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Sample records for basal cardiovascular function

  1. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1990-05-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs.

  2. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Motohiro; Otsuka, Makoto; Taniwaki, Koukyo; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi

    1990-01-01

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  3. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanciego, José L; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A

    2012-12-01

    The "basal ganglia" refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amplified with the emergence of new data. Furthermore, parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative and limbic territories. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders. This article provides a comprehensive account of basal ganglia functional anatomy and chemistry and the major pathophysiological changes underlying disorders of movement. We try to answer three key questions related to the basal ganglia, as follows: What are the basal ganglia? What are they made of? How do they work? Some insight on the canonical basal ganglia model is provided, together with a selection of paradoxes and some views over the horizon in the field.

  4. Cardiovascular function in pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visca, Dina; Aiello, Marina; Chetta, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic cardiovascular disease, such as coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and cardiac arrhythmias, have a strong influence on each other, and systemic inflammation has been considered as the main linkage between them. On the other hand, airflow limitation may markedly affect lung mechanics in terms of static and dynamic hyperinflation, especially in pulmonary emphysema, and they can in turn influence cardiac performance as well. Skeletal mass depletion, which is a common feature in COPD especially in pulmonary emphysema patients, may have also a role in cardiovascular function of these patients, irrespective of lung damage. We reviewed the emerging evidence that highlights the role of lung mechanics and muscle mass impairment on ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and stroke work at rest and on exercise in the presence of pulmonary emphysema. Patients with emphysema may differ among COPD population even in terms of cardiovascular function.

  5. Cardiovascular Disease and Thyroid Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jens; Selmer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones at the ce......Thyroid function has a profound effect on the heart, and both all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates are increased in hyperthyroidism. New-onset atrial fibrillation carries a prolonged risk for the development of hyperthyroidism, suggesting altered availability of thyroid hormones...... at the cellular level. Subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with increased left ventricular mass of the heart, which reverts after obtaining euthyroidism. Mortality and risk of major cardiovascular events are increased. Subclinical hypothyroidism is also associated with subtle changes in the heart, e.g. its...

  6. Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Mark G; Knowlton, Barbara J

    2002-01-01

    Although the mammalian basal ganglia have long been implicated in motor behavior, it is generally recognized that the behavioral functions of this subcortical group of structures are not exclusively motoric in nature. Extensive evidence now indicates a role for the basal ganglia, in particular the dorsal striatum, in learning and memory. One prominent hypothesis is that this brain region mediates a form of learning in which stimulus-response (S-R) associations or habits are incrementally acquired. Support for this hypothesis is provided by numerous neurobehavioral studies in different mammalian species, including rats, monkeys, and humans. In rats and monkeys, localized brain lesion and pharmacological approaches have been used to examine the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning. In humans, study of patients with neurodegenerative diseases that compromise the basal ganglia, as well as research using brain neuroimaging techniques, also provide evidence of a role for the basal ganglia in habit learning. Several of these studies have dissociated the role of the basal ganglia in S-R learning from those of a cognitive or declarative medial temporal lobe memory system that includes the hippocampus as a primary component. Evidence suggests that during learning, basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe memory systems are activated simultaneously and that in some learning situations competitive interference exists between these two systems.

  7. Resting cardiovascular function improvements in adult men ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impaired cardiovascular function increases the risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, renal disease and all-cause mortality. Research has demonstrated an inverse relationship between these cardiovascular impairments and exercise. However, previous research has mainly focused on aerobic training since ...

  8. Significance of left ventricular apical-basal muscle bundle identified by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Gruner, Christiane; Chan, Raymond H.; Crean, Andrew; Rakowski, Harry; Rowin, Ethan J.; Care, Melanie; Deva, Djeven; Williams, Lynne; Appelbaum, Evan; Gibson, C. Michael; Lesser, John R.; Haas, Tammy S.; Udelson, James E.; Manning, Warren J.; Siminovitch, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Aims Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has improved diagnostic and management strategies in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) by expanding our appreciation for the diverse phenotypic expression. We sought to characterize the prevalence and clinical significance of a recently identified accessory left ventricular (LV) muscle bundle extending from the apex to the basal septum or anterior wall (i.e. apical-basal). Methods and results CMR was performed in 230 genotyped HCM patients (48 ± 15...

  9. Centrality of striatal cholinergic transmission in basal ganglia function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eBonsi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work over the past two decades revealed a previously unexpected role for striatal cholinergic interneurons in the context of basal ganglia function. The recognition that these interneurons are essential in synaptic plasticity and motor learning represents a significant step ahead in deciphering how the striatum processes cortical inputs, and why pathological circumstances cause motor dysfunction.Loss of the reciprocal modulation between dopaminergic inputs and the intrinsic cholinergic innervation within the striatum appears to be the trigger for pathophysiological changes occurring in basal ganglia disorders. Accordingly, there is now compelling evidence showing profound changes in cholinergic markers in these disorders, in particular Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.Based on converging experimental and clinical evidence, we provide an overview of the role of striatal cholinergic transmission in physiological and pathological conditions, in the context of the pathogenesis of movement disorders.

  10. Sex differences in cardiovascular function

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, František; Ošťádal, Bohuslav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 207, č. 4 (2013), s. 584-587 ISSN 1748-1708 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : heart * vascular * risk factors * sex Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery Impact factor: 4.251, year: 2013

  11. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson's disease, and dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P

    2014-08-09

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson's disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson's disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. Radionuclide imaging is useful to show the dopaminergic basis for both motor and behavioural complications of Parkinson's disease and its treatment, and alterations in non-dopaminergic systems. Both PET and MRI can be used to study patterns of functional connectivity in the brain, which is disrupted in Parkinson's disease and in association with its complications, and in other basal-ganglia disorders such as dystonia, in which an anatomical substrate is not otherwise apparent. Functional imaging is increasingly used to assess underlying pathological processes such as neuroinflammation and abnormal protein deposition. This imaging is another promising approach to assess the effects of treatments designed to slow disease progression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  14. Practicality of cardiovascular risk functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaume Marrugat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Las estrategias de prevención de las enfermedades cardiovasculares necesitan refinamiento porque su incidencia se reduce muy lentamente. Las funciones de riesgo incorporaron los factores de riesgo clásicos (edad, sexo, consumo de tabaco, diabetes, presión arterial, y perfil lipídico básico en cohortes seguidas generalmente más de 10 años. Son razonablemente precisas para el cribado poblacional del riesgo de enfermedad coronaria exigido en las guías de práctica clínica. Clasifican a los pacientes en niveles de riesgo para concentrar un mayor esfuerzo terapéutico y preventivo en los de mayor riesgo, y en los que el número necesario a tratar y el coste-efectividad son óptimos. Proporcionar el riesgo relativo y de la edad vascular al paciente, le motiva a cumplir seguir tratamientos y estilos de vida. Alrededor del 20% de la población de 35 a 74 años tiene riesgo intermedio y requiere reclasificación a alto o bajo riesgo porque concentra 35% de eventos poblacionales de enfermedad coronaria. Se ensayan nuevos biomarcadores (bioquímicos, genéticos o de imagen para mejorar la precisión de las predicciones. Si los equipos informáticos de los sistemas de salud incorporaran el cálculo automatizado del riesgo se facilitaría la tarea preventiva del personal asistencial.

  15. Dopamine-dependent changes in the functional connectivity between basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, D; Tijssen, M; van Bruggen, G; Bosch, A; Insola, A; Di Lazzaro, V; Mazzone, P; Oliviero, A; Quartarone, A; Speelman, H; Brown, P

    2002-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that interaction between the human basal ganglia and cerebral cortex involves activity in multiple functional circuits characterized by their frequency of oscillation, phase characteristics, dopamine dependency and topography. To this end we took recordings from

  16. Toward a functional analysis of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, A E; Davidson, M C; Keele, S W; Rafal, R D

    1998-03-01

    Parkinson patients were tested in two paradigms to test the hypothesis that the basal ganglia are involved in the shifting of attentional set. Set shifting means a respecification of the conditions that regulate responding, a process sometimes referred to as an executive process. In one paradigm, upon the appearance of each stimulus, subjects were instructed to respond either to its color or to its shape. In a second paradigm, subjects learned to produce short sequences of three keypresses in response to two arbitrary stimuli. Reaction times were compared for the cases where set either remained the same or changed for two successive stimuli. Parkinson patients were slow to change set compared to controls. Parkinson patients were also less able to filter the competing but irrelevant set than were control subjects. The switching deficit appears to be dopamine based; the magnitude of the shifting deficit was related to the degree to which 1-dopa-based medication ameliorated patients' motor symptoms. Moreover, temporary withholding of medication, a so-called off manipulation, increased the time to switch. Using the framework of equilibrium point theory of movement, we discuss how a set switching deficit may also underlie clinical motor disturbances seen in Parkinson's disease.

  17. Cardiovascular autonomic function in Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallo, F; Maffei, P; Dalla Pozza, A; Carli, M; Della Mea, P; Lupia, M; Rabbia, F; Sonino, N

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac autonomic dysfunction is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. No data on sympathovagal balance are available in patients with Cushing's syndrome, in whom cardiovascular risk is high. We studied 10 patients with newly diagnosed Cushing's syndrome (1 male/9 females; age mean+/-SD, 47+/-10 yr) and 10 control subjects matched for age, sex, body mass index, and cardiovascular risk factors. In both groups there were 7 patients with arterial hypertension, 3 with diabetes mellitus, and 2 with obesity. Cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by analysis of short time heart rate variability (HRV) measures in frequency domain over 24-h, daytime, and nighttime. The 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and echocardiography were also performed. In comparison with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower 24-h (1.3+/-0.6 vs 3.7+/-1.5, mean+/-SD, p<0.01), daytime (2.0+/-1.4 vs 4.5+/-1.6, p<0.01), and night-time (1.0+/-0.4 vs 3.5+/-2.3, p<0.01) low-frequency/ high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio. In the presence of similar LF power, the difference was due to elevation in HF power in Cushing's syndrome compared to controls: 24-h, 12.7+/-6.7 vs 5.8+/-2.8, p<0.01; daytime, 10.2+/-7.3 vs 4.5+/-2.1, p<0.05; nighttime, 14.2+/-7.0 vs 7.8+/-4.7, p<0.05. Eight Cushing patients vs 4 controls had a non-dipping blood pressure profile. At echocardiography, Cushing patients had a greater left ventricular mass index and/or relative wall thickness, and impaired diastolic function, compared with controls. Compared to controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome showed a sympathovagal imbalance, characterized by a relatively increased parasympathetic activity. Whether this autonomic alteration is meant to counterbalance cortisol-induced effects on blood pressure and cardiac structure/function or has a different pathophysiological significance is still unknown.

  18. Bile acids and cardiovascular function in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voiosu, Andrei; Wiese, Signe; Voiosu, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy and the hyperdynamic syndrome are clinically important complications of cirrhosis, but their exact pathogenesis is still partly unknown. Experimental models have proven the cardiotoxic effects of bile acids and recent studies of their varied receptor-mediated functions...... offer new insight into their involvement in cardiovascular dysfunction in cirrhosis. Bile acid receptors such as farnesoid X-activated receptor and TGR5 are currently under investigation as potential therapeutic targets in a variety of pathological conditions. These receptors have also recently been...... identified in cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells where they seem to play an important role in cellular metabolism. Chronic cholestasis leading to abnormal levels of circulating bile acids alters the normal signalling pathways and contributes to the development of profound...

  19. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A L; Wilcock, Gordon K; Filippini, Nicola; Zamboni, Giovanna; Hu, Michele T M; Mackay, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD). In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN) are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  20. Aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rolinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI has been previously shown to be a promising tool for the assessment of early Parkinson's disease (PD. In order to assess whether changes within the basal ganglia network (BGN are disease specific or relate to neurodegeneration generally, BGN connectivity was assessed in 32 patients with early PD, 19 healthy controls and 31 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD. Voxel-wise comparisons demonstrated decreased connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with PD, when compared to patients with AD and healthy controls. No significant changes within the BGN were seen in AD, when compared to healthy controls. Moreover, measures of functional connectivity extracted from regions within the basal ganglia were significantly lower in the PD group. Consistent with previous radiotracer studies, the greatest change when compared to the healthy control group was seen in the posterior putamen of PD subjects. When combined into a single component score, this method differentiated PD from AD and healthy control subjects, with a diagnostic accuracy of 81%. Rs-fMRI can be used to demonstrate the aberrant functional connectivity within the basal ganglia of patients with early PD. These changes are likely to be representative of patho-physiological basal ganglia dysfunction and are not associated with generalised neurodegeneration seen in AD. Further studies are necessary to ascertain whether this method is sensitive enough to detect basal ganglia dysfunction in prodromal PD, and its utility as a potential diagnostic biomarker for premotor and early motoric disease.

  1. Serotoninergic Modulation of Basal Cardiovascular Responses and Responses Induced by Isotonic Extracellular Volume Expansion in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semionatto, Isadora Ferraz; Raminelli, Adrieli Oliveira; Alves, Angelica Cristina; Capitelli, Caroline Santos; Chriguer, Rosangela Soares

    2017-02-01

    Isotonic blood volume expansion (BVE) induced alterations of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity in the heart and blood vessels, which can be modulated by serotonergic pathways. To evaluate the effect of saline or serotonergic agonist (DOI) administration in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) on cardiovascular responses after BVE. We recorded pulsatile blood pressure through the femoral artery to obtain the mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and the sympathetic-vagal ratio (LF/HF) of Wistar rats before and after they received bilateral microinjections of saline or DOI into the PVN, followed by BVE. No significant differences were observed in the values of the studied variables in the different treatments from the control group. However, when animals are treated with DOI followed by BVE there is a significant increase in relation to the BE control group in all the studied variables: MBP (114.42±7.85 vs 101.34±9.17); SBP (147.23±14.31 vs 129.39±10.70); DBP (98.01 ±4.91 vs 87.31±8.61); HR (421.02±43.32 vs 356.35±41.99); and LF/HF ratio (2.32±0.80 vs 0.27±0.32). The present study showed that the induction of isotonic BVE did not promote alterations in MAP, HR and LF/HF ratio. On the other hand, the injection of DOI into PVN of the hypothalamus followed by isotonic BVE resulted in a significant increase of all variables. These results suggest that serotonin induced a neuromodulation in the PVN level, which promotes an inhibition of the baroreflex response to BVE. Therefore, the present study suggests the involvement of the serotonergic system in the modulation of vagal reflex response at PVN in the normotensive rats. Expansão de volume extracelular (EVEC) promove alterações da atividade simpática e parassimpática no coração e vasos sanguíneos, os quais podem ser moduladas por vias serotoninérgicas. Avaliar o efeito da administração de salina ou agonista serotonin

  2. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, Anders Hans

    2010-01-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets.......To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets....

  3. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  4. Cardiovascular Risk, Drugs and Erectile Function -A Systematic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhäkel , Magnus; Schlimmer , Nils; Kratz , Mario; Hackett , Geoffrey; Jackson , Graham; Böhm , Michael

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims Erectile dysfunction is a major problem with an increasing prevalence in cardiovascular high-risk patients due to the association with cardiovascular risk factors. Drugs used for evidenced based treatment of cardiovascular diseases have been reported to decrease erectile function, but possible mechanisms are poorly characterized. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Registry search was performed including manuscripts until January 2010. Searching terms are: ...

  5. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoessl, A. Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, adva...

  6. T-wave inversions related to left ventricular basal hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiuyu, E-mail: cxy0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Shihua, E-mail: zhaoshihua0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Zhao, Tao, E-mail: taozhao0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Lu, Minjie, E-mail: lmjkan@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Yin, Gang, E-mail: gangyin0202@126.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Jiang, Shiliang, E-mail: jiangsl-2011@163.com [Department of Radiology, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fuwai Hospital, National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100037 (China); Prasad, Sanjay, E-mail: s.prasad@rbht.nhs.uk [NIHR Biomedical Research Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital Sydney Street, London, SW3 6NP (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between T-wave inversions and left ventricular (LV) segmental hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 196 consecutive patients with non-apical HCM underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The distribution and magnitude of LV segmental hypertrophy and LGE were assessed according to the AHA 17-segment model and analyzed in relation to T-wave inversions. Results: Of 196 HCM patients, 144 (73%) exhibited T-wave inversions. 144 (73%) patients had evidence of myocardial fibrosis as defined by LGE, and the prevalence of LGE was significantly higher in patients with T-wave inversions compared with those without T-wave inversions (78% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). T-wave inversions were related to basal anterior and basal anteroseptal LGE (20% vs. 10%, P = 0.04 and 68% vs. 46%, P = 0.005, respectively). In addition, T-wave inversions were associated with greater basal anteroseptal and basal inferior wall thickness (19.5 ± 4.7 mm vs. 16.7 ± 4.5 mm, P < 0.001 and 10.9 ± 3.3 mm vs. 9.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). By logistic regression analysis, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE were independent determinants of T-wave inversions (P = 0.005, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: T-wave inversions in HCM are associated with LGE and wall thickness of the left ventricular basal segments. Moreover, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE are independent determinants of T-wave inversions.

  7. T-wave inversions related to left ventricular basal hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis in non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiuyu; Zhao, Shihua; Zhao, Tao; Lu, Minjie; Yin, Gang; Jiang, Shiliang; Prasad, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between T-wave inversions and left ventricular (LV) segmental hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with non-apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 196 consecutive patients with non-apical HCM underwent late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR and 12-lead electrocardiogram. The distribution and magnitude of LV segmental hypertrophy and LGE were assessed according to the AHA 17-segment model and analyzed in relation to T-wave inversions. Results: Of 196 HCM patients, 144 (73%) exhibited T-wave inversions. 144 (73%) patients had evidence of myocardial fibrosis as defined by LGE, and the prevalence of LGE was significantly higher in patients with T-wave inversions compared with those without T-wave inversions (78% vs. 59%, P = 0.008). T-wave inversions were related to basal anterior and basal anteroseptal LGE (20% vs. 10%, P = 0.04 and 68% vs. 46%, P = 0.005, respectively). In addition, T-wave inversions were associated with greater basal anteroseptal and basal inferior wall thickness (19.5 ± 4.7 mm vs. 16.7 ± 4.5 mm, P < 0.001 and 10.9 ± 3.3 mm vs. 9.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.01, respectively). By logistic regression analysis, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE were independent determinants of T-wave inversions (P = 0.005, P = 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: T-wave inversions in HCM are associated with LGE and wall thickness of the left ventricular basal segments. Moreover, basal anteroseptal wall thickness and LGE are independent determinants of T-wave inversions

  8. Frequency and function in the basal ganglia: the origins of beta and gamma band activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenkinsop, Alexander; Anderson, Sean; Gurney, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Neuronal oscillations in the basal ganglia have been observed to correlate with behaviours, although the causal mechanisms and functional significance of these oscillations remain unknown. We present a novel computational model of the healthy basal ganglia, constrained by single unit recordings from non-human primates. When the model is run using inputs that might be expected during performance of a motor task, the network shows emergent phenomena: it functions as a selection mechanism and shows spectral properties that match those seen in vivo. Beta frequency oscillations are shown to require pallido-striatal feedback, and occur with behaviourally relevant cortical input. Gamma oscillations arise in the subthalamic-globus pallidus feedback loop, and occur during movement. The model provides a coherent framework for the study of spectral, temporal and functional analyses of the basal ganglia and lays the foundation for an integrated approach to study basal ganglia pathologies such as Parkinson's disease in silico. Neural oscillations in the basal ganglia (BG) are well studied yet remain poorly understood. Behavioural correlates of spectral activity are well described, yet a quantitative hypothesis linking time domain dynamics and spectral properties to BG function has been lacking. We show, for the first time, that a unified description is possible by interpreting previously ignored structure in data describing globus pallidus interna responses to cortical stimulation. These data were used to expose a pair of distinctive neuronal responses to the stimulation. This observation formed the basis for a new mathematical model of the BG, quantitatively fitted to the data, which describes the dynamics in the data, and is validated against other stimulus protocol experiments. A key new result is that when the model is run using inputs hypothesised to occur during the performance of a motor task, beta and gamma frequency oscillations emerge naturally during static-force and

  9. International spinal cord injury cardiovascular function basic data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassioukov, A; Alexander, M S; Karlsson, A-K; Donovan, W; Mathias, C J; Biering-Sørensen, F

    2010-08-01

    To create an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set within the framework of the International SCI Data Sets. An international working group. The draft of the data set was developed by a working group comprising members appointed by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS) and a representative of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets. The final version of the data set was developed after review by members of the executive committee of the International SCI Standards and Data Sets, the ISCoS scientific committee, ASIA board, relevant and interested international organizations and societies, individual persons with specific interest and the ISCoS Council. To make the data set uniform, each variable and each response category within each variable have been specifically defined in a way that is designed to promote the collection and reporting of comparable minimal data. The variables included in the International SCI Cardiovascular Function Basic Data Set include the following items: date of data collection, cardiovascular history before the spinal cord lesion, events related to cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, cardiovascular function after the spinal cord lesion, medications affecting cardiovascular function on the day of examination; and objective measures of cardiovascular functions, including time of examination, position of examination, pulse and blood pressure. The complete instructions for data collection and the data sheet itself are freely available on the websites of both ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org).

  10. Consensus Paper: Towards a Systems-Level View of Cerebellar Function: the Interplay Between Cerebellum, Basal Ganglia, and Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiore, Daniele; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Bostan, Andreea C; Strick, Peter L; Doya, Kenji; Helmich, Rick C; Dirkx, Michiel; Houk, James; Jörntell, Henrik; Lago-Rodriguez, Angel; Galea, Joseph M; Miall, R Chris; Popa, Traian; Kishore, Asha; Verschure, Paul F M J; Zucca, Riccardo; Herreros, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting the cerebellum works in concert with the cortex and basal ganglia, the nature of the reciprocal interactions between these three brain regions remains unclear. This consensus paper gathers diverse recent views on a variety of important roles played by the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system across a range of motor and cognitive functions. The paper includes theoretical and empirical contributions, which cover the following topics: recent evidence supporting the dynamical interplay between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortical areas in humans and other animals; theoretical neuroscience perspectives and empirical evidence on the reciprocal influences between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex in learning and control processes; and data suggesting possible roles of the cerebellum in basal ganglia movement disorders. Although starting from different backgrounds and dealing with different topics, all the contributors agree that viewing the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cortex as an integrated system enables us to understand the function of these areas in radically different ways. In addition, there is unanimous consensus between the authors that future experimental and computational work is needed to understand the function of cerebellar-basal ganglia circuitry in both motor and non-motor functions. The paper reports the most advanced perspectives on the role of the cerebellum within the cerebello-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system and illustrates other elements of consensus as well as disagreements and open questions in the field.

  11. Safety and efficacy of a basal-plus regimen with insulin glargine and insulin glulisine for elderly patients with high cardiovascular risk and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Huelgas, R; Sabán-Ruiz, J; García-Román, F J; Quintela-Fernández, N; Seguí-Ripoll, J M; Bonilla-Hernández, M V; Romero-Meliá, G

    2017-05-01

    To assess the safety and efficacy of a basal-plus (BP) regimen with insulin glargine (as basal insulin) and insulin glulisine (as prandial insulin) with the main meal for elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and high cardiovascular risk, following standard clinical practice. An observational, retrospective study was conducted in 21 centres of internal medicine in Spain. The study included patients aged 65 years or older with DM2, undergoing treatment with a BP regimen for 4 to 12 months before inclusion in the study and a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease or high cardiovascular risk. The primary endpoint was the change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from the introduction of the glulisine to inclusion in the study. The study included 198 patients (mean age, 74±6.4 years; males, 52%). After at least 4 months of treatment with the BP regimen, started with the addition of glulisine, the mean HbA1c value decreased significantly (9±1.5% vs. 7.7±1.1%; P<.001), and almost 24% of the patients reached HbA1c levels of 7.5-8%. Furthermore, blood glucose levels under fasting conditions decreased significantly (190.6±73.2mg/dl vs. 138.9±38.2mg/dl; P<.001). A total of 35 patients (17.7%) had some hypoglycaemia during the month prior to the start of the study, and 2 cases (1.01%) of severe hypoglycaemia were detected. The BP strategy could significantly improve blood glucose control in patients 65 years of age or older with DM2 and high cardiovascular risk and is associated with a low risk of severe hypoglycaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Cushing's syndrome - Endogenous hypercortisolemia on cardiovascular autonomic functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyotsna, V P; Naseer, Ali; Sreenivas, V; Gupta, Nandita; Deepak, K K

    2011-02-24

    Cushing's syndrome is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It's also associated with other cardiac risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus and obesity. Cardiovascular autonomic function impairment could predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Twenty five patients with Cushing's syndrome without diabetes and twenty five age matched healthy controls underwent a battery of cardiovascular autonomic function tests including deep breath test, Valsalva test, hand grip test, cold pressor test and response to standing from lying position. The rise in diastolic blood pressure on hand grip test and diastolic BP response to cold pressor test in Cushing's patients were significantly less compared to healthy controls (9.83 ± 3.90 vs 20.64 ± 9.55, p<0.001 and 10.09 ± 4.07 vs 15.33 ± 6.26, p<0.01 respectively). The E:I ratio on deep breathing test was also less in the patients in comparison to controls (1.36 ± 0.21 vs 1.53 ± 0.19, p<0.01). Seven patients underwent the same battery of tests 6 months after a curative surgery showing a trend towards normalization with significant improvement in expiratory to inspiratory ratio and sinus arrhythmia delta heart rate. To conclude, this study showed that chronic endogenous hypercortisolism in Cushing's is associated with an impaired sympathetic cardiovascular autonomic functioning. After a curative surgery, some of the parameters tend to improve. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Imaging insights into basal ganglia function, Parkinson’s disease, and dystonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessl, A. Jon; Lehericy, Stephane; Strafella, Antonio P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in structural and functional imaging have greatly improved our ability to assess normal functions of the basal ganglia, diagnose parkinsonian syndromes, understand the pathophysiology of parkinsonism and other movement disorders, and detect and monitor disease progression. Radionuclide imaging is the best way to detect and monitor dopamine deficiency, and will probably continue to be the best biomarker for assessment of the effects of disease-modifying therapies. However, advances in magnetic resonance enable the separation of patients with Parkinson’s disease from healthy controls, and show great promise for differentiation between Parkinson’s disease and other akinetic-rigid syndromes. Radionuclide imaging is useful to show the dopaminergic basis for both motor and behavioural complications of Parkinson’s disease and its treatment, and alterations in non-dopaminergic systems. Both PET and MRI can be used to study patterns of functional connectivity in the brain, which is disrupted in Parkinson’s disease and in association with its complications, and in other basal-ganglia disorders such as dystonia, in which an anatomical substrate is not otherwise apparent. Functional imaging is increasingly used to assess underlying pathological processes such as neuroinflammation and abnormal protein deposition. This imaging is another promising approach to assess the effects of treatments designed to slow disease progression. PMID:24954673

  14. Cardiovascular function in pregnancy: effects of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bene, R; Barletta, G; Mello, G; Lazzeri, C; Mecacci, F; Parretti, E; Martini, E; Vecchiarino, S; Franchi, F; La Villa, G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular response to active postural changes in pregnancy. Prospective study. Outpatient Clinic, Fetal Maternity Unit. Sixteen healthy women referred prior to pregnancy. Heart rate, arterial pressure, echocardiographic end-diastolic and end-systolic left ventricular volumes (Teichholz' s formula) were measured in the three months before pregnancy, at the end of the first and second trimester, at mid third trimester, and six months after delivery in the supine and standing position, in thirteen women (mean age 33, range 25-38 years). Cardiac output (supine position) significantly increased (28%): it reached its maximum at the second trimester, remained steadily elevated in the mid third trimester, and returned to baseline after delivery. Cardiac output increased during pregnancy also in the active orthostatic position, the percentage increase being greater (70%) since the standing pre-conception value was lower. The postural stress induced similar changes in heart rate, arterial pressure and left ventricular ejection fraction before, during and after pregnancy. However, the reduction in cardiac output associated with early standing attenuated significantly at the second trimester and it was absent at mid third trimester (F = 3.13, P = 0.021). This was due to the interplay between the significantly lesser increase in systemic vascular resistance, occurring since the first trimester, and the significantly lesser decrease in left ventricular end-diastolic volume which was observed in the mid third trimester. These data indicate that the elevated cardiac output is adequately maintained in pregnancy during the postural challenge, due to optimisation of the responses of preload and afterload.

  15. Functions of MicroRNAs in Cardiovascular Biology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Akiko

    2015-01-01

    In 1993, lin-4 was discovered as a critical modulator of temporal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and, most notably, as the first in the class of small, single-stranded noncoding RNAs now defined as microRNAs (miRNAs). Another eight years elapsed before miRNA expression was detected in mammalian cells. Since then, explosive advancements in the field of miRNA biology have elucidated the basic mechanism of miRNA biogenesis, regulation, and gene-regulatory function. The discovery of this new class of small RNAs has augmented the complexity of gene-regulatory programs as well as the understanding of developmental and pathological processes in the cardiovascular system. Indeed, the contributions of miRNAs in cardiovascular development and function have been widely explored, revealing the extensive role of these small regulatory RNAs in cardiovascular physiology. PMID:23157557

  16. Obesity, Cardiovascular Fitness, and Inhibition Function: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Fen Song

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine how obesity and cardiovascular fitness are associated with the inhibition aspect of executive function from behavioral and electrophysiological perspectives. One hundred college students, aged 18 to 25 years, were categorized into four groups of equal size on the basis of body mass index and cardiovascular fitness: a normal-weight and high-fitness (NH group, an obese-weight and high-fitness (OH group, a normal-weight and low-fitness (NL group, and an obese-weight and low-fitness (OL group. Behavioral measures of response time and number of errors, as well as event-related potential (ERP measures of P3 and N1, were assessed during the Stroop Task. The results revealed that, in general, the NH group exhibited shorter response times and larger P3 amplitudes relative to the OH, NL, and OL groups, wherein the OL group exhibited the longest response time in the incongruent condition. No group differences in N1 indices were also revealed. These findings suggest that the status of being both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness is associated with better behavioral and later stages of electrophysiological indices of inhibition. However, these benefits in inhibition function would be lost in an individual who is obese or has low cardiovascular fitness, reflecting the importance keeping both normal weight and having high cardiovascular fitness.

  17. Neonatal autonomic function after pregnancy complications and early cardiovascular development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam James; Oster, Julien; Upton, Ross; Davis, Esther; Kenworthy, Yvonne; Boardman, Henry; Yu, Grace Z; Siepmann, Timo; Adwani, Satish; McCormick, Kenny; Sverrisdottir, Yrsa B; Leeson, Paul

    2018-05-23

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a predictor of later cardiac risk. This study tested whether pregnancy complications that may have long-term offspring cardiac sequelae are associated with differences in HRV at birth, and whether these HRV differences identify abnormal cardiovascular development in the postnatal period. Ninety-eight sleeping neonates had 5-min electrocardiogram recordings at birth. Standard time and frequency domain parameters were calculated and related to cardiovascular measures at birth and 3 months of age. Increasing prematurity, but not maternal hypertension or growth restriction, was associated with decreased HRV at birth, as demonstrated by a lower root mean square of the difference between adjacent NN intervals (rMSSD) and low (LF) and high-frequency power (HF), with decreasing gestational age (p < 0.001, p = 0.009 and p = 0.007, respectively). We also demonstrated a relative imbalance between sympathetic and parasympathetic tone, compared to the term infants. However, differences in autonomic function did not predict cardiovascular measures at either time point. Altered cardiac autonomic function at birth relates to prematurity rather than other pregnancy complications and does not predict cardiovascular developmental patterns during the first 3 months post birth. Long-term studies will be needed to understand the relevance to cardiovascular risk.

  18. Thyroid hormone is required for hypothalamic neurons regulating cardiovascular functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, J.; Lyons, D.J.; Sällström, J.; Vujoviv, M.; Dudazy-Gralla, S.; Warner, A.; Wallis, K.; Alkemade, A.; Nordström, K.; Monyer, H.; Broberger, C.; Arner, A.; Vennström, B.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is well known for its profound direct effects on cardiovascular function and metabolism. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the hormone also regulates these systems indirectly through the central nervous system. While some of the molecular mechanisms underlying the hormone’s

  19. Functional imaging of the cerebellum and basal ganglia during predictive motor timing in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husárová, Ivica; Lungu, Ovidiu V; Mareček, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Gescheidt, Tomáš; Krupa, Petr; Bareš, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia and the cerebellum have both emerged as important structures involved in the processing of temporal information. We examined the roles of the cerebellum and striatum in predictive motor timing during a target interception task in healthy individuals (HC group; n = 21) and in patients with early Parkinson's disease (early stage PD group; n = 20) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Despite having similar hit ratios, the PD failed more often than the HC to postpone their actions until the right moment and to adapt their behavior from one trial to the next. We found more activation in the right cerebellar lobule VI in HC than in early stage PD during successful trials. Successful trial-by-trial adjustments were associated with higher activity in the right putamen and lobule VI of the cerebellum in HC. We conclude that both the cerebellum and striatum are involved in predictive motor timing tasks. The cerebellar activity is associated exclusively with the postponement of action until the right moment, whereas both the cerebellum and striatum are needed for successful adaptation of motor actions from one trial to the next. We found a general ''hypoactivation'' of basal ganglia and cerebellum in early stage PD relative to HC, indicating that even in early stages of the PD there could be functional perturbations in the motor system beyond striatum. Copyright © 2011 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  20. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia as studied by dual-probe microdialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connor, William T.

    1998-01-01

    Dual probe microdialysis was employed in intact rat brain to investigate the effect of intrastriatal perfusion with selective dopamine D 1 and D 2 receptor agonists and with c-fos antisense oligonucleotide on (a) local GABA release in the striatum; (b) the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is the output site of the strionigral GABA pathway; and (c) the external segment of the globus pallidus, which is the output site of the striopallidal GABA pathway. The data provide functional in vivo evidence for a selective dopamine D 1 receptor-mediated activation of the direct strionigral GABA pathway and a selective dopamine D 2 receptor inhibition of the indirect striopallidal GABA pathway and provides a neuronal substrate for parallel processing in the basal ganglia regulation of motor function. Taken together, these findings offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dopamine-linked disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia

  1. Effect of basal ganglia calcification on its glucose metabolism and dopaminergic function in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Sagar; Arora, Geetanjali; Bal, Chandra Shekhar; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Kailash, Suparna; Sagar, Rajesh; Goswami, Ravinder

    2015-10-01

    The functional significance of basal ganglia calcification (BGC) in idiopathic hypoparathyroidism (IH) is not clear. To assess the effect of BGC on glucose metabolism and dopaminergic function in IH. (18) F-FDG and (99m) Tc-TRODAT-1 nuclear imaging were performed in 35 IH patients with (n = 26) and without (n = 9) BGC. Controls were subjects without hypoparathyroidism or BGC (nine for (18) F-FDG and 12 for (99m) Tc-TRODAT-1). Relationship of the glucose metabolism and dopaminergic function was assessed with the neuropsychological and biochemical abnormalities. (18) F-FDG uptake in IH patients with calcification at caudate and striatum was less than that of IH patients without calcification (1·06 ± 0·13 vs 1·24 ± 0·09, P = <0·0001 and 1·06 ± 0·09 vs 1·14 ± 0·08, P = 0·03, respectively). (18) F-FDG uptake did not correlate with neuropsychological dysfunctions. (18) F-FDG uptake in IH without BGC was significantly lower than that of controls. The mean (99m) Tc-TRODAT-1 uptake at basal ganglia was comparable between IH with and without BGC and between IH without BGC and controls. Serum calcium-phosphorus ratio maintained by the patients correlated with (18) F-FDG uptake at striatum (r = 0·57, P = 0·001). For every 0·1 unit reduction in calcium-phosphorus ratio, (18) F-FDG uptake decreased by 2·5 ± 0·68% (P = 0·001). BGC was associated with modest reduction (15%) in (18) F-FDG uptake at basal ganglia in IH but did not affect dopaminergic function. (18) F-FDG uptake did not correlate with neuropsychological dysfunctions. Interestingly, chronic hypocalcaemia-hyperphosphataemia also contributed to reduction in (18) F-FDG uptake which was independent of BGC. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused ...

  3. Functional Food and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Rastqar, Ali; Keshvari, Mahtab

    2018-03-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Lifestyle factors, including nutrition, play an important role in the etiology and treatment of CVD. Functional foods based on their basic nutritional functions can decrease the risk of many chronic diseases and have some physiological benefits. They contain physiologically active components either from plant or animal sources, marketed with the claim of their ability to reduce heart disease risk, focusing primarily on established risk factors, which are hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, obesity/overweight, elevated lipoprotein A level, small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and elevated inflammatory marker levels. Functional foods are suspected to exert their cardioprotective effects mainly through blood lipid profile level and improve hypertension control, endothelial function, platelet aggregation, and antioxidant actions. Clinical and epidemiological observations indicate that vegetable and fruit fiber, nuts and seeds, sea foods, coffee, tea, and dark chocolate have cardioprotective potential in humans, as well whole-grain products containing intact grain kernels rich in fiber and trace nutrients. They are nutritionally more important because they contain phytoprotective substances that might work synergistically to reduce cardiovascular risk. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between functional foods and the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action.

  4. Molecular cloning, functional characterization, and evolutionary analysis of vitamin D receptors isolated from basal vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Kollitz

    Full Text Available The vertebrate genome is a result of two rapid and successive rounds of whole genome duplication, referred to as 1R and 2R. Furthermore, teleost fish have undergone a third whole genome duplication (3R specific to their lineage, resulting in the retention of multiple gene paralogs. The more recent 3R event in teleosts provides a unique opportunity to gain insight into how genes evolve through specific evolutionary processes. In this study we compare molecular activities of vitamin D receptors (VDR from basal species that diverged at key points in vertebrate evolution in order to infer derived and ancestral VDR functions of teleost paralogs. Species include the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus, a 1R jawless fish; the little skate (Leucoraja erinacea, a cartilaginous fish that diverged after the 2R event; and the Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus, a primitive 2R ray-finned fish. Saturation binding assays and gel mobility shift assays demonstrate high affinity ligand binding and classic DNA binding characteristics of VDR has been conserved across vertebrate evolution. Concentration response curves in transient transfection assays reveal EC50 values in the low nanomolar range, however maximum transactivational efficacy varies significantly between receptor orthologs. Protein-protein interactions were investigated using co-transfection, mammalian 2-hybrid assays, and mutations of coregulator activation domains. We then combined these results with our previous study of VDR paralogs from 3R teleosts into a bioinformatics analysis. Our results suggest that 1, 25D3 acts as a partial agonist in basal species. Furthermore, our bioinformatics analysis suggests that functional differences between VDR orthologs and paralogs are influenced by differential protein interactions with essential coregulator proteins. We speculate that we may be observing a change in the pharmacodynamics relationship between VDR and 1, 25D3 throughout vertebrate evolution that may

  5. Effect of noncovalent basal plane functionalization on the quantum capacitance in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrish, Mona A; Olson, Eric J; Koester, Steven J

    2014-07-09

    The concentration-dependent density of states in graphene allows the capacitance in metal-oxide-graphene structures to be tunable with the carrier concentration. This feature allows graphene to act as a variable capacitor (varactor) that can be utilized for wireless sensing applications. Surface functionalization can be used to make graphene sensitive to a particular species. In this manuscript, the effect on the quantum capacitance of noncovalent basal plane functionalization using 1-pyrenebutanoic acid succimidyl ester and glucose oxidase is reported. It is found that functionalized samples tested in air have (1) a Dirac point similar to vacuum conditions, (2) increased maximum capacitance compared to vacuum but similar to air, (3) and quantum capacitance "tuning" that is greater than that in vacuum and ambient atmosphere. These trends are attributed to reduced surface doping and random potential fluctuations as a result of the surface functionalization due to the displacement of H2O on the graphene surface and intercalation of a stable H2O layer beneath graphene that increases the overall device capacitance. The results are important for future application of graphene as a platform for wireless chemical and biological sensors.

  6. Identification of Personalized Chemoresistance Genes in Subtypes of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Based on Functional Differences Using Pathway Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wu

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease that is clinically classified into several subtypes. Among these subtypes, basal-like breast cancer largely overlaps with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC, and these two groups are generally studied together as a single entity. Differences in the molecular makeup of breast cancers can result in different treatment strategies and prognoses for patients with different breast cancer subtypes. Compared with other subtypes, basal-like and other ER+ breast cancer subtypes exhibit marked differences in etiologic factors, clinical characteristics and therapeutic potential. Anthracycline drugs are typically used as the first-line clinical treatment for basal-like breast cancer subtypes. However, certain patients develop drug resistance following chemotherapy, which can lead to disease relapse and death. Even among patients with basal-like breast cancer, there can be significant molecular differences, and it is difficult to identify specific drug resistance proteins in any given patient using conventional variance testing methods. Therefore, we designed a new method for identifying drug resistance genes. Subgroups, personalized biomarkers, and therapy targets were identified using cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes. We found that basal-like breast cancer could be further divided into at least four distinct subgroups, including two groups at risk for drug resistance and two groups characterized by sensitivity to pharmacotherapy. Based on functional differences among these subgroups, we identified nine biomarkers related to drug resistance: SYK, LCK, GAB2, PAWR, PPARG, MDFI, ZAP70, CIITA and ACTA1. Finally, based on the deviation scores of the examined pathways, 16 pathways were shown to exhibit varying degrees of abnormality in the various subgroups, indicating that patients with different subtypes of basal-like breast cancer can be characterized by differences in the functional status of

  7. The Cardiovascular Function Profile and Physical Fitness in Overweight Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megawati, E. R.; Lubis, L. D.; Harahap, F. Y.

    2017-03-01

    Obesity in children and young adult is associated with cardiovascular risk in short term and long term. The aim of this study was to describe the profile of the cardiovascular functions parameters and physical fitness in overweight. This is an analytical observational study with cross sectional approach. The samples of this study were 85 randomly selected subjects aged 18 to 24 years with normoweight and body mass index <40. The parameters measures were body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-hip ratio (WHR), cardiovascular function parameters (resting pulse, blood pressure, and peak flow meter) and physical fitness parameters (VO2max dengan McArdle step test). The mean BMI was 24,53±4,929. The WC and WHR mean were 86,7±14,10 cms and 0,89±0,073 cm respectively. The mean of resting pulses were higher in normoweight subject (p=0,0209). The mean systole were lower in normoweight subject (p=0,0026). No differences VO2 max between groups (p=0,3888). The peak flow meter was higher in normoweight (p=0,0274). The result of this study indicate that heart rate, systole and peak flow meter are signifantly different between groups. The heart rate and the peak flow meter in the overweight subjects were lower meanwhile the systole blood pressure was higher compared to normoweight subjects.

  8. Interrelationship of brain-functions with cardiovascular regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.K.

    1993-03-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are involved in the regulation of nervous function, behaviour, emotion, sex, sleep, mood of higher animals including the humans. They act and they occur simultaneously in the brain as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators and in plasma as circulating hormones. The direct regulatory interactions of a given substance in the blood and in the brain are still unknown, but some results have already been published regarding these relationships. The present paper briefly describes the systematic review-type studies on the interrelationship of the brain functions and the cardiovascular regulation. 35 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  9. NMR techniques in the study of cardiovascular structure and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osbakken, M.; Haselgrove, J.

    1987-01-01

    The chapter titles of this book are: Introduction to NMR Techniques;Theory of NMR Probe Design;Overview of Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Study the Cardiovascular System;Vascular Anatomy and Physiology Studied with NMR Techniques;Assessment of Myocardial Ischemia and Infarction by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging;The Use of MRI in Congenital Heart Disease;Cardiomyopathies and Myocarditis Studied with NMR Techniques;Determination of Myocardial Mechanical Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques;Determination of Flow Using NMR Techniques;The Use of Contrast Agents in Cardiac MRI;Can Cardiovascular Disease Be Effectively Evaluated with NMR Spectroscopy? NMR Studies of ATP Synthesis Reactions in the Isolated Heart;Studies of Intermediary Metabolism in the Heart by 13C NMR Spectroscopy;23Na and 39K NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Intact Beating Heart;and Evaluation of Skeletal Muscle Metabolism in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure Using Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

  10. Brainstem stimulation increases functional connectivity of basal forebrain-paralimbic network in isoflurane-anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Siveshigan; Liu, Xiping; Baracskay, Péter; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-09-01

    Brain states and cognitive-behavioral functions are precisely controlled by subcortical neuromodulatory networks. Manipulating key components of the ascending arousal system (AAS), via deep-brain stimulation, may help facilitate global arousal in anesthetized animals. Here we test the hypothesis that electrical stimulation of the oral part of the pontine reticular nucleus (PnO) under light isoflurane anesthesia, associated with loss of consciousness, leads to cortical desynchronization and specific changes in blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional connectivity (FC) of the brain. BOLD signals were acquired simultaneously with frontal epidural electroencephalogram before and after PnO stimulation. Whole-brain FC was mapped using correlation analysis with seeds in major centers of the AAS. PnO stimulation produced cortical desynchronization, a decrease in δ- and θ-band power, and an increase in approximate entropy. Significant increases in FC after PnO stimulation occurred between the left nucleus Basalis of Meynert (NBM) as seed and numerous regions of the paralimbic network. Smaller increases in FC were present between the central medial thalamic nucleus and retrosplenium seeds and the left caudate putamen and NBM. The results suggest that, during light anesthesia, PnO stimulation preferentially modulates basal forebrain-paralimbic networks. We speculate that this may be a reflection of disconnected awareness.

  11. Functional neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia as studied by dual-probe microdialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, William T. E-mail: woconn@iveagh.ucd.ie

    1998-11-01

    Dual probe microdialysis was employed in intact rat brain to investigate the effect of intrastriatal perfusion with selective dopamine D{sub 1} and D{sub 2} receptor agonists and with c-fos antisense oligonucleotide on (a) local GABA release in the striatum; (b) the internal segment of the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra pars reticulata, which is the output site of the strionigral GABA pathway; and (c) the external segment of the globus pallidus, which is the output site of the striopallidal GABA pathway. The data provide functional in vivo evidence for a selective dopamine D{sub 1} receptor-mediated activation of the direct strionigral GABA pathway and a selective dopamine D{sub 2} receptor inhibition of the indirect striopallidal GABA pathway and provides a neuronal substrate for parallel processing in the basal ganglia regulation of motor function. Taken together, these findings offer new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of dopamine-linked disorders such as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and schizophrenia.

  12. Functional connectivity in the basal ganglia network differentiates PD patients from controls

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    Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A.L.; Rolinski, Michal; Duff, Eugene; Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Filippini, Nicola; Zamboni, Giovanna; Hu, Michele T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine functional connectivity within the basal ganglia network (BGN) in a group of cognitively normal patients with early Parkinson disease (PD) on and off medication compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC), and to validate the findings in a separate cohort of participants with PD. Methods: Participants were scanned with resting-state fMRI (RS-fMRI) at 3T field strength. Resting-state networks were isolated using independent component analysis. A BGN template was derived from 80 elderly HC participants. BGN maps were compared between 19 patients with PD on and off medication in the discovery group and 19 age- and sex-matched controls to identify a threshold for optimal group separation. The threshold was applied to 13 patients with PD (including 5 drug-naive) in the validation group to establish reproducibility of findings. Results: Participants with PD showed reduced functional connectivity with the BGN in a wide range of areas. Administration of medication significantly improved connectivity. Average BGN connectivity differentiated participants with PD from controls with 100% sensitivity and 89.5% specificity. The connectivity threshold was tested on the validation cohort and achieved 85% accuracy. Conclusions: We demonstrate that resting functional connectivity, measured with MRI using an observer-independent method, is reproducibly reduced in the BGN in cognitively intact patients with PD, and increases upon administration of dopaminergic medication. Our results hold promise for RS-fMRI connectivity as a biomarker in early PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that average connectivity in the BGN as measured by RS-fMRI distinguishes patients with PD from age- and sex-matched controls. PMID:24920856

  13. Identification, Functional Characterization, and Evolution of Terpene Synthases from a Basal Dicot1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaa, Mosaab; Matsuba, Yuki; Brandt, Wolfgang; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Bar, Einat; McClain, Alan; Davidovich-Rikanati, Rachel; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Pichersky, Eran; Ibdah, Mwafaq

    2015-01-01

    Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) is an agriculturally and economically important dioecious tree in the basal dicot family Lauraceae used in food and drugs and in the cosmetics industry. Bay leaves, with their abundant monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, are used to impart flavor and aroma to food, and have also drawn attention in recent years because of their potential pharmaceutical applications. To identify terpene synthases (TPSs) involved in the production of these volatile terpenes, we performed RNA sequencing to profile the transcriptome of L. nobilis leaves. Bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of eight TPS complementary DNAs. We characterized the enzymes encoded by three of these complementary DNAs: a monoterpene synthase that belongs to the TPS-b clade catalyzes the formation of mostly 1,8-cineole; a sesquiterpene synthase belonging to the TPS-a clade catalyzes the formation of mainly cadinenes; and a diterpene synthase of the TPS-e/f clade catalyzes the formation of geranyllinalool. Comparison of the sequences of these three TPSs indicated that the TPS-a and TPS-b clades of the TPS gene family evolved early in the evolution of the angiosperm lineage, and that geranyllinalool synthase activity is the likely ancestral function in angiosperms of genes belonging to an ancient TPS-e/f subclade that diverged from the kaurene synthase gene lineages before the split of angiosperms and gymnosperms. PMID:26157114

  14. LRGUK-1 is required for basal body and manchette function during spermatogenesis and male fertility.

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    Yan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility affects at least 5% of reproductive age males. The most common pathology is a complex presentation of decreased sperm output and abnormal sperm shape and motility referred to as oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT. For the majority of OAT men a precise diagnosis cannot be provided. Here we demonstrate that leucine-rich repeats and guanylate kinase-domain containing isoform 1 (LRGUK-1 is required for multiple aspects of sperm assembly, including acrosome attachment, sperm head shaping and the initiation of the axoneme growth to form the core of the sperm tail. Specifically, LRGUK-1 is required for basal body attachment to the plasma membrane, the appropriate formation of the sub-distal appendages, the extension of axoneme microtubules and for microtubule movement and organisation within the manchette. Manchette dysfunction leads to abnormal sperm head shaping. Several of these functions may be achieved in association with the LRGUK-1 binding partner HOOK2. Collectively, these data establish LRGUK-1 as a major determinant of microtubule structure within the male germ line.

  15. Cardiovascular function in term fetal sheep conceived, gestated and studied in the hypobaric hypoxia of the Andean altiplano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Emilio A; Rojas, Rodrigo T; Krause, Bernardo J; Ebensperger, Germán; Reyes, Roberto V; Giussani, Dino A; Parer, Julian T; Llanos, Aníbal J

    2016-03-01

    High-altitude hypoxia causes intrauterine growth restriction and cardiovascular programming. However, adult humans and animals that have evolved at altitude show certain protection against the effects of chronic hypoxia. Whether the highland fetus shows similar protection against high altitude gestation is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that high-altitude fetal sheep have evolved cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms to withstand chronic hypoxia that are different from lowland sheep. We studied seven high-altitude (HA; 3600 m) and eight low-altitude (LA; 520 m) pregnant sheep at ∼90% gestation. Pregnant ewes and fetuses were instrumented for cardiovascular investigation. A three-period experimental protocol was performed in vivo: 30 min of basal, 1 h of acute superimposed hypoxia (∼10% O2) and 30 min of recovery. Further, we determined ex vivo fetal cerebral and femoral arterial function. HA pregnancy led to chronic fetal hypoxia, growth restriction and altered cardiovascular function. During acute superimposed hypoxia, LA fetuses redistributed blood flow favouring the brain, heart and adrenals, whereas HA fetuses showed a blunted cardiovascular response. Importantly, HA fetuses have a marked reduction in umbilical blood flow versus LA. Isolated cerebral arteries from HA fetuses showed a higher contractile capacity but a diminished response to catecholamines. In contrast, femoral arteries from HA fetuses showed decreased contractile capacity and increased adrenergic contractility. The blunting of the cardiovascular responses to hypoxia in fetuses raised in the Alto Andino may indicate a change in control strategy triggered by chronic hypoxia, switching towards compensatory mechanisms that are more cost-effective in terms of oxygen uptake. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  16. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

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    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  17. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

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    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  18. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

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    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  19. Cardiovascular Pharmacogenomics and Cognitive Function in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Kristen M; Kraal, A Zarina; Flowers, Stephanie A; Ellingrod, Vicki L

    2017-09-01

    The authors sought to examine the impact of multiple risk alleles for cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk on cognitive function and to determine if these relationships varied by cognitive reserve (CR) or concomitant medication use in patients with schizophrenia. They conducted a cross-sectional study in ambulatory mental health centers. A total of 122 adults with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis who were maintained on a stable antipsychotic regimen for at least 6 months before study enrollment were included. Patients were divided into three CR groups based on years of formal education: no high school completion or equivalent (low-education group [18 patients]), completion of high school or equivalent (moderate-education group [36 patients], or any degree of post-high school education (high-education group [68 patients]). The following pharmacogenomic variants were genotyped for each patient: AGT M268T (rs699), ACE insertion/deletion (or ACE I/D, rs1799752), and APOE ε2, ε3, and ε4 (rs429358 and rs7412). Risk allele carrier status (identified per gene as AGT M268 T carriers, ACE D carriers, and APOE ε4 carriers) was not significantly different among CR groups. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) scale was used to assess cognitive function. The mean ± SD patient age was 43.9 ± 11.6 years. Cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hyperlipidemia diagnoses, and use of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering agents, did not significantly differ among CR groups. Mixed modeling revealed that risk allele carrier status was significantly associated with lower verbal memory scores for ACE D and APOE ε4 carriers, but AGT T carrier status was significantly associated with higher verbal memory scores (p=0.0188, p=0.0055, and p=0.0058, respectively). These results were only significant in the low-education group. In addition, medication-gene interactions were not significant predictors of BACS scores. ACE D and APOE ε4

  20. Strain-encoding cardiovascular magnetic resonance for assessment of right-ventricular regional function

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    Abraham M Roselle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue tagging by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is a comprehensive method for the assessment of cardiac regional function. However, imaging the right ventricle (RV using this technique is problematic due to the thin wall of the RV relative to tag spacing which limits assessment of regional function using conventional in-plane tagging. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the use of through-plane tags in the strain-encoding (SENC CMR technique would result in reproducible measurements of the RV regional function due to the high image quality and spatial resolution possible with SENC. Aim To test the intra- and inter-observer variabilities of RV peak systolic strain measurements with SENC CMR for assessment of RV regional function (systolic strain in healthy volunteers. Methods Healthy volunteers (n = 21 were imaged using SENC. A four-chamber view was acquired in a single breath-hold. Circumferential strain was measured during systole at six equidistant points along the RV free wall. Peak contraction is defined as the maximum value of circumferential strain averaged from the six points, and regional function is defined as the strain value at each point at the time of peak contraction. Results Mean values for peak circumferential strain (± standard deviation of the basal, mid, and apical regions of the RV free wall were -20.4 ± 2.9%, -18.8 ± 3.9%, and -16.5 ± 5.7%, Altman plots showed good intra- and inter-observer agreements with mean difference of 0.11% and 0.32% and limits of agreement of -4.038 to 4.174 and -4.903 to 5.836, respectively. Conclusion SENC CMR allows for rapid quantification of RV regional function with low intra- and inter-observer variabilities, which could permit accurate quantification of regional strain in patients with RV dysfunction.

  1. Meige`s syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Tsutomu; Shikishima, Keigo; Kawai, Kazushige; Kitahara, Kenji [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-11-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige`s syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige`s syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige`s syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige`s syndrome. (author)

  2. The Multifaceted Functions of CXCL10 in Cardiovascular Disease

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    Pleunie van den Borne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10, or interferon-inducible protein-10, is a small chemokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. Its members are responsible for leukocyte trafficking and act on tissue cells, like endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. CXCL10 is secreted by leukocytes and tissue cells and functions as a chemoattractant, mainly for lymphocytes. After binding to its receptor CXCR3, CXCL10 evokes a range of inflammatory responses: key features in cardiovascular disease (CVD. The role of CXCL10 in CVD has been extensively described, for example for atherosclerosis, aneurysm formation, and myocardial infarction. However, there seems to be a discrepancy between experimental and clinical settings. This discrepancy occurs from differences in biological actions between species (e.g. mice and human, which is dependent on CXCL10 signaling via different CXCR3 isoforms or CXCR3-independent signaling. This makes translation from experimental to clinical settings challenging. Furthermore, the overall consensus on the actions of CXCL10 in specific CVD models is not yet reached. The purpose of this review is to describe the functions of CXCL10 in different CVDs in both experimental and clinical settings and to highlight and discuss the possible discrepancies and translational difficulties. Furthermore, CXCL10 as a possible biomarker in CVD will be discussed.

  3. Nutraceuticals in cardiovascular prevention: lessons from studies on endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuchi, Cinzia; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Lüscher, Thomas F; Landmesser, Ulf

    2010-08-01

    An "unhealthy" diet is considered as a main cause of increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the industrialized countries. There is a substantial interest in the potential cardiovascular protective effects of "nutraceuticals," that is food-derived substances that exert beneficial health effects. The correct understanding of cardiovascular effects of these compounds will have important implications for cardiovascular prevention strategies. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to play an important role in development and progression of atherosclerosis, and the characterization of the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals may provide important insights into their potential role in cardiovascular prevention. At the same time, the analysis of the endothelial effects of nutraceuticals may also provide valuable insights into mechanisms of why certain nutraceuticals may not be effective in cardiovascular prevention, and it may aid in the identification of food-derived substances that may have detrimental cardiovascular effects. These findings further support the notion that nutraceuticals do need support from large clinical outcome trials with respect to their efficacy and safety profile for cardiovascular prevention, before their widespread use can be recommended. In fact, the term nutraceutical was coined to encourage an extensive and profound research activity in this field, and numerous large-scale clinical outcome trials to examine the effects of nutraceuticals on cardiovascular events have now been performed or are still ongoing. Whereas it is possible that single nutraceuticals may be effective in cardiovascular prevention, this field of research provides also valuable insights into which food components may be particularly important for cardiovascular prevention, to further advice the composition of a particularly healthy diet. The present review summarizes recent studies on the endothelial effects of several nutraceuticals, that have been

  4. Endocytosis-independent function of clathrin heavy chain in the control of basal NF-κB activation.

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    Man Lyang Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes involved in a variety of biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, stress responses and cell proliferation. Constitutive or excessive NF-κB activity has been associated with inflammatory disorders and higher risk of cancer. In contrast to the mechanisms controlling inducible activation, the regulation of basal NF-κB activation is not well understood. Here we test whether clathrin heavy chain (CHC contributes to the regulation of basal NF-κB activity in epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA interference to reduce endogenous CHC expression, we found that CHC is required to prevent constitutive activation of NF-κB and gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed constitutive nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit p65 in absence of stimulation after CHC knockdown. Elevated basal p65 nuclear localization is caused by constitutive phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα through an IκB kinase α (IKKα-dependent mechanism. The role of CHC in NF-κB signaling is functionally relevant as constitutive expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, whose expression is regulated by NF-κB, was found after CHC knockdown. Disruption of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chemical inhibition or depletion of the μ2-subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein AP-2, and knockdown of clathrin light chain a (CHLa, failed to induce constitutive NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, showing that CHC acts on NF-κB independently of endocytosis and CLCa. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHC functions as a built-in molecular brake that ensures a tight control of basal NF-κB activation and gene expression in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential link between a defect in CHC expression and chronic inflammation disorder and cancer.

  5. Validation of Cardiovascular Parameters during NASA's Functional Task Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzeno, N. M.; Stenger, M. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Platts, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity exposure causes physiological deconditioning and impairs crewmember task performance. The Functional Task Test (FTT) is designed to correlate these physiological changes to performance in a series of operationally-relevant tasks. One of these, the Recovery from Fall/Stand Test (RFST), tests both the ability to recover from a prone position and cardiovascular responses to orthostasis. PURPOSE: Three minutes were chosen for the duration of this test, yet it is unknown if this is long enough to induce cardiovascular responses similar to the operational 5 min stand test. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of heart rate variability (HRV) analysis of a 3 min stand and to examine the effect of spaceflight on these measures. METHODS: To determine the validity of using 3 vs. 5 min of standing to assess HRV, ECG was collected from 7 healthy subjects who participated in a 6 min RFST. Mean R-R interval (RR) and spectral HRV were measured in minutes 0-3 and 0-5 following the heart rate transient due to standing. Significant differences between the segments were determined by a paired t-test. To determine the reliability of the 3-min stand test, 13 healthy subjects completed 3 trials of the FTT on separate days, including the RFST with a 3 min stand. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the HRV measures. One crewmember completed the FTT before a 14-day mission, on landing day (R+0) and one (R+1) day after returning to Earth. RESULTS VALIDITY: HRV measures reflecting autonomic activity were not significantly different during the 0-3 and 0-5 min segments. RELIABILITY: The average coefficient of variation for RR, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures during the RFST were less than 8% for the 3 sessions. ANOVA results yielded a greater inter-subject variability (p0.05) for HRV in the RFST. SPACEFLIGHT: Lower RR and higher SBP were observed on R+0 in rest and stand. On R+1, both RR and SBP trended towards preflight

  6. Sonic hedgehog-expressing basal cells are general post-mitotic precursors of functional taste receptor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hirohito; Scott, Jennifer K.; Harada, Shuitsu; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Taste buds contain ~60 elongate cells and several basal cells. Elongate cells comprise three functional taste cell types: I - glial cells, II - bitter/sweet/umami receptor cells, and III - sour detectors. Although taste cells are continuously renewed, lineage relationships among cell types are ill-defined. Basal cells have been proposed as taste bud stem cells, a subset of which express Sonic hedgehog (Shh). However, Shh+ basal cells turnover rapidly suggesting that Shh+ cells are precursors of some or all taste cell types. Results To fate map Shh-expressing cells, mice carrying ShhCreERT2 and a high (CAG-CAT-EGFP) or low (R26RLacZ) efficiency reporter allele were given tamoxifen to activate Cre in Shh+ cells. Using R26RLacZ, lineage-labeled cells occur singly within buds, supporting a post-mitotic state for Shh+ cells. Using either reporter, we show that Shh+ cells differentiate into all three taste cell types, in proportions reflecting cell type ratios in taste buds (I > II > III). Conclusions Shh+ cells are not stem cells, but are post-mitotic, immediate precursors of taste cells. Shh+ cells differentiate into each of the three taste cell types, and the choice of a specific taste cell fate is regulated to maintain the proper ratio within buds. PMID:24590958

  7. Retinoic acid functions as a key GABAergic differentiation signal in the basal ganglia.

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    Christina Chatzi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although retinoic acid (RA has been implicated as an extrinsic signal regulating forebrain neurogenesis, the processes regulated by RA signaling remain unclear. Here, analysis of retinaldehyde dehydrogenase mutant mouse embryos lacking RA synthesis demonstrates that RA generated by Raldh3 in the subventricular zone of the basal ganglia is required for GABAergic differentiation, whereas RA generated by Raldh2 in the meninges is unnecessary for development of the adjacent cortex. Neurospheres generated from the lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE, where Raldh3 is highly expressed, produce endogenous RA, which is required for differentiation to GABAergic neurons. In Raldh3⁻/⁻ embryos, LGE progenitors fail to differentiate into either GABAergic striatal projection neurons or GABAergic interneurons migrating to the olfactory bulb and cortex. We describe conditions for RA treatment of human embryonic stem cells that result in efficient differentiation to a heterogeneous population of GABAergic interneurons without the appearance of GABAergic striatal projection neurons, thus providing an in vitro method for generation of GABAergic interneurons for further study. Our observation that endogenous RA is required for generation of LGE-derived GABAergic neurons in the basal ganglia establishes a key role for RA signaling in development of the forebrain.

  8. The effects of age on resting state functional connectivity of the basal ganglia from young to middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2015-02-15

    The basal ganglia nuclei are critical for a variety of cognitive and motor functions. Much work has shown age-related structural changes of the basal ganglia. Yet less is known about how the functional interactions of these regions with the cerebral cortex and the cerebellum change throughout the lifespan. Here, we took advantage of a convenient sample and examined resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 250 adults 18 to 49 years of age, focusing specifically on the caudate nucleus, pallidum, putamen, and ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN). There are a few main findings to report. First, with age, caudate head connectivity increased with a large region of ventromedial prefrontal/medial orbitofrontal cortex. Second, across all subjects, pallidum and putamen showed negative connectivity with default mode network (DMN) regions such as the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex, in support of anti-correlation of the "task-positive" network (TPN) and DMN. This negative connectivity was reduced with age. Furthermore, pallidum, posterior putamen and VTA/SN connectivity to other TPN regions, such as somatomotor cortex, decreased with age. These results highlight a distinct effect of age on cerebral functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum and VTA/SN from young to middle adulthood and may help research investigating the etiologies or monitoring outcomes of neuropsychiatric conditions that implicate dopaminergic dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1 ± 2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG......, RHI was 21% higher (P training is associated with better LV systolic function, physical fitness......, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality....

  10. Functional valve assessment: the emerging role of cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dipan J

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of valvular heart disease is increasing along with the life span of the population. In assessing individuals with valve disease, echocardiography is the primary imaging modality used by clinicians both for initial assessment and for longitudinal evaluation. Information regarding valve morphology and function, cardiac chamber size, wall thickness, ventricular function, and estimates of pulmonary artery pressures can be readily obtained and integrated to formulate an assessment of valve disease severity. In some instances, body habitus or the presence of coexisting lung disease may result in suboptimal acoustic windows on echocardiography, which may lead to technically difficult studies. Additionally, in some patients, information from clinical history and physical examination or other diagnostic tests may be discordant with echocardiographic findings. In these instances, there is a significant clinical role for cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). The diagnostic capabilities of CMR have increased substantially over the past 20 years due to hardware and software advances. Today, CMR has a number of unique advantages over other imaging modalities - primarily, it provides a view of the entire heart without limitations from inadequate imaging windows or body habitus. Furthermore, CMR can obtain imaging data in any imaging plane prescribed by the scan operator, which makes it ideal for accurate investigation of all cardiac valves - aortic, mitral, pulmonic, and tricuspid. In addition, CMR for valve assessment is noninvasive, free of ionizing radiation, and in most instances does not require contrast administration. Since a comprehensive review of the role of CMR in all valve lesions is beyond the scope of this article, we will focus on the most common valvular indication for performance of clinical CMR techniques and an overview of selected validation and reproducibility studies. The objectives of a comprehensive CMR study for evaluating mitral

  11. Bilateral Functional Connectivity of the Basal Ganglia in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease and Its Modulation by Dopaminergic Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Simon; Tan, Huiling; Anzak, Anam; Pogosyan, Alek; Kühn, Andrea; Brown, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is characterised by excessive subcortical beta oscillations. However, little is known about the functional connectivity of the two basal ganglia across hemispheres and specifically the role beta plays in this. We recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally in 23 subjects with Parkinson’s disease at rest, on and off medication. We found suppression of low beta power in response to levodopa (t22 = −4.4, psynchronisation in the beta band and found significant amplitude co-modulation and phase locking values in 17 and 16 subjects respectively, off medication. There was a dissociable effect of levodopa on these measures, with a significant suppression only in low beta phase locking value (t22 = −2.8, p = 0.01) and not amplitude co-modulation. The absolute mean values of amplitude co-modulation (0.40±0.03) and phase synchronisation (0.29±0.02) off medication were, however, relatively low, suggesting that the two basal ganglia networks may have to be approached separately with independent sensing and stimulation during adaptive deep brain stimulation. In addition, our findings highlight the functional distinction between the lower and upper beta frequency ranges and between amplitude co-modulation and phase synchronization across subthalamic nuclei. PMID:24376574

  12. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina A. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response.

  13. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2017-10-15

    Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  14. Editor's Choice - Acute Cardiovascular Care Association Position Paper on Intensive Cardiovascular Care Units: An update on their definition, structure, organisation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Bueno, Hector; Casella, Gianni; De Maria, Elia; Fitzsimons, Donna; Halvorsen, Sigrun; Hassager, Christian; Iakobishvili, Zaza; Magdy, Ahmed; Marandi, Toomas; Mimoso, Jorge; Parkhomenko, Alexander; Price, Susana; Rokyta, Richard; Roubille, Francois; Serpytis, Pranas; Shimony, Avi; Stepinska, Janina; Tint, Diana; Trendafilova, Elina; Tubaro, Marco; Vrints, Christiaan; Walker, David; Zahger, Doron; Zima, Endre; Zukermann, Robert; Lettino, Maddalena

    2018-02-01

    Acute cardiovascular care has progressed considerably since the last position paper was published 10 years ago. It is now a well-defined, complex field with demanding multidisciplinary teamworking. The Acute Cardiovascular Care Association has provided this update of the 2005 position paper on acute cardiovascular care organisation, using a multinational working group. The patient population has changed, and intensive cardiovascular care units now manage a large range of conditions from those simply requiring specialised monitoring, to critical cardiovascular diseases with associated multi-organ failure. To describe better intensive cardiovascular care units case mix, acuity of care has been divided into three levels, and then defining intensive cardiovascular care unit functional organisation. For each level of intensive cardiovascular care unit, this document presents the aims of the units, the recommended management structure, the optimal number of staff, the need for specially trained cardiologists and cardiovascular nurses, the desired equipment and architecture, and the interaction with other departments in the hospital and other intensive cardiovascular care units in the region/area. This update emphasises cardiologist training, referring to the recently updated Acute Cardiovascular Care Association core curriculum on acute cardiovascular care. The training of nurses in acute cardiovascular care is additionally addressed. Intensive cardiovascular care unit expertise is not limited to within the unit's geographical boundaries, extending to different specialties and subspecialties of cardiology and other specialties in order to optimally manage the wide scope of acute cardiovascular conditions in frequently highly complex patients. This position paper therefore addresses the need for the inclusion of acute cardiac care and intensive cardiovascular care units within a hospital network, linking university medical centres, large community hospitals, and smaller

  15. Fruits intake and cardiovascular function in normotensive young adults

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the effect of increase fruits intake on cardiovascular health as specified by blood pressure and pulse rate. It is a 4 week study involving 70 apparently healthy normotensive students, between the ages of 20–30 years. They were recruited from the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Ambrose ...

  16. Bilateral functional connectivity of the basal ganglia in patients with Parkinson's disease and its modulation by dopaminergic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Simon; Tan, Huiling; Anzak, Anam; Pogosyan, Alek; Kühn, Andrea; Brown, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterised by excessive subcortical beta oscillations. However, little is known about the functional connectivity of the two basal ganglia across hemispheres and specifically the role beta plays in this. We recorded local field potentials from the subthalamic nucleus bilaterally in 23 subjects with Parkinson's disease at rest, on and off medication. We found suppression of low beta power in response to levodopa (t22 = -4.4, pbasal ganglia networks may have to be approached separately with independent sensing and stimulation during adaptive deep brain stimulation. In addition, our findings highlight the functional distinction between the lower and upper beta frequency ranges and between amplitude co-modulation and phase synchronization across subthalamic nuclei.

  17. Functional Relevance of Different Basal Ganglia Pathways Investigated in a Spiking Model with Reward Dependent Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Berthet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain enables animals to behaviourally adapt in order to survive in a complex and dynamic environment, but how reward-oriented behaviours are achieved and computed by its underlying neural circuitry is an open question. To address this concern, we have developed a spiking model of the basal ganglia (BG that learns to dis-inhibit the action leading to a reward despite ongoing changes in the reward schedule. The architecture of the network features the two pathways commonly described in BG, the direct (denoted D1 and the indirect (denoted D2 pathway, as well as a loop involving striatum and the dopaminergic system. The activity of these dopaminergic neurons conveys the reward prediction error (RPE, which determines the magnitude of synaptic plasticity within the different pathways. All plastic connections implement a versatile four-factor learning rule derived from Bayesian inference that depends upon pre- and postsynaptic activity, receptor type and dopamine level. Synaptic weight updates occur in the D1 or D2 pathways depending on the sign of the RPE, and an efference copy informs upstream nuclei about the action selected. We demonstrate successful performance of the system in a multiple-choice learning task with a transiently changing reward schedule. We simulate lesioning of the various pathways and show that a condition without the D2 pathway fares worse than one without D1. Additionally, we simulate the degeneration observed in Parkinson’s disease (PD by decreasing the number of dopaminergic neurons during learning. The results suggest that the D1 pathway impairment in PD might have been overlooked. Furthermore, an analysis of the alterations in the synaptic weights shows that using the absolute reward value instead of the RPE leads to a larger change in D1.

  18. Re-evaluating the functional landscape of the cardiovascular system during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Norio; Omae, Madoka; Sagawa, Fumihiko; Chi, Neil C; Endo, Satsuki; Kozawa, Satoshi; Sato, Thomas N

    2017-11-15

    The cardiovascular system facilitates body-wide distribution of oxygen, a vital process for the development and survival of virtually all vertebrates. However, the zebrafish, a vertebrate model organism, appears to form organs and survive mid-larval periods without a functional cardiovascular system. Despite such dispensability, it is the first organ to develop. Such enigma prompted us to hypothesize other cardiovascular functions that are important for developmental and/or physiological processes. Hence, systematic cellular ablations and functional perturbations were performed on the zebrafish cardiovascular system to gain comprehensive and body-wide understanding of such functions and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. This approach identifies a set of organ-specific genes, each implicated for important functions. The study also unveils distinct cardiovascular mechanisms, each differentially regulating their expressions in organ-specific and oxygen-independent manners. Such mechanisms are mediated by organ-vessel interactions, circulation-dependent signals, and circulation-independent beating-heart-derived signals. A comprehensive and body-wide functional landscape of the cardiovascular system reported herein may provide clues as to why it is the first organ to develop. Furthermore, these data could serve as a resource for the study of organ development and function. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Cardiovascular functioning, personality, and the social world: the domain of hierarchical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Tamara L

    2009-02-01

    The present paper considers connections between cardiovascular functioning (i.e., disease status and acute stress responses) and social dominance, and its counterpart, social submissiveness, both of which are part of the broader domain of "hierarchical power" [Bugental, D.B., 2000. Acquisition of the algorithms of social life: a domain-based approach. Psychological Bulletin 126, 187-219]. Empirical research on connections between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in humans is reviewed, as is research on dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular reactivity to, and recovery from, acute stressors. Three general conclusions are established. First, in both cross-sectional and longitudinal investigations, trait and behavioral indicators of dominance have been positively associated with cardiovascular disease severity, incidence, and progression, whereas preliminary evidence from two studies suggests that trait submissiveness may protect against poorer disease outcomes. Second, among men and women, trait dominance is associated with reactivity to and recovery from acute stressors, particularly social challenges. Third, linkages between dominance/submissiveness and cardiovascular functioning, especially cardiovascular reactivity, are characterized by gender-specific patterning, and this patterning emerges as a function of social context. Implications for the next generation of research concerning social dominance, gender, and cardiovascular functioning are discussed.

  20. Freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is associated with functional decoupling between the cognitive control network and the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Matar, Elie; Ward, Philip B; Frank, Michael J; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Pearson, Mark; Naismith, Sharon L; Lewis, Simon J G

    2013-12-01

    Recent neuroimaging evidence has led to the proposal that freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease is due to dysfunctional interactions between frontoparietal cortical regions and subcortical structures, such as the striatum. However, to date, no study has employed task-based functional connectivity analyses to explore this hypothesis. In this study, we used a data-driven multivariate approach to explore the impaired communication between distributed neuronal networks in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and freezing of gait, and 10 matched patients with no clinical history of freezing behaviour. Patients performed a virtual reality gait task on two separate occasions (once ON and once OFF their regular dopaminergic medication) while functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected. Group-level independent component analysis was used to extract the subject-specific time courses associated with five well-known neuronal networks: the motor network, the right- and left cognitive control networks, the ventral attention network and the basal ganglia network. We subsequently analysed both the activation and connectivity of these neuronal networks between the two groups with respect to dopaminergic state and cognitive load while performing the virtual reality gait task. During task performance, all patients used the left cognitive control network and the ventral attention network and in addition, showed increased connectivity between the bilateral cognitive control networks. However, patients with freezing demonstrated functional decoupling between the basal ganglia network and the cognitive control network in each hemisphere. This decoupling was also associated with paroxysmal motor arrests. These results support the hypothesis that freezing behaviour in Parkinson's disease is because of impaired communication between complimentary yet competing neural networks.

  1. Limbic and Basal Ganglia Neuroanatomical Correlates of Gait and Executive Function: Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Intact Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Ellen L; Kelly, Valerie E; Weaver, Kurt E; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McCurry, Susan M; Pike, Kenneth C; Grabowski, Thomas J; Teri, Linda

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in spatiotemporal gait parameters between older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment and normal cognition and to examine limbic and basal ganglia neural correlates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia. This was a cross-sectional study of 46 community-dwelling older adults, ages 70-95 yrs, with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 23) and normal cognition (n = 23). Structural magnetic resonance imaging was used to attain volumetric measures of limbic and basal ganglia structures. Quantitative motion analysis was used to measure spatiotemporal parameters of gait. The Trail Making Test was used to assess executive function. During fast-paced walking, older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated significantly slower gait speed and shorter stride length compared with older adults with normal cognition. Stride length was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and nucleus accumbens volumes (P function was positively correlated with hippocampal, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate volumes (P older adults with normal cognition, those with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrated slower gait speed and shorter stride length, during fast-paced walking, and lower executive function. Hippocampal and anterior cingulate volumes demonstrated moderate positive correlation with both gait and executive function, after adjusting for age. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) discuss gait performance and cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment versus normal cognition, (2) discuss neurocorrelates of gait and executive function in older adults without dementia, and (3) recognize the importance of assessing gait speed and cognitive function in the clinical management of older

  2. Comparison of 24-hour cardiovascular and autonomic function in paraplegia, tetraplegia, and control groups: implications for cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Rivera, Dwindally; Radulovic, M; Handrakis, John P; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Jensen, A Marley; Kirshblum, Steve; Bauman, William A; Wecht, Jill Maria

    2011-01-01

    Fluctuations in 24-hour cardiovascular hemodynamics, specifically heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), are thought to reflect autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) represent a model of ANS dysfunction, which may affect 24-hour hemodynamics and predispose these individuals to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To determine 24-hour cardiovascular and ANS function among individuals with tetraplegia (n=20; TETRA: C4-C8), high paraplegia (n=10; HP: T2-T5), low paraplegia (n=9; LP: T7-T12), and non-SCI controls (n=10). Twenty-four-hour ANS function was assessed by time domain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV); the standard deviation of the 5-minute average R-R intervals (SDANN; milliseconds/ms), and the root-mean square of the standard deviation of the R-R intervals (rMSSD; ms). Subjects wore 24-hour ambulatory monitors to record HR, HRV, and BP. Mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly lower 24-hour BP in the tetraplegic group; however, BP did not differ between the HP, LP, and control groups. Mixed ANOVA suggested significantly elevated 24-hour HR in the HP and LP groups compared to the TETRA and control groups (Pcontrol groups (Pcontrol groups (P<0.01). Twenty-four-hour SDANN was significantly increased in the HP group compared to the LP and TETRA groups (P<0.05) and rMSSD was significantly lower in the LP compared to the other three groups (P<0.05). Elevated 24-hour HR in persons with paraplegia, in concert with altered HRV dynamics, may impart significant adverse cardiovascular consequences, which are currently unappreciated.

  3. Basal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, J A; Dixon, R A; McCluskey, S E; Young, A H

    2000-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with abnormalities in neuroendocrine function including sustained hypercortisolism, which has been shown elsewhere to be associated with impairment of function in learning, memory and attention. Cognitive impairment has also been observed in anorexia nervosa. These effects may be mediated in part through cortisol effects on the hippocampus, which is dense with glucocorticoid receptors. We investigated the association between cortisol levels and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa by measuring both 24-hour urinary cortisol counts and performance on tasks of learning, memory and attention in patients suffering from the disorder. Cortisol secretion was shown to be significantly higher in the patient group than in a matched control group and patients were also shown to be impaired in memory and attention. However, no correlations were found between the cognitive deficits and cortisol measures. It is suggested that more sensitive profiling of cortisol levels throughout the circadian cycle may be useful in future studies of cognitive function in anorexia nervosa.

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study of Ageing and Cardiovascular Function over the Baboon Lifespan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen R Yeung

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with changes at the molecular and cellular level that can alter cardiovascular function and ultimately lead to disease. The baboon is an ideal model for studying ageing due to the similarities in genetic, anatomical, physiological and biochemical characteristics with humans. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the changes in cardiovascular profile of baboons over the course of their lifespan.Data were collected from 109 healthy baboons (Papio hamadryas at the Australian National Baboon Colony. A linear regression model, adjusting for sex, was used to analyse the association between age and markers of ageing with P 12 years had significantly shorter telomeres when compared to younger (<3 years baboons (P = 0.001.This study is the first to demonstrate that cardiovascular function alters with age in the baboon. This research identifies similarities within cardiovascular parameters between humans and baboon even though the length of life differs between the two species.

  5. Rethinking Functional Outcome Measures: The Development of a Novel Upper Limb Token Transfer Test to Assess Basal Ganglia Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne P. Clinch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia are implicated in a wide range of motor, cognitive and behavioral activities required for normal function. This region is predominantly affected in Huntington's disease (HD, meaning that functional ability progressively worsens. However, functional outcome measures for HD, particularly those for the upper limb, are limited meaning there is an imperative for well-defined, quantitative measures. Here we describe the development and evaluation of the Moneybox test (MBT. This novel, functional upper limb assessment was developed in accordance with translational neuroscience and physiological principles for people with a broad disease manifestation, such as HD. Participants with HD (n = 64 and healthy controls (n = 21 performed the MBT, which required subjects to transfer tokens into a container in order of size (Baseline Transfer, value (Complex Transfer with and without reciting the alphabet (Dual Transfer. Disease specific measures of motor, cognition, behavior, and function were collected. HD patients were grouped into disease stage, from which, discriminative and convergent validity was assessed using Analysis of Variance and Pearson's correlation respectively. Manifest HD participants were slower than pre-manifest and control participants, and achieved significantly lower MBT total scores. Performance in the Complex Transfer and Dual Transfer tasks were significantly different between pre-manifest and stage 1 HD. All MBT performance variables significantly correlated with routinely used measures of motor, cognition, behavior, and function. The MBT provides a valid, sensitive, and affordable functional outcome measure. Unlike current assessments, MBT performance significantly distinguished the subtle differences between the earliest disease stages of HD, which are the populations typically targeted in clinical trials.

  6. Alcohol and Cardiovascular Disease—Modulation of Vascular Cell Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Cahill

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol is a commonly used drug worldwide. Epidemiological studies have identified alcohol consumption as a factor that may either positively or negatively influence many diseases including cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and dementia. Often there seems to be a differential effect of various drinking patterns, with frequent moderate consumption of alcohol being salutary and binge drinking or chronic abuse being deleterious to one’s health. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating the many effects of alcohol consumption is beginning to emerge, as well as a clearer picture as to whether these effects are due to the direct actions of alcohol itself, or caused in part by its metabolites, e.g., acetaldehyde, or by incidental components present in the alcoholic beverage (e.g., polyphenols in red wine. This review will discuss evidence to date as to how alcohol (ethanol might affect atherosclerosis that underlies cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and the putative mechanisms involved, focusing on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell effects.

  7. Cardiovascular health and cognitive function: the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina E Crichton

    Full Text Available Smoking, physical inactivity, and poor diet, along with obesity, fasting glucose and blood pressure have been independently associated with poorer cognitive performance. Few studies have related scales representing a combination of these variables to multiple domains of cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between overall cardiovascular health, incorporating seven components, and cognitive function.A cross-sectional analysis employing 972 participants, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study was undertaken. Four health behaviors (body mass index, physical activity, diet, smoking and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Each was categorized according to the American Heart Association definitions for ideal cardiovascular health, except diet, for which two food scores were calculated. A Cardiovascular Health Score was determined by summing the number of cardiovascular metrics at ideal levels. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery.Cardiovascular Health Score was positively associated with seven out of eight measures of cognitive function, with adjustment for age, education, and gender. With further adjustment for cardiovascular and psychological variables, these associations remained significant for Visual-Spatial Memory, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Executive Function and the Global Composite score (p<0.05 for all. Ideal levels of a number of health factors and behaviors were positively associated with global cognitive performance.Increasing cardiovascular health, indexed by a higher number of metrics at ideal levels, is associated with greater cognitive performance. Smoking, physical activity, and diet are important components of cardiovascular health that impact upon cognition.

  8. Interaction between the 5-HT system and the basal ganglia: functional implication and therapeutic perspective in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelez, Cristina; Morera-Herreras, Teresa; Torrecilla, Maria; Ruiz-Ortega, Jose A; Ugedo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has a multifaceted function in the modulation of information processing through the activation of multiple receptor families, including G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4-7) and ligand-gated ion channels (5-HT3). The largest population of serotonergic neurons is located in the midbrain, specifically in the raphe nuclei. Although the medial and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) share common projecting areas, in the basal ganglia (BG) nuclei serotonergic innervations come mainly from the DRN. The BG are a highly organized network of subcortical nuclei composed of the striatum (caudate and putamen), subthalamic nucleus (STN), internal and external globus pallidus (or entopeduncular nucleus in rodents, GPi/EP and GPe) and substantia nigra (pars compacta, SNc, and pars reticulata, SNr). The BG are part of the cortico-BG-thalamic circuits, which play a role in many functions like motor control, emotion, and cognition and are critically involved in diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). This review provides an overview of serotonergic modulation of the BG at the functional level and a discussion of how this interaction may be relevant to treating PD and the motor complications induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  9. Interaction between the 5-HT system and the basal ganglia: Functional implication and therapeutic perspective in Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMiguelez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT has a multifaceted function in the modulation of information processing through the activation of multiple receptor families, including G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes (5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT4-7 and ligand-gated ion channels (5-HT3. The largest population of serotonergic neurons is located in the midbrain, specifically in the raphe nuclei. Although the medial and dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN share common projecting areas, in the basal ganglia (BG nuclei serotonergic innervations come mainly from the DRN. The BG are a highly organized network of subcortical nuclei composed of the striatum (caudate and putamen, subthalamic nucleus (STN, internal and external globus pallidus (or entopeduncular nucleus in rodents, GPi/EP and GPe and substantia nigra (pars compacta, SNc, and pars reticulata, SNr. The BG are part of the cortico-BG-thalamic circuits, which play a role in many functions like motor control, emotion, and cognition and are critically involved in diseases such as Parkinson’s disease. This review provides an overview of serotonergic modulation of the BG at the functional level and a discussion of how this interaction may be relevant to treating Parkinson’s disease and the motor complications induced by chronic treatment with L-DOPA.

  10. Effects of oral lycopene supplementation on vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease and healthy volunteers: a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag R Gajendragadkar

    Full Text Available AIMS: The mechanisms by which a 'Mediterranean diet' reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD burden remain poorly understood. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant found in such diets with evidence suggesting beneficial effects. We wished to investigate the effects of lycopene on the vasculature in CVD patients and separately, in healthy volunteers (HV. METHODS AND RESULTS: We randomised 36 statin treated CVD patients and 36 healthy volunteers in a 2∶1 treatment allocation ratio to either 7 mg lycopene or placebo daily for 2 months in a double-blind trial. Forearm responses to intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; EDV, sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilatation; EIDV, and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (basal nitric oxide (NO synthase activity were measured using venous plethysmography. A range of vascular and biochemical secondary endpoints were also explored. EDV in CVD patients post-lycopene improved by 53% (95% CI: +9% to +93%, P = 0.03 vs. placebo without changes to EIDV, or basal NO responses. HVs did not show changes in EDV after lycopene treatment. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipids and hsCRP levels were unchanged for lycopene vs. placebo treatment groups in the CVD arm as well as the HV arm. At baseline, CVD patients had impaired EDV compared with HV (30% lower; 95% CI: -45% to -10%, P = 0.008, despite lower LDL cholesterol (1.2 mmol/L lower, 95% CI: -1.6 to -0.9 mmol/L, P<0.001. Post-therapy EDV responses for lycopene-treated CVD patients were similar to HVs at baseline (2% lower, 95% CI: -30% to +30%, P = 0.85, also suggesting lycopene improved endothelial function. CONCLUSIONS: Lycopene supplementation improves endothelial function in CVD patients on optimal secondary prevention, but not in HVs. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01100385.

  11. Effects of Oral Lycopene Supplementation on Vascular Function in Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and Healthy Volunteers: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R.; Hubsch, Annette; Mäki-Petäjä, Kaisa M.; Serg, Martin; Wilkinson, Ian B.; Cheriyan, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Aims The mechanisms by which a ‘Mediterranean diet’ reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden remain poorly understood. Lycopene is a potent antioxidant found in such diets with evidence suggesting beneficial effects. We wished to investigate the effects of lycopene on the vasculature in CVD patients and separately, in healthy volunteers (HV). Methods and Results We randomised 36 statin treated CVD patients and 36 healthy volunteers in a 2∶1 treatment allocation ratio to either 7 mg lycopene or placebo daily for 2 months in a double-blind trial. Forearm responses to intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine (endothelium-dependent vasodilatation; EDV), sodium nitroprusside (endothelium-independent vasodilatation; EIDV), and NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (basal nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity) were measured using venous plethysmography. A range of vascular and biochemical secondary endpoints were also explored. EDV in CVD patients post-lycopene improved by 53% (95% CI: +9% to +93%, P = 0.03 vs. placebo) without changes to EIDV, or basal NO responses. HVs did not show changes in EDV after lycopene treatment. Blood pressure, arterial stiffness, lipids and hsCRP levels were unchanged for lycopene vs. placebo treatment groups in the CVD arm as well as the HV arm. At baseline, CVD patients had impaired EDV compared with HV (30% lower; 95% CI: −45% to −10%, P = 0.008), despite lower LDL cholesterol (1.2 mmol/L lower, 95% CI: −1.6 to −0.9 mmol/L, Plycopene-treated CVD patients were similar to HVs at baseline (2% lower, 95% CI: −30% to +30%, P = 0.85), also suggesting lycopene improved endothelial function. Conclusions Lycopene supplementation improves endothelial function in CVD patients on optimal secondary prevention, but not in HVs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01100385 PMID:24911964

  12. Quantification of right and left ventricular function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellenger, N.G.; Smith, G.C.; Pennell, D.J.; Grothues, F.

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac dysfunction is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accurate and reproducible assessment of cardiac function is essential for the diagnosis, the assessment of prognosis and evaluation of a patient's response to therapy. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides a measure of global and regional function that is not only accurate and reproducible but is noninvasive, free of ionising radiation, and independent of the geometric assumptions and acoustic windows that limit echocardiography. With the advent of faster scanners, automated analysis, increasing availability and reducing costs, CMR is fast becoming a clinically tenable reference standard for the measurement of cardiac function. (orig.) [de

  13. Aldosterone dysregulation with aging predicts renal vascular function and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jenifer M; Underwood, Patricia C; Ferri, Claudio; Hopkins, Paul N; Williams, Gordon H; Adler, Gail K; Vaidya, Anand

    2014-06-01

    Aging and abnormal aldosterone regulation are both associated with vascular disease. We hypothesized that aldosterone dysregulation influences the age-related risk of renal vascular and cardiovascular disease. We conducted an analysis of 562 subjects who underwent detailed investigations under conditions of liberal and restricted dietary sodium intake (1124 visits) in the General Clinical Research Center. Aldosterone regulation was characterized by the ratio of maximal suppression to stimulation (supine serum aldosterone on a liberal sodium diet divided by the same measure on a restricted sodium diet). We previously demonstrated that higher levels of this Sodium-modulated Aldosterone Suppression-Stimulation Index (SASSI) indicate greater aldosterone dysregulation. Renal plasma flow (RPF) was determined via p-aminohippurate clearance to assess basal renal hemodynamics and the renal vascular responses to dietary sodium manipulation and angiotensin II infusion. Cardiovascular risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score. In univariate linear regression, older age (β=-4.60; Page and SASSI, where the inverse relationship between SASSI and RPF was most apparent with older age (Page may interact to mediate renal vascular disease. Our findings suggest that the combination of aldosterone dysregulation and renal vascular dysfunction could additively increase the risk of future cardiovascular outcomes; therefore, aldosterone dysregulation may represent a modifiable mechanism of age-related vascular disease.

  14. PreSMA stimulation changes task-free functional connectivity in the fronto-basal-ganglia that correlates with response inhibition efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Benjamin; Sandrini, Marco; Wang, Wen-Tung; Smith, Jason F; Sarlls, Joelle E; Awosika, Oluwole; Butman, John A; Horwitz, Barry; Cohen, Leonardo G

    2016-09-01

    Previous work using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) demonstrated that the right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), a node in the fronto-basal-ganglia network, is critical for response inhibition. However, TMS influences interconnected regions, raising the possibility of a link between the preSMA activity and the functional connectivity within the network. To understand this relationship, we applied single-pulse TMS to the right preSMA during functional magnetic resonance imaging when the subjects were at rest to examine changes in neural activity and functional connectivity within the network in relation to the efficiency of response inhibition evaluated with a stop-signal task. The results showed that preSMA-TMS increased activation in the right inferior-frontal cortex (rIFC) and basal ganglia and modulated their task-free functional connectivity. Both the TMS-induced changes in the basal-ganglia activation and the functional connectivity between rIFC and left striatum, and of the overall network correlated with the efficiency of response inhibition and with the white-matter microstructure along the preSMA-rIFC pathway. These results suggest that the task-free functional and structural connectivity between the rIFCop and basal ganglia are critical to the efficiency of response inhibition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3236-3249, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  16. Rootletin interacts with C-Nap1 and may function as a physical linker between the pair of centrioles/basal bodies in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Adamian, Michael; Li, Tiansen

    2006-02-01

    Rootletin, a major structural component of the ciliary rootlet, is located at the basal bodies and centrosomes in ciliated and nonciliated cells, respectively. Here we investigated its potential role in the linkage of basal bodies/centrioles and the mechanism involved in such linkages. We show that rootletin interacts with C-Nap1, a protein restricted at the ends of centrioles and functioning in centrosome cohesion in interphase cells. Their interaction in vivo is supported by their colocalization at the basal bodies/centrioles and coordinated association with the centrioles during the cell cycle. Ultrastructural examinations demonstrate that rootletin fibers connect the basal bodies in ciliated cells and are present both at the ends of and in between the pair of centrioles in nonciliated cells. The latter finding stands in contrast with C-Nap1, which is present only at the ends of the centrioles. Transient expression of C-Nap1 fragments dissociated rootletin fibers from the centrioles, resulting in centrosome separation in interphase. Overexpression of rootletin in cells caused multinucleation, micronucleation, and irregularity of nuclear shape and size, indicative of defects in chromosome separation. These data suggest that rootletin may function as a physical linker between the pair of basal bodies/centrioles by binding to C-Nap1.

  17. Computational medical imaging and hemodynamics framework for functional analysis and assessment of cardiovascular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kelvin K L; Wang, Defeng; Ko, Jacky K L; Mazumdar, Jagannath; Le, Thu-Thao; Ghista, Dhanjoo

    2017-03-21

    Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential. Some of these indicators constitute important cardiac functional parameters affecting the cardiovascular abnormalities. With the advancement of computer technology that facilitates high speed computational fluid dynamics, the realization of a support diagnostic platform of hemodynamics quantification and analysis can be achieved. This article reviews the state-of-the-art medical imaging and high fidelity multi-physics computational analyses that together enable reconstruction of cardiovascular structures and hemodynamic flow patterns within them, such as of the left ventricle (LV) and carotid bifurcations. The combined medical imaging and hemodynamic analysis enables us to study the mechanisms of cardiovascular disease-causing dysfunctions, such as how (1) cardiomyopathy causes left ventricular remodeling and loss of contractility leading to heart failure, and (2) modeling of LV construction and simulation of intra-LV hemodynamics can enable us to determine the optimum procedure of surgical ventriculation to restore its contractility and health This combined medical imaging and hemodynamics framework can potentially extend medical knowledge of cardiovascular defects and associated hemodynamic behavior and their surgical restoration, by means of an integrated medical image diagnostics and hemodynamic performance analysis framework.

  18. Uncomplicated obesity is associated with abnormal aortic function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Channon Keith M

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Obese subjects with insulin resistance and hypertension have abnormal aortic elastic function, which may predispose them to the development of left ventricular dysfunction. We hypothesised that obesity, uncomplicated by other cardiovascular risk factors, is independently associated with aortic function. Methods and results We used magnetic resonance imaging to measure aortic compliance, distensibility and stiffness index in 27 obese subjects (BMI 33 kg/m2 without insulin resistance and with normal cholesterol and blood pressure, and 12 controls (BMI 23 kg/m2. Obesity was associated with reduced aortic compliance (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.2 mm2/mmHg in controls, p -1 × 10-3, p Conclusion Aortic elastic function is abnormal in obese subjects without other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings highlight the independent importance of obesity in the development of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Basal functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and psychological distress in recreational ecstasy polydrug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Montgomery, Catharine

    2014-04-01

    Ecstasy (MDMA) is a psychostimulant drug which is increasingly associated with psychobiological dysfunction. While some recent studies suggest acute changes in neuroendocrine function, less is known about long-term changes in HPA functionality in recreational users. The current study is the first to explore the effects of ecstasy-polydrug use on psychological distress and basal functioning of the HPA axis through assessing the secretion of cortisol across the diurnal period. Seventy-six participants (21 nonusers, 29 light ecstasy-polydrug users, 26 heavy ecstasy-polydrug users) completed a substance use inventory and measures of psychological distress at baseline, then two consecutive days of cortisol sampling (on awakening, 30 min post awakening, between 1400 and 1600 hours and pre bedtime). On day 2, participants also attended the laboratory to complete a 20-min multitasking stressor. Both user groups exhibited significantly greater levels of anxiety and depression than nonusers. On day 1, all participants exhibited a typical cortisol profile, though light users had significantly elevated levels pre-bed. On day 2, heavy users demonstrated elevated levels upon awakening and all ecstasy-polydrug users demonstrated elevated pre-bed levels compared to non-users. Significant between group differences were also observed in afternoon cortisol levels and in overall cortisol secretion across the day. The increases in anxiety and depression are in line with previous observations in recreational ecstasy-polydrug users. Dysregulated diurnal cortisol may be indicative of inappropriate anticipation of forthcoming demands and hypersecretion may lead to the increased psychological and physical morbidity associated with heavy recreational use of ecstasy.

  20. Does point-of-care functional echocardiography enhance cardiovascular care in the NICU?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehgal, A; McNamara, P J

    2008-11-01

    Although the last two decades have seen major advances in the care of sick, extremely premature newborns, the approach to cardiovascular assessment and monitoring remains suboptimal owing to an overreliance on poorly predictive clinical markers such as heart rate or capillary refill time. Point-of-care functional echocardiography (PCFecho) enables real-time evaluation of cardiac performance and systemic hemodynamics to characterize acute physiology, identify the exact nature of cardiovascular compromise and guide therapeutic decisions. In this article, we will review four clinical scenarios where bedside functional cardiac imaging enabled delineation of the real clinical problem and refinement of the therapeutic care plan with direct patient benefits.

  1. Attentional function and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron morphology during aging in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian E; Velazquez, Ramon; Kelley, Christy M; Ash, Jessica A; Strawderman, Myla S; Alldred, Melissa J; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mufson, Elliott J; Strupp, Barbara J

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit intellectual disability and develop Alzheimer's disease-like neuropathology during the third decade of life. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of both disorders, including impairments in learning, attention and memory, as well as atrophy of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs). The present study evaluated attentional function in relation to BFCN morphology in young (3 months) and middle-aged (12 months) Ts65Dn mice and disomic (2N) controls. Ts65Dn mice exhibited attentional dysfunction at both ages, with greater impairment in older trisomics. Density of BFCNs was significantly lower for Ts65Dn mice independent of age, which may contribute to attentional dysfunction since BFCN density was positively associated with performance on an attention task. BFCN volume decreased with age in 2N but not Ts65Dn mice. Paradoxically, BFCN volume was greater in older trisomic mice, suggestive of a compensatory response. In sum, attentional dysfunction occurred in both young and middle-aged Ts65Dn mice, which may in part reflect reduced density and/or phenotypic alterations in BFCNs.

  2. Novel neuroprotective function of apical-basal polarity gene crumbs in amyloid beta 42 (aβ42 mediated neurodegeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Steffensmeier

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, OMIM: 104300, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no cure to date, is caused by the generation of amyloid-beta-42 (Aβ42 aggregates that trigger neuronal cell death by unknown mechanism(s. We have developed a transgenic Drosophila eye model where misexpression of human Aβ42 results in AD-like neuropathology in the neural retina. We have identified an apical-basal polarity gene crumbs (crb as a genetic modifier of Aβ42-mediated-neuropathology. Misexpression of Aβ42 caused upregulation of Crb expression, whereas downregulation of Crb either by RNAi or null allele approach rescued the Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. Co-expression of full length Crb with Aβ42 increased severity of Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration, due to three fold induction of cell death in comparison to the wild type. Higher Crb levels affect axonal targeting from the retina to the brain. The structure function analysis identified intracellular domain of Crb to be required for Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration. We demonstrate a novel neuroprotective role of Crb in Aβ42-mediated-neurodegeneration.

  3. Assessment of function of the cardiovascular system in arterial hypertension using radionuclide methods of investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oganesyan, N.M.; Babayan, A.S.; Mikaehlyan, R.S.; Mnatsakyan, Eh.L.

    1986-01-01

    Proceeding from a study of the nature of changes in hemodynamics during development of hypertensive disease (HD) at its different stages it was shown that hemodynamic changes in 42.1% of the patients with Stage 1-2A HD were of hypertensive type, in the patients with Stage 2B-3 HD normal and hypokinetic types of the blood circulation prevailed. After bicycle ergometry exercise the reactivity of the cardiovascular system was revealed more completely. The most complete information on function of the cardiovascular system and myocardial contractility can be obtained with the help of radioangiocardiography and radionuclide ventriculography. However in the absence of a gamma-chamber radiocardiography can provide necessary information on function of the cardiovascular system in case it is used in one and the same patient over time using bicycle ergometry testing

  4. Cardiac function and tadalafil used for treating fetal growth restriction in pregnant women without cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kayo; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Maki, Shintaro; Kubo, Michiko; Nii, Masafumi; Magawa, Shoichi; Hatano, Fumi; Tsuji, Makoto; Osato, Kazuhiro; Kamimoto, Yuki; Umekawa, Takashi; Ikeda, Tomoaki

    2018-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate tadalafil for the treatment of fetal growth restriction (FGR) and the cardiac function in pregnant women without cardiovascular disease who used tadalafil for this reason. We examined nine pregnant women without cardiovascular disease who were using tadalafil to treat FGR. Maternal heart rate, systolic blood pressure (BP), and echocardiographic findings were assessed before and after tadalafil use. Diastolic BP was lower after compared to that before using tadalafil, but the difference was not significant. Echocardiographic findings were not significantly different before and after tadalafil use. Tadalafil did not adversely affect pregnant women without cardiovascular disease and was considered acceptable for use since it did not affect the mother's cardiac function.

  5. **-Postprandial pancreatic ["1"1C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Miholic, Johannes; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit; Karanikas, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    ["1"1C]MET uptake may represent basal and postprandial beta cell function. The findings suggest a possible usefulness of this imaging procedure for further studying beta cell function. (orig.)

  6. **-Postprandial pancreatic [{sup 11}C]methionine uptake after pancreaticoduodenectomy mirrors basal beta cell function and insulin release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Emanuel; Kazianka, Lukas; Breuer, Robert; Miholic, Johannes [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Surgery, Vienna (Austria); Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Stimpfl, Thomas; Reiter, Birgit [Medical University of Vienna, Clinical Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Forensic Toxicology, Vienna (Austria); Karanikas, Georgios [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Divisional Head PET-PET/CT (Nuclear Medicine), Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    patients after PD (R{sup 2} = 0.78, p < 0.0001). Postprandial [{sup 11}C]MET uptake may represent basal and postprandial beta cell function. The findings suggest a possible usefulness of this imaging procedure for further studying beta cell function. (orig.)

  7. Effects of complex organic mixtures of coal liquid on cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Sasser, L.B.; Zangar, R.C.; Mahlum, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function

  8. Functional foods for dyslipidaemia and cardiovascular risk prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Galli, Claudio; Anderson, James W; Sirtori, Elena; Arnoldi, Anna

    2009-12-01

    A food can be regarded as 'functional' if it can demonstrate a beneficial efficacy on one or more target functions in the body in a convincing way. Beyond adequate nutritional qualities, functional foods should either improve the state of health and wellbeing and/or reduce the risk of disease. Functional foods that are marketed with claims of heart disease reduction focus primarily on the major risk factors, i.e. cholesterol, diabetes and hypertension. Some of the most innovative products are designed to be enriched with 'protective' ingredients, believed to reduce risk. They may contain, for example, soluble fibre (from oat and psyllium), useful both for lowering cholesterol and blood pressure, or fructans, effective in diabetes. Phytosterols and stanols lower LDL-cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. Soya protein is more hypocholesterolaemic in subjects with very high initial cholesterol and recent data indicate also favourable activities in the metabolic syndrome. n-3 Fatty acids appear to exert significant hypotriacylglycerolaemic effects, possibly partly responsible for their preventive activity. Dark chocolate is gaining much attention for its multifunctional activities, useful both for the prevention of dyslipidaemia as well as hypertension. Finally, consensus opinions about tea and coffee have not emerged yet, and the benefits of vitamin E, garlic, fenugreek and policosanols in the management of dyslipidaemia and prevention of arterial disease are still controversial.

  9. Functional evidence for alternative ANG II-forming pathways in hamster cardiovascular system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishimura, H; Buikema, H; Baltatu, O; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    1998-01-01

    Like human chymase, hamster chymase is an ANG II-forming enzyme, but pathophysiological roles of chymase are still unknown. We determined the functional conversion of ANG I and [Pro(11), D-Ala(12)]ANG I, a chymase-selective substrate, to ANG II in the hamster cardiovascular system. ANG I and

  10. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltran Valls, Maria Reyes; Dimauro, Ivan; Brunelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    of 12 weeks of low-frequency, moderate-intensity, explosive-type resistance training (EMRT) on muscle strength and power in old community-dwelling people (70-75 years), monitoring functional performance linked to daily living activities (ADL) and cardiovascular response, as well as biomarkers of muscle...

  11. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wi-Young So

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were evaluated by VO2max (ml/kg/min, grip strength (kg, sit-ups (reps/min, sit and reach (cm, vertical jump (cm, side steps (reps/30s, and standing on one leg with eyes closed (sec, respectively. For cardiovascular function, we evaluated systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, resting heart rate (RHR, double product (DP, and vital capacity. There were significant decreases in cardiorespiratory endurance (p < 0.001, power (p < 0.001, and balance (p < 0.001, and increases in muscular strength (p < 0.001. Further, cardiovascular function, including SBP (p < 0.001, DBP (p < 0.001, double product (p < 0.001, and vital capacity (p=0.006 appeared to be lower for the obesity group. We conclude that an obese person exhibits lower fitness level and weaker cardiovascular function than a normal person

  12. Vascular endothelial cell function and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haaber, A B; Eidemak, I; Jensen, T

    1995-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors and markers of endothelial cell function were studied in nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate chronic renal failure. The transcapillary escape rate of albumin and the plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor, fibrinogen, and plasma lipids were measured in 29...

  13. Cardiovascular function in elderly patients with chronic chagasic cardiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Manoel Otávio Costa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the degree and type of heart damage of elderly chagasic patients seen at an outpatient referral center and to compare them with the changes found in young chagasic patients with a similar degree of heart damage. Elderly and young patients without advanced cardiopathy presented good functional behavior. Elderly patients with advanced cardiopathy had more ventricular premature beats (VPB in 24 h and less functional capacity in the exercise test than young patients of the same subgroup. There was a higher occurrence of effort-induced VPB and a lower prevalence of severe forms in elderly men, suggesting that Chagas' disease may have a worse evolution in males. The association of cardiac damage characteristic of aging with the secondary damage due to Chagas' disease could explain the greater functional damage found in elderly chagasic patients. Thus, it appears that the physiopathological components of Chagas' disease do have an influence on the clinical course of cardiopathy in the elderly population.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  15. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  16. K-Cl cotransport function and its potential contribution to cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Norma C; Lauf, Peter K

    2007-12-01

    K-Cl cotransport is the coupled electroneutral movement of K and Cl ions carried out by at least four protein isoforms, KCC1-4. These transporters belong to the SLC12A family of coupled cotransporters and, due to their multiple functions, play an important role in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Significant information exists on the overall function of these transporters, but less is known about the role of the specific isoforms. Most functional studies were done on K-Cl cotransport fluxes without knowing the molecular details, and only recently attention has been paid to the isoforms and their individual contribution to the fluxes. This review summarizes briefly and updates the information on the overall functions of this transporter, and offers some ideas on its potential contribution to the pathophysiological basis of cardiovascular disease. By virtue of its properties and the cellular ionic distribution, K-Cl cotransport participates in volume regulation of the nucleated and some enucleated cells studied thus far. One of the hallmarks in cardiovascular disease is the inability of the organism to maintain water and electrolyte balance in effectors and/or target tissues. Oxidative stress is another compounding factor in cardiovascular disease and of great significance in our modern life styles. Several functions of the transporter are modulated by oxidative stress, which in turn may cause the transporter to operate in either "overdrive" with the purpose to counteract homeostatic changes, or not to respond at all, again setting the stage for pathological changes leading to cardiovascular disease. Intracellular Mg, a second messenger, acts as an inhibitor of K-Cl cotransport and plays a crucial role in regulating the activity of protein kinases and phosphatases, which, in turn, regulate a myriad of cellular functions. Although the role of Mg in cardiovascular disease has been dealt with for several decades, this chapter is evolving nowadays at a faster

  17. Seaweeds as Preventive Agents for Cardiovascular Diseases: From Nutrients to Functional Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Cardoso

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Being naturally enriched in key nutrients and in various health-promoting compounds, seaweeds represent promising candidates for the design of functional foods. Soluble dietary fibers, peptides, phlorotannins, lipids and minerals are macroalgae’s major compounds that can hold potential in high-value food products derived from macroalgae, including those directed to the cardiovascular-health promotion. This manuscript revises available reported data focusing the role of diet supplementation of macroalgae, or extracts enriched in bioactive compounds from macroalgae origin, in targeting modifiable markers of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, like dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, vascular inflammation, hypertension, hypercoagulability and activation of the sympathetic and renin-angiotensin systems, among others. At last, the review also describes several products that have been formulated with the use of whole macroalgae or extracts, along with their claimed cardiovascular-associated benefits.

  18. Intrauterine growth restriction: impact on cardiovascular development and function throughout infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily; Wong, Flora Y; Horne, Rosemary S C; Yiallourou, Stephanie R

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) refers to the situation where a fetus does not grow according to its genetic growth potential. One of the main causes of IUGR is uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. Under these circumstances of chronic oxygen and nutrient deprivation, the growth-restricted fetus often displays typical circulatory changes, which in part represent adaptations to the suboptimal intrauterine environment. These fetal adaptations aim to preserve oxygen and nutrient supply to vital organs such as the brain, the heart, and the adrenals. These prenatal circulatory adaptations are thought to lead to an altered development of the cardiovascular system and "program" the fetus for life long cardiovascular morbidities. In this review, we discuss the alterations to cardiovascular structure, function, and control that have been observed in growth-restricted fetuses, neonates, and infants following uteroplacental vascular insufficiency. We also discuss the current knowledge on early life surveillance and interventions to prevent progression into chronic disease.

  19. Cardiovascular disease biomarkers on cognitive function in older adults: Joint effects of cardiovascular disease biomarkers and cognitive function on mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Crush, Elizabeth; Joyner, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates an inverse association between age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers with cognitive function; however, little is known about the combined associations of CVD risk factors and cognitive function with all-cause mortality in an older adult population, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (N=2,097; 60+yrs), with mortality follow-up through 2011. Evaluated individual biomarkers included mean arterial pressure (MAP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), A1C, and measured body mass index (BMI). Cognitive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Further, 4 groups were created based on CVD risk and cognitive function. Group 1: high cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 2: high cognitive function and high CVD risk; Group 3: low cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 4: low cognitive function and high CVD risk. An inverse relationship was observed where those with more CVD risk factors had a lower (worse) cognitive function score. Compared to those in Group 1, only those in Group 3 and 4 had an increase mortality risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Stress Model of Chronic Pain: Evidence from Basal Cortisol and Hippocampal Structure and Function in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Roy, Mathieu; Martel, Marc-Olivier; Caron, Etienne; Marin, Marie-France; Chen, Jeni; Albouy, Genevieve; Plante, Isabelle; Sullivan, Michael J.; Lupien, Sonia J.; Rainville, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Recent theories have suggested that chronic pain could be partly maintained by maladaptive physiological responses of the organism facing a recurrent stressor. The present study examined the associations between basal levels of cortisol collected over seven consecutive days, the hippocampal volumes and brain activation to thermal stimulations…

  1. Bridging the gap between measurements and modelling: a cardiovascular functional avatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Belén; Lantz, Jonas; Viola, Federica; Cedersund, Gunnar; Bolger, Ann F; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Karlsson, Matts; Ebbers, Tino

    2017-07-24

    Lumped parameter models of the cardiovascular system have the potential to assist researchers and clinicians to better understand cardiovascular function. The value of such models increases when they are subject specific. However, most approaches to personalize lumped parameter models have thus far required invasive measurements or fall short of being subject specific due to a lack of the necessary clinical data. Here, we propose an approach to personalize parameters in a model of the heart and the systemic circulation using exclusively non-invasive measurements. The personalized model is created using flow data from four-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and cuff pressure measurements in the brachial artery. We term this personalized model the cardiovascular avatar. In our proof-of-concept study, we evaluated the capability of the avatar to reproduce pressures and flows in a group of eight healthy subjects. Both quantitatively and qualitatively, the model-based results agreed well with the pressure and flow measurements obtained in vivo for each subject. This non-invasive and personalized approach can synthesize medical data into clinically relevant indicators of cardiovascular function, and estimate hemodynamic variables that cannot be assessed directly from clinical measurements.

  2. Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman M. Alissa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is now the leading cause of death globally and is a growing health concern. Dietary factors are important in the pathogenesis of CVD and may to a large degree determine CVD risk, but have been less extensively investigated. Functional foods are those that are thought to have physiological benefits and/or reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond their basic nutritional functions. The food industry has started to market products labelled as “functional foods.” Although many review articles have focused on individual dietary variables as determinants of CVD that can be modified to reduce the risk of CVD, the aim of this current paper was to examine the impact of functional foods in relation to the development and progression of CVD. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated the association between certain dietary patterns and cardiovascular health. Research into the cardio-protective potential of their dietary components might support the development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. This paper will also compare the effect of individual bioactive dietary compounds with the effect of some dietary patterns in terms of their cardiovascular protection.

  3. Cardiovascular function in women with recurrent miscarriage, pre-eclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, Amita A; Everett, Thomas R; McEniery, Carmel M; Wilkinson, Ian B; Lees, Christoph C

    2013-03-01

    To investigate prepregnancy cardiovascular function and risk factors in women with previous pregnancy complications. Thirty-four women with previous normal pregnancy (controls), 26 with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (RM) and 14 with pre-eclampsia (PE) and/or intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), planning to conceive were recruited. Brachial and central blood pressures (BP), cardiac output (CO), peripheral vascular resistance (PVR), aortic stiffness, blood biochemistry and platelet aggregation were assessed. Women with previous PE/IUGR had higher brachial diastolic BP (78 ± 9 vs 71 ± 7 mmHg; p = 0.03), central systolic BP (107 ± 10 vs 99 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.03), mean arterial pressure (92 ± 10 vs 84 ± 8 mmHg; p = 0.01) and PVR (1499 ± 300 vs 1250 ± 220 dynes.s(-1) cm(-5); p = 0.005), than the controls. No differences were observed in either cardiovascular function or blood biochemistry in women with unexplained RM compared with the controls. Women with previous PE/IUGR though not with RM had a stronger family history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than controls. Women with previous PE and/or IUGR had higher BP and PVR compared with controls, which may predispose them to CVD later in life. However, in the absence of underlying vascular pathology, women with unexplained RM did not have abnormal cardiovascular function. Prepregnancy period provides an opportunity to identify cardiovascular risks in relation to previous obstetric history.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA damage and vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Jessica L; Holbrook, Monica; Westbrook, David G; Brown, Jamelle A; Feeley, Kyle P; Bretón-Romero, Rosa; Linder, Erika A; Berk, Brittany D; Weisbrod, Robert M; Widlansky, Michael E; Gokce, Noyan; Ballinger, Scott W; Hamburg, Naomi M

    2016-03-31

    Prior studies demonstrate mitochondrial dysfunction with increased reactive oxygen species generation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress-mediated damage to mitochondrial DNA promotes atherosclerosis in animal models. Thus, we evaluated the relation of mitochondrial DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells s with vascular function in patients with diabetes mellitus and with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We assessed non-invasive vascular function and mitochondrial DNA damage in 275 patients (age 57 ± 9 years, 60 % women) with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease alone (N = 55), diabetes mellitus alone (N = 74), combined atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus (N = 48), and controls age >45 without diabetes mellitus or atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (N = 98). Mitochondrial DNA damage measured by quantitative PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was higher with clinical atherosclerosis alone (0.55 ± 0.65), diabetes mellitus alone (0.65 ± 1.0), and combined clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus (0.89 ± 1.32) as compared to control subjects (0.23 ± 0.64, P < 0.0001). In multivariable models adjusting for age, sex, and relevant cardiovascular risk factors, clinical atherosclerosis and diabetes mellitus remained associated with higher mitochondrial DNA damage levels (β = 0.14 ± 0.13, P = 0.04 and β = 0.21 ± 0.13, P = 0.002, respectively). Higher mitochondrial DNA damage was associated with higher baseline pulse amplitude, a measure of arterial pulsatility, but not with flow-mediated dilation or hyperemic response, measures of vasodilator function. We found greater mitochondrial DNA damage in patients with diabetes mellitus and clinical atherosclerosis. The association of mitochondrial DNA damage and baseline pulse amplitude may suggest a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and excessive small artery pulsatility with potentially adverse microvascular impact.

  5. CHANGES IN LIPOPROTEIN INDICATOR AND INDICATOR OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AFTER IMPLEMENTED CARDIOVASCULAR REHABILITATION PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Ranković

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity in the world annually is the cause of death of 1.9 million people. According to the data from the World Health Report, physical inactivity is about to become the global problem. Regular physical activity and good physical shape raise the functional capacity and the quality of patient’s life. With physical activity it is possible to improve metabolic, endothelial, lateral-muscular, pulmonary and cardiovascular functions of an organism, but also the function of the autonomous nervous system. The endothelium has the important role in maintaining the normal cardiovascular tonus and blood fluidity by reducing the platelet activity and the adhesion of leukocytes, and also by restricting the reaction of vascular inflammation. The aim of this paper was to present the recent data about effects of cardiovascular rehabilitation and physical training on lipoproteins’ status and markers of endothelial function. The impact of physical activity on the lipid status is accomplished by affecting the enzymes of lipoprotein metabolism, including the lipoprotein and the liver lipase and the movable protein of cholesterol ester (11. The studies point out that aerobic physical activity result in increasing of HDL concentration and the decrease of the triglycerides value, total and LDL cholesterol. The connection, which is dose-dependant, exists between physical activity and the lipid level, as the arguments which suggest that the duration of physical activity is the key parameter in modification of the lipid metabolism. Physical activity leads to the beneficial changes in the cardiovascular and lipid indicators and improves the endothelial function in the secondary prevention of coronary disease. Reduction of the lipid parameters by introducing physical rehabilitation and dietetic regime lie in the basis of secondary prevention of coronary disease. Furthermore, there is a constant improvement in NO biodisposability and therewith the

  6. Coronary artery calcium and physical function in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inzitari, Marco; Naydeck, Barbara L; Newman, Anne B

    2008-10-01

    In older adults without clinical cardiovascular disease, coronary artery calcium (CAC) is associated with other subclinical vascular diseases, which, in turn, predict physical dysfunction. However, the association between CAC and physical function is unstudied. In 387 older community-dwellers from the Cardiovascular Health Study without clinical cardiovascular diseases (mean age +/- standard deviation = 78.7 +/- 3.7, 35% men, 22% African Americans), CAC was measured using electron beam tomography, and physical performance was assessed by usual pace gait speed, chair stand, and tandem stand. Differences in physical performance across CAC quartiles were investigated in the whole cohort and by gender. Associations with gait speed (m/s) were assessed in multivariable models using both the continuous form of CAC score (log(CAC)) and quartiles of CAC, adjusting for demographics and comorbidities. No differences in physical performance were observed across CAC quartiles in the whole group. In gender-stratified analyses, a significant association was shown among women, who had progressively lower gait speed across CAC quartiles: Those with CAC > 220 walked more than 0.1 m/s slower than those with CAC or = 660) had a more than twofold odds of walking slower than 1 m/s, compared to the lowest CAC quartile (< 35; p =.021). In this sample of older community-dwellers without overt cardiovascular disease, CAC was inversely related to gait speed in women, but not in men.

  7. DIFFERENCES IN PHYSICAL FITNESS AND CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION DEPEND ON BMI IN KOREAN MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Wi-Young So; Dai-Hyuk Choi

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the associations between cardiovascular function and both body mass index and physical fitness in Korean men. The subjects were 2,013 men, aged 20 to 83 years, who visited a health promotion center for a comprehensive medical and fitness test during 2006-2009. The WHO's Asia-Pacific Standard Report definition of BMI was used in this study. Fitness assessment of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, agility, and balance were eva...

  8. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the orig...

  9. Cardiovascular Reactivity During Marital Conflict in Laboratory and Naturalistic Settings: Differential Associations with Relationship and Individual Functioning Across Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R W; Baucom, Katherine J W; Hogan, Jasara N; Crenshaw, Alexander O; Bourne, Stacia V; Crowell, Sheila E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Goodwin, Matthew S

    2018-03-25

    Cardiovascular reactivity during spousal conflict is considered to be one of the main pathways for relationship distress to impact physical, mental, and relationship health. However, the magnitude of association between cardiovascular reactivity during laboratory marital conflict and relationship functioning is small and inconsistent given the scope of its importance in theoretical models of intimate relationships. This study tests the possibility that cardiovascular data collected in laboratory settings downwardly bias the magnitude of these associations when compared to measures obtained in naturalistic settings. Ambulatory cardiovascular reactivity data were collected from 20 couples during two relationship conflicts in a research laboratory, two planned relationship conflicts at couples' homes, and two spontaneous relationship conflicts during couples' daily lives. Associations between self-report measures of relationship functioning, individual functioning, and cardiovascular reactivity across settings are tested using multilevel models. Cardiovascular reactivity was significantly larger during planned and spontaneous relationship conflicts in naturalistic settings than during planned relationship conflicts in the laboratory. Similarly, associations with relationship and individual functioning variables were statistically significantly larger for cardiovascular data collected in naturalistic settings than the same data collected in the laboratory. Our findings suggest that cardiovascular reactivity during spousal conflict in naturalistic settings is statistically significantly different from that elicited in laboratory settings both in magnitude and in the pattern of associations with a wide range of inter- and intrapersonal variables. These differences in findings across laboratory and naturalistic physiological responses highlight the value of testing physiological phenomena across interaction contexts in romantic relationships. © 2018 Family Process

  10. Pharmacologic MRI (phMRI) as a tool to differentiate Parkinson's disease-related from age-related changes in basal ganglia function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders H; Hardy, Peter A; Forman, Eric; Gerhardt, Greg A; Gash, Don M; Grondin, Richard C; Zhang, Zhiming

    2015-02-01

    The prevalence of both parkinsonian signs and Parkinson's disease (PD) per se increases with age. Although the pathophysiology of PD has been studied extensively, less is known about the functional changes taking place in the basal ganglia circuitry with age. To specifically address this issue, 3 groups of rhesus macaques were studied: normal middle-aged animals (used as controls), middle-aged animals with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced parkinsonism, and aged animals (>20 years old) with declines in motor function. All animals underwent the same behavioral and pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) procedures to measure changes in basal ganglia function in response to dopaminergic drug challenges consisting of apomorphine administration followed by either a D1 (SCH23390) or a D2 (raclopride) receptor antagonist. Significant functional changes were predominantly seen in the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) in aged animals and in the striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) in MPTP-lesioned animals. Despite significant differences seen in the putamen and GPe between MPTP-lesioned versus aged animals, a similar response profile to dopaminergic stimulations was found between these 2 groups in the internal segment of the GP. In contrast, the pharmacologic responses seen in the control animals were much milder compared with the other 2 groups in all the examined areas. Our phMRI findings in MPTP-lesioned parkinsonian and aged animals suggest that changes in basal ganglia function in the elderly may differ from those seen in parkinsonian patients and that phMRI could be used to distinguish PD from other age-associated functional alterations in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol S impairs blood functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghamitra Pal

    Full Text Available Bisphenol S (BPS is an industrial chemical which is recently used to replace the potentially toxic Bisphenol A (BPA in making polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins and thermal receipt papers. The probable toxic effects of BPS on the functions of haemopoietic and cardiovascular systems have not been reported till to date. We report here that BPS depresses haematological functions and induces cardiovascular risks in rat. Adult male albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were given BPS at a dose level of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg BW/day respectively for 30 days. Red blood cell (RBC count, white blood cell (WBC count, Hb concentration, and clotting time have been shown to be significantly (*P < 0.05 reduced in a dose dependent manner in all exposed groups of rats comparing to the control. It has also been shown that BPS increases total serum glucose and protein concentration in the exposed groups of rats. We have observed that BPS increases serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glycerol free triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL concentration, whereas high density lipoprotein (HDL concentration has been found to be reduced in the exposed groups. BPS significantly increases serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities dose dependently. Moreover, serum calcium, bilirubin and urea concentration have been observed to be increased in all exposed groups. In conclusion, BPS probably impairs the functions of blood and promotes cardiovascular risks in rats. Keywords: Bisphenol S, Red blood cell count, White blood cell count, Clotting time, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, Cardiovascular risks

  12. Association between Birth Characteristics and Cardiovascular Autonomic Function at Mid-Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelli Perkiömäki

    Full Text Available Low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. As abnormal cardiac autonomic function is a common feature in cardiovascular diseases, we tested the hypothesis that low birth weight may also be associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function in middle-aged subjects.At the age of 46, the subjects of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were invited to examinations including questionnaires about health status and life style and measurement of vagally-mediated heart rate variability (rMSSD from R-R intervals (RRi and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS in both seated and standing positions. Maternal parameters had been collected in 1965-1966 since the 16th gestational week and birth variables immediately after delivery. For rMSSD, 1,799 men and 2,279 women without cardiorespiratory diseases and diabetes were included and 902 men and 1,020 women for BRS. The analyses were adjusted for maternal (age, anthropometry, socioeconomics, parity, gestational smoking and adult variables (life style, anthropometry, blood pressure, glycemic and lipid status potentially confounding the relationship between birth weight and autonomic function.In men, birth weight correlated negatively with seated (r = -0.058, p = 0.014 and standing rMSSD (r = -0.090, p<0.001, as well as with standing BRS (r = -0.092, p = 0.006. These observations were verified using relevant birth weight categories (<2,500 g; 2,500-3,999 g; ≥4,000 g. In women, birth weight was positively correlated with seated BRS (r = 0.081, p = 0.010, but none of the other measures of cardiovascular autonomic function. These correlations remained significant after adjustment for potential confounders (p<0.05 for all.In men, higher birth weight was independently associated with poorer cardiac autonomic function at mid-life. Same association was not observed in women. Our findings suggest that higher, not lower, birth weight in males may contribute to less

  13. Impact of surgery targeting the caudal intralaminar thalamic nuclei on the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkerian-Le Goff, Lydia; Bacci, Jean-Jacques; Jouve, Loreline; Melon, Christophe; Salin, Pascal

    2009-02-16

    There is accumulating evidence that the centre median-parafascicular (CM/Pf) complex of the thalamus is implicated in basal ganglia-related movement disorders and notably in Parkinson's disease. However, the impact of the changes affecting CM/Pf on the pathophysiological functioning of basal ganglia in parkinsonian state remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we have examined the effects of excitotoxic lesion of CM/Pf and of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion of nigral dopamine neurons, separately or in association, on gene expression of markers of neuronal activity in the rat basal ganglia (striatal neuropeptide precursors, GAD67, cytochrome oxidase subunit I) by quantitative in situ hybridization histochemistry. CM/Pf lesion prevented the changes produced by the dopamine denervation in the components of the indirect pathway connecting the striatum to the output structures (striatopallidal neurons, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus), and among the output structures, in the entopeduncular nucleus. Preliminary data on the effects of deep brain stimulation of CM/Pf in rats with nigral dopamine lesion show that this surgical approach produces efficient anti-akinetic effect associated with partial reversal of the dopamine lesion-induced increase in striatal preproenkephalin A mRNA levels, a marker of the striatopallidal neurons. These data, which provide substrates for the potential of CM/Pf surgery in the treatment of movement disorders, are discussed in comparison with the effects of lesion or deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, the currently preferred target for the surgical treatment of PD.

  14. Regulation of basal and reserve cardiac pacemaker function by interactions of cAMP mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling with surface membrane channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, Tatiana M.; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2009-01-01

    Decades of intensive research of primary cardiac pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, have established potential roles of specific membrane channels in the generation of the diastolic depolarization, the major mechanism allowing sinoatrial node cells generate spontaneous beating. During the last three decades, multiple studies made either in the isolated sinoatrial node or sinoatrial node cells have demonstrated a pivotal role of Ca2+ and, specifically Ca2+-release from sarcoplasmic reticulum, for spontaneous beating of cardiac pacemaker. Recently, spontaneous, rhythmic local subsarcolemmal Ca2+ releases from ryanodine receptors during late half of the diastolic depolarization have been implicated as a vital factor in the generation of sinoatrial node cells spontaneous firing. Local Ca2+ releases are driven by a unique combination of high basal cAMP production by adenylyl cyclases, high basal cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterases and a high level of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent phosphorylation. These local Ca2+ releases activate an inward Na+-Ca2+ exchange current which accelerates the terminal diastolic depolarization rate and, thus, controls the spontaneous pacemaker firing. Both the basal primary pacemaker beating rate and its modulation via β-adrenergic receptor stimulation appear to be critically dependent upon intact RyR function and local subsarcolemmal sarcoplasmic reticulum generated Ca2+ releases. This review aspires to integrate the traditional viewpoint that has emphasized the supremacy of the ensemble of surface membrane ion channels in spontaneous firing of the primary cardiac pacemaker, and these novel perspectives of cAMP-mediated PKA-dependent Ca2+ cycling in regulation of the heart pacemaker clock, both in the basal state and during β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. PMID:19573534

  15. Community Noise Exposure and its Effect on Blood Pressure and Renal Function in Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhambov Angel M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Road traffic noise (RTN is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and hypertension; however, few studies have looked into its association with blood pressure (BP and renal function in patients with prior CVD.

  16. Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in South Asians : effects of dietary interventions on metabolism and cardiovascular function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Leontine Erica Henriëtte

    2015-01-01

    People of South Asian origin have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to people of Western European descent. Not only is the prevalence of these diseases higher in South Asians, they also occur at a younger age and lower BMI, and have a

  17. Evaluation of cardiovascular toxicity of carbon nanotubes functionalized with sodium hyaluronate in oral regenerative medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joviano-Santos, J.V.; Sá, M.A.; De Maria, M.L.A.; Almeida, T.C.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Geraldo, V.; Oliveira, S.; Ladeira, L.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, A.J. [Departamento de Morfologia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2014-05-23

    It has been demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) associated with sodium hyaluronate (HY-CNTs) accelerate bone repair in the tooth sockets of rats. Before clinical application of HY-CNTs, it is important to assess their biocompatibility. Moreover, cardiac toxicity may be caused by the translocation of these particles to the blood stream. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiovascular function in male Wistar rats whose tooth sockets were treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs (100 μg/mL, 0.1 mL). Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in conscious rats 7 days after treatment. Cardiac function was evaluated using the Langendorff perfusion technique. The data showed no changes in blood pressure or heart rate in rats treated with either CNTs or HY-CNTs, and no significant changes in cardiac function were found in any of the groups. To confirm these findings, experiments were conducted in rats injected intraperitoneally with a high concentration of either CNTs or HY-CNTs (0.75 mg/kg). The same parameters were analyzed and similar results were observed. The results obtained 7 days following injection indicate that the administration of low concentrations of CNTs or HY-CNTs directly into tooth sockets did not cause any significant change in cardiovascular function in the rats. The present findings support the possibility of using these biocomposites in humans.

  18. Cerebral asymmetry in the control of cardiovascular functioning: evidence from lateral vibrotactile stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Hubbard, Tyler; Yung, Raegan C; Ferguson, Brad J; Drago, Valeria; Harrison, David W

    2013-01-01

    Research has supported hemispheric specialisation in the regulation of cardiovascular functioning, with the left hemisphere being associated with parasympathetic functioning and the right hemisphere with sympathetic functioning. We sought to investigate this relationship further using vibrotactile stimulation applied to the palms. Our prediction was that vibrotactile stimulation applied to the left hand would result in increased heart rate and blood pressure, and that stimulation applied to the right hand would result in decreased heart rate and blood pressure. The results indicated significant differences in heart rate change scores in the predicted direction. No differences were noted for systolic or diastolic blood pressure. Hence the findings provide partial support for the lateralisation of autonomic functions.

  19. The effects of physical training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid disorders and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Goran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the

  20. Infiltration of the basal ganglia by brain tumors is associated with the development of co-dominant language function on fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Katharina; Brennan, Nicole; Woo, Kaitlin; Zhang, Zhigang; Young, Robert; Peck, Kyung K; Holodny, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Studies have shown that some patients with left-hemispheric brain tumors have an increased propensity for developing right-sided language support. However, the precise trigger for establishing co-dominant language function in brain tumor patients remains unknown. We analyzed the MR scans of patients with left-hemispheric tumors and either co-dominant (n=35) or left-hemisphere dominant (n=35) language function on fMRI to investigate anatomical factors influencing hemispheric language dominance. Of eleven neuroanatomical areas evaluated for tumor involvement, the basal ganglia was significantly correlated with co-dominant language function (pdominance performed significantly better on the Boston Naming Test, a clinical measure of aphasia, compared to their left-lateralized counterparts (56.5 versus 36.5, p=0.025). While further studies are needed to elucidate the role of the basal ganglia in establishing co-dominance, our results suggest that reactive co-dominance may afford a behavioral advantage to patients with left-hemispheric tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Older adult awareness of the influence of cardiovascular disease risk factors on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Regina S; Ford, Cassandra; Sniscak, Courtney R

    2017-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to (i) assess older people's awareness of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function; and (ii) examine whether awareness varies as a function of demographic factors. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors have been linked to subtle deficits in cognitive function. CVD risk factors increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia. The association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and cognitive decrements has been well documented among older people; however, we are unaware of any studies that have measured older people's awareness of this relationship in an effort to assess educational needs. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey design was employed. Community-based older adults aged 60 and older completed a survey that assessed their knowledge of the association between CVD risk factors and cognitive function. One hundred fifty older adults, with a mean age of 72.88 years, completed the survey. Results showed that over 75% of the sample was aware that CVD risk factors affect cognitive function. White older adults and older adults with greater perceived financial well-being tended to be more aware of these relationships than non-White participants with less perceived financial well-being. Results suggest that many, but not all older people have awareness of this relationship. As such, there is a need for increased education about the cognitive effects of CVD risk factors, particularly among older people who are already at risk for developing CVD and those with lesser financial well-being. Appropriate educational strategies can expose older patients to the importance of healthy lifestyle and self-care to maintain cognitive function. Nurses can incorporate education into care by identifying patients that would benefit from tailored interventions and providing information to at-risk patients about how to maintain their cognitive function through management of specific CVD risk factors. © 2016

  2. Simulation of left atrial function using a multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Pironet

    Full Text Available During a full cardiac cycle, the left atrium successively behaves as a reservoir, a conduit and a pump. This complex behavior makes it unrealistic to apply the time-varying elastance theory to characterize the left atrium, first, because this theory has known limitations, and second, because it is still uncertain whether the load independence hypothesis holds. In this study, we aim to bypass this uncertainty by relying on another kind of mathematical model of the cardiac chambers. In the present work, we describe both the left atrium and the left ventricle with a multi-scale model. The multi-scale property of this model comes from the fact that pressure inside a cardiac chamber is derived from a model of the sarcomere behavior. Macroscopic model parameters are identified from reference dog hemodynamic data. The multi-scale model of the cardiovascular system including the left atrium is then simulated to show that the physiological roles of the left atrium are correctly reproduced. This include a biphasic pressure wave and an eight-shaped pressure-volume loop. We also test the validity of our model in non basal conditions by reproducing a preload reduction experiment by inferior vena cava occlusion with the model. We compute the variation of eight indices before and after this experiment and obtain the same variation as experimentally observed for seven out of the eight indices. In summary, the multi-scale mathematical model presented in this work is able to correctly account for the three roles of the left atrium and also exhibits a realistic left atrial pressure-volume loop. Furthermore, the model has been previously presented and validated for the left ventricle. This makes it a proper alternative to the time-varying elastance theory if the focus is set on precisely representing the left atrial and left ventricular behaviors.

  3. Cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function analysis with electron beam computed tomography in health Chinese people (50 cases report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Bin; Dai Ruping; Zhang Shaoxiong; Bai Hua; Jing Baolian; Cao Cheng; He Sha; Ren Li

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively measure cardiovascular diameters and function parameters by using electron beam computed tomography, EBCT. Methods: Men 50 health Chinese people accepted EBCT common transverse and short-axis enhanced movie scan (27 men, 23 women, average age 47.7 years.). The transverse scan was used to measure the diameters of the ascending aorta, descending aorta, pulmonary artery and left atrium. The movie study was used to measure the left ventricular myocardium thickness and analysis global, sectional and segmental function of the right and left ventricles. Results: The cardiovascular diameters and cardiac functional parameters were calculated. The diameters and most functional parameters (end syspoble volume, syspole volume, ejection fraction, cardiac-output, cardiac index) of normal Chinese men were greater than those of women (P>0.05). However, the EDV and MyM(myocardium mass) of both ventricles were significant (p<0.01). Conclusion: EBCT is a minimally invasive method for cardiovascular measurement and cardiac function evaluation

  4. Measuring myokines with cardiovascular functions: pre-analytical variables affecting the analytical output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Sansoni, Veronica; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of molecules have been associated to an endocrine function of the skeletal muscle. Circulating myokine levels, in turn, have been associated with several pathophysiological conditions including the cardiovascular ones. However, data from different studies are often not completely comparable or even discordant. This would be due, at least in part, to the whole set of situations related to the preparation of the patient prior to blood sampling, blood sampling procedure, processing and/or store. This entire process constitutes the pre-analytical phase. The importance of the pre-analytical phase is often not considered. However, in routine diagnostics, the 70% of the errors are in this phase. Moreover, errors during the pre-analytical phase are carried over in the analytical phase and affects the final output. In research, for example, when samples are collected over a long time and by different laboratories, a standardized procedure for sample collecting and the correct procedure for sample storage are acknowledged. In this review, we discuss the pre-analytical variables potentially affecting the measurement of myokines with cardiovascular functions.

  5. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE on cardiovascular functioning (CF in metabolic syndrome (MS remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS, MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning plus saline solution (MS + SS, control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01. Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05. Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05. Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001. Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation and AGE improved it (p = 0.001. Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001. Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01. In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  6. Anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health related physical fitness in university professors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Costa Moreira

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective To verify the behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables as indicators of health-related physical fitness in university professors and perform a comparison of these variables between sexes.Materials and methods We conducted an observational epidemiological cross-sectional study in 145 professors (45.86 ± 9.7 years, 103 men (71.03%, which were evaluated by measuring heart rate (HR and systolic (SBP and diastolic (DBP pressure at rest, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI, body fat percentage (BF%, handgrip strength (HGS, flexibility and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF. We proceeded to the descriptive analysis, Student t-test for comparison between sexes and multiple regression analysis to verify the association between the variables analyzed. It was adopted a significance level of p < 0.05.Results The sex affected all variables. Women had better levels of BMI, flexibility, SBP and DBP. The BF% and CRF were associated with SBP and BMI in both sexes.Conclusion The behavior of anthropometric, cardiovascular and functional variables indicated unsatisfactory values for flexibility, HGS and BMI, with the worst levels among men. Furthermore, the variables that showed better association with HRPF were BF% and CRF.

  7. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population.Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels.The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of the stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium.

  8. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  9. Genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Tian, Xiaocao; Sun, Jianping

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To explore the genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cognitive function in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. METHODS: Cognitive function and CVRF, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure......, pulse pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 379 complete twin pairs. Univariate and bivariate twin models were fitted to estimate the genetic and environmental components in the variance...... and covariance of CVRF and cognition. RESULTS: Mild-to-high heritability was estimated for CVRF and cognition (0.27-0.74). Unique environmental factors showed low-to-moderate contributions (0.23-0.56). Only HDLC presented significant common environmental contribution (0.50). Bivariate analysis showed...

  10. Prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Takahashi, Rimiko; Watanabe, Naoko; Oritsu, Hideyuki; Shimizu, Yoshitaka

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss and its association with swallowing function in patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 65 consecutive patients with dysphagia after cardiovascular surgery who were prescribed speech therapy. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as total psoas muscle area assessed via abdominal computed tomography divided by height squared. Cutoff values were 6.36 cm 2 /m 2 for men and 3.92 cm 2 /m 2 for women. The Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) was used to assess the swallowing function. Univariate and ordered logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between skeletal muscle mass loss and dysphagia. The study included 50 men and 15 women (mean age 73 ± 8 y). The mean SMI was 4.72 ± 1.37 cm 2 /m 2 in men and 3.33 ± 1.42 cm 2 /m 2 in women. Skeletal muscle mass loss was found in 53 (82%) patients. Twelve had tracheostomy cannula. Thirteen were non-oral feeding (FILS levels 1-3), 5 were oral food intake and alternative nutrition (levels 4-6), and 47 were oral food intake alone (levels 7-9) at discharge. The FILS at discharge was significantly lower in patients with skeletal muscle mass loss. Ordered logistic regression analysis of swallowing function showed that skeletal muscle mass loss and tracheostomy cannula were associated independently with the FILS at discharge. The prevalence of skeletal muscle mass loss is very high, and skeletal muscle mass loss is associated with swallowing function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Association of cardiovascular system medications with cognitive function and dementia in older adults living in nursing homes in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enwu; Dyer, Suzanne M; O'Donnell, Lisa Kouladjian; Milte, Rachel; Bradley, Clare; Harrison, Stephanie L; Gnanamanickam, Emmanuel; Whitehead, Craig; Crotty, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To examine associations between cardiovascular system medication use with cognition function and diagnosis of dementia in older adults living in nursing homes in Australia. As part of a cross-sectional study of 17 Australian nursing homes examining quality of life and resource use, we examined the association between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular medication use (identified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Classification System) using general linear regression and logistic regression models. People who were receiving end of life care were excluded. Participants included 541 residents with a mean age of 85.5 years (± 8.5), a mean Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale-Cognitive Impairment (PAS-Cog) score of 13.3 (± 7.7), a prevalence of cardiovascular diseases of 44% and of hypertension of 47%. Sixty-four percent of participants had been diagnosed with dementia and 72% had received cardiovascular system medications within the previous 12 months. Regression models demonstrated the use of cardiovascular medications was associated with lower (better) PAS-Cog scores [Coefficient (β) = -3.7; 95% CI: -5.2 to -2.2; P cardiovascular system medication use and better cognitive status among older adults living in nursing homes. In this population, there may be differential access to health care and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors. This association warrants further investigation in large cohort studies.

  12. The HaDREB2 transcription factor enhances basal thermotolerance and longevity of seeds through functional interaction with HaHSFA9

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    Carranco Raúl

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factor HaDREB2 was identified in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. as a drought-responsive element-binding factor 2 (DREB2 with unique properties. HaDREB2 and the sunflower Heat Shock Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 co-activated the Hahsp17.6G1 promoter in sunflower embryos. Both factors could be involved in transcriptional co-activation of additional small heat stress protein (sHSP promoters, and thus contribute to the HaHSFA9-mediated enhancement of longevity and basal thermotolerance of seeds. Results We found that overexpression of HaDREB2 in seeds did not enhance longevity. This was deduced from assays of basal thermotolerance and controlled seed-deterioration, which were performed with transgenic tobacco. Furthermore, the constitutive overexpression of HaDREB2 did not increase thermotolerance in seedlings or result in the accumulation of HSPs at normal growth temperatures. In contrast, when HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 were conjointly overexpressed in seeds, we observed positive effects on seed longevity, beyond those observed with overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone. Such additional effects are accompanied by a subtle enhancement of the accumulation of subsets of sHSPs belonging to the CI and CII cytosolic classes. Conclusion Our results reveal the functional interdependency of HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 in seeds. HaDREB2 differs from other previously characterized DREB2 factors in plants in terms of its unique functional interaction with the seed-specific HaHSFA9 factor. No functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9 was observed when both factors were conjointly overexpressed in vegetative tissues. We therefore suggest that additional, seed-specific factors, or protein modifications, could be required for the functional interaction between HaDREB2 and HaHSFA9.

  13. They live in the land down under: thyroid function and basal metabolic rate in the Blind Mole Rat, Spalax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi, Aaron; Nevo, Eviatar; Cohen, Keren; Sotnichenko, Nick; Hercbergs, Aleck; Band, Mark; Davis, Paul J; Ellis, Martin; Ashur-Fabian, Osnat

    2014-01-01

    The Israeli blind subterranean mole rat (Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies) lives in sealed underground burrows under extreme, hypoxic conditions. The four Israeli Spalax allospecies have adapted to different climates, the cool-humid (Spalax galili, 2 n = 52 chromosomes), semihumid (S. golani, 2 n = 54) north regions, warm-humid (S. carmeli, 2 n = 58) central region and the warm-dry S. judaei, 2 n = 60) southern regions. A dramatic interspecies decline in basal metabolic rate (BMR) from north to south, even after years of captivity, indicates a genetic basis for this BMR trait. We examined the possibility that the genetically-conditioned interspecies BMR difference was expressed via circulating thyroid hormone. An unexpected north to south increase in serum free thyroxine (FT4) and total 3, 5, 3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) (p BMR measurements. The increases in serum FT4 and T3 were symmetrical, so that the T3:FT4 ratio - interpretable as an index of conversion of T4 to T3 in nonthyroidal tissues - did not support relative decrease in production of T3 as a contributor to BMR. Increased north-to-south serum FT4 and T3 levels also correlated negatively with hemoglobin/hematocrit. North-to-south adaptations in spalacids include decreased BMR and hematocrit/hemoglobin in the face of increasing thyroid hormone levels, arguing for independent control of hormone secretion and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin. But the significant inverse relationship between thyroid hormone levels and BMR/hematocrit/hemoglobin is also consistent with a degree of cellular resistance to thyroid hormone action that protects against hormone-induced increase in oxygen consumption in a hostile, hypoxic environment.

  14. Functional foods for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases: cholesterol and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudkowska, Iwona; Jones, Peter J H

    2007-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of death and disability in many developed countries. The purpose of this literature review is to establish a recommendation for the intake of functional food ingredients in a healthy diet--such as plant sterols (PSs) in low-fat and functional matrices, fatty acid composition and other nutrients of tree nuts and flavonoids in dark chocolate--for the prevention and treatment of CVD. These three specific functional foods are explored in this review, since there is a higher potential for their increased consumption by the population to prevent CVD. First, PS have been added to various nontraditional matrices, such as low-fat products and functional oils, which have shown cholesterol-lowering effects in most clinical trials. Secondly, a growing number of clinical studies indicate that the beneficial effect of tree nuts may not only be due to their fatty acid composition but to other key nutrients, which may provide supplementary health benefits, such as endothelial cell function, as well as decreasing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Lastly, flavonoids in dark chocolate may protect LDL-C particles from undergoing oxidative modification. However, some gaps in our knowledge need to be filled before firm recommendations can be made for habitual dark chocolate consumption. Overall, these functional foods should be considered as an addition to current lipid-lowering recommendations for improving CVD risk.

  15. Chronic treatment with tadalafil improves endothelial function in men with increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Giuseppe M C; Aversa, Antonio; Vitale, Cristiana; Fabbri, Andrea; Fini, Massimo; Spera, Giovanni

    2005-02-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease and reduced endothelial function. Acute and chronic administration of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, improves endothelial function in patients with ED. Tadalafil (TAD) is a new PDE5 inhibitor with a long half life that allows alternate day administration. Aim of the study was to evaluate whether chronic therapy (4 weeks) with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk and whether this effect is sustained after discontinuation of therapy. We randomized 32 patients with increased cardiovascular risk to receive either TAD 20 mg on alternate days or matching placebo (PLB) for 4 weeks. Patients underwent evaluation of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), nitrite/nitrate and endothelin-1 plasma levels at baseline, at the end of treatment period and after two-weeks follow-up. At 4 weeks, FMD was significantly improved by TAD (from 4.2+/-3.2 to 9.3+/-3.7%, p<0.01 vs. baseline), but was not modified by PLB (from 4.1+/-2.8 to 4.0+/-3.4%, p=NS). At 6 weeks the benefit in FMD was sustained in patients that received TAD (9.1+/-3.9% vs. 4.2+/-3.2%, p=0.01 vs. baseline; 9.1+/-3.9% vs. 9.3+/-3.7%, vs. 4 weeks, p=NS) while no changes in FMD were observed in patients randomized to PLB. Also, compared to baseline, a net increase in nitrite/nitrate levels (38.2+/-12.3 vs. 52.6+/-11.7 and 51.1+/-3.1, p<0.05) and a decrease in endothelin-1 levels (3.3+/-0.9 vs. 2.9.+/-0.7 and 2.9+/-0.9, p<0.05) was found both at four and six-weeks after TAD; these changes were inversely correlated as shown by regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.81, p<0.0001). Chronic therapy with TAD improves endothelial function in patients with increased cardiovascular risk regardless their degree of ED. The benefit of this therapy is sustained for at least two weeks after the discontinuation of therapy. Larger studies are needed in order

  16. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based sample of Working Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Ulrika Dagsdotter Stenfors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulationThe aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN, root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD, high frequency (HF power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI, a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by 7 neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables and mental health symptoms.Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder, only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity. Conclusion: Poorer cardiovascular autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN & RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer

  17. Effect of high-intensity training on endothelial function in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolmos, Mia; Krawcyk, Rikke Steen; Kruuse, Christina

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise improves endothelial dysfunction, the key manifestation of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and is recommended in both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular rehabilitation. Disagreement remains, however, on the role of intensity of exercise. The purpose of this review...

  18. In vitro epigenetic reprogramming of human cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells into functionally competent cardiovascular precursors.

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    Matteo Vecellio

    Full Text Available Adult human cardiac mesenchymal-like stromal cells (CStC represent a relatively accessible cell type useful for therapy. In this light, their conversion into cardiovascular precursors represents a potential successful strategy for cardiac repair. The aim of the present work was to reprogram CStC into functionally competent cardiovascular precursors using epigenetically active small molecules. CStC were exposed to low serum (5% FBS in the presence of 5 µM all-trans Retinoic Acid (ATRA, 5 µM Phenyl Butyrate (PB, and 200 µM diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO, to create a novel epigenetically active cocktail (EpiC. Upon treatment the expression of markers typical of cardiac resident stem cells such as c-Kit and MDR-1 were up-regulated, together with the expression of a number of cardiovascular-associated genes including KDR, GATA6, Nkx2.5, GATA4, HCN4, NaV1.5, and α-MHC. In addition, profiling analysis revealed that a significant number of microRNA involved in cardiomyocyte biology and cell differentiation/proliferation, including miR 133a, 210 and 34a, were up-regulated. Remarkably, almost 45% of EpiC-treated cells exhibited a TTX-sensitive sodium current and, to a lower extent in a few cells, also the pacemaker I(f current. Mechanistically, the exposure to EpiC treatment introduced global histone modifications, characterized by increased levels of H3K4Me3 and H4K16Ac, as well as reduced H4K20Me3 and H3s10P, a pattern compatible with reduced proliferation and chromatin relaxation. Consistently, ChIP experiments performed with H3K4me3 or H3s10P histone modifications revealed the presence of a specific EpiC-dependent pattern in c-Kit, MDR-1, and Nkx2.5 promoter regions, possibly contributing to their modified expression. Taken together, these data indicate that CStC may be epigenetically reprogrammed to acquire molecular and biological properties associated with competent cardiovascular precursors.

  19. Impaired cardiovascular structure and function in adult survivors of severe acute malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Ingrid A; Barnett, Alan T; Thompson, Debbie S; Kips, Jan; Boyne, Michael S; Chung, Edward E; Chung, Andrene P; Osmond, Clive; Hanson, Mark A; Gluckman, Peter D; Segers, Patrick; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Forrester, Terrence E

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition below 5 years remains a global health issue. Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) presents in childhood as oedematous (kwashiorkor) or nonoedematous (marasmic) forms, with unknown long-term cardiovascular consequences. We hypothesized that cardiovascular structure and function would be poorer in SAM survivors than unexposed controls. We studied 116 adult SAM survivors, 54 after marasmus, 62 kwashiorkor, and 45 age/sex/body mass index-matched community controls who had standardized anthropometry, blood pressure, echocardiography, and arterial tonometry performed. Left ventricular indices and outflow tract diameter, carotid parameters, and pulse wave velocity were measured, with systemic vascular resistance calculated. All were expressed as SD scores. Mean (SD) age was 28.8±7.8 years (55% men). Adjusting for age, sex, height, and weight, SAM survivors had mean (SE) reductions for left ventricular outflow tract diameter of 0.67 (0.16; PMalnutrition survivors are thus likely to develop excess hypertension in later life, especially when exposed to obesity. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Evaluation of cardiovascular autonomic nervous functions in diabetics: Study in a rural teaching hospital

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    Ashutosh Pathak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN is a least understood complication of diabetes which is often underdiagnosed. It causes resting tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and exercise intolerance and is associated with higher cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. This stresses the need of early diagnosis of CAN to prevent higher mortality rates. Materials and Methods: Fifty cases of diabetes mellitus with no clinical evidence of cardiac disease were subjected to cardiac autonomic function (CAF tests according to Ewing's criteria which included heart rate (HR variability during deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver ratio, HR response on standing, blood pressure (BP response to standing, and BP response to sustained handgrip to find the prevalence of CAN. Results: In this study, among 100 patients (50 case and 50 control, we found CAN in 52%. Out of which, parasympathetic neuropathy was seen in 52% of cases, and sympathetic neuropathy was seen in 26% of cases. CAF tests of HR variability during deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver ratio, HR response to standing, BP response to standing, and BP response to sustained handgrip found abnormal response in 68%, 40%, 52%, 12%, and 14%, respectively. Diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy were significantly associated with CAN (P = 0.0001, S. Conclusion: Prevalence of CAN among diabetics was 52%, and parasympathetic CAF tests are more sensitive for the detection of CAN than sympathetic CAF tests. Development of CAN in diabetic patients may lead to increased morbidity; thence, they should be routinely evaluated for CAN using these bedside tests.

  1. Orthostatic function and the cardiovascular response to early mobilization after breast cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg Müller, Rasmus; Bundgaard-Nielsen, Morten; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    procedures, because of an attenuated cardiovascular response, but the cardiovascular response and the incidence of orthostatic intolerance after minor procedures have not been clarified. We investigated the cardiovascular response and the incidence of orthostatic intolerance during early mobilization after...... breast cancer surgery....

  2. Lung Deflation and Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Ian S; Barnes, Neil C; James, Wai-Yee; Midwinter, Dawn; Boubertakh, Redha; Follows, Richard; John, Leonette; Petersen, Steffen E

    2016-04-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease develop increased cardiovascular morbidity with structural alterations. To investigate through a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study the effect of lung deflation on cardiovascular structure and function using cardiac magnetic resonance. Forty-five hyperinflated patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized (1:1) to 7 (maximum 14) days inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist fluticasone furoate/vilanterol 100/25 μg or placebo (7-day minimum washout). Primary outcome was change from baseline in right ventricular end-diastolic volume index versus placebo. There was a 5.8 ml/m(2) (95% confidence interval, 2.74-8.91; P volume index and a 429 ml (P volume with fluticasone furoate/vilanterol versus placebo. Left ventricular end-diastolic and left atrial end-systolic volumes increased by 3.63 ml/m(2) (P = 0.002) and 2.33 ml/m(2) (P = 0.002). In post hoc analysis, right ventricular stroke volume increased by 4.87 ml/m(2) (P = 0.003); right ventricular ejection fraction was unchanged. Left ventricular adaptation was similar; left atrial ejection fraction improved by +3.17% (P Pulmonary artery pulsatility increased in two of three locations (main +2.9%, P = 0.001; left +2.67%, P = 0.030). Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol safety profile was similar to placebo. Pharmacologic treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has consistent beneficial and plausible effects on cardiac function and pulmonary vasculature that may contribute to favorable effects of inhaled therapies. Future studies should investigate the effect of prolonged lung deflation on intrinsic myocardial function. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01691885).

  3. Cardiovascular Structure and Function in Children With Middle Aortic Syndrome and Renal Artery Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumman, Rawan K; Slorach, Cameron; Hui, Wei; Matsuda-Abedini, Mina; Langlois, Valerie; Radhakrishnan, Seetha; Lorenzo, Armando J; Amaral, Joao; Mertens, Luc; Parekh, Rulan S

    2017-12-01

    Middle aortic syndrome (MAS) is a narrowing of the abdominal aorta, often in conjunction with renal artery stenosis (RAS). Structure and function of the cardiovascular system are not well understood. In a prospective cross-sectional study, 35 children with MAS or RAS or both (MAS/RAS) were compared with 140 age-, sex-, and body surface area-matched healthy children. Vascular assessment included carotid intima-media thickness and carotid distensibility using B-mode ultrasound and central and peripheral pulse wave velocities using applanation tonometry. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed by 2-dimensional and speckle-tracking echocardiography. Children with MAS or RAS were 12.5±3.0 years old at enrollment, and 50% were men. Carotid intima-media thickness (0.54±0.10 versus 0.44±0.05 mm; P function (lower E/a ratio and lower e' velocities). Systolic parameters, including ejection fraction, global longitudinal and circumferential strain, were similar to controls. Our findings demonstrate that children with MAS or RAS have evidence of carotid and left ventricular remodeling, without peripheral arterial involvement, which suggests a localized disease process. Left ventricular systolic function is preserved; however, subtle changes in diastolic function are observed. Carotid vessel changes are consistent with a 5- to 10-year aging, which underscores the importance of blood pressure control. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Routine evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function by cardiovascular magnetic resonance: A practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vido Diane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR has excellent capabilities to assess ventricular systolic function. Current clinical scenarios warrant routine evaluation of ventricular diastolic function for complete evaluation, especially in congestive heart failure patients. To our knowledge, no systematic assessment of diastolic function over a range of lusitropy has been performed using CMR. Methods and Results Left ventricular diastolic function was assessed in 31 subjects (10 controls who underwent CMR and compared with Transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE evaluation of mitral valve (MV and pulmonary vein (PV blood flow. Blood flow in the MV and PV were successfully imaged by CMR for all cases (31/31,100% while TTE evaluated flow in all MV (31/31,100% but only 21/31 PV (68% cases. Velocities of MV flow (E and A measured by CMR correlated well with TTE (r = 0.81, p Conclusion We have shown that there is homology between CMR and TTE for the assessment of diastolic inflow over a wide range of conditions, including normal, impaired relaxation and restrictive. There is excellent agreement of quantitative velocity measurements between CMR and TTE. Diastolic blood flow assessment by CMR can be performed in a single scan, with times ranging from 20 sec to 3 min, and we show that there is good indication for applying CMR to assess diastolic conditions, either as an adjunctive test when evaluating systolic function, or even as a primary test when TTE data cannot be obtained.

  5. THE MITOCHONDRIAL PARADIGM FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY AND CELLULAR FUNCTION: A COMPLEMENTARY CONCEPT TO MENDELIAN GENETICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzwanski, David M.; Moellering, Douglas; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Dunham-Snary, Kimberly J.; Sammy, Melissa J.; Ballinger, Scott W.

    2013-01-01

    While there is general agreement that cardiovascular disease (CVD) development is influenced by a combination of genetic, environmental, and behavioral contributors, the actual mechanistic basis of how these factors initiate or promote CVD development in some individuals while others with identical risk profiles do not, is not clearly understood. This review considers the potential role for mitochondrial genetics and function in determining CVD susceptibility from the standpoint that the original features that molded cellular function were based upon mitochondrial-nuclear relationships established millions of years ago and were likely refined during prehistoric environmental selection events that today, are largely absent. Consequently, contemporary risk factors that influence our susceptibility to a variety of age-related diseases, including CVD were probably not part of the dynamics that defined the processes of mitochondrial – nuclear interaction, and thus, cell function. In this regard, the selective conditions that contributed to cellular functionality and evolution should be given more consideration when interpreting and designing experimental data and strategies. Finally, future studies that probe beyond epidemiologic associations are required. These studies will serve as the initial steps for addressing the provocative concept that contemporary human disease susceptibility is the result of selection events for mitochondrial function that increased chances for prehistoric human survival and reproductive success. PMID:21647091

  6. Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia

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    Eva Výtvarová

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Focal epilepsies affect large-scale brain networks beyond the epileptogenic zones. Cortico-subcortical functional connectivity disturbance was displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. Significant changes in the resting-state functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures suggest an important role of the BG and thalamus in focal epilepsies.

  7. Causal transfer function analysis to describe closed loop interactions between cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faes, L; Porta, A; Cucino, R; Cerutti, S; Antolini, R; Nollo, G

    2004-06-01

    Although the concept of transfer function is intrinsically related to an input-output relationship, the traditional and widely used estimation method merges both feedback and feedforward interactions between the two analyzed signals. This limitation may endanger the reliability of transfer function analysis in biological systems characterized by closed loop interactions. In this study, a method for estimating the transfer function between closed loop interacting signals was proposed and validated in the field of cardiovascular and cardiorespiratory variability. The two analyzed signals x and y were described by a bivariate autoregressive model, and the causal transfer function from x to y was estimated after imposing causality by setting to zero the model coefficients representative of the reverse effects from y to x. The method was tested in simulations reproducing linear open and closed loop interactions, showing a better adherence of the causal transfer function to the theoretical curves with respect to the traditional approach in presence of non-negligible reverse effects. It was then applied in ten healthy young subjects to characterize the transfer functions from respiration to heart period (RR interval) and to systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and from SAP to RR interval. In the first two cases, the causal and non-causal transfer function estimates were comparable, indicating that respiration, acting as exogenous signal, sets an open loop relationship upon SAP and RR interval. On the contrary, causal and traditional transfer functions from SAP to RR were significantly different, suggesting the presence of a considerable influence on the opposite causal direction. Thus, the proposed causal approach seems to be appropriate for the estimation of parameters, like the gain and the phase lag from SAP to RR interval, which have a large clinical and physiological relevance.

  8. Correlation of physical and functional of cardiovascular young footballer 14-16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.D. Swistun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In a competition period were studied the indexes of general and special physical preparedness of young footballers aged 14 - 16 years old. On the basis of research of electrocardiograms dependence of indexes of physical preparedness of young footballers is presented on functional possibilities of the cardiovascular system. It is set that the dynamics of development of physical qualities of young footballers has heterochronic character. The level of physical preparedness of sportsmen is recommended to check on such by tests: at run on distance 15, 30, 60 meters from a place and 15 meters with to motion (for the estimation of speed motive qualities, at run on 400 meters (estimation anaerobic - to glicolic endurance; broad jump from a place, triple and upwards (estimation of dynamic force, at run on 3000 meters or during 12 minutes (estimation of aerobic endurance. The integral criterion of the special preparedness of footballers are competition performance indicators during a season (16 matches.

  9. Functional impairments in patients with borderline personality disorders demonstrated by neurospect HMPAO Tc99 in basal conditions and under frontal activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prado, Cristian; Mena G, Ismael; Correa, Maria del Pilar

    2000-01-01

    We study a sample of 18 patients in basal conditions and 31 patients with diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder (DSM-IV Criteria) during cortical activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test and assessing function/cerebral blood flow by means of HMPAO Tc 99m NeuroSPECT. The results of changes of cerebral blood flow are shown statistically in a parametric image expressing standard deviations above or below the means of a normative data base for the corresponding age of the patient. We consider only as having significance levels below 2 standard deviations of the normal means . Over this parametric map we project a matrix of Brodmann areas developed by our group in order to precisely localize the areas of abnormality observed. We express our results as percentages of the areas of Brodmann that demonstrates hypoperfusion and we compare the results in a population studied in basal conditions (n=18) and (n=31) during activation by means of the Wisconsin card sorting test. In our results we highlight, in order of importance areas of paradoxical hypoperfusion in conditions of activation versus basal measurements in anterior cyngulate gyrus (Area 24) in both hemispheres. This is followed in importance by Subgenual area (Area 25), area 40 and area 32 in the left hemisphere, and area 28 in the right hemisphere, then followed by area 28 and area 36 in the left hemisphere, area M* and area 44 in both hemispheres, and areas 32, 9 and 46 of Brodmann in the right hemisphere. We concluded that there is a dysfunctional correlation of frontal function in borderline personality disorder. Particularly noticeable is the lack of motivation when there are changes in plans and conduct, lack of pleasure and loss of the meaning of a task during the cortical stimulation. In particular, the Brodmann areas 24, 25 and 32, linked to motivation show a wider involvement when they are exposed to changes in planning and in coping strategies, as it happens during the Wisconsin Test

  10. Structural and functional cardiac changes in myotonic dystrophy type 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Mieke CE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MD1 is a neuromuscular disorder with potential involvement of the heart and increased risk of sudden death. Considering the importance of cardiomyopathy as a predictor of prognosis, we aimed to systematically evaluate and describe structural and functional cardiac alterations in patients with MD1. Methods Eighty MD1 patients underwent physical examination, electrocardiography (ECG, echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Blood samples were taken for determination of NT-proBNP plasma levels and CTG repeat length. Results Functional and structural abnormalities were detected in 35 patients (44%. Left ventricular systolic dysfunction was found in 20 cases, left ventricular dilatation in 7 patients, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 6 patients. Myocardial fibrosis was seen in 10 patients (12.5%. In general, patients had low left ventricular mass indexes. Right ventricular involvement was uncommon and only seen together with left ventricular abnormalities. Functional or structural cardiac involvement was associated with age (p = 0.04, male gender (p Conclusions CMR can be useful to detect early structural and functional myocardial abnormalities in patients with MD1. Myocardial involvement is strongly associated with conduction abnormalities, but a normal ECG does not exclude myocardial alterations. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that MD1 patients have a complex cardiac phenotype, including both myocardial and conduction system alteration.

  11. Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium: Association with autonomic cardiovascular function in normotensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2017-12-01

    Blood pressure responses to dietary sodium vary widely person-to-person. Salt sensitive rodent models display altered autonomic function, a trait thought to contribute to poor cardiovascular health. Thus, we hypothesized that increased salt sensitivity (SS) in normotensive humans would be associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), decreased high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV), and decreased baroreflex sensitivity. Healthy normotensive men and women completed 1week of high (300mmol·day -1 ) and 1week of low (20mmol·day -1 ) dietary sodium (random order) with 24h mean arterial pressure (MAP) assessed on the last day of each diet to assess SS. Participants returned to the lab under habitual sodium conditions for testing. Forty-two participants are presented in this analysis, 19 of which successful MSNA recordings were obtained (n=42: age 39±2yrs., BMI 24.3±0.5kg·(m 2 ) -1 , MAP 83±1mmHg, habitual urine sodium 93±7mmol·24h -1 ; n=19: MSNA burst frequency 20±2 bursts·min -1 ). The variables of interest were linearly regressed over the magnitude of SS. Higher SS was associated with increased MSNA (burst frequency: r=0.469, p=0.041), decreased HF-HRV (r=-0.349, p=0.046), and increased LF/HF-HRV (r=0.363, p=0.034). SS was not associated with sympathetic or cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (p>0.05). Multiple regression analysis accounting for age found that age, not SS, independently predicted HF-HRV (age adjusted no longer significant; p=0.369) and LF/HF-HRV (age adjusted p=0.273). These data suggest that age-related salt sensitivity of blood pressure in response to dietary sodium is associated with altered resting autonomic cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Renal function preservation with pioglitazone or with basal insulin as an add-on therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Hwu, Der-Wei; Chang, Dao-Ming; An, Ling-Wang; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lee, Yau-Jiunn

    2017-06-01

    Clinical outcome may differ owing to the distinct pharmacological characteristics of insulin sensitizers and insulin. This study was performed to compare the metabolic and renal function changes with add-on pioglitazone treatment versus basal insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in whom sulfonylurea and metformin regimens failed. Patients who were consecutively managed in the diabetes comprehensive program with add-on pioglitazone or detemir/glargine treatment for at least 2 years following sulfonylurea and metformin treatment failure were included. A total of 1002 patients were enrolled (pioglitazone: 559, detemir: 264, glargine: 179). After propensity score matching, there were 105 patients with matchable baseline characteristics in each group. After a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up, the pioglitazone group showed a greater HbA1c reduction than the detemir group and the glargine group. Despite patients in all three groups exhibiting significant body weight gain, those in the pioglitazone group and the glargine group showed greater body weight increases than the patients in the detemir group (2.1, 1.6 and 0.8 kg, respectively, p 1.79-3.88) and 3.13 (95% CI 2.01-4.87), respectively. Our study first showed that treatment with both pioglitazone and basal insulin improved glycemic control, while only pioglitazone treatment was observed to be advantageous in terms of preserving renal function when used as an add-on therapy for patients with type 2 DM in whom sulfonylurea and metformin regimens failed.

  13. Altered Functional Connectivity of the Basal Nucleus of Meynert in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Resting-State fMRI Study

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    Hui Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cholinergic dysfunction plays an important role in mild cognitive impairment (MCI. The basal nucleus of Meynert (BNM provides the main source of cortical cholinergic innervation. Previous studies have characterized structural changes of the cholinergic basal forebrain in individuals at risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD. However, whether and how functional connectivity of the BNM (BNM-FC is altered in MCI remains unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to identify alterations in BNM-FC in individuals with MCI as compared to healthy controls (HCs, and to examine the relationship between these alterations with neuropsychological measures in individuals with MCI.Method: One-hundred-and-one MCI patients and 103 HCs underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI. Imaging data were processed with SPM8 and CONN software. BNM-FC was examined via correlation in low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations between the BNM and all other brain voxels. Group differences were examined with a covariance analysis with age, gender, education level, mean framewise displacement (FD and global correlation (GCOR as nuisance covariates. Pearson’s correlation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the BNM-FC and clinical assessments.Result: Compared with HCs, individuals with MCI showed significantly decreased BNM-FC in the left insula extending into claustrum (insula/claustrum. Furthermore, greater decrease in BNM-FC with insula/claustrum was associated with more severe impairment in immediate recall during Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT in MCI patients.Conclusion: MCI is associated with changes in BNM-FC to the insula/claustrum in relation to cognitive impairments. These new findings may advance research of the cholinergic bases of cognitive dysfunction during healthy aging and in individuals at risk of developing AD.

  14. Arabidopsis MKS1 is involved in basal immunity and requires an intact N-terminal domain for proper function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Klaus; Qiu, Jin-Long; Lütje, Juri

    2010-01-01

    Innate immune signaling pathways in animals and plants are regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. MAP kinase 4 (MPK4) functions downstream of innate immune receptors via a nuclear substrate MKS1 to regulate the activity of the WRKY33 transcription factor, which in turn...

  15. Clinical review: Cardiovascular consequences of ovarian disruption: a focus on functional hypothalamic amenorrhea in physically active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Harvey, Paula J

    2011-12-01

    Evidence indicates that hypoestrogenemia is linked with accelerated progression of atherosclerosis. Premenopausal women presenting with ovulatory disruption due to functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) are characterized by hypoestrogenemia. One common and reversible form of FHA in association with energy deficiency is exercise-associated amenorrhea (EAA). Articles were found via PubMed search for both original and review articles based on peer review publications between 1974 and 2011 reporting on cardiovascular changes in women with FHA, with emphasis placed on women with EAA. Despite participation in regular exercise training, hypoestrogenic women with EAA demonstrate paradoxical changes in cardiovascular function, including endothelial dysfunction, a known permissive factor for the progression and development of atherosclerosis. Such alterations suggest that the beneficial effects of regular exercise training on vascular function are obviated in the face of hypoestrogenemia. The long-term cardiovascular consequences of altered vascular function in response to ovulatory disruption in women with EAA remain to be determined. Retrospective data, however, suggest premature development and progression of coronary artery disease in older premenopausal women reporting a history of hypothalamic ovulatory disruption. Importantly, in women with EAA, estrogen therapy, folic acid supplementation without change in menstrual status, and resumption of menses restores endothelial function. In this review, we focus on the influence of hypoestrogenemia in association with energy deficiency in mediating changes in cardiovascular function in women with EAA, including endothelial function, regional blood flow, lipid profile, and autonomic control of blood pressure, heart rate, and baroreflex sensitivity. The influence of exercise training is also considered. With the premenopausal years typically considered to be cardioprotective in association with normal ovarian function

  16. Microvascular and Macrovascular Abnormalities and Cognitive and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cardiovascular Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Grodstein, Francine; Newman, Anne B; Chaves, Paulo H M; Odden, Michelle C; Klein, Ronald; Sarnak, Mark J; Lipsitz, Lewis A

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the associations between microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities and cognitive and physical function Cross-sectional analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (1998-1999). Community. Individuals with available data on three or more of five microvascular abnormalities (brain, retina, kidney) and three or more of six macrovascular abnormalities (brain, carotid artery, heart, peripheral artery) (N = 2,452; mean age 79.5). Standardized composite scores derived from three cognitive tests (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit-Symbol Substitution Test, Trail-Making Test (TMT)) and three physical tests (gait speed, grip strength, 5-time sit to stand) Participants with high microvascular and macrovascular burden had worse cognitive (mean score difference = -0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.37 to -0.24) and physical (mean score difference = -0.32, 95% CI = -0.38 to -0.26) function than those with low microvascular and macrovascular burden. Individuals with high microvascular burden alone had similarly lower scores than those with high macrovascular burden alone (cognitive function: -0.16, 95% CI = -0.24 to -0.08 vs -0.13, 95% CI = -0.20 to -0.06; physical function: -0.15, 95% CI = -0.22 to -0.08 vs -0.12, 95% CI = -0.18 to -0.06). Psychomotor speed and working memory, assessed using the TMT, were only impaired in the presence of high microvascular burden. Of the 11 vascular abnormalities considered, white matter hyperintensity, cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate, large brain infarct, and ankle-arm index were independently associated with cognitive and physical function. Microvascular and macrovascular abnormalities assessed using noninvasive tests of the brain, kidney, and peripheral artery were independently associated with poor cognitive and physical function in older adults. Future research should evaluate the usefulness of these tests in prognostication. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training After Stroke: An Opportunity to Promote Functional Recovery, Cardiovascular Health, and Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Jennifer; Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Fung, Joyce; Ploughman, Michelle; Bailey, Damian M; Sweet, Shane N; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Thiel, Alexander; Trivino, Michael; Tang, Ada

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Individuals poststroke possess less than half of the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as their nonstroke counterparts, leading to inactivity, deconditioning, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Preserving cardiovascular health is critical to lower stroke risk; however, stroke rehabilitation typically provides limited opportunity for cardiovascular exercise. Optimal cardiovascular training parameters to maximize recovery in stroke survivors also remains unknown. While stroke rehabilitation recommendations suggest the use of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) to improve CRF, neither is it routinely implemented in clinical practice, nor is the intensity always sufficient to elicit a training effect. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a potentially effective alternative that encompasses brief high-intensity bursts of exercise interspersed with bouts of recovery, aiming to maximize cardiovascular exercise intensity in a time-efficient manner. HIIT may provide an alternative exercise intervention and invoke more pronounced benefits poststroke. To provide an updated review of HIIT poststroke through ( a) synthesizing current evidence; ( b) proposing preliminary considerations of HIIT parameters to optimize benefit; ( c) discussing potential mechanisms underlying changes in function, cardiovascular health, and neuroplasticity following HIIT; and ( d) discussing clinical implications and directions for future research. Preliminary evidence from 10 studies report HIIT-associated improvements in functional, cardiovascular, and neuroplastic outcomes poststroke; however, optimal HIIT parameters remain unknown. Larger randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish ( a) effectiveness, safety, and optimal training parameters within more heterogeneous poststroke populations; (b) potential mechanisms of HIIT-associated improvements; and ( c) adherence and psychosocial outcomes.

  18. Executive Cognitive Functioning and Cardiovascular Autonomic Regulation in a Population-Based Sample of Working Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenfors, Cecilia U D; Hanson, Linda M; Theorell, Töres; Osika, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Executive cognitive functioning is essential in private and working life and is sensitive to stress and aging. Cardiovascular (CV) health factors are related to cognitive decline and dementia, but there is relatively few studies of the role of CV autonomic regulation, a key component in stress responses and risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and executive processes. An emerging pattern of results from previous studies suggest that different executive processes may be differentially associated with CV autonomic regulation. The aim was thus to study the associations between multiple measures of CV autonomic regulation and measures of different executive cognitive processes. Method: Participants were 119 healthy working adults (79% women), from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Electrocardiogram was sampled for analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) measures, including the Standard Deviation of NN, here heart beats (SDNN), root of the mean squares of successive differences (RMSSD), high frequency (HF) power band from spectral analyses, and QT variability index (QTVI), a measure of myocardial repolarization patterns. Executive cognitive functioning was measured by seven neuropsychological tests. The relationships between CV autonomic regulation measures and executive cognitive measures were tested with bivariate and partial correlational analyses, controlling for demographic variables, and mental health symptoms. Results: Higher SDNN and RMSSD and lower QTVI were significantly associated with better performance on cognitive tests tapping inhibition, updating, shifting, and psychomotor speed. After adjustments for demographic factors however (age being the greatest confounder), only QTVI was clearly associated with these executive tests. No such associations were seen for working memory capacity . Conclusion: Poorer CV autonomic regulation in terms of lower SDNN and RMSSD and higher QTVI was associated with poorer executive

  19. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  20. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers.

  1. The ACE2 gene: its potential as a functional candidate for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Louise M; Harrap, Stephen B; Velkoska, Elena; Patel, Sheila K

    2013-01-01

    The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CVD (cardiovascular disease), and RAS blockade is an important therapeutic strategy in the management of CVD. A new counterbalancing arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 degrades Ang (angiotensin) II, the main effector of the classic RAS, and generates Ang-(1-7). Altered ACE2 expression is associated with cardiac and vascular disease in experimental models of CVD, and ACE2 is increased in failing human hearts and atherosclerotic vessels. In man, circulating ACE2 activity increases with coronary heart disease, as well as heart failure, and a large proportion of the variation in plasma ACE2 levels has been attributed to hereditary factors. The ACE2 gene maps to chromosome Xp22 and this paper reviews the evidence associating ACE2 gene variation with CVD and considers clues to potential functional ACE2 variants that may alter gene expression or transcriptional activity. Studies to date have investigated ACE2 gene associations in hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease, but the results have been inconsistent. The discrepancies may reflect the sample size of the studies, the gender or ethnicity of subjects, the cardiovascular phenotype or the ACE2 SNP investigated. The frequent observation of apparent sex-dependence might be of special importance, if confirmed. As yet, there are no studies to concurrently assess ACE2 gene polymorphisms and circulating ACE2 activity. Large-scale carefully conducted clinical studies are urgently needed to clarify more precisely the potential role of ACE2 in the CVD continuum.

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  3. Relationship between sensorimotor peripheral nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function in older adults from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Maia, Brittney S; Newman, Anne B; Jakicic, John M; Cauley, Jane A; Boudreau, Robert M; Schwartz, Ann V; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Satterfield, Suzanne; Vinik, Aaron I; Zivkovic, Sasa; Harris, Tamara B; Strotmeyer, Elsa S

    2017-10-01

    Age-related peripheral nervous system (PNS) impairments are highly prevalent in older adults. Although sensorimotor and cardiovascular autonomic function have been shown to be related in persons with diabetes, the nature of the relationship in general community-dwelling older adult populations is unknown. Health, Aging and Body Composition participants (n=2399, age=76.5±2.9years, 52% women, 38% black) underwent peripheral nerve testing at the 2000/01 clinic visit. Nerve conduction amplitude and velocity were measured at the peroneal motor nerve. Sensory nerve function was assessed with vibration detection threshold and monofilament (1.4-g/10-g) testing at the big toe. Symptoms of lower-extremity peripheral neuropathy were collected by self-report. Cardiovascular autonomic function indicators included postural hypotension, resting heart rate (HR), as well as HR response to and recovery from submaximal exercise testing (400m walk). Multivariable modeling adjusted for demographic/lifestyle factors, medication use and comorbid conditions. In fully adjusted models, poor motor nerve conduction velocity (function or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function. Motor nerve function and indicators of cardiovascular autonomic function remained significantly related even after considering many potentially shared risk factors. Future studies should investigate common underlying processes for developing multiple PNS impairments in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    NBCC syndrome; Gorlin-Goltz syndrome; Basal cell nevus syndrome; BCNS; Basal cell cancer - nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome ... Nevoid basal cell carcinoma nevus syndrome is a rare genetic ... syndrome is known as PTCH ("patched"). The gene is passed down ...

  5. Vitamin D analogue therapy, cardiovascular risk and kidney function in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, C; Tarnow, L; Goetze, J P

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of therapy with the vitamin D analogue paricalcitol on markers of cardiovascular risk and kidney function in people with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, crossover trial, 48 participants on s...

  6. A Single Argonaute Gene Participates in Exogenous and Endogenous RNAi and Controls Cellular Functions in the Basal Fungus Mucor circinelloides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Francisco E.; Moxon, Simon; de Haro, Juan P.; Dalmay, Tamas; Torres-Martínez, Santiago; Ruiz-Vázquez, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of RNAi is well described in metazoans where it plays a role in diverse cellular functions. However, although different classes of endogenous small RNAs (esRNAs) have been identified in fungi, their biological roles are poorly described due, in part, to the lack of phenotype of mutants affected in the biogenesis of these esRNAs. Argonaute proteins are one of the key components of the RNAi pathways, in which different members of this protein family participate in the biogenesis of a wide repertoire of esRNAs molecules. Here we identified three argonaute genes of the fungus Mucor circinelloides and investigated their participation in exogenous and endogenous RNAi. We found that only one of the ago genes, ago-1, is involved in RNAi during vegetative growth and is required for both transgene-induced RNA silencing and the accumulation of distinct classes of esRNAs derived from exons (ex-siRNAs). Classes I and II ex-siRNAs bind to Ago-1 to control mRNA accumulation of the target protein coding genes. Class III ex-siRNAs do not specifically bind to Ago-1, but requires this protein for their production, revealing the complexity of the biogenesis pathways of ex-siRNAs. We also show that ago-1 is involved in the response to environmental signals, since vegetative development and autolysis induced by nutritional stress are affected in ago-1 − M. circinelloides mutants. Our results demonstrate that a single Ago protein participates in the production of different classes of esRNAs that are generated through different pathways. They also highlight the role of ex-siRNAs in the regulation of endogenous genes in fungi and expand the range of biological functions modulated by RNAi. PMID:23935973

  7. Proximity Interactions among Basal Body Components in Trypanosoma brucei Identify Novel Regulators of Basal Body Biogenesis and Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung Quang Dang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal body shares similar architecture with centrioles in animals and is involved in nucleating flagellar axonemal microtubules in flagellated eukaryotes. The early-branching Trypanosoma brucei possesses a motile flagellum nucleated from the basal body that consists of a mature basal body and an adjacent pro-basal body. Little is known about the basal body proteome and its roles in basal body biogenesis and flagellar axoneme assembly in T. brucei. Here, we report the identification of 14 conserved centriole/basal body protein homologs and 25 trypanosome-specific basal body proteins. These proteins localize to distinct subdomains of the basal body, and several of them form a ring-like structure surrounding the basal body barrel. Functional characterization of representative basal body proteins revealed distinct roles in basal body duplication/separation and flagellar axoneme assembly. Overall, this work identified novel proteins required for basal body duplication and separation and uncovered new functions of conserved basal body proteins in basal body duplication and separation, highlighting an unusual mechanism of basal body biogenesis and inheritance in this early divergent eukaryote.

  8. Artificial Gravity with Ergometric Exercise Training Improves Cardiovascular Function in Ambulatory Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-Qing; Zhu, Chao; Shang, Shu; Yao, Yong-Jie

    2008-06-01

    The necessity of preventing physiological deconditioning in astronauts exposed to long-term space flights is well known. Artificial gravity training via short-arm centrifugation as a countermeasure to microgravity has been considered for many years. However, an optimal duration, level and rate of exposure to artificial gravity have not yet been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of three weeks of intermittent artificial gravity with ergometric exercise training on normal ambulatory men. During 3 weeks experiment, eight healthy male subjects received alternate +1 to +2 Gz (at the foot) short-arm centrifuge training with 30 W ergometric exercise for 30 min per day. Cardiac function, heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before and after training. Stroke volume and total peripheral resistance increased significantly after 3 weeks training, compared with the pre-training baseline. Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and ejection fraction increased significantly after 3 weeks training, while heart rate, the ratio of pre-ejection period to LVET, and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power decreased significantly after 3 weeks training. These results suggest that three weeks short-arm centrifuge training with ergometric exercise could improve human cardiac systolic and pumping functions, and increase cardiac vagal modulation.

  9. A STUDY ON CARDIOVASCULAR AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS IN CAREGIVERS OF STROKE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghouse Mubarak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke (cerebrovascular accident is an important cause of disability in countries like India and longterm care of these bedridden patients is usually undertaken by the family members. A caregiver is a person who takes responsibility for those who cannot completely care for themselves. Taking care of a chronically ill member in the family usually causes stress to the caregiver causing disturbances in the autonomic function. Thus, the present study is undertaken to find out the effect of longterm caregiving on cardiovascular autonomic functions in a caregiver. MATERIALS AND METHODS 57 caregivers of post-stroke bedridden patients, both male and female, were included in this longitudinal study. Parasympathetic activity was assessed by observing the heart rate changes to immediate standing from lying down position, heart rate changes during deep breathing and heart rate changes during Valsalva manoeuvre. Sympathetic activity was assessed by observing blood pressure changes on immediate standing from lying down position and blood pressure changes during sustained hand grip. RESULTS The results of the present study showed statistically significant decrease in Valsalva ratio, decrease in the heart rate following deep breathing and statistically significant increase in systolic blood pressure in response to immediate standing suggestive of autonomic imbalance. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that longterm caregiving is accompanied by dysfunction of the cardiac autonomic nervous system, and these individuals are more prone to autonomic neuropathy.

  10. Prediction of basal metabolic rate in overweight/obese and non-obese subjects and its relation to pulmonary function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merghani, Tarig H; Alawad, Azza O; Ibrahim, Rihab M; Abdelmoniem, Asim M

    2015-08-15

    Few studies investigated the association between basal metabolic rate (BMR) and indicators of pulmonary function. This study was conducted to estimate BMR in overweight/obese and non-obese healthy subjects using four commonly used predictive equations and to investigate its relation to the indicators of lung function tests (LFT). A cross sectional study was conducted in Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. A total of 201 students (98 males and 103 females) participated in the study. Four different values of BMR were calculated for each participant using four different predictive equations (Harris-Benedict, Mifflin, FAO/WHO/UNU and Henry-Rees). A portable All-flow spirometer (Clement Clarke International, Harlow, UK) was used for measurements of LFT. Significantly higher values of spirometric indicators (p BMR values predicted with the four equations were significantly higher in the males compared to the females and among the overweight/obese compared to the non-obese subjects (p BMR values and the indicators of LFT was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). Mean values of LFT indicators are not related to the estimated values of BMR. A practical calculation of BMR based on direct measurement of oxygen consumption is recommended to confirm the absence of this association.

  11. Relations of Digital Vascular Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Arterial Stiffness: The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA‐Brasil) Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa C. C.; Hamburg, Naomi M.; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Ribeiro, Antonio L. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vascular dysfunction is an early expression of atherosclerosis and predicts cardiovascular (CV) events. Peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) evaluates basal pulse amplitude (BPA), endothelial function (PAT ratio), and wave reflection (PAT‐AIx) in the digital microvessels. In Brazilian adults, we investigated the correlations of PAT responses to CV risk factors and to carotid‐femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness. Methods and Results In a cross‐sectional study, 1535 participants of the ELSA‐Brasil cohort underwent PAT testing (52±9 years; 44% women). In multivariable analyses, more‐impaired BPA and PAT ratios were associated with male sex, higher body mass index (BMI), and total cholesterol/high‐density lipoprotein. Higher age and triglycerides were related to higher BPA, whereas lower systolic blood pressure, hypertension (HTN) treatment, and prevalent CV disease (CVD) were associated with lower PAT ratio. PAT‐AIx correlated positively with female sex, advancing age, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and smoking and inversely to heart rate, height, BMI, and prevalent CVD. Black race was associated with lower BPA, higher PAT ratio, and PAT‐AIx. Microvessel vasodilator function was not associated with PWV. Higher PAT‐AIx was modestly correlated to higher PWV and PAT ratio and inversely correlated to BPA. Conclusion Metabolic risk factors are related to impaired microvessel vasodilator function in Brazil. However, in contrast to studies from the United States, black race was not associated with an impaired microvessel vasodilator response, implying that vascular function may vary by race across populations. PAT‐AIx relates to HTN, may be a valid measure of wave reflection, and provides distinct information from arterial stiffness. PMID:25510401

  12. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome. In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  13. Oxygen transport and cardiovascular function at extreme altitude: lessons from Operation Everest II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J. R.; Reeves, J. T.; Groves, B. M.; Wagner, P. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Hultgren, H. N.; Cymerman, A.; Houston, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Operation Everest II was designed to examine the physiological responses to gradual decompression simulating an ascent of Mt Everest (8,848 m) to an inspired PO2 of 43 mmHg. The principal studies conducted were cardiovascular, respiratory, muscular-skeletal and metabolic responses to exercise. Eight healthy males aged 21-31 years began the "ascent" and six successfully reached the "summit", where their resting arterial blood gases were PO2 = 30 mmHg and PCO2 = 11 mmHg, pH = 7.56. Their maximal oxygen uptake decreased from 3.98 +/- 0.2 L/min at sea level to 1.17 +/- 0.08 L/min at PIO2 43 mmHg. The principal factors responsible for oxygen transport from the atmosphere to tissues were (1) Alveolar ventilation--a four fold increase. (2) Diffusion from the alveolus to end capillary blood--unchanged. (3) Cardiac function (assessed by hemodynamics, echocardiography and electrocardiography)--normal--although maximum cardiac output and heart rate were reduced. (4) Oxygen extraction--maximal with PvO2 14.8 +/- 1 mmHg. With increasing altitude maximal blood and muscle lactate progressively declined although at any submaximal intensity blood and muscle lactate was higher at higher altitudes.

  14. Antigravity suit inflation: kidney function and cardiovascular and hormonal responses in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G; Kravik, S E; Hadj-Aissa, A; Leftheriotis, G; Vincent, M; Bizollon, C A; Sem-Jacobsen, C W; Greenleaf, J E; Gharib, C

    1989-02-01

    To investigate the effects of lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on kidney function while controlling certain cardiovascular and endocrine responses, seven men [35 +/- 2 (SE) yr] underwent 30 min of sitting and then 4.5 h of 70 degrees head-up tilt. An antigravity suit was applied (60 Torr legs, 30 Torr abdomen) during the last 3 h of tilt. A similar noninflation experiment was conducted where the suited subjects were tilted for 3.5 h. To provide adequate urine flow, the subjects were hydrated during the course of both experiments. Immediately after inflation, mean arterial pressure increased by 8 +/- 3 Torr and pulse rate decreased by 16 +/- 3 beats/min. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone were maximally suppressed (P less than 0.05) after 2.5 h of inflation. Plasma vasopressin decreased by 40-50% (P less than 0.05) and plasma sodium and potassium remained unchanged during both experiments. Glomerular filtration rate was not increased significantly by inflation, whereas inflation induced marked increases (P less than 0.05) in effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), urine flow, osmolar and free water clearances, and total and fractional sodium excretion. No such changes occurred during control. Thus, LBPP induces 1) a significant increase in ERPF and 2) significant changes in kidney excretory patterns similar to those observed during water immersion or the early phase of bed rest, situations that also result in central vascular volume expansion.

  15. Dietary sodium restriction and β2-adrenergic receptor polymorphism modulate cardiovascular function in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenach, John H; Schroeder, Darrell R; Pike, Tasha L; Johnson, Christopher P; Schrage, William G; Snyder, Eric M; Johnson, Bruce D; Garovic, Vesna D; Turner, Stephen T; Joyner, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    group. This study provides evidence that dietary Na+ modulates effects of the Arg16Gly polymorphism on cardiovascular function. PMID:16740612

  16. Switching to a 10-day Mediterranean-style diet improves mood and cardiovascular function in a controlled crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaime; Pase, Matthew; Pipingas, Andrew; Raubenheimer, Jessica; Thurgood, Madeline; Villalon, Lorena; Macpherson, Helen; Gibbs, Amy; Scholey, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Even short-term adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet may benefit aspects of psychological functioning. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of switching to a 10-d Mediterranean-style diet on mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures. Using a crossover design, 24 women were randomly assigned to either the diet change (where they switched to a Mediterranean-style diet) or no diet change (normal diet) condition for 10 days before switching to the other condition for the same duration. Mood, cognition, and cardiovascular measures of blood pressure, blood flow velocity, and arterial stiffness were assessed at baseline and at the completion of the two diets (days 11 and 22). Independent of whether the Mediterranean-style diet was undertaken before or after the crossover, it was associated with significantly elevated contentment and alertness, and significantly reduced confusion. Additionally, aspects of cognition, such as memory recall, improved significantly as a result of switching to the Mediterranean-style diet. Regarding cardiovascular measures, there was a significant reduction in augmentation pressure associated with the Mediterranean-style diet intervention, but blood flow velocity through the common carotid artery did not change. This Mediterranean-style diet has the potential to enhance aspects of mood, cognition, and cardiovascular function in a young, healthy adult sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  18. Assessing the functional properties of high-density lipoproteins : an emerging concept in cardiovascular research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triolo, Michela; Annema, Wijtske; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    Although plasma concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol correlate inversely with the incidence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, results from recent epidemiological, genetic and pharmacological intervention studies resulted in a shift of concept. Rather than HDL

  19. Neuroimaging, cardiovascular physiology, and functional outcomes in infants with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Nathalie H. P.; Kelly, Christopher J; Counsell, Serena J.; Benders, Manon J. N. L.

    This review integrates data on brain dysmaturation and acquired brain injury using fetal and neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including the contribution of cardiovascular physiology to differences in brain development, and the relationship between brain abnormalities and subsequent

  20. Loss of function of Slc20a2 associated with familial idiopathic Basal Ganglia calcification in humans causes brain calcifications in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, N.; Schroder, H. D.; Hejbol, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (FIBGC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with neuropsychiatric and motor symptoms. Deleterious mutations in SLC20A2, encoding the type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporter 2 (PiT2), were recently linked to FIBGC in almost 50% of the families...... reported worldwide. Here, we show that knockout of Slc20a2 in mice causes calcifications in the thalamus, basal ganglia, and cortex, demonstrating that reduced PiT2 expression alone can cause brain calcifications....

  1. Functional and evolutionary analysis of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of MADS-box genes in the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Huang, Wenjun; Li, Zhineng; Song, Chi; Liu, Di; Liu, Yongliang; Hayward, Alice; Liu, Yifei; Huang, Hongwen; Wang, Ying

    2014-03-01

    MADS-box transcriptional regulators play important roles during plant development. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction, the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade of floral MADS-box genes underwent one or two duplication events in the common ancestor of the core eudicots. However, the functional evolution of the AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade in basal eudicots remains uncharacterized. Epimedium sagittatum is a basal eudicot species valued for its medicinal properties and showing unique floral morphology. In this study, structural and functional variation of FUL-like (AP1 subfamily), SEP-like and AGL6-like genes in this species was investigated to further our understanding of flower evolution in angiosperms. Detailed investigations into the microsynteny and evolutionary history of the floral A and E class MADS-box genes in eudicots were undertaken and used to trace their genomic rearrangements. One AP1-like gene, two SEP-like genes and one AGL6-like gene were cloned from E. sagittatum. Their expression patterns were examined using quantitative RT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive organs at two developmental stages. Yeast two-hybrid assays were carried out among AP1/SEP/AGL6 superclade, AP3/PI and AGAMOUS subfamily members for elucidation of dimerization patterns. In addition, possible formation of a ternary complex involving B class proteins with the A class protein EsFUL-like, the E class SEP-like protein EsAGL2-1 or the AGL6-class protein EsAGL6 were detected using yeast three-hybrid assays. Transgenic Arabidopsis or tobacco plants expressing EsFUL-like, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL6-like under the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter were generated and analysed. Genomic studies of AP1 syntenic regions in arabidopsis, columbine, strawberry, papaya, peach, grapevine and tomato were conducted for microsyntenic analyses. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that EsFUL-like is a member of the AP1 (A class) subfamily, EsAGL2-1 and EsAGL2-2 belong to the SEP-like (E class

  2. The impact of obesity on cardiovascular structure and function: the fetal programming era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    St-Pierre J

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Julie St-Pierre1, Luigi Bouchard2,3, Paul Poirier41Department of Pediatrics, Chicoutimi Hospital, Saguenay, QC, Canada; 2Department of Biochemistry, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada; 3ECOGENE-21 and Lipid Clinic, Chicoutimi Hospital, Saguenay, QC, Canada; 4Quebec Heart and Lungs Institute, Université Laval, Quebec, QC, CanadaAbstract: The burden of obesity is now well established as a precursor of cardiovascular disease and other disorders. Although better clinical guidelines exist to prevent and treat obesity, the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents is increasing alarmingly. Primary prevention remains the gold standard to significantly reduce the public health concerns associated with obesity. Traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors (such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, type 2 diabetes for cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents are known. The scope of this review is thus to discuss new and emerging obesity and associated-disease risk factors. Evaluation of the coronary plaque formation, diastolic dysfunction, carotid intima-media thickness and heart rate variability represent interesting tools with clinical relevance. Beyond these new cardiovascular disease risk factors, recent evidence suggests that a detrimental fetal environment, associated with for example, maternal obesity, insulin resistance, and physical inactivity, imprints fetal metabolic programming via epigenetic mechanisms that predisposes the newborn to obesity and cardiovascular disease later in life. This information may impact on the future management of maternal health, as well as for those high-risk children.Keywords: cardiovascular disease, pediatrics, risk factors

  3. The Frequency-Dependent Aerobic Exercise Effects of Hypothalamic GABAergic Expression and Cardiovascular Functions in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function. In the present study, young (2 months and old (24 months male Wistar rats were divided into young control (YC, old sedentary, old low frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 3 days/week, 12 weeks and old high frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week, 12 weeks. Exercise training indexes were obtained, including resting heart rate (HR, blood pressure (BP, plasma norepinephrine (NE, and heart weight (HW-to-body weight (BW ratios. The brain was removed and processed according to the immunofluorescence staining and western blot used to analyze the GABAergic terminal density, the proteins of GAD67, GABAA receptor and gephyrin in the PVN. There were significant changes in aged rats compared with those in the YC. Twelve weeks aerobic exercise training has volume-dependent ameliorated effects on cardiovascular parameters, autonomic nervous activities and GABAergic system functions. These data suggest that the density of GABAergic declines in the PVN is associated with imbalance in autonomic nervous activities in normal aging. Additionally, aerobic exercise can rescue aging-related an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and induces modifications the resting BP and HR to lower values via improving the GABAergic system in the PVN.

  4. The Frequency-Dependent Aerobic Exercise Effects of Hypothalamic GABAergic Expression and Cardiovascular Functions in Aged Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Ziqi; Cai, Jiajia; Gu, Boya; Lv, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Li

    2017-01-01

    A decline in cardiovascular modulation is a feature of the normal aging process and associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as hypertension and stroke. Exercise training is known to promote cardiovascular adaptation in young animals and positive effects on motor and cognitive capabilities, as well as on brain plasticity for all ages in mice. Here, we examine the question of whether aerobic exercise interventions may impact the GABAergic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in aged rats which have been observed to have a decline in cardiovascular integration function. In the present study, young (2 months) and old (24 months) male Wistar rats were divided into young control (YC), old sedentary, old low frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 3 days/week, 12 weeks) and old high frequency exercise (20 m/min, 60 min/day, 5 days/week, 12 weeks). Exercise training indexes were obtained, including resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), plasma norepinephrine (NE), and heart weight (HW)-to-body weight (BW) ratios. The brain was removed and processed according to the immunofluorescence staining and western blot used to analyze the GABAergic terminal density, the proteins of GAD67, GABAA receptor and gephyrin in the PVN. There were significant changes in aged rats compared with those in the YC. Twelve weeks aerobic exercise training has volume-dependent ameliorated effects on cardiovascular parameters, autonomic nervous activities and GABAergic system functions. These data suggest that the density of GABAergic declines in the PVN is associated with imbalance in autonomic nervous activities in normal aging. Additionally, aerobic exercise can rescue aging-related an overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system and induces modifications the resting BP and HR to lower values via improving the GABAergic system in the PVN. PMID:28713263

  5. Review of existing experimental approaches for the clinical evaluation of the benefits of plant food supplements on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoni, Paolo; Restani, Patrizia; Mancama, Dalu T

    2013-06-01

    We conducted a survey of the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) PubMed database to identify methods most commonly used for the evaluation of the effect of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system and their relevance to the regulatory status of these products. Particularly, our search strategy was aimed at the selection of studies concerning the clinical evaluation of the beneficial effects of the most commonly studied plant food supplements acting on the cardiovascular system. Following the screening of 3839 papers for inclusion criteria, 48 published reports were retained for this review. Most studies included in this review used a double blind controlled design, and evaluated the effect of plant food supplements on individuals affected by a disease of the cardiovascular system. The majority of the studies were found to be of low methodological quality on the Jadad scale, mainly because of inadequate reporting of adverse events and of patient withdrawals. In comparison, measures used for the evaluation of benefits included mostly cardiovascular risk factors as recommended in international guidelines and in accordance with principles laid down for the evaluation of health claims in food. The risk factors most frequently evaluated belonged to the category of "lipid function and levels", "heart function" and "blood pressure". For the absolute majority of the studies, the study period did not exceed one month. This review highlights critical factors to be considered in the design of studies evaluating the health effects of plant food supplements on the cardiovascular system. Between others, the inclusion of healthy individuals, better reporting and description of the characteristics of the product used could improve the quality and relevance of these studies.

  6. Acid-base status and cardiovascular function in mink (Mustela vison) anaesthetized with ketamine/midazolam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Svendsen, P; Johansen, B

    1996-01-01

    Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and blood acid-base status were determined in 18 adult female mink (mean (+/- SEM) body weight 1052 +/- 34 g) during long-term anaesthesia with either controlled ventilation (n=12) or spontaneous respiration (n=6). Surgical anaesthesia was induced by intramuscular injection of ketamine hydrochloride (Ketaminol Vet, 40.0 +/- 1.7 mg/kg) and midazolam hydrochloride (Dormicum 2.8 +/- 0.1 mg/kg) and maintained for at least 5 h by continuous intravenous infusion of this drug combination in 0.9% saline. For all animals, the mean rates of infusion of ketamine and midazolam were 48.4 +/- 1.6 and 1.61 +/- 0.12 mg/h, respectively. Following continuous infusion of the anaesthetics in isotonic saline, at a rate of 20 ml/h, a moderate 'dilution acidosis' developed, which could be corrected by replacement of part of the saline with sodium bicarbonate to a final concentration of approximately 25 mmol NaHCO3 per litre. However, when the animals were allowed to breathe spontaneously, an increase in heart rate and a combined respiratory and metabolic acidosis occurred, due to severe respiratory depression. Apart from these effects and a few cases of increased salivation, no adverse effects over time were observed on the arterial blood acid-base status and cardiovascular function of the animals during ketamine/midazolam anaesthesia. It is concluded that the procedure described for long-term anaesthesia in mink is convenient and safe for acute physiological experiments in this species, provided normal body temperature and pulmonary gas exchange is sufficiently maintained. Thus, the need for an adequately controlled artificial ventilation is strongly emphasized. Finally, a proposal for the composition of an intravenous solution, containing ketamine and midazolam hydrochloride, and sodium bicarbonate in saline, suitable for long-term anaesthesia in adult mink is presented.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide regulates cardiovascular function by influencing the excitability of subfornical organ neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kuksis

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S, a gasotransmitter endogenously found in the central nervous system, has recently been suggested to act as a signalling molecule in the brain having beneficial effects on cardiovascular function. This study was thus undertaken to investigate the effect of NaHS (an H2S donor in the subfornical organ (SFO, a central nervous system site important to blood pressure regulation. We used male Sprague-Dawley rats for both in vivo and in vitro experiments. We first used RT-PCR to confirm our previous microarray analyses showing that mRNAs for the enzymes required to produce H2S are expressed in the SFO. We then used microinjection techniques to investigate the physiological effects of NaHS in SFO, and found that NaHS microinjection (5 nmol significantly increased blood pressure (mean AUC = 853.5±105.7 mmHg*s, n = 5. Further, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology and found that 97.8% (88 of 90 of neurons depolarized in response to NaHS. This response was found to be concentration dependent with an EC50 of 35.6 µM. Coupled with the depolarized membrane potential, we observed an overall increase in neuronal excitability using an analysis of rheobase and action potential firing patterns. This study has provided the first evidence of NaHS and thus H2S actions and their cellular correlates in SFO, implicating this brain area as a site where H2S may act to control blood pressure.

  8. The impact of repeated marathon running on cardiovascular function in the aging population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstedt Erin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have correlated elevations in cardiac biomarkers of injury post marathon with transient and reversible right ventricular (RV systolic dysfunction as assessed by both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR. Whether or not permanent myocardial injury occurs due to repeated marathon running in the aging population remains controversial. Objectives To assess the extent and severity of cardiac dysfunction after the completion of full marathon running in individuals greater than 50 years of age using cardiac biomarkers, TTE, cardiac computed tomography (CCT, and CMR. Methods A total of 25 healthy volunteers (21 males, 55 ± 4 years old from the 2010 and 2011 Manitoba Full Marathons (26.2 miles were included in the study. Cardiac biomarkers and TTE were performed one week prior to the marathon, immediately after completing the race and at one-week follow-up. CMR was performed at baseline and within 24 hours of completion of the marathon, followed by CCT within 3 months of the marathon. Results All participants demonstrated an elevated cTnT post marathon. Right atrial and ventricular volumes increased, while RV systolic function decreased significantly immediately post marathon, returning to baseline values one week later. Of the entire study population, only two individuals demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement of the subendocardium in the anterior wall of the left ventricle, with evidence of stenosis of the left anterior descending artery on CCT. Conclusions Marathon running in individuals over the age of 50 is associated with a transient, yet reversible increase in cardiac biomarkers and RV systolic dysfunction. The presence of myocardial fibrosis in older marathon athletes is infrequent, but when present, may be due to underlying occult coronary artery disease.

  9. Reduced functional measure of cardiovascular reserve predicts admission to critical care unit following kidney transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M S Ting

    Full Text Available There is currently no effective preoperative assessment for patients undergoing kidney transplantation that is able to identify those at high perioperative risk requiring admission to critical care unit (CCU. We sought to determine if functional measures of cardiovascular reserve, in particular the anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT could identify these patients.Adult patients were assessed within 4 weeks prior to kidney transplantation in a University hospital with a 37-bed CCU, between April 2010 and June 2012. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET, echocardiography and arterial applanation tonometry were performed.There were 70 participants (age 41.7±14.5 years, 60% male, 91.4% living donor kidney recipients, 23.4% were desensitized. 14 patients (20% required escalation of care from the ward to CCU following transplantation. Reduced anaerobic threshold (VO₂AT was the most significant predictor, independently (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.27-0.68; p<0.001 and in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (adjusted OR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.12-0.59; p = 0.001. The area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve was 0.93, based on a risk prediction model that incorporated VO₂AT, body mass index and desensitization status. Neither echocardiographic nor measures of aortic compliance were significantly associated with CCU admission.To our knowledge, this is the first prospective observational study to demonstrate the usefulness of CPET as a preoperative risk stratification tool for patients undergoing kidney transplantation. The study suggests that VO₂AT has the potential to predict perioperative morbidity in kidney transplant recipients.

  10. Hydralazine administration activates sympathetic preganglionic neurons whose activity mobilizes glucose and increases cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lindsay M; Damanhuri, Hanafi A; Fletcher, Sophie P S; Goodchild, Ann K

    2015-04-16

    Hypotensive drugs have been used to identify central neurons that mediate compensatory baroreceptor reflex responses. Such drugs also increase blood glucose. Our aim was to identify the neurochemical phenotypes of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) and adrenal chromaffin cells activated following hydralazine (HDZ; 10mg/kg) administration in rats, and utilize this and SPN target organ destination to ascribe their function as cardiovascular or glucose regulating. Blood glucose was measured and adrenal chromaffin cell activation was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity (-ir) and phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase, respectively. The activation and neurochemical phenotype of SPN innervating the adrenal glands and celiac ganglia were determined using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit, in combination with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Blood glucose was elevated at multiple time points following HDZ administration but little evidence of chromaffin cell activation was seen suggesting non-adrenal mechanisms contribute to the sustained hyperglycemia. 16±0.1% of T4-T11 SPN contained c-Fos and of these: 24.3±1.4% projected to adrenal glands and 29±5.5% projected to celiac ganglia with the rest innervating other targets. 62.8±1.4% of SPN innervating adrenal glands were activated and 29.9±3.3% expressed PPE mRNA whereas 53.2±8.6% of SPN innervating celiac ganglia were activated and 31.2±8.8% expressed PPE mRNA. CART-ir SPN innervating each target were also activated and did not co-express PPE mRNA. Neurochemical coding reveals that HDZ administration activates both PPE+SPN, whose activity increase glucose mobilization causing hyperglycemia, as well as CART+SPN whose activity drive vasomotor responses mediated by baroreceptor unloading to raise vascular tone and heart rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  12. Weight-loss changes PPAR expression, reduces atherosclerosis and improves cardiovascular function in obese insulin-resistant mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verreth, Wim; Verhamme, Peter; Pelat, Michael; Ganame, Javier; Bielicki, John K.; Mertens, Ann; Quarck, Rozenn; Benhabiles, Nora; Marguerie, Gerard; Mackness, Bharti; Mackness, Mike; Ninio, Ewa; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Holvoet, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Weight-loss in obese insulin-resistant, but not in insulin-sensitive, persons reduces CHD risk. It is not known to what extent changes in the adipose gene expression profile are important for reducing CHD risk. We studied the effect of diet restriction-induced weight-loss on gene expression in adipose tissue, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular function in mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and insulin-resistance are associated with hypertension, impaired left ventricle function and accelerated atherosclerosis in those mice. Diet restriction during 12 weeks caused a 45% weight-loss and changes in the gene expression in adipose tissue of PPARa and PPAR? and of key genes regulating glucose transport and insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammation, most of which are under the transcriptional control of PPARs. These changes were associated with increased insulin-sensitivity, decreased hypertriglyceridemia, reduced mean 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, restored circadian variations of blood pressure and heart rate, increased ejection fraction, and reduced atherosclerosis. Thus, induction of PPARa and PPAR? in adipose tissue is a key mechanism for reducing atherosclerosis and improving cardiovascular function resulting from weight-loss. Our observations point to the critical role of PPARs in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular features of the metabolic syndrome.

  13. Aspirin exposure reveals novel genes associated with platelet function and cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Deepak; Cyr, Derek; Lucas, Joseph; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Dungan, Jennifer; McCaffrey, Timothy A; Katz, Richard; Newby, L Kristin; Kraus, William E; Becker, Richard C; Ortel, Thomas L; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to develop ribonucleic acid (RNA) profiles that could serve as novel biomarkers for the response to aspirin. Aspirin reduces death and myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that aspirin interacts with biological pathways that may underlie these events. Aspirin was administered, followed by whole-blood RNA microarray profiling, in a discovery cohort of healthy volunteers (HV1) (n = 50) and 2 validation cohorts of healthy volunteers (HV2) (n = 53) and outpatient cardiology patients (OPC) (n = 25). Platelet function was assessed using the platelet function score (PFS) in HV1 and HV2 and the VerifyNow Aspirin Test (Accumetrics, Inc., San Diego, California) in OPC. Bayesian sparse factor analysis identified sets of coexpressed transcripts, which were examined for associations with PFS in HV1 and validated in HV2 and OPC. Proteomic analysis confirmed the association of validated transcripts in platelet proteins. Validated gene sets were tested for association with death or MI in 2 patient cohorts (n = 587 total) from RNA samples collected at cardiac catheterization. A set of 60 coexpressed genes named the "aspirin response signature" (ARS) was associated with PFS in HV1 (r = -0.31, p = 0.03), HV2 (r = -0.34, Bonferroni p = 0.03), and OPC (p = 0.046). Corresponding proteins for the 17 ARS genes were identified in the platelet proteome, of which 6 were associated with PFS. The ARS was associated with death or MI in both patient cohorts (odds ratio: 1.2 [p = 0.01]; hazard ratio: 1.5 [p = 0.001]), independent of cardiovascular risk factors. Compared with traditional risk factors, reclassification (net reclassification index = 31% to 37%, p ≤ 0.0002) was improved by including the ARS or 1 of its genes, ITGA2B. RNA profiles of platelet-specific genes are novel biomarkers for identifying patients who do not respond adequately to aspirin and who are at risk for death or MI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  14. The effect of bedding system selected by manual muscle testing on sleep-related cardiovascular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Terry B J; Li, Jia-Yi; Lai, Chun-Ting; Huang, Yu-Chun; Hsu, Ya-Chuan; Yang, Cheryl C H

    2013-01-01

    Different types of mattresses affect sleep quality and waking muscle power. Whether manual muscle testing (MMT) predicts the cardiovascular effects of the bedding system was explored using ten healthy young men. For each participant, two bedding systems, one inducing the strongest limb muscle force (strong bedding system) and the other inducing the weakest limb force (weak bedding system), were identified using MMT. Each bedding system, in total five mattresses and eight pillows of different firmness, was used for two continuous weeks at the participant's home in a random and double-blind sequence. A sleep log, a questionnaire, and a polysomnography were used to differentiate the two bedding systems. Heart rate variability and arterial pressure variability analyses showed that the strong bedding system resulted in decreased cardiovascular sympathetic modulation, increased cardiac vagal activity, and increased baroreceptor reflex sensitivity during sleep as compared to the weak bedding system. Different bedding systems have distinct cardiovascular effects during sleep that can be predicted by MMT.

  15. Strategies and methods to study sex differences in cardiovascular structure and function: a guide for basic scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Virginia M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the primary cause of death worldwide. In the US, deaths due to cardiovascular disease for women exceed those of men. While cultural and psychosocial factors such as education, economic status, marital status and access to healthcare contribute to sex differences in adverse outcomes, physiological and molecular bases of differences between women and men that contribute to development of cardiovascular disease and response to therapy remain underexplored. Methods This article describes concepts, methods and procedures to assist in the design of animal and tissue/cell based studies of sex differences in cardiovascular structure, function and models of disease. Results To address knowledge gaps, study designs must incorporate appropriate experimental material including species/strain characteristics, sex and hormonal status. Determining whether a sex difference exists in a trait must take into account the reproductive status and history of the animal including those used for tissue (cell harvest, such as the presence of gonadal steroids at the time of testing, during development or number of pregnancies. When selecting the type of experimental animal, additional consideration should be given to diet requirements (soy or plant based influencing consumption of phytoestrogen, lifespan, frequency of estrous cycle in females, and ability to investigate developmental or environmental components of disease modulation. Stress imposed by disruption of sleep/wake cycles, patterns of social interaction (or degree of social isolation, or handling may influence adrenal hormones that interact with pathways activated by the sex steroid hormones. Care must be given to selection of hormonal treatment and route of administration. Conclusions Accounting for sex in the design and interpretation of studies including pharmacological effects of drugs is essential to increase the foundation of basic knowledge upon which to

  16. Functional cardiovascular action of L-cysteine microinjected into pressor sites of the rostral ventrolateral medulla of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2014-04-01

    The endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine injected into the cerebrospinal fluid space of the cisterna magna increases arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) in the freely moving rat. The present study examined (1) cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine microinjected into the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), where a group of neurons regulate activities of cardiovascular sympathetic neurons and (2) involvement of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors in response. In the RVLM of urethane-anesthetized rats accessed ventrally and identified with pressor responses to L-glutamate (10 mM, 34 nl), microinjections of L-cysteine increased ABP and HR dose dependently (3-100 mM, 34 nl). The cardiovascular responses to L-cysteine (30 mM) were not attenuated by a prior injection of either antagonist alone, MK801 (20 mM, 68 nl) for the NMDA type of iEAA receptors, or CNQX (2 mM) for the non-NMDA type. However, inhibition of both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors with additional prior injection of either antagonist completely blocked those responses to L-cysteine. The results indicate that L-cysteine has functional cardiovascular action in the RVLM of the anesthetized rat, and the responses to L-cysteine involve both NMDA and non-NMDA receptors albeit in a mutually exclusive parallel fashion. The findings may suggest endogenous roles of L-cysteine indirectly via iEAA receptors in the neuronal network of the RVLM for cardiovascular regulation in physiological and pathological situations.

  17. Using a high-fidelity patient simulator with first-year medical students to facilitate learning of cardiovascular function curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David M; Ryan, Kathleen; Rabuck, Cynthia

    2012-09-01

    Students are relying on technology for learning more than ever, and educators need to adapt to facilitate student learning. High-fidelity patient simulators (HFPS) are usually reserved for the clinical years of medical education and are geared to improve clinical decision skills, teamwork, and patient safety. Finding ways to incorporate HFPS into preclinical medical education represents more of a challenge, and there is limited literature regarding its implementation. The main objective of this study was to implement a HFPS activity into a problem-based curriculum to enhance the learning of basic sciences. More specifically, the focus was to aid in student learning of cardiovascular function curves and help students develop heart failure treatment strategies based on basic cardiovascular physiology concepts. Pretests and posttests, along with student surveys, were used to determine student knowledge and perception of learning in two first-year medical school classes. There was an increase of 21% and 22% in the percentage of students achieving correct answers on a posttest compared with their pretest score. The median number of correct questions increased from pretest scores of 2 and 2.5 to posttest scores of 4 and 5 of a possible total of 6 in each respective year. Student survey data showed agreement that the activity aided in learning. This study suggests that a HFPS activity can be implemented during the preclinical years of medical education to address basic science concepts. Additionally, it suggests that student learning of cardiovascular function curves and heart failure strategies are facilitated.

  18. Endothelial function after 10 days of bed rest in individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mette Paulii; Højbjerre, Lise; Alibegovic, Amra C

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Physical inactivity is considered to be deleterious to vascular health, and in particular first degree relatives to patients with type 2 diabetes (FDR) and persons born with low birth weight (LBW) who may later in life develop cardiovascular disease. A period of imposed physical inactivity...... could unmask this risk. We hypothesized that the impact of physical inactivity on endothelial function would be more marked in subjects at increased risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, (LBW and FDR) compared with a matched control group (CON); all recruited via advertisements and via...... the Danish Birth Registry.Methods and Results: Twenty LBW and twenty CON and thirteen FDR were studied before and after ten days of bed rest. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography during brachial intra-arterial infusions of acetylcholine and adenosine at baseline...

  19. Mechanisms of greater cardiomyocyte functions on conductive nanoengineered composites for cardiovascular applications

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    Stout DA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available David A Stout,1,2 Jennie Yoo,2 Adriana Noemi Santiago-Miranda,3 Thomas J Webster1,41School of Engineering, 2Division of Biology and Medicine, Brown University, Providence, RI, 3Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Puerto Rico, Mayagües, PR, 4Department of Orthopedics, Brown University, Providence, RI, USABackground: Recent advances in nanotechnology (materials with at least one dimension between 1 nm and 100 nm have led to the use of nanomaterials in numerous medical device applications. Recently, nanomaterials have been used to create innovative biomaterials for cardiovascular applications. Specifically, carbon nanofibers (CNF embedded in poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA have been shown to promote cardiomyocyte growth compared with conventional polymer substrates, but the mechanisms involved in such events remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the basic mechanism of cell growth on these novel nanocomposites.Methods: CNF were added to biodegradable PLGA (50:50 PGA:PLA weight ratio to increase the conductivity, mechanical and cytocompatibility properties of pure PLGA. For this reason, different PLGA to CNF ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 wt% with different PLGA densities (0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 g/mL were used, and their compatibility with cardiomyocytes was assessed.Results: Throughout all the cytocompatibility experiments, cardiomyocytes were viable and expressed important biomarkers, including cardiac troponin T, connexin-43, and alpha-sarcomeric actin (α-SCA. Adhesion and proliferation experiments indicated that a PLGA density of 0.025 g/mL with a PLGA to CNF ratio of 75:25 and 50:50 (wt% promoted the best overall cell growth, ie, a 55% increase in cardiomyocyte density after 120 hours compared with pure PLGA and a 75% increase compared with the control at the same time point for 50:50 (wt%. The PLGA:CNF materials were conductive, and their conductivity increased as greater amounts of CNF

  20. The predictive value of arterial stiffness on major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with mildly impaired renal function

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    Han J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jie Han,* Xiaona Wang,* Ping Ye, Ruihua Cao, Xu Yang, Wenkai Xiao, Yun Zhang, Yongyi Bai, Hongmei Wu Department of Geriatric Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objectives: Despite growing evidence that arterial stiffness has important predictive value for cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced stages of chronic kidney disease, the predictive significance of arterial stiffness in individuals with mildly impaired renal function has not been established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of arterial stiffness on cardiovascular disease in this specific population. Materials and methods: We analyzed measurements of arterial stiffness (carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity [cf-PWV] and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs in 1,499 subjects from a 4.8-year longitudinal study. Results: A multivariate Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis showed that in individuals with normal renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2, the baseline cf-PWV was not associated with occurrence of MACEs (hazard ratio 1.398, 95% confidence interval 0.748–2.613; P=0.293. In individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2, a higher baseline cf-PWV level was associated with a higher risk of MACEs (hazard ratio 2.334, 95% confidence interval 1.082–5.036; P=0.031. Conclusion: Arterial stiffness is a moderate and independent predictive factor for MACEs in individuals with mildly impaired renal function (eGFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. Keywords: epidemiology, arterial stiffness, impaired renal function, predictive value, MACEs

  1. Measurement of cardiovascular function using a novel view-sharing PET reconstruction method and tracer kinetic analysis

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    Paul R. Territo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advancements in PET instrumentation have made the non-invasive assessment of cardiovascular function in small animals a reality. The majority of small animal PET systems use stationary detector gantries, thus affording high temporal resolution imaging of cardiac function. Systems designed to maximize spatial resolution and detection sensitivity employing rotating gantry designs are suboptimal when high temporal resolution imaging is needed. To overcome this limitation, the current work developed a novel view-sharing data analysis scheme suitable for dynamic cardiac PET imaging using 18F-NaF as the tracer and tracer kinetic model analysis. This scheme was tested in a rat model of cardiovascular function where the relationship between direct transonic flow measures of cardiac output were highly correlated (f(x = 1.0216x − 24.233, R = 0.9158, p < 0.001 with the new model. Similarly, derived measures of stroke volume were also highly correlated (f(x = 0.9655x − 0.0428, R = 0.9453, p < 0.001 with the current approach. Administration of xylazine caused a statistically significant increase in stroke volume (0.32 ± 0.07 ml, p = 0.003, n = 4 and a significant decrease in both heart rate (−155 ± 7.1 beats/min, p < 0.001, n = 4 and cardiac output (−75.9 ± 23.0 ml/kg min, p = 0.01, n = 4. These findings suggest that the new sinogram binning and kinetic modeling methods produce reliable cardiac function measures suitable for longitudinal monitoring of cardiovascular function.

  2. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

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    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  3. Measuring localization and diffusion coefficients of basolateral proteins in lateral versus basal membranes using functionalized substrates and kICS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Pedersen, Gitte Albinus

    2014-01-01

    Micropatterning enabled semiquantitation of basolateral proteins in lateral and basal membranes of the same cell. Lateral diffusion coefficients of basolateral aquaporin-3 (AQP3-EGFP) and EGFP-AQP4 were extracted from “lateral” and “basal” membranes using identical live-cell imaging and k...

  4. Influence of Acute Multispecies and Multistrain Probiotic Supplementation on Cardiovascular Function and Reactivity to Psychological Stress in Young Adults: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Clara M; Olsa, Eamon J A; Ginty, Annie T; Rapelje, Alyssa L; Tindall, Christina L; Holesh, Laura A; Petersen, Karen L; Conklin, Sarah M

    2017-10-01

    The potential influence of probiotic supplementation on cardiovascular health and stress responsivity remains largely unexplored. Some evidence suggests the possibility that probiotics may influence blood pressure. A separate body of research suggests that exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress in the laboratory predict cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The current investigation explored the effect of acute probiotic use on (1) resting cardiovascular measures in healthy young adults and (2) cardiovascular and psychological reactions to an acute psychological stressor in the laboratory. Participants (N = 105, M [SD] age = 20.17 [1.26], 84.8% white) completed a 2-week, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial of a multispecies and multistrain probiotic. Exclusion criteria included previous probiotic use, diagnosed gastrointestinal disorder, and/or current antibiotic use. At visits 1 and 2, participants completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, a widely used psychological stress task. Participants were randomly assigned to a probiotic blend or matched placebo. Compared with placebo, 2-week probiotic supplementation did not affect resting measures of cardiovascular function, cardiovascular responses during or recovery from stress, or psychological reactions to acute psychological stress. Contrary to expectations, short-term use of a probiotic supplement in healthy participants did not influence measures of cardiovascular function or responsivity to psychological stress. Future research is needed to determine species- and strain-specific effects of probiotics in healthy participants with various degrees of stress responsiveness, as well as in diseased populations.

  5. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  6. Effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its main metabolites on cardiovascular function in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Charles W; Thorndike, Eric B; Blough, Bruce E; Tella, Srihari R; Goldberg, Steven R; Baumann, Michael H

    2014-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects produced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy') contribute to its acute toxicity, but the potential role of its metabolites in these cardiovascular effects is not known. Here we examined the effects of MDMA metabolites on cardiovascular function in rats. Radiotelemetry was employed to evaluate the effects of s.c. administration of racemic MDMA and its phase I metabolites on BP, heart rate (HR) and locomotor activity in conscious male rats. MDMA (1-20 mg·kg(-1)) produced dose-related increases in BP, HR and activity. The peak effects on HR occurred at a lower dose than peak effects on BP or activity. The N-demethylated metabolite, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), produced effects that mimicked those of MDMA. The metabolite 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (HHMA; 1-10 mg·kg(-1)) increased HR more potently and to a greater extent than MDMA, whereas 3,4-dihydroxyamphetamine (HHA) increased HR, but to a lesser extent than HHMA. Neither dihydroxy metabolite altered motor activity. The metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) did not affect any of the parameters measured. The tachycardia produced by MDMA and HHMA was blocked by the β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Our results demonstrate that HHMA may contribute significantly to the cardiovascular effects of MDMA in vivo. As such, determining the molecular mechanism of action of HHMA and the other hydroxyl metabolites of MDMA warrants further study. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Examination of cardiovascular function variables in tooth extraction under local anesthesia

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    Životić-Vanović Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Local anesthesia is the one of the most used procedures in surgical practice. It is used for toot extraction to produce analgesic and anesthetic effects. However, there is a question if it is equally safe to apply a local anesthetic combined with a vasoconstrictor (adrenaline in healthy persons, and in the patients with a certain cardiovascular system disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were differences in cardiovascular variables during tooth extraction in healthy persons, and in cardiovascular patients when an anesthetic was applyted with adrenaline, or without it. Methods. The examinees were divided into the group with cardiovascular diseases (CV, n = 57 of II and III type, according to the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA qualification, and healthy persons (H, n = 55. Both groups were randomly divided into two subgroups: CVa and Ha - where the anesthetic solution had the vasoconstrictor (3% lidocaine, and 1 : 100 000 adrenaline; CVb and Hb - where the anesthetic solution was without the vasoconstrictor (3% lidocaine. During the preparation for tooth extraction, the application of anesthetics, extraction and relaxation puls (fc, systolic (TAs and diastolic arterial blood pressure (TAd and ECG were registered. Results. The values of fc did not significantly differ among the groups in any measured term. The values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the groups CVa and CVb were significantly higher in all the terms of measuring (p < 0.05 from the values in the groups Ha and Hb. A significant increase of TAs was registered only in the phase of tooth extraction in the CVa and CVb group (< 0.05. The values of TAd did not significantly differ between the groups in all the measured terms. Extrasystolic beats were registered in 11 patients of the CV group and in 7 patients of the H group in the phase of anesthetic application or tooth extraction. Conclusion. This research shoved that tooth

  8. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

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    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  9. A hyper-robust sauropodomorph dinosaur ilium from the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa: Implications for the functional diversity of basal Sauropodomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Blair W.; Choiniere, Jonah N.

    2016-11-01

    It has generally been held that the locomotory habits of sauropodomorph dinosaurs moved in a relatively linear evolutionary progression from bipedal through "semi-bipedal" to the fully quadrupedal gait of Sauropoda. However, there is now a growing appreciation of the range of locomotory strategies practiced amongst contemporaneous taxa of the latest Triassic and earliest Jurassic. Here we present on the anatomy of a hyper-robust basal sauropodomorph ilium from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. This element, in addition to highlighting the unexpected range of bauplan diversity throughout basal Sauropodomorpha, also has implications for our understanding of the relevance of "robusticity" to sauropodomorph evolution beyond generalized limb scaling relationships. Possibly representing a unique form of hindlimb stabilization during phases of bipedal locomotion, the autapomorphic morphology of this newly rediscovered ilium provides additional insight into the myriad ways in which basal Sauropodomorpha managed the inherited behavioural and biomechanical challenges of increasing body-size, hyper-herbivory, and a forelimb primarily adapted for use in a bipedal context.

  10. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

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    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  11. Effects of bioactive constituents in functional cocoa products on cardiovascular health in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriá, Beatriz; Martínez-López, Sara; Sierra-Cinos, José Luis; Garcia-Diz, Luis; Goya, Luis; Mateos, Raquel; Bravo, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Cocoa manufacturers are producing novel products increasing polyphenols, methylxanthines or dietary fibre to improve purported health benefits. We attempt to explain the contribution of cocoa bioactive compounds to cardiovascular effects observed in previous studies, placing particular emphasis on methylxanthines. We focused on a soluble cocoa product rich in dietary fibre (DFCP) and a product rich in polyphenols (PPCP). Effects of regularly consuming DFCP (providing daily 10.17 g, 43.8 mg and 168.6 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) as well as PPCP (providing daily 3.74 g, 45.3 mg and 109.8 mg of total-dietary-fibre, flavanols and methylxanthines, respectively) on cardiovascular health were assessed in two controlled, cross-over studies in free-living normocholesterolemic and moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Both products increased HDL-cholesterol concentrations, whereas only DFCP decreased glucose and IL-1β levels in all subjects. Flavanols appeared to be responsible for the increase in HDL-cholesterol, whereas insoluble-dietary-fibre and theobromine in DFCP were associated with the hypoglycemic and anti-inflammatory effects observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth hormone receptor deficiency in mice results in reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma renin, increased aortic eNOS expression, and altered cardiovascular structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egecioglu, E; Andersson, I J; Bollano, E

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) in the development of cardiovascular structure and function, female GHR gene-disrupted or knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at age 18 wk were used. GHR KO mice had lower plasma renin levels (12 +/- 2 vs. 20 +/- 4 mGU/ml, P < 0.05) and inc....... These data suggest an important role for an intact GH/IGF-I axis in the maintenance of a normal cardiovascular system....

  13. The research on endothelial function in women and men at risk for cardiovascular disease (REWARD study: methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavoie Kim L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial function has been shown to be a highly sensitive marker for the overall cardiovascular risk of an individual. Furthermore, there is evidence of important sex differences in endothelial function that may underlie the differential presentation of cardiovascular disease (CVD in women relative to men. As such, measuring endothelial function may have sex-specific prognostic value for the prediction of CVD events, thus improving risk stratification for the overall prediction of CVD in both men and women. The primary objective of this study is to assess the clinical utility of the forearm hyperaemic reactivity (FHR test (a proxy measure of endothelial function for the prediction of CVD events in men vs. women using a novel, noninvasive nuclear medicine -based approach. It is hypothesised that: 1 endothelial dysfunction will be a significant predictor of 5-year CVD events independent of baseline stress test results, clinical, demographic, and psychological variables in both men and women; and 2 endothelial dysfunction will be a better predictor of 5-year CVD events in women compared to men. Methods/Design A total of 1972 patients (812 men and 1160 women undergoing a dipyridamole stress testing were recruited. Medical history, CVD risk factors, health behaviours, psychological status, and gender identity were assessed via structured interview or self-report questionnaires at baseline. In addition, FHR was assessed, as well as levels of sex hormones via blood draw. Patients will be followed for 5 years to assess major CVD events (cardiac mortality, non-fatal MI, revascularization procedures, and cerebrovascular events. Discussion This is the first study to determine the extent and nature of any sex differences in the ability of endothelial function to predict CVD events. We believe the results of this study will provide data that will better inform the choice of diagnostic tests in men and women and bring the quality of

  14. Cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Kazunori

    1992-01-01

    This paper is aimed to discuss the involvement of delayed radiation effects of A-bomb exposure in cardiovascular diseases. First, the relationship between radiation and cardiovascular diseases is reviewed in the literature. Animal experiments have confirmed the relationship between ionizing radiation and vascular lesions. There are many reports which describe ischemic heart disease, cervical and cerebrovascular diseases, and peripheral disease occurring after radiation therapy. The previous A-bomb survivor cohort studies, i.e., the RERF Life Span Study and Adult Health Study, have dealt with the mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence or incidence of cardiovascular diseases, pathological findings, clinical observation of arteriosclerosis, ECG abnormality, blood pressure abnormality, and cardiac function. The following findings have been suggested: (1) A-bomb exposure is likely to be involved in the mortality rate and incidence of ischemic heart disease and cerebrovascular diseases; (2) similarly, the involvement of A-bomb exposure is considered in the prevalence of the arch of aorta; (3) ECG abnormality corresponding to ischemic heart disease may reflect the involvement of A-bomb exposure. To confirm the above findings, further studies are required on the basis of more accurate information and the appropriate number of cohort samples. Little evidence has been presented for the correlation between A-bomb exposure and both rheumatic heart disease and congenital heart disease. (N.K.) 88 refs

  15. Effects of oily fish intake on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive function, and behavior in school-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hauger, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Most children in Western populations do not meet recommendations for fish consumption. Oily fish is an important source of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), which reduce blood pressure and plasma triacylglycerol in adults and may affect cognitive development...... and behavior. However, to our knowledge, the potential effects of oily fish on cardiometabolic health, cognitive function, and behavior in children have not been investigated. The aim of the FiSK Junior study is to investigate the effects of oily fish consumption on cardiovascular risk markers, cognitive...... function, and behavior in healthy children. Methods/design We are conducting a randomized controlled trial with 8- to 9-year-old Danish children, comparing the effect of consuming 300 g/week of oily fish with poultry (control) for 12 weeks between August 2016 and June 2017. The primary outcomes are blood...

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Jens Juel; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Sørensen, Keld E

    2007-01-01

    because of skin side effects and anxiety, respectively. All patients had low circulating androgens baseline and normal range androgens during DHEA treatment. We examined patients with noninvasive endothelial cell function, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based cardiac output, echocardiography, ambulatory...... 24-h blood pressure and maximal oxygen consumption. RESULTS: DHEA treatment normalized androgen status to levels seen in healthy women. DHEA and placebo treatment had no effect on echocardiographic parameters of myocardial dimensions or systolic and diastolic function, noninvasive endothelial cell...... in vascular endothelium has been described and in vitro studies have shown involvement of DHEA in NO dependent pathways. AIM: To evaluate effects of DHEA substitution on cardiovascular parameters. DESIGN: Six months randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. Treatment consisted of DHEA 50...

  17. Geographic origin as a determinant of left ventricular mass and diastolic function - the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähämurto, L; Juonala, M; Ruohonen, S; Hutri-Kähönen, N; Kähönen, M; Laitinen, T; Tossavainen, P; Jokinen, E; Viikari, J; Raitakari, O T; Pahkala, K

    2018-03-01

    Eastern Finns have higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and carotid intima-media thickness than western Finns although current differences in CHD risk factors are minimal. Left ventricular (LV) mass and diastolic function predict future cardiovascular events but their east-west differences are unknown. We examined the association of eastern/western baseline origin with LV mass and diastolic function. The study population included 2045 subjects of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study with data from the baseline survey (1980) and the latest follow-up (2011) when echocardiography was performed at the age of 34-49 years. Subjects with eastern baseline origin had in 2011 higher LV mass (139±1.0 vs. 135±1.0 g, p=0.006) and E/e'-ratio indicating weaker LV diastolic function (4.86±0.03 vs. 4.74±0.03, p=0.02) than western subjects. Results were independent of age, sex, area of examination and CHD risk factors such as blood pressure and BMI (LV mass indexed with height: porigin (135±0.9 vs. 131±0.9 ml, p=0.0011) but left atrial end-systolic volume, also indicating LV diastolic function, was not different between eastern and western subjects (43.4±0.5 vs. 44.0±0.5 ml, p=0.45). Most of the subjects were well within the normal limits of these echocardiographic measurements. In our healthy middle-aged population, geographic origin in eastern Finland associated with higher LV mass compared to western Finland. Higher E/e'-ratio suggests that subjects with eastern baseline origin might have higher prevalence of diastolic dysfunction in the future than western subjects.

  18. Gene expression profiling during intensive cardiovascular lifestyle modification: Relationships with vascular function and weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather L. Blackburn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heart disease and related sequelae are a leading cause of death and healthcare expenditure throughout the world. Although many patients opt for surgical interventions, lifestyle modification programs focusing on nutrition and exercise have shown substantial health benefits and are becoming increasing popular. We conducted a year-long lifestyle modification program to mediate cardiovascular risk through traditional risk factors and to investigate how molecular changes, if present, may contribute to long-term risk reduction. Here we describe the lifestyle intervention, including clinical and molecular data collected, and provide details of the experimental methods and quality control parameters for the gene expression data generated from participants and non-intervention controls. Our findings suggest successful and sustained modulation of gene expression through healthy lifestyle changes may have beneficial effects on vascular health that cannot be discerned from traditional risk factor profiles. The data are deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus, series GSE46097 and GSE66175.

  19. Noninvasive radiographic assessment of cardiovascular function in acute and chronic respiratory failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.J.; Matthay, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Noninvasive radiographic techniques have provided a means of studying the natural history and pathogenesis of cardiovascular performance in acute and chronic respiratory failure. Chest radiography, radionuclide angiocardiography and thallium-201 imaging, and M mode and cross-sectional echocardiography have been employed. Each of these techniques has specific uses, attributes and limitations. For example, measurement of descending pulmonary arterial diameters on the plain chest radiograph allows determination of the presence or absence of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Right and left ventricular performance can be evaluated at rest and during exercise using radionuclide angiocardiography. The biventricular response to exercise and to therapeutic interventions also can be assessed with this approach. Evaluation of the pulmonary valve echogram and echocardiographic right ventricular dimensions have been shown to reflect right ventricular hemodynamics and size. Each of these noninvasive techniques has been applied to the study of patients with respiratory failure and has provided important physiologic data

  20. Erythropoietin treatment does not compromise cardiovascular function in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haedersdal, C; Mehlsen, J; Stenver, Doris Irene

    1994-01-01

    The anemia in patients with chronic renal failure can be corrected through treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin treatment. This correction is associated with changes in the rheologic variables, which could explain the changes in hemodynamics found by many investigators. The authors have...... followed up 11 patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis before and during six months of therapy with erythropoietin. The measurements were made before treatment, after four months of therapy, and after six months of therapy. The measurements included hematocrit, osmotic resistance of the red...... were unchanged. The conclude that, in spite of changes in rheologic variables, increasing viscosity of the blood and thus possibly increasing the peripheral resistance, these had no effect on the cardiovascular state. Erythropoietin treatment improves the subjective well-being in patients on chronic...

  1. Effects of Simulated Heat Waves on Cardiovascular Functions in Senile Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiakun Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of the effects of simulated heat waves on cardiovascular disease in senile mice was investigated. Heat waves were simulated in a TEM1880 meteorological environment simulation chamber, according to a heat wave that occurred in July 2001 in Nanjing, China. Eighteen senile mice were divided into control, heat wave, and heat wave BH4 groups, respectively. Mice in the heat wave and heat wave BH4 groups were exposed to simulated heat waves in the simulation chamber. The levels of ET-1, NO, HSP60, SOD, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α in each group of mice were measured after heat wave simulation. Results show that heat waves decreased SOD activity in the myocardial tissue of senile mice, increased NO, HSP60, TNF, sICAM-1, and HIF-1α levels, and slightly decreased ET-1 levels, BH4 can relieve the effects of heat waves on various biological indicators. After a comprehensive analysis of the experiments above, we draw the followings conclusions regarding the influence of heat waves on senile mice: excess HSP60 activated immune cells, and induced endothelial cells and macrophages to secrete large amounts of ICAM-1, TNF-α, and other inflammatory cytokines, it also activated the inflammation response in the body and damaged the coronary endothelial cell structure, which increased the permeability of blood vessel intima and decreased SOD activity in cardiac tissues. The oxidation of lipoproteins in the blood increased, and large amounts of cholesterol were generated. Cholesterol penetrated the intima and deposited on the blood vessel wall, forming atherosclerosis and leading to the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in senile mice. These results maybe are useful for studying the effects of heat waves on elderly humans, which we discussed in the discussion chapter.

  2. Future of newer basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Madhu, S. V.; Velmurugan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Basal insulin have been developed over the years. In recent times newer analogues have been added to the armanentarium for diabetes therapy. This review specifically reviews the current status of different basal insulins

  3. High frequency stimulation of the entopeduncular nucleus sets the cortico-basal ganglia network to a new functional state in the dystonic hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, René; Charron, Giselle; Nadjar, Agnès; Aubert, Incarnation; Thiolat, Marie-Laure; Hamann, Melanie; Richter, Angelika; Bezard, Erwan; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2009-09-01

    High frequency stimulation (HFS) of the internal pallidum is effective for the treatment of dystonia. Only few studies have investigated the effects of stimulation on the activity of the cortex-basal ganglia network. We here assess within this network the effect of entopeduncular nucleus (EP) HFS on the expression of c-Fos and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) in the dt(sz)-hamster, a well-characterized model of paroxysmal dystonia. In dt(sz)-hamsters, we identified abnormal activity in motor cortex, basal ganglia and thalamus. These structures have already been linked to the pathophysiology of human dystonia. EP-HFS (i) increased striatal c-Fos expression in controls and dystonic hamsters and (ii) reduced thalamic c-Fos expression in dt(sz)-hamsters. EP-HFS had no effect on COI expression. The present results suggest that EP-HFS induces a new network activity state which may improve information processing and finally reduces the severity of dystonic attacks in dt(sz)-hamsters.

  4. Identification of an endogenous alpha-adrenergic receptor antagonist: studies on its possible role in endocrine and cardiovascular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, J.C.; Wider, M.; House, F.; Campbell, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of α and β adrenergic receptors that are regulated by epinephrine or norepinephrine (NE) is well established. The reported receptor antagonists have been synthetic. A peptide extracted from the duodenal mucosa with α-2 antagonist properties has been identified. It specifically inhibits 3 H-yohimbine binding (α-2) but not 3 H dihydroalprenolol (β) binding in whole brain membranes. Partially purified preparations of the alpha receptor binding inhibitor (ABI) were tested for endocrine pancreatic and cardiovascular effects. When isolated islets were incubated in the presence of ABI with and without NE, ABI along did not alter insulin secretion but completely reversed the NE suppression of glucose stimulated insulin release. Glucagon secretion by these same islets was enhanced by ABI and augmented the stimulatory effect of NE. Intravenous (I.V.) infusion of ABI increased serum insulin in the presence of NE and decreased the serum glucose response to a glucose load. Infusion of ABI into the 4th ventricle, or I.V. resulted in a decrease (50-60%) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure as well as a decrease (10-20%) in heart rate. From these studies the authors conclude that a duodenal peptide with the capacity to inhibit α-2 agonist binding may play a role in endocrine and cardiovascular functions

  5. Effects of clonidine on 24-hour hormonal secretory patterns, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and central nervous function in hypertensive adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyar, R M; Fixler, D F; Kaplan, N M; Graham, R M; Price, K P; Chipman, J J; Laird, W P

    1980-01-01

    To assess the potential of antihypertensive drugs for interference with somatic growth and sexual development in hypertensive children, the effect of clonidine therapy on various endocrine, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular functions has been examined in five male adolescents with idiopathic hypertension. In studies done before and at the end of 4 weeks of twice-daily clonidine therapy, in an average daily dose of 0.31 mg, no significant effects were noted in the secretory patterns of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, aldosterone, or testosterone, measured in blood obtained every 20 minutes for 24 hours. In blood obtained while the patients were supine and then erect, plasma renin activity and norepinephrine levels were significantly lowered after clonidine therapy. Cardiovascular responses to dynamic exercise were little altered beyond a 17% decrease in maximal oxygen consumption. The performance of fine motor skills was minimally altered. These data provide preliminary evidence that clonidine, an antihypertensive drug that affects the adrenergic nervous system, may not interfere with normal growth and maturation in adolescent males.

  6. [Effects of slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion at Neiguan (PC 6) on cardiovascular function: a comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Shaoli; Zhao, Lihua; Xu, Lingjun; Huang, Yu; Pang, Yong; Huang, Dingjian

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects between slow twisting needle insertion and tubing needle insertion. With cross-over design, 100 healthy young subjects (half male and half female) aged from 19 to 23 years were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table, 50 cases in each one. At the first stage, subjects in the group A were treated with slow twisting needle insertion while, subjects in,the group B were treated with tubing needle insertion. One week later, the procedure of second stage was performed alternately. The needle was inserted into Neiguan (PC 6) with two methods by one acupuncturist. The needle was retained for 5 min before removal. Five min before needle insertion as well as needle withdrawal and 30 min after needle withdrawal, ZXG-E automatic cardiovascular diagnostic apparatus was used to test cardiovascular function. At the tim of needle withdrawal, slow twisting needle insertion could improve effect work of kinetics (EWK), effective blood volume (BV) and reduce elastic expansion coefficient of blood vessel (FEK) and left ventricular spray blood impedance (VER), which was significantly different from tubing needle insertion (all P 0.05). The slow twisting needle insertion is significantly superior to tubing needle insertion on lowering vascular tension and VER, improving EWK and BV.

  7. The psychoemotional status and cardiovascular system functional state of the first-year students under the influence of examination stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana K. Tokaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study of the influence of examination stress on psycho-emotional status and functional state of the cardiovascular system of the 1-st year students of pedagogical high school. Methods – The study involved 105 young men aged 17-18 enrolled in the specialty "Physical Education". The studies were conducted during the period in-between the exams and during the examination session. The psycho-emotional status was determined by the SAN test questionnaire and test and the CH.D. Spielberg test, adapted for Russia by Ju.L. Khanin. The state of CVS autonomic regulation was evaluated by heart rate, blood pressure, endurance ratio, Kerdo index and the adaptive capacities by P.M. Bayevsky. Results – In the absence of exposure to stress in the majority of young men the studied parameters are within normal limits, indicating sufficient adaptive capabilities. A clear correlation between the level of personal anxiety in students and the nature of their reactivity to examination stress was found: the higher the anxiety level in a student is, the more stress resistance decreases and more pronounced changes in the cardiovascular system autonomic regulation appear. The strain of adaptation mechanism was found in a stressful situation in the first-year students with a high level of personal anxiety and satisfactory adaptation – in young men with average and low personal anxiety.

  8. The effect of on-line hemodiafiltration on improving the cardiovascular function parameters in children on regular dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatina I Fadel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and accounts for almost 50% of deaths in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis. Many harmful molecules of the uremic milieu, such as the middle molecules, are difficult to remove by conventional hemodialysis (HD. On-line hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF can achieve a considerable clearance of middle molecules and, together with its sterile ultrapure infusate, may have favorable effects on inflammation and cardiovascular complications. We aimed in this study to assess the effect of OL-HDF on improving the chronic inflammatory state associated with chronic kidney disease and the possible impact of these changes on myocardial function in chronic HD children. Thirty pediatric patients [12 (40% males and 18 (60% females with a mean age of 11.3 ± 3.2 years] on conventional HD for at least six months were switched to OL-HDF for six months. Variables for comparison at the end of each period included the levels of serum C-reactive protein and Kt/V as well as electrocardiography and echocardiographic measurements, including left ventricular mass index (LVMI. On changing from HD to OL-HDF, there was a significant decrease in hs-CRP (from 7.9 ± 8.9 to 3.4 ± 3 μ g/mL (P = 0.01 and frequency of diastolic dysfunction (P = 0.04, while systolic function (FS and EF improved significantly (P = 0.007 and 0.05, respectively, while LVMI did not change. We conclude that OL-HDF was well tolerated in children with improvement of the systolic function of the myocardium and the overall frequency of diastolic dysfunction.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population: results from the HAPIEE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamosiunas Abdonas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine associations between cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive ability in middle aged and elderly Lithuanian urban population. Methods Data from the survey performed in the framework of the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe study were presented. A random sample of 7,087 individuals aged 45–72 years was screened in 2006–2008. Results The scores of immediate recall and delayed verbal recall, cognitive speed and attention were significantly lower in men than in women; yet numerical ability scores were higher in men. Significant associations between lowered cognitive functions and previous stroke (in male OR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.75-3.64; in female OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.75, 3.64 as well as ischemic heart disease history (among male OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.03-1.60 have been determined. Higher level of physical activity in leisure time (among female OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.03-1.69, poor self-rated health (among male OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.15-2.14 and poor quality of life (in male OR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.07-2.61; in female OR = 2.81; 95% CI = 1.92-4.11 were related to lowered cognitive function. Conclusions The findings of the study suggest that associations between cardiovascular risk factors and lowered cognitive function among healthy middle-aged and elderly adults strongly depend on gender.

  10. Prehispanic Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals in the Treatment of Dyslipidemia Associated to Cardiovascular Disease: a Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hoyo, Alejandro; Romo-Araiza, Alejandra; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Guttiérrez-Salmeán, Gabriela

    2017-01-27

    Dyslipidemia is an important modifi able risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are responsible for a large number of mortality and disability cases around the globe. Different strategies have been used within the treatment of dyslipidemia, including lifestyle modifi cations, pharmacologic therapy, as well as functional foods and nutraceuticals. Functional foods have been used worldwide since ancient times, particularly, the prehispanic civilizations utilized several as medicinal foods. In the current pandemic of dyslipidemia as well as the nutritional transition, particularly in Latin America, the use of native functional foods represents an attractive target for the treatment and/ or prevention of these conditions. In this mini-review, evidence regarding different functional foods such as cacao, amaranth, chia, nopal, spirulina, as well as their nutraceutical compounds, including fl avonoids, omega-3 PUFAs, fi ber, prebiotics, lovastatin, c-phycocyanin, among others, and their mechanism of action are presented and discussed. Although such foods certainly are considered as attractive potential agents to target dyslipidemia thus decrease the associated cardiometabolic risk, we conclude that for most of the presented functional foods there is currently not enough evidence to support its recommendation and every-day use.

  11. Pre-operative Functional Cardiovascular Reserve Is Associated with Acute Kidney Injury after Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saratzis, A; Shakespeare, J; Jones, O; Bown, M J; Mahmood, A; Imray, C H E

    2017-05-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after endovascular intervention, associated with poor short and long-term outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying AKI development remain poorly understood. The impact of pre-existing cardiovascular disease and low cardiovascular reserve (CVR) in AKI is unclear; it remains unknown whether AKI is primarily related to pre-existing comorbidity or to procedural parameters. The association between CVR and AKI after EVAR was therefore assessed. This is a case control study. From a database of 484 patients, 292 undergoing elective endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of an infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in two tertiary centres were included. Of these, 73 patients who had developed AKI after EVAR were case matched, based on pre-operative estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; within 5 mL/min/1.73 m 2 ) and age, with patients who had not developed AKI. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to assess CVR using the anaerobic threshold (AT). Development of AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Outcomes (KDIGO) guidance. Associations between CVR (based on AT levels) and AKI development were then analysed. Pre-operative AT levels were significantly different between those who did and did not develop AKI (12.1±2.9 SD vs. 14.8±3.0 mL/min/kg, p < .001). In multivariate analysis, a higher level of AT (per 1 mL/min/kg) was associated with a lower odds ratio (OR) of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.63-0.82, p < .001), relative to AKI development. A pre-operative AT level of < 11 mL/min/kg was associated with post-operative AKI development in adjusted analysis, with an OR of 7.8 (95% CI, 3.75-16.51, p < .001). The area under the curve (receiver operating characteristic) for AT as a predictor of post-operative AKI was 0.81 (standard error, 0.06, 95% CI, 0.69-0.93, p < .001). Poor CVR was strongly associated with the development of AKI. This provides pathophysiological insights into the

  12. Basal-body-associated macromolecules: a continuing debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre Mignot, J; Brugerolle, G; Didier, P; Bornens, M

    1993-07-01

    Controversy over the possibility that centrioles/basal bodies contain nucleic acids has overshadowed results demonstrating other macromolecules in the lumen of these organelles. Glycogen particles, which are known to be present within the lumen of the centriole/basal body of sperm cells, have now been found in basal bodies of protists belonging to three different groups. Here, we extend the debate on a role for RNA in basal body/centriole function and speculate on the origin and the function of centriolar glycogen.

  13. Sympathetic neurons are a powerful driver of myocyte function in cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Hege E; Lefkimmiatis, Konstantinos; Paterson, David J

    2016-12-14

    Many therapeutic interventions in disease states of heightened cardiac sympathetic activity are targeted to the myocytes. However, emerging clinical data highlights a dominant role in disease progression by the neurons themselves. Here we describe a novel experimental model of the peripheral neuro-cardiac axis to study the neuron's ability to drive a myocyte cAMP phenotype. We employed a co-culture of neonatal ventricular myocytes and sympathetic stellate neurons from normal (WKY) and pro-hypertensive (SHR) rats that are sympathetically hyper-responsive and measured nicotine evoked cAMP responses in the myocytes using a fourth generation FRET cAMP sensor. We demonstrated the dominant role of neurons in driving the myocyte ß-adrenergic phenotype, where SHR cultures elicited heightened myocyte cAMP responses during neural activation. Moreover, cross-culturing healthy neurons onto diseased myocytes rescued the diseased cAMP response of the myocyte. Conversely, healthy myocytes developed a diseased cAMP response if diseased neurons were introduced. Our results provide evidence for a dominant role played by the neuron in driving the adrenergic phenotype seen in cardiovascular disease. We also highlight the potential of using healthy neurons to turn down the gain of neurotransmission, akin to a smart pre-synaptic ß-blocker.

  14. The functional state of cardiovascular system for boys 10 - 11 years old after static exercises with deadweight of body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proskurov E.M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of static power endurance of muscles of humeral belt, abdominal press and muscles of the back of schoolboys is investigational. Directions are selected of forming hygienically of correct pose of schoolboy, being in position sitting after an educational mestome. In research took part 50 schoolboys in age 10 years and 50 - in age 11 years. A reaction is studied cardiovascular system of students on static exercises with the deadweight of body. The features of reaction of frequency of pulse, arteriotony, cardiac troop landing and minute volume of blood of students on the static loadings are certain: handing on bent arms, exercises for muscles abdominal press lying on a stomach and on the back. It is set that the changes of functional indexes in the process of the static loading of most degree make progress for ten year schoolboys. To such indexes behave: diastole arteriotony, frequency of heart-throbs, systole arteriotony.

  15. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Gremeaux, Vincent; Bherer, Louis; Juneau, Martin; Drigny, Joffrey; Dupuy, Olivier; Lapierre, Gabriel; Labelle, Véronique; Fortier, Annik; Nigam, Anil

    2017-01-01

    Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD) sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC), 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC) and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis), cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography) and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy) were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max), cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery) and cognitive function (for all items) (Pcognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function (Pcognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  16. Longitudinal and transverse right ventricular function in pulmonary hypertension: cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study from the ASPIRE registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Andrew J; Rajaram, Smitha; Capener, Dave; Elliot, Charlie; Condliffe, Robin; Wild, Jim M; Kiely, David G

    2015-09-01

    Right ventricular (RV) function is a strong predictor of outcome in cardiovascular diseases. Two components of RV function, longitudinal and transverse motion, have been investigated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, their individual clinical significance remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with transverse and longitudinal RV motion in patients with PH. In 149 treatment-naive patients with PH and 16 patients with suspected PH found to have mean pulmonary arterial pressure of transverse motion (fractional septum to free wall distance [f-SFD]; P = 0.002). In patients without PH, no significant difference between f-SFD and f-TAAD was identified (P = 0.442). Longitudinal RV motion was singularly associated with RV ejection fraction independent of age, invasive hemodynamics, and cardiac magnetic resonance measurements (P = 0.024). In contrast, transverse RV motion was independently associated with left ventricular eccentricity (P = 0.036) in addition to RV ejection fraction (P = 0.014). In conclusion, RV motion is significantly greater in the longitudinal direction in patients with PH, whereas patients without PH have equal contributions of transverse and longitudinal motion. Longitudinal RV motion is primarily associated with global RV pump function in PH. Transverse RV motion not only reflects global pump function but is independently influenced by ventricular interaction in patients with PH.

  17. The peculiarities of functional state changes of cardiovascular system of girls at the age 18-19 years in the process of practicing sport and health tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Denisenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics estimation of the integral indices of cardiovascular system among the female students of higher educational institution during the process of physical education activities, including means of sports and health tourism, has been conducted. There are 40 girls at the age of 18-19 years that participated in the experiment. It is found that by the end of the research the positive decrease of all the types of arterial pressure, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s and cardiac indices, common peripheral resistance and significant increase of functional state of cardiovascular system of the organism are being observed among the examined students. There were stated that significantly more optimal cardiac rate indices, systolic, diastolic and average, coefficient of blood circulation effectiveness, Robinson’s index and the level of functional state of organism cardiovascular system (LFSсvs had been observed among the girls of experimental rather than control group of female students. It is found that the rates of almost all the used indices of cardiovascular system were significantly higher among the students practiced sports and health tourism, than those ones engaged into the traditional program of physical education for higher educational institution. Obtained results certified the sufficiently high effectiveness of using the tourism facilities in optimization of functional state of cardiovascular system among the female students at the age of 18-19 years.

  18. Embryonic hypoxia programmes postprandial cardiovascular function in adult common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Oliver H; Conner, Justin; Nelson, Derek; Crossley, Janna; Crossley, Dane A

    2017-07-15

    Reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) is a potent stressor during embryonic development, altering the trajectory of trait maturation and organismal phenotype. We previously documented that chronic embryonic hypoxia has a lasting impact on the metabolic response to feeding in juvenile snapping turtles ( Chelydra serpentina ). Turtles exposed to hypoxia as embryos [10% O 2 (H10)] exhibited an earlier and increased peak postprandial oxygen consumption rate, compared with control turtles [21% O 2 (N21)]. In the current study, we measured central blood flow patterns to determine whether the elevated postprandial metabolic response in H10 turtles is linked to lasting impacts on convective transport. Five years after hatching, turtles were instrumented to quantify systemic ([Formula: see text]) and pulmonary ([Formula: see text]) blood flows and heart rate ( f H ) before and after a ∼5% body mass meal. In adult N21 and H10 turtles, f H was increased significantly by feeding. Although total stroke volume ( V S,tot ) remained at fasted values, this tachycardia contributed to an elevation in total cardiac output ([Formula: see text]). However, there was a postprandial reduction in a net left-right (L-R) shunt in N21 snapping turtles only. Relative to N21 turtles, H10 animals exhibited higher [Formula: see text] due to increased blood flow through the right systemic outflow vessels of the heart. This effect of hypoxic embryonic development, reducing a net L-R cardiac shunt, may support the increased postprandial metabolic rate we previously reported in H10 turtles, and is further demonstration of adult reptile cardiovascular physiology being programmed by embryonic hypoxia. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Use of plant stanol ester margarine among persons with and without cardiovascular disease: early phases of the adoption of a functional food in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simojoki, Meri; Luoto, Riitta; Uutela, Antti; Rita, Hannu; Boice, John D; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Puska, Pekka

    2005-06-01

    The plant stanol ester margarine Benecol is a functional food that has been shown to lower effectively serum total and LDL-cholesterol. The purpose of this post-marketing study is to characterize users of plant stanol ester margarine with and without cardiovascular disease. A cohort of plant stanol ester margarine users was established based on a compilation of 15 surveys conducted by the National Public Health Institute in Finland between 1996-2000. There were 29,772 subjects aged 35-84 years in the cohort. The users of plant stanol ester margarine were identified by the type of bread spread used. The plant stanol ester margarine was used as bread spread by 1332 (4.5%) subjects. Almost half (46%) of the users reported a history of cardiovascular disease. Persons with cardiovascular disease were more likely to use plant stanol ester margarine (8%) than persons without cardiovascular disease (3%). Users with and without cardiovascular disease seemed to share similar characteristics. In particular, they were elderly people with otherwise healthy life-styles and diet. They were less likely smokers, more likely physically active and less likely obese than nonusers. The users reported being in good or average health in general and having used cholesterol-lowering drugs. Plant stanol ester margarine seems to be used by persons for whom it was designed and in a way it was meant: as part of efforts for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

  20. Use of plant stanol ester margarine among persons with and without cardiovascular disease: Early phases of the adoption of a functional food in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boice John D

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The plant stanol ester margarine Benecol® is a functional food that has been shown to lower effectively serum total and LDL-cholesterol. The purpose of this post-marketing study is to characterize users of plant stanol ester margarine with and without cardiovascular disease. Methods A cohort of plant stanol ester margarine users was established based on a compilation of 15 surveys conducted by the National Public Health Institute in Finland between 1996–2000. There were 29 772 subjects aged 35–84 years in the cohort. The users of plant stanol ester margarine were identified by the type of bread spread used. Results The plant stanol ester margarine was used as bread spread by 1332 (4.5% subjects. Almost half (46% of the users reported a history of cardiovascular disease. Persons with cardiovascular disease were more likely to use plant stanol ester margarine (8% than persons without cardiovascular disease (3%. Users with and without cardiovascular disease seemed to share similar characteristics. In particular, they were elderly people with otherwise healthy life-styles and diet. They were less likely smokers, more likely physically active and less likely obese than nonusers. The users reported being in good or average health in general and having used cholesterol-lowering drugs. Conclusion Plant stanol ester margarine seems to be used by persons for whom it was designed and in a way it was meant: as part of efforts for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

  1. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with chronic kidney disease and its relationship with the functional status of the cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Postovitenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an important medical, social and economic problem nowadays. Patients with CKD are known to have an increased risk of development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. However, the causes and pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications are not well understood. One of the recently recognized “non-traditional” risk factors for the increased development of cardiovascular pathology in severe stages of CKD is hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC. The article presents the results of study of HHC frequency in patients with different stages of CKD as well as the relationship between HHC and endothelial dysfunction and structural-functional status of the heart. The study involved 148 persons with different stages of CKD who underwent immunoenzyme determination of total plasma homocysteine (HC, echocardiography, carotid ultrasonograghy, endothelial function was assessed as well. It was found that among the patients with CKD, 26 (21.1% had normal and 34 (27.7% had subnormal HC levels, mild HHC was observed in 30 (24.4% and moderate HHC – in 33 (26.8% cases, i.e. the total number of patients with elevated HC level was 88.9%. It should be noted that no patients with normal HC level were found among those with stage four CKD as well as in dialysis patients. The increase of blood plasma HC level was actually proportional to the severity of renal failure, which in its turn led to the shift in the number of cases towards higher rank indices of HHC level. In particular, while there were no patients with HHC among those with CKD-I, more than 50% of such patients were found in the group with CKD-V. Reduced myocardial contractility and echocardiographic markers of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with CKD were found to be closely associated with HC concentrations in blood plasma. The data presented clearly demonstrate strong inverse correlation between endothelial dysfunction indices and HC level. So, the endothelium

  2. Cognitive function in patients with stable coronary heart disease: Related cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gayda

    Full Text Available Chronic exercise has been shown to prevent or slow age-related decline in cognitive functions in otherwise healthy, asymptomatic individuals. We sought to assess cognitive function in a stable coronary heart disease (CHD sample and its relationship to cerebral oxygenation-perfusion, cardiac hemodynamic responses, and [Formula: see text] peak compared to age-matched and young healthy control subjects. Twenty-two young healthy controls (YHC, 20 age-matched old healthy controls (OHC and 25 patients with stable CHD were recruited. Cognitive function assessment included short term-working memory, perceptual abilities, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory. Maximal cardiopulmonary function (gas exchange analysis, cardiac hemodynamic (impedance cardiography and left frontal cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (near-infra red spectroscopy were measured during and after a maximal incremental ergocycle test. Compared to OHC and CHD, YHC had higher [Formula: see text] peak, maximal cardiac index (CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (ΔO2 Hb, ΔtHb: exercise and recovery and cognitive function (for all items (P<0.05. Compared to OHC, CHD patients had lower [Formula: see text] peak, CI max, cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (during recovery and short term-working memory, processing speed, cognitive inhibition and flexibility and long-term verbal memory (P<0.05. [Formula: see text] peak and CI max were related to exercise cerebral oxygenation-perfusion and cognitive function (P<0.005. Cerebral oxygenation-perfusion (exercise was related to cognitive function (P<0.005. Stable CHD patients have a worse cognitive function, a similar cerebral oxygenation/perfusion during exercise but reduced one during recovery vs. their aged-matched healthy counterparts. In the all sample, cognitive functions correlated with [Formula: see text] peak, CI max and cerebral oxygenation-perfusion.

  3. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  4. Systolic function evaluated with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Scholtz

    2016-11-01

    Objectives: To ascertain whether there were any morphological abnormalities or systolic functional impairments on CMR in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected patients, compared with HIV-uninfected control individuals. Methods: The CMR studies were performed using a 1.5-T whole-body clinical magnetic resonance 16-channel scanner (Achieva, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands, using a cardiac five-element phased-array receiver coil (SENSE coil. Functional assessment was performed on 36 HIV-infected patients and the findings compared with 35 HIV-uninfected control patients who were matched for age and sex. Results: There was no significant difference in systolic function between the HIV-uninfected and the HIV-infected patients. The left ventricular end diastolic mass (LVEDM was slightly higher in the HIV-infected group, but this was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: No significant differences were found regarding the CMR systolic functional analysis and morphological parameters between the HIV-infected and the healthy volunteers.

  5. High-Intensity Progressive Resistance Training Increases Strength With No Change in Cardiovascular Function and Autonomic Neural Regulation in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanegusuku, Hélcio; Queiroz, Andréia C; Silva, Valdo J; de Mello, Marco T; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Forjaz, Cláudia L

    2015-07-01

    The effects of high-intensity progressive resistance training (HIPRT) on cardiovascular function and autonomic neural regulation in older adults are unclear. To investigate this issue, 25 older adults were randomly divided into two groups: control (CON, N = 13, 63 ± 4 years; no training) and HIPRT (N = 12, 64 ± 4 years; 2 sessions/week, 7 exercises, 2–4 sets, 10–4 RM). Before and after four months, maximal strength, quadriceps cross-sectional area (QCSA), clinic and ambulatory blood pressures (BP), systemic hemodynamics, and cardiovascular autonomic modulation were measured. Maximal strength and QCSA increased in the HIPRT group and did not change in the CON group. Clinic and ambulatory BP, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, stroke volume, heart rate, and cardiac sympathovagal balance did not change in the HIPRT group or the CON group. In conclusion, HIPRT was effective at increasing muscle mass and strength without promoting changes in cardiovascular function or autonomic neural regulation.

  6. Longitudinal Changes in Thyroid Function in the Oldest Old and Survival: The Cardiovascular Health Study All-Stars Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Avantika C.; Arnold, Alice M.; Newman, Anne B.; Bùžková, Petra; Hirsch, Calvin

    2012-01-01

    Context: Data on thyroid function in the oldest old are sparse, and existing studies show conflicting evidence on the relationship between thyroid function and mortality in this age group. Objective: We describe longitudinal changes in thyroid function in a cohort of elderly individuals and determine the relationship between thyroid function and mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: Eight hundred forty-three participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study All Stars Study who were not taking thyroid medications and had thyroid function testing in 2005–2006 (mean age 85 yr). Main Outcome Measure: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (FT4), total T3, and thyroid peroxidase antibody status were measured in 1992–1993 and 2005–2006. Deaths were ascertained through February 2011. Results: There was a statistically significant 13% increase in TSH, 1.7% increase in FT4, and 13% decrease in total T3 over the 13-yr period. Two hundred eighty-seven deaths occurred over a median follow-up of 5.1 yr. There was no association between subclinical hypothyroidism[hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–1.43], TSH level (HR per milliunits per liter 0.94, 95% CI 0.88–1.01), or persistent thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity (HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.62–1.92), and death. However, FT4 was positively associated with death (HR per nanograms per deciliter 2.57, 95% CI 1.32–5.02). Conclusions: TSH increased over time in these older individuals. This elevation was not associated with increased or decreased mortality, although higher FT4 levels were associated with death. These findings raise concern for treatment of mild elevations of TSH in advanced age. Further studies are needed to determine the potential benefit of treating age-related changes in thyroid function. PMID:22879629

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and cognitive function in persons with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Ashley J; Alosco, Michael L; Miller, Lindsay A; McGeary, John E; Poppas, Athena; Cohen, Ronald A; Gunstad, John

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD), and several potential aetiological mechanisms have been described, including contributions of genetic markers such as variations in the brain-derived neurotrophic (BDNF) gene. This current study examined the associations of BDNF genotype with cognitive function among individuals with CVD. This study included 110 participants with CVD who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that assessed global cognitive function, attention/executive function, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. All participants also underwent blood draw to provide a DNA sample that was used to determine BDNF genotype. Carriers of either one or two copies of the methionine allele of BDNF were categorized into one group (n = 33); non-carriers were categorized into a second group (n = 77). After adjustment for demographic and medical characteristics, hierarchical regression analyses revealed persons with one or more methionine alleles displayed better performance than valine/valine individuals for attention/executive function (β = 0.22, P = 0.047) and memory (β = 0.25, P = 0.03), as well as a trend for language (β = 0.19, P = 0.08) and visuospatial abilities (β = 0.21, P = 0.06). BDNF Val66Met had little impact on cognitive functioning in a sample of older adults with CVD, and significant findings contradicted that predicted by past work. Future work is much needed to clarify the mechanisms of these findings, particularly studies examining both circulating BDNF levels and genetic variation in the BDNF gene and cognitive function over time. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  8. Flavonoid-Rich Apple Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Nicola P; Bondonno, Catherine P; Blekkenhorst, Lauren C; Considine, Michael J; Maghzal, Ghassan; Stocker, Roland; Woodman, Richard J; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2018-02-01

    The cardioprotective effects of apples are primarily attributed to flavonoids, found predominantly in the skin. This study aimed to determine if acute and/or chronic (4 weeks) ingestion of flavonoid-rich apples improves endothelial function, blood pressure (BP), and arterial stiffness in individuals at risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this randomized, controlled cross-over trial, acute and 4 week intake of apple with skin (high flavonoid apple, HFA) is compared to intake of apple flesh only (low flavonoid apple, LFA) in 30 participants. The primary outcome is endothelial function assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, while main secondary outcomes are 24 h ambulatory BP and arterial stiffness. Other outcomes include fasting serum glucose and lipoprotein profile, plasma heme oxygenase-1 (Hmox-1), F 2 -isoprostanes, flavonoid metabolites, and plasma and salivary nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ) concentrations. Compared to LFA control, the HFA results in a significant increase in FMD acutely (0.8%, p flavonoid metabolites (p effect of apple skin on endothelial function, both acutely and chronically. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. HDL-S1P: cardiovascular functions, disease-associated alterations, and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkau, Bodo

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid contained in High-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has drawn considerable attention in the lipoprotein field as numerous studies have demonstrated its contribution to several functions inherent to HDL. Some of them are partly and some entirely due to the S1P contained in HDL (HDL-S1P). Despite the presence of over 1000 different lipids in HDL, S1P stands out as it possesses its own cell surface receptors through which it exercises key physiological functions. Most of the S1P in human plasma is associated with HDL, and the amount of HDL-S1P influences the quality and quantity of HDL-dependent functions. The main binding partner of S1P in HDL is apolipoprotein M but others may also exist particularly under conditions of acute S1P elevations. HDL not only exercise functions through their S1P content but have also an impact on genuine S1P signaling by influencing S1P bioactivity and receptor presentation. HDL-S1P content is altered in human diseases such as atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Low HDL-S1P has also been linked to impaired HDL functions associated with these disorders. Although the pathophysiological and molecular reasons for such disease-associated shifts in HDL-S1P are little understood, there have been successful approaches to circumvent their adverse implications by pharmacologically increasing HDL-S1P as means to improve HDL function. This mini-review will cover the current understanding of the contribution of HDL-S1P to physiological HDL function, its alteration in disease and ways for its restoration to correct HDL dysfunction.

  10. Anaesthesia for laparoscopic kidney transplantation: Influence of Trendelenburg position and CO 2 pneumoperitoneum on cardiovascular, respiratory and renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Kandarp Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy is a routine practice since 1995. Until now, the recipient has always undergone open surgery for transplantation. In our institute, laparoscopic kidney transplantation (LKT started in 2010. To facilitate this surgery, the patient must be in steep Trendelenburg position for a long duration. Hence, we decided to study the effect of CO2 pnuemoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position in chronic renal failure (CRF patients undergoing LKT. Methods: A total of 20 adult CRF patients having mean age of 31.7±10.36 years and body mass index 19.65±3.41 kg/m 2 without significant coronary artery disease were selected for the procedure. Cardiovascular parameters heart rate (HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP, Central venous pressure (CVP and respiratory parameters (ETCO 2 , peak airway pressure were noted at the time of induction, after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position, 15 min after decompression of pnuemoperitonuem and after extubation. Arterial blood gas analysis was carried out after induction, 15 min after creation of pnuemoperitoneum, 30 min after Trendelenburg position and 15 min after clamp release. Total duration of surgery, anastomosis time, time for the establishment of urine output and total urine output were noted. Serum creatinine on the 1 st and 7 th post-operative day were recorded. Results: Significant increase in HR was observed after creation of CO 2 pneumoperitoneum and just before extubation. Significant increase in the MAP and CVP was noted after creation of pneumoperitoneum and after giving Trendelenburg position. No significant rise in the ETCO 2 and PaCO 2 was observed. Significant increase in the base deficit was observed after the clamp release, but none of the patients required correction. Conclusion: LKT performed in steep Trendelenburg position with CO 2 pneumoperitoneum significantly influenced cardiovascular and respiratory

  11. Effects of a constant rate infusion of detomidine on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauvliege, Stijn; Marcilla, Miguel Gozalo; Verryken, Kirsten; Duchateau, Luc; Devisscher, Lindsey; Gasthuys, Frank

    2011-11-01

    To examine the influence of a detomidine constant rate infusion (CRI) on cardiovascular function, isoflurane requirements and recovery quality in horses undergoing elective surgery. Prospective, randomized, blinded, clinical trial. Twenty adult healthy horses. After sedation (detomidine, 10 μg kg(-1) intravenously [IV]) and induction of anaesthesia (midazolam 0.06 mg kg(-1) , ketamine 2.2 mg kg(-1) IV), anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air (inspiratory oxygen fraction 55%). When indicated, the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Dobutamine was administered when MAPdetomidine (5 μg kg(-1)  hour(-1) ) (D) or saline (S) CRI, with the anaesthetist unaware of the treatment. Monitoring included end-tidal isoflurane concentration, arterial pH, PaCO(2) , PaO(2) , dobutamine administration rate, heart rate (HR), arterial pressure, cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), stroke index and oxygen delivery index (ḊO(2) I). For recovery from anaesthesia, all horses received 2.5 μg kg(-1) detomidine IV. Recovery quality and duration were recorded in each horse. For statistical analysis, anova, Pearson chi-square and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used as relevant. Heart rate (p=0.0176) and ḊO(2) I (p= 0.0084) were lower and SVR higher (p=0.0126) in group D, compared to group S. Heart rate (p=0.0011) and pH (p=0.0187) increased over time. Significant differences in isoflurane requirements were not detected. Recovery quality and duration were comparable between treatments. A detomidine CRI produced cardiovascular effects typical for α(2) -agonists, without affecting isoflurane requirements, recovery duration or recovery quality. © 2011 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2011 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  12. Hsp90 molecular chaperone: structure, functions and participation in cardio-vascular pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroupskaya I. V.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The review is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional properties of molecular chaperon Hsp90. Hsp90 is a representative of highly widespread family of heat shock proteins. The protein is found in eubacteria and all branches of eukarya, but it is apparently absent in archaea. It is one of key regulators of numerous signalling pathways, cell growth and development, apoptosis, induction of autoimmunity, and progression of heart failure. The full functional activity of Hsp90 shows up in a complex with other molecular chaperones and co-chaperones. Molecular interactions between chaperones, different signalling proteins and protein-partners are highly crucial for the normal functioning of signalling pathways and their destruction causes an alteration in the cell physiology up to its death.

  13. Hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with chronic kidney disease and its relationship with the functional status of the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    K. P. Postovitenko; I. A. Iliuk; S. V. Shevchuk; G. V. Bezsmertna; І. O. Bezsmertnyi; I. V. Kurylenko

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important medical, social and economic problem nowadays. Patients with CKD are known to have an increased risk of development and progression of cardiovascular diseases. However, the causes and pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications are not well understood. One of the recently recognized “non-traditional” risk factors for the increased development of cardiovascular pathology in severe stages of CKD is hyperhomocysteinemia (HHC). The article presents th...

  14. The functional state of the cardiovascular system in adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenjev, M.M.; Kostenko, T.O.; Borisko, G.O.; Kalmikova, N.V.; Cherevatova, S. Kh.; Bondarenko, V.L.

    2010-01-01

    The state of the cardiovascular system of the adolescents aged 16-18 born from the parents who participated in Chornobyl accident clean-up was characterized by a high incidence of myocardium bioelectric activity disorders, presence of congenital small heart defects, widening of the left ventricle cavity, reduction of contractile function and myocardium tolerance to physical load.

  15. [Assessment of external breathing parameters and cardiovascular function in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and reduced body weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzlikina, N L; Romantsova, T I; Roik, O V; Lobanova, N A; Drapkina, O M; Ivashkin, V T

    2009-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate external respiratory function (ERF) and cardiovascular function based on AP measurements, results of 24 hour AP monitoring, treadmill test, and ECG during weight loss therapy in patients with excess body mass. A total of 93 patients with grade 2-3 obesity were examined including 41 (39.8%) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Group 1 consisted of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity, group 2 of patients with constitutive exogenous obesity and DM, group 3 was used as control. Follow-up studies were conducted after 6 and 12 months. Patients of groups 1 and 2 showed positive dynamics of hemodynamic characteristics related to the loss of weight including significant reduction of heart rate, systolic and diastolic indices of hypertonic loading, specific peripheral vascular resistance, and left ventricular mass. Simultaneously, cardiac index and ERF increased while vital lung capacity, forced vital capacity, and forced respiratory volume in the first second returned to normal values. It is concluded that reduction of body weight has positive effect on ERF dynamics and hemodynamic characteristics in patients with constitutive exogenous obesity.

  16. Premature aging of cardiovascular/platelet function in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wai Ping A; Ngo, Doan T; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Rajendran, Sharmalar; Stafford, Irene; Heresztyn, Tamila; Chirkov, Yuliy Y; Horowitz, John D

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the impact of aging on nitric oxide (NO) modulation of platelet and vascular function in healthy women and women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A case-control study of women ages 18 to 60 years, comparing women with polycystic ovarian syndrome against age-matched healthy controls, was performed. A total of 242 women, of whom 109 had polycystic ovarian syndrome (based on Rotterdam criteria), participated in the study. Women who were pregnant or on clopidogrel were excluded from the study. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by nitric oxide (primary outcome measure), vascular endothelial function, plasma concentrations of N(G), N(G)-dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), endothelial progenitor cell count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (markers of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation) were assessed. With increasing age in control women, there was progressive attenuation of platelet responses to NO, impairment of endothelial function, and elevation of ADMA levels (P ≤.001). Irrespective of age, women with polycystic ovarian syndrome exhibited greater impairment of all these parameters (all P polycystic ovarian syndrome, these changes are present from early adult life and may contribute to premature atherogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 cardiovascular health metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenjun; Lee, Hwa; Lee, Angela; Kieu, Chi; Wong, Nathan D

    2017-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. There is a strong association between COPD and cardiovascular (CV) disease; however, the relation between COPD and CV health factors is not well defined. We examined the relation between lung function and CV health factors defined by American Heart Association's (AHA) Life's Simple 7 (LS7). We studied 6352 adults aged ≥20 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2012. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean FEV1% of predicted across levels of each LS7 metric and population attributable risk was calculated based on COPD prevalence. We also conducted linear regression and logistic regression analyses to determine the association between lung function, COPD and LS7 score. Overall 19.9% of subjects were defined as having COPD. Subjects in the highest categories of the LS7 metrics had the highest mean values of FEV1% of predicted (p < 0.0001 except for total cholesterol). Current smoking and hypertension had a population attributed risk of 21.8% and 21.1% of COPD, respectively. Compared to subjects with 0 ideal health factors, the gender and ethnicity-adjusted odds (95% CI) for COPD were 0.45 (0.22-0.93), 0.22 (0.11-0.43) for those with 4 and 5-7 factors, but adjustment for age attenuated this relation. LS7 score is associated with lung function as well as the odds of COPD that is largely explained by age. Studies are needed to show if promotion of CV health will preserve healthy lung function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Antigravity suit inflation - Kidney function and cardiovascular and hormonal responses in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Kravik, Stein E.; Hadj-Aissa, Aoumeur; Leftheriotis, Georges; Vincent, Madeleine

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the lower body positive pressure (LBPP) on kidney function in normal men was investigated in experiments in which the subjects underwent 30 min of sitting and then were subjected to 4.5 h of 70-deg head-up tilt. During the last 3 h of the tilt period, an antigravity suit (60 T legs, 30 T abdomen) was applied. The results showed that LBPP induces a significant increase in effective renal plasma flow and significant changes in the kidney excretory patterns, which were similar to those observed during a water immersion or the early phase of bed rest.

  19. Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in adults 30-59 years of age (NHANES III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlik, Valory N; Hyman, David J; Doody, Rachelle

    2005-01-01

    In the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), three measures of cognitive function [Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT), Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST), and Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT)] were administered to a half-sample of 3,385 adult men and nonpregnant women 30-59 years of age with no history of stroke. We used multiple linear regression analysis to determine whether there was an independent association between performance on each cognitive function measure and defined hypertension (HTN) alone, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) alone, and coexistent HTN and DM after adjustment for demographic and socioeconomic variables and selected health behaviors. After adjustment for the sociodemographic variables, the combination of HTN + DM, but not HTN alone or DM alone, was significantly associated with worse performance on the SRTT (p = 0.031) and the SDST (p = 0.011). A similar pattern was observed for SDLT performance, but the relationship did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.101). We conclude that HTN in combination with DM is associated with detectable cognitive decrements in persons under age 60.

  20. [Bone metabolism and cardiovascular function update. Estrogen and its therapeutic potential for bone and vascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiroaki

    2014-07-01

    Despite its long-standing role as a "guardian angel" for the female body, estrogen has recently been dethroned from its status as an "elixir" and its use has been restricted due to its oncogenic potential as well as its coagulation system-associated risk. However, it is recognized that estrogen not only works against bone resorption but also improves vascular function. In this regard, it is suggested that estrogen may have a role in improving deteriorated bone quality through its antioxidant action, while this same effect with the SERMs, which may be accounted for by the presence of estrogen, remains yet to be established. Not only evidence needs to be accumulated to support the vascular effects of the SERMs, but their pleiotropic, rather than extra-skeletal, effects, as likely mediated by the estrogen receptors distributed throughout the body, remain to be elucidated.

  1. Report Card on Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; And Others

    This report examines the nature of the modern basal reader, its economics, and use. First, the report provides a history showing how the confluence of business principles, positivistic science, and behavioral psychology led to the transformation of reading textbooks into basal readers. Next, the report examines objectives and subjective factors…

  2. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  3. Plasticity of cardiovascular function in snapping turtle embryos (Chelydra serpentina): chronic hypoxia alters autonomic regulation and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eme, John; Rhen, Turk; Tate, Kevin B; Gruchalla, Kathryn; Kohl, Zachary F; Slay, Christopher E; Crossley, Dane A

    2013-06-01

    Reptile embryos tolerate large decreases in the concentration of ambient oxygen. However, we do not fully understand the mechanisms that underlie embryonic cardiovascular short- or long-term responses to hypoxia in most species. We therefore measured cardiac growth and function in snapping turtle embryos incubated under normoxic (N21; 21% O₂) or chronic hypoxic conditions (H10; 10% O₂). We determined heart rate (fH) and mean arterial pressure (Pm) in acute normoxic (21% O₂) and acute hypoxic (10% O₂) conditions, as well as embryonic responses to cholinergic, adrenergic, and ganglionic pharmacological blockade. Compared with N21 embryos, chronic H10 embryos had smaller bodies and relatively larger hearts and were hypotensive, tachycardic, and following autonomic neural blockade showed reduced intrinsic fH at 90% of incubation. Unlike other reptile embryos, cholinergic and ganglionic receptor blockade both increased fH. β-Adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol decreased fH, and α-adrenergic blockade with phentolamine decreased Pm. We also measured cardiac mRNA expression. Cholinergic tone was reduced in H10 embryos, but cholinergic receptor (Chrm2) mRNA levels were unchanged. However, expression of adrenergic receptor mRNA (Adrb1, Adra1a, Adra2c) and growth factor mRNA (Igf1, Igf2, Igf2r, Pdgfb) was lowered in H10 embryos. Hypoxia altered the balance between cholinergic receptors, α-adrenoreceptor and β-adrenoreceptor function, which was reflected in altered intrinsic fH and adrenergic receptor mRNA levels. This is the first study to link gene expression with morphological and cardioregulatory plasticity in a developing reptile embryo.

  4. Leukocyte subtype counts and its association with vascular structure and function in adults with intermediate cardiovascular risk. MARK study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Gomez-Sanchez

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between leukocyte subtype counts and vascular structure and function based on carotid intima-media thickness, pulse wave velocity, central augmentation index and cardio-ankle vascular index by gender in intermediate cardiovascular risk patients.This study analyzed 500 subjects who were included in the MARK study, aged 35 to 74 years (mean: 60.3±8.4, 45.6% women.Brachial ankle Pulse Wave Velocity (ba-PWV estimate by equation, Cardio-AnkleVascular Index (CAVI using the VaSera device and Carotid ultrasound was used to measure carotid Intima Media Thickness (IMT. The Mobil-O-Graph was used to measure the Central Augmentation Index (CAIx.Total leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte counts were positively correlated with IMT (p < 0.01 in men. Monocyte count was positively correlated with CAIx in women (p < 0.01. In a multiple linear regression analysis, the IMT mean maintained a positive association with the neutrophil count (β = 1.500, p = 0.007 in men. CAIx maintained a positive association with the monocyte count (β = 2.445, p = 0.022 in women.The results of this study suggest that the relationship between subtype circulating leukocyte counts and vascular structure and function, although small, may be different by gender. In men, the neutrophil count was positively correlated with IMT and in women, the monocyte count with CAIx, in a large sample of intermediate-risk patients. These association were maintained after adjusting for age and other confounders.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428934.

  5. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  6. Postirradiation cardiovascular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, R.N.; Cockerham, L.G.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiovascular dysfunction may be defined as the inability of any element of the cardiovascular system to perform adequately upon demand, leading to inadequate performance and nutritive insufficiency of various parts of the body. Exposure to supralethal doses of radiation (accidental and therapeutic) has been show to induce significant alterations in cardiovascular function in man. These findings indicate that, after irradiation, cardiovascular function is a major determinant of continued performance and even survival. For the two persons who received massive radiation doses (45 and 88 Gy, respectively) in criticality accidents, the inability to maintain systematic arterial blood pressure (AP) was the immediate cause of death. In a study of cancer patients given partial-body irradiation, two acute lethalities were attributed to myocardial infarction after an acute hypotensive episode during the first few hours postexposure. Although radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction has been observed in many species, its severity, duration, and even etiology may vary with the species, level of exposure, and dose rate. For this reason, our consideration of the effects of radiation on cardiovascular performance is limited to the circulatory derangements that occur in rat, dog, and monkey after supralethal doses and lead to radiation-induced cardiovascular dysfunction in these experimental models. The authors consider other recent data as they pertain to the etiology of cardiovascular dysfunction in irradiated animals

  7. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, Patricia; Rohmer, Odile; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Bonnefond, Anne; Margiocchi, Florence; Poisson, Franck; Muzet, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Escitalopram on Vagally Mediated Cardiovascular Function to Stress and the Moderating Effects of Vigorous Physical Activity: A Randomised Controlled Treatment Study in Healthy Participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla S Hanson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20mg in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 minutes of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d=0.48. Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (heart rate decreased: Cohen’s d=0.80; heart rate variability increased: Cohen’s d=0.33. Heart rate during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers.. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.

  9. Pulmonary function and CT biomarkers as risk factors for cardiovascular events in male lung cancer screening participants: the NELSON study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takx, Richard A.P.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Isgum, Ivana; Koning, Harry J. de; Aalst, Carlijn M. van der; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Groen, Harry J.M.; Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Ginneken, Bram van; Schmidt, Michael; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of spirometry and pulmonary CT biomarkers with cardiovascular events. In this lung cancer screening trial 3,080 male participants without a prior cardiovascular event were analysed. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events were included. Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV 1 %predicted) and FEV 1 divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV 1 /FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery calcium volume, pulmonary emphysema (perc15) and bronchial wall thickness (pi10). Data were analysed via a Cox proportional hazard analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and C-indices. 184 participants experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up of 2.9 years. Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV 1 %predicted, 1.000 (95%CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV 1 /FVC, 1.014 (95%CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95%CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. The incremental C-index ( 3 , an increase in C-index of 0.076 and an NRI of 16.9 % (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry measurements were significantly associated with cardiovascular events, but did not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information for cardiovascular events. (orig.)

  10. Protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function, and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the PI3K/Akt pathway in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong-Yang; Jiang, Yi-Nong; Li, Nan

    2016-03-01

    Thymoquinone is the main active monomer extracted from black cumin and has anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‑apoptotic functions. However, the protective effects of thymoquinone on cardiovascular function in diabetes remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms underling the beneficial effects of thymoquinone on the cardiovascular function in streptozotocin‑induced diabetes mellitus (DM) rats. Supplement thymoquinone may recover the insulin levels and body weight, inhibit blood glucose levels and reduce the heart rate in DM‑induced rats. The results indicated that the heart, liver and lung to body weight ratios, in addition to the blood pressure levels, were similar for each experimental group. Treatment with thymoquinone significantly reduced oxidative stress damage, inhibited the increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein expression and suppressed the elevation of cyclooxygenase‑2 levels in DM‑induced rats. In addition, thymoquinone significantly suppressed the promotion of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑6 levels in the DM‑induced rats. Furthermore, administration of thymoquinone significantly reduced caspase‑3 activity and the promotion of phosphorylated‑protein kinase B (Akt) protein expression levels in DM‑induced rats. These results suggest that the protective effect of thymoquinone improves cardiovascular function and attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis by mediating the phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase/Akt pathway in DM‑induced rats.

  11. Skin autofluorescence is associated with renal function and cardiovascular diseases in pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kenichi; Tani, Yoshihiro; Asai, Jun; Nemoto, Fumihiko; Kusano, Yuki; Suzuki, Hodaka; Hayashi, Yoshimitsu; Asahi, Koichi; Katoh, Tetsuo; Miyata, Toshio; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Tissue accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) is thought to be a contributing factor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive measure of AGE accumulation using autofluorescence of the skin under ultraviolet light, has shown associations with CVD in haemodialysis patients. The present study aimed to evaluate relationships of skin autofluorescence to renal function as well as CVD in pre-dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Subjects in this cross-sectional analysis comprised 304 pre-dialysis CKD patients [median age, 62.0 years; median estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), 54.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2); diabetes, n = 81 (26.6%)]. AGE accumulation in skin was assessed by skin autofluorescence using an autofluorescence reader. Relationships between skin autofluorescence, eGFR, CVD history and other parameters were evaluated. Skin autofluorescence correlated negatively with eGFR (r = -0.42, P skin autofluorescence with age, presence of diabetes, eGFR and CVD history in CKD patients (R(2) = 30%). Age, male gender, smoking history, skin autofluorescence and eGFR were significantly correlated with CVD history, and multiple logistic regression analysis identified age [odds ratio (OR), 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.15; P skin autofluorescence (OR, 3.74; 95%CI, 1.54-9.24; P skin autofluorescence increased as GFR decreased and was related to CVD history in CKD patients. Non-invasive autofluorescence readers may provide potential markers for clinical risk assessment in pre-dialysis CKD patients.

  12. Chinese Cardiovascular Disease Mobile Apps' Information Types, Information Quality, and Interactive Functions for Self-Management: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Bo; Su, Zhaohui; Zhang, Wenhui; Cai, Run

    2017-12-14

    China has a large population with cardiovascular disease (CVD) that requires extensive self-management. Mobile health (mHealth) apps may be a useful tool for CVD self-management. Little is currently known about the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and whether app functions are conducive to promoting CVD self-management. We undertook a systematic review to evaluate the types and quality of health information provided in Chinese CVD mobile apps and interactive app functions for promoting CVD self-management. Mobile apps targeting end users in China with CVD conditions were selected in February 2017 through a multi-stage process. Three frameworks were used to evaluate the selected apps: (1) types of health information offered were assessed using our Health Information Wants framework, which encompasses 7 types of information; (2) quality of information provided in the apps was assessed using the 11 guidelines recommended by the National Library of Medicine of the National Institutes of Health; and (3) types of interactive app functions for CVD self-management were assessed using a 15-item framework adapted from the literature, including our own prior work. Of 578 apps identified, 82 were eligible for final review. Among these, information about self-care (67/82, 82%) and information specifically regarding CVD (63/82, 77%) were the most common types of information provided, while information about health care providers (22/82, 27%) and laboratory tests (5/82, 6%) were least common. The most common indicators of information quality were the revealing of apps' providers (82/82, 100%) and purpose (82/82, 100%), while the least common quality indicators were the revealing of how apps' information was selected (1/82, 1%) and app sponsorship (0/82, 0%). The most common interactive functions for CVD self-management were those that enabled user interaction with the app provider (57/82, 70%) and with health care providers (36/82, 44

  13. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canetta, Sarah E; Luca, Edlira; Pertot, Elyse; Role, Lorna W; Talmage, David A

    2011-01-01

    Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs). Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling) can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K) signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  14. Type III Nrg1 back signaling enhances functional TRPV1 along sensory axons contributing to basal and inflammatory thermal pain sensation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Canetta

    Full Text Available Type III Nrg1, a member of the Nrg1 family of signaling proteins, is expressed in sensory neurons, where it can signal in a bi-directional manner via interactions with the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (ErbB RTKs. Type III Nrg1 signaling as a receptor (Type III Nrg1 back signaling can acutely activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PtdIns3K signaling, as well as regulate levels of α7* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, along sensory axons. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 is a cation-permeable ion channel found in primary sensory neurons that is necessary for the detection of thermal pain and for the development of thermal hypersensitivity to pain under inflammatory conditions. Cell surface expression of TRPV1 can be enhanced by activation of PtdIns3K, making it a potential target for regulation by Type III Nrg1. We now show that Type III Nrg1 signaling in sensory neurons affects functional axonal TRPV1 in a PtdIns3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Type III Nrg1 have specific deficits in their ability to respond to noxious thermal stimuli and to develop capsaicin-induced thermal hypersensitivity to pain. Cumulatively, these results implicate Type III Nrg1 as a novel regulator of TRPV1 and a molecular mediator of nociceptive function.

  15. Use of plant stanol ester margarine among persons with and without cardiovascular disease: Early phases of the adoption of a functional food in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Boice John D; Rita Hannu; Uutela Antti; Luoto Riitta; Simojoki Meri; McLaughlin Joseph K; Puska Pekka

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The plant stanol ester margarine Benecol® is a functional food that has been shown to lower effectively serum total and LDL-cholesterol. The purpose of this post-marketing study is to characterize users of plant stanol ester margarine with and without cardiovascular disease. Methods A cohort of plant stanol ester margarine users was established based on a compilation of 15 surveys conducted by the National Public Health Institute in Finland between 1996–2000. There were 29...

  16. Hormonal, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to hypoglycaemia in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes with and without residual B cell function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsbad, S; Hilsted, J; Krarup, T

    1982-01-01

    Hormonal, metabolic and cardiovascular responses to insulin induced hypoglycaemia were investigated in seven Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with residual B cell function, eight Type 1 diabetic patients without B cell function and six healthy subjects. No differences were found between...... the diabetic groups regarding nadir of glucose and rate of recovery to normoglycaemia. The patients with residual B cell function had a glucagon response to hypoglycaemia which was close to that of normal subjects. In patients without B cell function, the glucagon response to hypoglycaemia was present, albeit...... significantly smaller than in the patients with preserved B cell function (0.025 ng/ml, range 0.007-0.042 versus 0.054 ng/ml, range 0.029-0.087). The group without B cell function had signs of an exaggerated rate of lipolysis and ketogenesis compared with the patients with B cell function and the normal...

  17. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  18. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T1-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku

    1995-01-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T 1 -weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T 1 W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186±0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987±0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p 2 -weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239±0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174±0.097) (p 15 (r=0.501, p 1 -WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author)

  19. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  20. Pulmonary function and CT biomarkers as risk factors for cardiovascular events in male lung cancer screening participants: the NELSON study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de; Aalst, Carlijn M. van der [Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Groen, Harry J.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonology, Groningen (Netherlands); Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Michael [Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of spirometry and pulmonary CT biomarkers with cardiovascular events. In this lung cancer screening trial 3,080 male participants without a prior cardiovascular event were analysed. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events were included. Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV{sub 1}%predicted) and FEV{sub 1} divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV{sub 1}/FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery calcium volume, pulmonary emphysema (perc15) and bronchial wall thickness (pi10). Data were analysed via a Cox proportional hazard analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and C-indices. 184 participants experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up of 2.9 years. Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV{sub 1}%predicted, 1.000 (95%CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV{sub 1}/FVC, 1.014 (95%CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95%CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. The incremental C-index (<0.015) and NRI (<2.8 %) were minimal. Coronary artery calcium volume had a hazard ratio of 1.046 (95%CI 1.034-1.058) per 100 mm{sup 3}, an increase in C-index of 0.076 and an NRI of 16.9 % (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry measurements were significantly associated with cardiovascular events, but did not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information for cardiovascular events. (orig.)

  1. Molecular cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefers, M.

    2007-01-01

    Although huge and long-lasting research efforts have been spent on the development of new diagnostic techniques investigating cardiovascular diseases, still fundamental challenges exist; the main challenge being the diagnosis of a suspected or known coronary artery disease or its consequences (myocardial infarction, heart failure etc.). Beside morphological techniques, functional imaging modalities are available in clinical diagnostic algorithms, whereas molecular cardiovascular imaging techniques are still under development. This review summarizes clinical-diagnostical challenges of modern cardiovascular medicine as well as the potential of new molecular imaging techniques to face these. (orig.)

  2. Does unilateral basal ganglia activity functionally influence the contralateral side? What we can learn from STN stimulation in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Yohann; Karachi, Carine; Fernandez-Vidal, Sara; Jodoin, Nicolas; Grabli, David; Bardinet, Eric; Mallet, Luc; Agid, Yves; Yelnik, Jerome; Welter, Marie-Laure

    2012-09-01

    In humans, the control of voluntary movement, in which the corticobasal ganglia (BG) circuitry participates, is mainly lateralized. However, several studies have suggested that both the contralateral and ipsilateral BG systems are implicated during unilateral movement. Bilateral improvement of motor signs in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) has been reported with unilateral lesion or high-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the internal part of the globus pallidus or the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). To decipher the mechanisms of production of ipsilateral movements induced by the modulation of unilateral BG circuitry activity, we recorded left STN neuronal activity during right STN-HFS in PD patients operated for bilateral deep brain stimulation. Left STN single cells were recorded in the operating room during right STN-HFS while patients experienced, or did not experience, right stimulation-induced dyskinesias. Most of the left-side STN neurons (64%) associated with the presence of right dyskinesias were inhibited, with a significant decrease in burst and intraburst frequencies. In contrast, left STN neurons not associated with right dyskinesias were mainly activated (48%), with a predominant increase 4-5 ms after the stimulation pulse and a decrease in oscillatory activity. This suggests that unilateral neuronal STN modulation is associated with changes in the activity of the contralateral STN. The fact that one side of the BG system can influence the functioning of the other could explain the occurrence of bilateral dyskinesias and motor improvement observed in PD patients during unilateral STN-HFS, as a result of a bilateral disruption of the pathological activity in the corticosubcortical circuitry.

  3. Hyperintensity of basal ganglia on T{sub 1}-weighted images in patients with liver cirrhosis. Correlation with hepatic encephalopathy and liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kita, Keisuke; Mizobata, Toshiharu; Kimura, Masashi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Kishi, Kazushi; Tanaka, Kayo; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryosaku [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1995-04-01

    Brain MR imaging was performed in 38 liver cirrhosis (LC) patients and 9 normal volunteers. On T{sub 1}-weighted images, the signal intensity of globus pallidus (S1) and frontal white matter (S2) was measured and S1/S2 ratio was explored. We examined the relationship between S1/S2 ratio and liver function parameters. High signal intensity in bilateral globus pallidus was noted on T{sub 1} W1 in 28 of 38 LC patients. The S1/S2 ratio of 1.186{+-}0.097 in the 38 LC patients was significantly higher than 0.987{+-}0.062 in the 9 normal volunteers (p<0.001), while T{sub 2}-weighted images showed no abnormal intensity. Compared with the LC patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) (n=7) and without HE (n=31), the former S1/S2 ratio (1.239{+-}0.057) was significantly higher than the latter (1.174{+-}0.097) (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and deterioration of ICG R{sub 15} (r=0.501, p<0.005), prolongation of prothrombine time (r=-0.392, p<0.05) and decrease of choline esterase (r=-0.336, p<0.05). There was, however, little correlation between the value of the S1/S2 ratio and ammonia and Fisher ratio. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between high intensity of globus pallidus on T{sub 1}-WI and the degree of liver dysfunction. (author).

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  5. Functional importance of T-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the cardiovascular and renal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille B L

    2015-01-01

    Over the years, it has been discussed whether T-type calcium channels Cav3 play a role in the cardiovascular and renal system. T-type channels have been reported to play an important role in renal hemodynamics, contractility of resistance vessels, and pacemaker activity in the heart. However...

  6. Increased insulin-like growth factor-1 in relation to cardiovascular function in polycystic ovary syndrome: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Namrata Ajaykumar; Patel, Snehal S

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is very high and conventional risk factors only partially explain excessive risk of developing CVD in patients of PCOS. The pathophysiology of PCOS is very unique, and several hormonal and metabolic changes occur. Several observations suggest that serum IGF-1 levels decrease in insulin resistance, which results in IGF-1 deficiency. In patient of PCOS, close relationships have been demonstrated between insulin resistance and serum IGF-1 levels. Hyperinsulinemic insulin resistance results in a general augmentation of steroidogenesis and LH release in PCOS. The action of IGF-1 varies in different tissues possibly via autocrine or paracrine mechanisms. The increase or decrease in IGF-1 in different tissues results in differential outcomes. Several studies suggest that lowered circulating IGF-1 levels play important role in the initiation of the cardiac hypertrophic response which results in the risk of cardiovascular disease. While recent results suggests that individual with elevated IGF-1 is protected against cardiovascular disease. Thus IGF-1 shows versatile pleiotropic actions. This review provides a current perspective on increased level of IGF-1 in PCOS and also adds to the current controversy regarding the roles of IGF-1 in cardiovascular disease.

  7. Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in kidney function in persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    IDI). C statistic (area under the curve) quantifies the model's improved ability to discriminate events from non-events. rIDI quantifies the increase in separation of events and non-events on a relative scale. RESULTS: Higher SDMA was associated with increased risk of all three endpoints (unadjusted: p......BACKGROUND: To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. METHODS: 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included (1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n = 40); (2) all-cause mortality (n = 26); and (3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n = 42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted...

  8. Atrial function, atrial volume and cardiovascular clinical outcomes in patients with end-stage renal disease - A study of cardiac computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Laust Dupont; Winther, Simon; Jørgensen, Hanne Skou

    2017-01-01

    and mortality data were extracted from the Western Denmark Heart Registry, a review of patient records and patient interviews. RESULTS: Baseline patient characteristics did not differ between LAEDV tertiles. LAEDV was positively associated with measures of LV function - both LVEDV (β = 0.36, p ... mass (β = 0.30, p positively and LAEF negatively associated with NT-PRO-BNP (LAEDV: β = 10.28, p patients died and 19 (16.2%) patients suffered......BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Previous studies using 2-dimensional echocardiography show that left atrial end-diastolic volume (LAEDV) predicts cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with CKD. However, contrast...

  9. The relation of digital vascular function to cardiovascular risk factors in African-Americans using digital tonometry: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClendon, Eric E; Musani, Solomon K; Samdarshi, Tandaw E; Khaire, Sushant; Stokes, Donny; Hamburg, Naomi M; Sheffy, Koby; Mitchell, Gary F; Taylor, Herman R; Benjamin, Emelia J; Fox, Ervin R

    2017-06-01

    Digital vascular tone and function, as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), are associated with cardiovascular risk and events in non-Hispanic whites. There are limited data on relations between PAT and cardiovascular risk in African-Americans. PAT was performed on a subset of Jackson Heart Study participants using a fingertip tonometry device. Resting digital vascular tone was assessed as baseline pulse amplitude. Hyperemic vascular response to 5 minutes of ischemia was expressed as the PAT ratio (hyperemic/baseline amplitude ratio). Peripheral augmentation index (AI), a measure of relative wave reflection, also was estimated. The association of baseline pulse amplitude (PA), PAT ratio, and AI to risk factors was assessed using stepwise multivariable models. The study sample consisted of 837 participants from the Jackson Heart Study (mean age, 54 ± 11 years; 61% women). In stepwise multivariable regression models, baseline pulse amplitude was related to male sex, body mass index, and diastolic blood pressure (BP), accounting for 16% of the total variability of the baseline pulse amplitude. Age, male sex, systolic BP, diastolic BP, antihypertensive medication, and prevalent cardiovascular disease contributed to 11% of the total variability of the PAT ratio. Risk factors (primarily age, sex, and heart rate) explained 47% of the total variability of the AI. We confirmed in our cohort of African-Americans, a significant relation between digital vascular tone and function measured by PAT and multiple traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of these measurements in predicting clinical outcomes in African-Americans. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. And the beat goes on: maintained cardiovascular function during aging in the longest-lived rodent, the naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Kelly M; Reddy, Anilkumar K; Lindsey, Merry L; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2014-08-01

    The naked mole-rat (NMR) is the longest-lived rodent known, with a maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) of >31 years. Despite such extreme longevity, these animals display attenuation of many age-associated diseases and functional changes until the last quartile of their MLSP. We questioned if such abilities would extend to cardiovascular function and structure in this species. To test this, we assessed cardiac functional reserve, ventricular morphology, and arterial stiffening in NMRs ranging from 2 to 24 years of age. Dobutamine echocardiography (3 μg/g ip) revealed no age-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) function either at baseline or with exercise-like stress. Baseline and dobutamine-induced LV pressure parameters also did not change. Thus the NMR, unlike other mammals, maintains cardiac reserve with age. NMRs showed no cardiac hypertrophy, evidenced by no increase in cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area or LV dimensions with age. Age-associated arterial stiffening does not occur since there are no changes in aortic blood pressures or pulse-wave velocity. Only LV interstitial collagen deposition increased 2.5-fold from young to old NMRs (P < 0.01). However, its effect on LV diastolic function is likely minor since NMRs experience attenuated age-related increases in diastolic dysfunction in comparison with other species. Overall, these findings conform to the negligible senescence phenotype, as NMRs largely stave off cardiovascular changes for at least 75% of their MLSP. This suggests that using a comparative strategy to find factors that change with age in other mammals but not NMRs could provide novel targets to slow or prevent cardiovascular aging in humans.

  11. Caffeine and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Duncan; Rodricks, Joseph V; Mariano, Gregory F; Chowdhury, Farah

    2017-10-01

    This report evaluates the scientific literature on caffeine with respect to potential cardiovascular outcomes, specifically relative risks of total cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI), effects on arrhythmia, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, blood pressure, hypertension, and other biomarkers of effect, including heart rate, cerebral blood flow, cardiac output, plasma homocysteine levels, serum cholesterol levels, electrocardiogram (EKG) parameters, heart rate variability, endothelial/platelet function and plasma/urine catecholamine levels. Caffeine intake has been associated with a range of reversible and transient physiological effects broadly and cardiovascular effects specifically. This report attempts to understand where the delineations exist in caffeine intake and corresponding cardiovascular effects among various subpopulations. The available literature suggests that cardiovascular effects experienced by caffeine consumers at levels up to 600 mg/day are in most cases mild, transient, and reversible, with no lasting adverse effect. The point at which caffeine intake may cause harm to the cardiovascular system is not readily identifiable in part because data on the effects of daily intakes greater than 600 mg is limited. However, the evidence considered within this review suggests that typical moderate caffeine intake is not associated with increased risks of total cardiovascular disease; arrhythmia; heart failure; blood pressure changes among regular coffee drinkers; or hypertension in baseline populations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiovascular effects in rats after intratracheal instillation of metal welding particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Antonini, James M; Lin, Yen-Chang; Roberts, Jenny R; Kashon, Michael L; Castranova, Vincent; Kan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies have indicated that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes can induce a series of adverse effects in the respiratory system, including infection, bronchitis, siderosis and decreased pulmonary function. Recent clinical and epidemiological studies have found that pulmonary exposure to welding fumes is also associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular events. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a direct effect of welding fumes on the cardiovascular system. The present study investigated the effects of pulmonary exposure to welding fumes on the heart and the vascular system in rats. Two chemically distinct welding fumes generated from manual metal arc-hard surfacing (MMA-HS) and gas metal arc-mild steel (GMA-MS) welding were tested. Three groups of rats were instilled intratracheally with MMA-HS (2 mg/rat), GMA-MS (2 mg/rat) or saline as control once a week for seven weeks. On days 1 and 7 after the last treatment, basal cardiovascular function and the cardiovascular response to increasing doses of adrenoreceptor agonists were assessed. MMA-HS treatment reduced the basal levels of left ventricle end-systolic pressure and dP/dt(max) at 1 day post-treatment, and decreased dP/dt(min) in response to isoproterenol (ISO) at 7 days post-treatment. Unlike MMA-HS, GMA-MS only affected left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in response to ISO at 7 days post-treatment. Treatment with MMA-HS or GMA-MS did not alter heart rate and blood pressure. Our findings suggest that exposure to different welding fumes can induce different adverse effects on the cardiovascular system, and that cardiac contractility may be a sensitive indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction.

  13. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  14. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , the effect of long-term participation in floorball training among male elderly has not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of 26-month self-organized regular participation in floorball training on cardiovascular fitness, body composition, blood lipids, glucose control...... weekly floorball sessions with 40 min/session over 26-month appear to reduce age-related decline in cardiovascular fitness and glucose control and improve leg bone mineral density, suggesting that long-term participation in floorball training can be considered as a health-enhancing activity......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  15. Effects of 2-day calorie restriction on cardiovascular autonomic response, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Čekanauskaitė, Agnė

    2018-06-02

    Although long-term energy restriction has been widely investigated and has consistently induced improvements in health and cognitive and motor functions, the responses to short-duration calorie restriction are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2-day very low-calorie diet on evoked stress, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese women. Nine obese women (body fatness > 32%) aged 22-31 years were tested under two randomly allocated conditions: 2-day very low-calorie diet (511 kcal) and 2-day usual diet. The perceived stressfulness of the diet, cardiovascular autonomic response, and cognitive and motor performances were evaluated before and after each diet. The subjective stress rating of the calorie-restricted diet was 41.5 ± 23.3. Calorie restriction had no detectable effects on the heart rate variability indices, mood, grip strength, or psychomotor functions. By contrast, calorie restriction increased (p restriction evoked moderate stress in obese women, cardiovascular autonomic function was not affected. Calorie restriction had complex effects on cognition: it declined cognitive flexibility, and improved spatial processing and visuospatial working memory, but did not affect mood or motor behavior.

  16. Is the association between optimistic cardiovascular risk perceptions and lower rates of cardiovascular disease mortality explained by biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial function? A case-cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gramling Robert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More optimistic perceptions of cardiovascular disease risk are associated with substantively lower rates of cardiovascular death among men. It remains unknown whether this association represents causality (i.e. perception leads to actions/conditions that influence cardiovascular disease occurrence or residual confounding by unmeasured factors that associate with risk perceptions and with physiological processes that promote cardiovascular disease (i.e. inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Purpose To evaluate whether previously unmeasured biological markers of inflammation or endothelial dysregulation confound the observed association between cardiovascular disease risk perceptions and cardiovascular disease outcomes; Methods We conducted a nested case-cohort study among community-dwelling men from Southeastern New England (USA who were interviewed between 1989 and 1990 as part of the Pawtucket Heart Health Program. We measured C-reactive protein (CRP and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF levels from stored sera for a random sample of the parent cohort (control sample, n = 127 and all cases of cardiovascular death observed through 2005 (case sample, n = 44. We evaluated potential confounding using stratified analyses and logistic regression modeling. Results Optimistic ratings of risk associated with lower odds of dying from cardiovascular causes among men (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.17, 0.91. Neither CRP nor VEGF confounded these findings. Conclusions The strong cardio-protective association between optimistic ratings of cardiovascular disease risk and lower rates of cardiovascular mortality among men is not confounded by baseline biomarkers of systemic inflammation or endothelial dysfunction.

  17. Potential side effects of unhealthy lifestyle choices and health risks on basal and reactive heart rate variability in college drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Mun, Eun-Young; Buckman, Jennifer F; Vaschillo, Evgeny G; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E

    2013-09-01

    Emerging adults often begin making independent lifestyle choices during college, yet the association of these choices with fundamental indicators of health and adaptability is unclear. The present study examined the relationship between health risks and neurocardiac function in college drinkers. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed at baseline and in reaction to a paced breathing challenge in 212 college drinkers (53.8% women). Basal HRV served as a general indicator of health. Reactive HRV (during paced breathing) was used as a marker of an individual's adaptability to challenge. The relationship of HRV to alcohol use, cigarette use, exercise, sleep, and body mass index (BMI) was assessed. Greater alcohol use and less exercise were associated with lower basal HRV. BMI was unrelated to basal HRV but was negatively associated with reactive HRV during the breathing challenge. High levels of alcohol use and lack of exercise are negative correlates of cardiovascular and general health, even in apparently healthy college drinkers. The negative relationship between BMI and reactive HRV suggests that overweight individuals have reduced ability to psychophysiologically adapt to challenges; understanding the temporal course of this relationship is needed. This study highlights the importance of examining HRV at baseline and in response to a challenge to capture the active neurocardiac processes that contribute to health and adaptive responding. The suppressive effects of health risks on HRV are modifiable; thus, HRV may be useful in evaluating the health benefits of lifestyle change and in promoting change behaviors in college drinkers.

  18. Meditation and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Glenn N; Lange, Richard A; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Davidson, Richard J; Jamerson, Kenneth; Mehta, Puja K; Michos, Erin D; Norris, Keith; Ray, Indranill Basu; Saban, Karen L; Shah, Tina; Stein, Richard; Smith, Sidney C

    2017-09-28

    Despite numerous advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Novel and inexpensive interventions that can contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are of interest. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of meditation. Meditation instruction and practice is widely accessible and inexpensive and may thus be a potential attractive cost-effective adjunct to more traditional medical therapies. Accordingly, this American Heart Association scientific statement systematically reviewed the data on the potential benefits of meditation on cardiovascular risk. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies demonstrate that meditation can have long-standing effects on the brain, which provide some biological plausibility for beneficial consequences on the physiological basal state and on cardiovascular risk. Studies of the effects of meditation on cardiovascular risk have included those investigating physiological response to stress, smoking cessation, blood pressure reduction, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, endothelial function, inducible myocardial ischemia, and primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit on cardiovascular risk, although the overall quality and, in some cases, quantity of study data are modest. Given the low costs and low risks of this intervention, meditation may be considered as an adjunct to guideline-directed cardiovascular risk reduction by those interested in this lifestyle modification, with the understanding that the benefits of such intervention remain to be better established. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted. Such studies, to the degree possible, should utilize randomized study design, be adequately powered to meet the primary study outcome, strive to achieve low drop-out rates, include long

  19. Cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanAman, M.; Mueller, C.F.

    1985-01-01

    Soon after Roentgen documented the uses of x-rays in 1895, fluoroscopic and film evaluation of the heart began. Even today the chest roentgenogram remains one of the first and most frequently used studies for the evaluation of the normal and abnormal heart and great vessels. This chapter gives an overview of plain film evaluation of the cardiovascular system and follow up with comments on the newer imaging modalities of computed tomography, and digital subtraction angiography, in the cardiovascular disease workup. The authors present an evaluation of plain films of the chest, which remains their most cost effective, available, simple, and reliable initial screening tool in the evaluation of cardiovascular disease

  20. Haemodynamic responses to exercise, ATP infusion and thigh compression in humans: insight into the role of muscle mechanisms on cardiovascular function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Alonso, J.; Mortensen, S.P.; Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard

    2008-01-01

    on cardiovascular function during exercise, we determined leg and systemic haemodynamic responses in healthy men during (1) incremental one-legged knee-extensor exercise, (2) step-wise femoral artery ATP infusion at rest, (3) passive exercise (n=10), (4)femoral vein or artery ATP infusion (n=6), and (5) cyclic...... exercise also increased blood flow (DeltaLBF 0.7 +/- 0.1 l min(-1)), yet the increase in muscle and systemic perfusion, unrelated to elevations in aerobic metabolism, accounted only for approximately 5% of peak exercise hyperaemia.Likewise, thigh compressions alone or in combination with passive exercise...

  1. [Administration of Cardiodoron® in patients with functional cardiovascular disorders and/or sleep disorders--results of a prospective, non-interventional study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rother, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Functional cardiovascular disorders (FCD) can be attributed to around 25-40% of all heart patients, i.e. organic causes are not detectable. Characteristic symptoms are tachycardia, palpitations, cardiac arrhythmia, hyperventilation, vertigo, vasovagal syncopes and sleep disorders, with the latter being a problem of its own. Disturbed vegetative rhythms form the basis of these diseases. The medicinal product Cardiodoron counteracts the dysfunctional vegetative rhythmicity with 3 medicinal plants--Primula veris (common cowslip), Hyoscyamus niger (black henbane) and Onopordum acanthium (cotton thistle). By means of a prospective, multicentre, non-interventional study, the development of disease-specific disorders during treatment with Cardiodoron (drops) was supposed to be shown. Between September 2009 and March 2012, 92 physicians documented 501 patients suffering from functional cardiovascular and/or sleep disorders who have been treated with Cardiodoron for 3-6 months. After an initial examination, a final examination after 90 (± 10) days and, in case of continuation of therapy, a follow-up examination after 90 (± 10) days were carried out. Besides 30 symptoms assessed by the physicians, the patients rated their condition on the basis of the complaints list according to v. Zerssen (B-L and B-L') and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) according to Buysse. The severity of functional cardiovascular disorders as well as sleep disorders was significantly reduced. The same applies for all of the documented 30 disease-specific symptoms. Furthermore, the total score of the complaints list was significantly reduced as well as the PSQI. The largest effect regarding all parameters was detectable after 3 months. Continuation of Cardiodoron therapy stabilised the symptomatology once more and resulted in further improvement. On average, patients reported initial improvement after 13 days of treatment. Tolerability was almost consistently assessed with 'very good / good

  2. Cardiovascular risk prediction in chronic kidney disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Cedeño Mora

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: The cardiovascular risk scores (FRS-CVD and ASCVD [AHA/ACC 2013] can estimate the probability of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events in patients with CKD regardless of renal function, albuminuria and previous cardiovascular events.

  3. Interrelation between the changes of phase functions of cardiac muscle contraction and biochemical processes as an algorithm for identifying local pathologies in cardiovascular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury V. Fedosov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims The interrelation between hemodynamic changes, functions of the cardiovascular system and biochemical reactions in the cells of the heart muscle is investigated in the present paper. Materials and methods Several methods were used to influence the metabolism processes in the myocardium. The changes in the phase functions of contraction of different cardiac muscles were recorded. In order to have comprehensive influence on the metabolism processes, normalization of the acid-base balance was performed. L-carnitine and octolipen were used to affect the lipid metabolism. Results Phase blood volumes that are characteristic of hemodynamics changed in the course of treatment to reach their nornal values. The ECG shape during the heart cycle phases also changed to reach the norm. The initial ECG shape describing Brugada syndrome almost reached its normal value. Extrasystole disappeared therewith. Conclusion The method of the heart cycle phase analysis enables monitoring any changes in hemodynamics and functions of the cardiovascular system. The method can be used for identifying the original cause of pathologies and efficient monitoring of the treatment progress.

  4. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  5. Role of Shp2 in forebrain neurons in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular functions and responses to leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo, J M; da Silva, A A; Sessums, P O; Ebaady, S H; Pace, B R; Rushing, J S; Davis, M T; Hall, J E

    2014-06-01

    We examined whether deficiency of Src homology 2 containing phosphatase (Shp2) signaling in forebrain neurons alters metabolic and cardiovascular regulation under various conditions and if it attenuates the anorexic and cardiovascular effects of leptin. We also tested whether forebrain Shp2 deficiency alters blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to acute stress. Forebrain Shp2(-/-) mice were generated by crossing Shp2(flox/flox) mice with CamKIIα-cre mice. At 22-24 weeks of age, the mice were instrumented for telemetry for measurement of BP, HR and body temperature (BT). Oxygen consumption (VO2), energy expenditure and motor activity were monitored by indirect calorimetry. Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice were heavier (46±3 vs 32±1 g), hyperglycemic, hyperleptinemic, hyperinsulinemic and hyperphagic compared to Shp2(flox/flox) control mice. Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice exhibited reduced food intake responses to fasting/refeeding and impaired regulation of BT when exposed to 15 and 30 °C ambient temperatures. Despite being obese and having many features of metabolic syndrome, Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice had similar daily average BP and HR compared to Shp2(flox/flox) mice (112±2 vs 113±1 mm Hg and 595±34 vs 650±40 b.p.m.), but exhibited increased BP and HR responses to cold exposure and acute air-jet stress test. Leptin's ability to reduce food intake and to raise BP were markedly attenuated in Shp2/CamKIIα-cre mice. These results suggest that forebrain Shp2 signaling regulates food intake, appetite responses to caloric deprivation and thermogenic control of body temperature during variations in ambient temperature. Deficiency of Shp2 signaling in the forebrain is associated with augmented cardiovascular responses to cold and acute stress but attenuated BP responses to leptin.

  6. Coronary Microvascular Function and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women With Angina Pectoris and No Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Naja Dam; Michelsen, Marie Mide; Peña, Adam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The majority of women with angina-like chest pain have no obstructive coronary artery disease when evaluated with coronary angiography. Coronary microvascular dysfunction is a possible explanation and associated with a poor prognosis. This study evaluated the prevalence of coronary...... microvascular dysfunction and the association with symptoms, cardiovascular risk factors, psychosocial factors, and results from diagnostic stress testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: After screening 3568 women, 963 women with angina-like chest pain and a diagnostic coronary angiogram without significant coronary.......01), hypertension (P=0.02), current smoking (Ppain characteristics or results from diagnostic stress testing...

  7. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisé, Kenneth N; Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Dey, Adwitia; Jiang, Mao; Lacefield, James C; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2016-01-01

    Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV) autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary T1DM (D), control exercise (CX), or T1DM exercise (DX). Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9-17 mM) through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY), and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY), including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  8. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Deficits of Cardiovascular Autonomic Function in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus with Moderate Hyperglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth N. Grisé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN in experimental models of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM are often contrary to clinical data. Here, we investigated whether a relatable insulin-treated model of T1DM would induce deficits in cardiovascular (CV autonomic function more reflective of clinical results and if exercise training could prevent those deficits. Sixty-four rats were divided into four groups: sedentary control (C, sedentary T1DM (D, control exercise (CX, or T1DM exercise (DX. Diabetes was induced via multiple low-dose injections of streptozotocin and blood glucose was maintained at moderate hyperglycemia (9–17 mM through insulin supplementation. Exercise training consisted of daily treadmill running for 10 weeks. Compared to C, D had blunted baroreflex sensitivity, increased vascular sympathetic tone, increased serum neuropeptide Y (NPY, and decreased intrinsic heart rate. In contrast, DX differed from D in all measures of CAN (except NPY, including heart rate variability. These findings demonstrate that this T1DM model elicits deficits and exercise-mediated improvements to CV autonomic function which are reflective of clinical T1DM.

  9. Effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes on endothelial function and glycemic variability in overweight and in obese adult patients at increased cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Cosentino, Loretta; Rosafio, Giuseppe; Morgana, Manuela; Mattina, Alessandro; Sprini, Delia; Verga, Salvatore; Rini, Giovam Battista

    2013-06-01

    The role of glycemic index of the diet in glucose control and cardiovascular prevention is still not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of hypocaloric diets with different glycemic indexes and glycemic loads on endothelial function and glycemic variability in nondiabetic participants at increased cardiovascular risk. Forty nondiabetic obese participants were randomly assigned to a three-month treatment with either a low glycemic index (LGI; n=19) or high glycemic index (HGI; n=21) hypocaloric diet with similar macronutrient and fiber content. Endothelial function was measured as flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery before and after dieting. In addition, 48-h continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring was done before and after dieting in a subgroup of 24 participants. The amount of weight loss after dieting was similar in both groups. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the FMD (Pdiet, and -0.9±3.6% after the HGI diet (Pdiet on results was observed. The glycemic index of the diet significantly influenced the 48-h glycemic variability measured as coefficient of variability (CV%; Pdiet (from 23.5 to 20.0%) and increased after the HGI diet (from 23.6 to 26.6%). The change in percentage of FMD was inversely correlated with the change in the 48-h glycemic CV% (r=-0.45; Phypocaloric diet in nondiabetic obese persons. ISRCTN56834511. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Basal Forebrain Gating by Somatostatin Neurons Drives Prefrontal Cortical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nelson; Alonso, Alejandra; Morales, Cristian; Espinosa, Pedro; Chávez, Andrés E; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2017-11-17

    The basal forebrain provides modulatory input to the cortex regulating brain states and cognitive processing. Somatostatin-expressing neurons constitute a heterogeneous GABAergic population known to functionally inhibit basal forebrain cortically projecting cells thus favoring sleep and cortical synchronization. However, it remains unclear if somatostatin cells can regulate population activity patterns in the basal forebrain and modulate cortical dynamics. Here, we demonstrate that somatostatin neurons regulate the corticopetal synaptic output of the basal forebrain impinging on cortical activity and behavior. Optogenetic inactivation of somatostatin neurons in vivo rapidly modified neural activity in the basal forebrain, with the consequent enhancement and desynchronization of activity in the prefrontal cortex, reflected in both neuronal spiking and network oscillations. Cortical activation was partially dependent on cholinergic transmission, suppressing slow waves and potentiating gamma oscillations. In addition, recruitment dynamics was cell type-specific, with interneurons showing similar temporal profiles, but stronger responses than pyramidal cells. Finally, optogenetic stimulation of quiescent animals during resting periods prompted locomotor activity, suggesting generalized cortical activation and increased arousal. Altogether, we provide physiological and behavioral evidence indicating that somatostatin neurons are pivotal in gating the synaptic output of the basal forebrain, thus indirectly controlling cortical operations via both cholinergic and non-cholinergic mechanisms. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Thermal history regulates methylbutenol basal emission rate in Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W; Goldstein, Allen H; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2006-07-01

    Methylbutenol (MBO) is a 5-carbon alcohol that is emitted by many pines in western North America, which may have important impacts on the tropospheric chemistry of this region. In this study, we document seasonal changes in basal MBO emission rates and test several models predicting these changes based on thermal history. These models represent extensions of the ISO G93 model that add a correction factor C(basal), allowing MBO basal emission rates to change as a function of thermal history. These models also allow the calculation of a new emission parameter E(standard30), which represents the inherent capacity of a plant to produce MBO, independent of current or past environmental conditions. Most single-component models exhibited large departures in early and late season, and predicted day-to-day changes in basal emission rate with temporal offsets of up to 3 d relative to measured basal emission rates. Adding a second variable describing thermal history at a longer time scale improved early and late season model performance while retaining the day-to-day performance of the parent single-component model. Out of the models tested, the T(amb),T(max7) model exhibited the best combination of day-to-day and seasonal predictions of basal MBO emission rates.

  12. Basal ganglia circuits changes in Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Wang, Jue; Wang, Chaodong; Hallett, Mark; Zang, Yufeng; Wu, Xiaoli; Chan, Piu

    2012-08-22

    Functional changes in basal ganglia circuitry are responsible for the major clinical features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current models of basal ganglia circuitry can only partially explain the cardinal symptoms in PD. We used functional MRI to investigate the causal connectivity of basal ganglia networks from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in PD in the movement and resting state. In controls, SNc activity predicted increased activity in the supplementary motor area, the default mode network, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, but, in patients, activity predicted decreases in the same structures. The SNc had decreased connectivity with the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, thalamus, supplementary motor area, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, default mode network, temporal lobe, cerebellum, and pons in patients compared to controls. Levodopa administration partially normalized the pattern of connectivity. Our findings show how the dopaminergic system exerts influences on widespread brain networks, including motor and cognitive networks. The pattern of basal ganglia network connectivity is abnormal in PD secondary to dopamine depletion, and is more deviant in more severe disease. Use of functional MRI with network analysis appears to be a useful method to demonstrate basal ganglia pathways in vivo in human subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cardiac remodeling and function assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huaibing; Lu, Minjie; Hou, Cuihong; Chen, Xuhua; Wang, Jing; Yin, Gang; Chu, Jianmin; Zhang, Shu; Prasad, Sanjay K; Pu, Jielin; Zhao, Shihua

    2015-02-01

    Although N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) is a useful screening test of impaired right ventricular (RV) function in conditions affecting the right-sided cardiac muscle, the role of NT-proBNP remains unclear in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). This study was designed to clarify the relation between the plasma NT-proBNP level and the RV function evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. We selected 56 patients with confirmed ARVC only when their blood specimens for NT-proBNP measurements were collected within 48 hours of a CMR scan. The NT-proBNP level was significantly higher in patients with RV dysfunction than in patients without RV dysfunction (median of 655.3 [interquartile range 556.4 to 870.0] vs 347.0 [interquartile range 308.0 to 456.2] pmol/L, p rights reserved.

  14. Including pork in the Mediterranean diet for an Australian population: Protocol for a randomised controlled trial assessing cardiovascular risk and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Alexandra T; Davis, Courtney R; Dyer, Kathryn A; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Woodman, Richard J; Keage, Hannah A D; Murphy, Karen J

    2017-12-22

    The Mediterranean diet is characterised by the high consumption of extra virgin olive oil, fruits, vegetables, grains, legumes and nuts; moderate consumption of fish, poultry, eggs and dairy; and low consumption of red meat and sweets. Cross sectional, longitudinal and intervention studies indicate that a Mediterranean diet may be effective for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and dementia. However, previous research suggests that an Australian population may find red meat restrictions difficult, which could affect long term sustainability of the diet. This paper outlines the protocol for a randomised controlled trial that will assess the cardiovascular and cognitive benefits of a Mediterranean diet modified to include 2-3 weekly serves of fresh, lean pork. A 24-week cross-over design trial will compare a modified Mediterranean diet with a low-fat control diet in at-risk men and women. Participants will follow each of the two diets for 8 weeks, with an 8-week washout period separating interventions. Home measured systolic blood pressure will be the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes will include body mass index, body composition, fasting blood lipids, C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin, erythrocyte fatty acids, cognitive function, psychological health and well-being, and dementia risk. To our knowledge this research is the first to investigate whether an alternate source of protein can be included in the Mediterranean diet to increase sustainability and feasibility for a non-Mediterranean population. Findings will be significant for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and age-related decline, and may inform individuals, clinicians and public health policy. ACTRN12616001046493 . Registered 5 August 2016.

  15. Image-Based Computational Fluid Dynamics in Blood Vessel Models: Toward Developing a Prognostic Tool to Assess Cardiovascular Function Changes in Prolonged Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzimavroudis, George P.; Spirka, Thomas A.; Setser, Randolph M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2004-01-01

    One of NASA's objectives is to be able to perform a complete, pre-flight, evaluation of cardiovascular changes in astronauts scheduled for prolonged space missions. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has shown promise as a method for estimating cardiovascular function during reduced gravity conditions. For this purpose, MRI can provide geometrical information, to reconstruct vessel geometries, and measure all spatial velocity components, providing location specific boundary conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the reliability of MRI-based model reconstruction and measured boundary conditions for CFD simulations. An aortic arch model and a carotid bifurcation model were scanned in a 1.5T Siemens MRI scanner. Axial MRI acquisitions provided images for geometry reconstruction (slice thickness 3 and 5 mm; pixel size 1x1 and 0.5x0.5 square millimeters). Velocity acquisitions provided measured inlet boundary conditions and localized three-directional steady-flow velocity data (0.7-3.0 L/min). The vessel walls were isolated using NIH provided software (ImageJ) and lofted to form the geometric surface. Constructed and idealized geometries were imported into a commercial CFD code for meshing and simulation. Contour and vector plots of the velocity showed identical features between the MRI velocity data, the MRI-based CFD data, and the idealized-geometry CFD data, with less than 10% differences in the local velocity values. CFD results on models reconstructed from different MRI resolution settings showed insignificant differences (less than 5%). This study illustrated, quantitatively, that reliable CFD simulations can be performed with MRI reconstructed models and gives evidence that a future, subject-specific, computational evaluation of the cardiovascular system alteration during space travel is feasible.

  16. Relationship between autonomic cardiovascular control, case definition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyller, Vegard B; Helland, Ingrid B

    2013-02-07

    Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is characterized by severe impairment and multiple symptoms. Autonomic dysregulation has been demonstrated in several studies. We aimed at exploring the relationship between indices of autonomic cardiovascular control, the case definition from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria), important clinical symptoms, and disability in adolescent chronic fatigue syndrome. 38 CFS patients aged 12-18 years were recruited according to a wide case definition (ie. not requiring accompanying symptoms) and subjected to head-up tilt test (HUT) and a questionnaire. The relationships between variables were explored with multiple linear regression analyses. In the final models, disability was positively associated with symptoms of cognitive impairments (p<0.001), hypersensitivity (p<0.001), fatigue (p=0.003) and age (p=0.007). Symptoms of cognitive impairments were associated with age (p=0.002), heart rate (HR) at baseline (p=0.01), and HR response during HUT (p=0.02). Hypersensitivity was associated with HR response during HUT (p=0.001), high-frequency variability of heart rate (HF-RRI) at baseline (p=0.05), and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.005). Fatigue was associated with gender (p=0.007) and adherence to the CDC criteria (p=0.04). In conclusion, a) The disability of CFS patients is not only related to fatigue but to other symptoms as well; b) Altered cardiovascular autonomic control is associated with certain symptoms; c) The CDC criteria are poorly associated with disability, symptoms, and indices of altered autonomic nervous activity.

  17. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  18. Asociación entre la capacidad funcional y los resultados de autocuidado en personas con enfermedad cardiovascular Relação entre a capacidade funcional e os resultados de autocuidado em pessoas com doença cardiovascular Relation between functional capacity and self-care results in people with cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Victoria Bastidas Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    ção realizada com uma população de 55 pacientes com doenças cardiovasculares de Ibagué, na qual se estabe-lece a infuência da capacidade funcional e do autocuidado, utilizando a escala europeia de autocuidado com insuficiência cardíaca e a versão modificada do índice de atividade de Duke (DASI. Os resultados evidenciam maior incidência de doença cardiovascular no sexo feminino, entre 35 e 65 anos, com diagnostico de cardiopatia dilatada, sendo a etapa mais grave da doença coronária. Ao examinar a revisão global se encontrou que a insuficiência cardíaca corresponde ao maior rango de pessoas com 69,1%. No relativo à capacidade funcional encontramos que 40% apresenta um nível entre mínimo e moderado, e 92,7%, entre moderado e pior, no que diz respeito ao autocuidado. O gráfico de dispersão demonstra claramente as afinidades comportamentais dos pacientes a respeito de ambas as variáveis avaliadas. A gráfica de relação evidencia que não se verifica muita relação entre as dois va-riáveis - autocuidado e capacidade funcional - apesar que os resultados não demonstrem concordância total ou muito grande. Encontrou-se que a capacidade funcional das pessoas com doença cardiovascular está comprometida em 40% confrontado com uma falta de compromisso de 60%. Este fator é preocupante pois a capacidade funcional diminui com a idade e com o avance da doença. É por isso que este grupo de pessoas poderia aumentar, por tanto, é preciso fazer mais estudos tanto em mulheres quanto em pessoas idosas de diferente sexo e intervir mais no cumprimento de recomendações para melhorar sua capacidade funcional levando em conta os comportamentos de autocuidado como elemento importante para conseguir o maior bem-estar do paciente com doença cardiovascular.This paper presents the results of the research conducted with a population of 55 patients with cardiovascular diseases of Ibagué, which establishes the influence of functional capacity and self-care, using a European

  19. Deep-Brain Stimulation for Basal Ganglia Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; Delong, Mahlon R

    2011-07-01

    The realization that medications used to treat movement disorders and psychiatric conditions of basal ganglia origin have significant shortcomings, as well as advances in the understanding of the functional organization of the brain, has led to a renaissance in functional neurosurgery, and particularly the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Movement disorders are now routinely being treated with DBS of 'motor' portions of the basal ganglia output nuclei, specifically the subthalamic nucleus and the internal pallidal segment. These procedures are highly effective and generally safe. Use of DBS is also being explored in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders, with targeting of the 'limbic' basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuitry. The results of these procedures are also encouraging, but many unanswered questions remain in this emerging field. This review summarizes the scientific rationale and practical aspects of using DBS for neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders.

  20. Melanocortin-4 receptor activation stimulates hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor release to regulate food intake, body temperature and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, J R; Peter, J-C; Lecourt, A-C; Barde, Y-A; Hofbauer, K G

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory role played by hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of acute cardiovascular and feeding responses to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) activation. In vitro, a selective MC4R agonist, MK1, stimulated BDNF release from isolated rat hypothalami and this effect was blocked by preincubation with the MC3/4R antagonist SHU-9119. In vivo, peripheral administration of MK1 decreased food intake in rats and this effect was blocked by pretreatment with an anti-BDNF antibody administered into the third ventricle. When anorexia was induced with the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) antagonist AM251, the anti-BDNF antibody did not prevent the reduction in food intake. Peripheral administration of MK1 also increased mean arterial pressure, heart rate and body temperature. These effects were prevented by pretreatment with the anti-BDNF antibody whereas the intracerebroventricular administration of BDNF caused changes similar to those of MK1. These findings demonstrate for the first time that activation of MC4R leads to an acute release of BDNF in the hypothalamus. This release is a prerequisite for MC4R-induced effects on appetite, body temperature and cardiovascular function. By contrast, CB1R antagonist-mediated anorexia is independent of the MC4R/BDNF pathway. Overall, these results show that BDNF is an important downstream mediator of the MC4R pathway.

  1. Bone marrow-derived cells for cardiovascular cell therapy: an optimized GMP method based on low-density gradient improves cell purity and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radrizzani, Marina; Lo Cicero, Viviana; Soncin, Sabrina; Bolis, Sara; Sürder, Daniel; Torre, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Moccetti, Tiziano; Vassalli, Giuseppe; Turchetto, Lucia

    2014-09-27

    Cardiovascular cell therapy represents a promising field, with several approaches currently being tested. The advanced therapy medicinal product (ATMP) for the ongoing METHOD clinical study ("Bone marrow derived cell therapy in the stable phase of chronic ischemic heart disease") consists of fresh mononuclear cells (MNC) isolated from autologous bone marrow (BM) through density gradient centrifugation on standard Ficoll-Paque. Cells are tested for safety (sterility, endotoxin), identity/potency (cell count, CD45/CD34/CD133, viability) and purity (contaminant granulocytes and platelets). BM-MNC were isolated by density gradient centrifugation on Ficoll-Paque. The following process parameters were optimized throughout the study: gradient medium density; gradient centrifugation speed and duration; washing conditions. A new manufacturing method was set up, based on gradient centrifugation on low density Ficoll-Paque, followed by 2 washing steps, of which the second one at low speed. It led to significantly higher removal of contaminant granulocytes and platelets, improving product purity; the frequencies of CD34+ cells, CD133+ cells and functional hematopoietic and mesenchymal precursors were significantly increased. The methodological optimization described here resulted in a significant improvement of ATMP quality, a crucial issue to clinical applications in cardiovascular cell therapy.

  2. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  3. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  4. Clinical relationship of myocardial sympathetic nervous activity to cardiovascular functions in chronic heart failure. Assessment by myocardial scintigraphy with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yukoh; Miura, Masaetsu; Fujiwara, Satomi; Mori, Shunpei; Seiji, Kazumasa; Kimura, Tokihisa

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between cardiac sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) assessed by radioiodinated metaiodobenzylguanidine ( 123 I-MIBG), an analogue of norepinephrine and cardiovascular functions in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Subjects were 17 patients with CHF. A dose of 111 MBq of 123 I-MIBG was administered intravenously, and 5-minute anterior planar images were obtained 15 minutes (early image) and 3 hours (delayed image) after the injection. The heart/mediastinum (H/M) count ratio was defined to quantify cardiac 123 I-MIBG uptake. The washout ratio (WR) of 123 I-MIBG from the heart was calculated as follows: (early counts-delayed counts)/early counts x 100 (%). Echocardiography was performed on all patients within 1 week of 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy to measure stroke volume index (SVI). Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in the resting state were also recorded to calculate cardiovascular functions including cardiac output, pulse pressure (PP), and mean blood pressure. Significant linear correlations were found between the early H/M ratio of 123 I-MIBG and SVI, and between the delayed H/M ratio of 123 I-MIBG and SVI, respectively. WR of 123 I-MIBG was correlated with HR, and was inversely correlated with SVI and with PP, respectively. It is likely that a decrease in SVI is associated with enhanced cardiac SNA in severe CHF. 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy is effective in assessing the cardiac functional status and SNA in patients with CHF in vivo. Moreover, changes in PP and HR indicate well alteration in SNA. (author)

  5. Basal Ganglia Circuits as Targets for Neuromodulation in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLong, Mahlon R; Wichmann, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The revival of stereotactic surgery for Parkinson disease (PD) in the 1990s, with pallidotomy and then with high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS), has led to a renaissance in functional surgery for movement and other neuropsychiatric disorders. To examine the scientific foundations and rationale for the use of ablation and DBS for treatment of neurologic and psychiatric diseases, using PD as the primary example. A summary of the large body of relevant literature is presented on anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and functional surgery for PD and other basal ganglia disorders. The signs and symptoms of movement disorders appear to result largely from signature abnormalities in one of several parallel and largely segregated basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits (ie, the motor circuit). The available evidence suggests that the varied movement disorders resulting from dysfunction of this circuit result from propagated disruption of downstream network activity in the thalamus, cortex, and brainstem. Ablation and DBS act to free downstream networks to function more normally. The basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit may play a key role in the expression of disordered movement, and the basal ganglia-brainstem projections may play roles in akinesia and disturbances of gait. Efforts are under way to target circuit dysfunction in brain areas outside of the traditionally implicated basal ganglia thalamocortical system, in particular, the pedunculopontine nucleus, to address gait disorders that respond poorly to levodopa and conventional DBS targets. Deep brain stimulation is now the treatment of choice for many patients with advanced PD and other movement disorders. The success of DBS and other forms of neuromodulation for neuropsychiatric disorders is the result of the ability to modulate circuit activity in discrete functional domains within the basal ganglia circuitry with highly focused interventions, which spare uninvolved areas that are often disrupted with

  6. Improved recovery of regional left ventricular function after PCI of chronic total occlusion in STEMI patients: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the randomized controlled EXPLORE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Joëlle; van Dongen, Ivo M; Hoebers, Loes P; Ouweneel, Dagmar M; Claessen, Bimmer E P M; Råmunddal, Truls; Laanmets, Peep; Eriksen, Erlend; van der Schaaf, René J; Ioanes, Dan; Nijveldt, Robin; Tijssen, Jan G; Hirsch, Alexander; Henriques, José P S

    2017-07-19

    The Evaluating Xience and left ventricular function in PCI on occlusiOns afteR STEMI (EXPLORE) trial did not show a significant benefit of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of the concurrent chronic total occlusion (CTO) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients on global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. However a possible treatment effect will be most pronounced in the CTO territory. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of CTO PCI compared to no-CTO PCI on the recovery of regional LV function, particularly in the CTO territory. Using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) we studied 180 of the 302 EXPLORE patients with serial CMR (baseline and 4 months follow-up). Segmental wall thickening (SWT) was quantified on cine images by an independent core laboratory. Dysfunctional segments were defined as SWT PCI compared to no-CTO PCI (ΔSWT 17 ± 27% vs 11 ± 23%, p = 0.03). This recovery was most pronounced in the dysfunctional but viable segments(TEI PCI compared with no-CTO PCI is associated with a greater recovery of regional systolic function in the CTO territory, especially in the dysfunctional but viable segments. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of CMR in selecting post-STEMI patients for CTO PCI and the effect of regional LV function recovery on clinical outcome. Trialregister.nl NTR1108 , Date registered NTR: 30-okt-2007.

  7. Cystatin C, kidney function, and cardiovascular risk factors in primary hypertension Cistatina C, função renal e fatores de risco cardiovascular na hipertensão primária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Victor Salgado

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical usefulness of serum cystatin C (Scys and cystatin C-based equations for the screening of chronic kidney disease in primary hypertensive patients, and correlate these markers with risk factors for cardiovascular disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 199 middle-aged adults at a basic health unit. Kidney function assessment included measurements of serum creatinine (Scr and Scys levels, 24-hour microalbuminuria (MA, as well as glomerular filtration rate (GFR through Larsson and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD study equations. Bland- Altman plot analysis was used to calculate the agreement between equations. RESULTS: High levels of Scys were found in 22% of the patients, even with normal values of GFR estimated by MDRD study equation. Systolic blood pressure and MA correlated better with Scys than Scr, but there was no correlation between Scys and diastolic blood pressure. Gender, age > 60 years, MA, and uric acid were significantly associated with high Scys levels. After multivariate analysis, only age > 60 yrs (RR = 6.4; p OBJETIVO: Investigar a utilidade clínica da cistatina C sérica (Scys e da equação baseada na cistatina C na triagem da doença renal crônica em pacientes com hipertensão primária e correlacionar esses marcadores com fatores de risco para doença cardiovascular. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo transversal com 199 adultos de meia-idade em uma unidade básica de saúde. A avaliação da função renal incluiu medidas dos níveis séricos da creatinina (Scr e Scys, microalbuminúria de 24 h (MA, bem como da taxa de filtração glomerular (TFG por meio das equações de Larsson e do estudo MDRD. Foi utilizada a análise Bland-Altman plot para calcular a concordância entre as equações. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados níveis elevados de Scys em 22% dos pacientes, mesmo com valores normais da TFG estimada pela equação do estudo MDRD. A pressão sist

  8. Radioisotopic exploration of the left basal ventricular function of the esophagical traffic of the upper urinary via and of the vesicle function in chronic Chagas' disease patients mainly the asumptomatical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lago, G.; Leon, R.P. de

    1985-01-01

    The left ventricular function, the segmental parietal motility and the hystogram are studied in 45 chronic Chagas disease patients, in 29 of them the esophagian transit and in others 25 the urinary tract respectively with colloidal technetium-99 and the 99 ml-Tcb+PA. (author)

  9. The Long-Term Effects of Prematurity and Intrauterine Growth Restriction on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Metabolic Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Y. L. Chan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine relative influences of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR and preterm birth on risks of cardiovascular, renal, or metabolic dysfunction in adolescent children. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study. 71 periadolescent children were classified into four groups: premature small for gestational age (SGA, premature appropriate for gestational age (AGA, term SGA, and term AGA. Outcome Measures. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, augmentation index (Al, glomerular filtration rate (GFR following protein load; plasma glucose and serum insulin levels. Results. SGA had higher SBP (average 4.6 mmHg and lower GFR following protein load (average 28.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 than AGA. There was no effect of prematurity on SBP (P=.4 or GFR (P=.9. Both prematurity and SGA were associated with higher AI (average 9.7% and higher serum insulin levels 2 hr after glucose load (average 15.5 mIU/L than all other groups. Conclusion. IUGR is a more significant risk factor than preterm birth for later systolic hypertension and renal dysfunction. Among children born preterm, those who are also SGA are at increased risk of arterial stiffness and metabolic dysfunction.

  10. Abnormal function of monoamine oxidase-A in comorbid major depressive disorder and cardiovascular disease: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Mallinger, Alan G

    2012-11-01

    The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is among the best described medical comorbidities. The presence of MDD increases the risk of cardiac admissions and mortality and increases healthcare costs in patients with CVD, and similarly, CVD affects the course and outcome of MDD. The potential shared biological mechanisms involved in these comorbid conditions are not well known. However, the enzyme monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), which has a key role in the degradation of catecholamines, has been associated with the pathophysiology and therapeutics of both MDD and CVD. Increased MAO-A activity results in the dysregulation of downstream targets of this enzyme and thus affects the pathophysiology of the two diseases. These deleterious effects include altered noradrenaline turnover, with a direct elevation in oxidative stress parameters, as well as increased platelet activity and cytokine levels. These effects were shown to be reversed by MAO inhibitors. Here, a model describing a key role for the MAO-A in comorbid MDD and CVD is proposed, with focus on the shared pathophysiological mechanisms and the potential therapeutic relevance of agents targeting this enzyme.

  11. Impact of body mass decrease of patients with metabolic syndrome on cardiovascular risk factors and reproductive function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol'ga Borisovna Kalinkina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The obesity pandemia linked metabolic syndrome (MS connected with it acquires not only medical, but also increasing social importance. This state has unfavorable action on human organism and is the serious diseases risk factor. Special importance MS available in the women of childbearing age. There are described some literature data about the special features of MS pathogenesis in women and the possibilities of its correction with sibutramine and by the combined medication Reduxin® (sibutramine + cellulose microcrystalline. Our own data of the experience of treatment by the Reduxin® 53 women in reproductive age with MS are cited, opsomenorrhea and with a formation of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Patients took the medication during 12 weeks. Mean body weight loss was 13% and 27 patients had weight loss more than 5% at the end the period of observation. Circle of waist was also the decreased on the average on 6±2 cm. 43 women had a normalization of rhythm, duration and intensity of menstrual hemorrhages. Remaining patients it was required the designation of gestagen in the cyclic regime. An improvement of the blood lipid profile was detect: the average value of atherogenic index triglycerides/ high density lipoproteins cholesterol was improved to 35,8%. The maximum decrease of the cardiovascular disease risk factors was marked in the patients, who had weight loss more than 10%.

  12. The Cardiovascular Effects of Obesity on Ventricular Function and Mass in Patients after Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Mark A; Pawlowski, Thomas; Keller, Marc S; Cohen, Meryl S; Goldmuntz, Elizabeth; Diaz, Laura; Li, Christine; Whitehead, Kevin K; Harris, Matthew A

    2015-08-01

    To determine the cardiovascular effects of obesity on patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Ventricular performance measures were compared between obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥95%), overweight (85% ≤BMI <95%), and normal weight subjects (BMI <85%) in a retrospective review of patients with TOF who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance from 2005-2010. Significance was P < .05. Of 260 consecutive patients with TOF, 32 were obese (12.3%), 48 were overweight (18.5%), and 180 were normal weight (69.2%). Biventricular mass was increased in obese compared with normal weight patients with right ventricular mass more affected than left ventricular mass. Obese patients demonstrated decreased biventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) and stroke volume (SV) when indexed to body surface area (BSA) with an increased heart rate when compared with normal weight patients; cardiac index, ejection fraction, and pulmonary regurgitation fraction were similar. When indexed to ideal BSA, biventricular EDV and SV were similar. EDV and SV for overweight patients were nearly identical to normal weight patients with ventricular mass in between the other 2 groups. Approximately 12% of patients after TOF repair referred for cardiac magnetic resonance in a tertiary referral center are obese with increased biventricular mass. Obese patients and normal weight patients have similar cardiac indices, however, when indexed to actual BSA, obese patients demonstrate decreased EDV and SV with increased heart rate and similar cardiac indices. When indexed to ideal BSA, no differences in biventricular volumes were noted. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. HIV and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Select a Language: Fact Sheet 652 HIV and Cardiovascular Disease HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT CVD? ... OF CVD? WHAT ABOUT CHANGING MEDICATIONS? HIV AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Cardiovascular disease (CVD) includes a group of problems ...

  14. An Overview on Indications and Chemical Composition of Aromatic Waters (Hydrosols) as Functional Beverages in Persian Nutrition Culture and Folk Medicine for Hyperlipidemia and Cardiovascular Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Moheimani, Seyed Mahmoud; Sakhteman, Amirhossein; Etemadfard, Hamed; Moein, Mahmoodreza

    2017-01-01

    Hydrosol beverages in Persian nutrition culture and ethnomedicine are the side products of essential oil industry that are used as delicious drinks or safe remedies. To investigate indications and chemical composition of hydrosol beverages for hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular conditions, Fars province was selected as the field of study. Ethnomedical data were gathered by questionnaires. The constituents of hydrosols were extracted with liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis were used to cluster their constituents and find the relevance of their composition. A literature survey was also performed on plants used to prepare them. Thymol was the major or second major component of these beverages, except for wormwood and olive leaf hydrosols. Based on clustering methods, although some similarities could be found, composition of barberry, will fumitory, dill, and aloe hydrosols have more differences than others. These studies may help in developing some functional beverages or new therapeutics. PMID:29228785

  15. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) in macrophage biology and cardiovascular disease. A redox-regulated master controller of monocyte function and macrophage phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong Seok; Asmis, Reto

    2017-08-01

    MAPK pathways play a critical role in the activation of monocytes and macrophages by pathogens, signaling molecules and environmental cues and in the regulation of macrophage function and plasticity. MAPK phosphatase 1 (MKP-1) has emerged as the main counter-regulator of MAPK signaling in monocytes and macrophages. Loss of MKP-1 in monocytes and macrophages in response to metabolic stress leads to dysregulation of monocyte adhesion and migration, and gives rise to dysfunctional, proatherogenic monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we review the properties of this redox-regulated dual-specificity MAPK phosphatase and the role of MKP-1 in monocyte and macrophage biology and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Exenteration of the Orbit for Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furdová, A; Horkovičová, K; Krčová, I; Krásnik, V

    2015-08-01

    Primary treatment of basal cell carcinoma of the lower eyelid and the inner corner is essentially surgical, but advanced lesions require extensive surgical interventions. In some cases it is necessary to continue with the mutilating surgery--exenteration of the orbit. In this work we evaluate the indications of radical solutions in patients with basal cell carcinoma invading the orbit and the subsequent possibility for individually made prosthesis to cover the defect of the cavity. Indications to exenteration of the orbit in patients with basal cell carcinoma findings in 2008-2013. Case report of 2 patients. In period 2008-20013 at the Dept. of Ophthalmology, Comenius University in Bratislava totally 221 patients with histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma of the eyelids and the inner corner were treated. In 5 cases (2.7 %) with infiltration of the orbit the radical surgical procedure, exenteration was necessary. In 3 patients exenteration was indicated as the first surgical procedure in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, since they had never visited ophthalmologist before only at in the stage of infiltration of the orbit (stage T4). In one case was indicated exenteration after previous surgical interventions and relapses. After healing the cavity patients got individually prepared epithesis. Surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma involves the radical removal of the neoplasm entire eyelid and stage T1 or T2 can effectively cure virtually all tumors with satisfactory cosmetic and functional results. In advanced stages (T4 stage) by infiltrating the orbit by basal cell carcinoma exenteration of the orbit is necessary. This surgery is a serious situation for the patient and also for his relatives. Individually made prosthesis helps the patient to be enrolled to the social environment.

  17. Renal function, cardiovascular disease risk factors' prevalence and 5-year disease incidence; the role of diet, exercise, lipids and inflammation markers: the ATTICA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysohoou, C; Panagiotakos, D B; Pitsavos, C; Skoumas, J; Toutouza, M; Papaioannou, I; Stefanadis, C

    2010-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between renal function and various cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, as well as 5-year incidence of CVD, in a sample of CVD free adults. (i) Cross-sectional information from n = 1975. Greek men and women (>18 years) without CVD and hypertension at baseline examination and (ii) 5-year (2001-06) survival data from n = 2101 individuals without CVD at baseline, all participants in the ATTICA study, were analysed in this work. Kidney function was quantified by the baseline estimated creatinine clearance rate (C(cr)), using the Cockcroft-Gault formula and the National Kidney Foundation recommendations. Outcome of interest was the development of CVD that was defined according to WHO-ICD-10 criteria. At baseline, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe renal dysfunction (i.e. C(cr) smoking, hypercholesterolemia and homocysteine levels and greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet were inversely associated with C(cr) rate (P smoking habits (0.89, 0.60-1.32) and physical activity status (0.86, 0.56-1.21). Renal function seems to be associated with the levels of lifestyle and bio-clinical CVD risk factors and contribute to the long-term incidence of cardiac events. Public health care practitioners should take into account renal function in better preventing the burden of CVD at individual, and population level, as well.

  18. Smokers making a quit attempt using e-cigarettes with or without nicotine or prescription nicotine replacement therapy: Impact on cardiovascular function (ISME-NRT - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Klonizakis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months. Electronic (or “e-“ cigarettes use battery power to disperse a solution that usually contains propylene glycol or glycerine, water, flavouring and nicotine. E-cigarettes have become the most popular smoking cessation aid in England, however, information on their effects on cardiovascular function is limited and contradictory. As e-cigarettes are not solely nicotine-based products, existing research exploring the effects of nicotine on the cardio-vasculature provides only limited information, while their extensive uptake urges the need of evidence to inform the general public, smokers and policy-makers. Methods This is a pragmatic, 3-group, randomised, assessor-blinded, single-centre trial exploring the cardiovascular physiological effects of the use of e-cigarettes (nicotine-free and nicotine-inclusive, assessed separately combined with behavioural support as a smoking cessation method in comparison to the combination of NRT and behavioural support. The primary outcome will be macro-vascular function, determined by a Flow Mediated Dilatation ultrasound assessment, 6 months following participants’ “quit date”. Discussion Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 days following their self-determined “quit date”, at intervention end (3 months and 6 months following their “quite date”. Findings are expected to give an indication of the cardiovascular

  19. Smokers making a quit attempt using e-cigarettes with or without nicotine or prescription nicotine replacement therapy: Impact on cardiovascular function (ISME-NRT) - a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonizakis, Markos; Crank, Helen; Gumber, Anil; Brose, Leonie S

    2017-04-04

    The estimated number of cigarette smokers in the world is 1.3 billion, expected to rise to 1.7 billion by 2025, with 10 million smokers living in the U.K. Smoking is the leading, preventable death-cause worldwide, being responsible for almost 650,000 deaths in the E.U. annually. A combination of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, and behavioural support is the most effective approach to smoking cessation. However, even the best methods have high relapse rates of approximately 75% within 6 months. Electronic (or "e-") cigarettes use battery power to disperse a solution that usually contains propylene glycol or glycerine, water, flavouring and nicotine. E-cigarettes have become the most popular smoking cessation aid in England, however, information on their effects on cardiovascular function is limited and contradictory. As e-cigarettes are not solely nicotine-based products, existing research exploring the effects of nicotine on the cardio-vasculature provides only limited information, while their extensive uptake urges the need of evidence to inform the general public, smokers and policy-makers. This is a pragmatic, 3-group, randomised, assessor-blinded, single-centre trial exploring the cardiovascular physiological effects of the use of e-cigarettes (nicotine-free and nicotine-inclusive, assessed separately) combined with behavioural support as a smoking cessation method in comparison to the combination of NRT and behavioural support. The primary outcome will be macro-vascular function, determined by a Flow Mediated Dilatation ultrasound assessment, 6 months following participants' "quit date". Participants will be assessed at baseline, 3 days following their self-determined "quit date", at intervention end (3 months) and 6 months following their "quite date". Findings are expected to give an indication of the cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes both in the short- and in the medium-term period

  20. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D

    2015-05-18

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  1. Periodontal treatment effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in subjects with chronic periodontitis: protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Periodontal disease (PD) is an infectious clinical entity characterized by the destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth as the result of a chronic inflammatory response in a susceptible host. It has been proposed that PD as subclinical infection may contribute to the etiology and to the pathogenesis of several systemic diseases including Atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiological studies link periodontal disease/edentulism as independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, new randomized controlled clinical trials have shown an improvement on cardiovascular surrogate markers (endothelial function, sICAM, hsPCR level, fibrinogen) after periodontal treatment. Nonetheless, such trials are still limited in terms of external validity, periodontal treatment strategies, CONSORT-based design and results consistency/extrapolation. The current study is designed to evaluate if periodontal treatment with scaling and root planning plus local delivered chlorhexidine improves endothelial function and other biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods/Design This randomized, single-blind clinical trial will be performed at two health centers and will include two periodontal treatment strategies. After medical/periodontal screening, a baseline endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and other systemic surrogate markers will be obtained from all recruited subjects. Patients then will be randomized to receive either supragingival/subgingival plaque cleaning and calculus removal plus chlorhexidine (treatment group) or supragingival plaque removal only (control group). A second and third FMD will be obtained after 24 hours and 12 weeks in both treatment arms. Each group will consist of 49 patients (n = 98) and all patients will be followed-up for secondary outcomes and will be monitored through a coordinating

  2. Impact of cancer and chemotherapy on autonomic nervous system function and cardiovascular reactivity in young adults with cancer: a case-controlled feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Scott C.; Schondorf, Ronald; Benoit, Julie; Kilgour, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests cancer- and chemotherapy-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction may contribute to the increased cardiovascular (CV) morbidity- and mortality-risks in cancer survivors. However, the reliability of these findings may have been jeopardized by inconsistent participant screening and assessment methods. Therefore, good laboratory practices must be established before the presence and nature of cancer-related autonomic dysfunction can be characterized. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting concurrent ANS and cardiovascular evaluations in young adult cancer patients, according to the following criteria: i) identifying methodological pitfalls and proposing good laboratory practice criteria for ANS testing in cancer, and ii) providing initial physiologic evidence of autonomic perturbations in cancer patients using the composite autonomic scoring scale (CASS). Thirteen patients (mixed diagnoses) were assessed immediately before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. Their results were compared to 12 sex- and age-matched controls. ANS function was assessed using standardized tests of resting CV (tilt-table, respiratory sinus arrhythmia and Valsalva maneuver) and sudomotor (quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test) reactivity. Cardiovascular reactivity during exercise was assessed using a modified Astrand-Ryhming cycle ergometer protocol. Our feasibility criteria addressed: i) recruitment potential, ii) retention rates, iii) pre-chemotherapy assessment potential, iv) test performance/tolerability, and v) identification and minimizing the influence of potentially confounding medication. T-tests and repeated measures ANOVAs were used to assess between- and within-group differences at baseline and follow-up. The overall success rate in achieving our feasibility criteria was 98.4 %. According to the CASS, there was evidence of ANS impairment at baseline in 30.8 % of patients, which persisted in 18.2 % of patients

  3. Periodontal treatment effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular disease biomarkers in subjects with chronic periodontitis: protocol for a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arce Roger M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontal disease (PD is an infectious clinical entity characterized by the destruction of supporting tissues of the teeth as the result of a chronic inflammatory response in a susceptible host. It has been proposed that PD as subclinical infection may contribute to the etiology and to the pathogenesis of several systemic diseases including Atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiological studies link periodontal disease/edentulism as independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Moreover, new randomized controlled clinical trials have shown an improvement on cardiovascular surrogate markers (endothelial function, sICAM, hsPCR level, fibrinogen after periodontal treatment. Nonetheless, such trials are still limited in terms of external validity, periodontal treatment strategies, CONSORT-based design and results consistency/extrapolation. The current study is designed to evaluate if periodontal treatment with scaling and root planning plus local delivered chlorhexidine improves endothelial function and other biomarkers of cardiovascular disease in subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis. Methods/Design This randomized, single-blind clinical trial will be performed at two health centers and will include two periodontal treatment strategies. After medical/periodontal screening, a baseline endothelium-dependent brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD and other systemic surrogate markers will be obtained from all recruited subjects. Patients then will be randomized to receive either supragingival/subgingival plaque cleaning and calculus removal plus chlorhexidine (treatment group or supragingival plaque removal only (control group. A second and third FMD will be obtained after 24 hours and 12 weeks in both treatment arms. Each group will consist of 49 patients (n = 98 and all patients will be followed-up for secondary outcomes and will be monitored

  4. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  5. [Carotid intima-media thickness distribution according to the stratification of cardiovascular risk by means of Framingham-REGICOR and score function charts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-Ameijeiras, Á; López-Paz, J E; Riveiro-Cruz, M A; Calvo-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) has been suggested as a further tool for risk function charts. The aim of this study was to describethe relationship between cIMT and cardiovascular risk (CVR) estimation according to Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE equations. Observational, cross-sectional cohort study from 362 hypertensive subjects. Demographic and clinical information were collected as well as laboratory, ultrasonographic and CVR estimation by the Framingham-REGICOR and SCORE functions. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 20,0). To analyze the data, statistical tests such as Chi-square, T-test, ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used. According to both functions, differences on mean cIMT were found between low CVR group and intermediate to high groups. No differences were found between intermediate and high risk groups (cIMT: 0,73mm low risk patients vs. 0,89 or 0,88mm respectively according to SCORE function and cIMT: 0,73 vs. 0,85 or 0,87mm respectively according to Framingham-REGICOR function). cIMT correlated positively with CVR estimation according to both SCORE (r=0,421; P<.01), and Framingham-REGICOR functions (r=0,363; P<.01). cIMT correlates positively with CVR estimated by SCORE and Framingham-REGICOR functions. cIMT in those subjects at intermediate risk is similar to those at high risk. Our findings highlight the importance of carotid ultrasound in identifying silent target-organ damage in those patients at intermediate CVR. Copyright © 2015 SEHLELHA. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Centrally located GLP-1 receptors modulate gastric slow waves and cardiovascular function in ferrets consistent with the induction of nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbing; Yeung, Chi-Kong; Lin, Ge; Yew, David T W; Andrews, P L R; Rudd, John A

    2017-10-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes and obesity, but can cause nausea and emesis in some patients. GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in the brain, where they contribute to mechanisms of emesis, reduced appetite and aversion, but it is not known if these centrally located receptors also contribute to a modulation of gastric slow wave activity, which is linked causally to nausea. Our aim was to investigate the potential of the GLP-1 receptor agonist, exendin-4, administered into the 3rd ventricle to modulate emesis, feeding and gastric slow wave activity. Thermoregulation and cardiovascular parameters were also monitored, as they are disturbed during nausea. Ferrets were used as common laboratory rodents do not have an emetic reflex. A guide cannula was implanted into the 3rd ventricle for delivering a previously established dose of exendin-4 (10nmol), which had been shown to induce emesis and behaviours indicative of 'nausea'. Radiotelemetry recorded gastric myoelectric activity (GMA; slow waves), blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV), and core temperature; food intake and behaviour were also assessed. Exendin-4 (10nmol, i.c.v.) decreased the dominant frequency of GMA, with an associated increase in the percentage of bradygastric power (lasting ~4h). Food intake was inhibited in all animals, with 63% exhibiting emesis. Exendin-4 also increased blood pressure (lasting ~24h) and heart rate (lasting ~7h), decreased HRV (lasting ~24h), and caused transient hyperthermia. None of the above parameters were emesis-dependent. The present study shows for the first time that gastric slow waves may be modulated by GLP-1 receptors in the brain through mechanisms that appear independent from emesis. Taken together with a reduction in HRV, the findings are consistent with changes associated with the occurrence of nausea in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Basal hypercortisolism and trauma in patients with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakvis, Patricia; Spinhoven, Philip; Giltay, Erik J; Kuyk, Jarl; Edelbroek, Peter M; Zitman, Frans G; Roelofs, Karin

    2010-05-01

    Several studies have indicated that psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are associated with psychological trauma, but only a few studies have examined the associations with neurobiologic stress systems, such as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-product cortisol. We tested several relevant HPA-axis functions in patients with PNES and related them to trauma history. Cortisol awakening curve, basal diurnal cortisol, and negative cortisol feedback (using a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test) were examined in 18 patients with PNES and 19 matched healthy controls (HCs) using saliva cortisol sampling on two consecutive days at 19 time points. Concomitant sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was assessed by analyzing saliva alpha-amylase (sAA). Patients with PNES showed significantly increased basal diurnal cortisol levels compared to HCs. This effect was driven mainly by patients reporting sexual trauma who showed a trend toward higher cortisol levels as compared to patients without a sexual trauma report. Importantly, the increased basal diurnal cortisol levels in patients were not explained by depression, medication, or smoking, or by current seizures or group differences in SNS activity. This is the first study showing that basal hypercortisolism in patients with PNES is independent of the acute occurrence of seizures. In addition, basal hypercortisolism was more pronounced in traumatized patients with PNES as compared to nontraumatized patients with PNES. These findings suggest that HPA-axis activity provides a significant neurobiologic marker for PNES.

  8. Endothelial MMP14 is required for endothelial-dependent growth support of human airway basal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bi-Sen; Gomi, Kazunori; Rafii, Shahin; Crystal, Ronald G.; Walters, Matthew S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human airway basal cells are the stem (or progenitor) population of the airway epithelium, and play a central role in anchoring the epithelium to the basement membrane. The anatomic position of basal cells allows for potential paracrine signaling between them and the underlying non-epithelial stromal cells. In support of this, we have previously demonstrated that endothelial cells support growth of basal cells during co-culture through vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA)-mediated signaling. Building on these findings, we found, by RNA sequencing analysis, that basal cells expressed multiple fibroblast growth factor (FGF) ligands (FGF2, FGF5, FGF11 and FGF13) and that only FGF2 and FGF5 were capable of functioning in a paracrine manner to activate classical FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling. Antibody-mediated blocking of FGFR1 during basal-cell–endothelial-cell co-culture significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent basal cell growth. Stimulation of endothelial cells with basal-cell-derived growth factors induced endothelial cell expression of matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), and short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of endothelial cell MMP14 significantly reduced the endothelial-cell-dependent growth of basal cells. Overall, these data characterize a new growth-factor-mediated reciprocal ‘crosstalk’ between human airway basal cells and endothelial cells that regulates proliferation of basal cells. PMID:26116571

  9. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  10. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  11. Fenofibrate-associated changes in renal function and relationship to clinical outcomes among individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, D E; Craven, T E; Buse, J; Crouse, J R; Cuddihy, R; Elam, M; Ginsberg, H N; Kirchner, K; Marcovina, S; Mychaleckyj, J C; O'Connor, P J; Sperl-Hillen, J-A

    2012-06-01

    Fenofibrate has been noted to cause an elevation in serum creatinine in some individuals. Participants in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Lipid Study were studied to better characterise who is at risk of an increase in creatinine level and to determine whether those with creatinine elevation have a differential risk of adverse renal or cardiovascular outcomes. A fenofibrate-associated creatinine increase (FACI) was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of at least 20% from baseline to month 4 in participants assigned to fenofibrate. Baseline patient characteristics, and baseline and 4-month drug, clinical, laboratory characteristics and study outcomes were examined by FACI status. Of the sample, 48% of those randomised to receive fenofibrate had at least a 20% increase in serum creatinine within 4 months. In multivariable analysis, participants who were older, male, used an ACE inhibitor at baseline, used a thiazolidinedione (TZD) at 4 months post-randomisation, had baseline CVD, and had lower baseline serum creatinine and LDL-cholesterol levels were all more likely to meet the criteria for FACI. Participants in the FACI group were also more likely to have a decrease in their serum triacylglycerol level from baseline to 4 months. No differences in study outcomes were seen by FACI criteria. Several characteristics predict a rapid rise in serum creatinine upon starting fenofibrate. Participants who met the criteria for FACI also had a greater change in triacylglycerol levels. In the setting of careful renal function surveillance and reduction of fenofibrate dose as indicated, no increase in renal disease or cardiovascular outcome was seen in those individuals demonstrating FACI. ClincalTrials.gov: NCT00000620. The ACCORD Trial was supported by grants (N01-HC-95178, N01-HC-95179, N01-HC-95180, N01-HC-95181, N01-HC-95182, N01-HC-95183, N01-HC-95184, IAA-Y1-HC-9035 and IAA-Y1-HC-1010) from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; by the

  12. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargnoli, Maria Concetta; Peris, Ketty

    2015-11-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy is an effective and safe noninvasive treatment for low-risk basal cell carcinoma, with the advantage of an excellent cosmetic outcome. Efficacy of photodynamic therapy in basal cell carcinoma is supported by substantial research and clinical trials. In this article, we review the procedure, indications and clinical evidences for the use of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  13. Modern basal insulin analogs: An incomplete story

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Gangopadhyay, Kalyan Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The currently available basal insulin does not completely mimic the endogenous insulin secretion. This has continued to promote the search for ideal basal insulin. The newer basal insulin have primarily focused on increasing the duration of action, reducing variability, and reducing the incidence of hypoglycemia, particularly nocturnal. However, the changing criteria of hypoglycemia within a short span of a few years along with the surprising introduction of major cardiac events as another ou...

  14. Effects of comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation on functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in Brazilians assisted by public health care: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela S. S. Chaves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Cardiovascular Disease (CVD is the leading burden of disease worldwide. Moreover, CVD-related death rates are considered an epidemic in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Research shows that cardiac rehabilitation (CR participation reduces death and improves disability and quality of life. Given the growing epidemic of CVD in LMICs and the insufficient evidence about CR programs in these countries, a Randomized Control Trial (RCT in Latin America is warranted. Objective To investigate the effects of comprehensive CR on functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors. Method The design is a single-blinded RCT with three parallel arms: comprehensive CR (exercise + education versus exercise-based CR versus wait-list control (no CR. The primary outcome will be measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk Test. Secondary outcomes are risk factors (blood pressure, dyslipidemia, dysglycemia, body mass index and waist circumference; tertiary outcomes are heart health behaviors (exercise, medication adherence, diet, and smoking, knowledge, and depressive symptoms. The CR program is six months in duration. Participants randomized to exercise-based CR will receive 24 weeks of exercise classes. The comprehensive CR group will also receive 24 educational sessions, including a workbook. Every outcome will be assessed at baseline and 6-months later, and mortality will be ascertained at six months and one year. Conclusion This will be the first RCT to establish the effects of CR in Latin America. If positive, results will be used to promote broader implementation of comprehensive CR and patient access in the region and to inform a larger-scale trial powered for mortality.

  15. Specific cell-derived microvesicles: Linking endothelial function to carotid artery intima-media thickness in low cardiovascular risk menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Lahr, Brian D; Bailey, Kent R; Hodis, Howard N; Mulvagh, Sharon L; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-03-01

    Decreases in endothelial function measured by reactive hyperemic index (RHI) correlated with increases in carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in recently menopausal women with a low risk cardiovascular profile. Factors linking this association are unknown. Assess, longitudinally, markers of platelet activation and cell-derived, blood-borne microvesicles (MV) in relationship to RHI and CIMT in asymptomatic, low risk menopausal women. RHI by digital pulse tonometry (n = 93), CIMT by ultrasound (n = 113), measures of platelet activation and specific cell-derived, blood-borne MV were evaluated in women throughout the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) at Mayo Clinic. CIMT, but not RHI, increased significantly over 4 years. The average change in CIMT correlated significantly with the average follow-up values of MV positive for common leukocyte antigen [CD45; ρ = 0.285 (P = 0.002)] and VCAM-1 [ρ = 0.270 (P = 0.0040)]. Using principal components analysis (PC) on the aggregate set of average follow-up measures, the first derived PC representing numbers of MV positive for markers of vascular endothelium, inflammatory cells (leukocyte and monocytes), pro-coagulant (tissue factor), and cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) associated with changes in RHI and CIMT. Changes in RHI associated with another PC defined by measures of platelet activation (dense granular ATP secretion, surface expression of P-selectin and fibrinogen receptors). MV derived from activated endothelial and inflammatory cells, and those expressing cell adhesion and pro-coagulant molecules may reflect early vascular dysfunction in low risk menopausal women. Assays of MV as non-conventional measures to assess cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic women remain to be developed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatially Resolved MR-Compatible Doppler Ultrasound: Proof of Concept for Triggering of Diagnostic Quality Cardiovascular MRI for Function and Flow Quantification at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Lindsey Alexandra; Manasseh, Gibran; Chmielewski, Aneta; Hachulla, Anne-Lise; Speicher, Daniel; Greiser, Andreas; Muller, Hajo; de Perrot, Thomas; Vallee, Jean-Paul; Salomir, Rares

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of a magnetic-resonance (MR)-compatible ultrasound (US) imaging probe using spatially resolved Doppler for diagnostic quality cardiovascular MR imaging (MRI) as an initial step toward hybrid US/MR fetal imaging. A newly developed technology for a dedicated MR-compatible phased array ultrasound-imaging probe acquired pulsed color Doppler carotid images, which were converted in near-real time to a trigger signal for cardiac cine and flow quantification MRI. Ultrasound and MR data acquired simultaneously were interference free. Conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) and the proposed spatially resolved Doppler triggering were compared in 10 healthy volunteers. A synthetic "false-triggered" image was retrospectively processed using metric optimized gating (MOG). Images were scored by expert readers, and sharpness, cardiac function and aortic flow were quantified. Four-dimensional (4-D) flow (two volunteers) showed feasibility of Doppler triggering over a long acquisition time. Imaging modalities were compatible. US probe positioning was stable and comfortable. Image quality scores and quantified sharpness were statistically equal for Doppler- and ECG-triggering (p ). ECG-, Doppler-triggered, and MOG ejection fractions were equivalent (p ), with false-triggered values significantly lower (p 0.05). 4-D flow quantification gave consistent results between ECG and Doppler triggering. We report interference-free pulsed color Doppler ultrasound during MR data acquisition. Cardiovascular MRI of diagnostic quality was successfully obtained with pulsed color Doppler triggering. The hardware platform could further enable advanced free-breathing cardiac imaging. Doppler ultrasound triggering is applicable where ECG is compromised due to pathology or interference at higher magnetic fields, and where direct ECG is impossible, i.e., fetal imaging.

  17. Right and Left Ventricular Function and Mass in Male Elite Master Athletes: A Controlled Contrast-Enhanced Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Philipp; Schneider, Günther; Linneweber, Lutz; Rentzsch, Axel; Krämer, Nadine; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Kindermann, Wilfried; Meyer, Tim; Scharhag, Jürgen

    2016-05-17

    It is under debate whether the cumulative effects of intensive endurance exercise induce chronic cardiac damage, mainly involving the right heart. The aim of this study was to examine the cardiac structure and function in long-term elite master endurance athletes with special focus on the right ventricle by contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Thirty-three healthy white competitive elite male master endurance athletes (age range, 30-60 years) with a training history of 29±8 years, and 33 white control subjects pair-matched for age, height, and weight underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, echocardiography including tissue-Doppler imaging and speckle tracking, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Indexed left ventricular mass and right ventricular mass (left ventricular mass/body surface area, 96±13 and 62±10 g/m(2); Pright ventricular mass/body surface area, 36±7 and 24±5 g/m(2); Pleft ventricular end-diastolic volume and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (left ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 104±13 and 69±18 mL/m(2); Pright ventricular end-diastolic volume/body surface area, 110±22 and 66±16 mL/m(2); PRight ventricular ejection fraction did not differ between athletes and control subjects (52±8 and 54±6%; P=0.26). Pathological late enhancement was detected in 1 athlete. No correlations were found for left ventricular and right ventricular volumes and ejection fraction with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, and high-sensitive troponin was negative in all subjects. Based on our results, chronic right ventricular damage in elite endurance master athletes with lifelong high training volumes seems to be unlikely. Thus, the hypothesis of an exercise-induced arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy has to be questioned. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of right ventricular morphology and function in pulmonary artery hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ramzy Ali

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions: CMR imaging is likely to increase in importance as the optimal reference method for assessment of early structural (morphological and functional parameters of the right ventricle for evaluation of patients with suspected PH valuable for assessment of treatment response, follow up and prognosis.

  19. THE EYE — MIRROR OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDER. RELATIONSHIP OF THE RETINA FUNCTIONAL STATE AND THE HYPERTENSION SEVERITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Zadionchenko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the retina state by functional methods in patients with arterial hypertension (HT of various degrees. Material and methods. Patients with uncomplicated HT of 1-3 degrees (n=81 and healthy subjects (n=20 of control group were examined. Routine (direct ophthalmoscopy and functional (evaluation of contrast and color sensitivity of the retina, electroretinography methods were used. Results. Functional retinal changes (reduction in color and contrast sensitivity progressed with increasing HT degree. These changes were located in the area of central retinal artery (paramacular area and area of choroidal blood flow (macular region. Retinal bioelectrical activity disturbance was also found by the electroretinography. Conclusion. The identified functional disorders suggest the retina involvement in the pathological process even in the early HT and may be associated with its severity. It confirms a relationship of HT with disorders of eye as a target organ in HT. Published data and results of our studies can refute the point of view about impossibility of changes assessment on the eye fundus in patients with uncomplicated HT, and indicates that it was premature exclusion of the eye from the list of target organs in HT.

  20. Erectile dysfunction in the cardiovascular patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Jackson, Graham; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Montorsi, Piero

    2013-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is common in the patient with cardiovascular disease. It is an important component of the quality of life and it also confers an independent risk for future cardiovascular events. The usual 3-year time period between the onset of erectile dysfunction symptoms and a cardiovascular event offers an opportunity for risk mitigation. Thus, sexual function should be incorporated into cardiovascular disease risk assessment for all men. A comprehensive approach to cardiovascular risk reduction (comprising of both lifestyle changes and pharmacological treatment) improves overall vascular health, including sexual function. Proper sexual counselling improves the quality of life and increases adherence to medication. This review explores the critical connection between erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular disease and evaluates how this relationship may influence clinical practice. Algorithms for the management of patient with erectile dysfunction according to the risk for sexual activity and future cardiovascular events are proposed.

  1. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  2. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDupuy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., O2max in order to classifyassign them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit. All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions in which the change in pPrefrontal cortex oxygenation change was evaluated in all participants with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. system during a computerized Stroop task (which contains executive and non-executive conditions. Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness x Condition interaction (p < .05 such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the switching (executiveExecutive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed ion the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2, we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion:Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by O2max show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good

  3. Cocoa and cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    Corti, R; Flammer, A J; Hollenberg, N K; Lüscher, T F

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods and beverages reduces the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Among many ingredients, cocoa might be an important mediator. Indeed, recent research demonstrates a beneficial effect of cocoa on blood pressure, insulin resistance, and vascular and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its benefits on cardiovascular health have been propo...

  4. Semi-quantitative assessment of right ventricular function in comparison to a 3D volumetric approach: A cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nijveldt, Robin; Germans, Tjeerd; Rossum, Albert C. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Interuniversity Cardiology Institute of the Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); McCann, Gerald P. [University Hospitals Leicester, Department of Cardiology, Leicester (United Kingdom); Beek, Aernout M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    Right ventricular (RV) volume measurements with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the gold standard, but acquisition and analysis remain time-consuming. The aim of our study was therefore to investigate the accuracy and performance of a semi-quantitative assessment of RV function in CMR, compared to the standard quantitative approach. Seventy-five subjects with pulmonary hypertension (15), anterior myocardial infarction (15), inferior myocardial infarction (15), Brugada syndrome (15) and normal subjects (15) underwent cine CMR. RV end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes were determined to calculate RV ejection fraction (EF). Four-chamber cine images were used to measure tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE). RV fractional shortening (RVFS) was calculated by dividing TAPSE by the RV end-diastolic length. RV EF correlated significantly with TAPSE (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) and RVFS (r = 0.67, p < 0.01). Sensitivity to predict RV dysfunction was comparable between TAPSE and RVFS, with higher specificity for RVFS, but comparable areas under the ROC curve. Intra- and inter-observer variability of RV EF was better than TAPSE (3%/4% versus 7%/15%, respectively). For routine screening in clinical practice, TAPSE and RVFS seem reliable and easy methods to identify patients with RV dysfunction. The 3D volumetric approach is preferred to assess RV function for research purposes or to evaluate treatment response. (orig.)

  5. Change in endothelial function state under the influence of antihypertensive therapy in patients with arterial hypertension and high cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turlyun T.S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the indicators characterizing endothelial function in patients of distinguished groups at the initial stage of the study (visit 1 and during the treatment (visit 2. At baseline levels of endothelin-1 in the blood of patients of all groups did not differ significantly between the groups distinguished. After treatment, the dynamics of the indicator in all groups was positive and statistically significant (p0,60.

  6. In Utero Exposure to a Cardiac Teratogen Causes Reversible Deficits in Postnatal Cardiovascular Function, But Altered Adaptation to the Burden of Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasa, Kristiina L; Maciver, Rebecca D; Ramchandani, Shyamlal; Adams, Michael A; Ozolinš, Terence R S

    2015-11-01

    Congenital heart defects (CHD) are the most common birth anomaly and while many resolve spontaneously by 1 year of age, the lifelong burden on survivors is poorly understood. Using a rat model of chemically induced CHD that resolve postnatally, we sought to characterize the postnatal changes in cardiac function, and to investigate whether resolved CHD affects the ability to adapt to the increased the cardiovascular (CV) burden of pregnancy. To generate rats with resolved CHD, pregnant rats were administered distilled water or dimethadione (DMO) [300 mg/kg b.i.d. on gestation day (gd) 9 and 10] and pups delivered naturally. To characterize structural and functional changes in the heart, treated and control offspring were scanned by echocardiography on postnatal day 4, 21, and 10-12 weeks. Radiotelemeters were implanted for continuous monitoring of hemodynamics. Females were mated and scanned by echocardiography on gd12 and gd18 during pregnancy. On gd18, maternal hearts were collected for structural and molecular assessment. Postnatal echocardiography revealed numerous structural and functional differences in treated offspring compared with control; however, these resolved by 10-12 weeks of age. The CV demand of pregnancy revealed differences between treated and control offspring with respect to mean arterial pressure, CV function, cardiac strain, and left ventricular gene expression. In utero exposure to DMO also affected the subsequent generation. Gd18 fetal and placental weights were increased in treated F2 offspring. This study demonstrates that in utero chemical exposure may permanently alter the capacity of the postnatal heart to adapt to pregnancy and this may have transgenerational effects. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  8. A new approach to improve the specificity of flow-mediated dilation for indicating endothelial function in cardiovascular research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Batterham, Alan M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2013-02-01

    Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is a noninvasive indicator of endothelial function and is routinely expressed as the percentage change in arterial diameter (FMD%) from a resting baseline (Dbase) to a postischemic peak (Dpeak). This expression is equivalent to the ratio of Dpeak/Dbase and is, therefore, dependent on important statistical assumptions, which have never been analysed in the context of FMD%. We aimed to investigate these assumptions, via a comparison of FMD between samples of children and adults, as well as to explore other approaches to scaling diameter change for Dbase. We found that FMD% did not scale accurately for interindividual differences in Dbase but, as expected, overestimated endothelial function for low Dbase and vice versa. We argue that this imprecise scaling of FMD% is predictable, not explained by physiology and is probably common. This problem is resolved by applying scaling principles, whereby the difference in diameter is the outcome and Dbase is a covariate in a logarithmic-linked generalized linear model. A specific allometric expression of FMD can be derived and we found this to be Dpeak/Dbase rather than a simple ratio in our particular dataset. We found that sample differences in endothelial function were inaccurate with FMD% versus our new allometric approach, and that FMD% misclassified participants into 'high' and 'low'cohorts, which has implications for prognostic-type studies. We conclude that the general use of FMD% could have led to biased comparisons of different conditions and/or populations in past studies. Our new approach to scaling FMD is flexible for different datasets and is not based on the current assumption that a percentage change is appropriate in all circumstances.

  9. Effect of a 26-month floorball training on male elderly's cardiovascular fitness, glucose control, body composition, and functional capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Vorup, Jacob; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    , and physical function among recreationally active men aged 66–78 years.  Methods: After completing a 12-week randomized and controlled intervention with floorball and petanque training in the autumn 2014 or spring 2015, 15 subjects chose to participate in floorball training (floorball group, FG), whereas 16...... in recreationally active male elderly.......Background: Floorball training offers a motivating and socially stimulating team activity for older adults, and 12 weeks of floorball training twice a week among men aged 65–76 years have been shown to have positive effects on a number of physiological parameters important for health. However...

  10. Effects of paroxetine-mediated inhibition of GRK2 expression on depression and cardiovascular function in patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian XQ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiuqing Tian,1 Qing Wang,1 Rui Guo,2 Lingling Xu,3 Qin M Chen,4 Yinglong Hou1 1Department of Cardiology, Qianfoshan Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan City, 2Department of Physiology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing City, 3College of Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang City, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA Background: Paroxetine is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor utilized in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. Recent studies have identified paroxetine as a G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 inhibitor capable of reversing cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in experimental models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. We determine the clinical importance of paroxetine on cardiac functions in patients having AMI with depression (AMID in comparison with fluoxetine, an unrelated selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor that does not inhibit GRK2.Methods: Diagnosis of depression was based on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and Self-rating Depression Scale in AMI patients after hospital admission. AMID patients were randomly assigned to paroxetine or fluoxetine for treatment of depression. Heart rate variability and cardiac function were evaluated. GRK2 protein levels were measured using peripheral lymphocytes and Western blot.Results: GRK2 expression in AMID patients was significantly higher than that in AMI patients without depression. In AMID patients, GRK2 levels were positively correlated with the 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale and the Self-rating Depression Scale scores, and negatively correlated with heart rate variability. Treatment of AMID patients with paroxetine significantly reduced the expression of GRK2, normalized the autonomic nervous system function, and improved cardiac performance. In contrast, fluoxetine normalized the autonomic nervous system but did not reduce the expression of

  11. Fusarium basal rot in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Broek, van den R.C.F.M.; Brink, van den L.

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium basal rot of onion, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cepae, is a steadily increasing problem in The Netherlands. Financial losses for Dutch farmers confronted with Fusarium basal rot is substantial, due to yield reduction and high storage costs. This paper describes the development and

  12. The future of basal insulin supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, Airin C. R.; DeVries, J. Hans

    2011-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the candidates for an improved basal insulin in the pharmaceutical pipeline. The first new basal insulin to enter the market is most likely insulin degludec (IDeg), currently reporting in phase 3 of development, from Novo Nordisk (Bagsvaerd, Denmark). IDeg has a

  13. Hypothesis: Low frequency heart rate variability (LF-HRV) is an input for undisclosed yet biological adaptive control, governing the cardiovascular regulations to assure optimal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bobrovsky, Ben Zion

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular regulation is considered today as having three levels: autoregulations, neural regulations and hormonal regulations. We hypothesize that the cardiovascular regulation has an additional (fourth) control level which is outer, hierarchical (adaptive) loop where LF-HRV amplitude serves as a reference input which the neural cardiovascular center detects and responses in order to maintain LF-HRV around some prescribed level. Supporting evidences: LF-HRV absence during artificial cardiac pacing may be associated with "pacemaker syndrome" which had not been sufficiently understood regardless of apparently unimpaired cardiovascular performance. The hypothesis may provide an essential basis for understanding several cardiovascular morbidities and insight toward diagnostic measures and treatments (including but not limited to adding variability to the pulse generator of artificial pacemakers to eliminate "pace maker syndrome"). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Basal C-peptide Level as a Surrogate Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

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    Sung-Tae Kim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies have revealed that C-peptide induces smooth muscle cell proliferation and causes human atherosclerotic lesions in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to examine whether the basal C-peptide levels correlate with cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients.MethodsData was obtained from 467 patients with T2DM from two institutions who were followed for four years. The medical findings of all patients were reviewed, and patients with creatinine >1.4 mg/dL, any inflammation or infection, hepatitis, or type 1 DM were excluded. The relationships between basal C-peptide and other clinical values were statistically analyzed.ResultsA simple correlation was found between basal C-peptide and components of metabolic syndrome (MS. Statistically basal C-peptide levels were significantly higher than the three different MS criteria used in the present study, the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III of the National Cholesterol Education Program's (NCEP's, World Health Organization (WHO, and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria (NCEP-ATP III, P=0.001; IDF, P<0.001; WHO, P=0.029. The multiple regression analysis between intima-media thickness (IMT and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide significantly correlated with IMT (P=0.043, while the analysis between the 10-year coronary heart disease risk by the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine and clinical values showed that basal C-peptide did not correlate with IMT (P=0.226.ConclusionBasal C-peptide is related to cardiovascular predictors (IMT of T2DM, suggesting that basal C-peptide does provide a further indication of cardiovascular disease.

  15. Is basal ultrasensitive measurement of calcitonin capable of substituting for the pentagastrin-stimulation test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Géraldine; Dubois, Séverine; Murat, Arnaud; Berger, Nicole; Niccoli, Patricia; Peix, Jean-Louis; Cohen, Régis; Guillausseau, Claudine; Charrie, Anne; Chabre, Olivier; Cornu, Catherine; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Rohmer, Vincent

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate a second-generation assay for basal serum calcitonin (CT) measurements compared with the pentagastrin-stimulation test for the diagnosis of inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and the follow-up of patients with MTC after surgery. Recent American Thyroid Association recommendations suggest the use of basal CT alone to diagnose and assess follow-up of MTC as the pentagastrin (Pg) test is unavailable in many countries. Multicentric prospective study. A total of 162 patients with basal CT basal and Pg-stimulated CT measurements using a second-generation assay with 5-ng/l functional sensitivity. Ninety-five per cent of patients with basal CT ≥ 5 ng/l and 25% of patients with basal CT stimulation test (Pg CT >10 ng/l). Compared with the reference Pg test, basal CT ≥ 5 ng/l had 99% specificity, a 95%-positive predictive value but only 35% sensitivity (P basal CT instead of the previously used 10-ng/l threshold. The ultrasensitive CT assay reduces the false-negative rate of basal CT measurements when diagnosing familial MTC and in postoperative follow-up compared with previously used assays. However, its sensitivity to detect C-cell disease remains lower than that of the Pg-stimulation test. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  17. Skeletal muscle, but not cardiovascular function, is altered in a mouse model of autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets

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    Michael J. Wacker

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive hypophosphatemic rickets (ARHR is a heritable disorder characterized by hypophosphatemia, osteomalacia, and poor bone development. ARHR results from inactivating mutations in the DMP1 gene with the human phenotype being recapitulated in the Dmp1 null mouse model which displays elevated plasma fibroblast growth factor 23. While the bone phenotype has been well characterized, it is not known what effects ARHR may also have on skeletal, cardiac, or vascular smooth muscle function, which is critical to understand to treat patients suffering from this condition. In this study, the extensor digitorum longus (EDL- fast-twitch muscle, soleus (SOL- slow-twitch muscle, heart, and aorta were removed from Dmp1 null mice and ex-vivo functional tests were simultaneously performed in collaboration by three different laboratories. Dmp1 null EDL and SOL muscles produced less force than wildtype muscles after normalization for physiological cross sectional area of the muscles. Both EDL and SOL muscles from Dmp1 null mice also produced less force after the addition of caffeine (which releases calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum which may indicate problems in excitation contraction coupling in these mice. While the body weights of the Dmp1 null were smaller than wildtype, the heart weight to body weight ratio was higher. However, there were no differences in pathological hypertrophic gene expression compared to wildtype and maximal force of contraction was not different indicating that there may not be cardiac pathology under the tested conditions. We did observe a decrease in the rate of force development generated by cardiac muscle in the Dmp1 null which may be related to some of the deficits observed in skeletal muscle. There were no differences observed in aortic contractions induced by PGF2a or 5-HT or in endothelium-mediated acetylcholine-induced relaxations or endothelium-independent sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxations. In

  18. Evaluating the effects of sevelamer carbonate on cardiovascular structure and function in chronic renal impairment in Birmingham: the CRIB-PHOS randomised controlled trial

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    Steeds Richard P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum phosphate is an independent predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease and the general population. There is accumulating evidence that phosphate promotes arterial stiffening through structural vascular alterations such as medial calcification, which are already apparent in the early stages of chronic kidney disease. Aim To determine the effects of phosphate binding with sevelamer carbonate on left ventricular mass and function together with arterial stiffness in patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Methods/Design A single-centre, prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 120 subjects with stage 3 chronic kidney disease recruited from University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust. Baseline investigations include transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to assess ventricular mass, volumes and function, applanation tonometry to determine pulse wave velocity and pulse wave analysis as surrogate measures of arterial stiffness and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning to determine bone density. During an open-label run in phase, subjects will receive 1600 mg sevelamer carbonate with meals for four weeks. They will then be randomised to either continue sevelamer carbonate or receive an identical placebo (60 subjects per arm for the remaining 36 weeks. Four-weekly monitoring of serum electrolytes and bone biochemistry will be performed. All baseline investigations will be repeated at the end of the treatment period. The primary endpoint of the study is a reduction in left ventricular mass after 40 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints are: i change in aortic compliance; ii change in arterial stiffness; iii change in arterial elastance; iv change in left ventricular systolic and diastolic elastance; v change in left ventricular function; and vi change in bone density. Trial Registration This trial is

  19. Left and right ventricular dyssynchrony and strains from cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking do not predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Linyuan; Wehner, Gregory J; Suever, Jonathan D; Charnigo, Richard J; Alhadad, Sudad; Stearns, Evan; Mojsejenko, Dimitri; Haggerty, Christopher M; Hickey, Kelsey; Valente, Anne Marie; Geva, Tal; Powell, Andrew J; Fornwalt, Brandon K

    2016-08-22

    Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) suffer from progressive ventricular dysfunction decades after their surgical repair. We hypothesized that measures of ventricular strain and dyssynchrony would predict deterioration of ventricular function in patients with rTOF. A database search identified all patients at a single institution with rTOF who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at least twice, >6 months apart, without intervening surgical or catheter procedures. Seven primary predictors were derived from the first CMR using a custom feature tracking algorithm: left (LV), right (RV) and inter-ventricular dyssynchrony, LV and RV peak global circumferential strains, and LV and RV peak global longitudinal strains. Three outcomes were defined, whose changes were assessed over time: RV end-diastolic volume, and RV and LV ejection fraction. Multivariate linear mixed models were fit to investigate relationships of outcomes to predictors and ten potential baseline confounders. One hundred fifty-three patients with rTOF (23 ± 14 years, 50 % male) were included. The mean follow-up duration between the first and last CMR was 2.9 ± 1.3 years. After adjustment for confounders, none of the 7 primary predictors were significantly associated with change over time in the 3 outcome variables. Only 1-17 % of the variability in the change over time in the outcome variables was explained by the baseline predictors and potential confounders. In patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot, ventricular dyssynchrony and global strain derived from cine CMR were not significantly related to changes in ventricular size and function over time. The ability to predict deterioration in ventricular function in patients with rTOF using current methods is limited.

  20. Adolescents with Classical Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Have Alterations in the Surrogate Markers of Cardiovascular Disease but Not in the Endothelial Function. The Possible Benefits of Metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruzzetti, Franca; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Virdis, Agostino; De Negri, Ferdinando; Perini, Daria; Bucci, Fiorella; Giannarelli, Chiara; Gadducci, Angiolo; Taddei, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    To study whether adolescents with the classical form of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have alterations in metabolic and vascular structure and function. The effect of metformin was evaluated. Controlled study. University outpatient clinic. Eighteen nonobese adolescents with PCOS were enrolled. Seventeen healthy age-matched adolescents were recruited as control subjects. The metabolic profile and the endothelial structure and function were evaluated. Hormonal and lipid profile, blood pressure (BP) measurement, fasting glucose and insulin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and plasmin-antiplasmin complexes (PAP) were measured. Flow mediated dilation (FMD), central pulse wave velocity (PWV), radial artery pulse wave, and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were also assessed. Girls with PCOS were also studied 6 months after treatment with metformin (850 mg twice per day). Adolescents with PCOS were insulin resistant and/or hyperinsulinemic and they had higher BP values and levels of CRP and PAI-1 than the control subjects. The levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator and PAP were similar in both groups. FMD, PWV, and IMT were also similar. Metformin significantly (P insulin, BP, CRP, and PAI-1 levels. The PAP levels significantly (P PCOS have alterations in some surrogate markers of cardiovascular risk and they are ameliorated by metformin. No deterioration of vascular structure and function has been detected, probably because of the short duration of exposure to the disease. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular Cardiovascular system aging

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    José M Ocampo

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available El envejecimiento del sistema cardiovascular está asociado con un número característico de cambios a nivel bioquímico, histológico y morfológico. Sin embargo, no todas las modificaciones presentadas se asocian con deterioro en la función. Entre los cambios a nivel cardiaco se tienen: disminución en el número de miocitos y en las células del sistema de conducción cardiaca, desarrollo de fibrosis, cambios en el transporte de calcio a través de las membranas y disminución del cronotropismo, inotropismo y lusitropismo mediados por estímulo b-adrenérgico. A nivel vascular, hay incremento en la rigidez de la pared de las arterias, con aumento en la velocidad de la onda de pulso, disfunción endotelial y disminución de la vasodilatación mediada por estímulo b-adrenérgico. Durante el reposo el sistema cardiovascular es capaz de desarrollar mecanismos adaptativos eficientes, pero en situaciones de estrés como el ejercicio, los cambios asociados con el envejecimiento se hacen evidentes ya que está disminuida la capacidad para obtener la frecuencia cardiaca máxima, está incrementada la postcarga y hay disminución de la contractilidad intrínseca. Por lo anterior, los ancianos deben utilizar al máximo el mecanismo de Frank-Starling para mantener el gasto cardiaco. Los cambios estructurales y funcionales asociados con el envejecimiento cardiovascular, disminuyen de forma significativa el umbral en el cual las enfermedades cardiacas llegan a ser evidentes, y deben ser conocidos por el personal de salud encargado de cuidar a los ancianos.Cardiovascular aging is associated with characteristic biochemical, histological and morphological changes. Nevertheless, these changes are not necessarily associated to a deterioration in its function. Among the cardiac changes found, there is a reduction in the number of myocytes and of the cardiac conduction system cells, development of fibrosis, changes in the trans-membrane calcium transport and a

  2. Changes in cardiovascular function and vascular Na-K pump activity in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Blood pressure, vascular reactivity and Na-K pump function were examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats and rats made diabetic with a single dose of STZ (50 mg/Kg, I.V.). In each group, body weight, systolic blood pressure and heart rate were determined weekly, and serum glucose was measured biweekly for 12 weeks. Contractile responses and Na-K pump activity of vascular smooth muscle were studied in caudal artery strips. At 12 weeks after treatment, STZ rats had elevated serum glucose but decreased body weight and heart rate in comparison to control rats. Systolic blood pressure of STZ rats was not significantly increased at any time during the treatment period. Contractile responses of caudal artery strips to norepinephrine and serotonin did not indicate altered sensitivity (ED50) of vascular smooth muscle in STZ rats. The responsiveness (g tension/g wet wt.), however, was significantly increased in artery strips from STZ rats. Analysis of ouabain-inhibitable 86 Rb-uptake of caudal artery by the double-reciprocal plot showed that neither the rate of 86 Rb-uptake nor the affinity for rubidium were altered by STZ treatment. The data indicate that nonspecific increases in the reactivity of caudal arteries to excitatory agents occur in diabetic rats which may precede the development of hypertension. The enhanced reactivity is not associated with alteration of the vascular Na-K pump activity

  3. Computational modelling of locomotor muscle moment arms in the basal dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: assessing convergence between birds and basal ornithischians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Karl T; Maidment, Susannah C R; Allen, Vivian; Barrett, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Ornithischia (the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs) encompasses bipedal, facultative quadrupedal and quadrupedal taxa. Primitive ornithischians were small bipeds, but large body size and obligate quadrupedality evolved independently in all major ornithischian lineages. Numerous pelvic and hind limb features distinguish ornithischians from the majority of other non-avian dinosaurs. However, some of these features, notably a retroverted pubis and elongate iliac preacetabular process, appeared convergently in maniraptoran theropods, and were inherited by their avian descendants. During maniraptoran/avian evolution these pelvic modifications led to significant changes in the functions of associated muscles, involving alterations to the moment arms and the activation patterns of pelvic musculature. However, the functions of these features in ornithischians and their influence on locomotion have not been tested and remain poorly understood. Here, we provide quantitative tests of bipedal ornithischian muscle function using computational modelling to estimate 3D hind limb moment arms for the most complete basal ornithischian, Lesothosaurus diagnosticus. This approach enables sensitivity analyses to be carried out to explore the effects of uncertainties in muscle reconstructions of extinct taxa, and allows direct comparisons to be made with similarly constructed models of other bipedal dinosaurs. This analysis supports some previously proposed qualitative inferences of muscle function in basal ornithischians. However, more importantly, this work highlights ambiguities in the roles of certain muscles, notably those inserting close to the hip joint. Comparative analysis reveals that moment arm polarities and magnitudes in Lesothosaurus, basal tetanuran theropods and the extant ostrich are generally similar. However, several key differences are identified, most significantly in comparisons between the moment arms of muscles associated with convergent osteological features in

  4. On conditions of negativity of friction resistance for nonstationary modes of blood flow and possible mechanism of affecting of environmental factors on energy effectiveness of cardiovascular system function

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    Sergey G. Chefranov

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that initiated by action of molecular viscosity impulse flow, directed usually from the moving fluid to limiting it solid surface, can, under certain conditions, turn to zero and get negative values in the case of non-stationary flow caused by alternating in time longitudinal (along the pipe axis pressure gradient. It is noted that this non-equilibrium mechanism of negative friction resistance in the similar case of pulsating blood flow in the blood vessels, in addition to the stable to turbulent disturbances swirled blood flow structure providing, can also constitute hydro-mechanical basis of the observed but not explained yet paradoxically high energy effectiveness of the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system (CVS. We consider respective mechanism of affecting on the stability of the normal work of CVS by environmental variable factors using shifting of hydro-dynamic mode with negative resistance realization range boundaries and variation of linear hydrodynamic instability leading to the structurally stable swirled blood flow organization.

  5. Effect of decimeter waves on functional state of cardiovascular system, some biochemical and immunological indices of myocardium infarction patients during convalescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorokina, E.I.; Poshkus, N.B.; Tupitsina, Yu.Yu.; Volkova, L.P.; Shubina, A.V.; Krasnikov, V.E.

    An attempt was made to determine optimal localization for the action of decimeter waves (DMW) and its intensity, and to evaluate the action of DMW on the functions of the cardiovascular system. Clinical biochemical and immunological indices were determined in myocardium infarction patients during the early convalescent period. The study was carried out on 186 male patients 47.5 years old on the average, 4 to 10 weeks after infarction. When applied at the same location, no significant differences could be observed in reflex reactions or in therapeutic effect when a 20 or 40 Vt intensity was applied. Considerable differences were seen in relationship to the location of applied DMW. Optimal results were obtained with 40 Vt intensity and D/sub I/-D/sub IV/ localization. The effect of DMW through segmental-vegetative apparatus gave more pronounced results than through the endocrine system or through peripheral vessels. DMW applied under such conditions optimized reparatory processes in cardiac muscle and improved immunological reactivity of the organism. 9 references.

  6. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  7. Cynodon dactylon and Sida acuta extracts impact on the function of the cardiovascular system in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Rajaretinam Rajesh; Vincent, Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen cardioactive herbs from Western Ghats of India. The heart beat rate (HBR) and blood flow during systole and diastole were tested in zebrafish embryos. We found that Cynodon dactylon (C. dactylon) induced increases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos with a HBR of (3.968±0.344) beats/s, which was significantly higher than that caused by betamethosone [(3.770±0.344) beats/s]. The EC50 value of C. dactylon was 3.738 µg/mL. The methanolic extract of Sida acuta (S. acuta) led to decreases in the HBR in zebrafish embryos [(1.877±0.079) beats/s], which was greater than that caused by nebivolol (positive control). The EC50 value of Sida acuta was 1.195 µg/mL. The untreated embryos had a HBR of (2.685±0.160) beats/s at 3 d post fertilization (dpf). The velocities of blood flow during the cardiac cycle were (2,291.667±72.169) µm/s for the control, (4,250±125.000) µm/s for C. dactylon and (1,083.333±72.169) µm/s for S. acuta. The LC50 values were 32.6 µg/mL for C. dactylon and 20.9 µg/mL for S. acuta. In addition, the extracts exhibited no chemical genetic effects in the drug dosage range tested. In conclusion, we developed an assay that can measure changes in cardiac function in response to herbal small molecules and determine the cardiogenic effects by microvideography.

  8. [Modern diagnosis and treatment in children with congenital basal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharov, A V; Roginskiy, V V; Kapitanov, D N; Ivanov, A L; Shelesko, E V; Gorelyshev, S K; Evteev, A A; Lemeneva, N V; Zinkevich, D N; Kochkin, Yu A; Ozerova, V I; Satanin, L A

    Basal encephalocele is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in children. Its most common symptoms include nasal liquorrhea, difficulty in nasal breathing, and deformity of the naso-orbital region. The study group included 19 patients with basal encephalocele, aged 2 months to 18 years. Ten (59%) patients were operated on through a transnasal endoscopic approach; 3 (17.5%) patients were operated on through a transcranial approach; 4 (23.5%) patients were operated on using a combined approach: the patients underwent simultaneous elimination of a cranio-orbital region deformity using the basal transcranial approach as well as hernial sac resection and hernioplasty using the transnasal endoscopic approach. Two children had no surgery due to minimal symptoms and a lack of cerebrospinal fluid leak. Application of the algorithms for diagnosis and treatment of encephalocele, suggested by the authors, enabled making the timely diagnose, defining the optimal surgical tactics, and achieving good treatment results. A differentiated approach to the choice of a surgical technique for basal encephalocele, the use of auto-tissues for skull base reconstruction, intraoperative and postoperative lumbar drainage, and simultaneous elimination of deformity of the fronto-naso-orbital region enable avoiding complications and achieving good functional and aesthetic results.

  9. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

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    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  10. Efeitos da efedrina sobre as funções cardiovascular e renal de cães sob anestesia com pentobarbital sódico Efectos de la efedrina sobre las funciones cardiovascular y renal de perros bajo anestesia con pentobarbital sódico Effects of rphedrine on cardiovascular and renal function of dogs anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Beatriz Amorim

    2002-07-01

    diferenciadas de la efedrina sobre la función renal, dependiendo de la dosis utilizada, y considerando las controversias aun existentes a respecto de sus efectos sobre la función renal, esta pesquisa experimental tiene como objetivo verificar si dosis diferentes de efedrina determinan efectos hemodinámicos y renales diferenciados. MÉTODO: En 32 perros anestesiados con pentobarbital sódico (PS, sometidos a preparación quirúrgica, cateterismo, monitorización, expansión del volumen del fluido extracelular y respiración controlada, fue estudiada la hemodinámica cardiovascular y renal y la función renal. Los perros fueron distribuidos aleatoriamente en cuatro grupos: G control (n=8, con los perros permaneciendo apenas sobre el efecto del PS, G ef. 2 µg (n=8, G ef. 10 µg (n=8 y G ef. 100 µg (n=8, con los perros recibiendo efedrina en las dosis respectivas de 2, 10 y 100 µg.kg-1.min-1. Los atributos cardiovasculares y renales fueron estudiados en 5 momentos: control (M1 y M2, durante la infusión de efedrina (M3 y M4 y después la suspensión de la infusión de efedrina (M5. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia significante entre los grupos en relación a los atributos estudiados. En G ef. 2 µg hubo aumento significante de frecuencia cardíaca, flujo sanguíneo aórtico, débito urinario y excreción fraccionaria de sodio. En G ef. 10 µg hubo aumento apenas de la frecuencia cardíaca y fracción de filtración, en cuanto en G ef. 100 µg ocurrió aumento de frecuencia cardíaca, presión arterial media, presión venosa central, flujo sanguíneo aórtico y hematócrito; por otro lado, ocurrió diminución de los flujos plasmático y sanguíneo renales y aumento de la resistencia vascular renal. CONCLUSIONES: La efedrina, dependiendo de la dosis utilizada, presenta acciones hemodinámicas y renales diferenciadas.BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Some studies have shown differentiated dose-dependent effects of ephedrine on cardiovascular and renal functions. This study aimed at

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging of right ventricular morphology and function in the assessment of suspected pulmonary hypertension results from the ASPIRE registry

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    Swift Andrew J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR imaging is accurate and reproducible for the assessment of right ventricular (RV morphology and function. However, the diagnostic accuracy of CMR derived RV measurements for the detection of pulmonary hypertension (PH in the assessment of patients with suspected PH in the clinic setting is not well described. Methods We retrospectively studied 233 consecutive treatment naïve patients with suspected PH including 39 patients with no PH who underwent CMR and right heart catheterisation (RHC within 48hours. The diagnostic accuracy of multiple CMR measurements for the detection of mPAP ≥ 25 mmHg was assessed using Fisher’s exact test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis. Results Ventricular mass index (VMI was the CMR measurement with the strongest correlation with mPAP (r = 0.78 and the highest diagnostic accuracy for the detection of PH (area under the ROC curve of 0.91 compared to an ROC of 0.88 for echocardiography calculated mPAP. Late gadolinium enhancement, VMI ≥ 0.4, retrograde flow ≥ 0.3 L/min/m2 and PA relative area change ≤ 15% predicted the presence of PH with a high degree of diagnostic certainty with a positive predictive value of 98%, 97%, 95% and 94% respectively. No single CMR parameter could confidently exclude the presence of PH. Conclusion CMR is a useful alternative to echocardiography in the evaluation of suspected PH. This study supports a role for the routine measurement of ventricular mass index, late gadolinium enhancement and the use of phase contrast imaging in addition to right heart functional indices in patients undergoing diagnostic CMR evaluation for suspected pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Utility of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Derived Wave Intensity Analysis As a Marker of Ventricular Function in Children with Heart Failure and Normal Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntsinjana, Hopewell N; Chung, Robin; Ciliberti, Paolo; Muthurangu, Vivek; Schievano, Silvia; Marek, Jan; Parker, Kim H; Taylor, Andrew M; Biglino, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to explore the diagnostic insight of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived wave intensity analysis to better study systolic dysfunction in young patients with chronic diastolic dysfunction and preserved ejection fraction (EF), comparing it against other echocardiographic and CMR parameters. Evaluating systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in children is challenging, and a gold standard method is currently lacking. Patients with presumed diastolic dysfunction [ n  = 18; nine aortic stenosis (AS), five hypertrophic, and four restrictive cardiomyopathies] were compared with age-matched control subjects ( n  = 18). All patients had no mitral or aortic incompetence, significant AS, or reduced systolic EF. E / A ratio, E / E ' ratio, deceleration time, and isovolumetric contraction time were assessed on echocardiography, and indexed left atrial volume (LAVi), acceleration time (AT), ejection time (ET), and wave intensity analyses were calculated from CMR. The latter was performed on CMR phase-contrast flow sequences, defining a ratio of the peaks of the early systolic forward compression wave (FCW) and the end-systolic forward expansion wave (FEW). Significant differences between patients and controls were seen in the E / E ' ratio (8.7 ± 4.0 vs. 5.1 ± 1.3, p  = 0.001) and FCW/FEW ratio (2.5 ± 1.6 vs. 7.2 ± 4.2 × 10 -5 m/s, p  wave intensity-derived ratio summarizing systolic and diastolic function could provide insight into ventricular function in children, on top of CMR and echocardiography, and it was here able to identify an element of ventricular dysfunction with preserved EF in a small group of young patients.

  13. Basal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, J; Lesser, R L

    1983-01-01

    Basal encephaloceles are often associated with other midline anomalies such as hypertelorism, broad nasal root, cleft lip, and cleft palate. Optic disc anomalies such as pallor, dysplasia, optic pit, coLoboma, and megalopapilla have been reported to occur in patients with basal encephalocele We report a case of a child with a sphenoethmoidal encephalocele and morning glory syndrome of the optic nerve. The presence of such optic nerve anomalies with facial midline anomalies should alert the clinician to the possible presence of a basal encephalocele. Images PMID:6849854

  14. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

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    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  15. Prevalence of Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Its Association with Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Chilean National Health Survey (2009-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hermoso, Antonio; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-10-23

    Health behaviors and risk factors are independently related with cognitive function in older adults. This study aimed at examining the prevalence and relationship between cognitive function and a number of ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics in older adults from the 2009 to 2010 Chilean National Health Survey. Data from 460 older adults (mean age 73.5 years old, 59.3% women) from the 2009 to 2010 Chilean Health Survey were analyzed. Ideal CVH was defined as meeting the ideal levels of the following components: four behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet adherence) and three factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose). Older adults were grouped into three categories according to their number of ideal CVH metrics: ideal (5-7 metrics), intermediate (3-4 metrics), and poor (0-2 metrics). Cognitive function was assessed by using the modified Mini-Mental Status Examination (mMMSE). Of the 460 participants, 2% had 0 ideal metrics, 11.3% had 1, 23.9% had 2, 32.2% had 3, 20.7% had 4, 9.6% had 5, 0.4% had 6, and 0% had 7. Cognitive function was greater in older adults who met the ideal smoking, physical activity, and fasting blood glucose criteria. Logistic regression analysis suggested that ideal physical activity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.411 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.209-0.807) and smoking (OR = 0.429 95% CI, 0.095-0.941) behaviors reduced the likelihood of cognitive impairment. Moreover, compared with a poor profile (0-2 metrics), an intermediate (3-4 metrics) (OR = 0.221 95% CI, 0.024-0.911) and ideal CVH profile (5-7 metrics) (OR = 0.106 95% CI, 0.013-0.864) reduced the likelihood of cognitive impairment. We found that intermediate and ideal profiles were associated with a similarly low prevalence of cognitive impairment in Chilean older adults.

  16. Accelerated cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the mouse heart using self-gated parallel imaging strategies does not compromise accuracy of structural and functional measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dörries Carola

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-gated dynamic cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR enables non-invasive visualization of the heart and accurate assessment of cardiac function in mouse models of human disease. However, self-gated CMR requires the acquisition of large datasets to ensure accurate and artifact-free reconstruction of cardiac cines and is therefore hampered by long acquisition times putting high demands on the physiological stability of the animal. For this reason, we evaluated the feasibility of accelerating the data collection using the parallel imaging technique SENSE with respect to both anatomical definition and cardiac function quantification. Results Findings obtained from accelerated data sets were compared to fully sampled reference data. Our results revealed only minor differences in image quality of short- and long-axis cardiac cines: small anatomical structures (papillary muscles and the aortic valve and left-ventricular (LV remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI were accurately detected even for 3-fold accelerated data acquisition using a four-element phased array coil. Quantitative analysis of LV cardiac function (end-diastolic volume (EDV, end-systolic volume (ESV, stroke volume (SV, ejection fraction (EF and LV mass in healthy and infarcted animals revealed no substantial deviations from reference (fully sampled data for all investigated acceleration factors with deviations ranging from 2% to 6% in healthy animals and from 2% to 8% in infarcted mice for the highest acceleration factor of 3.0. CNR calculations performed between LV myocardial wall and LV cavity revealed a maximum CNR decrease of 50% for the 3-fold accelerated data acquisition when compared to the fully-sampled acquisition. Conclusions We have demonstrated the feasibility of accelerated self-gated retrospective CMR in mice using the parallel imaging technique SENSE. The proposed method led to considerably reduced acquisition times, while preserving high

  17. Trichoepithelioma And Multiple Basal Cell Epithelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dey S.K

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of multiple trichoepithelioma and basal cell epithelioma is reported. Although malignant degeneration of trichoepithelioma is debated, clinical and histopathological studies, in our case, hint at that. The case is reported for its rarity.

  18. Effects of glucose ingestion on autonomic and cardiovascular measures during rest and mental challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Synowski, S.J.; Kop, W.J.; Warwick, Z.S.; Waldstein, S.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background High levels of dietary sugar consumption may result in dysregulated glucose metabolism and lead to elevated cardiovascular disease risk via autonomic nervous system and cardiovascular dysfunction. Altered cardiovascular function can be examined using perturbation tasks such as mental

  19. Use of basal stimulation at anesthesiology department

    OpenAIRE

    MARKOVÁ, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The theme ?The Use of Basal Stimulation at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department? was chosen in order to map out the use of this nursing method by the nurses and the staff who I cooperate with. The theoretical part deals with the environment at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department where the basal stimulation is used and also with special characteristics of the nursing care. Further, it deals with monitoring patients, causes of consciousness defects occurrence and kinds ...

  20. Degludec insulin: A novel basal insulin

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Baruah, Manash; Kalra, Bharti

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews a novel insulin analogue, degludec, which has the potential to emerge as an ideal basal insulin. It reviews the limitations of existing basal insulin and analogues, and highlights the need for a newer molecule. The paper discusses the potential advantages of degludec, while reviewing its pharmacologic and clinical studies done so far. The paper assesses the potential role of insulin degludec and degludec plus in clinical diabetes practice.

  1. Germinoma originating in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anno, Y.; Hori, T.; Watanabe, T.; Takenobu, A.; Takigawa, H.; Kishimoto, M.; Tanaka, J.

    1990-01-01

    About 5-10% of primary intracranial germ cell tumors arise in basal ganglia and thalamus, where CT studies have been made. MR of the tumors in the pineal region, and to our knowledge, from one tumor in the basal ganglia were similar. In the present case, MR produced confusion in confirming diagnosis, which may require additional evidence from the clinical course, tumor markers, and CT images. (orig.)

  2. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Supplementary heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 ameliorates hyperlipidaemic and cardiac apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed hamsters to maintain cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Wei-Jen; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Yeh, Yu-Lan; Shen, Chia-Yao; Chen, Ya-Hui; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2015-09-14

    Obesity and hyperlipidaemia increase the risk of CVD. Some strains of probiotics have been suggested to have potential applications in cardiovascular health by lowering serum LDL-cholesterol. In this work, high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in hamsters was treated with different doses (5×108 and 2·5×109 cells/kg per d) of heat-killed Lactobacillus reuteri GMNL-263 (Lr263) by oral gavage for 8 weeks. The serum lipid profile analysis showed that LDL-cholesterol and plasma malondialdehyde (P-MDA) were reduced in the GMNL-263 5×108 cells/kg per d treatment group. Total cholesterol and P-MDA were reduced in the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatment group. In terms of heart function, the GMNL-263 2·5×109 cells/kg per d treatments improved the ejection fraction from 85·71 to 91·81 % and fractional shortening from 46·93 to 57·92 % in the high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts. Moreover, the GMNL-263-treated, high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts exhibited reduced Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis and a reactivated IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway. Interestingly, the GMNL-263 treatments also enhanced the heat-shock protein 27 expression in a dose-dependent manner, but the mechanism for this increase remains unclear. In conclusion, supplementary heat-killed L. reuteri GMNL-263 can slightly reduce serum cholesterol. The anti-hyperlipidaemia effects of GMNL-263 may reactivate the IGF1R/PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway and reduce Fas-induced myocardial apoptosis in high-fat diet-fed hamster hearts.

  4. Effects of Basal Insulin Analog and Metformin on Glycaemia Control and Weight as Risk Factors for Endothelial Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belma Aščić – Buturović

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Obese patients with type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are at increased risk of development of cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction may be a reason for development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. Lifestyle modification, increased physical activity, weight reduction, energy restricted diet and good glycaemia control can be useful for the endothelial function improvement and may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of basal insulin analog and metformin on glycaemia control and weight as risk factors of endothelial dysfunction. Total of 15 patients (9 male and 6 female with type 2 diabetes were studied. The patients were monitored over six months period. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, postprandial plasma glucose (PPG, and body mass index (BMI were observed. Mean age of the subjects was 53,4 ± 6,27 years. Mean diabetes duration was 3,71 ± 1,89 years. At the end of the study mean body mass index decreased from 27,5 ± 1,45 kg/m2 to 25,7 ±1,22 kg/m2. In this study we included diabetic patients with fasting glycaemia over 7 mmol/ dm3, postmeal glycaemia over 7,8 mmol/dm3 and glycated hemoglobin over 7%. Prior to the study, the patients were treated with premix insulin divided in two daily doses and metformin after the lunch, which did not result in sufficient regulation of glycaemia. We started treatment with one daily insulin basal analog and three daily doses of metformin and monitored the above mentioned parameters. We advised patients to change their lifestyle, to practice energy restricted diet and to increase their daily physical activity. Insulin doses were titrated separately for each patient (0,7-1 IU/kg. Weight reduction was recorded after the study. Mean fasting glycaemia decreased from 8,6±0,49 mmol/dm3 to 7,04±0,19 mmol/dm3 (p < 0,05. Mean postmeal glycaemia decreased from 9,74 ± 0,79 mmol/dm3 to 7,6 ± 0

  5. Cardiovascular Physiology of Dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular function in dinosaurs can be inferred from fossil evidence with knowledge of how metabolic rate, blood flow rate, blood pressure, and heart size are related to body size in living animals. Skeletal stature and nutrient foramen size in fossil femora provide direct evidence of a high arterial blood pressure, a large four-chambered heart, a high aerobic metabolic rate, and intense locomotion. But was the heart of a huge, long-necked sauropod dinosaur able to pump blood up 9 m to its head? ©2016 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  6. The Centrioles, Centrosomes, Basal Bodies, and Cilia of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattao, Ramona; Kovács, Levente; Glover, David M

    2017-05-01

    Centrioles play a key role in the development of the fly. They are needed for the correct formation of centrosomes, the organelles at the poles of the spindle that can persist as microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs) into interphase. The ability to nucleate cytoplasmic microtubules (MTs) is a property of the surrounding pericentriolar material (PCM). The centriole has a dual life, existing not only as the core of the centrosome but also as the basal body, the structure that templates the formation of cilia and flagellae. Thus the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body have an impact upon many aspects of development and physiology that can readily be modeled in Drosophila Centrosomes are essential to give organization to the rapidly increasing numbers of nuclei in the syncytial embryo and for the spatially precise execution of cell division in numerous tissues, particularly during male meiosis. Although mitotic cell cycles can take place in the absence of centrosomes, this is an error-prone process that opens up the fly to developmental defects and the potential of tumor formation. Here, we review the structure and functions of the centriole, the centrosome, and the basal body in different tissues and cultured cells of Drosophila melanogaster , highlighting their contributions to different aspects of development and cell division. Copyright © 2017 Lattao et al.

  7. Understanding the Functional Plasticity in Neural Networks of the Basal Ganglia in Cocaine Use Disorder: A Role for Allosteric Receptor-Receptor Interactions in A2A-D2 Heteroreceptor Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasiel O. Borroto-Escuela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our hypothesis is that allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in homo- and heteroreceptor complexes may form the molecular basis of learning and memory. This principle is illustrated by showing how cocaine abuse can alter the adenosine A2AR-dopamine D2R heterocomplexes and their receptor-receptor interactions and hereby induce neural plasticity in the basal ganglia. Studies with A2AR ligands using cocaine self-administration procedures indicate that antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R heterocomplexes of the ventral striatopallidal GABA antireward pathway play a significant role in reducing cocaine induced reward, motivation, and cocaine seeking. Anticocaine actions of A2AR agonists can also be produced at A2AR homocomplexes in these antireward neurons, actions in which are independent of D2R signaling. At the A2AR-D2R heterocomplex, they are dependent on the strength of the antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R interaction and the number of A2AR-D2R and A2AR-D2R-sigma1R heterocomplexes present in the ventral striatopallidal GABA neurons. It involves a differential cocaine-induced increase in sigma1Rs in the ventral versus the dorsal striatum. In contrast, the allosteric brake on the D2R protomer signaling in the A2AR-D2R heterocomplex of the dorsal striatopallidal GABA neurons is lost upon cocaine self-administration. This is potentially due to differences in composition and allosteric plasticity of these complexes versus those in the ventral striatopallidal neurons.

  8. Computerized tomographic diagnosis of basal skull fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tokutaro; Shimoyama, Ichiro; Endoh, Mitsutoshi; Ninchoji, Toshiaki; Uemura, Kenichi.

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of basal skull fractures used to be difficult, particularly on the basis of routine skull roentgenography alone. We have now examined the diagnostic value of conventional computerized tomography in basal skull fractures. We studied 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures. We examined them based on at least one of the following computerized tomographic criteria for basal skull fractures: 1) fracture line(s), 2) intracranial air, 3) fluid in the paranasal sinuses, and 4) fluid in the middle ear, including the mastoid air cells. The signs of the fracture line and of the intracranial air are definite indications of basal skull fracture, but the signs of fluid in the paranasal sinuses and/or in the middle ear are not definite. When combined, however, with such other clinical signs as black eye, Battle's sign, CSF leakage, CSF findings, and profuse nasal or ear bleeding, the diagnosis is more reliable. Seventy cases (85.4%) in this series had basal skull fractures according to our computerized tomographic criteria. Among them , 26 cases (31.7%) were diagnosed with fracture lines, 17 cases (20.7%) with intracranial air, 16 cases (19.5%) with fluid in the paranasal sinuses, 10 cases (12.2%) with fluid in the middle ear, and one case (1.2%) with fluid in both. Twelve cases (14.6%) of the 82 cases clinically diagnosed as basal skull fractures could not have been diagnosed on our computerized tomographic criteria alone. We diagnosed them because of CSF leakage, CSF findings, surgical findings, etc. (author)

  9. A comparison of the effects of C2-cyclosporine and C0-tacrolimus on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S Joseph; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Huang, Michael; Nash, Michelle M; Famure, Olusegun; Park, Joseph; Thenganatt, Mary Ann; Chowdhury, Nizamuddin; Cole, Edward H; Fenton, Stanley S A; Cattran, Daniel C; Zaltzman, Jeffrey S; Cardella, Carl J

    2006-10-15

    There are few data directly comparing the effects of two-hour postingestion monitored cyclosporine (C2-CsA) vs. trough-monitored tacrolimus (C0-Tac) on renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We studied 378 (202 C2-CsA vs. 176 C0-Tac) incident kidney transplant recipients in Toronto, Canada, from August 1, 2000 and December 31, 2003. Outcomes included changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at 1 and 6 months by modification of diet in renal disease four-variable equation), mean arterial pressure (MAP), total cholesterol (TC), and new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) at six months posttransplant. The independent effect of treatment/monitoring strategies on continuous outcomes and time-to-NODM was modeled using linear and Cox regression, respectively. Mean eGFR was 59.5 vs. 62.9 ml/min at one month and 50.6 vs. 61.2 ml/min at six months for C2-CsA vs. C0-Tac, respectively. Multiple linear regression revealed the slope of eGFR to be 0.93 ml/min/month lower in C2-CsA patients. This was equivalent to an adjusted average eGFR difference of 4.64 ml/min between months one and six posttransplant. There was no significant difference in average MAP and TC. In a stepwise multivariable Cox model and a propensity score analysis, there was no significant association between the type of treatment/monitoring strategy and time-to-NODM. There was a greater decline in eGFR for patients on C2-CsA (vs. C0-Tac) between one and six months posttransplant. However, MAP, TC, and the risk of NODM were comparable in both treatment/monitoring groups. The long-term impact of short-term reductions in eGFR as a function of the type of treatment/monitoring strategy requires further study.

  10. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Christopher P.; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R.; Omholt, Stig W.; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O.; Watanabe, Sansuke M.; Blanco, Pablo J.; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well‐established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo‐skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real‐time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. PMID:27506597

  11. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  12. The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Fumika; Okada, Ken-Ichi; Nomura, Taishin; Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition), and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation). In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation (DBS) to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function and PD.

  13. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  14. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du

    2006-01-01

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  15. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  16. Comparison of liraglutide plus basal insulin and basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBIT) for glycemic control, body weight stability, and treatment satisfaction in patients treated using BBIT for type 2 diabetes without severe insulin deficiency: A randomized prospective pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Saki; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Ohara, Makoto; Goto, Satoshi; Sato, Jun; Nagaike, Hiroe; Fukase, Ayako; Sato, Nobuko; Hiromura, Munenori; Tomoyasu, Masako; Nakanishi, Noriko; Lee, Soushou; Osamura, Anna; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Fukui, Tomoyasu; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2018-03-26

    We examined whether 0.9 mg/day liraglutide plus basal insulin (Lira-basal) is superior to basal-bolus insulin therapy (BBIT) for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) without severe insulin deficiency as determined by glucagon stimulation. Fifty patients receiving BBIT were enrolled in this 24-week, prospective, randomized, open-labeled study. After excluding subjects with fasting C-peptide immunoreactivity (CPR) basal (n = 12) or continued BBIT (n = 13). Primary endpoint was change in HbA1c. Secondary endpoints were changes in body weight (BW), 7-point self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG), and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire status (DTSQs) scores. The Lira-basal group demonstrated reduced HbA1c, whereas the BBIT group showed no change. BW was reduced in the Lira-basal group but increased in the BBIT group. The Lira-basal group also exhibited significantly reduced pre-breakfast and pre-lunch SMBG. DTSQs scores improved in the Lira-basal group but not the BBIT group. Plasma lipids, liver function, and kidney function were not significantly changed in either group. Lira-basal therapy is superior to BBIT for T2DM without severe insulin deficiency. This study was registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000028313). Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, Maria Stenkil; Jorsal, Anders; Tarnow, Lise

    2010-01-01

    Growth deferentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Expression is induced in the heart in response to ischemia and in atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF-15 levels in relation to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and mo...

  18. Effect of a wild blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) drink intervention on markers of oxidative stress, inflammation and endothelial function in humans with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Del Bo', Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Wild blueberries (WB) (Vaccinium angustifolium) are rich sources of polyphenols, such as flavonols, phenolic acids and anthocyanins (ACNs), reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and degenerative diseases. This study investigated the effect of regular consumption of a WB or a placebo (PL...

  19. Impact of vitamin D3 on cardiovascular responses to glucocorticoid excess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mona A

    2013-06-01

    Although the cardiovascular system is not a classical target for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, both cardiac myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells respond to this hormone. The present study aimed to elucidate the effect of active vitamin D3 on cardiovascular functions in rats exposed to glucocorticoid excess. Adult male Wistar rats were allocated into three groups: control group, dexamethasone (Dex)-treated group receiving Dex (200 μg/kg) subcutaneously for 12 days, and vitamin D3-Dex-treated group receiving 1,25-(OH)2D3 (100 ng/kg) and Dex (200 μg/kg) subcutaneously for 12 days. Rats were subjected to measurement of systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures and heart rate. Rate pressure product (RPP) was calculated. Rats' isolated hearts were perfused in Langendorff preparation and studied for basal activities (heart rate, peaked developed tension, time to peak tension, half relaxation time, and myocardial flow rate) and their responses to isoproterenol infusion. Blood samples were collected for determination of plasma level of nitrite, nitric oxide surrogate. Dex-treated group showed significant increase in SBP, DBP, MAP, and RPP, as well as cardiac hypertrophy and enhancement of basal cardiac performance evidenced by increased heart rate, rapid and increased contractility, and accelerated lusitropy, together with impaired contractile and myocardial flow rate responsiveness to beta-adrenergic activation and depressed inotropic and coronary vascular reserves. Such alterations were accompanied by low plasma nitrite. These changes were markedly improved by vitamin D3 treatment. In conclusion, vitamin D3 is an efficacious modulator of the deleterious cardiovascular responses induced by glucocorticoid excess, probably via accentuation of nitric oxide.

  20. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  1. Basal cell nevus syndrome: 2 case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jin Soo

    2008-01-01

    The basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) is an autosomal dominant disorder, characterized by basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts and skeletal abnormalities. We experienced two cases that represented several characteristics of BCNS. Case 1: a thirty three year-old man visited CSU hospital. His radiographs showed four cystic lesions at both maxillary sinus and both mandibular angle, with bifid rib and ectopic calcification of falx cerebri. After marsupialization and enucleation, recurrent and newly developing tendency were found on his follow-up radiographs. Case 2: a seventeen year-old man had four large cystic lesions which were diagnosed as odontogenic keratocysts. He had craniofacial anomalies which included ectopic calcification and frontal bossing.

  2. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Tae Won

    1988-01-01

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  3. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masayuki; Murata, Tetsuhito; Kimura, Hirohiko

    1992-01-01

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  4. Cardiovascular Disease, Mitochondria, and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated that mitochondria play an important role in the cardiovascular system and mutations of mitochondrial DNA affect coronary artery disease, resulting in hypertension, atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has been used for thousands of years to treat cardiovascular disease, but it is not yet clear how TCM affects mitochondrial function. By reviewing the interactions between the cardiovascular system, mitochondrial DNA, and TCM, we show that cardiovascular disease is negatively affected by mutations in mitochondrial DNA and that TCM can be used to treat cardiovascular disease by regulating the structure and function of mitochondria via increases in mitochondrial electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation, modulation of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, and decreases in mitochondrial ROS. However further research is still required to identify the mechanism by which TCM affects CVD and modifies mitochondrial DNA.

  5. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  6. Dysregulation of endothelial colony-forming cell function by a negative feedback loop of circulating miR-146a and -146b in cardiovascular disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available Functional impairment of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs, a specific cell lineage of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs is highly associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD, the most common type of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Emerging evidence show that circulating microRNAs (miRNAs in CAD patients' body fluid hold a great potential as biomarkers. However, our knowledge of the role of circulating miRNA in regulating the function of ECFCs and the progression of CAD is still in its infancy. We showed that when ECFCs from healthy volunteers were incubated with conditioned medium or purified exosomes of cultured CAD ECFCs, the secretory factors from CAD ECFCs dysregulated migration and tube formation ability of healthy ECFCs. It is known that exosomes influence the physiology of recipient cells by introducing RNAs including miRNAs. By using small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq, we deciphered the circulating miRNome in the plasma of healthy individual and CAD patients, and found that the plasma miRNA spectrum from CAD patients was significantly different from that of healthy control. Interestingly, smRNA-seq of both healthy and CAD ECFCs showed that twelve miRNAs that had a higher expression in the plasma of CAD patients also showed higher expression in CAD ECFCs when compared with healthy control. This result suggests that these miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of ECFC functions. For identification of potential mRNA targets of the differentially expressed miRNA in CAD patients, cDNA microarray analysis was performed to identify the angiogenesis-related genes that were down-regulated in CAD ECFCs and Pearson's correlation were used to identify miRNAs that were negatively correlated with the identified angiogenesis-related genes. RT-qPCR analysis of the five miRNAs that negatively correlated with the down-regulated angiogenesis-related genes in plasma and ECFC of CAD patients showed miR-146a-5p and miR-146b-5p up

  7. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  8. Toward sophisticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: Review on basal ganglia deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K; Gibson, William S J; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H; Blaha, Charles D

    2015-11-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology has grown exponentially over the past decade. The introduction of the gamma camera, the development of new radionuclides, and the implementation of computers have transformed the field of nuclear cardiology from largely research in the 1970s to routine clinical applications in the 1980s. At first, noninvasive nuclear imaging techniques were used predominantly to aid disease detection. In the ensuing years, emphasis has shifted to the functional assessment of patients with known disease. Widely available noninvasive techniques now allow the quantitative assessment of left and right ventricular function, one of the most important predictors of survival in patients with cardiac disease. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography provides valuable information on the myocardial reserve in patients with normal resting function. The serial measurement of the ventricular ejection fraction assists in the timing of valvular replacement therapy. In patients receiving doxorubicin, serial ejection fraction follow-up helps prevent the development of irreversible, drug-induced cardiomyopathy. It is now generally acknowledged that the detection of latent coronary disease is improved by the addition of 201 T1 imaging to the standard exercise electrocardiogram. Thallium imaging and infarct avid imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-pyrophosphate have proven useful in quantifying myocardial infarction size, and in assessing the value of therapy aimed at limiting infarction extent. In the evaluation of coronary artery disease, scintigraphy provides physiologic data that complements angiography, which is more anatomic. An angiographic lesion, read as a 70 percent narrowing, may not necessarily be flow-limiting, whereas one read as 40 percent, may, in fact, have physiologic consequences, if it is of sufficient length or eccentricity, or is in series with another insignificant stenosis

  10. Assessment of Cardiovascular Risk in Collegiate Football Players and Nonathletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrosielski, Devon A.; Rosenbaum, Daryl; Wooster, Benjamin M.; Merrill, Michael; Swanson, John; Moore, J. Brian; Brubaker, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    Collegiate American football players may be at risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: To compare cardiovascular disease risk factors and cardiovascular structure and function parameters of football players, stratified by position, to a group of sedentary, nonathletes. Participants: Twenty-six collegiate football players and 13 nonathletes…

  11. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  12. APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search APOE Genotyping, Cardiovascular Disease Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At a ... help understand the role of genetic factors in cardiovascular disease . However, the testing is sometimes used in clinical ...

  13. Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiovascular Disease & Diabetes Updated:Jan 29,2018 The following ... clear that there is a strong correlation between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. At least 68 percent ...

  14. Cardiovascular diseases and systolic function of left ventricle in clean up workers of Chernobyl accident (based on 30 years follow up).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyka, O D; Belyi, D O

    2017-12-01

    To study the dynamics of circulatory system diseases during the 30 year period after irradiation, changes in the status of systolic function of heart left ventricle (LV) and the features of its remodeling in clean up workers (CW) of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP). It was examined 144 CW at ChNPP, including 52 patients, who survived acute radiation sick ness (ARS) grade of severity 1-3, and 105 non irradiated persons (control group - CG). CW have been divided into two subgroups: without signs of ARS (ARS0) and those who suffered from ARS. CW and CG patients were male who had no signs of cardiovascular, nervous, pulmonary or endocrine pathology prior to the Chernobyl accident. Their average age at the beginning of the accident was 33.9-37.7 years. The study program included clinical examina tion, echocardiography, retrospective and statistical analysis. Hypertensive heart disease (HHD) has developed in the CW, including the ARS convalescents, by 12 years, and ischemic heart disease (CHD) at 9-11 years is believed to be earlier than in comparable non irradiated patients. In the post accident period, there was an increased mean value of LV posterior wall (PW) thickness, interventricular septum (IVS), myocardium mass and myocardium mass normalized by body surface area. These indices grew with the increase of HHD duration. Over the 30 year follow up period, between CW and CG from 14.3 to 28.6 % of patients with LV increased volumes it was found a decreased ejection fraction (EF), what indicated the development of sys tolic LV dysfunction with the phenomena of left ventricular heart failure (HF). Reduction of EF correlated with increase of end systolic volume (ESV) having the highest statistical strength. In CW and persons of CG there was from 77.3 to 84.8 % of patients had clinical signs of HF with preserved EF. From this number, 56-63.6 % of patients had concentric and 18.8-26.7 % had eccentric LV hypertrophy (LVH), and in 6.1 to 15.6% of

  15. Optical coherence tomography of basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yücel, D.; Themstrup, L.; Manfredi, Maddalena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most prevalent malignancy in Caucasians. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging technology using the principle of interferometry. OCT has shown a great potential in diagnosing, monitoring, and follow-up of BCC. So far most...

  16. Basal Cell Carcinoma: 10 Years of Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, E.; Tarallo, M.; Maruccia, M.; Sorvillo, V.; Pollastrini, A.; Scuderi, N.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally invasive malignant epidermal tumour. Incidence is increasing by 10% per year; incidence of metastases is minimal, but relapses are frequent (40%-50%). The complete excision of the BCC allows reduction of relapse. Materials and Methods. The study cohort consists of 1123 patients underwent surgery for basal cell carcinoma between 1999 and 2009. Patient and tumor characteristics recorded are: age; gender; localization (head and neck, trunk, and upper and lower extremities), tumor size, excisional margins adopted, and relapses. Results. The study considered a group of 1123 patients affected by basal cell carcinoma. Relapses occurred in 30 cases (2,67%), 27 out of 30 relapses occurred in noble areas, where peripheral margin was <3mm. Incompletely excised basal cell carcinoma occurred in 21 patients (1,87%) and were treated with an additional excision. Discussion. Although guidelines indicate 3mm peripheral margin of excision in BCC <2cm, in our experience, a margin of less than 5mm results in a high risk of incomplete excisions

  17. Induced resistance: an enhancement of basal resistance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M. de; Robben, C.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van; Pieterse, C.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Upon primary pathogen attack, plants activate resistance mechanisms at the site of infection. Besides this so-called basal resistance, plants have also the ability to enhance their defensive capacity against future pathogen attack. There are at least two types of biologically induced resistance.

  18. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2018-03-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  19. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek