anesthesiology department

    OpenAIRE

    MARKOVÁ, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The theme ?The Use of Basal Stimulation at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department? was chosen in order to map out the use of this nursing method by the nurses and the staff who I cooperate with. The theoretical part deals with the environment at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department where the basal stimulation is used and also with special characteristics of the nursing care. Further, it deals with monitoring patients, causes of consciousness defects occurrence and kinds ...

  3. Dopamine physiology in the basal ganglia of male zebra finches during social stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Eva C; van der Hart, Marieke; Jongsma, Minke; Tecott, Larry H; Doupe, Allison J

    2015-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is involved in altering neural activity and gene expression in a zebra finch cortical-basal ganglia circuit specialized for singing, upon the shift between solitary singing and singing as a part of courtship. Our objective here was to sample changes in the extracellular concentrations of DA in Area X of adult and juvenile birds, to test the hypothesis that DA levels would change similarly during presentation of a socially salient stimulus in both age groups. We used microdialysis to sample the extracellular milieu of Area X in awake, behaving adult and juvenile male zebra finches, and analysed the dialysate using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection. The extracellular levels of DA in Area X increased significantly during both female presentation to adult males and tutor presentation to juvenile males. DA levels were not correlated with the time spent singing. We also reverse-dialysed Area X with pharmacologic agents that act either on DA systems directly or on norepinephrine, and found that all of these agents significantly increased DA levels (3- to 10-fold) in Area X. These findings suggest that changes in extracellular DA levels can be stimulated similarly by very different social contexts (courtship and interaction with tutor), and influenced potently by dopaminergic and noradrenergic drugs. These results raise the possibility that the arousal level or attentional state of the subject (rather than singing behavior) is the common feature eliciting changes in extracellular DA concentration. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In vivo characterization of high Basal signaling from the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Steen; Woldbye, David P D; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The receptor for the orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is one of the most constitutively active 7TM receptors known, as demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Change in expression of a constitutively active receptor is associated with change in signaling independent of the endogenous ligand. In the f......The receptor for the orexigenic peptide, ghrelin, is one of the most constitutively active 7TM receptors known, as demonstrated under in vitro conditions. Change in expression of a constitutively active receptor is associated with change in signaling independent of the endogenous ligand....... In the following study, we found that the expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus was up-regulated approximately 2-fold in rats both during 48-h fasting and by streptozotocin-induced hyperphagia. In a separate experiment, to probe for the effect of the high basal signaling of the ghrelin receptor...... in vivo, we used intracerebroventricular administration by osmotic pumps of a peptide [D-Arg(1), D-Phe(5), D-Trp(7,9), Leu(11)]-substance P. This peptide selectively displays inverse agonism at the ghrelin receptor as compared with an inactive control peptide with just a single amino acid substitution...

  5. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    mucosa from rat and man, and a human oral carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that GLUT1 was expressed in the basal and parabasal layers of the different stratified squamous epithelia, with some variations between keratinized and non-keratinized subtypes. GLUT1...... was also expressed in ductal- and myoepithelial cells of minor salivary glands and perineural sheath located in the lamina propra, and furthermore in the cells of an oral carcinoma. GLUT4 was not expressed in any of the tissues examined. This distribution of GLUT1 does not fit with the idea of GLUT1......Most cells express facilitative glucose transporters. Four isoforms (GLUT1-4) transporting D-glucose across the plasma membrane show a specific tissue distribution, which is the basis for tissue-specific patterns in glucose metabolism. GLUT1 is expressed at high levels in tissue barriers...

  6. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  7. Focal degeneration of basal cells and the resultant auto-immunoreactions: a novel mechanism for prostate tumor progression and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yan-Gao; Gardner, William A

    2008-01-01

    ) significantly lower p63 expression; (3) significantly higher apoptosis; and (4) significantly higher leukocyte infiltration and stromal reactions. Compared to their counterparts distant from focal disruptions or overlying non-disrupted basal cell layers, epithelial cells overlying focal basal cell layer disruptions showed the following unique features: (1) significantly higher proliferation; (2) significantly higher expression of cell cycle control-, cell growth-, and stem cell-related genes; and (3) physical continuity with adjacent invasive lesions. Together, these findings suggest that focal basal cell layer disruptions could substantially impact the molecular profile and biological presentations of the overlying epithelial cells. Based on these and other findings, we have proposed that prostate tumor invasion is triggered by a localized degeneration of aged or injured basal cells and the resultant auto-immunoreactions. Our hypothesized steps for prostate tumor invasion include the following: (1) due to inherited or environmental factors, some patients contained cell cycle control- and renewal-related defects in the basal cell population that cause elevated basal cell degenerations; (2) the degradation products of degenerated basal cells or diffusible molecules of the overlying epithelial cells attract leukocyte infiltration; (3) leukocytes discharge their digestive enzymes upon the direct physical contact, resulting in a focal disruption in the basal cell layer, which leads to several focal alterations: (a) a focal loss of tumor suppressors and paracrine inhibitory function; (b) a focal increase of the permeability for growth-required nutrients and oxygen; (c) a focal increase of growth factors; (d) direct physical contact between epithelial and stromal cells; and (e) the exposure of the overlying epithelial cells directly to the stromal tissue fluid. These alterations individually or collectively stimulate or favor a clonal proliferation and stromal invasion of tumor

  8. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  9. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  10. NF-κB activity in muscle from obese and type 2 diabetic subjects under basal and exercise-stimulated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantiwong, Puntip; Shanmugasundaram, Karthigayan; Monroy, Adriana; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Li, Mengyao; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Cersosimo, Eugenio; Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Mohan, Sumathy; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-11-01

    NF-κB is a transcription factor that controls the gene expression of several proinflammatory proteins. Cell culture and animal studies have implicated increased NF-κB activity in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and muscle atrophy. However, it is unclear whether insulin-resistant human subjects have abnormal NF-κB activity in muscle. The effect that exercise has on NF-κB activity/signaling also is not clear. We measured NF-κB DNA-binding activity and the mRNA level of putative NF-κB-regulated myokines interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in muscle samples from T2DM, obese, and lean subjects immediately before, during (40 min), and after (210 min) a bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise. At baseline, NF-κB activity was elevated 2.1- and 2.7-fold in obese nondiabetic and T2DM subjects, respectively. NF-κB activity was increased significantly at 210 min following exercise in lean (1.9-fold) and obese (2.6-fold) subjects, but NF-κB activity did not change in T2DM. Exercise increased MCP-1 mRNA levels significantly in the three groups, whereas IL-6 gene expression increased significantly only in lean and obese subjects. MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression peaked at the 40-min exercise time point. We conclude that insulin-resistant subjects have increased basal NF-κB activity in muscle. Acute exercise stimulates NF-κB in muscle from nondiabetic subjects. In T2DM subjects, exercise had no effect on NF-κB activity, which could be explained by the already elevated NF-κB activity at baseline. Exercise-induced MCP-1 and IL-6 gene expression precedes increases in NF-κB activity, suggesting that other factors promote gene expression of these cytokines during exercise.

  11. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma, a rare location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nitipir

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Carcinoma is the most common human malignant neoplasm. Vulvar basal cell carcinoma is rare, accounting for less than 5% of all vulvar neoplasms. Vulvar basal cell carcinomas are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic and tend to grow at slow rates. They are usually diagnosed late because they are often asymptomatic. However, these tumours may appear in areas which are normally covered with ultraviolet light. We present the case of a 60 years old woman diagnosed with invasive breast cancer for which she underwent surgery followed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient presented to our department with an ulcerated vulvar lesion. On inspection, the tumour measured 3/2 cm and was located on the left labium majus. The biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of vulvar basal cell carcinoma and a wide local excision was performed with no relapse at one year. In conclusion, early detection of BCC’s is critical to allow complete surgical cure so any abnormality on the vulva should be biopsied. A wide safety margin of 1cm should be achieved when resecting the tumour and the physician should keep in mind that the BCC’s of the vulva has a high recurrence rate. Previous chemotherapy is not associated with this type of non-melanoma skin cancer.

  12. Podoplanin expression in peritumoral keratinocytes predicts aggressive behavior in extramammary Paget's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Zaigen; Konishi, Eiichi; Kanemaru, Mai; Isohisa, Taro; Arita, Takahiro; Kawai, Minako; Tsutsumi, Miho; Mizutani, Hiromi; Takenaka, Hideya; Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Katoh, Norito; Asai, Jun

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated podoplanin expression in several tumors, which has been associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis. Podoplanin expression in peritumoral cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts also correlates with tumor progression in several cancers. However, podoplanin expression and its association with extramammary Paget's disease (EMPD) remain unclear. In this study, we examined whether the presence of podoplanin expression in tumor cells or peritumoral basal keratinocytes correlated with aggressive behavior in patients with EMPD and investigated the mechanisms of podoplanin-mediated tumor invasion in this disorder. Skin samples of 37 patients with EMPD were investigated by immunohistochemical analysis. The functions of podoplanin in keratinocytes were examined in vitro by RT-PCR and with invadopodia gelatin-degradation assays using HaCaT cells. Podoplanin was not identified in tumor cells in all cases. Podoplanin expression in peritumoral basal keratinocytes was observed in 25 patients (67.6%). In in situ EMPD, 50% of cases (9 in 18) exhibited podoplanin-positive keratinocytes, whereas 84.2% (16 in 19) demonstrated positive staining in invasive EMPD (P<0.05). Podoplanin expression in peritumoral keratinocytes was also associated with tumor thickness (P<0.005). By immunohistochemical analysis, podoplanin-positive peritumoral keratinocytes were found to be negative for E-cadherin, one of the major adhesion molecules of keratinocytes, which might contribute to tumor invasion into the dermis through a crack in the basal cell layer induced by down-regulation of cell adhesion therein. We further found that podoplanin-positive keratinocytes exhibited invadopodia, which are thought to function in the migration of cancer cells through tissue barriers, indicating that podoplanin-positive peritumoral basal keratinocytes might assist tumor invasion by degrading the extracellular matrix. The presence of podoplanin expression in

  13. Noradrenaline increases the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, E; Multhoff, G; Ortega, E

    2010-05-01

    The blood concentration of extracellular 72kDa heat shock protein (eHsp72) increases under conditions of stress, including intense exercise. However, the signal(s), source(s), and secretory pathways in its release into the bloodstream have yet to be clarified. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of noradrenaline (NA) as a stress signal on the expression and release of Hsp72 by circulating neutrophils (as a source), all within a context of the immunophysiological regulation during exercise-induced stress in sedentary and healthy young (21-26years) women. The expression of Hsp72 on the surface of isolated neutrophils was determined by flow cytometry, and its release by cultured isolated neutrophils was determined by ELISA. Incubation with cmHsp70-FITC showed that neutrophils express Hsp72 on their surface under basal conditions. In addition, cultured isolated neutrophils (37 degrees C and 5% CO(2)) also released Hsp72 under basal conditions, with this release increasing from 10min to 24h in the absence of cell damage. NA at 10(-9)-10(-5)M doubled the percentage of neutrophils expressing Hsp72 after 60min and 24h incubation. NA also stimulated (by about 20%) the release of Hsp72 after 10min of incubation. (1) Hsp72 is expressed on the surface of isolated neutrophils under basal conditions, and this expression is augmented by NA. (2) Isolated neutrophils can also release Hsp72 under cultured basal conditions in the absence of cell death, and NA can increase this release. These results may contribute to confirming the hypothesis that NA can act as a "stress signal" for the increased eHsp72 in the context of exercise stress, with a role for neutrophils as a source for the expression and, to a lesser degree, the release of Hsp72 after activation by NA. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermal history regulates methylbutenol basal emission rate in Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Goldstein, Allen H; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2006-07-01

    Methylbutenol (MBO) is a 5-carbon alcohol that is emitted by many pines in western North America, which may have important impacts on the tropospheric chemistry of this region. In this study, we document seasonal changes in basal MBO emission rates and test several models predicting these changes based on thermal history. These models represent extensions of the ISO G93 model that add a correction factor C(basal), allowing MBO basal emission rates to change as a function of thermal history. These models also allow the calculation of a new emission parameter E(standard30), which represents the inherent capacity of a plant to produce MBO, independent of current or past environmental conditions. Most single-component models exhibited large departures in early and late season, and predicted day-to-day changes in basal emission rate with temporal offsets of up to 3 d relative to measured basal emission rates. Adding a second variable describing thermal history at a longer time scale improved early and late season model performance while retaining the day-to-day performance of the parent single-component model. Out of the models tested, the T(amb),T(max7) model exhibited the best combination of day-to-day and seasonal predictions of basal MBO emission rates.

  15. Basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) in children and teenagers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbari, H.; Mehregan, A.H.

    1982-01-15

    Among over 390,000 routine dermatopathologic specimens there were 85 cases diagnosed as basal cell epithelioma (carcinoma) (BCE) in persons 19 years old or younger. This number was refined to 40 cases de novo BCE in children and teenagers. Basal cell epithelioma unrelated to other conditions is rare in the young and it should be differentiated from similar fibroepithelial growths.

  16. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  17. Low expression levels of hepsin and TMPRSS3 are associated with poor breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkonen, Mikko; Luostari, Kaisa; Tengström, Maria; Ahonen, Hermanni; Berdel, Bozena; Kataja, Vesa; Soini, Ylermi; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Mannermaa, Arto

    2015-01-01

    Hepsin, (also called TMPRSS1) and TMPRSS3 are type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSPs) that are involved in cancer progression. TTSPs can remodel extracellular matrix (ECM) and, when dysregulated, promote tumor progression and metastasis by inducing defects in basement membrane and ECM molecules. This study investigated whether the gene and protein expression levels of these TTSPs were associated with breast cancer characteristics or survival. Immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate hepsin levels in 372 breast cancer samples and TMPRSS3 levels in 373 samples. TMPRSS1 mRNA expression was determined in 125 invasive and 16 benign breast tumor samples, and TMPRSS3 mRNA expression was determined in 167 invasive and 23 benign breast tumor samples. The gene and protein expression levels were analyzed for associations with breast cancer-specific survival and clinicopathological parameters. Low TMPRSS1 and TMPRSS3 mRNA expression levels were independent prognostic factors for poor breast cancer survival during the 20-year follow-up (TMPRSS1, P = 0.023; HR, 2.065; 95 % CI, 1.106–3.856; TMPRSS3, P = 0.013; HR, 2.106; 95 % CI, 1.167–3.800). Low expression of the two genes at the mRNA and protein levels associated with poorer survival compared to high levels (log rank P-values 0.015–0.042). Low TMPRSS1 mRNA expression was also an independent marker of poor breast cancer prognosis in patients treated with radiotherapy (P = 0.034; HR, 2.344; 95 % CI, 1.065–5.160). Grade III tumors, large tumor size, and metastasis were associated with low mRNA and protein expression levels. The results suggest that the TTSPs hepsin and TMPRSS3 may have similar biological functions in the molecular pathology of breast cancer. Low mRNA and protein expression levels of the studied TTSPs were prognostic markers of poor survival in breast cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1440-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized

  18. iPhone-Assisted Augmented Reality Localization of Basal Ganglia Hypertensive Hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, YuanZheng; Ma, LiChao; Zhu, RuYuan; Chen, XiaoLei

    2016-10-01

    A low-cost, time-efficient technique that could localize hypertensive hematomas in the basal ganglia would be beneficial for minimally invasive hematoma evacuation surgery. We used an iPhone to achieve this goal and evaluated its accuracy and feasibility. We located basal ganglia hematomas in 26 patients and depicted the boundaries of the hematomas on the skin. To verify the accuracy of the drawn boundaries, computed tomography (CT) markers surrounding the depicted boundaries were attached to 10 patients. The deviation between the CT markers and the actual hematoma boundaries was then measured. In the other 16 patients, minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery was performed according to the depicted hematoma boundary. The deflection angle of the actual trajectory and deviation in the hematoma center were measured according to the preoperative and postoperative CT data. There were 40 CT markers placed on 10 patients. The mean deviation of these markers was 3.1 mm ± 2.4. In the 16 patients who received surgery, the deflection angle of the actual trajectory was 4.3° ± 2.1. The deviation in the hematoma center was 5.2 mm ± 2.6. This new method can locate basal ganglia hematomas with a sufficient level of accuracy and is helpful for minimally invasive endoscopic hematoma evacuation surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiple isoforms for the catalytic subunit of PKA in the basal fungal lineage Mucor circinelloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Núñez, Lucas; Ocampo, Josefina; Gottlieb, Alexandra M; Rossi, Silvia; Moreno, Silvia

    2016-12-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) activity is involved in dimorphism of the basal fungal lineage Mucor. From the recently sequenced genome of Mucor circinelloides we could predict ten catalytic subunits of PKA. From sequence alignment and structural prediction we conclude that the catalytic core of the isoforms is conserved, and the difference between them resides in their amino termini. This high number of isoforms is maintained in the subdivision Mucoromycotina. Each paralogue, when compared to the ones form other fungi is more homologous to one of its orthologs than to its paralogs. All of these fungal isoforms cannot be included in the class I or II in which fungal protein kinases have been classified. mRNA levels for each isoform were measured during aerobic and anaerobic growth. The expression of each isoform is differential and associated to a particular growth stage. We reanalyzed the sequence of PKAC (GI 20218944), the only cloned sequence available until now for a catalytic subunit of M. circinelloides. PKAC cannot be classified as a PKA because of its difference in the conserved C-tail; it shares with PKB a conserved C2 domain in the N-terminus. No catalytic activity could be measured for this protein nor predicted bioinformatically. It can thus be classified as a pseudokinase. Its importance can not be underestimated since it is expressed at the mRNA level in different stages of growth, and its deletion is lethal. Copyright © 2016 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum basal levels is not affected by power training in mobility-limited older adults - A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Lars G; Nielsen, Martin KF; Simonsen, Casper

    2017-01-01

    high extent, it may be particularly effective in terms of eliciting increases in systemic BDNF levels. We examined the effects of 12 weeks of power training on mature BDNF (mBDNF) and total BDNF (tBDNF) in mobility-limited older adults from the Healthy Ageing Network of Competence (HANC) study. We......Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a potential important factor involved in neuroplasticity, and may be a mediator for eliciting adaptations in neuromuscular function and physical function in older individuals following physical training. As power training taxes the neural system to a very...... included 47 older men and women: n = 22 in the training group (TG: progressive high intensity power training, 2 sessions per week; age 82.7 ± 5.4 years, 55% women) and n = 25 in the control group (CG: no interventions; age 82.2 ± 4.5 years, 76% women). Following overnight fasting, basal serum levels of m...

  1. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF CASPASE ACTIVITY AND METACASPASE EXPRESSION ON VIRAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE COCCOLITHOPHORE, EMILIANIA HUXLEYI (HAPTOPHYTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidle, Kay D; Kwityn, Clifford J

    2012-10-01

    As part of their strategy to infect the globally important coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) W.W. Hay & H.P. Mohler, Coccolithoviruses trigger and regulate the host's programmed cell death (PCD) machinery during lytic infection. The induction and recruitment of host metacaspases, specialized, ancestral death proteases that facilitate viral lysis, suggests they may be important subcellular determinants to infection. We examined the "basal" levels and patterns of caspase activity and metacaspase expression in exponentially growing resistant and sensitive E. huxleyi strains and linked them with susceptibility to E. huxleyi virus 1 (EhV1). Resistant E. huxleyi strains were consistently characterized by low caspase specific activity and a relatively simple metacaspase expression profile. In contrast, sensitive E. huxleyi strains had markedly elevated caspase specific activity and consistently expressed more diverse metacaspase proteins. Using pooled data sets from triplicate experiments, we observed statistically significant linear correlations between infectivity, caspase activity, and metacaspase expression, with each strain forming distinct clusters, within a gradient in viral susceptibility. At the same time, we observed positive correlations between the expression of a subset of metacaspase proteins and lower susceptibility, suggestive of potential protective roles. Our findings implicate the importance of subtle differences in the basal physiological regulation of the PCD machinery to viral resistance or sensitivity and cell fate. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  2. The human POLH gene is not mutated, and is expressed in a cohort of patients with basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flanagan, Annabelle M

    2007-04-01

    Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the general population, is strongly associated with exposure to the ultraviolet component of sunlight. To investigate the relationship between DNA damage processing and skin tumour development, we determined the POLH status of a cohort of skin cancer patients. The human POLH gene encodes DNA polymerase eta (poleta), which normally carries out accurate translesion synthesis past the major UV-induced photoproduct, the dithymine cyclobutane dimer. In the absence of active poleta in xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) patients, mutations accumulate at sites of UV-induced DNA damage, providing the initiating step in skin carcinogenesis. Forty patients diagnosed with skin cancer were genotyped for polymorphisms in the POLH protein-coding sequence, using glycosylase-mediated polymorphism detection (GMPD) and direct DNA sequencing of POLH PCR products derived from white blood cell genomic DNA. All individuals carried the wild-type POLH sequence. No POLH mutations were identified in genomic DNA from skin tumours derived from 15 of these patients. As determined by RT-PCR, POLH mRNA was expressed in all normal and skin tumour tissue examined. Poleta protein was also detectable by Western blotting, in two matched normal and skin tumour extracts. An alternatively spliced form of POLH mRNA, lacking exon 2, was more readily detected in skin tissue than in white blood cells from the same patient. Real-time PCR was used to quantify POLH expression in matched normal and skin tumour-derived mRNA from a series of patients diagnosed with either basal or squamous cell carcinoma. Compared to matched normal skin tissue from the same patient, 1 of 7 SCC, and 4 of 10 BCC tumours examined showed at least a 2-fold reduction in POLH expression, while 1 of 7 SCC, and 3 of 10 BCC tumours showed at least a 2-fold increase in POLH expression. Differences in gene expression, rather than sequence changes may be the main mechanism by which POLH status varies

  3. Expression of Akt and GLUT-4 in adipose tissue of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnant women with excessive weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li WU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4 and protein kinase B (Akt on gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM by determining their expressions in adipose tissues from women with GDM, excessive weight gain pregnant women, and normal pregnant women. Methods Adipose tissues were obtained by biopsy during cesarean section from 15 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance while their body mass index (BMI increased in about 4kg/m2 (NGT1 group, and 15 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance with BMI increased by 8kg/m2 (NGT2 group, and 15 cases of GDM (GDM group. Adipose tissue were divided into two sections and incubated in the culture medium with or without insulin (1×10-7 mol/L for 30 minutes. Fasting blood glucose (FBG and fasting insulin (FINS levels were determined with glucose oxidase and radioimmunoassay. Homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin secretions index (HOMA-IS were calculated from the data. Phosphorylation of Akt (P-Akt and GLUT-4 levels of cultured adipose tissue were examined by Western blotting. Results The FBG levels were similar in 3 groups. FINS, HOMA-IR and HOMA-IS were significantly different among the 3 groups (P0.05 in basal state. Compared with the basal state, however, the phosphorylation of Akt increased significantly in NGT1 group (P0.05 after insulin stimulation. The expression of GLUT-4 was significantly lower in GDM group and NGT2 group than in NGT1 group (P<0.05 in basal state. The expression of GLUT-4 increased much more in NGT1 group than in NGT2 group or GDM group (P<0.05 after insulin stimulation. Conclusion The excessive weight gain and normal glucose tolerance pregnant women almost share a similar expression with GDM women in the insulin signaling and glucose transporter proteins, Akt and GLUT-4, and their abnormal expression and function might play an important role in insulin resistance and GDM

  4. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  5. Behaviorally activated mRNA expression profiles produce signatures of learning and enhanced inhibition in aged rats with preserved memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Rebecca P; Colantuoni, Carlo; Koh, Ming Teng; Gallagher, Michela

    2013-01-01

    Aging is often associated with cognitive decline, but many elderly individuals maintain a high level of function throughout life. Here we studied outbred rats, which also exhibit individual differences across a spectrum of outcomes that includes both preserved and impaired spatial memory. Previous work in this model identified the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus as a region critically affected by age and integral to differing cognitive outcomes. Earlier microarray profiling revealed distinct gene expression profiles in the CA3 region, under basal conditions, for aged rats with intact memory and those with impairment. Because prominent age-related deficits within the CA3 occur during neural encoding of new information, here we used microarray analysis to gain a broad perspective of the aged CA3 transcriptome under activated conditions. Behaviorally-induced CA3 expression profiles differentiated aged rats with intact memory from those with impaired memory. In the activated profile, we observed substantial numbers of genes (greater than 1000) exhibiting increased expression in aged unimpaired rats relative to aged impaired, including many involved in synaptic plasticity and memory mechanisms. This unimpaired aged profile also overlapped significantly with a learning induced gene profile previously acquired in young adults. Alongside the increased transcripts common to both young learning and aged rats with preserved memory, many transcripts behaviorally-activated in the current study had previously been identified as repressed in the aged unimpaired phenotype in basal expression. A further distinct feature of the activated profile of aged rats with intact memory is the increased expression of an ensemble of genes involved in inhibitory synapse function, which could control the phenotype of neural hyperexcitability found in the CA3 region of aged impaired rats. These data support the conclusion that aged subjects with preserved memory recruit adaptive mechanisms to

  6. Exceptional bone metastasis of basal cell carcinoma in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Tatiana; Gerard, Stephane; Meyer, Nicolas; Losfeld, Benjamin; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Balardy, Laurent; Vellas, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most prevalent form of cancer worldwide, is a malignant skin neoplasm. It is locally invasive, with an exceptional incidence of reported metastasis. It can also be part of the Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, an autosomal dominant genetic disorder with high penetrance and variable expressivity, which is principally characterized by cutaneous BCC, odontogenic keratocysts, palmar and/or plantar pits, and falx cerebri calcification. We report the exceptional clinical observation of a 54-year-old man presenting bone metastasis from BCC in Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Less than 300 cases of metastatic BCC have been reported in the literature. The present case is the second associated with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Impact of basal diet on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussenna, Ahlem; Goncalves-Mendes, Nicolas; Joubert-Zakeyh, Juliette; Pereira, Bruno; Fraisse, Didier; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile; Felgines, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis is a widely used model for inflammatory bowel disease. However, various factors including nutrition may affect the development of this colitis. This study aimed to compare and characterize the impact of purified and non-purified basal diets on the development of DSS-induced colitis in the rat. Wistar rats were fed a non-purified or a semi-synthetic purified diet for 21 days. Colitis was then induced in half of the rats by administration of DSS in drinking water (4% w/v) during the last 7 days of experimentation. At the end of the experimental period, colon sections were taken for histopathological examination, determination of various markers of inflammation (myeloperoxidase: MPO, cytokines) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase: SOD, catalase: CAT, glutathione peroxidase: GPx and glutathione reductase: GRed activities), and evaluation of the expression of various genes implicated in this disorder. DSS ingestion induced a more marked colitis in animals receiving the purified diet, as reflected by higher histological score and increased MPO activity. A significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities was also observed in rats fed the purified diet. Also, in these animals, administration of DSS induced a significant increase in interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β and IL-6. In addition, various genes implicated in inflammation were over-expressed after ingestion of DSS by rats fed the purified diet. These results show that a purified diet promotes the onset of a more severe induced colitis than a non-purified one, highlighting the influence of basal diet in colitis development.

  8. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  9. Geminivirus vectors for high-level expression of foreign proteins in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Tsafrir S; Moon, Yong-Sun; Palmer, Kenneth E; Mason, Hugh S

    2003-02-20

    Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV) is a monopartite geminivirus that can infect dicotyledonous plants. We have developed a high-level expression system that utilizes elements of the replication machinery of this single-stranded DNA virus. The replication initiator protein (Rep) mediates release and replication of a replicon from a DNA construct ("LSL vector") that contains an expression cassette for a gene of interest flanked by cis-acting elements of the virus. We used tobacco NT1 cells and biolistic delivery of plasmid DNA for evaluation of replication and expression of reporter genes contained within an LSL vector. By codelivery of a GUS reporter-LSL vector and a Rep-supplying vector, we obtained up to 40-fold increase in expression levels compared to delivery of the reporter-LSL vectors alone. High-copy replication of the LSL vector was correlated with enhanced expression of GUS. Rep expression using a whole BeYDV clone, a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter driving either genomic rep or an intron-deleted rep gene, or 35S-rep contained in the LSL vector all achieved efficient replication and enhancement of GUS expression. We anticipate that this system can be adapted for use in transgenic plants or plant cell cultures with appropriately regulated expression of Rep, with the potential to greatly increase yield of recombinant proteins. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 81: 430-437, 2003.

  10. Representational momentum in dynamic facial expressions is modulated by the level of expressed pain: Amplitude and direction effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Elise; Amorim, Michel-Ange; de Oliveira, Armando Mónica

    2018-01-01

    Humans have developed a specific capacity to rapidly perceive and anticipate other people's facial expressions so as to get an immediate impression of their emotional state of mind. We carried out two experiments to examine the perceptual and memory dynamics of facial expressions of pain. In the first experiment, we investigated how people estimate other people's levels of pain based on the perception of various dynamic facial expressions; these differ both in terms of the amount and intensity of activated action units. A second experiment used a representational momentum (RM) paradigm to study the emotional anticipation (memory bias) elicited by the same facial expressions of pain studied in Experiment 1. Our results highlighted the relationship between the level of perceived pain (in Experiment 1) and the direction and magnitude of memory bias (in Experiment 2): When perceived pain increases, the memory bias tends to be reduced (if positive) and ultimately becomes negative. Dynamic facial expressions of pain may reenact an "immediate perceptual history" in the perceiver before leading to an emotional anticipation of the agent's upcoming state. Thus, a subtle facial expression of pain (i.e., a low contraction around the eyes) that leads to a significant positive anticipation can be considered an adaptive process-one through which we can swiftly and involuntarily detect other people's pain.

  11. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2018-03-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  12. Effects of Pristane on Cytochrome P450 Isozyme Expression in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvin A. Cuchens

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical carcinogenesis studies are powerful tools to obtain information on potential mechanisms of chemical factors for malignancies. In this study Western blot analyses, using monoclonal antibodies specific for three different cytochrome P450 (CYP isozymes (CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP2B, were employed to examine the effect(s of 3-methylcholanthrene and/or pristane (2,6,10,14-tetramethylpentadecane on the basal and inducible levels of expression of CYP proteins within Copenhagen rat tissues. Pristane exposure led to tissue specific differences in the CYP isozymes expressed and elicited increased CYP protein expression over 3-methylcholanthrene induced levels in microsomes isolated from liver, Peyer's Patches, and thymus. Within the context of the chemical carcinogenesis model employed in this study, these observations correlated with the induction of B-cell malignancies by low doses of 3-methylcholanthrene and of thymic lymphomas by a high 3-methylcholanthrene dose. The data suggest that pristane treatment affects CYP isozyme expression. This pristane-mediated effect clearly could be a contributing factor in the chemical carcinogenesis of the previously observed lymphoid malignancies, and a possible basis for the tumor enhancing effects of pristane.

  13. Copy Number Deletion Has Little Impact on Gene Expression Levels in Racehorses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Do Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Copy number variations (CNVs, important genetic factors for study of human diseases, may have as large of an effect on phenotype as do single nucleotide polymorphisms. Indeed, it is widely accepted that CNVs are associated with differential disease susceptibility. However, the relationships between CNVs and gene expression have not been characterized in the horse. In this study, we investigated the effects of copy number deletion in the blood and muscle transcriptomes of Thoroughbred racing horses. We identified a total of 1,246 CNVs of deletion polymorphisms using DNA re-sequencing data from 18 Thoroughbred racing horses. To discover the tendencies between CNV status and gene expression levels, we extracted CNVs of four Thoroughbred racing horses of which RNA sequencing was available. We found that 252 pairs of CNVs and genes were associated in the four horse samples. We did not observe a clear and consistent relationship between the deletion status of CNVs and gene expression levels before and after exercise in blood and muscle. However, we found some pairs of CNVs and associated genes that indicated relationships with gene expression levels: a positive relationship with genes responsible for membrane structure or cytoskeleton and a negative relationship with genes involved in disease. This study will lead to conceptual advances in understanding the relationship between CNVs and global gene expression in the horse.

  14. Cytokeratin 20 expression in basaloid follicular hamartoma and infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarpisheh, Hedieh; Glusac, Earl J; Ko, Christine J

    2014-12-01

    Tumors with similar or identical histopathologic features have been termed basaloid follicular hamartoma (BFH) or infundibulocystic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC typically lacks immunoreactivity with cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and pleckstrin homology-like domain, family A, member 1 protein (PHLDA1). A series of BFH and infundibulocystic BCC were investigated to determine the pattern of CK20 and PHLDA1 labeling in these lesions. Thirty-six samples of BFH (n = 14) and infundibulocystic BCC (n = 22) were collected. CK20 and PHLDA1 staining was performed and evaluated. All the lesions were small (average of 3 mm), well circumscribed, and composed of basaloid to squamoid cells arranged in islands resembling ramifying rootlets with interspersed horn cysts. CK20-positive cells were present in all 36 cases (average, 22/mm(2)), throughout the tumor, including deeper portions, irrespective of original diagnosis. Six of thirty cases (20%; 5 infundibulocystic BCC, 1 BFH) were focally PHLDA1 positive. Findings on hematoxylin and eosin staining and those of CK20 staining in BFH and infundibulocystic BCC were similar, and in most cases were indistinguishable. The CK20 labeling was similar to that of trichoepithelioma. The findings add a degree of support to the argument that BFH and infundibulocystic BCC represent the same lesion and, further, a benign one. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The Effect of Histone Hyperacetylation on Viability of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Cells MDA-MB-231

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Rahimian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background The Basal-Like breast cancer, is always known for lack of expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and as well, absence of epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 gene amplification. Improper expression pattern of ER, PR, and Her2, makes Basal-Like breast tumors resistant to the current hormonal and anti HER2 treatments. In recent decades, several studies have been conducted to investigate the regulatory role of chemical modifications of core histones in gene expression. Their results have shown that histone acetylation is involved in regulation of cell survival. Acetylation of core histones is regulated by the epigenetic-modifying enzymes named Histone Deacetylases (HDACs. As a new approach to control the viability of breast tumor cells resistant to the hormonal and anti-HER2 treatments, we have targeted the HDACs. Using Trichostatin A (TSA as a known HDACs inhibitor, we have tried to hyperacetylate the core histones of MDA-MB-231 cells as an in vitro model of Basal-Like breast tumors. Then we have investigated the effect of histone hyperacetylation on viability of MDA-MB-231 cells. Methods MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured in RPMI 1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and were incubated at 37°C, in a humidified incubator with 5% CO2 atmosphere. Then cells were treated with different concentrations of TSA including: 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 nM or control (1% DMSO. After 24 and 48 hours, viability of cells was evaluated by MTT assay. Results After 24 and 48h exposure to different concentrations of TSA, MDA-MB-231 cells showed a maximum tolerable dose. At higher concentrations, TSA decreased the percentage of cell viability through a time-dose dependent manner. IC50 value for 48h treatment was 600 nM. Conclusions Our results indicate that HDACs inhibition and subsequently hyperacetylation of histones, leads to cytotoxic effects on breast tumor cells resistant to the current treatments. Following

  16. Surfactant protein d deficiency in mice is associated with hyperphagia, altered fat deposition, insulin resistance, and increased Basal endotoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stidsen, Jacob V; Khorooshi, Reza; Rahbek, Martin K U

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a host defence lectin of the innate immune system that enhances clearance of pathogens and modulates inflammatory responses. Recently it has been found that systemic SP-D is associated with metabolic disturbances and that SP-D deficient mice are mildly obese....... However, the mechanism behind SP-D's role in energy metabolism is not known.Here we report that SP-D deficient mice had significantly higher ad libitum energy intake compared to wild-type mice and unchanged energy expenditure. This resulted in accumulation but also redistribution of fat tissue. Blood...... pressure was unchanged. The change in energy intake was unrelated to the basal levels of hypothalamic Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) gene expression. Neither short time systemic, nor intracereberoventricular SP-D treatment altered the hypothalamic signalling or body weight...

  17. Differential metallothionein expression in oral lichen planus and amalgam-associated oral lichenoid lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G-G; Servato, J-P-S; Borges, F-C; Rosa, R-R; Siqueira, C-S; de Faria, P-R; Loyola, A-M; Cardoso, S-V

    2018-05-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease mediated by T cells, which manifests as reticular (white) or erosive (red) lesions, that are eventually painful. Oral lichenoid lesion (OLL) are distinguished from OLP by the presence of precipitating factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of metallothionein, which is involved in anti-apoptotic pathways and the anti-oxidative response, could serve as a differential diagnostic for OLP and OLL. We evaluated the expression of metallothionein in 40 cases of OLP and 20 cases of OLL using immunohistochemistry. White OLP has higher concentrations of metallothionein than red OLP in basal and parabasal layers. Moreover, metallothionein was more frequently observed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of basal cells in OLP patients compared to the same regions of OLL cases. Metallothionein levels are related to OLP severity and may contribute to a differential diagnosis between OLP and OLL.

  18. Inducible nitric oxide expression correlates with the level of inflammation in periapical cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mariza Akemi; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2007-10-01

    In an attempt to elucidate if inducible nitric oxide expression (iNOS) is correlated with the level of inflammation in periapical cysts with accuracy, the goal of this study was to evaluate the expression of iNOS in these ones. 30 cases were included in this study being iNOS evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test followed by the post-hoc Dunn's test. iNOS stain was detected throughout the epithelium, subepithelial fibroblasts and macrophages in all cases, indistinctly. Nevertheless, iNOS immunostaining in periapical cysts was different according to the levels of inflammation, being the strongest effect associated with intense inflammatory infiltrate. Taken together, our results indicate that immunoreactivity of iNOS was expressed in several cellular types present in periapical cyst, being positively correlated with the level of inflammation. Therefore, iNOS expression plays an important role in the pathogenesis of periapical cysts.

  19. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS