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Sample records for basal body assembly

  1. The Two SAS-6 Homologs in Tetrahymena thermophila Have Distinct Functions in Basal Body Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Culver, Brady P.; Meehl, Janet B.; Giddings, Thomas H.; Winey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Cilia and flagella are structurally and functionally conserved organelles present in basal as well as higher eukaryotes. The assembly of cilia requires a microtubule based scaffold called a basal body. The ninefold symmetry characteristic of basal bodies and the structurally similar centriole is organized around a hub and spoke structure termed the cartwheel. To date, SAS-6 is one of the two clearly conserved components of the cartwheel. In some organisms, overexpression of SAS-6 causes the f...

  2. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    OpenAIRE

    Dutcher, Susan K.; O’Toole, Eileen T.

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes...

  3. The basal bodies of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutcher, Susan K; O'Toole, Eileen T

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, is a biflagellated cell that can swim or glide. C. reinhardtii cells are amenable to genetic, biochemical, proteomic, and microscopic analysis of its basal bodies. The basal bodies contain triplet microtubules and a well-ordered transition zone. Both the mother and daughter basal bodies assemble flagella. Many of the proteins found in other basal body-containing organisms are present in the Chlamydomonas genome, and mutants in these genes affect the assembly of basal bodies. Electron microscopic analysis shows that basal body duplication is site-specific and this may be important for the proper duplication and spatial organization of these organelles. Chlamydomonas is an excellent model for the study of basal bodies as well as the transition zone. PMID:27252853

  4. Basal body structure in Trichonympha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichard, Paul; Gönczy, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Trichonympha is a symbiotic flagellate of many species of termites and of the wood-feeding cockroach. Remarkably, this unicellular organism harbors up to over ten thousand flagella on its surface, which serve to propel it through the viscous environment of the host hindgut. In the 1960s, analysis of resin-embedded Trichonympha samples by electron microscopy revealed that the basal bodies that give rise to these flagella are exceptionally long, with a proximal, cartwheel-bearing, region some 50 times longer than that of regular centrioles. In recent years, this salient feature has prompted the analysis of the 3D architecture of Trichonympha basal bodies in the native state using cryo-electron tomography. The resulting ~40 Å resolution map of the basal body proximal region revealed a number of novel features that may be conserved in centrioles of other systems. These include proximal-distal polarity of the pinhead structure that links the cartwheel to centriolar microtubules, as well as of the linker between the A and the C microtubules. Moreover, this work demonstrated that the cartwheel is made of stacked ring-like structures that likely each comprise 18 molecules of SAS-6 proteins. PMID:26937279

  5. Site-specific basal body duplication in Chlamydomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Eileen T; Dutcher, Susan K

    2014-02-01

    Correct centriole/basal body positioning is required for numerous biological processes, yet how the cell establishes this positioning is poorly understood. Analysis of centriolar/basal body duplication provides a key to understanding basal body positioning and function. Chlamydomonas basal bodies contain structural features that enable specific triplet microtubules to be specified. Electron tomography of cultures enriched in mitotic cells allowed us to follow basal body duplication and identify a specific triplet at which duplication occurs. Probasal bodies elongate in prophase, assemble transitional fibers (TF) and are segregated with a mature basal body near the poles of the mitotic spindle. A ring of nine-singlet microtubules is initiated at metaphase, orthogonal to triplet eight. At telophase/cytokinesis, triplet microtubule blades assemble first at the distal end, rather than at the proximal cartwheel. The cartwheel undergoes significant changes in length during duplication, which provides further support for its scaffolding role. The uni1-1 mutant contains short basal bodies with reduced or absent TF and defective transition zones, suggesting that the UNI1 gene product is important for coordinated probasal body elongation and maturation. We suggest that this site-specific basal body duplication ensures the correct positioning of the basal body to generate landmarks for intracellular patterning in the next generation. PMID:24166861

  6. Drosophila melanogaster as a model for basal body research

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Swadhin Chandra; Bettencourt-Dias, Mónica; Durand, Bénédicte; Timothy L. Megraw

    2016-01-01

    The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is one of the most extensively studied organisms in biological research and has centrioles/basal bodies and cilia that can be modelled to investigate their functions in animals generally. Centrioles are nine-fold symmetrical microtubule-based cylindrical structures required to form centrosomes and also to nucleate the formation of cilia and flagella. When they function to template cilia, centrioles transition into basal bodies. The fruit fly has various...

  7. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of...

  8. Identification of antigenically related polypeptides at centrioles and basal bodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, W.; Fung, B.; Shyamala, M; Kasamatsu, H

    1981-01-01

    An antigen localized at the centriolar region has been identified by indirect immunofluorescence studies in African green monkey kidney, human, hamster, rat, and mouse cells. The antigen consists of two polypeptides of 14,000 and 17,000 daltons. A related antigen is also present at the basal body region in ciliated cells from chicken, cat, mouse, pig, steer, and rabbit trachea and from rabbit fimbria. Immunoelectron microscopy shows that the immunoreactive antigen is indeed located in the reg...

  9. LRGUK-1 is required for basal body and manchette function during spermatogenesis and male fertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility affects at least 5% of reproductive age males. The most common pathology is a complex presentation of decreased sperm output and abnormal sperm shape and motility referred to as oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT. For the majority of OAT men a precise diagnosis cannot be provided. Here we demonstrate that leucine-rich repeats and guanylate kinase-domain containing isoform 1 (LRGUK-1 is required for multiple aspects of sperm assembly, including acrosome attachment, sperm head shaping and the initiation of the axoneme growth to form the core of the sperm tail. Specifically, LRGUK-1 is required for basal body attachment to the plasma membrane, the appropriate formation of the sub-distal appendages, the extension of axoneme microtubules and for microtubule movement and organisation within the manchette. Manchette dysfunction leads to abnormal sperm head shaping. Several of these functions may be achieved in association with the LRGUK-1 binding partner HOOK2. Collectively, these data establish LRGUK-1 as a major determinant of microtubule structure within the male germ line.

  10. Production of Basal Bodies in bulk for dense multicilia formation [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiumin Yan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Centriole number is normally under tight control and is directly linked to ciliogenesis. In cells that use centrosomes as mitotic spindle poles, one pre-existing mother centriole is allowed to duplicate only one daughter centriole per cell cycle. In multiciliated cells, however, many centrioles are generated to serve as basal bodies of the cilia. Although deuterosomes were observed more than 40 years ago using electron microscopy and are believed to produce most of the basal bodies in a mother centriole-independent manner, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained unknown until recently. From these findings arise more questions and a call for clarifications that will require multidisciplinary efforts.

  11. Molecular studies of linkage group XIX of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: evidence against a basal body location

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Linkage group XIX (also known as the UNI linkage group) in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, exhibits a number of unusual properties that have lead to the suggestion that it represents a basal body-associated chromosome. To begin a molecular analysis of this linkage group, we have identified DNA sequences from it and used them to determine the copy number of linkage group XIX within the cell. We find that linkage group XIX is present in the same copy number per cell as nuclear linkag...

  12. Basal Cell Skin Cancer after Total-Body Irradiation and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Jeffrey L.; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Robert W. Mathes; Leisenring, Wendy M; Friedman, Debra L.; Deeg, H. Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies identified radiation therapy as a key modifier of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) risk in survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In the present analysis, risk of BCC was analyzed in relation to age at transplant, attained age, race, total-body irradiation (TBI), and radiation fractionation in 6,306 patients who received HCT at ages 0–65 years after conditioning regimens with (n = 3870) or without (n = 2436) TBI, and who were followed from 100 days to 36.2 years aft...

  13. Evaluation of body mass index and basal metabolic rate, step number of days in boys children

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    Özcan Saygın

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study, evaluation was carried out to body mass index and basal metabolic rate, step number of days in boys children.This study attended 588 boys child among aged 7-11 who are receiving education in Muğla Primary Schools in the education period of 2009-2010. Permission was taken from Muğla Provincial directorate for national education, schools directors and physical education teachers.In order to determine the levels of step number of days with pedometer device 2 consecutive week days and 1 weekend day to a total of three days measurements were made. In order to determine body mass index (BMI formula (body weight / height ² were used. In order to determine rate of basal metabolism (BMR formula (66.743+13.752 x Ağırlık (kg+5.003*Boy (cm-6.755 x Yaş (yıl were used.Statistical analysis were made in the SPSS (version 15.0 packaged sortware. Children’s body weight, height, BMI, physical activity level and basal metabolic rate (BMR were compared with respect to the variable age. To determine differences occording to age one-way analysis (ANOVA, and it was used Tukey HSD test to determine which age group stems differences in as a result of anova.Among children’s height, weight, physical activity levels, BMR and BKI values differences were found in the level of p<0,001. Among physical activity levels and age (r=-0,41, height (ı=-0,51, weight (r=-0,83, BMI (r=-0,89 and BMR (r=-0,83 levels of children negative relation was found in the level of p<0,001.According to the findings in children have not seen level of physical activity "very good". It was respected “good” level (10,00%, “medium” level (53,07%, “bad” level (28,91% and “very poor” level (7,99%.As a result, the average level of step number days of boys said that a moderate level. Physical activity levels in children is thought to remain limited because of factors such as Living conditions with the service to commute to school, an intensive exam preparation, private

  14. Automated Sequencing and Subassembly Detection in Automobile Body Assembly Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The choice of the sequence in which parts or subass em blies are put together in the mechanical assembly of a product can drastical ly affect the efficiency of the assembly process. Unlike metal cutting operation s where computer aided system have been available for some 15 to 25 years to hel p manufacturing engineers in generating cutting sequences and NC programs, the m ajority of assembly planning tasks in automobile body design is still manually p erformed by assembly designers according to their pa...

  15. Multiciliated cell basal bodies align in stereotypical patterns coordinated by the apical cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Elisa; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Kanoh, Hatsuho; Tateishi, Kazuhiro; Ishihara, Shuji; Tsukita, Sachiko

    2016-08-29

    Multiciliated cells (MCCs) promote fluid flow through coordinated ciliary beating, which requires properly organized basal bodies (BBs). Airway MCCs have large numbers of BBs, which are uniformly oriented and, as we show here, align linearly. The mechanism for BB alignment is unexplored. To study this mechanism, we developed a long-term and high-resolution live-imaging system and used it to observe green fluorescent protein-centrin2-labeled BBs in cultured mouse tracheal MCCs. During MCC differentiation, the BB array adopted four stereotypical patterns, from a clustering "floret" pattern to the linear "alignment." This alignment process was correlated with BB orientations, revealed by double immunostaining for BBs and their asymmetrically associated basal feet (BF). The BB alignment was disrupted by disturbing apical microtubules with nocodazole and by a BF-depleting Odf2 mutation. We constructed a theoretical model, which indicated that the apical cytoskeleton, acting like a viscoelastic fluid, provides a self-organizing mechanism in tracheal MCCs to align BBs linearly for mucociliary transport. PMID:27573463

  16. The Rac1 regulator ELMO controls basal body migration and docking in multiciliated cells through interaction with Ezrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Daniel; Slanchev, Krasimir; Boehlke, Christopher; Hoff, Sylvia; Loges, Niki T; Yasunaga, Takayuki; Indorf, Lara; Nestel, Sigrun; Lienkamp, Soeren S; Omran, Heymut; Kuehn, E Wolfgang; Ronneberger, Olaf; Walz, Gerd; Kramer-Zucker, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Cilia are microtubule-based organelles that are present on most cells and are required for normal tissue development and function. Defective cilia cause complex syndromes with multiple organ manifestations termed ciliopathies. A crucial step during ciliogenesis in multiciliated cells (MCCs) is the association of future basal bodies with the apical plasma membrane, followed by their correct spacing and planar orientation. Here, we report a novel role for ELMO-DOCK1, which is a bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor complex for the small GTPase Rac1, and for the membrane-cytoskeletal linker Ezrin, in regulating centriole/basal body migration, docking and spacing. Downregulation of each component results in ciliopathy-related phenotypes in zebrafish and disrupted ciliogenesis in Xenopus epidermal MCCs. Subcellular analysis revealed a striking impairment of basal body docking and spacing, which is likely to account for the observed phenotypes. These results are substantiated by showing a genetic interaction between elmo1 and ezrin b. Finally, we provide biochemical evidence that the ELMO-DOCK1-Rac1 complex influences Ezrin phosphorylation and thereby probably serves as an important molecular switch. Collectively, we demonstrate that the ELMO-Ezrin complex orchestrates ciliary basal body migration, docking and positioning in vivo. PMID:25516973

  17. Compilation of basal metabolic and blood perfusion rates in various multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitzer, Avraham; Arens, Edward; Zhang, Hui

    2016-07-01

    The assignments of basal metabolic rates (BMR), basal cardiac output (BCO), and basal blood perfusion rates (BBPR) were compared in nine multi-compartment, whole-body thermoregulation models. The data are presented at three levels of detail: total body, specific body regions, and regional body tissue layers. Differences in the assignment of these quantities among the compared models increased with the level of detail, in the above order. The ranges of variability in the total body BMR was 6.5 % relative to the lowest value, with a mean of 84.3 ± 2 W, and in the BCO, it was 8 % with a mean of 4.70 ± 0.13 l/min. The least variability among the body regions is seen in the combined torso (shoulders, thorax, and abdomen: ±7.8 % BMR and ±5.9 % BBPR) and in the combined head (head, face, and neck ±9.9 % BMR and ±10.9 % BBPR), determined by the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean. Much more variability is apparent in the extremities with the most showing in the BMR of the feet (±117 %), followed by the BBPR in the arms (±61.3 %). In the tissue layers, most of the bone layers were assigned zero BMR and BBPR, except in the shoulders and in the extremities that were assigned non-zero values in a number of models. The next lowest values were assigned to the fat layers, with occasional zero values. Skin basal values were invariably non-zero but involved very low values in certain models, e.g., BBPR in the feet and the hands. Muscle layers were invariably assigned high values with the highest found in the thorax, abdomen, and legs. The brain, lung, and viscera layers were assigned the highest of all values of both basal quantities with those of the brain layers showing rather tight ranges of variability in both basal quantities. Average basal values of the "time-seasoned" models presented in this study could be useful as a first step in future modeling efforts subject to appropriate adjustment of values to conform to most recently available and reliable data.

  18. RNA transcription modulates phase transition-driven nuclear body assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joel; Weber, Stephanie C; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford P

    2015-09-22

    Nuclear bodies are RNA and protein-rich, membraneless organelles that play important roles in gene regulation. The largest and most well-known nuclear body is the nucleolus, an organelle whose primary function in ribosome biogenesis makes it key for cell growth and size homeostasis. The nucleolus and other nuclear bodies behave like liquid-phase droplets and appear to condense from the nucleoplasm by concentration-dependent phase separation. However, nucleoli actively consume chemical energy, and it is unclear how such nonequilibrium activity might impact classical liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we combine in vivo and in vitro experiments with theory and simulation to characterize the assembly and disassembly dynamics of nucleoli in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. In addition to classical nucleoli that assemble at the transcriptionally active nucleolar organizing regions, we observe dozens of "extranucleolar droplets" (ENDs) that condense in the nucleoplasm in a transcription-independent manner. We show that growth of nucleoli and ENDs is consistent with a first-order phase transition in which late-stage coarsening dynamics are mediated by Brownian coalescence and, to a lesser degree, Ostwald ripening. By manipulating C. elegans cell size, we change nucleolar component concentration and confirm several key model predictions. Our results show that rRNA transcription and other nonequilibrium biological activity can modulate the effective thermodynamic parameters governing nucleolar and END assembly, but do not appear to fundamentally alter the passive phase separation mechanism. PMID:26351690

  19. The forecasting of menstruation based on a state-space modeling of basal body temperature time series

    OpenAIRE

    Fukaya, Keiichi; Kawamori, Ai; Osada, Yutaka; Kitazawa, Masumi; Ishiguro, Makio

    2016-01-01

    Women's basal body temperature (BBT) follows a periodic pattern that is associated with the events in their menstrual cycle. Although daily BBT time series contain potentially useful information for estimating the underlying menstrual phase and for predicting the length of current menstrual cycle, few models have been constructed for BBT time series. Here, we propose a state-space model that includes menstrual phase as a latent state variable to explain fluctuations in BBT and menstrual cycle...

  20. Method of Measuring Fixture Automatic Design and Assembly for Auto-Body Part

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A method of 3-D measuring fixture automatic assembly for auto-body part is presented. Locating constraint mapping technique and assembly rule-based reasoning are applied. Calculating algorithm of the position and pose for the part model, fixture configuration and fixture elements in virtual auto-body assembly space are given. Transforming fixture element from itself coordinate system space to assembly space with homogeneous transformation matrix is realized. Based on the second development technique of unigraphics(UG), the automated assembly is implemented with application program interface (API) function. Lastly the automated assembly of measuring fixture for rear longeron as a case is implemented.

  1. Microtubule plus-end and minus-end capture at adherens junctions is involved in the assembly of apico-basal arrays in polarised epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellett, Gemma; Carter, Jane M; Keynton, Jennifer; Goldspink, Deborah; James, Colin; Moss, David K; Mogensen, Mette M

    2009-10-01

    Apico-basal polarisation of epithelial cells involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. The classic radial array of microtubules focused on a centrally located centrosome typical of many animal cells is lost or greatly reduced and a non-centrosomal apico-basal array develops. The molecules and mechanisms responsible for the assembly and positioning of these non-centrosomal microtubules have not been fully elucidated. Using a Nocodazole induced regrowth assay in invitro culture (MDCK) and in situ epithelial (cochlear Kolliker's) cell models we establish that the apico-basal array originates from the centrosome and that the non-centrosomal microtubule minus-end anchoring sites do not contribute significantly to their nucleation. Confocal and electron microscopy revealed that an extended radial array assembles with microtubule plus-ends targeting cadheren sites at adherens junctions and EB1 and CLIP-170 co-localising with beta-catenin and dynein clusters at the junction sites. The extended radial array is likely to be a vital intermediate step in the assembly process with cortical anchored dynein providing the mechanical force required for microtubule release, translocation and capture. Ultrastructural analyses of the apico-basal arrays in fully polarised MDCK and Kolliker's cells revealed microtubule minus-end association with the most apical adherens junction (Zonula adherens). We propose that a release and capture model involving both microtubule plus- and minus-end capture at adherens junctions is responsible for the generation of non-centrosomal apico-basal arrays in most centrosome containing polarised epithelial cells. PMID:19479825

  2. Epiboly generates the epidermal basal monolayer and spreads the nascent mammalian skin to enclose the embryonic body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousopoulou, Eleni; Hobbs, Carl; Mason, Ivor; Green, Jeremy B A; Formstone, Caroline J

    2016-05-01

    Epiboly is a morphogenetic process that is employed in the surface ectoderm of anamniotes during gastrulation to cover the entire embryo. We propose here that mammals also utilise this process to expand the epidermis and enclose the body cavity and spinal cord with a protective surface covering. Our data supports a model whereby epidermal spreading is driven by the primary establishment of the epidermal basal progenitor monolayer through radial cell intercalation of a multi-layered epithelium towards the basal lamina. By using a suspension organotypic culture strategy, we find that this process is fibronectin-dependent and autonomous to the skin. The radial cell rearrangements that drive epidermal spreading also require ROCK activity but are driven by cell protrusions and not myosin II contractility. Epidermal progenitor monolayer formation and epidermal spreading are delayed in Crash mice, which possess a dominant mutation in Celsr1, an orthologue of the core planar cell polarity (PCP) Drosophila protein Flamingo (also known as Stan). We observe a failure of ventral enclosure in Crash mutants suggesting that defective epidermal spreading might underlie some ventral wall birth defects. PMID:26989131

  3. Observation of granulations in the basal body of ovarioles and follicular dilatations for the determination of physiological age ofAnopheles gambiaes.s.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rodrigue Anagonou; Virgile Gnanguenon; Fiacre Agossa; Bruno Akinro; Armand Akpo; Martial Gbegbo; Albert Salako; Martin Akogbto

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore ovariole basal body granulations and follicular dilatations for determining physiological age inAnopheles gambiaes.s.(An. gambiaes.s.). Methods: Mosquitoes were collected by using window trap catch and identified morphologically. For the first lot ofmosquitoes, they were dissected, and ovary was left in distilled water for reading ovarian tracheoles and the second was cut and transferred to another blade in a physiological liquid for verification of ovariole basal body granulations. The same approach was followed with the second lot of mosquitoes where follicular dilatations were found after classic dilaceration of ovaries were transferred into physiological liquid. The other body parts of mosquitoes were used to identify the species of theAn. gambiaes.s. complex by PCR. Results:Among the 123An. gambiae s.s. of the first lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 89 mosquitoes versus 114 for the observation of granulations (P > 0.05). Among the 112An. gambiae s.s. of the second lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 84 mosquitoes versus 93 for the observation of follicular dilatations (P > 0.05). Unlike the method of Detinova, observation of follicular dilatations and basal body granulations of ovarioles were possible beyond the stage II Christophers. Conclusions: Overall, the observation of follicular dilatations and ovariole basal body granulations are reliable for the determination of the physiological age inAn. gambiaes.s. Furthermore, these two methods can be used beyond the stage II.

  4. Effect of calorie restriction on spontaneous physical activity and body mass in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) represents an important component of daily energy expenditures in animals and humans. Intra-specific variation in SPA may be related to the susceptibility to metabolic disease or obesity. In particular, reduced SPA under conditions of limited food availability may conserve energy and prevent loss of body and fat mass ('thrifty genotype hypothesis'). However, both SPA and its changes during food restriction show wide inter-individual variations. We studied the effect of 30% caloric restriction (CR) on SPA in laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) basal metabolic rate. Selection increased SPA in the H-BMR line but did not change it in the L-BMR mice. This effect reflected changes in SPA intensity but not SPA duration. CR increased SPA intensity more strongly in the L-BMR line than in the H-BMR line and significantly modified the temporal variation of SPA. However, the initial between-line differences in SPA were not affected by CR. Loss of body mass during CR did not differ between both lines. Our results show that the H-BMR mice can maintain their genetically determined high SPA under conditions of reduced food intake without sacrificing their body mass. We hypothesize that this pattern may reflect the higher flexibility in the energy budget in the H-BMR line, as we showed previously that mice from this line reduced their BMR during CR. These energy savings may allow for the maintenance of elevated SPA in spite of reduced food intake. We conclude that the effect of CR on SPA is in large part determined by the initial level of BMR, whose variation may account for the lack of universal pattern of behavioural responses to CR. PMID:27090226

  5. Wireless Low-Power Integrated Basal-Body-Temperature Detection Systems Using Teeth Antennas in the MedRadio Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Lung Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes using wireless low power thermal sensors for basal-body-temperature detection using frequency modulated telemetry devices. A long-term monitoring sensor requires low-power circuits including a sampling circuit and oscillator. Moreover, temperature compensated technologies are necessary because the modulated frequency might have additional frequency deviations caused by the varying temperature. The temperature compensated oscillator is composed of a ring oscillator and a controlled-steering current source with temperature compensation, so the output frequency of the oscillator does not drift with temperature variations. The chip is fabricated in a standard Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC 0.18-μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS process, and the chip area is 0.9 mm2. The power consumption of the sampling amplifier is 128 µW. The power consumption of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO core is less than 40 µW, and the output is −3.04 dBm with a buffer stage. The output voltage of the bandgap reference circuit is 1 V. For temperature measurements, the maximum error is 0.18 °C with a standard deviation of ±0.061 °C, which is superior to the required specification of 0.1 °C.

  6. New role for Cdc14 phosphatase: localization to basal bodies in the oomycete phytophthora and its evolutionary coinheritance with eukaryotic flagella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M V Ah-Fong

    Full Text Available Cdc14 protein phosphatases are well known for regulating the eukaryotic cell cycle, particularly during mitosis. Here we reveal a distinctly new role for Cdc14 based on studies of the microbial eukaryote Phytophthora infestans, the Irish potato famine agent. While Cdc14 is transcribed constitutively in yeast and animal cells, the P. infestans ortholog is expressed exclusively in spore stages of the life cycle and not in vegetative hyphae where the bulk of mitosis takes place. PiCdc14 expression is first detected in nuclei at sporulation, and during zoospore formation the protein accumulates at the basal body, which is the site from which flagella develop. The association of PiCdc14 with basal bodies was supported by co-localization studies with the DIP13 basal body protein and flagellar β-tubulin, and by demonstrating the enrichment of PiCdc14 in purified flagella-basal body complexes. Overexpressing PiCdc14 did not cause defects in growth or mitosis in hyphae, but interfered with cytoplasmic partitioning during zoosporogenesis. This cytokinetic defect might relate to its ability to bind microtubules, which was shown using an in vitro cosedimentation assay. The use of gene silencing to reveal the precise function of PiCdc14 in flagella is not possible since we showed previously that silencing prevents the formation of the precursor stage, sporangia. Nevertheless, the association of Cdc14 with flagella and basal bodies is consistent with their phylogenetic distribution in eukaryotes, as species that lack the ability to produce flagella generally also lack Cdc14. An ancestral role of Cdc14 in the flagellar stage of eukaryotes is thereby proposed.

  7. Observation of granulations in the basal body of ovarioles and follicular dilatations for the determination of physiological age of Anopheles gambiae s.s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigue Anagonou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore ovariole basal body granulations and follicular dilatations for determining physiological age in Anopheles gambiae s.s. (An. gambiae s.s.. Methods: Mosquitoes were collected by using window trap catch and identified morphologically. For the first lot of mosquitoes, they were dissected, and ovary was left in distilled water for reading ovarian tracheoles and the second was cut and transferred to another blade in a physiological liquid for verification of ovariole basal body granulations. The same approach was followed with the second lot of mosquitoes where follicular dilatations were found after classic dilaceration of ovaries were transferred into physiological liquid. The other body parts of mosquitoes were used to identify the species of the An. gambiae s.s. complex by PCR. Results: Among the 123 An. gambiae s.s. of the first lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 89 mosquitoes versus 114 for the observation of granulations (P > 0.05. Among the 112 An. gambiae s.s. of the second lot, the method of Detinova determined the age of 84 mosquitoes versus 93 for the observation of follicular dilatations (P > 0.05. Unlike the method of Detinova, observation of follicular dilatations and basal body granulations of ovarioles were possible beyond the stage II Christophers. Conclusions: Overall, the observation of follicular dilatations and ovariole basal body granulations are reliable for the determination of the physiological age in An. gambiae s.s. Furthermore, these two methods can be used beyond the stage II.

  8. Assembly of the Nuclear Transcription and Processing Machinery: Cajal Bodies (Coiled Bodies) and Transcriptosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Gall, Joseph G.; Bellini, Michel; Wu, Zheng’an; Murphy, Christine

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of RNA transcription and processing factors in the amphibian oocyte nucleus or germinal vesicle. RNA polymerase I (pol I), pol II, and pol III occur in the Cajal bodies (coiled bodies) along with various components required for transcription and processing of the three classes of nuclear transcripts: mRNA, rRNA, and pol III transcripts. Among these components are transcription factor IIF (TFIIF), TFIIS, splicing factors, the U7 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein...

  9. Role of Rck-Pat1b binding in assembly of processing-bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur, Sevim; Stoecklin, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The DEAD box RNA helicase Rck and the scaffold protein Pat1b participate in controlling gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by suppressing mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decapping. In addition, both proteins are required for the assembly of processing (P)-bodies, cytoplasmic foci that contain stalled mRNAs and numerous components of the mRNA decay machinery. The C-terminal RecA-like domain of Rck interacts with the N-terminal acidic domain of Pat1b. Here, we identified poin...

  10. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  11. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Li-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng

    2011-01-01

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  12. Selective internalization of self-assembled artificial oil bodies by HER2/neu-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, Chung-Jen; Lin, Che-Chin [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Li-Jen [School of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chao, Yun-Peng, E-mail: cjchiang@mail.cmu.edu.tw, E-mail: ypchao@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2011-01-07

    A novel delivery carrier was developed using artificial oil bodies (AOBs). Plant seed oil bodies (OBs) consist of a triacylglycerol matrix surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids embedded with the storage protein oleosin (Ole). Ole consists of a central hydrophobic domain with two amphiphatic arms that extrude from the surface of OBs. In this study, a bivalent anti-HER2/neu affibody domain (ZH2) was fused with Ole at the C terminus. After overproduction in Escherichia coli, the fusion protein (Ole-ZH2) was recovered to assemble AOBs. The size of self-assembled AOBs was tailored by varying the oil/Ole-ZH2 ratio and pH to reach a nanoscale. Upon co-incubation with tumor cells, the nanoscale AOBs encapsulated with a hydrophobic fluorescence dye were selectively internalized by HER2/neu-overexpressing cells and displayed biocompatibility with the cells. In addition, the ZH2-mediated endosomal entry of AOBs occurred in a time- and AOB dose-dependent manner. The internalization efficiency was as high as 90%. The internalized AOBs disintegrated at the non-permissive pH (e.g. in acidic endosomes) and the cargo dye was released. Results of in vitro study revealed a sustained and prolonged release profile. Taken together, our findings indicate the potential of AOBs as a delivery carrier.

  13. Basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies come from positive-negative charge separation caused by gravitation of quasi-Casimir pressure in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies will affect directly all fields referring to the electromagnetic characteristics in space science, e.g., it predict that the spin speed of the sunspot is in direct proportion to its magnetic moment.

  14. Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epithelioma, is the most common form of skin cancer. Basal cell carcinoma usually occurs on sun-damaged skin, especially ... other health issues. Infiltrating or morpheaform basal cell carcinomas: Infiltrating basal cell carcinomas can be more aggressive and locally destructive ...

  15. In vivo measurements of whole body (WB) and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism under basal and euglycemic insulin clamp (Clamp) by combined PET and stable isotope (SI) tracer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim/Background: Primed-constant infusion of SI labeled tracers is a classic technique for studying metabolism at the WB level, however, this procedure provides no information about the metabolism of specific tissues. In contrast PET provides primarily tissue specific data. In this study, we combined PET with SI techniques to measure glucose metabolism in WB and lower limb skeletal muscle (LLM) of humans under Basal and Clamp conditions. Methods and Materials: Four healthy volunteers (73.0 ± 6.0 kg, mean ± sem) were studied. After fasting overnight, each subject was injected with 10 mCi of 18FDG and serial 1.0 min. PET images of the mid-thigh region were acquired over 90 min. Arterial blood samples were collected in parallel. Glucose metabolic rate (GM) was calculated with a 3-compartment / 4 rate constant model; LC assumed to be 1.0. A primed constant infusion of [6,6, 2H2]glucose was performed in parallel with the PET measurements. On another day, the PET and SI measurements were repeated under clamp conditions. All results are expressed as mean ± sem. Results: The glucose kinetics in whole body and in low limb skeletal muscles are shown. Under in vivo conditions, Clamp caused: 1) a 10.2 ± 2.3 fold increase in GM by LLM but only a 4.7 ± 0.4 fold increase in GM by MB. 2) Increased contribution of LLM to WB GM, indicating that LLM GM is more sensitive to insulin compared with anterior LLM (extensors). Discussion: The study demonstrated the unique advantages of using PET to study substrate metabolism in specific tissues in human subjects: i) It is less invasive than the conventional A-V difference and muscle biopsy method. ii) It provides a more detailed picture of substrate metabolism in different parts of the muscle in the same limb, as compared to one spot muscle biopsy. Data in demonstrated that GM in posterior LLM is more sensitive to insulin than that in anterior LLM. iii) It can detect substrate metabolism in deep muscles which cannot be reached by biopsy

  16. Phylogenetic differences of mammalian basal metabolic rate are not explained by mitochondrial basal proton leak

    OpenAIRE

    Polymeropoulos, E. T.; Heldmaier, G; Frappell, P. B.; McAllan, B. M.; Withers, K. W.; M. Klingenspor; White, C.R.; Jastroch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rates of mammals presumably increased during the evolution of endothermy, but molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying basal metabolic rate (BMR) are still not understood. It has been established that mitochondrial basal proton leak contributes significantly to BMR. Comparative studies among a diversity of eutherian mammals showed that BMR correlates with body mass and proton leak. Here, we studied BMR and mitochondrial basal proton leak in liver of various marsupial species. Su...

  17. Dis/Assembling Schizophrenia on YouTube: Theorizing an Analog Body in a Virtual Sphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Erica Hua

    2016-09-01

    As visual technologies become increasingly networked online, websites like YouTube provide a space to share vlogs (video blogs) online, suggest related content for viewers, and help in/form virtual communities, including those of mental illness. Within this space, vlogs of schizophrenia and comments generated about them by other users can represent transitional, dialogical states of illness that speak back to the analog body and affect a body's way of being in the world. Moreover, as vlogs create resistance against static definitions of schizophrenia, they may foster a creativity, experimentation, and inventiveness that transforms understandings of schizophrenia within the sciences and humanities. PMID:24897961

  18. A component modes projection and assembly model reduction methodology for articulated, multi-flexible body structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allan Y.; Tsuha, Walter S.

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage model reduction methodology, combining the classical Component Mode Synthesis (CMS) method and the newly developed Enhanced Projection and Assembly (EP&A) method, is proposed in this research. The first stage of this methodology, called the COmponent Modes Projection and Assembly model REduction (COMPARE) method, involves the generation of CMS mode sets, such as the MacNeal-Rubin mode sets. These mode sets are then used to reduce the order of each component model in the Rayleigh-Ritz sense. The resultant component models are then combined to generate reduced-order system models at various system configurations. A composite mode set which retains important system modes at all system configurations is then selected from these reduced-order system models. In the second stage, the EP&A model reduction method is employed to reduce further the order of the system model generated in the first stage. The effectiveness of the COMPARE methodology has been successfully demonstrated on a high-order, finite-element model of the cruise-configured Galileo spacecraft.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Request Permissions Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 04/2016 What is Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome? Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is ...

  20. Direct numerical simulations of rigid body dispersions. I. Mobility/Friction tensors of assemblies of spheres

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, John Jairo; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2013-01-01

    An improved formulation of the Smoothed Profile method is introduced to perform direct numerical simulations of arbitrary rigid body dispersions in a Newtonian host solvent. Previous implementations of the method were restricted to spherical particles, severely limiting the types of systems that could be studied. The validity of the method is carefully examined by computing the friction/mobility tensors for a wide variety of geometries and comparing them to reference values obtained from accu...

  1. Direct numerical simulations of rigid body dispersions. I. Mobility/friction tensors of assemblies of spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, John J; Yamamoto, Ryoichi

    2013-12-21

    An improved formulation of the "Smoothed Profile" method is introduced to perform direct numerical simulations of arbitrary rigid body dispersions in a Newtonian host solvent. Previous implementations of the method were restricted to spherical particles, severely limiting the types of systems that could be studied. The validity of the method is carefully examined by computing the friction/mobility tensors for a wide variety of geometries and comparing them to reference values obtained from accurate solutions to the Stokes-Equation. PMID:24359350

  2. Regulation of spindle pole body assembly and cytokinesis by the centrin-binding protein Sfi1 in fission yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Ju; Wang, Ning; Hu, Wen; Schott, Kersey; Bähler, Jürg; Giddings, Thomas H; Pringle, John R; Du, Li-Lin; Wu, Jian-Qiu

    2014-09-15

    Centrosomes play critical roles in the cell division cycle and ciliogenesis. Sfi1 is a centrin-binding protein conserved from yeast to humans. Budding yeast Sfi1 is essential for the initiation of spindle pole body (SPB; yeast centrosome) duplication. However, the recruitment and partitioning of Sfi1 to centrosomal structures have never been fully investigated in any organism, and the presumed importance of the conserved tryptophans in the internal repeats of Sfi1 remains untested. Here we report that in fission yeast, instead of doubling abruptly at the initiation of SPB duplication and remaining at a constant level thereafter, Sfi1 is gradually recruited to SPBs throughout the cell cycle. Like an sfi1Δ mutant, a Trp-to-Arg mutant (sfi1-M46) forms monopolar spindles and exhibits mitosis and cytokinesis defects. Sfi1-M46 protein associates preferentially with one of the two daughter SPBs during mitosis, resulting in a failure of new SPB assembly in the SPB receiving insufficient Sfi1. Although all five conserved tryptophans tested are involved in Sfi1 partitioning, the importance of the individual repeats in Sfi1 differs. In summary, our results reveal a link between the conserved tryptophans and Sfi1 partitioning and suggest a revision of the model for SPB assembly. PMID:25031431

  3. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  4. Somatotopic Organization of the Primate Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei....

  5. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-01-01

    Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. ...

  6. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  7. Oxidative stress-induced assembly of PML nuclear bodies controls sumoylation of partner proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Umut; Ferhi, Omar; Jeanne, Marion; Benhenda, Shirine; Berthier, Caroline; Jollivet, Florence; Niwa-Kawakita, Michiko; Faklaris, Orestis; Setterblad, Niclas; de Thé, Hugues; Lallemand-Breitenbach, Valérie

    2014-03-17

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein organizes PML nuclear bodies (NBs), which are stress-responsive domains where many partner proteins accumulate. Here, we clarify the basis for NB formation and identify stress-induced partner sumoylation as the primary NB function. NB nucleation does not rely primarily on intermolecular interactions between the PML SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) and SUMO, but instead results from oxidation-mediated PML multimerization. Oxidized PML spherical meshes recruit UBC9, which enhances PML sumoylation, allow partner recruitment through SIM interactions, and ultimately enhance partner sumoylation. Intermolecular SUMO-SIM interactions then enforce partner sequestration within the NB inner core. Accordingly, oxidative stress enhances NB formation and global sumoylation in vivo. Some NB-associated sumoylated partners also become polyubiquitinated by RNF4, precipitating their proteasomal degradation. As several partners are protein-modifying enzymes, NBs could act as sensors that facilitate and confer oxidative stress sensitivity not only to sumoylation but also to other post-translational modifications, thereby explaining alterations of stress response upon PML or NB loss. PMID:24637324

  8. Autoimmune basal ganglia disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    The basal ganglia are deep nuclei in the brain that include the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and substantia nigra. Pathological processes involving the basal ganglia often result in disorders of movement and behavior. A number of different autoimmune disorders predominantly involve the basal ganglia and can result in movement and psychiatric disorders. The classic basal ganglia autoimmune disorder is Sydenham chorea, a poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder. Resurgence in the interest in Sydenham chorea is the result of the descriptions of other poststreptococcal neuropsychiatric disorders including tics and obsessive-compulsive disorder, broadly termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection. Encephalitic processes affecting the basal ganglia are also described including the syndromes basal ganglia encephalitis, encephalitis lethargica, and bilateral striatal necrosis. Last, systemic autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome can result in chorea or parkinsonism. Using paradigms learned from other autoantibody associated disorders, the authors discuss the autoantibody hypothesis and the role of systemic inflammation in autoimmune basal ganglia disorders. Identification of these entities is important as the clinician has an increasing therapeutic repertoire to modulate or suppress the aberrant immune system. PMID:22832771

  9. Satellite alignment. I. Distribution of substructures and their dependence on assembly history from n-body simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. This alignment is dependent on galaxy properties, such that red satellites are more strongly aligned than blue satellites. Theoretical work conducted to interpret this phenomenon has found that it is due to the non-spherical nature of dark matter halos. However, most studies overpredict the alignment signal under the assumption that the central galaxy shape follows the shape of the host halo. It is also not clear whether the color dependence of alignment is due to an assembly bias or an evolution effect. In this paper we study these problems using a cosmological N-body simulation. Subhalos are used to trace the positions of satellite galaxies. It is found that the shapes of dark matter halos are mis-aligned at different radii. If the central galaxy shares the same shape as the inner host halo, then the alignment effect is weaker and agrees with observational data. However, it predicts almost no dependence of alignment on the color of satellite galaxies, though the late accreted subhalos show stronger alignment with the outer layer of the host halo than their early accreted counterparts. We find that this is due to the limitation of pure N-body simulations where satellite galaxies without associated subhalos ('orphan galaxies') are not resolved. These orphan (mostly red) satellites often reside in the inner region of host halos and should follow the shape of the host halo in the inner region.

  10. Satellite alignment. I. Distribution of substructures and their dependence on assembly history from n-body simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yang Ocean; Lin, W. P.; Yu, Yu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Kang, X. [The Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Dutton, Aaron; Macciò, Andrea V., E-mail: wangyang@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Max-Planck-Institute für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. This alignment is dependent on galaxy properties, such that red satellites are more strongly aligned than blue satellites. Theoretical work conducted to interpret this phenomenon has found that it is due to the non-spherical nature of dark matter halos. However, most studies overpredict the alignment signal under the assumption that the central galaxy shape follows the shape of the host halo. It is also not clear whether the color dependence of alignment is due to an assembly bias or an evolution effect. In this paper we study these problems using a cosmological N-body simulation. Subhalos are used to trace the positions of satellite galaxies. It is found that the shapes of dark matter halos are mis-aligned at different radii. If the central galaxy shares the same shape as the inner host halo, then the alignment effect is weaker and agrees with observational data. However, it predicts almost no dependence of alignment on the color of satellite galaxies, though the late accreted subhalos show stronger alignment with the outer layer of the host halo than their early accreted counterparts. We find that this is due to the limitation of pure N-body simulations where satellite galaxies without associated subhalos ('orphan galaxies') are not resolved. These orphan (mostly red) satellites often reside in the inner region of host halos and should follow the shape of the host halo in the inner region.

  11. Satellite Alignment: I. Distribution of Substructures and Their Dependence On Assembly History From N-Body Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yang Ocean; Kang, Xi; Dutton, Aaron; Yu, Yu; Macciò, Andrea V

    2014-01-01

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but aligned with the major axes of central galaxies. This alignment is dependent on galaxy properties, such that red satellites are more strongly aligned than blue satellites. Theoretical work done to interpret this phenomena has found that it is due to the non-spherical nature of dark matter halos. However, most studies over-predict the alignment signal under the assumption that the central galaxy shape follows the shape of the host halo. It is also not clear whether the color dependence of alignment is due to an assembly bias or an evolution effect. In this paper we study these problems using a cosmological N-body simulation. Subhalos are used to trace the positions of satellite galaxies. It is found that the shape of dark matter halos are mis-aligned at different radii. If the central galaxy shares the same shape as the inner host halo, then the alignment effect is weaker and agrees with observational data. However, ...

  12. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Nambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  13. Yb Integrates piRNA Intermediates and Processing Factors into Perinuclear Bodies to Enhance piRISC Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Murota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs direct Piwi to repress transposons and maintain genome integrity in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells. piRNA maturation and association with Piwi occur at perinuclear Yb bodies, the centers of piRNA biogenesis. Here, we show that piRNA intermediates arising from the piRNA cluster flamenco (flam localize to perinuclear foci adjacent to Yb bodies, termed Flam bodies. RNAi-based screening of piRNA factors revealed that Flam body formation depends on Yb, the core component of Yb bodies, while Piwi and another Yb body component, Armitage, are dispensable for formation. Abolishing the RNA-binding activity of Yb disrupts both Flam bodies and Yb bodies. Yb directly binds flam, but not transcripts from neighboring protein-coding genes. Thus, Yb integrates piRNA intermediates and piRNA processing factors selectively into Flam bodies and Yb bodies, respectively. We suggest that Yb is a key upstream factor in the cytoplasmic phase of the piRNA pathway in ovarian somatic cells.

  14. Yb integrates piRNA intermediates and processing factors into perinuclear bodies to enhance piRISC assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murota, Yukiko; Ishizu, Hirotsugu; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Iwasaki, Yuka W; Shibata, Shinsuke; Kamatani, Miharu K; Saito, Kuniaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Siomi, Haruhiko; Siomi, Mikiko C

    2014-07-10

    PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Piwi to repress transposons and maintain genome integrity in Drosophila ovarian somatic cells. piRNA maturation and association with Piwi occur at perinuclear Yb bodies, the centers of piRNA biogenesis. Here, we show that piRNA intermediates arising from the piRNA cluster flamenco (flam) localize to perinuclear foci adjacent to Yb bodies, termed Flam bodies. RNAi-based screening of piRNA factors revealed that Flam body formation depends on Yb, the core component of Yb bodies, while Piwi and another Yb body component, Armitage, are dispensable for formation. Abolishing the RNA-binding activity of Yb disrupts both Flam bodies and Yb bodies. Yb directly binds flam, but not transcripts from neighboring protein-coding genes. Thus, Yb integrates piRNA intermediates and piRNA processing factors selectively into Flam bodies and Yb bodies, respectively. We suggest that Yb is a key upstream factor in the cytoplasmic phase of the piRNA pathway in ovarian somatic cells. PMID:24953657

  15. Development of a Solid-State Resistance Weld for Joining Dual-Burst Disk Assemblies to Vessel Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program was to develop a solid-state resistance plug weld for installation of dual-burst disk assemblies in a set of tritium storage vessels. This is a cooperative effort with the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Los Alamos designed the vessels and also designed a supplied ten pairs of tests parts for development. Following development of the weld, a set of about eight vessels will be fabricated for tritium storage tests. These tests will demonstrate functioning of the dual-burst disk assembly in addition to demonstrating long-term compatibility of the plug weld for tritium service

  16. Synergistic role of fission yeast Alp16GCP6 and Mzt1MOZART1 in γ-tubulin complex recruitment to mitotic spindle pole bodies and spindle assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Hirohisa; Toda, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    In fission yeast, γ-tubulin ring complex (γTuRC)-specific components Gfh1(GCP4), Mod21(GCP5), and Alp16(GCP6) are nonessential for cell growth. Of these deletion mutants, only alp16Δ shows synthetic lethality with temperature-sensitive mutants of Mzt1(MOZART1), a component of the γTuRC required for recruitment of the complex to microtubule-organizing centers. γ-Tubulin small complex levels at mitotic spindle pole bodies (SPBs, the centrosome equivalent in fungi) and microtubule levels for preanaphase spindles are significantly reduced in alp16Δ cells but not in gfh1Δ or mod21Δ cells. Furthermore, alp16Δ cells often form monopolar spindles and frequently lose a minichromosome when the spindle assembly checkpoint is inactivated. Alp16(GCP6) promotes Mzt1-dependent γTuRC recruitment to mitotic SPBs and enhances spindle microtubule assembly in a manner dependent on its expression levels. Gfh1(GCP4) and Mod21(GCP5) are not required for Alp16(GCP6)-dependent γTuRC recruitment. Mzt1 has an additional role in the activation of the γTuRC for spindle microtubule assembly. The ratio of Mzt1 to γTuRC levels for preanaphase spindles is higher than at other stages of the cell cycle. Mzt1 overproduction enhances spindle microtubule assembly without affecting γTuRC levels at mitotic SPBs. We propose that Alp16(GCP6) and Mzt1 act synergistically for efficient bipolar spindle assembly to ensure faithful chromosome segregation. PMID:27053664

  17. Basal cell carcinoma of the perineum

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Adriane Ann; Dabade, Tushar; Dandekar, Monisha; Rogers, Gary; Rosmarin, David

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common nonmelanoma skin cancer. Most BCCs are found on areas of UV-damaged skin, The study of BCCs of sun-protected regions, however, suggests a more complex pathogenesis. We present a case of BCC of the perineum in a man with no previous history of skin cancer. This is the first report of BCC in this region and one of a small body of cases arising on or near the genital and perianal regions.

  18. Phase Transitions in the Nucleus: the functional implications of concentration-dependent assembly of a Liquid-like RNA/Protein Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lian; Weber, Stephanie; Berry, Joel; Vaidya, Nilesh; Haataja, Mikko; Brangwynne, Clifford

    2015-03-01

    The nucleolus is a liquid-like membrane-less nuclear body which plays an important role in cell growth and size control. By modulating nucleolar component concentration through RNAi conditions that change C. elegans cell size, we find that nucleoli only assemble above a threshold concentration; moreover, the ripening dynamics of nucleated droplets are consistent with the hypothesis that the assembly of the nucleolus represents an intracellular liquid-liquid phase transition. A key question is how this phase-transition is linked to the primary function of the nucleolus, in transcribing and processing ribosomal RNA. To address this, we characterize the localization of RNA Polymerase I, a key transcriptional enzyme, into nucleolar foci as a function of nucleolar component concentration. Our results suggest that there are a small number of key disordered phosphoproteins that may serve as a link between transcription and assembly. Finally, we present preliminary results using a reduced model system consisting of purified nucleolar proteins to assess the ability of nucleolar proteins to drive liquid-liquid phase separation in vitro. These results lay the foundation for a quantitative understanding of intracellular phase transitions and their impact on biomedically-critical RNA-processing steps.

  19. Ha83, a Chitin Binding Domain Encoding Gene, Is Important to Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedrovirus Budded Virus Production and Occlusion Body Assembling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huan; Xu, Jian; Liu, Qiang; Liu, Tong-Xian; Wang, Dun

    2015-01-01

    Helicoerpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ha83 is a late expressed gene that encodes a chitin binding protein. Chitin domain truncation studies revealed that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position probably played an important role in both chitin binding ability and protein transmission of Ha83. In order to study the function of ha83 in the HearNPV infection cycle, an ha83 knockout HearNPV (Ha83KO) was constructed via homologous recombination. Viral growth and viral DNA replication curves showed that fewer budded virions were produced in Ha83KO transfected cells, while viral DNA replication was increased. Electron microscopy revealed that fewer nucleocapsids were transmitted from virogenic stroma in the Ha83KO transfected cell nucleus, and the morphology of occlusion bodies was prominently larger and cube-shaped. Furthermore, DNA quantity in occlusion bodies of Ha83KO was significantly lower than the occlusion bodies of HaWT. The transcription analysis indicated that these changes may be due to the decreased expression level of viral structural associated genes, such as polyhedrin, p10, pif-2, or cg30 in Ha83KO infected cells. Above results demonstrated that the cysteine at the 128 amino acid position in Ha83 might be the key amino acid, and Ha83 plays an important role in BVs production and OBs assembling. PMID:26057202

  20. Can virtual reality predict body part discomfort and performance of people in realistic world for assembling tasks?

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Salvendy, Gaverial; Chablat, Damien; Bennis, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our work on relationship of evaluation results between virtual environment (VE) and realistic environment (RE) for assembling tasks. Evaluation results consist of subjective results (BPD and RPE) and objective results (posture and physical performance). Same tasks were performed with same experimental configurations and evaluation results were measured in RE and VE respectively. Then these evaluation results were compared. Slight difference of posture between VE and RE was found but not great difference of effect on people according to conventional ergonomics posture assessment method. Correlation of BPD and performance results between VE and RE are found by linear regression method. Moreover, results of BPD, physical performance, and RPE in VE are higher than that in RE with significant difference. Furthermore, these results indicates that subjects feel more discomfort and fatigue in VE than RE because of additional effort required in VE.

  1. Assembly Connecting Modes of Automotive Lamp Hood and Lamp Body%汽车灯罩与灯体装配连接方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶永亮

    2012-01-01

    汽车灯罩与灯体装配连接的质量直接关系到整个灯具的质量。根据灯罩与灯体不同材料组合的形式,文章介绍了粘胶连接式、热板焊接式、超声波焊接式、激光焊接式和摩擦焊接式5种连接方式及其优缺点,指出超声波焊接和激光焊接能够较好地达到气密性和外观要求。在未来灯具装配中,主要利用热塑性塑料分子链扩散进行塑料零件焊接,粘胶粘接将被超声波焊接、激光焊接和热板焊接等方式取代。%The assembly quality of automotive lamp hood and lamp body is directly related to the whole lamp quality. Based on The different material combination of lamp hood and body, five kinds of connection modes-viscose bonding, hot plate welding. uhrasonie wehting, laser welding and friction welding as well as advantage and disadvantage are introduced, It is indicated thai uhrasonie welding anTI laser wehling can meet the requirements of air tightness and appearance. In the future lamp assembly, thermoplaslie plastics molecular chain diffusion is used in plastic parts welding. And viscose bonding will be subs|ituted by uhrasonie welding, laser welding and hot plate welding.

  2. Fire resistant PV shingle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, Carl J.

    2012-10-02

    A fire resistant PV shingle assembly includes a PV assembly, including PV body, a fire shield and a connection member connecting the fire shield below the PV body, and a support and inter-engagement assembly. The support and inter-engagement assembly is mounted to the PV assembly and comprises a vertical support element, supporting the PV assembly above a support surface, an upper interlock element, positioned towards the upper PV edge, and a lower interlock element, positioned towards the lower PV edge. The upper interlock element of one PV shingle assembly is inter-engageable with the lower interlock element of an adjacent PV shingle assembly. In some embodiments the PV shingle assembly may comprise a ventilation path below the PV body. The PV body may be slidably mounted to the connection member to facilitate removal of the PV body.

  3. Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David H.

    2012-04-10

    Sensor mount assemblies and sensor assemblies are provided. In an embodiment, by way of example only, a sensor mount assembly includes a busbar, a main body, a backing surface, and a first finger. The busbar has a first end and a second end. The main body is overmolded onto the busbar. The backing surface extends radially outwardly relative to the main body. The first finger extends axially from the backing surface, and the first finger has a first end, a second end, and a tooth. The first end of the first finger is disposed on the backing surface, and the tooth is formed on the second end of the first finger.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannucci E

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with

  5. Short latency cerebellar modulation of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christopher H; Fremont, Rachel; Arteaga-Bracho, Eduardo E; Khodakhah, Kamran

    2014-12-01

    The graceful, purposeful motion of our body is an engineering feat that remains unparalleled in robotic devices using advanced artificial intelligence. Much of the information required for complex movements is generated by the cerebellum and the basal ganglia in conjunction with the cortex. Cerebellum and basal ganglia have been thought to communicate with each other only through slow, multi-synaptic cortical loops, begging the question as to how they coordinate their outputs in real time. We found that the cerebellum rapidly modulates the activity of the striatum via a disynaptic pathway in mice. Under physiological conditions, this short latency pathway was capable of facilitating optimal motor control by allowing the basal ganglia to incorporate time-sensitive cerebellar information and by guiding the sign of cortico-striatal plasticity. Conversely, under pathological condition, this pathway relayed aberrant cerebellar activity to the basal ganglia to cause dystonia. PMID:25402853

  6. [Anti-basal ganglia antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-04-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) is a major manifestation of rheumatic fever, and the production of anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) has been proposed in SC. The pathogenesis is hypothesized as autoimmune targeting of the basal ganglia via molecular mimicry, triggered by streptococcal infection. The spectrum of diseases in which ABGA may be involved has been broadened to include other extrapyramidal movement disorders, such as tics, dystonia, and Parkinsonism, as well as other psychiatric disorders. The autoimmune hypothesis in the presence and absence of ABGA has been suggested in Tourette's syndrome (TS), early onset obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). Recently, the relationship between ABGA and dopamine neurons in the basal ganglia has been examined, and autoantibodies against dopamine receptors were detected in the sera from patients with basal ganglia encephalitis. In Japan, the occurrence of subacute encephalitis, where patients suffer from episodes of altered behavior and involuntary movements, has increased. Immune-modulating treatments are effective, indicating the involvement of an autoimmune mechanism. We aimed to detect the anti-neuronal autoantibodies in such encephalitis, using immunohistochemical assessment of patient sera. The sera from patients showing involuntary movements had immunoreactivity for basal ganglia neurons. Further epitopes for ABGA will be investigated in basal ganglia disorders other than SC, TS, OCD, and PANDAS. PMID:23568985

  7. Cardiovascular effects of basal insulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281

  8. Method of loading fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To shorten the fuel assembly loading time by loading fuel assembly group as one body into the reactor core. Method: A fuel assembly is fed from an auxiliary reactor building via a pit crane into the reactor container, and is stood from lateral position to vertical position. Further, the fuel assemblies are moved laterallyiin a pool of the container, and every four assembly groups are formed by an aligning jig. These assembly groups are associated into one body and loaded into the container. Thus, the round trip time of the crane in the fuel assembly loading work can be shortened. (Yoshihara, H.)

  9. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    OpenAIRE

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-01-01

    Most of the variation (98.8 %) in basal rate of metabolism (BMR) in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food h...

  10. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra A; Balachandran C; Shenoi S; Sabitha L; Pai Satish; Ravikumar B; Roy Alfred

    1999-01-01

    Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  11. Karsinoma Sel Basal Pada Wajah

    OpenAIRE

    Hastuti

    2008-01-01

    Karsinoma sel basal merupakan tumor ganas pada lapisan epidermis kulit yang paling umum dijumpai. Lokasi tumor iui paling banyak pada wajah dibandingkan anggota tubuh lainnya. Etiologi tumor iui diduga berhubungan dengan cahaya matahari yang mengandung sinar ultraviolet yang karsinogenik. Klasifikasi tumor ini dibagi berdasarkan gambaran kliuis dan histopatologisnya. Diagnosa tumor ini dapat ditegakkan dengan pemeriksaan k1inis dan histologis, pemeriksaan radiologis jarang digunakan. Diag...

  12. Basal cell carcinoma of penis: case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, M Z; Polacarz, S V; Partington, P E

    1988-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the penis is rare. A patient who presented with a penile and scrotal ulcer due to basal cell carcinoma is reported. Wide local excision and split skin grafting were performed to excise the lesion completely.

  13. Pulmonary Metastasis of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Sang-Hee; Shim, Woo-Haing; SHIN, DONG-HOON; Kim, Yun-Seong; Sung, Hyun-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Although basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, it rarely metastasizes. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma may, therefore, initially elude diagnosis and management. We describe the case of a patient with a metastatic basal cell carcinoma present in the lungs. The differential diagnosis of suspected metastatic lesions should include metastases from a cutaneous basal cell carcinoma, in addition to those from more commonly metastasizing carcinomas, especially in patients with a histor...

  14. Research of Effect of Acne Vulgaris on The Basal Metabolic Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Selcuk Ozdogan

    2011-01-01

     Aim: To determine the relation between basal metobolic rate and acne vulgaris in the teenage population.Material and Methods: We studied basal metabolic rate in 106 boarding school boys, all 14 years old (53 with acne, 53 without acne) .BMR measurement is done from 8 points, 4 extremities and body with bioimpedance device In Body 230. Results; In the group with acne Basal Metabolic Rate was higher than control group . There is a significant difference between two groups (p=0.009). Concl...

  15. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  16. Basal cell carcinoma-treatment with cryosurgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur S; Thami G; Kanwar A

    2003-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common cutaneous malignancy, frequently occurring over the face in elderly individuals. Various therapeutic modalities are available to treat these tumors. We describe three patients with basal cell carcinoma successfully treated with cryosurgery and discuss the indications and the use of this treatment modality for basal cell carcinomas.

  17. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Wang; Tracey Harbert; Jennifer Olivella; Daniel Olson; Sarma, Deba P; Stephanie Ortman

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an uncommon and unusual variant of BCC, which is characterized by a variable component of clear cells. The pathogenesis of this histological variant and its clinical significance has not been clarified. Differentiation of this uncommon variant of BCC from other clear cell tumors is important for the treatment. Case Presentation. A 65-year-old male presented with a 0.9 cm dome-shaped lesion on his upper chest. A shave biopsy revealed a der...

  18. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, D.; Hoggenmueller, U.; Becker, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. fuer Neuroradiologie; Hofmann, E. [Division of Neuroradiology, University of Wuerzburg (Germany); Fischer, R. [Medical Division Heinz Kalk-Klinik, Bad Kissingen (Germany); Kraus, M.; Scheurlen, M. [Department of Medicine, University of Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2000-01-01

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  19. The basal ganglia in haemochromatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haemochromatosis is characterised by deposition of iron-containing pigment in various organs, but little is known about possible deposition in the brain and its clinical impact. We therefore investigated 14 patients with hereditary haemochromatosis with MRI, CT and transcranial ultrasound (TCS) and examined them neurologically. In six of the patients dense lesions were found within the lentiform nucleus on CT, all of whom displayed hyperechogenic lesions in the same area on TCS, as did one other patient. In these patients the relative signal intensities of the lentiform nucleus measured by MRI relaxometry were higher. No patient had clinical signs of basal ganglia disorders. (orig.)

  20. Subsystems of the basal ganglia and motor infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Kamali Sarvestani, Iman

    2013-01-01

    The motor nervous system is one of the main systems of the body and is our principle means ofbehavior. Some of the most debilitating and wide spread disorders are motor systempathologies. In particular the basal ganglia are complex networks of the brain that control someaspects of movement in all vertebrates. Although these networks have been extensively studied,lack of proper methods to study them on a system level has hindered the process ofunderstanding what they do and how they do it. In ...

  1. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  2. Fe-S Cluster Assembly Pathways in Bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala-Castro, Carla; Saini, Avneesh; Outten, F. Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Summary: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are required for critical biochemical pathways, including respiration, photosynthesis, and nitrogen fixation. Assembly of these iron cofactors is a carefully controlled process in cells to avoid toxicity from free iron and sulfide. Multiple Fe-S cluster assembly pathways are present in bacteria to carry out basal cluster assembly, stress-responsive cluster assembly, and enzyme-specific cluster assembly. Although biochemical and genetic characterization is ...

  3. Fuel nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Lacey, Benjamin Paul; York, William David; Stevenson, Christian Xavier

    2011-08-30

    A fuel nozzle assembly is provided. The assembly includes an outer nozzle body having a first end and a second end and at least one inner nozzle tube having a first end and a second end. One of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel plenum and a fuel passage extending therefrom, while the other of the nozzle body or nozzle tube includes a fuel injection hole slidably aligned with the fuel passage to form a fuel flow path therebetween at an interface between the body and the tube. The nozzle body and the nozzle tube are fixed against relative movement at the first ends of the nozzle body and nozzle tube, enabling the fuel flow path to close at the interface due to thermal growth after a flame enters the nozzle tube.

  4. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divvya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differentiation is practically very rare.

  5. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA WITH ECCRINE DIFFERENTIATION: A RARE ENTITY

    OpenAIRE

    Divvya; Rehana; Viswanathan; Krishnaswamy; Anvar Ali

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma preferentially occurs in the face where the surgical excision with adequate margin is curative. Sometimes basal cell carcinoma is also reported rarely in other sites especially associated with basal cell carcinoma syndrome. The histological variants are Nodular basal cell carcinoma, Keratotic basal cell carcinoma, Adenoid basal cell carcinoma, Basal cell carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation. Of these variants, Basal cell carcinoma with eccrine differen...

  6. Positron emission tomography and basal ganglia functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of positron emission tomography (PET), studies on the human brain function and pathophysiology of brain damage have been extremely progressed. It is well-known that the basal ganglia plays an important role as one of the central nervous system involved in exercise regulation. More recently, the potential involvement of the basal ganglia in psychological processes, such as cognitive function, has been pointed out, receiving much attention. In spite of such a lot of studies, however, basal ganglia function remains unclear. This paper describes the relationships between PET findings and basal ganglia function. PET findings are discussed in relation to brain energy metabolism and striatal dopamine function. Pathophysiology of the basal ganglia are described in terms of the following diseases: Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's syndrome, progressive supranuclear palsy, Huntington's disease, and dystonia. Physiological backgrounds of the basal ganglia for PET images are also referred to. (N.K.) 75 refs

  7. On neurocomputational models of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Moustafa

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades, it became evident that the basal ganglia is involved in cognitive as well as motor processes, including motor control, conditioning, working memory, and sequence learning. Systems-levels models attempt to explain what kinds of computations are employed by the basal ganglia. It is argued that the basal ganglia integrates information from different structures, such as the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and decides on which motor response to execute. Learning such ...

  8. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  9. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitzer, Anatol C.; Malenka, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways—distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive m...

  10. Pathological basal ganglia activity in movement disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wichmann, Thomas; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O

    2011-01-01

    Our understanding of the pathophysiology of movement disorders, and associated changes in basal ganglia activities has significantly changed in the course of the last few decades. This process began with the development of detailed anatomical models of the basal ganglia, followed by studies of basal ganglia activity patterns in animal models of common movement disorders and electrophysiological recordings in movement disorder patients undergoing functional neurosurgical procedures. These inve...

  11. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD; Waseem-Asim Ghulam El-Charnoubi, MD; Julie Gehl, MD, PhD; Christen Krag, MD, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstruct...

  12. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yeliz Bilir; Erkan Gokce; Banu Ozturk; Faik Alev Deresoy; Ruken Yuksekkaya; Emel Yaman

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity...

  13. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    OpenAIRE

    Nilton Nasser; Nilton Nasser Filho; Bruno Trauczynski Neto; Lissandra Melati da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no s...

  14. Striatal plasticity and basal ganglia circuit function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Anatol C; Malenka, Robert C

    2008-11-26

    The dorsal striatum, which consists of the caudate and putamen, is the gateway to the basal ganglia. It receives convergent excitatory afferents from cortex and thalamus and forms the origin of the direct and indirect pathways, which are distinct basal ganglia circuits involved in motor control. It is also a major site of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Striatal plasticity alters the transfer of information throughout basal ganglia circuits and may represent a key neural substrate for adaptive motor control and procedural memory. Here, we review current understanding of synaptic plasticity in the striatum and its role in the physiology and pathophysiology of basal ganglia function. PMID:19038213

  15. Interferon gamma regulates accumulation of the proteasome activator PA28 and immunoproteasomes at nuclear PML bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabunmi, R P; Wigley, W C; Thomas, P J; DeMartino, G N

    2001-01-01

    PA28 is an interferon (gamma) (IFN(gamma)) inducible proteasome activator required for presentation of certain major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens. Under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, a portion of nuclear PA28 is concentrated at promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies also commonly known as PODs or ND10. IFN(gamma) treatment greatly increased the number and size of the PA28- and PML-containing bodies, and the effect was further enhanced in serum-deprived cells. PML bodies are disrupted in response to certain viral infections and in diseases such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Like PML, PA28 was delocalized from PML bodies by expression of the cytomegalovirus protein, IE1, and in NB4 cells, an APL model line. Moreover, retinoic acid treatment, which causes remission of APL in patients and reformation of PML-containing bodies in NB4 cells, relocalized PA28 to this site. In contrast, the proteasome, the functional target of PA28, was not detected at PML bodies under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, but IFN(gamma) promoted accumulation of 'immunoproteasomes' at this site. These results establish PA28 as a novel component of nuclear PML bodies, and suggest that PA28 may assemble or activate immunoproteasomes at this site as part of its role in proteasome-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:11112687

  16. TBP domain symmetry in basal and activated archaeal transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2009-01-01

    The TATA box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in the Methanococcales and Thermoplasmatales, including complete conservation of their N- and C-terminal stirrups; along with helix H'1, the C-terminal stirrup of TBP forms the main interface with TFB/TFIIB. Here, we show that, in stark contrast to its eukaryotic counterparts, multiple substitutions in the C-terminal stirrup of Methanocaldococcus jannaschii (Mja) TBP do not completely abrogate basal transcription. Using DNA affinity cleavage, we show that, by assembling TFB through its conserved N-terminal stirrup, Mja TBP is in effect ambidextrous with regard to basal transcription. In contrast, substitutions in either its N- or the C-terminal stirrup abrogate activated transcription in response to the Lrp-family transcriptional activator Ptr2. PMID:19007415

  17. Body size and geographic range do not explain long term variation in fish populations: a Bayesian phylogenetic approach to testing assembly processes in stream fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Jacquemin

    Full Text Available We combine evolutionary biology and community ecology to test whether two species traits, body size and geographic range, explain long term variation in local scale freshwater stream fish assemblages. Body size and geographic range are expected to influence several aspects of fish ecology, via relationships with niche breadth, dispersal, and abundance. These traits are expected to scale inversely with niche breadth or current abundance, and to scale directly with dispersal potential. However, their utility to explain long term temporal patterns in local scale abundance is not known. Comparative methods employing an existing molecular phylogeny were used to incorporate evolutionary relatedness in a test for covariation of body size and geographic range with long term (1983 - 2010 local scale population variation of fishes in West Fork White River (Indiana, USA. The Bayesian model incorporating phylogenetic uncertainty and correlated predictors indicated that neither body size nor geographic range explained significant variation in population fluctuations over a 28 year period. Phylogenetic signal data indicated that body size and geographic range were less similar among taxa than expected if trait evolution followed a purely random walk. We interpret this as evidence that local scale population variation may be influenced less by species-level traits such as body size or geographic range, and instead may be influenced more strongly by a taxon's local scale habitat and biotic assemblages.

  18. The basal ganglia communicate with the cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2010-05-01

    The basal ganglia and cerebellum are major subcortical structures that influence not only movement, but putatively also cognition and affect. Both structures receive input from and send output to the cerebral cortex. Thus, the basal ganglia and cerebellum form multisynaptic loops with the cerebral cortex. Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops have been assumed to be anatomically separate and to perform distinct functional operations. We investigated whether there is any direct route for basal ganglia output to influence cerebellar function that is independent of the cerebral cortex. We injected rabies virus (RV) into selected regions of the cerebellar cortex in cebus monkeys and used retrograde transneuronal transport of the virus to determine the origin of multisynaptic inputs to the injection sites. We found that the subthalamic nucleus of the basal ganglia has a substantial disynaptic projection to the cerebellar cortex. This pathway provides a means for both normal and abnormal signals from the basal ganglia to influence cerebellar function. We previously showed that the dentate nucleus of the cerebellum has a disynaptic projection to an input stage of basal ganglia processing, the striatum. Taken together these results provide the anatomical substrate for substantial two-way communication between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Thus, the two subcortical structures may be linked together to form an integrated functional network. PMID:20404184

  19. Readiness in the Basal Reader: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Pamela

    A study examined two 1989 basal reading series' (published by McGraw Hill and Holt) readiness/priming sequences in order to ascertain the theoretical bases of each and then compared the findings with those of an earlier study. All pages of the readiness/priming sequence student texts and workbooks of both basal reading series were analyzed using…

  20. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  1. Prognostic Value of Basal Serum Thyroglobulin Levels, but Not Basal Antithyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb Levels, in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Neshandar Asli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prognostic values of serum thyroglobulin (Tg and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels, measured immediately before I-131remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, have been advocated by some researchers; however, it had controversial outcomes. This study was carried out to examine this dilemma and to check the clinical significance of basal serum Tg and TgAb levels and postablation iodine 131whole body scan(WBS findings in DTC patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of 500 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who had undergone treatment between 2003 and 2010, were assessed. Of those, 149 patients with results of basal serum thyroglobulin concentration and whole body scan using radioactive iodine were included. Age, sex, tumour histology, basal thyroglobulin (Tg, anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH concentration, radioactive iodine doses in each hospitalization, numbers of hospitalization, and results of whole body scans were recorded. The relationship among basal Tg, TgAb, TSH, and whole body scan with hospitalization number and total radioactive iodine doses were assessed. Results: A total of 149 patients, including 123 (83% females and 26 (17% males, with a mean age of 40±15 years, took part in the study. The mean (SD basal Tg, TgAb, and TSH were 91.7±169.2 ng/mL (0.1-1000 ng/mL, 250±893 U/mL (0-9000 U/m L, and 64.8±61.5 µU/mL (30-689 U/mLµ, respectively. A total of 52 (34.9% cases had TgAb levels greater than 100 U/mL. The mean basal Tg in patients who were admitted three or more times was significantly greater than that of patients with one hospitalization (p=0.026. In addition, the mean of Tg in patients who received 7.4 GBq radioactive iodine or less was significantly lower than the others (p=0.003. The mean of TgAb and TSH were not different between these groups. In the results of the whole body scans, patients with metastasis had higher frequency of

  2. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews. PMID:23572369

  3. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  4. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  5. Autoimmunity and the basal ganglia: new insights into old diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, R C

    2003-03-01

    Sydenham's chorea (SC) occurs weeks or months after Group A streptococcal infection, and is characterized by involuntary, purposeless movements of the limbs, in addition to behavioural alteration. There is a body of evidence which suggests that SC is an immune-mediated brain disorder with regional localization to the basal ganglia. Recent reports have suggested that the spectrum of post-streptococcal CNS disease is broader than chorea alone, and includes other hyperkinetic movement disorders (tics, dystonia and myoclonus). In addition, there are high rates of behavioural sequelae, particularly emotional disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety and depression. These findings have lead to the hypothesis that similar immune-mediated basal ganglia processes may be operating in common neuropsychiatric disease such as tic disorders, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This review analyses the historical aspects of post-streptococcal CNS disease, and the recent immunological studies which have addressed the hypothesis that common neuropsychiatric disorders may be secondary to basal ganglia autoimmunity. PMID:12615982

  6. Shingle assembly with support bracket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Charles

    2007-01-02

    A shingle system, mountable to a support surface, includes overlapping shingle assemblies. Each shingle assembly comprises a support bracket, having upper and lower ends, secured to a shingle body. The upper end has an upper support portion, extending away from the shingle body, and an upper support-surface-engaging part, engageable with a support surface so that the upper edge of the shingle body is positionable at a first distance from the support surface to create a first gap therebetween. The lower end has a lower support portion extending away from the lower surface. The support brackets create: (1) a second gap between shingle bodies of the first and second shingle assemblies, and (2) an open region beneath the first shingle assembly fluidly coupling the first and second gaps.

  7. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for voluntary and automatic behaviour to reach rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoung F; Hikosaka, Okihide

    2015-07-01

    The basal ganglia control body movements, value processing and decision-making. Many studies have shown that the inputs and outputs of each basal ganglia structure are topographically organized, which suggests that the basal ganglia consist of separate circuits that serve distinct functions. A notable example is the circuits that originate from the rostral (head) and caudal (tail) regions of the caudate nucleus, both of which target the superior colliculus. These two caudate regions encode the reward values of visual objects differently: flexible (short-term) values by the caudate head and stable (long-term) values by the caudate tail. These value signals in the caudate guide the orienting of gaze differently: voluntary saccades by the caudate head circuit and automatic saccades by the caudate tail circuit. Moreover, separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate the caudate head and tail and may selectively guide the flexible and stable learning/memory in the caudate regions. Studies focusing on manual handling of objects also suggest that rostrocaudally separated circuits in the basal ganglia control the action differently. These results suggest that the basal ganglia contain parallel circuits for two steps of goal-directed behaviour: finding valuable objects and manipulating the valuable objects. These parallel circuits may underlie voluntary behaviour and automatic skills, enabling animals (including humans) to adapt to both volatile and stable environments. This understanding of the functions and mechanisms of the basal ganglia parallel circuits may inform the differential diagnosis and treatment of basal ganglia disorders. PMID:25981958

  8. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  9. The many faces of basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Robert

    1982-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most easily cured carcinoma, but because of the many forms it can take, and because it grows so slowly, it can be misdiagnosed or neglected. The author discusses its more common forms and etiologic considerations.

  10. Methanol intoxication with bilateral basal ganglia infarct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanol is a toxic agent that affects the central nervous system, especially the optic nerves and basal ganglia. Symmetrical hypodense lesions in the basal ganglia, which can be demonstrated by CT or MRI, is accepted as the most characteristic radiological feature of the disease. A case of a patient with bilateral putaminal hypodense infarcts due tomethanol intoxication is presented. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  11. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic ...

  12. Basal cell carcinoma develops in contact with the epidermal basal cell layer - a three-dimensional morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirici, Ionica; Ciurea, Marius Eugen; Mîndrilă, Ion; Avrămoiu, Ioan; Pirici, Alexandru; Nicola, Monica Georgiana; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the skin, and it develops most frequently on the areas of the body that make its treatment and care extremely difficult, especially in cases of neglecting or aggressive growth and invasion. Both typical mild cases as well as locally aggressive tumor types do not tend to metastasize, and it has been postulated that they should share some common biological and morphological features that might explain this behavior. In this study, we have utilized a high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction technique on pathological samples from 15 cases of common aggressive (fibrosing and adenoid types) and mild (superficial type) basal cell carcinomas, and showed that all these types shared contact points and bridges with the underlying basal cell layer of the epidermis or with the outmost layer of the hair follicle. The connections found had in fact the highest number for fibrosing type (100%), compared to the superficial (85.71%) and adenoid (55%) types. The morphology of the connection bridges was also different, adjacent moderate to abundant inflammatory infiltrate seeming to lead to a loss of basaloid features in these areas. For the adenoid type, tumor islands seemed to be connected also to each other more strongly, forming a common "tumor lace", and while it has been showed that superficial and fibrosing types have higher recurrence risks, all together these data might iterate a connection between the number of bridging points and the biological and clinical manifestation of this skin tumor. PMID:27151694

  13. Genetics Home Reference: biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease Enable Javascript to ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease is a disorder ...

  14. The nuclear pore complex–associated protein, Mlp2p, binds to the yeast spindle pole body and promotes its efficient assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Niepel, Mario; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Fasolo, Joseph; Chait, Brian T.; Rout, Michael P

    2005-01-01

    The two yeast proteins Mlp1p and Mlp2p (homologues of the vertebrate protein Tpr) are filamentous proteins attached to the nuclear face of nuclear pore complexes. Here we perform a proteomic analysis, which reveals that the two Mlps have strikingly different interacting partners, testifying to their different roles within the cell. We find that Mlp2p binds directly to Spc110p, Spc42p, and Spc29p, which are three core components of the spindle pole body (SPB), the nuclear envelope–associated y...

  15. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria;

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... plays an important role in processing the information generated by these methods. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current publicly available sequence assembly programs. We describe the basic principles of computational assembly along with the main concerns, such as repetitive sequences...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  16. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  17. Study of Effect of Living Environment on Body Weight and Basal Metabolic Rate of Male and Female Tree Sparrows%生存环境对雌雄树麻雀体重和基础代谢率影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志宏; 邵淑丽; 柳劲松

    2009-01-01

    [目的]通过研究不同外界环境条件下雌雄树麻雀体重和基础代谢率的变化,深入了解小型鸟类应对环境的生存和繁殖对策以及繁殖期繁殖预算对生存预算的影响.[方法]首先对捕获的成年树麻雀随机分为4组,即低温组5 ℃(12L∶12D);高温组25 ℃(12L∶12D);长光组25 ℃(16L∶8D);短光组25 ℃(8L∶16D),在人工气候箱中进行驯化饲养28 d;然后测定其体重和基础代谢率,同时通过生理解剖确定雌雄,最后进行统计分析.[结果]体重差异情况,除短光组雌雄麻雀间极显著(P<0.01)外,其他组别均差异不显著.基础代谢率情况,高温组雌雄麻雀间差异显著,低温组则不显著;高温组和低温组雌麻雀间差异极显著,而雄麻雀间有差异,但差异不显著;短光组雌雄麻雀基础代谢率均比长光组有所增加,但雌麻雀不显著,而雄麻雀增加显著(P<0.05).[结论]不同生境条件下,雌雄麻雀通过改变体重和基础代谢率来适应不断变化的生存环境.%[Objective]The aim was to deeply understand the survival and propagation countermeasures for coping with environment by minitype birds and effect of propagation budget in breeding season on living budget through studying the change of body weight and basal metabolic rate (BMR) of male and female tree sparrows in different external environment. [Method]The captured adult tree sparrows were randomly divided into 4 groups first, i.e. low temperature group at 5 ℃ (12L∶12D);high temperature group at 25 ℃ (12L∶12D);long light group at 25 ℃ (16L∶8D) and short light group at 25 ℃ (8L∶16D), the sparrows were domesticated and fed in artificial climate box for 28 d, and then their body weight and BMR were determined, meanwhile, the male and female were confirmed through physiology anatomy, and statistic analysis was conducted finally. [Result]For the body weight difference, except short light group, in which male and female tree sparrows had

  18. Boson and fermion many-body assemblies: Fingerprints of excitations in the ground-state wave functions, with examples of superfluid 4He and the homogeneous correlated electron liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a brief summary of some basic properties of ideal gases of bosons and of fermions, two many-body Hamiltonians are cited for which ground-state wave functions allow the generation of excited states. But because of the complexity of ground-state many-body wave functions, we then consider properties of reduced density matrices, and in particular, the diagonal element of the second-order density matrix. For both the homogeneous correlated electron liquid and for an assembly of charged bosons, the ground-state pair correlation function g(r) has fingerprints of the zero-point energy of the plasmon modes. These affect crucially the static structure factor S(k), in the long wavelength limit. This is best understood by means of the Ornstein-Zernike direct correlation function c(r), which plays an important role throughout this article. Turning from such charged liquids, both boson and fermion, to superfluid 4He, the elevated temperature (T) structure factor S(k, T) is related, albeit approximately, to its zero-temperature counterpart, via the velocity of sound, reflecting the collective phonon excitations, and the superfluid density. Finally some future directions are pointed. (author)

  19. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  20. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  1. 49 CFR 572.184 - Shoulder assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shoulder assembly. 572.184 Section 572.184... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male § 572.184 Shoulder assembly. (a) The shoulder (175-3000) is part of the body assembly shown in drawing 175-0000. When subjected to impact tests specified in paragraph...

  2. MRI of the basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging was performed for 11 patients (9 in Down's syndrome and 2 in idiopathic intracerebral calcification) who showed calcifications in bilateral basal ganglia on CT. High signal intensity in the basal ganglia was found only in one patient with idiopathic intracerebral calcification on T1-weighted image. The calcified areas of all patients in Down's syndrome did not show high signal intensity on T1-weighted image. The exact reasons why MRI exhibits the different signal intensities in calcified tissue on T1-weighted image are unknown. Further clinical investigations will be needed. (author)

  3. The connectome of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Oliver; Eipert, Peter; Kettlitz, Richard; Leßmann, Felix; Wree, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The basal ganglia of the laboratory rat consist of a few core regions that are specifically interconnected by efferents and afferents of the central nervous system. In nearly 800 reports of tract-tracing investigations the connectivity of the basal ganglia is documented. The readout of connectivity data and the collation of all the connections of these reports in a database allows to generate a connectome. The collation, curation and analysis of such a huge amount of connectivity data is a great challenge and has not been performed before (Bohland et al. PloS One 4:e7200, 2009) in large connectomics projects based on meta-analysis of tract-tracing studies. Here, the basal ganglia connectome of the rat has been generated and analyzed using the consistent cross-platform and generic framework neuroVIISAS. Several advances of this connectome meta-study have been made: the collation of laterality data, the network-analysis of connectivity strengths and the assignment of regions to a hierarchically organized terminology. The basal ganglia connectome offers differences in contralateral connectivity of motoric regions in contrast to other regions. A modularity analysis of the weighted and directed connectome produced a specific grouping of regions. This result indicates a correlation of structural and functional subsystems. As a new finding, significant reciprocal connections of specific network motifs in this connectome were detected. All three principal basal ganglia pathways (direct, indirect, hyperdirect) could be determined in the connectome. By identifying these pathways it was found that there exist many further equivalent pathways possessing the same length and mean connectivity weight as the principal pathways. Based on the connectome data it is unknown why an excitation pattern may prefer principal rather than other equivalent pathways. In addition to these new findings the local graph-theoretical features of regions of the connectome have been determined. By

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Samet Vasfi Kuvat; Zuhal Gücin; Barış Keklik; Gülzade Özyalvaçlı; Karaca Başaran

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly seen nonmelanoma skin cancer which is rarely encountered in the childhood period. An 11-year old child was admitted to our clinic due to an erythematous and a slightly pigmented lesion with a 3 × 4 cm diameter on his posterior scalp. Macroscopically, the lesion was excised with a 10 mm safety margin. Pathologic examination revealed a basal cell carcinoma. No symptoms or signs of a syndrome were observed both in the patient and his family.

  5. Basal crevasses in Larsen C Ice Shelf and implications for their global abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Luckman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basal crevasses extend upwards from the base of ice bodies and can penetrate more than halfway through the ice column under conditions found commonly on ice shelves. As a result, they may locally modify the exchange of mass and energy between ice shelf and ocean, and by altering the shelf's mechanical properties could play a fundamental role in ice shelf stability. Although early studies revealed that such features may be abundant on Antarctic ice shelves, their geometrical properties and spatial distribution has gained little attention. We investigate basal crevasses in Larsen C Ice Shelf using field radar survey, remote sensing and numerical modelling. We demonstrate that a group of features visible in MODIS imagery are the surface expressions of basal crevasses in the form of surface troughs, and find that basal crevasses can be generated as a result of stresses well downstream of the grounding line. We show that linear elastic fracture mechanics modelling is a good predictor of basal crevasse penetration height where stresses are predominantly tensile, and that measured surface trough depth does not always reflect this height, probably because of snow accumulation in the trough, marine ice accretion in the crevasse, or stress bridging from the surrounding ice. We conclude that all features visible in MODIS imagery of ice shelves and previously labelled simply as "crevasses", where they are not full thickness rifts, must be basal crevasse troughs, highlighting a fundamental structural property of many ice shelves that may have been previously overlooked.

  6. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... higher number of naevi on the arms and the legs than did female controls, but also had more naevi on the trunk. For females, the risk for basal cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of naevi. Naevi were not a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in males....... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...

  7. Naevi as a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians: a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C

    1999-01-01

    The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun. To...... investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males with...

  8. Reward functions of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-07-01

    Besides their fundamental movement function evidenced by Parkinsonian deficits, the basal ganglia are involved in processing closely linked non-motor, cognitive and reward information. This review describes the reward functions of three brain structures that are major components of the basal ganglia or are closely associated with the basal ganglia, namely midbrain dopamine neurons, pedunculopontine nucleus, and striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens). Rewards are involved in learning (positive reinforcement), approach behavior, economic choices and positive emotions. The response of dopamine neurons to rewards consists of an early detection component and a subsequent reward component that reflects a prediction error in economic utility, but is unrelated to movement. Dopamine activations to non-rewarded or aversive stimuli reflect physical impact, but not punishment. Neurons in pedunculopontine nucleus project their axons to dopamine neurons and process sensory stimuli, movements and rewards and reward-predicting stimuli without coding outright reward prediction errors. Neurons in striatum, besides their pronounced movement relationships, process rewards irrespective of sensory and motor aspects, integrate reward information into movement activity, code the reward value of individual actions, change their reward-related activity during learning, and code own reward in social situations depending on whose action produces the reward. These data demonstrate a variety of well-characterized reward processes in specific basal ganglia nuclei consistent with an important function in non-motor aspects of motivated behavior. PMID:26838982

  9. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  11. Chloral hydrate alters the organization of the ciliary basal apparatus and cell organelles in sea urchin embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, A.; Schatten, H.; Mitchell, K. D.; Crosser, M.; Taylor, M.

    1998-01-01

    The mitotic inhibitor, chloral hydrate, induces ciliary loss in the early embryo phase of Lytechinus pictus. It causes a breakdown of cilia at the junction of the cilium and the basal body known as the basal plate. This leaves the plasma membrane temporarily unsealed. The basal apparatus accessory structures, consisting of the basal body, basal foot, basal foot cap, striated side arm, and striated rootlet, are either misaligned or disintegrated by treatment with chloral hydrate. Furthermore, microtubules which are associated with the basal apparatus are disassembled. Mitochondria accumulate at the base of cilia - underneath the plasma membrane - and show alterations in their structural organization. The accumulation of mitochondria is observed in 40% of all electron micrograph sections while 60% show the areas mostly devoid of mitochondria. The microvilli surrounding a cilium and striated rootlet remain intact in the presence of chloral hydrate. These results suggest that deciliation in early sea urchin embryos by chloral hydrate is caused by combined effects on the ciliary membrane and on microtubules in the cilia. Furthermore, it is suggested that chloral hydrate can serve as a tool to explore the cytoskeletal mechanisms that are involved in cilia motility in the developing sea urchin embryo.

  12. Atrophy of the basal ganglia as the initial diagnostic sign of germinoma in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germ-cell tumors of the central nervous system generally develop in the midline, but the tumors can also occur in the basal ganglia and/or thalamus. However, MR images have rarely been documented in the early stage of the tumor in these regions. We retrospectively reviewed MR images obtained on admission and approximately 3 years earlier in two patients with germinoma in the basal ganglia, and compared them with CT. In addition to hyperdensity on CT, both hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and a small hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted images were commonly seen in the basal ganglia. These findings may be early MRI signs of germinoma in this region, and the earliest and most characteristic diagnostic feature on MRI was atrophy of the basal ganglia, which was recognizable before development of hemiparesis. (orig.)

  13. Functional anatomy of thalamus and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, María-Trinidad; Barcia, Carlos; Navarro, Juana Mari

    2002-08-01

    THALAMUS: The human thalamus is a nuclear complex located in the diencephalon and comprising of four parts (the hypothalamus, the epythalamus, the ventral thalamus, and the dorsal thalamus). The thalamus is a relay centre subserving both sensory and motor mechanisms. Thalamic nuclei (50-60 nuclei) project to one or a few well-defined cortical areas. Multiple cortical areas receive afferents from a single thalamic nucleus and send back information to different thalamic nuclei. The corticofugal projection provides positive feedback to the "correct" input, while at the same time suppressing irrelevant information. Topographical organisation of the thalamic afferents and efferents is contralateral, and the lateralisation of the thalamic functions affects both sensory and motoric aspects. Symptoms of lesions located in the thalamus are closely related to the function of the areas involved. An infarction or haemorrhage thalamic lesion can develop somatosensory disturbances and/or central pain in the opposite hemibody, analgesic or purely algesic thalamic syndrome characterised by contralateral anaesthesia (or hypaesthesia), contralateral weakness, ataxia and, often, persistent spontaneous pain. BASAL GANGLIA: Basal ganglia form a major centre in the complex extrapyramidal motor system, as opposed to the pyramidal motor system (corticobulbar and corticospinal pathways). Basal ganglia are involved in many neuronal pathways having emotional, motivational, associative and cognitive functions as well. The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) receive inputs from all cortical areas and, throughout the thalamus, project principally to frontal lobe areas (prefrontal, premotor and supplementary motor areas) which are concerned with motor planning. These circuits: (i) have an important regulatory influence on cortex, providing information for both automatic and voluntary motor responses to the pyramidal system; (ii) play a role in predicting future events

  14. Evolutionary Consequences of DNA Methylation in a Basal Metazoan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Groves B; Bay, Line K; Matz, Mikhail V

    2016-09-01

    Gene body methylation (gbM) is an ancestral and widespread feature in Eukarya, yet its adaptive value and evolutionary implications remain unresolved. The occurrence of gbM within protein-coding sequences is particularly puzzling, because methylation causes cytosine hypermutability and hence is likely to produce deleterious amino acid substitutions. We investigate this enigma using an evolutionarily basal group of Metazoa, the stony corals (order Scleractinia, class Anthozoa, phylum Cnidaria). We show that patterns of coral gbM are similar to other invertebrate species, predicting wide and active transcription and slower sequence evolution. We also find a strong correlation between gbM and codon bias, resulting from systematic replacement of CpG bearing codons. We conclude that gbM has strong effects on codon evolution and speculate that this may influence establishment of optimal codons. PMID:27189563

  15. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    OpenAIRE

    Sami N. Nasrallah; L. Raymond Reynolds

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism...

  16. Morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma peritumoral stroma varies among basal cell carcinoma subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Lesack Kyle; Naugler Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The role that the peritumoral stroma plays in the growth of tumours is currently poorly understood. In this manuscript the morphometric characteristics of basal cell carcinoma subtypes and their associated peritumoral stromas are presented. Methods Ninety eight digitized basal cell carcinoma histology slides were categorized as infiltrative, nodular, or superficial subtypes, and were analysed using a combination of manual and computer-assisted approaches. The morphometric ...

  17. Características manométricas do corpo esofágico em doentes diabéticos tipo 2 de acordo com a glicemia basal matinal Manometric characteristics of the esophageal body in type 2 diabetic patients according to baseline morning glucose

    OpenAIRE

    João Xavier Jorge; Cláudia Iracema Borges; Fernando Jorge Delgado; Edgard Augusto Panão; Álvaro Correia Coelho; Mário Amaral Simões; Carlos Costa Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Introdução:Recentes estudos referem que a glicemia basal influencia a atividade motora do esófago. Alguns autores recusam esse postulado. Pretende-se com este estudo contribuir para o conhecimento deste facto. Doentes e métodos:Estudou-se a atividade motora esofágica por manometria estacionária em 25 doentes diabéticos tipo 2 com idades compreendidas entre 44 e 81 anos (média de idades de 58,25 anos) com níveis glicémicos diferentes em jejum. Compararam-se as características das ondas esofági...

  18. What do the basal ganglia do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, P; Marsden, C D

    1998-06-13

    We propose that the basal ganglia support a basic attentional mechanism operating to bind input to output in the executive forebrain. Such focused attention provides the automatic link between voluntary effort, sensory input, and the calling up and operation of a sequence of motor programmes or thoughts. The physiological basis for this attentional mechanism may lie in the tendency of distributed, but related, cortical activities to synchronise in the gamma (30 to 50 Hz) band, as occurs in the visual cortex. Coherent and synchronised elements are more effective when convergence occurs during successive stages of processing, and in this way may come together to give the one gestalt or action. We suggest that the basal ganglia have a major role in facilitating this aspect of neuronal processing in the forebrain, and that loss of this function contributes to parkinsonism and abulia. PMID:9635969

  19. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    OpenAIRE

    Lamos EM; Younk LM; Davis SN

    2016-01-01

    Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with in...

  20. Linear Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Ichinokawa, Yuko; Ohtuki, Akiko; Hattori, Mariko; Sadamasa, Hiroko; Hiruma, Masataro; Matumoto, Toshiharu

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) presents with diverse clinical features, and several morphologic and histologic variants of BCC have been reported [Sexton et al.: J Am Acad Dermatol 1990;23:1118-1126]. Linear BCC was first described as a new clinical subtype in 1985 by Lewis [Int J Dematol 1985;24:124-125]. Here, we present a case of linear BCC that we recently encountered in an elderly Japanese patient, and review other cases reported in Japan.

  1. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive

  2. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  3. An essential role for DYF-11/MIP-T3 in assembling functional intraflagellar transport complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available MIP-T3 is a human protein found previously to associate with microtubules and the kinesin-interacting neuronal protein DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1, but whose cellular function(s remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the C. elegans MIP-T3 ortholog DYF-11 is an intraflagellar transport (IFT protein that plays a critical role in assembling functional kinesin motor-IFT particle complexes. We have cloned a loss of function dyf-11 mutant in which several key components of the IFT machinery, including Kinesin-II, as well as IFT subcomplex A and B proteins, fail to enter ciliary axonemes and/or mislocalize, resulting in compromised ciliary structures and sensory functions, and abnormal lipid accumulation. Analyses in different mutant backgrounds further suggest that DYF-11 functions as a novel component of IFT subcomplex B. Consistent with an evolutionarily conserved cilia-associated role, mammalian MIP-T3 localizes to basal bodies and cilia, and zebrafish mipt3 functions synergistically with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome protein Bbs4 to ensure proper gastrulation, a key cilium- and basal body-dependent developmental process. Our findings therefore implicate MIP-T3 in a previously unknown but critical role in cilium biogenesis and further highlight the emerging role of this organelle in vertebrate development.

  4. An essential role for DYF-11/MIP-T3 in assembling functional intraflagellar transport complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunmei; Inglis, Peter N; Leitch, Carmen C; Efimenko, Evgeni; Zaghloul, Norann A; Mok, Calvin A; Davis, Erica E; Bialas, Nathan J; Healey, Michael P; Héon, Elise; Zhen, Mei; Swoboda, Peter; Katsanis, Nicholas; Leroux, Michel R

    2008-03-01

    MIP-T3 is a human protein found previously to associate with microtubules and the kinesin-interacting neuronal protein DISC1 (Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1), but whose cellular function(s) remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that the C. elegans MIP-T3 ortholog DYF-11 is an intraflagellar transport (IFT) protein that plays a critical role in assembling functional kinesin motor-IFT particle complexes. We have cloned a loss of function dyf-11 mutant in which several key components of the IFT machinery, including Kinesin-II, as well as IFT subcomplex A and B proteins, fail to enter ciliary axonemes and/or mislocalize, resulting in compromised ciliary structures and sensory functions, and abnormal lipid accumulation. Analyses in different mutant backgrounds further suggest that DYF-11 functions as a novel component of IFT subcomplex B. Consistent with an evolutionarily conserved cilia-associated role, mammalian MIP-T3 localizes to basal bodies and cilia, and zebrafish mipt3 functions synergistically with the Bardet-Biedl syndrome protein Bbs4 to ensure proper gastrulation, a key cilium- and basal body-dependent developmental process. Our findings therefore implicate MIP-T3 in a previously unknown but critical role in cilium biogenesis and further highlight the emerging role of this organelle in vertebrate development. PMID:18369462

  5. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar; Ashish Chauhan; Subhash Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition ...

  6. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the thermal and mechanical safety of fuel rods and structural components by making the local power coefficient of jointed fuel rods greater than that of other fuel rods in a fuel assembly. Constitution: In a fuel assembly comprising a plurality of fuel rods bundled by a spacer and held at the upper and the lower positions with tie plates for insertion into a channel, the degree of enrichment of uranium 235 for uranium dioxide fuel pellets charged in jointed fuel rods is adjusted such that the local power coefficient of the jointed fuel rods is made greater than that of the other fuel rods. In the case if the upper tie plate is moved upwardly by the extension of the jointed fuel rods, other fuel rods axially free from the upper tie plate receives no tension, whereby the safety of the fuel assembly can be improved. (Moriyama, K.)

  7. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Betekhtin M.; Ananiev J.; Tchernev G.; Zisova L.; Philipov S.; Hristova R.

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset). The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. W...

  8. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  9. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding 57Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior

  10. Epidemiology of basal-like breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Millikan, Robert C.; Newman, Beth; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Moorman, Patricia G.; Conway, Kathleen; Smith, Lisa. V.; Labbok, Miriam H; Geradts, Joseph; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Jackson, Susan; Nyante, Sarah; Livasy, Chad; Carey, Lisa; Earp, H. Shelton; Perou, Charles M

    2007-01-01

    Risk factors for the newly identified “intrinsic” breast cancer subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, basal-like and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive/estrogen receptor-negative) were determined in the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case–control study of African-American and white women. Immunohistochemical markers were used to subtype 1,424 cases of invasive and in situ breast cancer, and case subtypes were compared to 2,022 controls. Luminal A, the most common s...

  11. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  12. Activation of the Basal Forebrain by the Orexin/Hypocretin Neurons: Orexin International Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigoni, Elda; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The orexin neurons play an essential role in driving arousal and in maintaining normal wakefulness. Lack of orexin neurotransmission produces a chronic state of hypoarousal characterized by excessive sleepiness, frequent transitions between wake and sleep, and episodes of cataplexy. A growing body of research now suggests that the basal forebrain (BF) may be a key site through which the orexin-producing neurons promote arousal. Here we review anatomical, pharmacological and electrophysiologic...

  13. Encoding network states by striatal cell assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Reid, Luis; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Tapia, Dagoberto; Hernández-Cruz, Arturo; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colin, René; Bargas, José

    2008-03-01

    Correlated activity in cortico-basal ganglia circuits plays a key role in the encoding of movement, associative learning and procedural memory. How correlated activity is assembled by striatal microcircuits is not understood. Calcium imaging of striatal neuronal populations, with single-cell resolution, reveals sporadic and asynchronous activity under control conditions. However, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) application induces bistability and correlated activity in striatal neurons. Widespread neurons within the field of observation present burst firing. Sets of neurons exhibit episodes of recurrent and synchronized bursting. Dimensionality reduction of network dynamics reveals functional states defined by cell assemblies that alternate their activity and display spatiotemporal pattern generation. Recurrent synchronous activity travels from one cell assembly to the other often returning to the original assembly; suggesting a robust structure. An initial search into the factors that sustain correlated activity of neuronal assemblies showed a critical dependence on both intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms: blockage of fast glutamatergic transmission annihilates all correlated firing, whereas blockage of GABAergic transmission locked the network into a single dominant state that eliminates assembly diversity. Reduction of L-type Ca(2+)-current restrains synchronization. Each cell assembly comprised different cells, but a small set of neurons was shared by different assemblies. A great proportion of the shared neurons was local interneurons with pacemaking properties. The network dynamics set into action by NMDA in the striatal network may reveal important properties of striatal microcircuits under normal and pathological conditions. PMID:18184883

  14. Evolution of sensory structures in basal metazoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Dave K; Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Yuan, David; Camara, Anthony; Nichols, Scott A; Hartenstein, Volker

    2007-11-01

    Cnidaria have traditionally been viewed as the most basal animals with complex, organ-like multicellular structures dedicated to sensory perception. However, sponges also have a surprising range of the genes required for sensory and neural functions in Bilateria. Here, we: (1) discuss "sense organ" regulatory genes, including; sine oculis, Brain 3, and eyes absent, that are expressed in cnidarian sense organs; (2) assess the sensory features of the planula, polyp, and medusa life-history stages of Cnidaria; and (3) discuss physiological and molecular data that suggest sensory and "neural" processes in sponges. We then develop arguments explaining the shared aspects of developmental regulation across sense organs and between sense organs and other structures. We focus on explanations involving divergent evolution from a common ancestral condition. In Bilateria, distinct sense-organ types share components of developmental-gene regulation. These regulators are also present in basal metazoans, suggesting evolution of multiple bilaterian organs from fewer antecedent sensory structures in a metazoan ancestor. More broadly, we hypothesize that developmental genetic similarities between sense organs and appendages may reflect descent from closely associated structures, or a composite organ, in the common ancestor of Cnidaria and Bilateria, and we argue that such similarities between bilaterian sense organs and kidneys may derive from a multifunctional aggregations of choanocyte-like cells in a metazoan ancestor. We hope these speculative arguments presented here will stimulate further discussion of these and related questions. PMID:21669752

  15. The Sun's immutable basal quiet atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, W.; Wallace, L.

    2003-02-01

    We employ limb darkening, spectral energy distribution (color), and center-disk spectrum line strength to investigate photospheric temporal variability. Current limb-darkening curves agree to 1% with past observations taken at different epochs extending back to 1975. Concerning color, from the data of Labs and Neckel (Cox, 1999) we deduce that the solar limb is 1000 Å more red than disk center. But when integrated over the entire disk to represent the Sun-as-a-star, the color shift is only 30 Å. Color is therefore not a very sensitive indicator of full-disk photospheric change. We examine the center-disk time series for C 5380 Å and Fe 5379 Å equivalent width and the Ca K index. The ratio C 5380/Fe 5379 in equivalent width is 0.4221+0.00011 (+/-0.00003) y-1, indicating secular change but with no cycle modulation. Converted to temperature this variance amounts to +/-0.028 K. This is in contrast to the full-disk cycle modulation of these lines reported by Gray and Livingston (1997b). Ca K index also exhibits no cycle variation at disk center. Taking into account these findings, plus the small fraction of the photosphere occupied by magnetic elements as revealed in high-resolution G-band pictures, we suggest that cycle magnetic fields thread through the basal atmosphere without physical effect; that the basal quiet atmosphere is observationally immutable to the magnetic cycle within the limits given above.

  16. Análise de taxa metabólica basal e composição corporal de idosos do sexo masculino antes e seis meses após exercícios de resistência Análisis de la tasa metabolica de descanso y la composición corporal en veteranos hombres antes y despues de seis meses de ejercicio de endurance Analysis of resting metabolic rate and body composition in elderly males before and after six months of endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna K.M. Antunes

    2005-02-01

    3 veces por semana (60 minutos en días alternados por seis meses con intensidad prescrita referente a la frecuencia cardiaca del umbral ventilatorio I (VT-1. Los voluntarios fueron sometidos a una evaluación de la composición corporal (DEXA; calorimetría indirecta, análisis sanguíneo y test ergoespirométrico. Después del período de estudio, fue observado un decrecimiento significativo en las hormonas tiroideas y cambios en el metabolismo basal en ambos grupos, pero no fueron observadas alteraciones en la composición corporal. En tanto, el grupo experimental presentó un aumento significativo en el consumo de oxigeno pico y en la carga de trabajo referente a la intensidad del VT-1. Los datos sugieren que un programa de ejercicios aeróbicos en la intensidad del VT-1 no es suficiente para provocar alteraciones favorables en el metabolismo basal y en la composición corporal de añosos, así mismo promueva beneficios cardiovasculares.The aim of this study was to compare basal metabolic rate and body composition before and after an endurance-type physical fitness program. The study involved 46 sedentary aging males, aged 60-75 (66.97 ± 4.80 years, who were randomly allocated to two groups: 1 control group, which was asked not to change their daily routine or join a regular physical fitness program; and 2 experimental group, who took part in an aerobic fitness program consisting of working on cycle ergometer three times a week (60 minutes on alternate days for six months, at heart rate corresponding to ventilatory threshold 1 (VT-1 intensity. Subjects were submitted to measurement of body composition (DEXA; indirect calorimetry, blood analysis and ergospirometric testing. After the study period, the authors found a significant decrease in thyroid hormones as well as basal metabolism changes in both groups, but no changes in body composition. The experimental group, however, showed a significant increase in peak oxygen uptake and workload at VT-1 intensity. The

  17. Rack assembly for mounting solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisted, Joshua Reed; West, Brian

    2010-12-28

    A rack assembly is provided for mounting solar modules over an underlying body. The rack assembly may include a plurality of rail structures that are arrangeable over the underlying body to form an overall perimeter for the rack assembly. One or more retention structures may be provided with the plurality of rail structures, where each retention structure is configured to support one or more solar modules at a given height above the underlying body. At least some of the plurality of rail structures are adapted to enable individual rail structures o be sealed over the underlying body so as to constrain air flow underneath the solar modules. Additionally, at least one of (i) one or more of the rail structures, or (ii) the one or more retention structures are adjustable so as to adapt the rack assembly to accommodate solar modules of varying forms or dimensions.

  18. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly is composed of a fuel bundle surrounded by a channel box. The fuel bundle comprises a large number of fuel rods and a water rod secured to upper and lower tie plate by way of a plurality of fuel spacers. Grooves (libretti) are formed in the direction along the flowing direction of coolants to at least one of the surface of the fuel rods, the inner surface of the channel box, the surface of the water rod and spacer constituting components. In this case, the lateral width of the libretto in the flowing direction is determined as the minimum thickness of the bottom layer of a layered flow determined by a coolant flow rate. With such a constitution, abrasion resistance relative to coolants is reduced to reduce the pressure loss of fuel assemblies. (I.N.)

  19. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    5th April, 2016 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association! In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, April 5th 2016 from 11:00 to 12:00 in BE Auditorium, Meyrin (6-2-024). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its financial management, and an opportunity to express one’s opinion, including taking part in the votes. Other points are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Only “ordinary” members (MPE) of the SA can vote. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give his/her opinion? The Ordinary General Asse...

  20. Basal area from photos.... Is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Ward, B.; Armston, J.; Schaefer, M.; Thurgate, N.; van den Hengel, A.; Lowe, A.; Phinn, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes collaborative work conducted between the Ausplots and AusCover facilities within Australia's Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Network (TERN) and the Australian Centre for Visual Technologies (ACVT) to develop new photopoint collection methodologies for use by terrestrial ecologists. These photopoints are being collected at Ausplots survey sites throughout rangeland environments across Australia along with a wide suite of environmental measures, including a range of soil, vegetation species and structure and genetics information, with currently around 270 sites out of 700 collected. These collections are intended to augment the ecological data collected at each site and provide a record of that time. Similar measures are also being collected at Auscover calibration and validation sites. Our photopoints incorporate three sets of overlapping photographs, each collected from exposure points at the vertices of an equilateral triangle with sides of 2.5 m located around the centre point of the field site. The photos from each exposure point typically overlap by 50% and at least one photo in each series include a calibration target mounted on a pole at the centre of the exposure points. These photographs are then processed to create a range of data products. Seamless photo panoramas are constructed for each field site and are stored with the relevant site data allowing ecologists utilising the ecological data to also include the environment in which that data were collected. Point clouds are also produced allowing a three dimensional view of the site and potentially allowing similar analysis, albeit at lower precision, to that of terrestrial Lidar systems. These three dimensional site reconstructions are used to measure stem diameters, and calculate basal area, which are summed for the site, providing a measure of basal area per hectare when the visible distance is taken into account. This method is potentially more accurate than rapid techniques such as

  1. Piston and connecting rod assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor); Chatten, John K. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A piston and connecting rod assembly includes a piston crown, a piston skirt, a connecting rod, and a bearing insert. The piston skirt is a component separate from the piston crown and is connected to the piston crown to provide a piston body. The bearing insert is a component separate from the piston crown and the piston skirt and is fixedly disposed within the piston body. A bearing surface of a connecting rod contacts the bearing insert to thereby movably associate the connecting rod and the piston body.

  2. Early Onset Basal Cell Carcinoma: Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betekhtin M.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most frequent non-melanoma skin cancer. Only 5-15% of BCC cases can be found in patients aged 20-40 years (so-called early onset. The early onset BCC is characterized by active and aggressive tumour growth, clinically presenting in most of the cases as a morpheaform, locally infiltrating or recurrent BCC. Despite the advances in the study of the pathogenesis of this tumour, surgery remains the most used, most effective and most suitable treatment modality. We describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed an early onset BCC of the nasolabial fold. After the subsequent surgical excision an excellent cosmetic result was achieved.

  3. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  4. How to achieve a predictable basal insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzhals, P

    2005-09-01

    The development of insulin analogues over the last two decades have aimed at optimising the pharmacokinetic profile of subcutaneously injected insulin for therapeutic use in diabetes mellitus. Rapid acting analogues were successfully engineered and marketed in the late 1990's. In engineering long-acting analogues it has been a particular challenge to obtain action profiles that would be predictable from day to day in the same person. The most recent approach has been to acylate the insulin molecule with a fatty acid which provides the insulin molecule with a specific affinity for albumin. The first clinically available agent of this type is insulin detemir. Pharmacological studies have shown that reversible albumin binding will protract absorption following subcutaneous injection but still allow the insulin molecule to be recognised by the insulin receptor following dissociation from the carrier protein. Moreover, the molecular features of insulin detemir are attractive in that the molecule can be formulated as a neutral aqueous solution and does not precipitate after injection. Together with an important buffering mechanism effected by plasma albumin binding, this explains a highly significant reduction of within-subject variability of pharmacodynamic response observed in repeat isoglycaemic clamp studies where insulin detemir was compared to other basal insulin products. No safety considerations have been identified in using albumin as an insulin carrier to protract and buffer insulin action. In assessing the clinical attractiveness of insulin analogues, it is furthermore critically important to consider how the molecular modifications impact efficacy and safety. A number of pharmacological studies have shown that insulin detemir overall retains the molecular pharmacological properties of native human insulin, including a physiological balance between metabolic and mitogenic potencies. Taken together, insulin detemir provides an attractive novel approach for

  5. Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Jiao, Qianning; Pruznak, Anne M.; Huber, Danuta; Vary, Thomas C; Lang, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced testosterone as a result of catabolic illness or aging is associated with loss of muscle and increased adiposity. We hypothesized that these changes in body composition occur because of altered rates of protein synthesis under basal and nutrient-stimulated conditions that are tissue specific. The present study investigated such mechanisms in castrated male rats (75% reduction in testosterone) with demonstrated glucose intolerance. Over 9 wk, castration impaired body weight gain, which...

  6. The excision width in surgical treatment of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mališ M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma originates from pluripotent cells of basal layer of epiderm, external covering of hair follicles, sebaceous glands or other skin adnexa. It is characterized by local infiltrating and sometimes destructive growth. There are several types of basal cell carcinomas that may be manifested in over 12 clinical forms. Surgical treatment depends to a large extent on the histological type, localization and its clinical manifestation. The analysis included 250 patients of both gender and different age, operated for basal cell carcinoma. Clinical characteristics of basal cell carcinoma and the width of the excision were described. It was concluded that the width of the excision of basal cell cancer was in relation to histological type. .

  7. Basal Cell Carcinoma Arising in a Tattooed Eyebrow

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Park, Jin; Kim, Seong-min; Yun, Seok-Kweon; Kim, Han-Uk

    2009-01-01

    Malignant skin tumors, including squamous cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma, have occurred in tattoos. Seven documented cases of basal cell carcinoma associated with tattoos have also been reported in the medical literature. We encountered a patient with basal cell carcinoma in a tattooed eyebrow. We report on this case as the eighth reported case of a patient with basal cell carcinoma arising in a tattooed area.

  8. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, JD; Warren, TL; Brainard, MS

    2012-01-01

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential ' actor-models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to s...

  9. Sequence learning in a model of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Stian

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a computational model of the basal ganglia that is able to learn sequences and perform action selection. The basal ganglia is a set of structures in the human brain involved in everything from action selection to reinforcement learning, inspiring research in psychology, neuroscience and computer science. Two temporal difference models of the basal ganglia based on previous work have been reimplemented. Several experiments and analyses help understand and describe the or...

  10. Update on models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Circuit models of basal ganglia function and dysfunction have undergone significant changes over time. The previous view that the basal ganglia are centers in which massive convergence of cortical information occurred has now been replaced by a view in which these structures process information in a highly specific manner, participating in anatomical and functional modules that also involve cortex and thalamus. In addition, much has been learned about the intrinsic connections of the basal ga...

  11. PIGMENTED BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A RARE CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL VARIANT

    OpenAIRE

    Chandralekha; Vijaya Bhaskar; Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar; Sumanlatha

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumour of skin , commonly referred to as „rodent ulcer‟. It is common in the head and neck region. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits inc reased pigmentation. It is a rare variant that can clinically mimic malignant melanoma. It is more common in males than females. Herein , we are...

  12. Heater assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electrical resistance heater, installed in the H1 borehole, is used to thermally perturb the rock mass through a controlled heating and cooling cycle. Heater power levels are controlled by a Variac power transformer and are measured by wattmeters. Temperatures are measured by thermocouples on the borehole wall and on the heater assembly. Power and temperature values are recorded by the DAS described in Chapter 12. The heater assembly consists of a 3.55-m (11.6-ft) long by 20.3-cm (8-in.) O.D., Type 304 stainless steel pipe, containing a tubular hairpin heating element. The element has a heated length of 3 m (9.84 ft). The power rating of the element is 10 kW; however, we plan to operate the unit at a maximum power of only 3 kW. The heater is positioned with its midpoint directly below the axis of the P2 borehole, as shown in the borehole configuration diagram. This heater midpoint position corresponds to a distance of approximately 8.5 m (27.9 ft) from the H1 borehole collar. A schematic of the heater assembly in the borehole is shown. The distance from the borehole collar to the closest point on the assembly (the front end) is 6.5 m (21.3 ft). A high-temperature inflatable packer, used to seal the borehole for moisture collection, is positioned 50 cm (19.7 in.) ahead of the heater front end. The heater is supported and centralized within the borehole by two skids, fabricated from 25-mm (1-in.) O.D. stainless steel pipe. Thermocouples are installed at a number of locations in the H1 borehole. Four thermocouples that are attached to the heater skin monitor temperatures on the outer surface of the can, while three thermocouples that are held in place by rock sections monitor borehole wall temperatures beneath the heater. Temperatures are also monitored at the heater terminal and on the packer hardware

  13. Assembling consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assembling Consumption marks a definitive step in the institutionalisation of qualitative business research. By gathering leading scholars and educators who study markets, marketing and consumption through the lenses of philosophy, sociology and anthropology, this book clarifies and applies the i...... societies. This is an essential reading for both seasoned scholars and advanced students of markets, economies and social forms of consumption....... the investigative tools offered by assemblage theory, actor-network theory and non-representational theory. Clear theoretical explanation and methodological innovation, alongside empirical applications of these emerging frameworks will offer readers new and refreshing perspectives on consumer culture and market...

  14. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  15. Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Forehead: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rudić, Milan; Kranjčec, Zoran; Lisica-Šikić, Nataša; Kovačić, Marijan

    2012-01-01

    Giant basal cell carcinoma (GBCC) is defined as a tumor 5cm or greater in diameter. They present less than 1% of all basal cell carcinomas. We present a case of an 85-year-old male patient with a giant ulcerating tumor of the left forehead (measuring 7x6cm). Under local anesthesia tumor was surgically excised. No involvement of the underlying periostal or bone structure was noted. Pathohystological exam revealed the giant basal cell carcinoma, with free surgical margins. Giant basal cell carc...

  16. Basal ganglia cholinergic and dopaminergic function in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Naomi M; Piggott, Margaret A; Greally, Elizabeth; Lake, Michelle; Lees, Andrew J; Burn, David J

    2007-08-15

    Progressive Supranuclear Palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. In contrast to Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), replacement therapy with dopaminergic and cholinergic agents in PSP has been disappointing. The neurochemical basis for this is unclear. Our objective was to measure dopaminergic and cholinergic receptors in the basal ganglia of PSP and control brains. We measured, autoradiographically, dopaminergic (dopamine transporter, 125I PE2I and dopamine D2 receptors, 125I epidepride) and cholinergic (nicotinic alpha4beta2 receptors, 125I 5IA85380 and muscarinic M1 receptors, 3H pirenzepine) parameters in the striatum and pallidum of pathologically confirmed PSP cases (n=15) and controls (n=32). In PSP, there was a marked loss of dopamine transporter and nicotinic alpha4beta2 binding in the striatum and pallidum, consistent with loss of nigrostriatal neurones. Striatal D2 receptors were increased in the caudate and muscarinic M1 receptors were unchanged compared with controls. These results do not account for the poor response to dopaminergic and cholinergic replacement therapies in PSP, and suggest relative preservation of postsynaptic striatal projection neurones bearing D2/M1 receptors. PMID:17534953

  17. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Mardi 5 avril à 11 h 00 BE Auditorium Meyrin (6-2-024) Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 5 mai 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2015. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2015. Programme de travail 2016. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2016 Approbation du taux de cotisation pour 2017. Modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commissio...

  18. General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : 1- Adoption de l’ordre du jour. 2- Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. 3- Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. 4- Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. 5- Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. 6- Programme 2015. 7- Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. 8- Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. 9- Élections des membres de la Commission é...

  19. General assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Mardi 5 mai à 11 h 00 Salle 13-2-005 Conformément aux statuts de l’Association du personnel, une Assemblée générale ordinaire est organisée une fois par année (article IV.2.1). Projet d’ordre du jour : Adoption de l’ordre du jour. Approbation du procès-verbal de l’Assemblée générale ordinaire du 22 mai 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport d’activités 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport financier 2014. Présentation et approbation du rapport des vérificateurs aux comptes pour 2014. Programme 2015. Présentation et approbation du projet de budget 2015 et taux de cotisation pour 2015. Pas de modifications aux Statuts de l'Association du personnel proposée. Élections des membres de la Commission électorale. &am...

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cross section of a fuel assembly is divided to a first region containing corner portions at which channel fasteners are situated and a second region not containing corner portions. The average enrichment degree of plutonium in the first region is decreased than that of the second region, and the number of fuel rods containing burnable poisons is increased at the first region than that of the second region. In the first region of the fuel assembly, the effect of moderating neutrons is enhanced since the cross section of a moderator flow channel at the outer side of the channel box is large. Therefore, local power peaking is increased in the first region while it is decreased in the second region that opposes to a narrow gap. The average enrichment degree of plutonium in the first region is decreased and that in the second region is increased by so much, to flatten the power distribution. Then, the reduction of the reactivity worth of gadolinia, as burnable poisons, can be suppressed. (N.H.)

  1. Hatch assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a nuclear reactor installation including means defining a fuel handling area and means defining a containment area separated from the fuel handling area and including a refuelling cavity; the improvement comprising: (a) a fuel transfer tube connecting the refuelling cavity with the fuel handling area; the fuel transfer tube having a first end in the fuel handling area and a second end in the refueling cavity; (b) valve means for opening and closing the first end; and (c) a hatch assembly mounted on the second end; the hatch assembly including (1) a hatch ring affixed to the fuel transfer tube at the second end the hatch ring has an integral annular seat surrounded by the hatch ring and defines a hatch opening in the second end of the fuel transfer tube; (2) a hatch cover adapts to be positioned on the annular seat for covering the hatch opening; (3) latching units are supported on the hatch ring about the hatch opening, each latching unit

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor, and prevents aging change of flow rate of coolants leaked from a gap between a lower tie plate and a channel box. That is, in the fuel assembly, a great number of fuel rods and a plurality of water rods are bundled by a plurality of spacers, the upper and the lower ends thereof are supported by upper and lower tie plates, and they are contained in a channel box. Plate-like protrusions are disposed rotatably to the lower tie plate at a position corresponding to the lower end of the channel box. In addition, through holes are disposed on the side wall of the lower tie plate. With such a constitution, the protrusions rotate at a connection portion by hydraulic pressure of leaking coolants, and urge the channel box by the other end to control leakage of coolants. Further, since the through holes are disposed on the side wall of the lower tie plate, pressure difference is caused between the upper and the lower surfaces of the plate of the protrusion, to rotate the protrusions at the connection portion, and the other end of the protrusions presses the channel box to obtain the same effect. (I.S.)

  3. Insulin Degludec, The New Generation Basal Insulin or Just another Basal Insulin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Sami N; Reynolds, L Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The advances in recombinant DNA technology have led to an improvement in the properties of currently available long-acting insulin analogs. Insulin degludec, a new generation ultra-long-acting basal insulin, currently in phase 3 clinical trials, has a promising future in clinical use. When compared to its rival basal insulin analogs, a longer duration of action and lower incidence of hypoglycemic events in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients has been demonstrated.1,2 Its unique mechanism of action is based on multihexamer formation after subcutaneous injection. This reportedly allows for less pharmacodynamic variability and within-subject variability than currently available insulin analogs, and a duration of action that is over 24 hours.3 The lack of proof of carcinogenicity with insulin degludec is yet another factor that would be taken into consideration when choosing the optimal basal insulin for a diabetic individual.4 A formulation of insulin degludec with insulin aspart, Insulin degludec 70%/aspart 30%, may permit improved flexibly of dosing without compromising glycemic control or safety.5. PMID:22879797

  4. Distinctive Patterns of CTNNB1 (β-Catenin) Alterations in Salivary Gland Basal Cell Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Vickie Y; Sholl, Lynette M; Krane, Jeffrey F

    2016-08-01

    Salivary gland basaloid neoplasms are diagnostically challenging. Limited publications report that some basal cell adenomas harbor CTNNB1 mutations, and nuclear β-catenin expression is prevalent. We evaluated β-catenin expression in basal cell adenomas and adenocarcinomas in comparison with salivary tumors in the differential diagnosis and performed targeted genetic analysis on a subset of cases. β-catenin immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded whole sections from 73 tumors. Nuclear staining was scored semiquantitatively by extent and intensity. DNA was extracted from 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples (5 basal cell adenomas, 1 basal cell adenocarcinoma) for next-generation sequencing. Nuclear β-catenin staining was present in 18/22 (82%) basal cell adenomas; most were diffuse and strong and predominant in the basal component. Two of 3 basal cell adenocarcinomas were positive (1 moderate focal; 1 moderate multifocal). All adenoid cystic carcinomas (0/20) and pleomorphic adenomas (0/20) were negative; 2/8 epithelial-myoepithelial carcinomas showed focal nuclear staining. Most β-catenin-negative tumors showed diffuse membranous staining in the absence of nuclear staining. Four of 5 basal cell adenomas had exon 3 CTNNB1 mutations, all c.104T>C (p.I35T). Basal cell adenocarcinoma showed a more complex genomic profile, with activating mutations in PIK3CA, biallelic inactivation of NFKBIA, focal CYLD deletion, and without CTNNB1 mutation despite focal β-catenin expression. Nuclear β-catenin expression has moderate sensitivity (82%) for basal cell adenoma but high specificity (96%) in comparison with its morphologic mimics. CTNNB1 mutation was confirmed in most basal cell adenomas tested, and findings in basal cell adenocarcinoma suggest possible tumorigenic mechanisms, including alterations in PI3K and NF-κB pathways and transcriptional regulation. PMID:27259009

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  6. DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Oleg; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2013-07-16

    In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

  7. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies in PANDAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S; Loiselle, Christopher R; Lee, Olivia; Minzer, Karen; Swedo, Susan; Grus, Franz H

    2004-04-01

    An autoimmune-mediated mechanism involving molecular mimicry has been proposed for a variety of pediatric movement disorders that occur after a streptococcal infection. In this study, anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGA) were measured in 15 children with the diagnosis of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and compared with those in 15 controls. ELISA and Western immunoblotting (WB) methods were used to detect ABGA against supernatant (S1), pellet (P2), and synaptosomal preparations from adult postmortem caudate, putamen, and globus pallidus. ELISA optical density values did not differ between PANDAS patients and controls across all preparations. Immunoblotting identified multiple bands in all subjects with no differences in the number of bands or their total density. Discriminant analysis, used to assess mean binding patterns, showed that PANDAS patients differed from controls only for the caudate S1 fraction (Wilks' lambda = 0.0236, P tic subjects providing the greatest discrimination. Among the epitopes contributing to differences between PANDAS and control in the caudate S1 fraction, mean binding to the epitope at 183 kDa was the most different between groups. In conclusion, ELISA measurements do not differentiate between PANDAS and controls, suggesting a lack of major antibody changes in this disorder. Further immunoblot analyses using a caudate supernatant fraction are required to completely exclude the possibility of minor antibody repertoire differences in PANDAS subjects, especially in those who primarily have tics. PMID:15077238

  8. New basal cell carcinoma susceptibility loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N.; Helgason, Hannes; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Zink, Florian; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Kehr, Birte; Gudmundsson, Julius; Sulem, Patrick; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Grasa, Matilde; Planelles, Dolores; Sanmartin, Onofre; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Nexø, Bjørn A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jonasson, Jon G.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kristinsdottir, Anna M.; Stefansson, Hreinn; Masson, Gisli; Magnusson, Olafur T.; Halldorsson, Bjarni V.; Kong, Augustine; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Vogel, Ulla; Kumar, Rajiv; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Olafsson, Jon H.; Stefansson, Kari

    2015-01-01

    In an ongoing screen for DNA sequence variants that confer risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we conduct a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 24,988,228 SNPs and small indels detected through whole-genome sequencing of 2,636 Icelanders and imputed into 4,572 BCC patients and 266,358 controls. Here we show the discovery of four new BCC susceptibility loci: 2p24 MYCN (rs57244888[C], OR=0.76, P=4.7 × 10−12), 2q33 CASP8-ALS2CR12 (rs13014235[C], OR=1.15, P=1.5 × 10−9), 8q21 ZFHX4 (rs28727938[G], OR=0.70, P=3.5 × 10−12) and 10p14 GATA3 (rs73635312[A], OR=0.74, P=2.4 × 10−16). Fine mapping reveals that two variants correlated with rs73635312[A] occur in conserved binding sites for the GATA3 transcription factor. In addition, expression microarrays and RNA-seq show that rs13014235[C] and a related SNP rs700635[C] are associated with expression of CASP8 splice variants in which sequences from intron 8 are retained. PMID:25855136

  9. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level. PMID:26839687

  10. Basal cell hyperplasia and basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: a comprehensive review and discussion of a case with c-erbB-2 expression

    OpenAIRE

    Montironi, R; Mazzucchelli, R; Stramazzotti, D; Scarpelli, M; López Beltran, A; Bostwick, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Prostatic basal cell proliferations range from ordinary basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) to florid basal cell hyperplasia to basal cell carcinoma. The distinction between these forms of BCH, including the variant with prominent nucleoli (formerly called atypical BCH), and basal cell carcinoma depends on morphological and immunohistochemical criteria and, in particular, on the degree of cell proliferation. In florid BCH, the proliferation index is intermediate between ordinary BCH and basal cell c...

  11. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor comprises a rectangular parallelopiped channel box and fuel bundles contained in the channel box. The fuel bundle comprises an upper tie plate, a lower tie plate, a plurality of spacers a plurality of fuel rods and a water rod. In each fuel rod, the amount of fission products is reduced at upper and lower end regions of an effective fuel portion than that in other regions of the effective fuel region. In a portion of the fuel rods, fuel pellets containing burnable poisons are disposed at the upper and lower end regions. In addition, the upper and lower portions are constituted with natural uranium. Each of the upper and lower end regions is not greater than 15% of the effective fuel length. Since this can enhance reactivity control effect without worsening fuel economy, the control amount for excess reactivity upon long-term cycle operation can be increased. (I.N.)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wang QK, Liu JY. Identification of a novel genetic locus on chromosome 8p21.1-q11.23 for idiopathic ... DH. Analysis of candidate genes at the IBGC1 locus associated with idiopathic basal ... DH. Genetic heterogeneity in familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr ...

  13. Calcification of the basal ganglia following carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor calcification of the basal ganglia was demonstrated by computed tomography in a woman, aged 66, who had survived carbon monoxide poisoning 48 years earlier. Extensive neuropathological investigations have demonstrated calcified lesions of the basal ganglia in a number of conditions, but their frequency and topographic distribution in vivo remain to be elucidated, by means of CT. (orig.)

  14. The Place of Career Women in the Basals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leondis, Mary T.

    A study analyzed two basal reading series to determine if they depicted realistically the role of the career woman as she exists in society. A list of female careers in the 1989 editions of Houghton-Mifflin and McGraw Hill reading basals for grades 1 to 6 was compared to the career categories of the "United States Bureau of Census, Statistical…

  15. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  16. Interface ring for gas turbine fuel nozzle assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy A.; Schilp, Reinhard

    2016-03-22

    A gas turbine combustor assembly including a combustor liner and a plurality of fuel nozzle assemblies arranged in an annular array extending within the combustor liner. The fuel nozzle assemblies each include fuel nozzle body integral with a swirler assembly, and the swirler assemblies each include a bellmouth structure to turn air radially inwardly for passage into the swirler assemblies. A radially outer removed portion of each of the bellmouth structures defines a periphery diameter spaced from an inner surface of the combustor liner, and an interface ring is provided extending between the combustor liner and the removed portions of the bellmouth structures at the periphery diameter.

  17. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  18. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Biological Continuum of Basal Cell Carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Karaninder S.; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Pushpinder S Chauhan; Anju Lath Sharma; Vikas Sharma; Abhinav, C.; Gayatri Khatri; Neel Prabha; Saurabh Sharma; Muninder Negi

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) accounts for 80% of all nonmelanoma skin cancers. Its metastasis is extremely rare, ranging between 0.0028 and 0.55 of all BCC cases. The usual metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, or skin is from the primary tumor situated in the head and neck region in nearly 85% cases. A 69-year-old male developed progressively increasing multiple, fleshy, indurated, and at places pigmented noduloulcerative plaques over back, chest, and left axillary area 4 years after wide s...

  19. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the neutron flux distribution and the power distribution of a fuel assembly in which short fuel rods vary greatly in the vicinity of a boundary where the distribution of uranium amount is different, the reading value of local power range monitors, having the detectors positioned in the vicinity of the boundary is varied. Then in the present invention, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rod is so made as not approaching with the detection position of the local power range monitor in a reactor core. Further, the upper end of the effective axial length of fuel rods in a 4 x 4 fuel rod lattice positioned at the corner on the side of the local power range monitor is so made as not approaching the detection position of the local power range monitor. As a result, the change of the neutron flux distribution and power distribution in the vicinity of the position where the detector of the local power range monitor is situated can be extremely reduced. Accordingly, there is no scattering and fluctuation for the reading value by the local power range monitor, to improve the monitoring performance for thermal characteristics in the reactor core. (N.H.)

  20. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To reconstruct a BWR type reactor into a high conversion reactor with no substantial changes for the reactor inner structure such as control rod structure. Constitution: The horizontal cross sectional shape of a channel box is reformed into a square configuration and the arrangement of fuel rods is formed as a trigonal lattice-like configuration. As a method of improving the conversion ratio, there is considered to use a dense lattice by narrowing the distance between fuel rods and trigonal lattice arrangement for fuel rod is advantageous therefor. A square shape cross sectional configuration having equal length both in the lateral and longitudinal directions is suitable for the channel box as a guide upon movement of the control rod. Fuel rods can be arranged with no loss by the trigonal lattice configuration, by which it is possible to improve the neutron moderation, increase the reactor core reactivity and conduct effective fuel combustion. In this way, it is possible to attain the object by inserting the follower portion of the control rod at the earier half and extracting the same at the latter half during the operation period in the reactor core comprising fuel assemblies suitable to a high conversion BWR type reactor having average conversion ratio of about 0.8. (Kamimura, M.)

  1. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel rods are arranged in a lattice-like structure by way of a plurality of spacers and the lower ends thereof are fixed to a lower tie plate for assembling a fuel rod bundle. The outer circumference is surrounded by a basket having a plurality of openings and the basket is surrounded by a channel box. The basket is connected to a handle at the upper end and to a lower tie plate at the lower end and, further, defined with a scraper at each of openings. Coolants flown from the lower tie plate to the channel box flow the channels between the channel box and the basket and a fuel rod bundle, uprise while forming a two-phase flow and flow out from the upper end of the channel box. Since no upper tie plate is present, pressure loss of coolants flow is reduced, and liquid membranes of coolants are peeled off by the scraper disposed at the opening of the basket, which contributes to the improvement of the limit power. In addition, fuel rods are inspected and cleaned easily. (N.H.)

  2. Fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of the present invention is to improve the hydrodynamic stability in the fuel channels of BWR type reactors and effectively utilize the coolant driving power corresponding to the reduction due to pressure loss. That is, in a fuel assembly having usual fuel rods and, in addition, water rods and short fuel rods, the structures of water rods, upper tie plates and the spacers are designed from a hydrodynamic point of view, to reduce the pressure loss. On the other hand, a lattice-like flow channel resistance member is disposed to a lower tie plate. The bundle flow rate is made uniform by the flow channel resistance member, and the pressure loss of the tie plate is increased by the reduction of the pressure loss by the arrangement of the short fuel rod and the reduction of the pressure loss described above. Since this increases the ratio of the single phase stream pressure loss in the total reactor core pressure loss, the hydrodynamic stability in the fuel channel is improved. (I.J.)

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly construction for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors is described in which the sub-assemblies carry a smaller proportion of parasitic material than do conventional sub-assemblies. (U.K.)

  4. Learning processing in the basal ganglia: a mosaic of broken mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Wietzikoski, Evellyn Claudia; Dombrowski, Patrícia; Bortolanza, Mariza; Santos, Lucélia Mendes; Boschen, Suelen Lucio; Miyoshi, Edmar

    2009-04-12

    In the present review we propose a model to explain the role of the basal ganglia in sensorimotor and cognitive functions based on a growing body of behavioural, anatomical, physiological, and neurochemical evidence accumulated over the last decades. This model proposes that the body and its surrounding environment are represented in the striatum in a fragmented and repeated way, like a mosaic consisting of the fragmented images of broken mirrors. Each fragment forms a functional unit representing articulated parts of the body with motion properties, objects of the environment which the subject can approach or manipulate, and locations the subject can move to. These units integrate the sensory properties and movements related to them. The repeated and widespread distribution of such units amplifies the combinatorial power of the associations among them. These associations depend on the phasic release of dopamine in the striatum triggered by the saliency of stimuli and will be reinforced by the rewarding consequences of the actions related to them. Dopamine permits synaptic plasticity in the corticostriatal synapses. The striatal units encoding the same stimulus/action send convergent projections to the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi) and to the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that stimulate or hold the action through a thalamus-frontal cortex pathway. According to this model, this is how the basal ganglia select actions based on environmental stimuli and store adaptive associations as nondeclarative memories such as motor skills, habits, and memories formed by Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning. PMID:18977393

  5. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews(Tupaia belangeri chinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing WANG; Xin-Li XU; Ze-Yang DING; Rong-Rong MAO; Qi-Xin ZHOU; Long-Bao LV; Li-Ping WANG; Shuang WANG; Chen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine.Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding,low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy.Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases.However,basal physiological indexes of tree shrew,especially those related to human disease,have not been systematically reported.Accordingly,we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors:(1) body weight,(2) core body temperature and rhythm,(3) diet metabolism,(4) locomotor rhythm,(5) electroencephalogram,(6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm.We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques.Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃,which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews,with two activity peaks,domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats,tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews,which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews.These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  6. Ultrastructure of the basal lamina of bovine ovarian follicles and its relationship to the membrana granulosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving-Rodgers, H F; Rodgers, R J

    2000-03-01

    Different morphological phenotypes of follicular basal lamina and of membrana granulosa have been observed. Ten preantral follicles (basal lamina and membrana granulosa. Within each antral follicle, the shape of the basal cells of the membrana granulosa was uniform, and either rounded or columnar. There were equal proportions of follicles basal cells and with rounded basal cells. Larger follicles had only rounded basal cells. Conventional basal laminae of a single layer adjacent to the basal granulosa cells were observed in healthy follicles at the preantral and antral stages. However, at the preantral stage, the conventional types of basal lamina were enlarged or even partially laminated. A second type of basal lamina, described as 'loopy', occurred in about half the preantral follicles and in half the antral follicles basal laminae were not observed in larger follicles. 'Loopy' basal laminae were composed of basal laminae aligning the basal surface of basal granulosa cells, but with additional layers or loops often branching from the innermost layer. Each loop was usually Basal cellular processes were also common, and vesicles could be seen budding off from these processes. In antral follicles, conventional basal laminae occurred in follicles with rounded basal granulosa cells. Other follicles with columnar cells, and atretic follicles, had the 'loopy' basal lamina phenotype. Thus, follicles have different basal laminae that relate to the morphology of the membrana granulosa. PMID:10864785

  7. Cortico-Basal Ganglia Circuit Function in Psychiatric Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Lisa A; Kreitzer, Anatol C

    2016-01-01

    Circuit dysfunction models of psychiatric disease posit that pathological behavior results from abnormal patterns of electrical activity in specific cells and circuits in the brain. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex and in the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical nuclei implicated in cognitive and motor control. Here we discuss the role of the basal ganglia and connected prefrontal regions in the etiology and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, and depression, emphasizing mechanistic work in rodent behavioral models to dissect causal cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying discrete behavioral symptom domains relevant to these complex disorders. PMID:26667072

  8. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic fac...

  9. 两嵌段共聚物在本体中自组装的耗散粒子动力学模拟研究%Simulation Study on Dissipative Particle Dynamics of The Self-assembly of Di-block Copolymer in Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英; 吕盛芳; 罗斯; 于乃森

    2015-01-01

    采用耗散粒子动力学( Dissipative particle dynamics,DPD)方法研究了线形两嵌段共聚物在本体中的自组装。通过改变两嵌段共聚物之间的比例、相互作用参数以及盒子的大小来研究对自组装结构的影响。这些模拟结果不仅与理论预测和实验结果相一致,而且证明了耗散粒子动力学方法是一种非常适合研究嵌段共聚物自组装行为的重要方法。%Dissipative particle dynamics ( DPD) method was used to study the self-assembly of diblock copolymer in body. Ratios between diblock copolymers, interaction parameters between two blocks, and box sizes are varied to study the influence on the self-assembled structures. These simulation results are consistent with the theoretical prediction and experimental results. We find that dissipative particle dynamics simulation method is an important and suitable method to study the self-assembly of block copolymers.

  10. Basal metabolic rate declines during long-distance migratory flight in great knots

    OpenAIRE

    Battley, PF; Dekinga, A; Dietz, MW; Piersma, T; Tang, SX; Hulsman, K; Battley, Phil F; Tang, Sixian

    2001-01-01

    Great Knots (Calidris tenuirostris) make one of the longest migratory flights in the avian world, flying almost 5500 km from Australia to China during northward migration. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body composition in birds before and after this flight and found that BMR decreased 42%. The mass-specific BMR based on lean mass decreased 33%. We also starved a group of pre-migratory Great Knots in captivity to determine whether they showed the same reduction in BMR without havi...

  11. [Cortico-basal ganglia circuits--parallel closed loops and convergent/divergent connections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyachi, Shigehiro

    2009-04-01

    The basal ganglia play important roles not only in motor control but also in higher cognitive functions such as reinforcement learning and procedural memory. Anatomical studies on the neuronal connections between the basal ganglia, cerebral cortex, and thalamus have demonstrated that these nuclei and cortical areas are interconnected via independent parallel loop circuits. The association, motor, and limbic cortices project to specific domains in the striatum, which, in turn, project back to the corresponding cortical areas via the substantia nigra/globus pallidus and the thalamus. Likewise, subregions in the motor cortex representing different body parts project to specific regions in the putamen, which project back to the original motor cortical regions. These parallel loops have been thought to be the basic anatomical structures involved in the basal ganglia functions. Furthermore, neuronal projections communicating between different loops (or functional domains) have also been discovered. A considerable number of corticostriatal projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas (e. g., hand representations of the motor cortex and somatosensory cortex) converge at the striatum. It has also been suggested that the location of the substantia nigra is in such that it can transmit information from the 'limbic loop' to the 'association loop', and from the 'association loop' to the 'motor loop'. Furthermore, a recent transsynaptic neuronal tracing study conducted at our laboratory demonstrated that the ventral (limbic) striatum sends divergent outputs to multiple regions in the frontal cortex. These 'inter-loop' connections would be important for the integration of information to achieve goal-directed behaviors. PMID:19378804

  12. A morphometric CT study of Down's syndrome showing small posterior fossa and calcification of basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report characteristic and morphometric changes of cranial computed tomography (CT) with increasing age in 56 patients with Down's syndrome aged from 0 month to 37 years. Patients were compared with 142 normal controls aged 0 to 59 years. Width of ventricles, Sylvian fissures, posterior fossa, pons and cisterna magna were measured on CT. The incidences of the cavum septi pellucidi, cavum vergae and cavum veli interpositi and high density in the basal ganglia were examined. There was high incidence (10.7%) of bilateral calcification of basal ganglia in Down's syndrome, although that of pineal body and choroid plexus calcification was similar in Down's syndrome and controls. Basal ganglia calcification is more frequently seen in young Down's syndrome and may be related to the premature aging characteristic of Down's syndrome. The CT in Down's syndrome showed relatively small posterior fossa, small cerebellum, small brain stem and relatively large Sylvian fissures in those under one year of age. There was a high frequency of midline cava and large cisterna magna. There were no significant atrophic changes on CT except after the fifth decade comparing with controls. (orig.)

  13. Photovoltaic sheathing element with a flexible connector assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langmaid, Joseph A; Keenihan, James R; Mills, Michael E; Lopez, Leonardo C

    2016-07-12

    The present invention is premised upon an assembly including at least a photovoltaic sheathing element capable of being affixed on a building structure, the sheathing element including at least: a photovoltaic cell assembly, a body portion attached to one or more portions of the photovoltaic cell assembly; at least a first and a second connector assembly disposed on opposing sides of the sheathing element and capable of directly or indirectly electrically connecting the photovoltaic cell assembly to at least two adjoining devices that are affixed to the building structure and wherein at least one of the connector assemblies includes a flexible portion; one or more connector pockets disposed in the body portion the pockets capable of receiving at least a portion of the connector assembly.

  14. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  15. Body Odor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Body Odor Posted under Health Guides . Updated 29 October 2014. + ... guy has to deal with. What causes body odor? During puberty, your sweat glands become much more ...

  16. Body Hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Diaper-Changing Steps for Childcare Settings Body Hygiene Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Facial Cleanliness Fish Pedicures and ... spread of hygiene-related diseases . Topics for Body Hygiene Facial Cleanliness Dental Hygiene Water Fluoridation Fish Pedicures and Fish Spas ...

  17. Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help your child have a healthy body image Cosmetic surgery Breast surgery Botox Liposuction Varicose or spider veins Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) Eating disorders Anorexia nervosa Binge eating ... nervosa Cosmetics and your health Depression during and after pregnancy ...

  18. Body Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about how the body works, what basic human anatomy is, and what happens when parts of the body don't function properly. Blood Bones, Muscles, and Joints Brain and Nervous System Digestive System Endocrine System Eyes Female Reproductive System ...

  19. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging. PMID:26757620

  20. Self-assembled nanomaterials for photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Pei-Pei; Zhao, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, extensive endeavors have been paid to construct functional self-assembled nanomaterials for various applications such as catalysis, separation, energy and biomedicines. To date, different strategies have been developed for preparing nanomaterials with diversified structures and functionalities via fine tuning of self-assembled building blocks. In terms of biomedical applications, bioimaging technologies are urgently calling for high-efficient probes/contrast agents for high-performance bioimaging. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging is an emerging whole-body imaging modality offering high spatial resolution, deep penetration and high contrast in vivo. The self-assembled nanomaterials show high stability in vivo, specific tolerance to sterilization and prolonged half-life stability and desirable targeting properties, which is a kind of promising PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. Herein, we focus on summarizing recent advances in smart self-assembled nanomaterials with NIR absorption as PA contrast agents for biomedical imaging. According to the preparation strategy of the contrast agents, the self-assembled nanomaterials are categorized into two groups, i.e., the ex situ and in situ self-assembled nanomaterials. The driving forces, assembly modes and regulation of PA properties of self-assembled nanomaterials and their applications for long-term imaging, enzyme activity detection and aggregation-induced retention (AIR) effect for diagnosis and therapy are emphasized. Finally, we conclude with an outlook towards future developments of self-assembled nanomaterials for PA imaging.

  1. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  2. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis. (author)

  3. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a smallpox vaccination site.

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, J D; Shesol, B F; Horne, D W

    1980-01-01

    A case of pigmented basal cell carcinoma developing in a smallpox revaccination site is presented. Any progressive change within a smallpox vaccination scar should be thoroughly evaluated and treated appropriately after tissue diagnosis.

  4. Body embellishment

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The exhibition Body Embellishment explores the most innovative artistic expression in the 21st-century international arenas of body extension, augmentation, and modification, focusing on jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. The areas of focus are jewelry, tattoos, nail arts, and fashion. Avant-garde jewelry consciously engages the body by intersecting and expanding the planes of the human form. Tattoos are at once on and in the body. Nail art, from manicures to pedicures, has humble ...

  5. Body Clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2000-01-01

    Body clocks” are biological methods of controling body activities.Every living thing has one. In humans, a body clock controls normal periods of sleeping and waking. It controls the time swhen you are most likely to feel pain.Eating, sleeping and exercising at about the same time each day will help keep body activities normal. But changes in your life, a new job, for example, destroy the balance and thus cause health problems.

  6. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome: A Case Report and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bala Subramanyam, S.; Naga Sujata, D.; Sridhar, K.; Pushpanjali, M

    2011-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder, comprises of a number of abnormalities such as multiple nevoid basal cell carcinomas, skeletal abnormalities and multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors. Diagnosis may be difficult because of the variability of expressivity and different ages of onset for different traits of this disorder. The dental clinician may be the first to encounter and identify this syndrome, when the multiple cysts like radiolucencies are disc...

  7. Basal Jawed Vertebrate Phylogenomics Using Transcriptomic Data from Solexa Sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ming; Zou, Ming; Lei YANG; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi) and an African lungfish ...

  8. Prevalence and clinical relevance of idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing CT examinations of the cerebrum, the discovery of basal ganglia calcification becomes more frequent. In order to correlate these calcifications to the symptoms believed to be accompanied with Fahr's disease 2318 cranial CT scans were examined. There was an overall incidence of basal ganglia calcification of 12.5%. The most frequent location was the globus pallidus (96.4%). In the examined population there was no correlation found between the calcifications and symptoms having been described with striopallidentate calcifications. (orig.)

  9. Optimization Well-Type on the Conditions of Basal Groundwater

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaming Zhang; Xiaodong Wu; Guoqing Han; Shudong Li; Jia Zhang

    2013-01-01

    For optimization well-type on the conditions of basal groundwater, inasmuch as an analogy exists between electrical and fluid flow, the electrolytic analogy experiments have been conducted, which made a series of comparisons and evaluations between 9 types of complex well configurations and vertical well in terms of production. Taking into account the boundary condition of basal groundwater, we conducted 3×3×10 experiments in totally, including vertical well, horizontal well, radial well, sna...

  10. Childhood trauma and basal cortisol in people with personality disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Yehuda, Rachel; Grossman, Robert; New, Antonia S.; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Siever, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the influence of various forms of childhood abuse on basal cortisol levels in a sample of adults with Axis II personality disorders. Participants included 63 adults (n=19 women) who provided basal plasma cortisol samples and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Linear regression analyses that included all five subscales (i.e., sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect and emotional neglect) demonstrated that Physical abuse was related to lowe...

  11. Pseudohypoparathyroidism, parkinsonism syndrome, with no basal ganglia calcification.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, B K; Donley, D K

    1988-01-01

    A 20 year old woman with pseudohypoparathyroidism, Parkinsonism and no basal ganglia calcifications shown by computed tomography is reported. She has typical features of pseudohypoparathyroidism and biochemical evidence of end-organ resistance to parathyroid hormone. She is mentally retarded and has tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and stooped posture. The cause of Parkinsonism in pseudohypoparathyroidism is thought to be basal ganglia calcification. This patient must have another pathophysiol...

  12. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome; Naevoid Basalzellkarzinom-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grgic, A.; Heinrich, M.; Heckmann, M.; Kramann, B. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Aliani, S. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Dill-Mueller, D. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Hautklinik und Poliklinik; Uder, M. [Erlange-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie

    2005-07-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar/plantar pits, calcification of the falx cerebri, and spine and rib anomalies. The combination of clinical, imaging, and histological findings is helpful in identifying NBCCS patients. Imaging plays a crucial role in evaluation of these patients. We present a wide variety of clinical and radiological findings characteristic of this disease. (orig.)

  13. Control rod assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a control rod assembly comprising an extension rod extended upwardly from the upper end of a control rod main body disposed in a reactor core and an extension tube engaging a grip portion disposed to an upper portion of the extension rod for suspending the control rod main body, a shrinkable portion is disposed to a part of the extension tube or extension rod, or a grip portion shrinkable in the axial direction is disposed to the extension rod. Further, a spring is interposed to a portion of the extension tube and bellows are disposed to the inner side or the outer side of the spring. A double-cylindrical temperature sensing member is disposed surrounding the outer side of the bellows or the spring. Liquid metals are sealed in the temperature sensing member or the bellows. This can improve the response of the coolants to the temperature elevation and can suppress the change of the reactor core insertion amount relative to temperature change during usual operation. (T.M.)

  14. CT and MRI diagnosis of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze CT and MRI features of traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and investigate the diagnostic value. Methods: 21 cases with traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage diagnosed by clinic, CT and MRI in our hospital were collected in this study Plain CT scan were immediately performed in 21 cases after injury, plain MR scan were performed in 1 to 3 days. 12 cases of them underwent diffusion weighted imagine (DWI). The CT and MRI findings were retrospectively summarized. Results: 8 cases were found with simple traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage. Complexity of basal ganglia hemorrhage occurred in 13 cases, 6 cases combined with subdural hemorrhage, 3 cases with epidural hematoma, 2 cases with subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6 cases with brain contusion and laceration in other locations, 4 cases with skull fracture. 26 lesions of basal ganglia hematoma were showed in 21 cases, 14 lesions of pallidum hemorrhage in 11 cases confirmed by MR could not be distinguished from calcification at the fast CT scan. 5 more lesions of brain contusion and laceration and 4 more lesions of brain white matter laceration were found by MR. Conclusion: CT in combination with MRI can diagnose traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage and its complications early, comprehensively and accurately, which plays an important role in the clinical therapy selection and prognosis evaluation. (authors)

  15. TAF1B is a TFIIB-like component of the basal transcription machinery for RNA polymerase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Srivatsava; Friedrich, J Karsten; Russell, Jackie; Zomerdijk, Joost C B M

    2011-09-16

    Transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases (Pols) II and III and archaeal Pol requires structurally related general transcription factors TFIIB, Brf1, and TFB, respectively, which are essential for polymerase recruitment and initiation events. A TFIIB-like protein was not evident in the Pol I basal transcription machinery. We report that TAF1B, a subunit of human Pol I basal transcription factor SL1, is structurally related to TFIIB/TFIIB-like proteins, through predicted amino-terminal zinc ribbon and cyclin-like fold domains. SL1, essential for Pol I recruitment to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter, also has an essential postpolymerase recruitment role, operating through TAF1B. Therefore, a TFIIB-related protein is implicated in preinitiation complex assembly and postpolymerase recruitment events in Pol I transcription, underscoring the parallels between eukaryotic Pol I, II, and III and archaeal transcription machineries. PMID:21921199

  16. Axillary basal cell carcinoma in patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome: report of basal cell carcinoma in both axilla of a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Basal cell carcinoma of the axilla, an area that is not usually exposed to the sun, is rare. Individuals with basal cell nevus syndrome, a disorder associated with a mutation in the patch 1 (PTCH1) gene, develop numerous basal cell carcinomas.Purpose: To describe a woman with basal cell nevus syndrome who developed a pigmented basal cell carcinoma in each of her axilla and to review the features of axillary basal cell carcinoma patients with Goltz-Gorlin syndrome.Methods: Pubmed w...

  17. Newnes electronics assembly handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Electronics Assembly Handbook: Techniques, Standards and Quality Assurance focuses on the aspects of electronic assembling. The handbook first looks at the printed circuit board (PCB). Base materials, basic mechanical properties, cleaning of assemblies, design, and PCB manufacturing processes are then explained. The text also discusses surface mounted assemblies and packaging of electromechanical assemblies, as well as the soldering process. Requirements for the soldering process; solderability and protective coatings; cleaning of PCBs; and mass solder/component reflow soldering are des

  18. Inlet nozzle assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, David W.; Karnesky, Richard A.; Precechtel, Donald R.; Smith, Bob G.; Knight, Ronald C.

    1987-01-01

    An inlet nozzle assembly for directing coolant into the duct tube of a fuel assembly attached thereto. The nozzle assembly includes a shell for housing separable components including an orifice plate assembly, a neutron shield block, a neutron shield plug, and a diffuser block. The orifice plate assembly includes a plurality of stacked plates of differently configurated and sized openings for directing coolant therethrough in a predesigned flow pattern.

  19. FUEL ASSEMBLY SHAKER TEST SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Sanborn, Scott E.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-05-30

    direct comparison of model results to recorded test results. This does not offer validation for the fuel assembly model in all conceivable cases, such as high kinetic energy shock cases where the fuel assembly might lift off the basket floor to strike to basket ceiling. This type of nonlinear behavior was not witnessed in testing, so the model does not have test data to be validated against.a basis for validation in cases that substantially alter the fuel assembly response range. This leads to a gap in knowledge that is identified through this modeling study. The SNL shaker testing loaded a surrogate fuel assembly with a certain set of artificially-generated time histories. One thing all the shock cases had in common was an elimination of low frequency components, which reduces the rigid body dynamic response of the system. It is not known if the SNL test cases effectively bound all highway transportation scenarios, or if significantly greater rigid body motion than was tested is credible. This knowledge gap could be filled through modeling the vehicle dynamics of a used fuel conveyance, or by collecting acceleration time history data from an actual conveyance under highway conditions.

  20. Analysis and diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) via infrared imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sahagun, J. H.; Vargas, J. V. C.; Mulinari-Brenner, F. A.

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a structured methodology is proposed and tested through infrared imaging temperature measurements of a healthy control group to establish expected normality ranges and of basal cell carcinoma patients (a type of skin cancer) previously diagnosed through biopsies of the affected regions. A method of conjugated gradients is proposed to compare measured dimensionless temperature difference values (Δ θ) between two symmetric regions of the patient's body, that takes into account the skin, the surrounding ambient and the individual core temperatures and doing so, the limitation of the results interpretation for different individuals become simple and nonsubjective. The range of normal temperatures in different regions of the body for seven healthy individuals was determined, and admitting that the human skin exhibits a unimodal normal distribution, the normal range for each region was considered to be the mean dimensionless temperature difference plus/minus twice the standard deviation of the measurements (Δθ±2σ) in order to represent 95% of the population. Eleven patients with previously diagnosed basal cell carcinoma through biopsies were examined with the method, which was capable of detecting skin abnormalities in all cases. Therefore, the conjugated gradients method was considered effective in the identification of the basal cell carcinoma through infrared imaging even with the use of a low optical resolution camera (160 × 120 pixels) and a thermal resolution of 0.1 °C. The method could also be used to scan a larger area around the lesion in order to detect the presence of other lesions still not perceptible in the clinical exam. However, it is necessary that a temperature differences mesh-like mapping of the healthy human body skin is produced, so that the comparison of the patient Δ θ could be made with the exact region of such mapping in order to possibly make a more effective diagnosis. Finally, the infrared image analyzed through the

  1. Basal and stress-inducible expression of HSPA6 in human keratinocytes is regulated by negative and positive promoter regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, Vincent P.; Stamatis, Michael; Shmukler, Anastasia; Aneskievich, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Epidermal keratinocytes serve as the primary barrier between the body and environmental stressors. They are subjected to numerous stress events and are likely to respond with a repertoire of heat shock proteins (HSPs). HSPA6 (HSP70B′) is described in other cell types with characteristically low to undetectable basal expression, but is highly stress induced. Despite this response in other cells, little is known about its control in keratinocytes. We examined endogenous human keratinocyte HSPA6...

  2. Tilt assembly for tracking solar collector assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almy, Charles; Peurach, John; Sandler, Reuben

    2012-01-24

    A tilt assembly is used with a solar collector assembly of the type comprising a frame, supporting a solar collector, for movement about a tilt axis by pivoting a drive element between first and second orientations. The tilt assembly comprises a drive element coupler connected to the drive element and a driver, the driver comprising a drive frame, a drive arm and a drive arm driver. The drive arm is mounted to the drive frame for pivotal movement about a drive arm axis. Movement on the drive arm mimics movement of the drive element. Drive element couplers can extend in opposite directions from the outer portion of the drive arm, whereby the assembly can be used between adjacent solar collector assemblies in a row of solar collector assemblies.

  3. Is Cancer Cachexia Attributed to Impairments in Basal or Postprandial Muscle Protein Metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstman, Astrid M H; Olde Damink, Steven W; Schols, Annemie M W J; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-01-01

    Cachexia is a significant clinical problem associated with very poor quality of life, reduced treatment tolerance and outcomes, and a high mortality rate. Mechanistically, any sizeable loss of skeletal muscle mass must be underpinned by a structural imbalance between muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates. Recent data indicate that the loss of muscle mass with aging is, at least partly, attributed to a blunted muscle protein synthetic response to protein feeding. Whether such anabolic resistance is also evident in conditions where cachexia is present remains to be addressed. Only few data are available on muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in vivo in cachectic cancer patients. When calculating the theoretical changes in basal or postprandial fractional muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates that would be required to lose 5% of body weight within a six-month period, we can define the changes that would need to occur to explain the muscle mass loss observed in cachectic patients. If changes in both post-absorptive and postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates contribute to the loss of muscle mass, it would take alterations as small as 1%-2% to induce a more than 5% decline in body weight. Therefore, when trying to define impairments in basal and/or postprandial muscle protein synthesis or breakdown rates using contemporary stable isotope methodology in cancer cachexia, we need to select large homogenous groups of cancer patients (>40 patients) to allow us to measure physiological and clinically relevant differences in muscle protein synthesis and/or breakdown rates. Insight into impairments in basal or postprandial muscle protein synthesis and breakdown rates in cancer cachexia is needed to design more targeted nutritional, pharmaceutical and/or physical activity interventions to preserve skeletal muscle mass and, as such, to reduce the risk of complications, improve quality of life, and lower mortality rates during the various

  4. Adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis in chronic undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolic adaptation during chronic undernutrition represents a complex integration of several processes which affect the total energy expenditure of the individual. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is reduced; reductions in BMR per unit fat free mass (FFM) is difficult to demonstrate. BMR changes in undernutrition reflect the low body weight as well as alterations in the composition of the FFM; more specifically changes in the ratio of viscera to muscle compartments of the FFM. Thermogenic responses to norepinephrine are transiently suppressed but recover rapidly on repeated stimulation. Dietary thermogenesis is enhanced possible the result of increases in tissue synthesis within the body. Changes in BMR and thermogenesis suggestive of an increase in metabolic efficiency is thus difficult to demonstrate in chronic undernutrition. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  5. In vivo characterization of high Basal signaling from the ghrelin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pia Steen; Woldbye, David P D; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jin, Chunyu; Lang, Manja; Rasmussen, Maria; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Holst, Birgitte

    2009-01-01

    following study, we found that the expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hypothalamus was up-regulated approximately 2-fold in rats both during 48-h fasting and by streptozotocin-induced hyperphagia. In a separate experiment, to probe for the effect of the high basal signaling of the ghrelin receptor in....... Food intake and body weight were significantly decreased in the group of rats treated with the inverse agonist, as compared with the groups treated with the control peptide or the vehicle. In the hypothalamus, the expression of neuropeptide Y and uncoupling protein 2 was decreased by the inverse...... decreased by administration of the inverse agonist. It is suggested that the high constitutive signaling activity is important for the in vivo function of the ghrelin receptor in the control of food intake and body weight....

  6. Over-represented localized sequence motifs in ribosomal protein gene promoters of basal metazoans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Drago; Korolija, Marina; Roller, Maša; Harcet, Matija; Jeličić, Branka; Mikoč, Andreja; Cetković, Helena

    2011-07-01

    Equimolecular presence of ribosomal proteins (RPs) in the cell is needed for ribosome assembly and is achieved by synchronized expression of ribosomal protein genes (RPGs) with promoters of similar strengths. Over-represented motifs of RPG promoter regions are identified as targets for specific transcription factors. Unlike RPs, those motifs are not conserved between mammals, drosophila, and yeast. We analyzed RPGs proximal promoter regions of three basal metazoans with sequenced genomes: sponge, cnidarian, and placozoan and found common features, such as 5'-terminal oligopyrimidine tracts and TATA-boxes. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs, some of which displayed the highest similarity to motifs abundant in human RPG promoters and not present in Drosophila or yeast. Our results indicate that humans over-represented motifs, as well as corresponding domains of transcription factors, were established very early in metazoan evolution. The fast evolving nature of RPGs regulatory network leads to formation of other, lineage specific, over-represented motifs. PMID:21457775

  7. Large-scale patterns of turnover and Basal area change in Andean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selene Báez

    Full Text Available General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century.

  8. Large-Scale Patterns of Turnover and Basal Area Change in Andean Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundo, Cecilia; Aguilar, Manuel; Aguirre, Nikolay; Aquirre, Zhofre; Álvarez, Esteban; Cuesta, Francisco; Farfán-Ríos, William; García-Cabrera, Karina; Grau, Ricardo; Linares-Palomino, Reynaldo; Malizia, Lucio R.; Cruz, Omar Melo; Osinaga, Oriana; Reynel, Carlos; Silman, Miles R.

    2015-01-01

    General patterns of forest dynamics and productivity in the Andes Mountains are poorly characterized. Here we present the first large-scale study of Andean forest dynamics using a set of 63 permanent forest plots assembled over the past two decades. In the North-Central Andes tree turnover (mortality and recruitment) and tree growth declined with increasing elevation and decreasing temperature. In addition, basal area increased in Lower Montane Moist Forests but did not change in Higher Montane Humid Forests. However, at higher elevations the lack of net basal area change and excess of mortality over recruitment suggests negative environmental impacts. In North-Western Argentina, forest dynamics appear to be influenced by land use history in addition to environmental variation. Taken together, our results indicate that combinations of abiotic and biotic factors that vary across elevation gradients are important determinants of tree turnover and productivity in the Andes. More extensive and longer-term monitoring and analyses of forest dynamics in permanent plots will be necessary to understand how demographic processes and woody biomass are responding to changing environmental conditions along elevation gradients through this century. PMID:25973977

  9. CAMSAP3 orients the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubule arrays in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Mika; Kobayashi, Saeko; Kawasaki, Miwa; Shioi, Go; Kaneko, Mari; Ishiuchi, Takashi; Misaki, Kazuyo; Meng, Wenxiang; Takeichi, Masatoshi

    2016-01-12

    Polarized epithelial cells exhibit a characteristic array of microtubules that are oriented along the apicobasal axis of the cells. The minus-ends of these microtubules face apically, and the plus-ends face toward the basal side. The mechanisms underlying this epithelial-specific microtubule assembly remain unresolved, however. Here, using mouse intestinal cells and human Caco-2 cells, we show that the microtubule minus-end binding protein CAMSAP3 (calmodulin-regulated-spectrin-associated protein 3) plays a pivotal role in orienting the apical-to-basal polarity of microtubules in epithelial cells. In these cells, CAMSAP3 accumulated at the apical cortices, and tethered the longitudinal microtubules to these sites. Camsap3 mutation or depletion resulted in a random orientation of these microtubules; concomitantly, the stereotypic positioning of the nucleus and Golgi apparatus was perturbed. In contrast, the integrity of the plasma membrane was hardly affected, although its structural stability was decreased. Further analysis revealed that the CC1 domain of CAMSAP3 is crucial for its apical localization, and that forced mislocalization of CAMSAP3 disturbs the epithelial architecture. These findings demonstrate that apically localized CAMSAP3 determines the proper orientation of microtubules, and in turn that of organelles, in mature mammalian epithelial cells. PMID:26715742

  10. Structural assembly demonstration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    The experiment is of an operational variety, designed to assess crew capability in Large Space System (LSS) assembly. The six Structural Assembly Demonstration Experiment objectives include: (1) the establishment of a quantitative correlation between LSS neutral buoyancy simulation and on-orbit assembly operations in order to enhance the validity of those assembly simulations; (2) the quantitative study of the capabilities and mechanics of human assembly in an Extravehicular Activity environment; (3) the further corroboration of the LSS Assembly Analysis cost algorithm through the obtainment of hard data base information; (4) the verification of LSS assembly techniques and timeless, as well as the identification of crew imposed loads and assembly aid requirements and concepts; (5) verification of a Launch/Assembly Platform structure concept for other LSS missions; and (6) lastly, to advance thermal control concepts through a flexible heat pipe.

  11. EB1 is required for primary cilia assembly in fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Jacob M; Schneider, Linda; Christensen, Søren T;

    2007-01-01

    different cellular organelles [1, 2]. EB1 also localizes to centrosomes and is required for centrosomal MT anchoring and organization of the MT network [3, 4]. We previously showed that EB1 localizes to the flagellar tip and proximal region of the basal body in Chlamydomonas[5], but the function of EB1 in...

  12. Dopamine-glutamate interactions in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W J

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to formulate a working hypothesis of basal-ganglia functions, arguments are considered suggesting that the basal ganglia are involved in a process of response selection i.e. in the facilitation of "wanted" and in the suppression of "unwanted" behaviour. The meso-accumbal dopamine-system is considered to mediate natural and drug-induced reward and sensitization. The meso-striatal dopamine-system seems to fulfill similar functions: It may mediate reinforcement which strengthens a given behaviour when elicited subsequently, but which is not experienced as reward or hedonia. Glutamate as the transmitter of the corticofugal projections to the basal ganglia nuclei and of the subthalamic neurons is critically involved in basal ganglia functions and dysfunctions; for example Parkinson's disease can be considered to be a secondary hyperglutamatergic disease. Additionally, glutamate is an essential factor in the plasticity response of the basal-ganglia. However, opposite to previous suggestions, the NMDA-receptor blocker MK-801 does not prevent psychostimulant- nor morphine-induced day to day increase (sensitization) of locomotion. Also the day to day increase of haloperidol-induced catalepsy was not prevented by MK-801. PMID:9871434

  13. Firearm trigger assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  14. Assembly plans for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assembly of ITER represents an extrapolation of a factor of two or more in size over existing large tokamaks. An assembly plan has been developed based on the ITER Outline Design. This plan was reviewed by technical experts and critical issues were identified. Alternate designs are being developed to address the most serious concerns and to minimize cost and assembly schedule. Because ITER has many characteristics of a full-scale nuclear reactor its assembly has challenges not faced previously by the fusion community. Careful assembly planning and well-designed tooling are required to insure success in the assembly of ITER

  15. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  16. Basal metabolic rate, food intake, and body mass in cold- and warm-acclimated Garden Warblers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, M.R.J.; Oltrogge, M.; Trost, L.

    2004-01-01

    We address the question of whether physiological flexibility in relation to climate is a general feature of the metabolic properties of birds. We tested this hypothesis in hand-raised Garden Warblers (Sylvia borin), long-distance migrants, which normally do not experience great temperature differenc

  17. Megaphylogeny, cell body plans, adaptive zones: causes and timing of eukaryote basal radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    I discuss eukaryote megaphylogeny and the timing of major innovations in the light of multigene trees and the rarity of marine/freshwater evolutionary transitions. The first eukaryotes were aerobic phagotrophs, probably substratum-associated heterotrophic amoeboflagellates. The primary eukaryote bifurcation generated unikonts (ancestrally probably unicentriolar, with a conical microtubular [MT] cytoskeleton) and bikonts (ciliary transformation from anterior cilium to ancestrally gliding posterior cilium; cytoskeleton of ventral MT bands). Unikonts diverged into Amoebozoa with anterior cilia, lost when lobosan broad pseudopods evolved for locomotion, and Choanozoa with posterior cilium and filose pseudopods that became unbranched tentacles/microvilli in holozoa and eventually the choanoflagellate/choanocyte collar. Of choanozoan ancestry, animals evolved epithelia, fibroblasts, eggs, and sperm. Fungi and Ichthyosporea evolved walls. Bikonts, ancestrally with ventral grooves, include three adaptively divergent megagroups: Rhizaria (Retaria and Cercozoa, ancestrally reticulofilose soft-surfaced gliding amoeboflagellates), and the originally planktonic Excavata, and the corticates (Plantae and chromalveolates) that suppressed pseudopodia. Excavata evolved cilia-generated feeding currents for grooval ingestion; corticates evolved cortical alveoli and ciliary hairs. Symbiogenetic origin and transfers of chloroplasts stimulated an explosive radiation of corticates--hard to resolve on multigene trees--and opisthokonts, and ensuing Cambrian explosions of animals and protists. Plantae lost phagotrophy and multiply evolved walls and macroalgae. Apusozoa, with dorsal pellicle and ventral pseudopods, are probably the most divergent bikonts or related to opisthokonts. Eukaryotes probably originated 800-850 My ago. Amoebozoa, Apusozoa, Loukozoa, and Metamonada may be the only extant eukaryote phyla pre-dating Neoproterozoic snowball earth. New subphyla are established for Choanozoa and Loukozoa; Amoebozoa are divided into three revised subphyla, with Variosea transferred into Conosa. PMID:19340985

  18. Assembly, function and evolution of cyanobacterial carboxysomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfeld, Cheryl A; Melnicki, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    All cyanobacteria contain carboxysomes, RuBisCO-encapsulating bacterial microcompartments that function as prokaryotic organelles. The two carboxysome types, alpha and beta, differ fundamentally in components, assembly, and species distribution. Alpha carboxysomes share a highly-conserved gene organization, with evidence of horizontal gene transfer from chemoautotrophic proteobacteria to the picocyanobacteria, and seem to co-assemble shells concomitantly with aggregation of cargo enzymes. In contrast, beta carboxysomes assemble an enzymatic core first, with an encapsulation peptide playing a critical role in formation of the surrounding shell. Based on similarities in assembly, and phylogenetic analysis of the pentameric shell protein conserved across all bacterial microcompartments, beta carboxysomes appear to be more closely related to the microcompartments of heterotrophic bacteria (metabolosomes) than to alpha carboxysomes, which appear deeply divergent. Beta carboxysomes can be found in the basal cyanobacterial clades that diverged before the ancestor of the chloroplast and have recently been shown to be able to encapsulate functional RuBisCO enzymes resurrected from ancestrally-reconstructed sequences, consistent with an ancient origin. Alpha and beta carboxysomes are not only distinct units of evolution, but are now emerging as genetic/metabolic modules for synthetic biology; heterologous expression and redesign of both the shell and the enzymatic core have recently been achieved. PMID:27060669

  19. Body punk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Kevin

    BODYPUNK - A Treatise on male body builders and the meaning of the body in the shadow of an Anti Doping Campaign Based on a qualitative study, the thesis investigates the visual representation of the male bodybuilder found in the national anti doping campaign: ‗ "The hunt has begun" along with an...... analysis of the embodied meaning of men‘s bodybuilding....

  20. Body Weight and Body Image

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane Traci; Olmsted Marion P

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Body weight is of physical and psychological importance to Canadian women; it is associated with health status, physical activity, body image, and self-esteem. Although the problems associated with overweight and obesity are indeed serious, there are also problems connected to being underweight. Weight prejudice and the dieting industry intensify body image concerns for Canadian women and can have a major negative impact on self-esteem. Key Findings Women have lower BMIs...

  1. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan. (author)

  2. BASAL CELL CARCINOMA IN MIDDLE EAR: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is a very common skin cancer, it is much more common in fair – skinned individuals with a family history of Basal cell carcinoma and increases closure to the equator or at higher attitude, this tumor is a extremely rarely found in the middle ear, accounts for 45% of all au ricular carcinomas and is more common than squamous cell carcinoma, it is most frequently found in patient between 40 and 60 years of age, sunlight exposure is the most common modifiable risk factor, we are here presenting a case of Basal cell carcinoma in middle ear presented with ear discharge and polyp in external auditory canal and middle ear, treated with radiotherapy

  3. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Joseph Gershman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between reinforcement learning models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both reinforcement learning and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired.

  4. Time representation in reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershman, Samuel J.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Ludvig, Elliot A.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) models have been influential in understanding many aspects of basal ganglia function, from reward prediction to action selection. Time plays an important role in these models, but there is still no theoretical consensus about what kind of time representation is used by the basal ganglia. We review several theoretical accounts and their supporting evidence. We then discuss the relationship between RL models and the timing mechanisms that have been attributed to the basal ganglia. We hypothesize that a single computational system may underlie both RL and interval timing—the perception of duration in the range of seconds to hours. This hypothesis, which extends earlier models by incorporating a time-sensitive action selection mechanism, may have important implications for understanding disorders like Parkinson's disease in which both decision making and timing are impaired. PMID:24409138

  5. Synchronizing activity of basal ganglia and pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, G; Rivlin, M; Israel, Z; Bergman, H

    2006-01-01

    Early physiological studies emphasized changes in the discharge rate of basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), whereas recent studies stressed the role of the abnormal oscillatory activity and neuronal synchronization of pallidal cells. However, human observations cast doubt on the synchronization hypothesis since increased synchronization may be an epi-phenomenon of the tremor or of independent oscillators with similar frequency. Here, we show that modern actor/ critic models of the basal ganglia predict the emergence of synchronized activity in PD and that significant non-oscillatory and oscillatory correlations are found in MPTP primates. We conclude that the normal fluctuation of basal ganglia dopamine levels combined with local cortico-striatal learning rules lead to noncorrelated activity in the pallidum. Dopamine depletion, as in PD, results in correlated pallidal activity, and reduced information capacity. We therefore suggest that future deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithms may be improved by desynchronizing pallidal activity. PMID:17017503

  6. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  7. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  8. Covert skill learning in a cortical-basal ganglia circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, Jonathan D; Warren, Timothy L; Brainard, Michael S

    2012-06-14

    We learn complex skills such as speech and dance through a gradual process of trial and error. Cortical-basal ganglia circuits have an important yet unresolved function in this trial-and-error skill learning; influential 'actor-critic' models propose that basal ganglia circuits generate a variety of behaviours during training and learn to implement the successful behaviours in their repertoire. Here we show that the anterior forebrain pathway (AFP), a cortical-basal ganglia circuit, contributes to skill learning even when it does not contribute to such 'exploratory' variation in behavioural performance during training. Blocking the output of the AFP while training Bengalese finches to modify their songs prevented the gradual improvement that normally occurs in this complex skill during training. However, unblocking the output of the AFP after training caused an immediate transition from naive performance to excellent performance, indicating that the AFP covertly gained the ability to implement learned skill performance without contributing to skill practice. In contrast, inactivating the output nucleus of the AFP during training completely prevented learning, indicating that learning requires activity within the AFP during training. Our results suggest a revised model of skill learning: basal ganglia circuits can monitor the consequences of behavioural variation produced by other brain regions and then direct those brain regions to implement more successful behaviours. The ability of the AFP to identify successful performances generated by other brain regions indicates that basal ganglia circuits receive a detailed efference copy of premotor activity in those regions. The capacity of the AFP to implement successful performances that were initially produced by other brain regions indicates precise functional connections between basal ganglia circuits and the motor regions that directly control performance. PMID:22699618

  9. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for...

  10. Optimal Surgical Safety Margin for Facial Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Olimpiu Hârceagă; Corina Baican; Rodica Cosgarea

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. The major objective of this study is to establish optimal surgical margin for facial primary basal cell carcinoma smaller than 2.3 cm in diameter. Recommendations for this type of skin tumors are for 4 mm surgical margin, but on the face there is a tendency to use smaller margins, for example 2-3 mm.Material and Method. 38 patients with 40 primary facial basal cell carcinoma of less than 2.3 cm in diameter, nonsclerodermiform types, were included in the study. All tumors were init...

  11. Isolation of basal and mucous cell populations from rabbit trachea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of a unit gravity sedimentation procedure to monodispersed rabbit tracheal cells resulted in the isolation of enriched (2-fold to 2.5-fold) basal and mucous cell populations. Cellular integrity was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion index of 93%, [3H] leucine incorporation, and ultrastructural analysis. Unit gravity sedimentation is an affective and rapid procedure for obtaining viable, homogeneous preparations of basal and mucous cells that may be used for in vitro studies of cellular proliferation, differentiation, and glycoprotein biosynthesis in respiratory mucous epithelia

  12. Radiotherapy of germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nine patients with histologically confirmed germinomas of the basal ganglia and thalamus (GBT) were treated by radiotherapy. The average dose of 52.5 Gy was delivered to the tumor bed, 37 Gy to the whole brain and 24.8 Gy to the CNS axis. The local control, which was verified by CT scan, was achieved in all patients. All patients are alive 11 to 96 months after radiotherapy. As with other intracranial germinomas, germinomas of the basal ganglia and thalamus respond well to radiotherapy and the prognosis is good after treatment. (author). 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami - diagnostic possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several diseases may cause non specific MRT abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami. As such, diagnosis of the underlying etiology may be difficult to achieve at imaging. In one clinical case are presented the diagnostic possibilities based on clinical date (previous history, clinical symptoms and evolution) and imaging data (type of signal abnormalities, location of lesions and associated abnormalities). The main categories of diseases causing MRT abnormalities of the bilateral basal ganglia and thalami in adult are: toxic, metabolic, vascular, infectious, inflammatory diseases and tumors.

  14. Basal cell carcinoma of the skin with areas of squamous cell carcinoma: a basosquamous cell carcinoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, J.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of basosquamous cell carcinoma is controversial. A review of cases of basal cell carcinoma showed 23 cases that had conspicuous areas of squamous cell carcinoma. This was distinguished from squamous differentiation and keratotic basal cell carcinoma by a comparative study of 40 cases of compact lobular and 40 cases of keratotic basal cell carcinoma. Areas of intermediate tumour differentiation between basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma were found. Basal cell carcinomas with ...

  15. Pigmented Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Clinical Variant, Report of Two Cases

    OpenAIRE

    K., Deepadarshan; M., Mallikarjun; N. Abdu, Noshin

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour of skin, comprising 80% of non-melanoma cancers. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation is an important risk factor. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma is a clinical and histological variant of basal cell carcinoma that exhibits increased pigmentation. It is a very rare variant, although its frequency can reach upto 6% of total basal cell carcinomas in Hispanics. Herein, we are reporting 2 cases of pigmented basal cell carcinoma.

  16. Evaluation of desho grass (Pennisetum pedicellatum) hay as a basal diet for growing local sheep in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Bimrew; Demeke, Solomon; Tolemariam, Taye; Tegegne, Firew; Wamatu, Jane; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    The study was conducted to determine feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change of Washera sheep fed on desho grass and natural pasture hay as a basal diet and supplemented with concentrate mixtures. Twenty-five intact male sheeps with body weight of 19.4 ± 1.89 kg (mean ± SD) were used in randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments were 100 % natural pasture hay (NPH) (T1), 75 % NPH + 25 % desho grass hay (DGH) (T2), 50 % NPH + 50 % DGH (T3), 25 % NPH + 75 % DGH (T4), and 100 % DGH (T5). Equal amount of concentrate mixture (CM) (300 g DM/day/h) was supplemented in all of the five treatments. The result of laboratory chemical analysis revealed that the CP content of the basal diets increased with increased proportion of desho grass hay inclusion in the treatments at the expense of natural pasture hay. Total DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF intake and digestibility was significant (P sheep was significantly (P diet. The result indicated that desho grass can be used as a basal diet for local sheep with better performance than natural pasture hay-based diets. PMID:26970971

  17. Body lice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lice - body; Pediculosis corporis; Vagabond disease ... Diaz JH. Lice (pediculosis). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  18. Bog bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels

    2015-01-01

    the bog bodies have been studied using medical and natural scientific methods, and recently many bog bodies have been re-examined using especially modern, medical imaging techniques. Because of the preservation of soft tissue, especially the skin, it has been possible to determine lesions and trauma......In northern Europe during the Iron Age, many corpses were deposited in bogs. The cold, wet and anaerobic environment leads in many cases to the preservation of soft tissues, so that the bodies, when found and excavated several thousand years later, are remarkably intact. Since the 19th century....... Conversely, the preservation of bones is less good, as the mineral component has been leached out by the acidic bog. Together with water-logging of collagenous tissue, this means that if the bog body is simply left to dry out when found, as was the case pre-19th century, the bones may literally warp...

  19. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  20. What options are available when considering starting insulin: premix or basal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavernia, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Several large studies in diabetes have shown that early initiation of intensive therapy is better for the prevention of long-term complications and suggest that patients with more advanced disease may be at increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Despite these findings, insulin initiation is often delayed in patients with type 2 diabetes, typically until A1C exceeds 8.5%. Barriers to the use of insulin are many, arising from both a patient and a physician perspective, and the decision to initiate insulin treatment can be influenced by cost, risk of hypoglycemia, convenience, and the potential for weight gain. Choosing when to initiate insulin and which insulin/treatment regimen to adopt in patients with type 2 diabetes is key, and the importance of tailoring treatment to the patient is widely acknowledged. However, there is currently no universal consensus on the optimal course of action. Once-daily basal insulin and twice-daily premix insulin are commonly used for insulin initiation. Relatively few studies have directly compared these starter treatment regimens, although general findings suggest that, although glycemic control appears to be similar with once-daily basal insulin and twice-daily premix, the lower hypoglycemia rates, lower weight gain, simplicity, and convenience associated with basal insulin support its first-line use as a starter insulin regimen in patients failing on oral antidiabetes agents. Variables such as age, body mass index, and bedtime or post-breakfast plasma glucose levels may alter the efficacy of the chosen treatment regimen, further supporting the need to tailor treatment to meet individual patient's requirements. PMID:21668341

  1. Basal and stimulated release of substance P from dissociated cultures of vagal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, D B; Wheeler, F; Hayes, L

    1990-06-11

    Substance P, the widely distributed 11 amino acid neuropeptide, is present in up to 20% of vagal sensory cell bodies and the fibers emanating from them. To study the factors regulating the release of SP, vagal sensory (nodose or nodose/jugular) ganglia were obtained from neonatal rats and dissociated using neutral protease. Survival of plated neurons on collagen substrate was 10-20% at 2 weeks and 20-30% when neurons were plated over previously dissociated rat atriacytes. Substance P content was low in cultures for the first several days, then rose linearly to 0.1-0.2 pg/surviving neuron. Substance P was released into a 4.5 mM potassium medium at a steady rate of 0.036%/min. In 50 mM K+ supplemented medium, total release during 20 min increased 5-8-fold and steady-state release increased 4-5-fold to 0.15%/min. The sensory neuron specific excitatory neurotoxin, capsaicin, evoked SP release in similar amounts to 50 mM K+. Both net K(+)- and capsaicin-evoked, but not basal release were completely inhibited by 3.5 mM cobalt chloride. Bradykinin, 1-100 nM, stimulated SP release 2-4 times above basal levels. Forskolin and phorbol ester also increased SP release 1.5-3 times basal amounts. In summary, substance P is present in cultured vagal sensory neurons in amounts similar to in vivo and is released in response to sensory specific stimuli. These cultures should allow exploration of some of the tissue specific factors regulating neurotransmitter release in the sensory vagus nerve. PMID:1697777

  2. Polarized Integrin Mediates Human Keratinocyte Adhesion to Basal Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Michele; Tamura, Richard N.; Kajiji, Shama; Bondanza, Sergio; Rossino, Paola; Cancedda, Ranieri; Carlo Marchisio, Pier; Quaranta, Vito

    1990-09-01

    Epithelial cell interactions with matrices are critical to tissue organization. Indirect immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitations of cell lysates prepared from stratified cultures of human epidermal cells showed that the major integrins expressed by keratinocytes are α_Eβ_4 (also called α_6β_4) and α_2β_1/α_3β_1. The α_Eβ_4 integrin is localized at the surface of basal cells in contact with the basement membrane, whereas α_2β_1/ α_3β_1 integrins are absent from the basal surface and are localized only on the lateral surface of basal and spinous keratinocytes. Anti-β_4 antibodies potently inhibited keratinocyte adhesion to matrigel or purified laminin, whereas anti-β_1 antibodies were ineffective. Only anti-β_4 antibodies were able to detach established keratinocyte colonies. These data suggest that α_Eβ_4 mediates keratinocyte adhesion to basal lamina, whereas the β_1 subfamily is involved in cell-cell adhesion of keratinocytes.

  3. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  4. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  5. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stacey, S.N.; Sulem, P.; Masson, G.; Gudjonsson, S.A.; Thorleifsson, G.; Jakobsdottir, M.; Sigurdsson, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Sigurgeirsson, B.; Benediktsdottir, K.R.; Thorisdottir, K.; Ragnarsson, R.; Scherer, D.; Hemminki, K.; Rudnai, P.; Gurzau, E.; Koppova, K.; Botella-Estrada, R.; Soriano, V.; Juberias, P.; Saez, B.; Gilaberte, Y.; Fuentelsaz, V.; Corredera, C.; Grasa, M.; Hoiom, V.; Lindblom, A.; Bonenkamp, J.J.; Rossum, M.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Vries, E. de; Santinami, M.; Mauro, M.G. Di; Maurichi, A.; Wendt, J.; Hochleitner, P.; Pehamberger, H.; Gudmundsson, J.; Magnusdottir, D.N.; Gretarsdottir, S.; Holm, H.; Steinthorsdottir, V.; Frigge, M.L.; Blondal, T.; Saemundsdottir, J.; Bjarnason, H.; Kristjansson, K.; Bjornsdottir, G.; Okamoto, I.; Rivoltini, L.; Rodolfo, M.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Hansson, J.; Nagore, E.; Mayordomo, J.I.; Kumar, R.; Karagas, M.R.; Nelson, H.H.; Gulcher, J.R.; Rafnar, T.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Olafsson, J.H.; Kong, A.; Stefansson, K.

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A vari

  6. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  7. Writing with Basals: A Sentence Combining Approach to Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutzel, D. Ray; Merrill, Jimmie D.

    Sentence combining techniques can be used with basal readers to help students develop writing skills. The first technique is addition, characterized by using the connecting word "and" to join two or more base sentences together. The second technique is called "embedding," and is characterized by putting parts of two or more base sentences together…

  8. Task-Phase-Specific Dynamics of Basal Forebrain Neuronal Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Nitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortically projecting basal forebrain neurons play a critical role in learning and attention, and their degeneration accompanies age-related impairments in cognition. Despite the impressive anatomical and cell-type complexity of this system, currently available data suggest that basal forebrain neurons lack complexity in their response fields, with activity primarily reflecting only macro-level brain states such as sleep and wake, onset of relevant stimuli and/or reward obtainment. The current study examined the spiking activity of basal forebrain neuron populations across multiple phases of a selective attention task, addressing, in particular, the issue of complexity in ensemble firing patterns across time. Clustering techniques applied to the full population revealed a large number of distinct categories of task-phase-specific activity patterns. Unique population firing-rate vectors defined each task phase and most categories of task-phase-specific firing had counterparts with opposing firing patterns. An analogous set of task-phase-specific firing patterns was also observed in a population of posterior parietal cortex neurons. Thus, consistent with the known anatomical complexity, basal forebrain population dynamics are capable of differentially modulating their cortical targets according to the unique sets of environmental stimuli, motor requirements, and cognitive processes associated with different task phases.

  9. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...

  10. Filaggrin Gene Mutations and Risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jesper Rabølle; Thyssen, J P; Johansen, J D;

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is prevalent in lightly-pigmented Europeans. While ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an important risk factor, genetic predispositions to BCC have also been identified (1) . Atopic dermatitis (AD), a condition with a heritability that reaches 71-84%, might increase the risk...

  11. Method of handling and/or storing a nuclear fuel assembly consisting of an elongated frame that contains fuel rods and fuel assembly designed specially for this method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to assure subcriticality during handling, transport and/ore storage of nuclear reactor fuel assemblies and additional body containing a neutron absorbing material and touching beside the fuel rods is fixed to the frame of the fuel assembly. This body has a handle with an adapted coupling element mounted on a holding device for handling and/or storage of the fuel assembly. (orig./RW)

  12. Crossed cerebellar and cerebral cortical diaschisis in basal ganglia hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the phenomenon of diaschisis in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage using cerebral blood flow SPECT. Twelve patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage were studied with Tc-99m ECD brain SPECT. Asymmetric index (AI) was calculated in the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions as | CR-CL |/ (CR-CL) x 200, where CR and CL are the mean reconstructed counts for the right and left ROIs, respectively. Hypoperfusion was considered to be present when AI was greater than mean + 2 SD of 20 control subjects. Mean AI of the cerebellum and cerebral cortical regions in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage was significantly higher than normal controls (p<0.05): Cerebellum (18.68±8.94 vs 4.35±0.94, mean ±SD), thalamus (31.91±10.61 vs 2.57±1.45), basal ganglia (35.94±16.15 vs 4.34±2.08), parietal (18.94±10.69 vs 3.24±0.87), frontal (13.60±10.8 vs 4.02±2.04) and temporal cortex (18.92±11.95 vs 5.13±1.69). Ten of the 12 patients had significant hypoperfusion in the contralateral cerebellum. Hypoperfusion was also shown in the ipsilateral thalamus (n=12), ipsilateral parietal (n=12), frontal (n=6) and temporal cortex (n=10). Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) and cortical diaschisis may frequently occur in patients with pure basal ganglia hemorrhage, suggesting that CCD can develop without the interruption of corticopontocerebellar pathway

  13. Stimulated Tg level measurements may be avoided in differentiated thyroid carcinoma patients who have undetectable basal Tg levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: the aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of undetectable basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels measured 6 months after ablative 131I treatment (AIT) in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Materials and methods: the study included 159 patients (140 women, 19 men with, mean age 43.4±15.6 years) who had undetectable basal Tg levels (<0.2 ng/ml) and negative anti-Tg antibodies, 6 months after AIT. Histologic examination was papillary thyroid carcinoma in 151 patients and follicular thyroid carcinoma in 8 patients. To control the AIT efficacy, diagnostic whole body scan (DWBS) was planned 6 months after AIT. Before DWBS, basal and stimulated Tg levels were measured and compared. Then all patients underwent DWBS. Results: all patients (with undetectable basal Tg level) had a stimulated Tg level under 2 ng/ml. Stimulated Tg levels were undetectable (<0.2 ng/ml) in 142 (89.3%) patients and 0.58±0.26 ng/ml (range 0.3-1.3 ng/ml) in 17 (10.7%) patients. The control DWBS, 6 months after thyroid ablation, was negative in 151 (95%) patients and was positive for minimal residual uptake on the thyroid bed in 8 (5%) patients. Stimulated Tg levels of patients with residual thyroid bed uptake on control DWBS, were undetectable (<0.2 ng/ml) in 4 patients and 0.8±0.19 ng/ml (range 0.3-1.3 ng/ml) in 4 patients. Conclusion: our data suggest that stimulated Tg level measurements may be avoided in DTC patients with undetectable basal Tg levels. Thus, unnecessary Tg stimulation with rhTSH or endogen TSH, diagnostic procedures (DWBS) and radiation exposure can be reduced. (authors)

  14. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D U Owu; A B Antai; K H Udofia; A O Obembe; K O Obasi; M U Eteng

    2006-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multi-factorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycaemia, lipoprotein abnormalities and oxidative stress. This study evaluated effect of oral vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate and lipid profile of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Vitamin C was administered at 200 mg/kg body wt. by gavage for four weeks to diabetic rats after which the resting metabolic rate and plasma lipid profile was determined. The results showed that vitamin C administration significantly ( < 0.01) reduced the resting metabolic rate in diabetic rats; and also lowered plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These results suggest that the administration of vitamin C in this model of established diabetes mellitus might be beneficial for the restoration of basal metabolic rate and improvement of lipid profile. This may at least in part reduce the risk of cardiovascular events seen in diabetes mellitus.

  15. Segmental basal cell naevus syndrome caused by an activating mutation in smoothened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamaysi, Z; Bochner, R; Indelman, M; Magal, L; Avitan-Hersh, E; Sarig, O; Sprecher, E; Bergman, R

    2016-07-01

    Aberrant sonic hedgehog signalling, mostly due to PTCH1 mutations, has been shown to play a central role in the pathogenesis of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), as well as in basal cell naevus syndrome (BCNS). Mutations in smoothened (SMO) encoding a receptor for sonic hedgehog have been reported in sporadic BCCs but not in BCNS. We report a case with multiple BCCs, pits and comedones in a segmental distribution over the upper part of the body, along with other findings compatible with BCNS. Histopathologically, there were different types of BCC. A heterozygous mutation (c.1234C>T, p.L412F) in SMO was detected in three BCCs but not in peripheral blood lymphocytes or the uninvolved skin. These were compatible with the type 1 mosaic form of BCNS. The p.L412F mutation was found experimentally to result in increased SMO transactivating activity, and the patient responded to vismodegib therapy. Activating mutations in SMO may cause BCNS. The identification of a gain-of-function mutation in SMO causing a type 1 mosaic form of BCNS further expands our understanding of the pathogenesis of BCC, with implications for the treatment of these tumours, whether sporadic or inherited. PMID:26822128

  16. Neurotensin receptor binding levels in basal ganglia are not altered in Huntington's chorea or schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autoradiographic techniques were used to examine the distribution and levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia and related regions of the human brain. Monoiodo (125I-Tyr3)neurotensin was used as a ligand. High amounts of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Lower but significant quantities of neurotensin receptor binding sites characterized the caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens, while very low quantities were seen in both medial and lateral segments of the globus pallidus. In Huntington's chorea, the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were found to be comparable to those of control cases. Only slight but not statistically significant decreases in amounts of receptor binding sites were detected in the dorsal part of the head and in the body of caudate nucleus. No alterations in the levels of neurotensin receptor binding sites were observed in the substantia nigra pars compacta and reticulata. These results suggest that a large proportion of neurotensin receptor binding sites in the basal ganglia are located on intrinsic neurons and on extrinsic afferent fibers that do not degenerate in Huntington's disease

  17. Basal tissue structure in the earliest euconodonts: Testing hypotheses of developmental plasticity in euconodont phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, X.-P.; Donoghue, P.C.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that conodonts are vertebrates rests solely on evidence of soft tissue anatomy. This has been corroborated by microstructural, topological and developmental evidence of homology between conodont and vertebrate hard tissues. However, these conclusions have been reached on the basis of evidence from highly derived euconodont taxa and the degree to which they are representative of plesiomorphic euconodonts remains an open question. Furthermore, the range of variation in tissue types comprising the euconodont basal body has been used to establish a hypothesis of developmental plasticity early in the phylogeny of the clade, and a model of diminishing potentiality in the evolution of development systems. The microstructural fabrics of the basal tissues of the earliest euconodonts (presumed to be the most plesiomorphic) are examined to test these two hypotheses. It is found that the range of microstructural variation observed hitherto was already apparent among plesiomorphic euconodonts. Thus, established histological data are representative of the most plesiomorphic euconodonts. However, although there is evidence of a range in microstructural fabrics, these are compatible with the dentine tissue system alone, and the degree of variation is compatible with that seen in clades of comparable diversity. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  18. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra HR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or yogic postures, meditation and pranayama or breathing exercises for a minimum period of six months, at a residential yoga education and research center at Bangalore. Methods The measured BMR of individuals practicing yoga through a combination of practices was compared with that of control subjects who did not practice yoga but led similar lifestyles. Results The BMR of the yoga practitioners was significantly lower than that of the non-yoga group, and was lower by about 13 % when adjusted for body weight (P Conclusion This study shows that there is a significantly reduced BMR, probably linked to reduced arousal, with the long term practice of yoga using a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory yogic practices.

  19. Signifying Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

     In our everyday lives we strive to stay healthy and happy, while we live as our selves, engage with each other, and discover an infinite world of possibilities. Health arises and diminishes as human beings draw on a vibrant ecology of actions, interactions and coactions. Intricate processes of...... biosemiosis connect signifying bodies with their natural surroundings, cultural activities and subjective experiences. Health stretches all the way from the ecosocial surroundings, through the skin and into the self-organizing processes of every living cell. Signifying Bodies lays out a new approach to health...... and health care. Eschewing all forms of dualism, the authors emphasise the interdependency of how we act, think, feel and function. They advocate a relational turn in health care, in which bodies live and learn from suffering and care. In this view, health is inseparable from both living beings and...

  20. Body Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The high-tech art of digital signal processing (DSP) was pioneered at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in the mid-1960s for use in the Apollo Lunar Landing Program. Designed to computer enhance pictures of the Moon, this technology became the basis for the Landsat Earth resources satellites and subsequently has been incorporated into a broad range of Earthbound medical and diagnostic tools. DSP is employed in advanced body imaging techniques including Computer-Aided Tomography, also known as CT and CATScan, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). CT images are collected by irradiating a thin slice of the body with a fan-shaped x-ray beam from a number of directions around the body's perimeter. A tomographic (slice-like) picture is reconstructed from these multiple views by a computer. MRI employs a magnetic field and radio waves, rather than x-rays, to create images.

  1. Hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer of Santa Cruz Island using seismic refraction, Galapagos - Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, S.; Fortin, J.; Adelinet, M.; Guéguen, Y.; Violette, S.

    2012-04-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the most inhabited of the Galapagos archipelago, Ecuador. It faces important water resource problems which might lead to a major impact on their unique and pristine ecosystem, Endangered World Heritage list (2007). The scarcity of geological and hydrological data combined with the difficulty of access for field measurements lead to a poor understanding of the island hydrogeology. The Island is formed by series of thick fractured basaltic lava flows dissected by faults. The low-lying, extensive "basal" aquifer is the unique groundwater body identified on the island. This basal aquifer is subjected to sea-water intrusion, which has been mapped from electrical resistivity imaging with an airborne electromagnetic SkyTEM survey (D'Ozouville et al. 2008). In order to better understand the hydrodynamic properties of the basal aquifer, we acquired, in summer 2011, geophysical data based on seismic refraction. The experiment was conducted on three study sites located at different altitudes above the see level (Beagle site altitude +7m , Mirador +20m, and Villacis +393m). The P-wave refraction data were obtained using 24 geophones (1 component) and an acquisition system Daklink III. A hammer was used as an energy source. This source was the most environmentally friendly source that could be obtained and used in the Galapagos Island. Geophone spacing for the spreads was 1.2 or 5 m depending on the site. From our geophysical data, we could identify the different geological layers that constitute this basal aquifer and to estimate the thickness of these layers. We could as well clearly see the water level in the aquifer. More interesting, we found a P-wave velocity of ~1600 m/s in the dry fractured basalt lava flow, and a P-wave velocity of ~2700 m/s in the water saturated fractured basalt lava flow. The same velocity values were obtained in the different sites. This tends to show that the elastic properties of the aquifer are homogeneous and isotropic (at

  2. Intraspecific basal metabolic rate varies with trophic level in rufous-collared sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Pablo; Cavieres, Grisel; Veloso, Claudio; Canals, Mauricio; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2009-12-01

    One of the most controversial hypotheses that associate basal metabolic rate (BMR) with food habits and habitat productivity is the food habit hypothesis (FHH). Here we examined the relationship between BMR, diet, and climate among populations of the omnivorous passerine, Zonotrichia capensis (Emberizidae). We used nitrogen stable isotopes to estimate each individual's relative trophic level. To tease apart the effect of climatic variables and diet on BMR, we also used structural equation modeling. After the effect of body mass and climatic variables was taken into account, a significant effect of trophic level as estimated by delta(15)N on BMR was found. Our result seems to support the FHH at the intraspecific level, i.e., birds from the lower trophic levels - feeding on seeds and bud - had higher BMR than individuals from higher trophic levels. PMID:19709641

  3. Body Rainbow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Phubu did not know how long hehad walked after leaving Baxoi, buthe did know that he was halfwaybetween home and Lhasa. Feelingthe weight of the sack containingPhumo's body on his back, Fhubuhad calmed down from the grief anddesperation. He had just one wish:to carry Phumo to Lhasa. He knewthat Phumo had gone, and her soulwas no longer in this body. But hewas determined to finish the trip, notonly because he had promised so, butalso that he believed that it would beredemption for him.

  4. Sacralising Bodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaur, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    sacralisation is realised through co-production within a social setting when the object of sacralisation is recognised as such by others. In contemporary Iran, however, the moment of sacralising bodies by the state is also the moment of its own subversion as the political-theological field of martyrdom is......-sacrifice became central to the mass mobilisation against the monarchy. Once the revolutionary government came into existence, this sacred tradition was regulated to create ‘martyrs’ as a fixed category, in order to consolidate the legacy of the revolution. In this political theatre, the dead body is a site of...

  5. Assembler for de novo assembly of large genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Te-Chin; Lu, Chen-Hua; Liu, Tsunglin; Lee, Greg C.; Li, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Arthur Chun-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Assembling a large genome faces three challenges: assembly quality, computer memory requirement, and execution time. Our developed assembler, JR-Assembler, uses (a) a strategy that selects good seeds for contig construction, (b) an extension strategy that uses whole sequencing reads to increase the chance to jump over repeats and to expedite extension, and (c) detecting misassemblies by remapping reads to assembled sequences. Compared with current assemblers, JR-Assembler achieves a better ov...

  6. Assembly tool design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor core of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is assembled with a number of large and asymmetric components within a tight tolerance in order to assure the structural integrity for various loads and to provide the tritium confinement. In addition, the assembly procedure should be compatible with remote operation since the core structures will be activated by 14-MeV neutrons once it starts operation and thus personal access will be prohibited. Accordingly, the assembly procedure and tool design are quite essential and should be designed from the beginning to facilitate remote operation. According to the ITER Design Task Agreement, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has performed design study to develop the assembly procedures and associated tool design for the ITER tokamak assembly. This report describes outlines of the assembly tools and the remaining issues obtained in this design study. (author)

  7. Yeast genetic analysis reveals the involvement of chromatin reassembly factors in repressing HIV-1 basal transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Vanti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Rebound of HIV viremia after interruption of anti-retroviral therapy is due to the small population of CD4+ T cells that remain latently infected. HIV-1 transcription is the main process controlling post-integration latency. Regulation of HIV-1 transcription takes place at both initiation and elongation levels. Pausing of RNA polymerase II at the 5' end of HIV-1 transcribed region (5'HIV-TR, which is immediately downstream of the transcription start site, plays an important role in the regulation of viral expression. The activation of HIV-1 transcription correlates with the rearrangement of a positioned nucleosome located at this region. These two facts suggest that the 5'HIV-TR contributes to inhibit basal transcription of those HIV-1 proviruses that remain latently inactive. However, little is known about the cell elements mediating the repressive role of the 5'HIV-TR. We performed a genetic analysis of this phenomenon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae after reconstructing a minimal HIV-1 transcriptional system in this yeast. Unexpectedly, we found that the critical role played by the 5'HIV-TR in maintaining low levels of basal transcription in yeast is mediated by FACT, Spt6, and Chd1, proteins so far associated with chromatin assembly and disassembly during ongoing transcription. We confirmed that this group of factors plays a role in HIV-1 postintegration latency in human cells by depleting the corresponding human orthologs with shRNAs, both in HIV latently infected cell populations and in particular single-integration clones, including a latent clone with a provirus integrated in a highly transcribed gene. Our results indicate that chromatin reassembly factors participate in the establishment of the equilibrium between activation and repression of HIV-1 when it integrates into the human genome, and they open the possibility of considering these factors as therapeutic targets of HIV-1 latency.

  8. Remote control of self-assembled microswimmers

    CERN Document Server

    Grosjean, Galien; Darras, Alexis; Hubert, Maxime; Lumay, Geoffroy; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Physics governing the locomotion of microorganisms and other microsystems is dominated by viscous damping. An effective swimming strategy involves the non-reciprocal and periodic deformations of the considered body. Here, we show that a magnetocapillary-driven self-assembly, composed of three soft ferromagnetic beads, is able to swim along a liquid-air interface when powered by an external magnetic field. More importantly, we demonstrate that trajectories can be fully controlled, opening ways to explore low Reynolds number swimming. This magnetocapillary system spontaneously forms by self-assembly, allowing miniaturization and other possible applications such as cargo transport or solvent flows.

  9. A Nd:YAG Laser-microperforated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-basal Membrane Matrix Composite film as Substrate for Keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano,F.; Lopez, L.; Jadraque, M.; Koper, M.; Ellis, G.; Cano, P.; Martin, M.; Garrido, L.

    2007-01-01

    Epithelia cultured for the treatment of ulcers, burns and for gene therapy applications require a flexible biomaterial for growth and transplantation that is adaptable to body contours. We tested several materials and found that a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) polyester provided support for keratinocytes, although adhesion to this material proved to be suboptimal. Since epithelia adhere to the mesoderm through basal membranes, we engineered a basal membrane surrogate by preparing composites of PHBHV with basal membrane matrix (BMM). To allow cell migration into injuried areas the polyester film was micromachined to insert high-density micropores through a Nd:YAG laser ablation process. These flexible composites provided firm attachment for keratinocytes from the outer root sheath of human hair allowing keratinocyte migration through micropores. Films of microperforated PHBHV-BMM may be of use for the replacement of diseased or injured skin epithelia.

  10. A Nd:YAG laser-microperforated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-basal membrane matrix composite film as substrate for keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Fernando; López-G, Laura; Jadraque, Maria; Koper, Mariëlle; Ellis, Gary; Cano, Pilar; Martín, Margarita; Garrido, Leoncio

    2007-02-01

    Epithelia cultured for the treatment of ulcers, burns and for gene therapy applications require a flexible biomaterial for growth and transplantation that is adaptable to body contours. We tested several materials and found that a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBHV) polyester provided support for keratinocytes, although adhesion to this material proved to be suboptimal. Since epithelia adhere to the mesoderm through basal membranes, we engineered a basal membrane surrogate by preparing composites of PHBHV with basal membrane matrix (BMM). To allow cell migration into injuried areas the polyester film was micromachined to insert high-density micropores through a Nd:YAG laser ablation process. These flexible composites provided firm attachment for keratinocytes from the outer root sheath of human hair allowing keratinocyte migration through micropores. Films of microperforated PHBHV-BMM may be of use for the replacement of diseased or injured skin epithelia. PMID:17027945

  11. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  12. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  13. Assembly of ISX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durfee, N.W.

    1977-01-01

    The Impurity Study Experiment, a moderate size tokamak, was recently assembled at ORNL. Demountable toroidal field coils allowed for the assembly of major components at remote locations and rapid installation into ISX. A discharge cleaning plasma was generated in ISX six weeks after the arrival of the final toroidal field coil. A chronological summary of the assembly is presented, emphasizing features designed to aid in assembly and maintenance. A cross-section of the machine showing the major mechanical components to be discussed is given.

  14. Solute effect on basal and prismatic slip systems of Mg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Amitava; Kim, Seong-Gon; Horstemeyer, M F

    2014-11-01

    In an effort to design novel magnesium (Mg) alloys with high ductility, we present a first principles data based on the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The DFT was employed to calculate the generalized stacking fault energy curves, which can be used in the generalized Peierls-Nabarro (PN) model to study the energetics of basal slip and prismatic slip in Mg with and without solutes to calculate continuum scale dislocation core widths, stacking fault widths and Peierls stresses. The generalized stacking fault energy curves for pure Mg agreed well with other DFT calculations. Solute effects on these curves were calculated for nine alloying elements, namely Al, Ca, Ce, Gd, Li, Si, Sn, Zn and Zr, which allowed the strength and ductility to be qualitatively estimated based on the basal dislocation properties. Based on our multiscale methodology, a suggestion has been made to improve Mg formability. PMID:25273695

  15. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino; Takahashi, Susumu; Karube, Fuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:25698913

  16. [Morphological Re-evaluation of the Basal Ganglia Network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, Fumino

    2016-07-01

    Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to dopamine signals, via dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of reward prediction error and conducts reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits. The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor-critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, with particular focus on the striosome and matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome and matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments. PMID:27395470

  17. Basal resistance for three of the largest Greenland outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Daniel R.; Joughin, Ian R.; Poinar, Kristin; Morlighem, Mathieu; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien

    2016-01-01

    Resistance at the ice-bed interface provides a strong control on the response of ice streams and outlet glaciers to external forcing, yet it is not observable by remote sensing. We used inverse methods constrained by satellite observations to infer the basal resistance to flow underneath three of the Greenland Ice Sheet's largest outlet glaciers. In regions of fast ice flow and high (>250 kPa) driving stresses, ice is often assumed to flow over a strong bed. We found, however, that the beds of these three glaciers provide almost no resistance under the fast-flowing trunk. Instead, resistance to flow is provided by the lateral margins and stronger beds underlying slower-moving ice upstream. Additionally, we found isolated patches of high basal resistivity within the predominantly weak beds. Because these small-scale (tested their robustness to different degrees of regularization.

  18. Recurrent peripheral odontogenic fibroma associated with basal cell budding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Sreeja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral odontogenic fibroma (POdF is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm. It represents the soft tissue counterpart of central odontogenic fibroma. The embryonic source of POdF has been suggested by many as arising from the rest of dental lamina that has persisted in the gingiva following its disintegration. It presents clinically as a firm, slow growing and sessile gingival mass, which is difficult to distinguish with more common inflammatory lesions. Very few cases of recurrence have been documented. It has been stated that histological budding of basal cell layer of the surface squamous epithelium is associated with higher recurrence and the presence of calcification in direct apposition to the epithelial rest is associated with lower recurrence. Hereby, we present a case which histologically exhibited budding of the basal cell layer, which could have been the reason for its recurrence.

  19. Cerebellar networks with the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Andreea C; Dum, Richard P; Strick, Peter L

    2013-05-01

    The dominant view of cerebellar function has been that it is exclusively concerned with motor control and coordination. Recent findings from neuroanatomical, behavioral, and imaging studies have profoundly changed this view. Neuroanatomical studies using virus transneuronal tracers have demonstrated that cerebellar output reaches vast areas of the neocortex, including regions of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, it has recently become clear that the cerebellum is reciprocally connected with the basal ganglia, which suggests that the two subcortical structures are part of a densely interconnected network. Taken together, these findings elucidate the neuroanatomical substrate for cerebellar involvement in non-motor functions mediated by the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex, as well as in processes traditionally associated with the basal ganglia. PMID:23579055

  20. Is Broca's area part of a basal ganglia thalamocortical circuit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Michael T

    2006-05-01

    The cortex constituting Broca's area does not exist in isolation. Rather, like other cortical regions, Broca's area is connected to other brain structures, which likely play closely related functional roles. This paper focuses on the basal ganglia, a set of subcortical structures that project through topographically organized "channels" via the thalamus to different frontal regions. It is hypothesized that the basal ganglia project to Broca's area. This circuitry is further posited to encompass at least two channels. One channel can be characterized as subserving procedural memory, while the other underlies the retrieval of knowledge from declarative memory. These hypotheses are supported by both anatomical and functional evidence. Implications and issues for further investigation are discussed. PMID:16881254

  1. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  2. A case of basal ganglia germinoma with characteristic CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An 11-year-old boy with left spastic hemiplegia and learning difficulty was reported. Changes of his character appeared first, followed by atrophy of the left upper and lower extremities. Exaggerated deep tendon reflexes and positive Babinski sign were present on the left extremities, but sensory disturbances and ataxia were absent. There was no denervation pattern in EMG. Brain CT revealed a high density area in the right basal ganglia and enlarged right lateral ventricle without shift of the midline. This high density area on CT gradually became conspicuous within 6 months without a mass effect or shift of the midline. CSF cytology was negative and stereotaxic biopsy revealed two cell pattern germinoma of basal ganglia. (author)

  3. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.)

  4. LATE PRESENTATION OF BASAL CELL CARCINOMA - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a case of basal cell carcinoma with late presentation. METHODS: A 55year - old woman with gradual progressive, nodular, small brown lesion at the left lower eye lid for past 3 years was examined with, computed tomography (CT and then Excisional biopsy was done. RESULTS: The presenting symptom s of the patient were gradual progressive, nodular, sma ll brown lesion at the left lower eye lid . Excisional bi opsy with frozen section of the lesion was performed. Histopathologic evaluation of the eyelid lesion disclosed Trichoblastic (basal cell carcinoma of lower eye lid with large nodular and cribiform (a denoid patterns without any lymph - vascula r and perineural invasion. Post - operative period was uneventful. CONCLUSION: We are hereby reporting this case of eyelid BCC, with no history of skin cancer, or radiation treatment but exposure to sunlight. With earl y adequate treatment the prognosis is good KEYWORDS: B asal cell carcinoma, Excisional biopsy, Trichoblastic carcinoma .

  5. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  6. Method of assembling nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films are formed to the surface of a fuel rod for preventing the occurrence of injuries at the surface of the fuel rod. That is, in a method of assembling a nuclear fuel assembly by inserting fuel rods into lattice cells of a support lattice, thin films of polyvinyl alcohol are formed to a predetermined thickness at the surface of each of the fuel rods and, after insertion of the fuel rods into the lattice cells, the nuclear fuel assemblies are dipped into water or steams to dissolve and remove the thin films. Since polyvinyl alcohol is noncombustible and not containing nuclear inhibitive material as the ingredient, they cause no undesired effects on plant facilities even if not completely removed from the fuel rods. The polyvinyl alcohol thin films have high strength and can sufficiently protect the fuel rod. Further, scraping damages caused by support members of the support lattice upon insertion can also be prevented. (T.M.)

  7. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against Basal Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jean Y.; So, Po-Lin; Epstein, Ervin H.

    2006-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastro-intestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overvi...

  8. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    OpenAIRE

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira; Francisco E. Cota Cardoso

    1992-01-01

    The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBG...

  9. Clear Cell Basal Cell Carcinoma with Sialomucin Deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Young; Cho, Sung Bin; Chung, Kee Yang; Kim, You Chan

    2006-01-01

    Clear cell basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a variant of BCC with a characteristic clear cell component that may occupy all or part of the tumor islands. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining for glycogen is variably positive, and mild deposition of sulfated mucin has been noted. However, to our knowledge, clear cell BCC with sialomucin deposition has not been reported. Here we report a case of clear cell BCC showing sialomucin deposition. The clear tumor cells stained with PAS and showed incomple...

  10. ATG7 contributes to plant basal immunity towards fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Heike D. Lenz; Vierstra, Richard D.; Nürnberger, Thorsten; Gust, Andrea A.

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy has an important function in cellular homeostasis. In recent years autophagy has been implicated in plant basal immunity and assigned negative (“anti-death”) and positive (“pro-death”) regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. We recently showed that Arabidopsis mutants lacking the autophagy-associated (ATG) genes ATG5, ATG10 and ATG18a are compromised in their resistance towards infection with necrotrophic fun...

  11. Epidermolysis bullosa aquisita with basal epidermal cytoplasmic antibodies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, C.W.; Hur, H; Kim, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    A 45-year-old woman with epidermolysis bullosa aquisita is presented. The clinical, histological, and immunopathological features were in keeping with the previous reports of this disease. The patient also had anti-basal cell cytoplasmic antibodies at a significant titer, which is considered an unusual finding associated with this disorder. Treatment with a moderate dose of corticosteroid was effective in controlling the bullous lesions.

  12. Basal cell carcinoma arising in a sebaceous naevus

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kavit; Orkar, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Sebaceous naevus is a rare non-melanocytic congenital skin hamartoma. Even more rare is the transformation of these lesions into malignant skin cancers, most notably basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). We discuss a case in an adult with later malignant transformation into BCC reported by clinical pathologists. There is dispute about the accurate incidence of malignant transformation. More recently, research has shown that transformation into BCC is unlikely, in that the origins of these lesions ari...

  13. Modulating basal ganglia and cerebellar activity to suppress parkinsonian tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Heida, T.; Zhao, Yan; Wezel, van, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the detailed pathophysiology of the parkinsonian tremor is still unknown. It has been hypothesized that the generation of parkinsonian tremor is related to abnormal activity within the basal ganglia. The cerebello-thalamic-cortical loop has been suggested to indirectly contribute to the expression of parkinsonian tremor. However, the observed tremor-related hyperactivity in the cerebellar loop may have a compensatory rather than a causal role in Parkinson's disease...

  14. Changing Views of Basal Ganglia Circuits and Circuit Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    DeLong, Mahlon; Wichmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) have long been considered to play an important role in the control of movement and the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). Studies over the past decades have considerably broadened this view, indicating that the BG participate in multiple, parallel, largely segregated, cortico-subcortical reentrant pathways involving motor, associative and limbic functions. Research has shown that dysfunction within individual circuits is associated ...

  15. BASAL GANGLIA PATHOLOGY IN SCHIZOPHRENIA: DOPAMINE CONNECTIONS and ANOMALIES

    OpenAIRE

    Perez-Costas, Emma; Melendez-Ferro, Miguel; Roberts, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that affects 1% of the world population. The disease usually manifests itself in early adulthood with hallucinations, delusions, cognitive and emotional disturbances and disorganized thought and behavior. Dopamine was the first neurotransmitter to be implicated in the disease, and though no longer the only suspect in schizophrenia pathophysiology, it obviously plays an important role. The basal ganglia are the site of most of the dopamine neurons in th...

  16. Autofluorescence imaging of basal cell carcinoma by smartphone RGB camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Derjabo, Alexander; Ferulova, Inesa; Lange, Marta; Lihacova, Ilze; Spigulis, Janis

    2015-12-01

    The feasibility of smartphones for in vivo skin autofluorescence imaging has been investigated. Filtered autofluorescence images from the same tissue area were periodically captured by a smartphone RGB camera with subsequent detection of fluorescence intensity decreasing at each image pixel for further imaging the planar distribution of those values. The proposed methodology was tested clinically with 13 basal cell carcinoma and 1 atypical nevus. Several clinical cases and potential future applications of the smartphone-based technique are discussed.

  17. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14CO2. Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  18. Meige's syndrome associated with basal ganglia and thalamic functional disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) or both were performed and the responses of surface electromyography (EMG) were examined in seven cases of Meige's syndrome. MRI or SPECT or both demonstrated lesions of the basal ganglia, the thalamus, or both in five of the cases. Surface EMG revealed abnormal burst discharges in the orbicularis oculi and a failure of reciprocal muscular activity between the frontalis and orbicularis oculi in all the cases. These findings suggest that voluntary motor control and reciprocal activity in the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits are impaired in Meige's syndrome. In addition, good responses were seen to clonazepam, tiapride and trihexyphenidyl in these cases. Therefore, we conclude that dopaminergic, cholinergic, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic imbalances in the disorders of the basal ganglia and thalamus in Meige's syndrome cause control in the excitatory and inhibitory pathways to be lost, resulting in the failure of integration in reciprocal muscular activity and voluntary motor control. This failure subsequently causes the symptoms of Meige's syndrome. (author)

  19. Ancestral vascular lumen formation via basal cell surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Kucera

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular system of bilaterians developed from a common ancestor. However, no endothelial cells exist in invertebrates demonstrating that primitive cardiovascular tubes do not require this vertebrate-specific cell type in order to form. This raises the question of how cardiovascular tubes form in invertebrates? Here we discovered that in the invertebrate cephalochordate amphioxus, the basement membranes of endoderm and mesoderm line the lumen of the major vessels, namely aorta and heart. During amphioxus development a laminin-containing extracellular matrix (ECM was found to fill the space between the basal cell surfaces of endoderm and mesoderm along their anterior-posterior (A-P axes. Blood cells appear in this ECM-filled tubular space, coincident with the development of a vascular lumen. To get insight into the underlying cellular mechanism, we induced vessels in vitro with a cell polarity similar to the vessels of amphioxus. We show that basal cell surfaces can form a vascular lumen filled with ECM, and that phagocytotic blood cells can clear this luminal ECM to generate a patent vascular lumen. Therefore, our experiments suggest a mechanism of blood vessel formation via basal cell surfaces in amphioxus and possibly in other invertebrates that do not have any endothelial cells. In addition, a comparison between amphioxus and mouse shows that endothelial cells physically separate the basement membranes from the vascular lumen, suggesting that endothelial cells create cardiovascular tubes with a cell polarity of epithelial tubes in vertebrates and mammals.

  20. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  1. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  2. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  3. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-06-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis. PMID:27398205

  4. Functional Neuroanatomy and Behavioural Correlates of the Basal Ganglia: Evidence from Lesion Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ward

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The basal ganglia are interconnected with cortical areas involved in behavioural, cognitive and emotional processes, in addition to movement regulation. Little is known about which of these functions are associated with individual basal ganglia substructures.

  5. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne – case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment‐resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.

  6. Reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of an improved spacer grid for a nuclear fuel assembly comprising fuel rods in a matrix wherein each rod is adapted to be enclosed by a spacer ''cell'' for positioning thereof relative to adjacent rods in the fuel assembly. 7 claims, 12 drawing figures

  7. Extending reference assembly models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Church, Deanna M.; Schneider, Valerie A.; Steinberg, Karyn Meltz;

    2015-01-01

    The human genome reference assembly is crucial for aligning and analyzing sequence data, and for genome annotation, among other roles. However, the models and analysis assumptions that underlie the current assembly need revising to fully represent human sequence diversity. Improved analysis tools...

  8. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  9. Fuel Assembly Damping Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summary the fuel assembly damping data in air/in still water/under flow, released from foreign fuel vendors, compared our data with the published data. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping measurement testing are also briefly discussed. Understanding of each fuel assembly damping mechanisms according to the surrounding medium and flow velocity can support the fuel design improvement in fuel assembly dynamics and structural integrity aspect. Because the upgraded requirements of the newly-developed advanced reactor system will demands to minimize fuel design margin in integrity evaluation, reduction in conservatism of fuel assembly damping can contribute to alleviate the fuel design margin for sure. Damping is an energy dissipation mechanism in a vibrating mechanical structure and prevents a resonant structure from having infinite vibration amplitudes. The sources of fuel assembly damping are various from support friction to flow contribution, and it can be increased by the viscosity or drag of surrounding fluid medium or the average velocity of water flowing. Fuel licensing requires fuel design evaluation in transient or accidental condition. Dynamic response analysis of fuel assembly is to show fuel integrity and requires information on assembly-wise damping in dry condition and under wet or water flowing condition. However, damping measurement test for the full-scale fuel assembly prototype is not easy to carry out because of the scale (fuel prototype, test facility), unsteadiness of test data (scattering, random sampling and processing), instrumentation under water flowing (water-proof response measurement), and noise. LWR fuel technology division in KAERI is preparing the infra structure for damping measurement test of full-scale fuel assembly, to support fuel industries and related research activities. Here is a preliminary summary of fuel assembly damping, published in the literature. Some technical issues in fuel assembly damping

  10. Self-assembled nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin Z; Liu, Jun; Chen, Shaowei; Liu, Gang-yu

    2003-01-01

    Nanostructures refer to materials that have relevant dimensions on the nanometer length scales and reside in the mesoscopic regime between isolated atoms and molecules in bulk matter. These materials have unique physical properties that are distinctly different from bulk materials. Self-Assembled Nanostructures provides systematic coverage of basic nanomaterials science including materials assembly and synthesis, characterization, and application. Suitable for both beginners and experts, it balances the chemistry aspects of nanomaterials with physical principles. It also highlights nanomaterial-based architectures including assembled or self-assembled systems. Filled with in-depth discussion of important applications of nano-architectures as well as potential applications ranging from physical to chemical and biological systems, Self-Assembled Nanostructures is the essential reference or text for scientists involved with nanostructures.

  11. Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip from Minor Salivary Gland Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Minicucci, Eliana Maria; de Campos, Eloisa Bueno Pires; Weber, Silke Anna Thereza; Domingues, Maria Aparecida Custodio; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2008-01-01

    Basal cell adenoma is an uncommon benign salivary gland neoplasm, presenting isomorphic basaloid cells with a prominent basal cell layer. Taking into account that basal cell adenomas represent 1% of all salivary gland tumors, being the majority of cases in the parotid glands, the goal of this paper is to report a case of basal cell adenoma of the upper lip arising from minor salivary gland.

  12. Uji Diagnostik Dermatoskopi Pada Pasien Karsinoma Sel Basal di RSUP. H. Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Rinanda, Fenni

    2015-01-01

    Background: Basal-cell carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm appeared from a non-keratinizing cell which comes from epidermic basal layer. Hispatological test to diagnose basal-cell carcinoma may give rise to uncomfortability and fear. Dermatoscopy test, on the other hand, constitutes a non-invasive, easy, and prompt test which may minimize risks that potentially occurs when conducting a biopsy. Objective: To find out dermatoscopy diagnostic test values in diagnosing basal-cell carcinoma. ...

  13. Modified basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction (Hemi-Wing distraction) for correction of facial asymmetry: A new technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Ruben; Diaz, Alvaro; Golaszewski, Jose

    2014-01-01

    Complete restoration of facial asymmetry is always difficult to achieve. Facial asymmetry due to growth disturbances of the jaws almost requires orthognathic surgical correction, followed, in many cases, by soft tissue corrections. Mandibular hypoplasia is the earliest skeletal manifestation of Hemifacial microsomy and the clinical defect becomes worse with the time, due to asymmetric growth and secondary midface deformity accompanying. Despite correction of the occlusal plane, facial asymmetry can persist if the mandibular body differs in height. We designed a new technique for skeletal correction of the mandibular basal plane combined with orthognatic surgery that avoided the disadvantages and limitations of other techniques. A 20-year-old male patient with facial asymmetry due to Hemifacial microsomy Type I also requires preoperative orthodontic treatment to align and level their teeth. He showed a 2mm midline shift to the left in combination with a cross bite of the left side. We decide to do a vertical enlargement of the mandibular left border by mandibular Hemiwing osteotomy and unilateral split ramus osteotomy for dental lines alignment with 8 mm of advancement of the hemi - wing genioplasty. Modificated basal osteotomy combined with osteogenic distraction works better than the classic total basal osteotomy with autologous bone graft, if used for the correct indications. We advocate this technique for its efficacy, simplicity, and safety. This technique can be apply for correction of vertical and transverse discrepancies of the mandibular border and combined with sagittal ramus osteotomies for correction of asymmetrical dental lines and oclusal plane. PMID:25593870

  14. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome:a case report%痣样基底细胞癌综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 薛燕宁; 盛珉旻; 闵仲生

    2013-01-01

    报告1例痣样基底细胞癌综合征.患者男,72岁.因全身出现散在褐色皮疹30余年就诊.皮肤科检查:胸腹部、背部、四肢散在数十个粟粒至蚕豆大小、形状不规则的褐色斑块,境界清楚,表面粗糙,轻微隆起.双手掌可见数个黄豆大小界限清楚的红斑.腹部皮损组织病理检查示基底细胞癌.结合临床、组织病理检查结果,诊断为痣样基底细胞癌综合征.%A case of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome is reported. The 72-year-old male patient presented with brown skin rash that had scattered all over his body for more than 30 years. Dermatology examination showed dozens of the brown miliary to bean-sized plaques on the chest, abdomen, back and limbs, which were clearly circumscribed, on the surface and slightly raised, a number of soybean -like erythemas appeared on the palms with clear edges. On the abdomen the histopathological examination revealed basal cell carcinoma. The clinical and histopathological results are consistent with the diagnosis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

  15. Body contact and body language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Helle Dagmar

    2008-01-01

    and the boundaries between self and world. In western societies, the modern premises for contact are in some ways developing from close contact to virtual communication. With this breadth of perspective in mind, the ques­tion is whether conscious and experimental work with body contact and body language in move......­ment psychology and education provide potential for intense personal develop­ment as well as for social and cultural learning processes. This performative research project originates from the research project entitled, Movement Psy­chol­ogy: The Language of the Body and the Psy­chol­ogy of Movement based...... on the Dance Therapy Form Dansergia. The author, who is a practi­tioner-researcher, is methodologically inspir­ed by phenomenology, performative methods and a narrative and auto-ethnographic approach. The project will be presented in an organic, cre­at­ive and performative way. Through a moving dia...

  16. Body counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey on some applications of the whole body counter in clinical practice and a critical study of its application as a routine testing method. Remarks on the necessary precautions are followed by a more detailed discussion of the determination of the natural potassium content, the iron metabolism, the vitamin B12 test, investigations of the metabolism of the bone using 47Ca and 85Sr, investigations with iodine and iodine-labelled substances, clearance investigations (in particular the 51Cr EDTA clearance test), as well as the possibilities of neutron activation in vivo. (ORU/AK)

  17. Modeling the basal dynamics of p53 system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingzhe Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tumor suppressor p53 has become one of most investigated genes. Once activated by stress, p53 leads to cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Most previous models have ignored the basal dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions. To explore the basal dynamics of p53, we constructed a stochastic delay model by incorporating two negative feedback loops. We found that protein distribution of p53 under nonstressed condition is highly skewed with a fraction of cells showing high p53 levels comparable to those observed under stressed conditions. Under nonstressed conditions, asynchronous and spontaneous p53 pulses are triggered by basal DNA double strand breaks produced during normal cell cycle progression. The first peaking times show a predominant G1 distribution while the second ones are more widely distributed. The spontaneous pulses are triggered by an excitable mechanism. Once initiated, the amplitude and duration of pulses remain unchanged. Furthermore, the spontaneous pulses are filtered by ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein mediated posttranslational modifications and do not result in substantial p21 transcription. If challenged by externally severe DNA damage, cells generate synchronous p53 pulses and induce significantly high levels of p21. The high expression of p21 can also be partially induced by lowering the deacetylation rate. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that the dynamics of p53 under nonstressed conditions is initiated by an excitable mechanism and cells become fully responsive only when cells are confronted with severe damage. These findings advance our understanding of the mechanism of p53 pulses and unlock many opportunities to p53-based therapy.

  18. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  19. Basal ganglia disorders studied by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent development of positron emitting radioligands has made it possible to investigate the alterations of neurotransmitter systems associated with basal ganglia disorders in vivo. The functional integrity of nigro-striatal dopaminergic terminals may be studied with [18F]6-fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]dopa), and striatal dopamine receptor density with suitable PET ligands. [18F]dopa uptake in the striatum (putamen) is markedly reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). [18F]dopa-PET is capable of detecting sub-clinical nigral dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with familial PD and those who become Parkinsonian on conventional doses of dopamine receptor antagonists. While putamen [18F]dopa uptake is reduced to a similar level in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) and PD, caudate [18F] dopa uptake is lower in MSA than PD. However, [18F]dopa PET cannot consistently distinguish MSA from PD because individual ranges of caudate [18F]dopa uptake overlap. D1 and D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in the striatum (posterior putamen) of MSA patients. Therefore, dopamine receptor imaging is useful for the differential diagnosis of MSA and PD. Similar marked reductions in putamen and caudate [18F]dopa uptake have been observed in patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Moderate reductions in D2 receptor binding have been reported in the striatum of PSP patients. The reduction in D2 receptor binding is more prominent in the caudate than putamen. Striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or only mildly reduced in patients with dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). D2 receptor binding is markedly reduced in patients with Huntington's disease, while striatal [18F]dopa uptake is normal or mildly reduced. In summary, PET can demonstrate characteristic patterns of disruption of dopaminergic systems associated with basal ganglia disorders. These PET findings are useful in the differential diagnosis of basal ganglia disorders. (J.P.N.) 55 refs

  20. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel assembly includes and upper yoke, a base, an elongated, outer flow channel disposed substantially along the entire length of the fuel assembly and an elongated, internal, central water cross, formed by four, elongated metal angles, that divides the nuclear fuel assembly into four, separate, elongated fuel sections and that provides a centrally disposed path for the flow of subcooled neutron moderator along the length of the fuel assembly. A separate fuel bundle is located in each of the four fuel sections and includes an upper tie plate, a lower tie plate and a plurality of elongated fuel rods disposed therebetween. Preferably, each upper tie plate is formed from a plurality of interconnected thin metal bars and includes an elongated, axially extending pin that is received by the upper yoke of the fuel assembly for restraining lateral motion of the fuel bundle while permitting axial movement of the fuel bundle with respect to the outer flow channel. The outer flow channel is fixedly secured at its opposite longitudinal ends to the upper yoke and to the base to permit the fuel assembly to be lifted and handled in a vertical position without placing lifting loads or stresses on the fuel rods. The yoke, removably attached at the upper end of the fuel assembly to four structural ribs secured to the inner walls of the outer flow channel, includes, as integrally formed components, a lifting bail or handle, laterally extending bumpers, a mounting post for a spring assembly, four elongated apertures for receiving with a slip fit the axially extending pins mounted on the upper tie plates and slots for receiving the structural ribs secured to the outer flow channel. Locking pins securely attach the yoke to the structural ribs enabling the fuel assembly to be lifted as an entity

  1. Formation of embryoid bodies using dielectrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sneha; Sebastian, Anil; Forrester, Lesley M; Markx, Gerard H

    2012-01-01

    Embryoid body (EB) formation forms an important step in embryonic stem cell differentiation invivo. In murine embryonic stem cell (mESC) cultures EB formation is inhibited by the inclusion of leukaemic inhibitory factor (LIF) in the medium. Assembly of mESCs into aggregates by positive dielectrophoresis (DEP) in high field regions between interdigitated oppositely castellated electrodes was found to initiate EB formation. Embryoid body formation in aggregates formed with DEP occurred at a mor...

  2. Immune challenge affects basal metabolic activity in wintering great tits.

    OpenAIRE

    Ots, I.; Kerimov, A. B.; Ivankina, E. V.; Ilyina, T. A.; Hõrak, P.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of exploiting an organism's immune function are expected to form the basis of many life-history trade-offs. However, there has been debate about whether such costs can be paid in energetic and nutritional terms. We addressed this question in a study of wintering, free-living, male great tits by injecting them with a novel, non-pathogenic antigen (sheep red blood cells) and measuring the changes in their basal metabolic rates and various condition indices subsequent to immune challen...

  3. Cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Teotônio de Oliveira

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available The case of a Brazilian patient with cortico-basal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD is presented. Since three years ago, a 71-year old male displays asymmetric ideomotor apraxia, gait apraxia, cortical sensory impairment, myoclonus, limp dystonia and rigidity. His mental status is spared. There is neither consanguinity nor similar cases in his family. The differential diagnosis of CBGD is discussed. A brief review of the literature is made stressing the clinical and pathological features of CBGD. This disease is poorly known and probably underdiagnosed. Its diagnosis can be safely made based on clinical grounds.

  4. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  5. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing of...... to 40% smaller skin defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We...

  6. Understanding Parkinsonian handwriting through a computational model of basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangadhar, Garipelli; Joseph, Denny; Chakravarthy, V Srinivasa

    2008-10-01

    Handwriting in Parkinson's disease (PD) is typically characterized by micrographia, jagged line contour, and unusual fluctuations in pen tip velocity. Although PD handwriting features have been used for diagnostics, they are not based on a signaling model of basal ganglia (BG). In this letter, we present a computational model of handwriting generation that highlights the role of BG. When PD conditions like reduced dopamine and altered dynamics of the subthalamic nucleus and globus pallidus externa subsystems are simulated, the handwriting produced by the model manifested characteristic PD handwriting distortions like micrographia and velocity fluctuations. Our approach to PD modeling is in tune with the perspective that PD is a dynamic disease. PMID:18386983

  7. DC source assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  8. Intestinal Alterations, Basal Hematology, and Biochemical Parameters in Adolescent Rats Fed Different Sources of Dietary Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewska, Ewa; Dobrowolski, Piotr; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Copper (Cu) is required for basically all biochemical and physiological processes in the body. The aim was to evaluate the effects of different sources of dietary copper on jejunal epithelium histomorphometry in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 5 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control group was fed with standard diet providing the required Cu level (5 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day) in an inorganic form (sulfate) covered 100 % of daily demand, and the other three groups were supplemented with Cu-glycine complex covered 50, 75, and 100 % daily demand. Basal hematological and plasma biochemical analyses as well as histomorphometric examinations of the jejunal epithelium and liver were performed. Cu given in the organic form in 100 % of daily demand depressed the muscular and submucosa layer and the crypt depth (P < 0.05) without an influence of the innervation of the jejunum. In turn, organic Cu given in 75 % of daily demand did not influence the intestinal morphology in adult rats. Dietary organic Cu given to rats covering the daily demand in 50 or 75 % appears to be less harmful with regard to the intestinal epithelium than when administered in 100 % of daily demand. PMID:26432448

  9. Microtubule dynamics of the centrosome-like polar organizers from the basal land plant Marchantia polymorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik; Holtmannspötter, Michael; Borchers, Agnes; O'Donoghue, Martin-Timothy; Zachgo, Sabine

    2016-02-01

    The liverwort Marchantia employs both modern and ancestral devices during cell division: it forms preprophase bands and in addition it shows centrosome-like polar organizers. We investigated whether polar organizers and preprophase bands cooperate to set up the division plane. To this end, two novel green fluorescent protein-based microtubule markers for dividing cells of Marchantia were developed. Cells of the apical notch formed polar organizers first and subsequently assembled preprophase bands. Polar organizers were formed de novo from multiple mobile microtubule foci localizing to the nuclear envelope. The foci then became concentrated by bipolar aggregation. We determined the comet production rate of polar organizers and show that microtubule plus ends of astral microtubules polymerize faster than those found on cortical microtubules. Importantly, it was observed that conditions increasing polar organizer numbers interfere with preprophase band formation. The data show that polar organizers have much in common with centrosomes, but that they also have specialized features. The results suggest that polar organizers contribute to preprophase band formation and in this way are involved in controlling the division plane. Our analyses of the basal land plant Marchantia shed new light on the evolution of plant cell division. PMID:26467050

  10. The synaptonemal complex of basal metazoan hydra: more similarities to vertebrate than invertebrate meiosis model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraune, Johanna; Wiesner, Miriam; Benavente, Ricardo

    2014-03-20

    The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an evolutionarily well-conserved structure that mediates chromosome synapsis during prophase of the first meiotic division. Although its structure is conserved, the characterized protein components in the current metazoan meiosis model systems (Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Mus musculus) show no sequence homology, challenging the question of a single evolutionary origin of the SC. However, our recent studies revealed the monophyletic origin of the mammalian SC protein components. Many of them being ancient in Metazoa and already present in the cnidarian Hydra. Remarkably, a comparison between different model systems disclosed a great similarity between the SC components of Hydra and mammals while the proteins of the ecdysozoan systems (D. melanogaster and C. elegans) differ significantly. In this review, we introduce the basal-branching metazoan species Hydra as a potential novel invertebrate model system for meiosis research and particularly for the investigation of SC evolution, function and assembly. Also, available methods for SC research in Hydra are summarized. PMID:24656231

  11. Foreign Body Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Foreign Body Retrieval Foreign body retrieval is the removal ... of foreign body detection and removal? What is Foreign Body Retrieval? Foreign body retrieval involves the removal ...

  12. IFN-γ differentially modulates memory-related processes under basal and chronic stressor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litteljohn, Darcy; Nelson, Eric; Hayley, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Cytokines are inflammatory messengers that orchestrate the brain's response to immunological challenges, as well as possibly even toxic and psychological insults. We previously reported that genetic ablation of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), attenuated some of the corticosteroid, cytokine, and limbic dopaminergic variations induced by 6 weeks of exposure to an unpredictable psychologically relevant stressor. Presently, we sought to determine whether a lack of IFN-γ would likewise modify the impact of chronic stress on hippocampus-dependent memory function and related neurotransmitter and neurotrophin signaling systems. As predicted, chronic stress impaired spatial recognition memory (Y-maze task) in the wild-type animals. In contrast, though the IFN-γ knockouts (KOs) showed memory disturbances in the basal state, under conditions of chronic stress these mice actually exhibited facilitated memory performance. Paralleling these findings, while overall the KOs displayed altered noradrenergic and/or serotonergic activity in the hippocampus and locus coeruleus, norepinephrine utilization in both of these memory-related brain regions was selectively increased among the chronically stressed KOs. However, contrary to our expectations, neither IFN-γ deletion nor chronic stressor exposure significantly affected nucleus accumbens dopaminergic neurotransmission or hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein expression. These findings add to a growing body of evidence implicating cytokines in the often differential regulation of neurobehavioral processes in health and disease. Whereas in the basal state IFN-γ appears to be involved in sustaining memory function and the activity of related brain monoamine systems, in the face of ongoing psychologically relevant stress the cytokine may, in fact, act to restrict potentially adaptive central noradrenergic and spatial memory responses. PMID:25477784

  13. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Andon Hestiantoro; Budi Wiweko; Robert H. Purwaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI), basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF) program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangu...

  14. Believer-Skeptic Meets Actor-Critic: Rethinking the Role of Basal Ganglia Pathways during Decision-Making and Reinforcement Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dunovan, Kyle; Verstynen, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The flexibility of behavioral control is a testament to the brain's capacity for dynamically resolving uncertainty during goal-directed actions. This ability to select actions and learn from immediate feedback is driven by the dynamics of basal ganglia (BG) pathways. A growing body of empirical evidence conflicts with the traditional view that these pathways act as independent levers for facilitating (i.e., direct pathway) or suppressing (i.e., indirect pathway) motor output, suggesting inste...

  15. The effects of quercetin supplementation on body composition, exercise performance and muscle damage indices in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Askari

    2013-01-01

    Results: Lean body mass, total body water, basal metabolic rate, and total energy expenditure increased significantly in the quercetin group after intervention. On the other hand, VO 2max increased in the "quercetin" and "quercetin + vitamin C" groups following the intervention, non-significantly. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that supplementation with quercetin in athletes may improve some indices of performance.

  16. Nuclear reactor spacer assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor is disclosed wherein the fuel element receiving and supporting grid is comprised of a first metal, the guide tubes which pass through the grid assembly are comprised of a second metal and the grid is supported on the guide tubes by means of expanded sleeves located intermediate the grid and guide tubes. The fuel assembly is fabricated by inserting the sleeves, of initial outer diameter commensurate with the guide tube outer diameters, through the holes in the grid assembly provided for the guide tubes and thereafter expanding the sleeves radially outwardly along their entire length such that the guide tubes can subsequently be passed through the sleeves. The step of radial expansion, as a result of windows provided in the sleeves having dimensions commensurate with the geometry of the grid, mechanically captures the grid and simultaneously preloads the sleeve against the grid whereby relative motion between the grid and guide tube will be precluded

  17. Spent fuel assembly hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When spent nuclear fuel is disposed of in a repository, the waste package will include the spent fuel assembly hardware, the structural portion of the fuel assembly, and the fuel pins. The spent fuel assembly hardware is the subject of this paper. The basic constituent parts of the fuel assembly will be described with particular attention on the materials used in their construction. The results of laboratory analyses performed to determine radionuclide inventories and trace impurities also will be described. Much of this work has been incorporated into a US Department of Energy (DOE) database maintained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This database is documented in DOE/RW-0184 and can be obtained from Karl Notz at ORNL. The database provides a single source for information regarding wastes that may be sent to the repository

  18. Steam separator latch assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challberg, Roy C.; Kobsa, Irvin R.

    1994-01-01

    A latch assembly removably joins a steam separator assembly to a support flange disposed at a top end of a tubular shroud in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The assembly includes an annular head having a central portion for supporting the steam separator assembly thereon, and an annular head flange extending around a perimeter thereof for supporting the head to the support flange. A plurality of latches are circumferentially spaced apart around the head flange with each latch having a top end, a latch hook at a bottom end thereof, and a pivot support disposed at an intermediate portion therebetween and pivotally joined to the head flange. The latches are pivoted about the pivot supports for selectively engaging and disengaging the latch hooks with the support flange for fixedly joining the head to the shroud or for allowing removal thereof.

  19. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Ghoroubi, N; Malaki, M; Darvizeh, A; Gorb, S N

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  20. Novelty encoding by the output neurons of the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mati Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of the basal ganglia have focused on the resemblance of the dopamine signal to the temporal difference error. However the role of the network as a whole is still elusive, in particular whether the output of the basal ganglia encodes only the behavior (actions or it is part of the valuation process. We trained a monkey extensively on a probabilistic conditional task with seven fractal cues predicting rewarding or aversive outcomes (familiar cues. Then in each recording session we added a cue that the monkey had never seen before (new cue and recorded from single units in the Substantia Nigra pars reticulata (SNpr while the monkey was engaged in a task with new cues intermingled within the familiar ones. The monkey learned the association between the new cue and outcome and modified its licking and blinking behavior which became similar to responses to the familiar cues with the same outcome. However, the responses of many SNpr neurons to the new cue exceeded their response to familiar cues even after behavioral learning was completed. This dissociation between behavior and neural activity suggests that the BG output code goes beyond instruction or gating of behavior to encoding of novel cues. Thus, BG output can enable learning at the levels of its target neural networks.

  1. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  2. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eReitsma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primatesshow increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burstrate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brainactivity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behaviorof downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns ofbasal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics,we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC relay neurons receivingcorrelated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus(GPi, a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observethat the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increaseswith the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as thoseseen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlationsthan do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also showthat the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlationtransfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatoryfiring patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlationsare best transferred through the system. To explain this lastresult, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficientfor oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysisindicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer isrobust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arisesdue to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when thelong timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall,these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affectthe transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  3. Unilateral germinomas involving the basal ganglia and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Kageyama, N; Kida, Y; Yoshida, J; Shibuya, N; Okamura, K

    1981-07-01

    Clinical characteristics of six cases of germinoma involving a unilateral basal ganglion and thalamus are summarized. The incidence was estimated as 10% of all intracranial germinomas. The average age at the onset was 10.5 years. The sex incidence showed a male dominance. The clinical course was slowly progressive, and the average duration between onset and diagnosis was 2 years 5 months. Common symptoms and signs were hemiparesis in all cases, fever of unknown origin and eye symptoms in most, mental deterioration and psychiatric signs in three, and convulsions, pubertas praecox, and diabetes insipidus in two. Signs of increased intracranial pressure were found in only two cases in the later state of the disease. Early diagnosis is difficult because of nonspecific symptomatology and slow progression. Carotid angiography and pneumoencephalography showed abnormal findings compatible with basal ganglia and thalamic tumors, but not specific to germinoma. Ipsilateral cortical atrophy and ventricular dilatation might be significant findings. Radioisotope scanning was useful. Computerized tomography scans were the best method of detecting the location and nature of this tumor, and repeat scans showed response to radiation therapy. PMID:7241216

  4. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  5. Assemblies of gold icosahedra

    OpenAIRE

    Bilalbegovic, G.

    2004-01-01

    Low-dimensional free-standing aggregates of bare gold clusters are studied by the molecular dynamics simulation. Icosahedra of 55 and 147 atoms are equilibrated at T=300 K. Then, their one- and two-dimensional assemblies are investigated. It is found that icosahedra do not coalescence into large drops, but stable amorphous nanostructures are formed: nanowires for one-dimensional and nanofilms for two-dimensional assemblies. The high-temperature stability of these nanostructures is also invest...

  6. High speed door assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a high speed door assembly, comprising an actuator cylinder and piston rods, a pressure supply cylinder and fittings, an electrically detonated explosive bolt, a honeycomb structured door, a honeycomb structured decelerator, and a structural steel frame encasing the assembly to close over a 3 foot diameter opening within 50 milliseconds of actuation, to contain hazardous materials and vapors within a test fixture.

  7. Fuel assembly reconstitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel failures have been happened in Nuclear Power Plants worldwide, without lost of integrity and safety, mainly for the public, environment and power plants workers. The most common causes of these events are corrosion (CRUD), fretting and pellet cladding interaction. These failures are identified by increasing the activity of fission products, verified by chemical analyses of reactor coolant. Through these analyses, during the fourth operation cycle of Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant, was possible to observe fuel failure indication. This indication was confirmed in the end of the cycle during the unloading of reactor core through leakage tests of fuel assembly, using the equipment called 'In Mast Sipping' and 'Box Sipping'. After confirmed, the fuel assembly reconstitution was scheduled, and happened in April, 2007, where was identified the cause and the fuel rod failure, which was substitute by dummy rods (zircaloy). The cause was fretting by 'debris'. The actions to avoid and prevent fuel assemblies failures are important. The goals of this work are to describe the methodology of fuel assembly reconstitution using the FARE (Fuel Assembly Reconstitution Equipment) system, to describe the results of this task in economic and security factors of the company and show how the fuel assembly failures are identified during operation and during the outage. (author)

  8. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  9. Basal follicle stimulating hormone and leptin on the day of hCG administration predict successful fertilization in in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andon Hestiantoro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Successful pregnancy in in vitro fertilization (IVF program depends on multiple factors. This study aimed to determine whether age, body mass index (BMI, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, estradiol, and leptin on the day of trigger ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG might be used as predictor for successful oocyte fertilization in in vitro fertilization (IVF program.Methods: This is a cross sectional study conducted in Yasmin Fertility Clinic, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Forty participating patients underwent IVF program, excluding smokers, patients with diabetic, morbid obesity, and severe oligospermia or azoospermia. Age, BMI, basal FSH, estradiol, leptin on the day of hCG administration, oocyte count on oocyte retrieval, the number of mature oocyte, and fertility rate were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analysis to determine which eligible factors play role in predicting the successful of fertilization.Results: Significant correlation was found between basal FSH level and serum leptin/oocyte ratio on the day of hCG administration with successful fertilization. We found probability formula as follows: 1/(1+exp –(6.2 - 0.4(leptin serum/oocyte ratio - 0.8(basal FSH, with 77.8% sensitivity, 77.8% specificity, and AUC levels of 85.6% indicating strong predictability. Probability of successful fertilization related to basal FSH level of 5.90 mIU/mL and leptin serum/oocyte ratio of 3.98.Conclusion: The formula consisting of basal FSH and leptin serum/oocyte ratio on the day of trigger ovulation was capable in predicting the probability of successful fertilization in IVF procedure.

  10. Assembly and regulation of acetylcholinesterase at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction

    OpenAIRE

    Rotundo, R. L.; Ruiz, C.A.; Marrero, E.; Kimbell, L. M.; Rossi, S.G.; Rosenberry, T.; Darr, A; Tsoulfas, P.

    2008-01-01

    The collagen-tailed form of acetylcholinesterase (ColQ-AChE) is the major if not unique form of the enzyme associated with the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). This enzyme form consists of catalytic and non-catalytic subunits encoded by separate genes, assembled as three enzymatic tetramers attached to the three-stranded collagen-like tail (ColQ). This synaptic form of the enzyme is tightly attached to the basal lamina associated with the glycosaminoglycan perlecan. Fasciculin-2 is a snake toxin...

  11. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  12. An update on complex I assembly: the assembly of players

    OpenAIRE

    Vartak, Rasika S.; Semwal, Manpreet Kaur; Bai, Yidong

    2014-01-01

    Defects in Complex I assembly is one of the emerging underlying causes of severe mitochondrial disorders. The assembly of Complex I has been difficult to understand due to its large size, dual genetic control and the number of proteins involved. Mutations in Complex I subunits as well as assembly factors have been reported to hinder its assembly and give rise to a range of mitochondria disorders. In this review, we summarize the recent progress made in understanding the Complex I assembly pat...

  13. Spatial Variation of Basal Conditions on Kamb Ice Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Welch, B. C.; Osterhouse, D.; Pettersson, R.; MacGregor, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    Radar profiles of bed echo intensity provide a way to survey conditions at the ice-bed interface and test for the presence or absence of water. However, extracting information about bed properties from bed echo intensities requires an estimate of the dielectric attenuation loss through the ice. A recent survey [MacGregor et al., 2007] found that the few reported values of depth-averaged attenuation rates in West Antarctica vary by a factor of 3, presumably due to spatial variations in the chemistry and temperature profiles of the ice. Thus, a single value for depth-averaged ice-sheet attenuation cannot be assumed, even over a relatively small region. We measured attenuation rates at several locations on and near Kamb Ice Stream (KIS) by examining basal echo intensity values as a function of ice thickness from constant-offset radar data acquired in 2004-2006. Our values obtained for Siple Dome of 29 dB/km agree with previous measurements [Gades et al., 2000] and the recent calculations and model results of MacGregor et al. [2007]. On KIS, we measured attenuation values of 20 dB/km over the "sticky spot", where ice has become stagnant. This value is consistent with an attenuation model over the sticky spot calculated using borehole temperature data [Engelhardt, 2005] and chemistry data from the Siple Dome ice core. Our radar profiles in the main trunk region of KIS yield a slightly lower value of 15 dB/km, presumably because colder ice is still being advected from inland West Antarctica. Using these values of attenuation, we calculated the basal radar reflectivity at the ice-bed interface in the regions of all our surveys. We found that most regions of the bed in the trunk of KIS have high basal reflectivities and that these values are similar to those obtained in locations where water was found in the Caltech boreholes [Engelhardt, 2005]. Areas of lower bed reflectivity are limited to the sticky spot, where a borehole found a dry bed, and along the margins of KIS

  14. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The early evolution of archosauromorphs during the Permo-Triassic constitutes an excellent empirical case study to shed light on evolutionary radiations in deep time and the timing and processes of recovery of terrestrial faunas after a mass extinction. However, macroevolutionary studies of early archosauromorphs are currently limited by poor knowledge of their phylogenetic relationships. In particular, one of the main early archosauromorph groups that need an exhaustive phylogenetic study is “Proterosuchia,” which as historically conceived includes members of both Proterosuchidae and Erythrosuchidae. A new data matrix composed of 96 separate taxa (several of them not included in a quantitative phylogenetic analysis before) and 600 osteological characters was assembled and analysed to generate a comprehensive higher-level phylogenetic hypothesis of basal archosauromorphs and shed light on the species-level interrelationships of taxa historically identified as proterosuchian archosauriforms. The results of the analysis using maximum parsimony include a polyphyletic “Prolacertiformes” and “Protorosauria,” in which the Permian Aenigmastropheus and Protorosaurus are the most basal archosauromorphs. The enigmatic choristoderans are either found as the sister-taxa of all other lepidosauromorphs or archosauromorphs, but consistently placed within Sauria. Prolacertids, rhynchosaurs, allokotosaurians and tanystropheids are the major successive sister clades of Archosauriformes. The Early Triassic Tasmaniosaurus is recovered as the sister-taxon of Archosauriformes. Proterosuchidae is unambiguosly restricted to five species that occur immediately after and before the Permo-Triassic boundary, thus implying that they are a short-lived “disaster” clade. Erythrosuchidae is composed of eight nominal species that occur during the Early and Middle Triassic. “Proterosuchia” is polyphyletic, in which erythrosuchids are more closely related to Euparkeria and more

  15. Charge-optimized many-body (COMB) potential for zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordhoek, Mark J.; Liang, Tao; Lu, Zizhe; Shan, Tzu-Ray; Sinnott, Susan B.; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2013-10-01

    An interatomic potential for zirconium is developed within the charge-optimized many-body (COMB) formalism. The potential correctly predicts the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure as the ground state with cohesive energy, lattice parameters, and elastic constants matching experiment well. The most stable interstitial position is the basal octahedral followed by basal split, in agreement with recent first principles calculations. Stacking fault energies within the prism and basal planes satisfactorily match first principles calculations. A tensile test using nanocrystalline zirconium exhibits both prismatic {1 0 1bar 0} slip and pyramidal {1 1 2bar 2} slip, showing the model is capable of reproducing the mechanical deformation modes observed in experiments.

  16. Nozzle assembly for gas-dynamic high efficiency lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malburg, W.; Mohr, F.

    1981-03-17

    The present nozzle assembly for gas-dynamic high efficiency lasers with a cooling system comprises a plurality of specially formed nozzle members or so-called lamellae. Each nozzle has its own cooling passages, matching bodies and glide surfaces. A series of nozzle members are placed in thermal contact with each other within a mounting or holding block. A coolant flows through said cooling passages which extend through each nozzle throat region and through matching bodies of the nozzle members so that a uniform temperature prevails across the nozzle assembly whereby the nozzle dimensions are maintained constant especially at the nozzle throat width and whereby leakage flows are eliminated.

  17. DARRIERS DISEASE WITH BASAL CELL CARCINOMA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila P

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dariers disease (Keratosis follicularis is an autosomal dominantly inherited, acantholytic disorder due to mutation in ATP2A2 gene located on chromosome 12. Darriers disease can be localised to a segment due to postzygotic mutations where it is called as segmental darriers. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo - plantar pits and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. There is increased predisposition to non - melanoma cutaneous m alignancies in darriers disease. We report a rare case of darriers disease with basal cell carcinoma A, with rapid progression over 4 months into ulcus penetrans with destruction of eye ball.

  18. Novel Hedgehog pathway targets against basal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in directing growth and patterning during embryonic development and is required in vertebrates for the normal development of many structures, including the neural tube, axial skeleton, skin, and hair. Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in adult tissue is associated with the development of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), medulloblastoma, and a subset of pancreatic, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. This review will provide an overview of what is known about the mechanisms by which activation of Hedgehog signaling leads to the development of BCCs and will review two recent papers suggesting that agents that modulate sterol levels might influence the Hh pathway. Thus, sterols may be a new therapeutic target for the treatment of BCCs, and readily available agents such as statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) or vitamin D might be helpful in reducing BCC incidence

  19. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey, Simon N.; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Daniel F Gudbjartsson; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R.; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC)1, we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 × 10−9). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 × 10−9), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 × 10−10...

  20. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning in cortico-basal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease accounts for ca. 75% of all cases of Parkinsonism. Corticobasal degeneration is a relatively rare example of the so-called ''Parkinson-plus'' syndrome. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old woman with rigidity and atypical tremor of upper extremity followed by gait apraxia, dysarthria, bilateral pyramidal signs and myoclonus. There was no improvement after treatment with L-dopa. The disease has progressed, but the patient is still alive. On the basis of clinical data a diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration has been established. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning revealed diffuse hypoperfusion of left frontal lobe, antero-inferior part of the left temporal lobe and left basal ganglia. The case illustrates the usefulness of brain SPECT in atypical forma of Parkinson's disease. (author)

  1. Computed tomography of germinomas in basal ganglia and thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT findings of 6 cases with germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus are reported. The early finding of germinoma in this region on plain CT, was an irregularly defined, slightly high density area without mass effect. Repeated CT scanning showed enlarging iso-to high density lesion accompanied by mass effect. Intratumorous cysts and calcifications were frequently observed. The tumor showed mild to moderate and inhomogeneous enhancement by intravenous injection of contrast medium. A tendency to ipsilateral hemicerebral atrophy was found in one case. These findings were somewhat different from those of germinomas in the pineal and suprasellar regions. This phenomenon may be related to the anatomical difference of the brain where the tumor originated. (orig.)

  2. A descending dopamine pathway conserved from basal vertebrates to mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Cone, Jackson J.; Alpert, Michael H.; Goetz, Laurent; Auclair, François; Dubé, Catherine; Parent, Martin; Roitman, Mitchell F.; Alford, Simon; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine neurons are classically known to modulate locomotion indirectly through ascending projections to the basal ganglia that project down to brainstem locomotor networks. Their loss in Parkinson’s disease is devastating. In lampreys, we recently showed that brainstem networks also receive direct descending dopaminergic inputs that potentiate locomotor output. Here, we provide evidence that this descending dopaminergic pathway is conserved to higher vertebrates, including mammals. In salamanders, dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum or brainstem locomotor networks were partly intermingled. Stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked dopamine release in brainstem locomotor networks and concurrent reticulospinal activity. In rats, some dopamine neurons projecting to the striatum also innervated the pedunculopontine nucleus, a known locomotor center, and stimulation of the dopaminergic region evoked pedunculopontine dopamine release in vivo. Finally, we found dopaminergic fibers in the human pedunculopontine nucleus. The conservation of a descending dopaminergic pathway across vertebrates warrants re-evaluating dopamine’s role in locomotion. PMID:27071118

  3. Bilateral symmetrical low density areas in the basal ganglia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reported a case with dysarthria and gait disturbance, in which CT revealed symmetrical well-demarcated low density areas in the basal ganglia. The patient was a 43-year-old woman. Her family history and past history were not contributory. She had a little difficulty in speaking at the age of 17. Gait disturbance and micrographia appeared later. Although her expressionless face resembles to that seen in Parkinsonism, rigidity, akinesia and small-stepped gait were not present. The unclassified types of dysarthria and gait disturbance, which characterize the present case, were considered to be a kind of extrapyramidal symptoms, which were distinct from those of Parkinsonism. CT showed well demarcated low density areas predominantly in bilateral putamen. Metrizamide CT failed to show any communication between low density areas and subarachnoid spaces. To date, six cases, which presented similar clinical features and almost same CT findings as our case, were reported. (author)

  4. Microscopic fluorescence spectral analysis of basal cell carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qingli; Lui, Harvey; Zloty, David; Cowan, Bryce; Warshawski, Larry; McLean, David I.; Zeng, Haishan

    2007-05-01

    Background and Objectives. Laser-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) is a promising tool for cancer diagnosis. This method is based on the differences in autofluorescence spectra between normal and cancerous tissues, but the underlined mechanisms are not well understood. The objective of this research is to study the microscopic origins and intrinsic fluorescence properties of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) for better understanding of the mechanism of in vivo fluorescence detection and margin delineation of BCCs on skin patients. A home-made micro- spectrophotometer (MSP) system was used to image the fluorophore distribution and to measure the fluorescence spectra of various microscopic structures and regions on frozen tissue sections. Materials and Methods. BCC tissue samples were obtained from 14 patients undergoing surgical resections. After surgical removal, each tissue sample was immediately embedded in OCT medium and snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen. The frozen tissue block was then cut into 16-μm thickness sections using a cryostat microtome and placed on microscopic glass slides. The sections for fluorescence study were kept unstained and unfixed, and then analyzed by the MSP system. The adjacent tissue sections were H&E stained for histopathological examination and also served to help identify various microstructures on the adjacent unstained sections. The MSP system has all the functions of a conventional microscope, plus the ability of performing spectral analysis on selected micro-areas of a microscopic sample. For tissue fluorescence analysis, 442nm He-Cd laser light is used to illuminate and excite the unstained tissue sections. A 473-nm long pass filter was inserted behind the microscope objective to block the transmitted laser light while passing longer wavelength fluorescence signal. The fluorescence image of the sample can be viewed through the eyepieces and also recorded by a CCD camera. An optical fiber is mounted onto the image plane of the photograph

  5. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  6. Photovoltaic self-assembly.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavin, Judith; Kemp, Richard Alan; Stewart, Constantine A.

    2010-10-01

    This late-start LDRD was focused on the application of chemical principles of self-assembly on the ordering and placement of photovoltaic cells in a module. The drive for this chemical-based self-assembly stems from the escalating prices in the 'pick-and-place' technology currently used in the MEMS industries as the size of chips decreases. The chemical self-assembly principles are well-known on a molecular scale in other material science systems but to date had not been applied to the assembly of cells in a photovoltaic array or module. We explored several types of chemical-based self-assembly techniques, including gold-thiol interactions, liquid polymer binding, and hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions designed to array both Si and GaAs PV chips onto a substrate. Additional research was focused on the modification of PV cells in an effort to gain control over the facial directionality of the cells in a solvent-based environment. Despite being a small footprint research project worked on for only a short time, the technical results and scientific accomplishments were significant and could prove to be enabling technology in the disruptive advancement of the microelectronic photovoltaics industry.

  7. Oil well sucker rod coupling assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klyne, A.A.

    1988-07-19

    A coupling assembly for connecting and centralizing a pair of elongate threaded-end members is described comprising: a pair of steel box couplings; a steel shaft connected to and extending between the couplings. The shaft having a tubular cylindrical sleeve of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material bonded thereto and covering its surface between the couplings to form an integral unit therewith. Each such coupling having a ring of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material bonded to and substantially fully covering the coupling's end face which is adjacent to the shaft; and a tubular externally fluted centralizer body mounted on the shaft and encircling the latter. The centralizer body extending radially outwardly beyond the longitudinal surfaces of the couplings. The centralizer body being formed of resilient abrasion-resistant non-metallic material.

  8. Optimization Well-Type on the Conditions of Basal Groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available For optimization well-type on the conditions of basal groundwater, inasmuch as an analogy exists between electrical and fluid flow, the electrolytic analogy experiments have been conducted, which made a series of comparisons and evaluations between 9 types of complex well configurations and vertical well in terms of production. Taking into account the boundary condition of basal groundwater, we conducted 3×3×10 experiments in totally, including vertical well, horizontal well, radial well, snaky well, 3 types of fishbone well and 3 types of multilateral well. The experiment of every well mentioned above was conducted on the voltage values of 2V, 3V, 4V and conductibility values of 90μs/cm, 200μs/cm, 350μs/cm respectively. And then, specific settings were made for the stimulated well-types and reservoirs in order to make evaluations. The results indicate that production range in a diminishing sequence from horizontal well, 60°-fishbone well, 90°-fishbone well, 30°-fishbone well, 4-lateral Well, snaky well, radial well, 3-lateral Well, 2-lateral Well to vertical well. In the meantime, proposed the conception of radio of production and that even if changed the voltage value, the radio of production changed little for some specific well-types under the condition of the same resistivity. Utilizing the conclusion above, the production of complex well configurations’s transformed from vertical wells can be calculated in specific conditions of the reservoir. The obtained experimental conclusions are useful for engineers and researchers to verify their analytical production model exactly and computer codes.

  9. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  10. Modular Fixture Assembly Model for Virtual Assembly Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Gao-liang; CHEN Guang-feng; LIU Xin-hua

    2009-01-01

    To support modular fixture assembly design in virtual environment, a multi-view based modular fixture virtual assembly model is proposed. Instead of squeezing all assembly related information into a single model, three complementary views of assembly model, element information, function and structure, and assembly relationship are proposed to be used. The first view contains the detailed element information, while the other two explicitly capture the hierarchical function relationships and mating relationships respectively. These views are complementary in the sense that each view only contains a specific aspect of assembly related information while together they include required assembly related information. The proposed assembly model is specialized to accommodate the features of modular fixture virtual assembly design and applied in our developed prototype system.

  11. Self-Assembly of Graphene on Carbon Nanotube Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaiyuan; Eres, Gyula; Howe, Jane; Chuang, Yen-Jun; Li, Xufan; Gu, Zhanjun; Zhang, Litong; Xie, Sishen; Pan, Zhengwei

    2013-08-01

    The rolling up of a graphene sheet into a tube is a standard visualization tool for illustrating carbon nanotube (CNT) formation. However, the actual processes of rolling up graphene sheets into CNTs in laboratory syntheses have never been demonstrated. Here we report conformal growth of graphene by carbon self-assembly on single-wall and multi-wall CNTs using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane without the presence of metal catalysts. The new graphene layers roll up into seamless coaxial cylinders encapsulating the existing CNTs, but their adhesion to the primary CNTs is weak due to the existence of lattice misorientation. Our study shows that graphene nucleation and growth by self-assembly of carbon on the inactive carbon basal plane of CNTs occurs by a new mechanism that is markedly different from epitaxial growth on metal surfaces, opening up the possibility of graphene growth on many other non-metal substrates by simple methane CVD.

  12. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fuel assembly of PWR comprises a fuel bundle portion supported by a plurality of support lattices and an upper and lower nozzles each secured to the upper and lower portions. Leaf springs are attached to the four sides of the upper nozzle for preventing rising of the fuel assembly by streams of cooling water by the contact with an upper reactor core plate. The leaf springs are attached to the upper nozzle so that four leaf springs are laminated. The uppermost leaf spring is bent slightly upwardly from the mounted portion and the other leaf springs are extended linearly from the mounted portion without being bent. The mounted portions of the leaf springs are stacked and secured to the upper nozzle by a bolt obliquely relative to the axial line of the fuel assembly. (I.N.)

  13. Blade attachment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose; Delvaux, John McConnell; Miller, Diane Patricia

    2016-05-03

    An assembly and method for affixing a turbomachine rotor blade to a rotor wheel are disclosed. In an embodiment, an adaptor member is provided disposed between the blade and the rotor wheel, the adaptor member including an adaptor attachment slot that is complementary to the blade attachment member, and an adaptor attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot. A coverplate is provided, having a coverplate attachment member that is complementary to the rotor wheel attachment slot, and a hook for engaging the adaptor member. When assembled, the coverplate member matingly engages with the adaptor member, and retains the blade in the adaptor member, and the assembly in the rotor wheel.

  14. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B.; Newson, Steve

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  15. Lead Test Assembly program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the new/alternative fuel requires addressing all aspects of the fuel assembly design basis (mechanical, fuel handling, thermal-hydraulic, nuclear design, chemistry, safety analysis and licensing and including mix core effects. The scope of the work is minimized by implementing a Lead Test Assembly (LTA) program with a limited number of assemblies (6 or more), using approved designed features, and placing the LTAs in a unlimited core power location. The topics discussed in the contribution include plant licensing basis and regulatory requirements, plant interface review, compatibility with resident fuel and reactor environment, safety analysis, and post radiation examination. It is concluded that the LTA program is a prudent means of introducing new core designs into existing cores. (P.A.)

  16. Optical interconnect assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Daric; Abel, Philip

    2015-06-09

    An optical assembly includes a substrate with a first row of apertures and a second row of apertures. A first optical die includes a first plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each transducer element is aligned with an aperture of the first row of optical apertures. A second optical die includes a second plurality of optical transducer elements and is mounted on the substrate such that an optical signal interface of each of the second plurality of optical transducer elements is aligned with an aperture of the second row of optical apertures. A connector configured to mate with the optical assembly supports a plurality of optical fibers. A terminal end of each optical fiber protrudes from the connector and extends into one of the apertures when the connector is coupled with the optical assembly.

  17. TBP Domain Symmetry in Basal and Activated Archaeal Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Ouhammouch, Mohamed; Hausner, Winfried; Geiduschek, E Peter

    2008-01-01

    The TATA-box binding protein (TBP) is the platform for assembly of archaeal and eukaryotic transcription preinitiation complexes. Ancestral gene duplication and fusion events have produced the saddle-shaped TBP molecule, with its two direct-repeat subdomains and pseudo-two-fold symmetry. Collectively, eukaryotic TBPs have diverged from their present-day archaeal counterparts, which remain highly symmetrical. The similarity of the N- and C-halves of archaeal TBPs is especially pronounced in th...

  18. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  19. Transfer of fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel assemblies of a nuclear reactor are transferred during fueling or refueling or the like by a crane. The work-engaging fixture of the crane picks up an assembly, removes it from this slot, transfers it to the deposit site and deposits it in its slot at the deposit site. The control for the crane includes a strain gauge connected to the crane line which raises and lowers the load. The strain gauge senses the load on the crane. The signal from the strain gauge is compared with setpoints; a high-level setpoint, a low-level setpoint and a slack-line setpoint. If the strain gauge signal exceeds the high-level setpoint, the line drive is disabled. This event may occur during raising of a fuel assembly which encounters resistance. The high-level setpoint may be overridden under proper precautions. The line drive is also disabled if the strain gauge signal is less than the low-level setpoint. This event occurs when a fuel assembly being deposited contacts the bottom of its slot or an obstruction in, or at the entry to the slot. To preclude lateral movement and possible damage to a fuel assembly suspended from the crane line, the traverse drive of the crane is disabled once the strain-gauge exceets the lov-level setpoint. The traverse drive can only be enabled after the strain-gauge signal is less than the slack-line set-point. This occurs when the lines has been set in slack-line setting. When the line is tensioned after slack-li ne setting, the traverse drive remains enabled only if the line has been disconnected from the fuel assembly

  20. Dementia with Lewy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Dementia With Lewy Bodies Information Page Synonym(s): Lewy Body ... and Information Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Dementia With Lewy Bodies? Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) ...

  1. Whole body counters: types, performance and uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present monograph deals with Whole Counters, since its definition, evolution, performance, clinical indications and results. Scintillation crystals detection systems were described as well as scintillant solutions, plastic scintillations, and gaseous detectors, including its interplay forms and basal characteristics. Geometric arrangements of standard chair, arc and hammock, arrangements with scintillant solutions and plastic scintillations, as well as special geometric arrangements were equally commented. Clinic and experimental studies were also dealt with Whole Body Counters, giving examples with potassium, iron vitamin B12 and albumin. (author)

  2. Feline mammary basal-like adenocarcinomas: a potential model for human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) with basal-like subtype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an immunophenotype defined by the absence of immunolabeling for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 protein, has a highly aggressive behavior. A subpopulation of TNBCs exhibit a basal-like morphology with immunohistochemical positivity for cytokeratins 5/6 (CK5/6) and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and have a high incidence of BRCA (breast cancer susceptibility) mutations. Feline mammary adenocarcinomas (FMAs) are highly malignant and share a similar basal-like subtype. The purpose of this study was to classify FMAs according to the current human classification of breast cancer that includes evaluation of ER, PR and HER2 status and expression of basal CK 5/6 and EGFR. Furthermore, we selected triple negative, basal-like FMAs to screen for BRCA mutations similar to those described in human TNBC. Twenty four FMAs were classified according to the current human histologic breast cancer classification including immunohistochemistry (IHC) for ER, PR HER2, CK5/6 and EGFR. Genetic alteration and loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were analyzed in triple negative, basal-like FMAs. IHC for ER, PR and HER2 identified 14 of the 24 (58%) FMAs as a triple negative. Furthermore, 11of these 14 (79%) triple negative FMAs had a basal-like subtype. However, no genetic abnormalities were detected in BRCA1 and BRCA2 by direct sequencing and loss of heterozygosity analysis. FMAs are highly aggressive neoplasms that are commonly triple negative and exhibit a basal-like morphology. This is similar to human TNBC that are also commonly classified as a basal-like subtype. While sequencing of a select number of triple negative, basal-like FMAs and testing for loss of heterozygosity of BRCA1 and BRCA2 did not identify mutations similar to those described in human TNBC, further in-depth evaluation is required to elucidate a potential role of BRCA

  3. Assembling Sustainable Territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandergeest, Peter; Ponte, Stefano; Bush, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The authors show how certification assembles ‘sustainable’ territories through a complex layering of regulatory authority in which both government and nongovernment entities claim rule-making authority, sometimes working together, sometimes in parallel, sometimes competitively. It is argued that...... dynamic in assembling sustainable territories, and that certification always involves state agencies in determining how the key elements that comprise it are defined. Whereas some state agencies have been suspicious of sustainability certification, others have embraced it or even used it to extend their...

  4. Chorea due to basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ilik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Syndromes associated with acute bilateral lesions of the basal ganglia in diabetic uremic patients are uncommon. Uremic encephalopathy is typical of patients showing cortical involvement, with symptoms including confusion, seizures, tremors, or myoclonus. Whenever basal ganglia are anatomically involved, movement disorders arise, including chorea. In this article we present a case with basal ganglia involvement in a uremic diabetic patient causes chorea because of rare presentation. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 353-356

  5. Control of Basal Ganglia Output by Direct and Indirect Pathway Projection Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Freeze, Benjamin S.; Kravitz, Alexxai V.; Hammack, Nora; Berke, Joshua D.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2013-01-01

    The direct and indirect efferent pathways from striatum ultimately reconverge to influence basal ganglia output nuclei, which in turn regulate behavior via thalamocortical and brainstem motor circuits. However, the distinct contributions of these two efferent pathways in shaping basal ganglia output are not well understood. We investigated these processes using selective optogenetic control of the direct and indirect pathways, in combination with single-unit recording in the basal ganglia out...

  6. Association between mammographic density and basal-like and luminal A breast cancer subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer overall, but few studies have examined the association between mammographic density and specific subtypes of breast cancer, especially aggressive basal-like breast cancers. Because basal-like breast cancers are less frequently screen-detected, it is important to understand how mammographic density relates to risk of basal-like breast cancer. Methods We estimated associations between mammographic density and breast can...

  7. TASK Channels on Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons Modulate Electrocortical Signatures of Arousal by Histamine

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Michael T.; Du, Guizhi; Bayliss, Douglas A.; Horner, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons are the main source of cortical acetylcholine, and their activation by histamine elicits cortical arousal. TWIK-like acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels modulate neuronal excitability and are expressed on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, but the role of TASK channels in the histamine-basal forebrain cholinergic arousal circuit is unknown. We first expressed TASK channel subunits and histamine Type 1 receptors in HEK cells. Application of histamine in vitr...

  8. Phenotypes of the ovarian follicular basal lamina predict developmental competence of oocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Irving-Rodgers, Helen F.; Morris, Stephanie; Collett, Rachael A.; Peura, Teija T.; Davy, Margaret; Jeremy G. Thompson; Mason, Helen D; Rodgers, Raymond J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ovarian follicular basal lamina underlies the epithelial membrana granulosa and maintains the avascular intra-follicular compartment. Additional layers of basal lamina occur in a number of pathologies, including pili annulati and diabetes. We previously found additional layers of follicular basal lamina in a significant percentage of healthy bovine follicles. We wished to determine if this phenomenon existed in humans, and if it was related to oocyte function in the bovine. MET...

  9. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire; Barbosa Egberto Reis; Menezes Paulo Rossi; Miguel Filho Eurípedes C.

    1999-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the ro...

  10. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma to the lungs: Case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Benson Nongrum; Debomaliya Bhuyan; Vanlalhuma Royte; Hughbert Dkhar

    2014-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of skin cancer and it rarely metastasizes. The prevalence of metastatic basal cell carcinoma (MBCC) varies between 0.0028% and 0.55% of all cases. Over 250 MBCC have been reported in the literature. We present a case with large recurrent basal cell carcinoma of the face with radiological and histopathological findings indicating the presence of metastasis to the lungs.

  11. Photoletter to the editor: Basal cell carcinoma on the vermilion lip

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Ana; Encinas-Muñiz, Ana Isabel; Gutiérrez-González, Enrique; de la Mano, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The vermilion and vermilion border are rare locations for basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of a 72-year-old woman, who presented with an asymptomatic erosive lesion on the vermilion area of the upper lip. Histopathology examination was consistent with basal cell carcinoma. We suggest that basal cell carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of erosive/ulcerative lesions arising on the vermilion area of the lip.

  12. Trichilemmoma in continuity with pigmented basal cell carcinoma; with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Kaptan, Moayad Al; Kattampallil, Joseph; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2015-01-01

    A case of trichilemmoma in continuity with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma is presented with dermatoscopy and dermatopathology. The distinction between the two lesions was evident dermatoscopically and was confirmed dermatopathologically. While trichilemmoma has been reported in association with basal cell carcinoma and dermatoscopy images of four previous cases of trichilemmoma have been published, no previous dermatoscopy image has been published of trichilemmoma associated with basal cell...

  13. An Interactive Assembly Process Planner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖华飞; 张林鍹; 肖田元; 曾理; 古月

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and performance of the virtual assembly support system (VASS), a new system that can provide designers and assembly process engineers with a simulation and visualization environment where they can evaluate the assemblability/disassemblability of products, and thereby use a computer to intuitively create assembly plans and interactively generate assembly process charts. Subassembly planning and assembly priority reasoning techniques were utilized to find heuristic information to improve the efficiency of assembly process planning. Tool planning was implemented to consider tool requirements in the product design stage. New methods were developed to reduce the computation amount involved in interference checking. As an important feature of the VASS, human interaction was integrated into the whole process of assembly process planning, extending the power of computer reasoning by including human expertise, resulting in better assembly plans and better designs.

  14. Relationship between obsessive-compulsive disorders and diseases affecting primarily the basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Alex S. S. Freire

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD has been reported in association with some neurological diseases that affect the basal ganglia such as Tourette's syndrome, Sydenham's chorea, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Furthermore, studies such as neuroimaging, suggest a role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD. The aim of this paper is to describe the association of OCD and several neurologic disorders affecting the basal ganglia, report the existing evidences of the role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of OCD, and analyze the mechanisms probably involved in this pathophysiology.

  15. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien Helie; Srinivasa Chakravarthy; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  16. Microsporidia-nematode associations in methane seeps reveal basal fungal parasitism in the deep sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir eSapir

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The deep sea is Earth’s largest habitat but little is known about the nature of deep-sea parasitism. In contrast to a few characterized cases of bacterial and protistan parasites, the existence and biological significance of deep-sea parasitic fungi is yet to be understood. Here we report the discovery of a fungus-related parasitic microsporidium, Nematocenator marisprofundi n. gen. n. sp. that infects benthic nematodes at Pacific Ocean methane seeps on the Pacific Ocean floor. This infection is species-specific and has been temporally and spatially stable over two years of sampling, indicating an ecologically consistent host-parasite interaction. A high distribution of spores in the reproductive tracts of infected males and females and their absence from host nematodes’ intestines suggests a sexual transmission strategy in contrast to the fecal-oral transmission of most microsporidia. N. marisprofundi targets the host’s body wall muscles causing cell lysis, and in severe infection even muscle filament degradation. Phylogenetic analyses placed N. marisprofundi in a novel and basal clade not closely related to any described microsporidia clade, suggesting either that microsporidia-nematode parasitism occurred early in microsporidia evolution or that host specialization occurred late in an ancient deep-sea microsporidian lineage. Our findings reveal that methane seeps support complex ecosystems involving interkingdom interactions between bacteria, nematodes, and parasitic fungi and that microsporidia parasitism exists also in the deep sea biosphere.

  17. Spool assembly support analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the pump pit spool assemblies. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. UBC, AISC, and load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  18. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  19. Corium protection assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Perng-Fei; Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A corium protection assembly includes a perforated base grid disposed below a pressure vessel containing a nuclear reactor core and spaced vertically above a containment vessel floor to define a sump therebetween. A plurality of layers of protective blocks are disposed on the grid for protecting the containment vessel floor from the corium.

  20. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

  1. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

  2. Assembly of primary cilia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lotte B; Veland, Iben R; Schrøder, Jacob M;

    2008-01-01

    our current knowledge about IFT is based on studies performed in Chlamydomonas and Caenorhabditis elegans. Therefore, our review of the IFT literature includes studies performed in these two model organisms. The role of several non-IFT proteins (e.g., centrosomal proteins) in the ciliary assembly...

  3. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

  4. Nuclear fuel assembly spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fuel assembly for a nuclear reactor a fuel element spacer formed of an array of laterally positioned cojoined tubular ferrules each providing a passage for one of the fuel elements, the elements being laterally supported in the ferrules between slender spring members and laterally oriented rigid stops

  5. Turneri preemia 2015: Assemble

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Turneri 2015. aasta preemia pälvis radikaalne noorte arhitektide kollektiiv Assemble. Rühmitus on 18-liikmeline ja baseerub Ida-Londonis ning selle tegevust võib üldistatult nimetada hüljatud ruumide taaselustamiseks kogukondlike aktsioonide kaudu

  6. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  7. Septin ring assembly involves cycles of GTP loading and hydrolysis by Cdc42p

    OpenAIRE

    Gladfelter, Amy S.; Bose, Indrani; Zyla, Trevin R.; Bardes, Elaine S.G.; Lew, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    At the beginning of the budding yeast cell cycle, the GTPase Cdc42p promotes the assembly of a ring of septins at the site of future bud emergence. Here, we present an analysis of cdc42 mutants that display specific defects in septin organization, which identifies an important role for GTP hydrolysis by Cdc42p in the assembly of the septin ring. The mutants show defects in basal or stimulated GTP hydrolysis, and the septin misorganization is suppressed by overexpression of a Cdc42p GTPase-act...

  8. Basal aurora kinase B activity is sufficient for histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly-Thuy-Tram Le

    2013-02-01

    Histone H3 phosphorylation is the hallmark of mitosis deposited by aurora kinase B. Benzo[e]pyridoindoles are a family of potent, broad, ATP-competitive aurora kinase inhibitors. However, benzo[e]pyridoindole C4 only inhibits histone H3 phosphorylation in prophase but not in metaphase. Under the C4 treatment, the cells enter into mitosis with dephosphorylated histone H3, assemble chromosomes normally and progress to metaphase, and then to anaphase. C4 also induces lagging chromosome in anaphase but we demonstrated that these chromosome compaction defects are not related to the absence of H3 phosphorylation in prophase. As a result of C4 action, mitosis lasts longer and the cell cycle is slowed down. We reproduced the mitotic defects with reduced concentrations of potent pan aurora kinase as well as with a specific aurora B ATP-competitive inhibitor; we therefore propose that histone H3 phosphorylation and anaphase chromosome compaction involve the basal activity of aurora kinase B. Our data suggest that aurora kinase B is progressively activated at mitosis entry and at anaphase onset. The full activation of aurora kinase B by its partners, in prometaphase, induces a shift in the catalytic domain of aurora B that modifies its affinity for ATP. These waves of activation/deactivation of aurora B correspond to different conformations of the chromosomal complex revealed by FRAP. The presence of lagging chromosomes may have deleterious consequences on the daughter cells and, unfortunately, the situation may be encountered in patients receiving treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.

  9. Electrode assembly for combustion products detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This electrode assembly includes two relatively large-diameter, parallel conductive discs spaced apart by an annular insulator which has peripheral flanges respectively encompassing the perimeters of the discs. The assembly is adapted to be disposed in an ionization chamber formed by a printed circuit board and a conductive cup mounted thereon. One of the discs has conductive mounting legs adapted to be snap-fitted into complementary openings in the circuit board for spacing the disc from the board a distance sufficient to permit the mounting of associated electronic components therebetween. Both discs have pronged attachment apertures adapted for one-way press-fitting engagement with corresponding attachment posts on the insulating body, one disc having a central aperture for mounting an associated radioactive source thereon. The other disc cooperates with the one disc to define a reference zone therebetween and cooperates with the metal cup to define a sampling zone of the ionization

  10. TRU transmutation type BWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BWR fuel assembly is formed by bundling a plurality of fuel rods and a water channel disposed at the center of the assembly by a plurality of spacers. An upper tie plate and a lower tie plate are disposed to upper and lower portions of the fuel rods and the water channel respectively. An upper end plug of the water channel is attached detachably to a cylindrical main body of the water channel. A zircaloy tube incorporating TRU nuclides is contained and secured in the water channel. The zircaloy tube has such a structure as capable of incorporating and sealing oxides or metal materials containing TRU nuclides. Since the zircaloy tube containing TRU nuclides is contained not in fuel region but in the water rod, the loaded uranium amount of fuels is not reduced but the reactivity can be ensured. (I.N.)

  11. Suppression of basal and carbon nanotube-induced oxidative stress, inflammation and fibrosis in mouse lungs by Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Ma, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    The lungs are susceptible to oxidative damage by inhaled pathogenic agents, including multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been implicated in regulating the body's defense against oxidative stress. Here, we analyzed the function of Nrf2 in the lungs. Under a basal condition, Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice showed apparent pulmonary infiltration of granulocytes, macrophages and B and T lymphocytes, and elevated deposition of collagen fibers. Exposure to MWCNT (XNRI MWNT-7, Mitsui, Tokyo, Japan) by pharyngeal aspiration elicited rapid inflammatory and fibrotic responses in a dose (0, 5, 20 and 40 μg) and time (1, 3, 7 and 14 d)-dependent manner. The responses reached peak levels on day 7 post-exposure to 40 μg MWCNT, evidenced by massive inflammatory infiltration and formation of inflammatory and fibrotic foci, which were more evident in Nrf2 KO than wild-type (WT) lungs. At the molecular level, Nrf2 protein was detected at a low level under a basal condition, and was dramatically increased by MWCNT in WT, but not Nrf2 KO, lungs. Activation of Nrf2 was inversely correlated with induced expression of fibrosis marker genes and profibrotic cytokines. Furthermore, the levels of ROS and oxidative stress were remarkably higher in Nrf2 KO than WT lungs under a physiological condition, and were dramatically increased by MWCNT, with the increase significantly more striking in KO lungs. The findings reveal that Nrf2 plays an important role in suppressing the basal and MWCNT-induced oxidant production, inflammation and fibrosis in the lungs, thereby protecting against MWCNT lung toxicity. PMID:26592091

  12. Basal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome: case report Encefalocele basal associada a síndrome "morning glory": relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanete Minotto; Nitamar Abdala; Adriana Aparecida Siviero Miachon; Angela Maria Spinola e Castro; Paulo Imamura; Roberto Gomes Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    The basal encephaloceles refer to rare entities and they correspond to herniation of brain tissue through defects of skull along the cribiform plate or the sphenoid bone. A rare morning glory syndrome, with characteristic retinal defect has been reported in association with basal encephaloceles. Hypophysis hormonal deficiencies may occur. We accounted for a pituitary dwarfism with delayed diagnosed transsphenoidal encephalocele associated with morning glory syndrome, showing the alterations f...

  13. Top-down assembly design using assembly features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石万凯; DENEUX; Dominique; 等

    2002-01-01

    The primary task of top-down assembly desig is to define a product's detailed physical description satisfying its functional requirements identified during the functional design phase.The implementation of this design process requires two things,that is ,product functional representation and a general assembly model.Product functions are not only the formulation of a customer's needs,but also the input data of assembly design.A general assembly model is to support the evolving process of the elaboration of a product structure.The assembly feature of extended concept is taken as a functional carrier,which is a generic relation among assembly-modeled entities.The model of assembly features describes the link between product functions and form features of parts.On the basis of this link,the propagation of design modifications is discussed so as to preserve the functionality and the coherence of the assembly model.The formal model of assembly design process describes the top-down process of creating an assembly model.This formal model is represented by the combination of assembly feature operations,the assembly model and the evaluation process.A design case study is conducted to verify the applicability of the presented approaches.

  14. The SINS trial: A randomised controlled trial of excisional surgery versus imiquimod 5% cream for nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Sarah J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest human cancer. Despite increasing incidence it remains poorly researched. While not life threatening it can cause significant cosmetic disfigurement. Imiquimod, a cream which enhances the body's immune response, may help deal with the number of cases that occur in low-risk sites, especially when good cosmetic results and home use without surgery are needed. This study aims 1. To compare excisional surgery with imiquimod cream for nodular or superficial basal cell carcinoma in low risk sites, with respect to 3 year clinical clearance, cost-effectiveness and cosmetic results. 2. To ascertain if certain phenotypic features and gene polymorphisms predict tumour responsiveness to treatment. Methods/Design Five hundred participants with low risk nodular or superficial basal cell carcinoma will be recruited from hospitals to this multi-centre, randomised, parallel group, controlled phase III trial. Treatment in the imiquimod group is for 6 weeks for superficial basal cell carcinoma and 12 weeks for nodular basal cell carcinoma. Both treatment groups are followed up in clinic for 3 years. Primary outcome variable: the proportion of participants with clinical evidence of success (no recurrence at 3 years. The primary outcome will be compared between the two treatment groups. Secondary outcomes include: i clinical success at 1, 2 and 5 years, ii time to first recurrence, iii cosmetic appearance of lesion site after treatment, iv level of pain, and v cost-effectiveness. Safety and tolerability data will also be reported. Discussion This study protocol describes a pragmatic randomised controlled trial which it is hoped will address the above uncertainties. Three-year results will be available towards the end of 2010. Trial registration Meta-register: NCT00066872, Eudract No. 2004-004506-24, ISRCTN48755084.

  15. Basal entrainment by Newtonian gravity-driven flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Belinda M.; Andreini, Nicolas; Ancey, Christophe

    2016-05-01

    Gravity-driven flows can erode the bed along which they descend and increase their mass by a factor of 10 or more. This process is called "basal entrainment." Although documented by field observations and laboratory experiments, it remains poorly understood. This paper examines what happens when a viscous gravity-driven flow generated by releasing a fixed volume of incompressible Newtonian fluid encounters a stationary layer (composed of fluid with the same density and viscosity). Models based on depth-averaged mass and momentum balance equations deal with bed-flow interfaces as shock waves. In contrast, we use an approach involving the long-wave approximation of the Navier-Stokes equations (lubrication theory), and in this context, bed-flow interfaces are acceleration waves that move quickly across thin stationary layers. The incoming flow digs down into the bed, pushing up downstream material, thus advancing the flow front. Extending the method used by Huppert ["The propagation of two-dimensional and axisymmetric viscous gravity currents over a rigid horizontal surface," J. Fluid Mech. 121, 43-58 (1982)] for modeling viscous dam-break waves, we end up with a nonlinear diffusion equation for the flow depth, which is solved numerically. Theory is compared with experimental results. Excellent agreement is found in the limit of low Reynolds numbers (i.e., for flow Reynolds numbers lower than 20) for the front position over time and flow depth profile.

  16. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  17. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  18. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  19. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  20. Basal ganglia contributions to motor control: a vigorous tutor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Robert S; Desmurget, Michel

    2010-12-01

    The roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control are much debated. Many influential hypotheses have grown from studies in which output signals of the BG were not blocked, but pathologically disturbed. A weakness of that approach is that the resulting behavioral impairments reflect degraded function of the BG per se mixed together with secondary dysfunctions of BG-recipient brain areas. To overcome that limitation, several studies have focused on the main skeletomotor output region of the BG, the globus pallidus internus (GPi). Using single-cell recording and inactivation protocols these studies provide consistent support for two hypotheses: the BG modulates movement performance ('vigor') according to motivational factors (i.e. context-specific cost/reward functions) and the BG contributes to motor learning. Results from these studies also add to the problems that confront theories positing that the BG selects movement, inhibits unwanted motor responses, corrects errors on-line, or stores and produces well-learned motor skills. PMID:20850966

  1. Quantitation of the human basal ganglia with Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accurate measurement of the concentration of a radioisotope in small structures with PET requires a correction for quantitation loss due to the partial volume effect and the effect of scattered radiation. To evaluate errors associated with measures in the human basal ganglia (BG) we have built a unilateral model of the BG that we have inserted in a 20 cm cylinder. The recovery coefficient (RC = measured activity/true activity) for our BG phantom has been measured on a CTI tomograph (model 931-08/12) with different background concentrations (contrast) and at different axial locations in the gantry. The BG was visualized on 4 or 5 slices depending on its position in the gantry and on the contrast used. The RC was 0.75 with no background (contrast equal to 1.0). Increasing the relative radioactivity concentration in the background increased the RC from 0.75 to 2.00 when the contrast was -0.7 (BG 2). These results show that accurate RC correction depends not only on the volume of the structure but also on its contrast with its surroundings as well as on the selection of the ROI. They also demonstrate that the higher the contrast the more sensitive to axial positioning PET measurements in the BG are. These data provide us with some information about the variability of PET measurements in small structure like the BG and we have proposed some strategies to improve the reproducibility. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  2. A method for preparing skeletal muscle fiber basal laminae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous attempts to prepare skeletal muscle basal laminae (BL) for ultrastructural analyses have been hampered by difficulties in successfully removing skeletal muscle proteins and cellular debris from BL tubes. In the present study the authors describe a two phase method which results in an acellular muscle preparation, the BL of which are examined by light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy. In the first phase, excised rat extensor digitorum longus muscles are subjected to x-radiation and then soaked in Marcaine to inhibit muscle regeneration and to destroy peripheral muscle fibers. The muscles are then grafted back into their original sites and allowed to remain in place 7-14 days to allow for maximal removal of degenerating muscle tissue with minimal scar tissue formation. In the second phase, the muscle grafts are subjected sequentially to EDTA, triton X-100, DNAase, and sodium deoxycholate to remove phagocytizing cells and associated degenerating muscle tissue. These procedures result in translucent, acellular muscle grafts which show numerous empty tubes of BL backed by endomysial collagenous fibers. These preparations should be useful for morphological analyses of isolated muscle BL and for possible in vitro studies by which the biological activity of muscle BL can be examined

  3. New common variants affecting susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Simon N; Sulem, Patrick; Masson, Gisli; Gudjonsson, Sigurjon A; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Jakobsdottir, Margret; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Benediktsdottir, Kristrun R; Thorisdottir, Kristin; Ragnarsson, Rafn; Scherer, Dominique; Hemminki, Kari; Rudnai, Peter; Gurzau, Eugene; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Soriano, Virtudes; Juberias, Pablo; Saez, Berta; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Fuentelsaz, Victoria; Corredera, Cristina; Grasa, Matilde; Höiom, Veronica; Lindblom, Annika; Bonenkamp, Johannes J; van Rossum, Michelle M; Aben, Katja K H; de Vries, Esther; Santinami, Mario; Di Mauro, Maria G; Maurichi, Andrea; Wendt, Judith; Hochleitner, Pia; Pehamberger, Hubert; Gudmundsson, Julius; Magnusdottir, Droplaug N; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Holm, Hilma; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Frigge, Michael L; Blondal, Thorarinn; Saemundsdottir, Jona; Bjarnason, Hjördis; Kristjansson, Kristleifur; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Okamoto, Ichiro; Rivoltini, Licia; Rodolfo, Monica; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Hansson, Johan; Nagore, Eduardo; Mayordomo, José I; Kumar, Rajiv; Karagas, Margaret R; Nelson, Heather H; Gulcher, Jeffrey R; Rafnar, Thorunn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Olafsson, Jon H; Kong, Augustine; Stefansson, Kari

    2009-08-01

    In a follow-up to our previously reported genome-wide association study of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC), we describe here several new susceptibility variants. SNP rs11170164, encoding a G138E substitution in the keratin 5 (KRT5) gene, affects risk of BCC (OR = 1.35, P = 2.1 x 10(-9)). A variant at 9p21 near CDKN2A and CDKN2B also confers susceptibility to BCC (rs2151280[C]; OR = 1.19, P = 6.9 x 10(-9)), as does rs157935[T] at 7q32 near the imprinted gene KLF14 (OR = 1.23, P = 5.7 x 10(-10)). The effect of rs157935[T] is dependent on the parental origin of the risk allele. None of these variants were found to be associated with melanoma or fair-pigmentation traits. A melanoma- and pigmentation-associated variant in the SLC45A2 gene, L374F, is associated with risk of both BCC and squamous cell carcinoma. Finally, we report conclusive evidence that rs401681[C] in the TERT-CLPTM1L locus confers susceptibility to BCC but protects against melanoma. PMID:19578363

  4. Conducting SAGD in shoreface oil sands with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.A.; Riva, D.T.; Connelly, M.E.; Solanki, S.C.; Edmunds, N.R. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The use of steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes has been concentrated around the McMurray Formation in the eastern Athabasca deposit. This paper discussed a SAGD scheme configured to maximize bitumen recovery from shoreface oil sands in the Grand Rapids formation in the Wabasca area. The region features clean sand with a homogenous and continuous reservoir pay. Producer wells were placed within the basal water zone at the base of the porosity region. A scaled 2-D physical model with an active aquifer system was used to examine well configurations in relation to oil-water content and their impacts on resource recovery. Simulations were conducted to compare the well placements. Results of the study showed that fluids flowed towards the producer in a radial pattern. Bitumen was drawn down towards the bottom water leg regardless of whether the chamber pressure was above that of the aquifer. Thirty-eight per cent more bitumen was produced as a result of increased reservoir sweep. It was concluded that placement of the producer well at the base of the porous interval improved the overall economics of the project. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Modeling basal ganglia for understanding Parkinsonian reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdoom, K N; Subramanian, D; Chakravarthy, V S; Ravindran, B; Amari, Shun-Ichi; Meenakshisundaram, N

    2011-02-01

    We present a computational model that highlights the role of basal ganglia (BG) in generating simple reaching movements. The model is cast within the reinforcement learning (RL) framework with correspondence between RL components and neuroanatomy as follows: dopamine signal of substantia nigra pars compacta as the temporal difference error, striatum as the substrate for the critic, and the motor cortex as the actor. A key feature of this neurobiological interpretation is our hypothesis that the indirect pathway is the explorer. Chaotic activity, originating from the indirect pathway part of the model, drives the wandering, exploratory movements of the arm. Thus, the direct pathway subserves exploitation, while the indirect pathway subserves exploration. The motor cortex becomes more and more independent of the corrective influence of BG as training progresses. Reaching trajectories show diminishing variability with training. Reaching movements associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) are simulated by reducing dopamine and degrading the complexity of indirect pathway dynamics by switching it from chaotic to periodic behavior. Under the simulated PD conditions, the arm exhibits PD motor symptoms like tremor, bradykinesia and undershooting. The model echoes the notion that PD is a dynamical disease. PMID:21105828

  6. What do the basal ganglia do? A modeling perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, V S; Joseph, Denny; Bapi, Raju S

    2010-09-01

    Basal ganglia (BG) constitute a network of seven deep brain nuclei involved in a variety of crucial brain functions including: action selection, action gating, reward based learning, motor preparation, timing, etc. In spite of the immense amount of data available today, researchers continue to wonder how a single deep brain circuit performs such a bewildering range of functions. Computational models of BG have focused on individual functions and fail to give an integrative picture of BG function. A major breakthrough in our understanding of BG function is perhaps the insight that activities of mesencephalic dopaminergic cells represent some form of 'reward' to the organism. This insight enabled application of tools from 'reinforcement learning,' a branch of machine learning, in the study of BG function. Nevertheless, in spite of these bright spots, we are far from the goal of arriving at a comprehensive understanding of these 'mysterious nuclei.' A comprehensive knowledge of BG function has the potential to radically alter treatment and management of a variety of BG-related neurological disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, etc.) and neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, etc.) also. In this article, we review the existing modeling literature on BG and hypothesize an integrative picture of the function of these nuclei. PMID:20644953

  7. Time-resolved multiphoton imaging of basal cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchi, R.; Sestini, S.; De Giorgi, V.; Stambouli, D.; Carli, P.; Massi, D.; Pavone, F. S.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated human cutaneous basal cell carcinoma ex-vivo samples by combined time resolved two photon intrinsic fluorescence and second harmonic generation microscopy. Morphological and spectroscopic differences were found between malignant skin and corresponding healthy skin tissues. In comparison with normal healthy skin, cancer tissue showed a different morphology and a mean fluorescence lifetime distribution slightly shifted towards higher values. Topical application of delta-aminolevulinic acid to the lesion four hours before excision resulted in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal arising from malignant tissue, due to the accumulation of protoporphyrines inside tumor cells. Contrast enhancement was prevalent at tumor borders by both two photon fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence lifetime imaging. Fluorescence-based images showed a good correlation with conventional histopathological analysis, thereby supporting the diagnostic accuracy of this novel method. Combined morphological and lifetime analysis in the study of ex-vivo skin samples discriminated benign from malignant tissues, thus offering a reliable, non-invasive tool for the in-vivo analysis of inflammatory and neoplastic skin lesions.

  8. [Transcript assembly and quality assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Feilong; Jia, Xianbo; Lai, Songjia; Liu, Yiping; Chen, Shiyi

    2015-09-01

    The transcript assembly is essential for transcriptome studies trom next-generation sequencing data. However, there are still many faults of algorithms in the present assemblers, which should be largely improved in the future. According to the requirement of reference genome or not, the transcript assembly could be classified into the genome-guided and de novo methods. The two methods have different algorithms and implementation processes. The quality of assembled transcripts depends on a large number of factors, such as the PCR amplification, sequencing techniques, assembly algorithm and genome character. Here, we reviewed the present tools of transcript assembly and various indexes for assessing the quality of assembled transcripts, which would help biologists to determine which assembler should be used in their studies. PMID:26955705

  9. School Assemblies: The Lost Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel R.

    1979-01-01

    Guidelines and suggestions are offered for successful school assemblies. The school assembly should be a positive event; an occasion for developing unity, group loyalty, and desirable audience habits. (Author/MLF)

  10. X-Ray Assembler Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  11. Optical Space Telescope Assembly Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Space Telescope Assembly (OSTA) task is to demonstrate the technology readiness of assembling large space telescopes on orbit in 2015. This task is an...

  12. Illegal Decisions of a Shareholders Assembly – The Case of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Petkukjeski, Ljupco; Andonov, Marko; Mihajloski, Zoran; Miseva, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    The Shareholders Assembly is a body of the shareholders of a company that includes and incorporates all the shareholders with a goal to exercise their rights in the work of the company. The decisions of the Shareholders Assembly, since its institutionalization, and during its operations, are legal acts (legal work). Just like any other legal action, the decisions of the Shareholders Assembly must be in accordance with the Constitution, the law sand good business practices. However, the de...

  13. Evaluation of basal DNA damage and oxidative stress in Wistar rat leukocytes after exposure to microwave radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess whether microwave-induced DNA damage is basal or it is also generated through reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. After having irradiated Wistar rats with 915 MHz microwave radiation, we assessed different DNA alterations in peripheral leukocytes using standard and formamidopyrimidine DNA-glycosylase (Fpg)-modified comet assay. The first is a sensitive tool for detecting primary DNA damage, and the second is much more specific for detecting oxidative damage. The animals were irradiated for 1 h a day for 2 weeks at a field power density of 2.4 W/m2, and the whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.6 W/kg. Both the standard and the Fpg-modified comet assay detected increased DNA damage in blood leukocytes of the exposed rats. The significant increase in Fpg-detected DNA damage in the exposed rats suggests that oxidative stress is likely to be responsible. DNA damage detected by the standard comet assay indicates that some other mechanisms may also be involved. In addition, both methods served proved sensitive enough to measure basal and oxidative DNA damage after long-term exposure to 915 MHz microwave radiation in vivo.

  14. Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Basal testosterone cortisol ratio is considered very important to maintain homeostasis. Increase in this ratio has various beneficial effects on body. In this study we determined the effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol supplementation on basal testosterone cortisol ratio in male Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: It was quasi experimental study carried out in department of Physiology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad during October 2006 to September 2007. Forty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into four groups with ten rats in each group and above mentioned antioxidants supplementation were given along with standard diet for one month. After this, blood samples were taken and analyzed for serum testosterone and cortisol by ELISA and malondialdehyde levels colorimetrically. Data were analysed on SPSS version 13 and p<0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was no significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio in rats supplemented with single antioxidant; however rats supplemented with combination of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol revealed significant rise in testosterone cortisol ratio with a fall in malondialdehyde levels. Conclusions: Synergistic effects of ascorbic acid and alpha tocopherol resulted in a decline in reactive oxygen species induced lipid peroxidation and rise of testosterone cortisol ratio. (author)

  15. Reflector-moderated critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with reflector-moderated critical assemblies were part of the Rover Program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). These assemblies were characterized by thick D2O or beryllium reflectors surrounding large cavities that contained highly enriched uranium at low average densities. Because interest in this type of system has been revived by LASL Plasma Cavity Assembly studies, more detailed descriptions of the early assemblies than had been available in the unclassified literature are provided. (U.S.)

  16. Basal forebrain atrophy correlates with amyloid β burden in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg M Kerbler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brains of patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD have three classical pathological hallmarks: amyloid-beta (Aβ plaques, tau tangles, and neurodegeneration, including that of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain. However the relationship between Aβ burden and basal forebrain degeneration has not been extensively studied. To investigate this association, basal forebrain volumes were determined from magnetic resonance images of controls, subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI and AD patients enrolled in the longitudinal Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI and Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL studies. In the AIBL cohort, these volumes were correlated within groups to neocortical gray matter retention of Pittsburgh compound B (PiB from positron emission tomography images as a measure of Aβ load. The basal forebrain volumes of AD and aMCI subjects were significantly reduced compared to those of control subjects. Anterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in AD subjects and aMCI subjects with high Aβ burden, whereas posterior basal forebrain volume was significantly correlated to neocortical PiB retention in control subjects with high Aβ burden. Therefore this study provides new evidence for a correlation between neocortical Aβ accumulation and basal forebrain degeneration. In addition, cluster analysis showed that subjects with a whole basal forebrain volume below a determined cut-off value had a 7 times higher risk of having a worse diagnosis within ~18 months.

  17. A New Look at the Journey from Basal to Whole Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Judith N.

    1995-01-01

    Reexamines the pros and cons of traditional basal reader and literature-based reading programs and those based on the whole language approach. Compares and contrasts classroom teaching methods, goals, and some outcomes. Includes Venn diagram showing overlap and divergence of whole language, literature-based, and traditional basal methods. (ET)

  18. The application of solvent-additive SAGD processes in reservoirs with associated basal water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.; Riva, D.; Edmunds, N.; Solanki, S. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Within the oil sands project developments areas of northern Alberta and Saskatchewan, most thermal projects have associated basal water of varying thickness. More associated basal water will be encountered as these projects continue to develop more resource. Basal water can be either in the form of primarily water sand with low oil saturation, a transition zone of lower oil saturation than the main reservoir, or a mixture of both. This paper outlined the results of a simulation and optimization study on the application of solvent-additive steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) process to reservoirs with associated basal water. It is thought that ideal solvent application to SAGD in reservoirs will likely involve time variations in both rate and composition of the solvent, which is also the case for reservoirs with associated basal water, resulting in an optimization problem that has a significant number of dimensions, and is quite nonlinear. In order to address such problems, genetic algorithms can be effective. The paper discussed the optimization of a simple clastic reservoir with associated basal water. Specific topics that were addressed in the paper included SAGD with associated basal water; solvent addition; project optimization; and the reservoir model description including operating constraints and objective function. It was concluded that solvent retention is not excessive with basal water, and migration of solvent outside the steam chamber area is not significant if pressure is controlled. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Treatment of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Curettage Followed by Imiquimod 3.75% Cream

    OpenAIRE

    Zeichner, Joshua A.; Patel, Rita V.; Birge, Miriam B.

    2011-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States. Treatment modalities include both surgical, medical, or combination therapy. In the following case, the authors report the successful treatment of a basal cell carcinoma on the nose with curettage followed by topical imiquimod 3.75% cream.

  20. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  1. Measurement Technology for Engine Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Li; ZHENG Zeyu; DAI Shangping

    2006-01-01

    In many industrial, it is often necessary to analyze the engine assembly. This paper introduces three kinds of new technologies on the assembly line of engine in recent years, it have played the positive role in improving the quality of assembling.

  2. Integrated magnetic transformer assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics transformer assembly comprising a first magnetically permeable core forming a first substantially closed magnetic flux path and a second magnetically permeable core forming a second substantially closed magnetic flux path. A first input...... inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and a second input inductor winding is wound around a first predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable core. The integrated magnetics transformer assembly further comprises a first output...... inductor winding comprising series coupled first and second half-windings wherein the first half-winding is wound around a second predetermined segment of the first magnetically permeable core and the second half-winding is wound around a second predetermined segment of the second magnetically permeable...

  3. Fuel assemblies chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPP Paks found a thermal-hydraulic anomaly in the reactor core during cycle 14 that was caused by corrosion product deposits on fuel assemblies (FAs) that increased the hydraulic resistance of the FAs. Consequently, the coolant flow through the FAs was insufficient resulting in a temperature asymmetry inside the reactor core. Based on this fact NPP Paks performed differential pressure measurements of all fuel assemblies in order to determine the hydraulic resistance and subsequently the limit values for the hydraulic acceptance of FAs to be used. Based on the hydraulic investigations a total number of 170 FAs was selected for cleaning. The necessity for cleaning the FAs was explained by the fact that the FAs were subjected to a short term usage in the reactor core only maximum of 1,5 years and had still a capacity for additional 2 fuel cycles. (authors)

  4. Ingestion resistant seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.

    2011-12-13

    A seal assembly limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a gas turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus associated with a blade structure including a row of airfoils. The seal apparatus includes an annular inner shroud associated with adjacent stationary components, a wing member, and a first wing flange. The wing member extends axially from the blade structure toward the annular inner shroud. The first wing flange extends radially outwardly from the wing member toward the annular inner shroud. A plurality of regions including one or more recirculation zones are defined between the blade structure and the annular inner shroud that recirculate working gas therein back toward the hot gas path.

  5. Turbine seal assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.

    2013-04-16

    A seal assembly that limits gas leakage from a hot gas path to one or more disc cavities in a turbine engine. The seal assembly includes a seal apparatus that limits gas leakage from the hot gas path to a respective one of the disc cavities. The seal apparatus comprises a plurality of blade members rotatable with a blade structure. The blade members are associated with the blade structure and extend toward adjacent stationary components. Each blade member includes a leading edge and a trailing edge, the leading edge of each blade member being located circumferentially in front of the blade member's corresponding trailing edge in a direction of rotation of the turbine rotor. The blade members are arranged such that a space having a component in a circumferential direction is defined between adjacent circumferentially spaced blade members.

  6. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To increase the fuel assembly rigidity while making balance in view of the dimension thereby improving the earthquake proofness. Constitution: In a nuclear fuel assembly having a control rod guide thimble tube, the gap between the thimble tube and fuel insert (inner diameter of the guiding thimble tube-outer diameter of the fuel insert) is made greater than 1.0 mm. Further, the wall thickness of the thimble tube is made to about 4 - 5 % of the outer diameter, while the flowing fluid pore cross section S in the thimble tube is set as: S = S0 x A0/A where S0: cross section of the present flowing fluid pore, A: effective cross section after improvement, = Π/4(d2 - D2) in which d is the thimble tube inner diameter and the D is the fuel insert outer diameter. A0: present effective cross section. (Seki, T.)

  7. Composite airfoil assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-03-03

    A composite blade assembly for mounting on a turbine wheel includes a ceramic airfoil and an airfoil platform. The ceramic airfoil is formed with an airfoil portion, a blade shank portion and a blade dovetail tang. The metal platform includes a platform shank and a radially inner platform dovetail. The ceramic airfoil is captured within the metal platform, such that in use, the ceramic airfoil is held within the turbine wheel independent of the metal platform.

  8. Uniform Test Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2008-01-01

    In educational practice, a test assembly problem is formulated as a system of inequalities induced by test specifications. Each solution to the system is a test, represented by a 0-1 vector, where each element corresponds to an item included (1) or not included (0) into the test. Therefore, the size of a 0-1 vector equals the number of items "n"…

  9. Nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear fuel assembly comprises a cluster of elongated fuel, retained parallel and at the nodal points of a square network by a bottom supporting plate and by spacing grids. The supporting plate is connected to a top end plate via tie-rods which replace fuel pins at certain of the nodal points of the network. The diameter of the tie-rods is equal to that of the pins and both are slidably received in the grids

  10. Nuclear fuel assembly spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spacer for use in a fuel assembly of a nuclear reactor having thin, full-height divider members, slender spring members and laterally oriented rigid stops and wherein the total amount of spacer material, the amount of high neutron cross section material, the projected area of the spacer structure and changes in cross section area of the spacer structure are minimized whereby neutron absorption by the spacer and coolant flow resistance through the spacer are minimized

  11. REACTOR NOZZLE ASSEMBLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuder, F.C.; Dearwater, J.R.

    1959-02-10

    An improved nozzle assembly useful in a process for the direct reduction of uranium hexafluoride to uranium tetrafluoride by means of dissociated ammonia in a heated reaction vessel is descrlbed. The nozzle design provides for intimate mixing of the two reactants and at the same time furnishes a layer of dissociated ammonia adjacent to the interior wall of the reaction vessel, thus preventing build-up of the reaction product on the vessel wall.

  12. Assembling Toyota in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Tiago; Moniz, António

    2003-01-01

    A lot has been written over the last decade with regard to Toyota and the productive model associated to it (toyota-ism). And more specifically concerning the "(…) best-seller that changed the... sociological world" (Castillo, 1998: 31). But the case of Salvador Caetano’s Ovar Industrial Division (OID), that assembles Toyota light commercial vehicles in Portugal, allows us to put forward a sub-hypothesis that fits into the analysis schema proposed in the First GERPISA International Program – ...

  13. Effect of genistein on basal jejunal chloride secretion in R117H CF mice is sex and route specific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayyan E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esa Rayyan,1 Sarah Polito,1 Lana Leung,1 Ashesh Bhakta,1 Jonathan Kang,1 Justin Willey,1 Wasim Mansour,1 Mitchell L Drumm,2 Layla Al-Nakkash11Department of Physiology, Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA; 2Pediatric Pulmonology Division, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF results from the loss or reduction in function of the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein chloride channel. The third most common CFTR mutation seen clinically is R117H. Genistein, a naturally occurring phytoestrogen, is known to stimulate CFTR function in vitro. We aimed to determine whether route of administration of genistein could mediate differential effects in R117H male and female CF mice. Mice were fed (4 weeks or injected subcutaneously (1 week with the following: genistein 600 mg/kg diet (600Gd; genistein-free diet (0Gd; genistein injection 600 mg/kg body weight (600Gi; dimethyl sulfoxide control (0Gi. In male R117H mice fed 600Gd, basal short circuit current (Isc was unchanged. In 600Gd-fed female mice, there was a subgroup that demonstrated a significant increase in basal Isc (53.14±7.92 µA/cm2, n=6, P<0.05 and a subgroup of nonresponders (12.05±6.59 µA/cm2, n=4, compared to 0Gd controls (29.3±6.5 µA/cm2, n=7. In R117H mice injected with 600Gi, basal Isc was unchanged in both male and female mice compared to 0Gi controls. Isc was measured in response to the following: the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin (10 µM, bilateral, bumetanide (100 µM, basolateral to indicate the Cl- secretory component, and acetazolamide (100 µM, bilateral to indicate the HCO3- secretory component; however, there was no effect of genistein (diet or injection on any of these parameters. Jejunal morphology (ie, villi length, number of goblet cells per villus, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells per crypt in R117H mice suggested no genistein

  14. SCT Barrel Assembly Complete

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Batchelor

    As reported in the April 2005 issue of the ATLAS eNews, the first of the four Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) barrels, complete with modules and services, arrived safely at CERN in January of 2005. In the months since January, the other three completed barrels arrived as well, and integration of the four barrels into the entire barrel assembly commenced at CERN, in the SR1 building on the ATLAS experimental site, in July. Assembly was completed on schedule in September, with the addition of the innermost layer to the 4-barrel assembly. Work is now underway to seal the barrel thermal enclosure. This is necessary in order to enclose the silicon tracker in a nitrogen atmosphere and provide it with faraday-cage protection, and is a delicate and complicated task: 352 silicon module powertapes, 352 readout-fibre bundles, and over 400 Detector Control System sensors must be carefully sealed into the thermal enclosure bulkhead. The team is currently verifying the integrity of the low mass cooling system, which must be d...

  15. Ordinary General Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

  16. Gas sealed assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A gas sealed assembly is disposed to a reactor core of an LMFBR type reactor. The gas sealed assembly has a cylindrical duct, and an entrance nozzle having a coolant flowing hole is connected to the lower portion of the duct. Sodium coolants and a sealed gas comprising inert gases such as argon are contained in the duct. A black material is disposed on the inner surface of the duct. Chromium carbide, for example, is used as the black material. Since the black material is disposed to the inner surface of the duct, heat from sodium at the circumference is transferred to the sealed gas by radiation by way of the duct, the gas expands sufficiently. Therefore, when the pressure of coolants is lowered and the temperature of coolants is elevated upon occurrence of an accident such as of stoppage of pumps, the liquid level of the coolants in the gas sealed assembly can be lowered reliably. Accordingly, the reactor shut down can be conducted safely. (I.N.)

  17. Fourth Doctoral Student Assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    Ingrid Haug

    2016-01-01

    On 10 May, over 130 PhD students and their supervisors, from both CERN and partner universities, gathered for the 4th Doctoral Student Assembly in the Council Chamber.   The assembly was followed by a poster session, at which eighteen doctoral students presented the outcome of their scientific work. The CERN Doctoral Student Programme currently hosts just over 200 students in applied physics, engineering, computing and science communication/education. The programme has been in place since 1985. It enables students to do their research at CERN for a maximum of three years and to work on a PhD thesis, which they defend at their University. The programme is steered by the TSC committee, which holds two selection committees per year, in June and December. The Doctoral Student Assembly was opened by the Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti, who stressed the importance of the programme in the scientific environment at CERN, emphasising that there is no more rewarding activity than lear...

  18. Focal expression of mutant huntingtin in the songbird basal ganglia disrupts cortico-basal ganglia networks and vocal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masashi; Singh Alvarado, Jonnathan; Murugan, Malavika; Mooney, Richard

    2016-03-22

    The basal ganglia (BG) promote complex sequential movements by helping to select elementary motor gestures appropriate to a given behavioral context. Indeed, Huntington's disease (HD), which causes striatal atrophy in the BG, is characterized by hyperkinesia and chorea. How striatal cell loss alters activity in the BG and downstream motor cortical regions to cause these disorganized movements remains unknown. Here, we show that expressing the genetic mutation that causes HD in a song-related region of the songbird BG destabilizes syllable sequences and increases overall vocal activity, but leave the structure of individual syllables intact. These behavioral changes are paralleled by the selective loss of striatal neurons and reduction of inhibitory synapses on pallidal neurons that serve as the BG output. Chronic recordings in singing birds revealed disrupted temporal patterns of activity in pallidal neurons and downstream cortical neurons. Moreover, reversible inactivation of the cortical neurons rescued the disorganized vocal sequences in transfected birds. These findings shed light on a key role of temporal patterns of cortico-BG activity in the regulation of complex motor sequences and show how a genetic mutation alters cortico-BG networks to cause disorganized movements. PMID:26951661

  19. Understanding the Peach Spring supereruption through its basal layer deposits (Southwestern USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, R. G.; Miller, C. F.; Dufek, J.; Gualda, G. A.; Buesch, D.; Brooks, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Peach Spring Tuff (PST) supereruption occurred 18.8 Mya, depositing a thick ignimbrite over 32,000 km^2 of the NW Arizona, SE California, and S Nevada. At the base of the ignimbrite is a thin (≤1 m thick) layered unit that has been identified as a surge deposit (Valentine et al 1989, 1990; Wilson & Self 1989 offer a contrary interpretation) that extends 100 km east and 65 km west from its source, the Silver Creek caldera in the southern Black Mountains, AZ (Ferguson 2008). These deposits record the first material ejected from the PST magma body immediately before the main ignimbrite-forming event, and provide (1) samples of the first magma to be tapped and (2) evidence for the initial eruptive process and potentially eruption triggers. We are investigating textures and petrology of pumice clasts taken from an internally structureless layer within the basal unit. We have determined roundness of pumice clasts from six exposures located 22 to 96 km from the source caldera, using the approach of Manga et al (2011) (the first application of their metric to a putative surge deposit). Roundness (R) is defined as 4πA/P^2, where A is the cross-sectional area of a clast and P is its perimeter. Mean R values range from 0.76 to 0.80, showing no systematic change with distance from the caldera. Generally, the R values for samples show negatively skewed distributions, with the majority of the pumice clasts having values between 0.75 and 0.85 but with values as low as 0.60 and as high as 0.90; standard deviations also vary little from sample to sample. This relative uniformity suggests that pumice clasts may have reached a saturation roundness (beyond which they would round little) in the high-energy environment near the vent and early in the transport processes of the surge. The pumice clasts are relatively crystal-poor, with a phenocryst assemblage comprising abundant sanidine, lesser plagioclase, minor hornblende and biotite, and accessory magnetite, sphene, zircon

  20. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Luo, Y.; Li, X.; Liu, S.; Yu, G.; Zhou, T.; Bahn, M.; Black, A.; Desai, A.R.; Cescatti, A.; Marcolla, B.; Jacobs, C.; Chen, J.; Aurela, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Gielen, B.; Bohrer, G.; Cook, D.R.; Dragoni, D.; Dunn, A.L.; Gianelle, D.; Grnwald, T.; Ibrom, A.; Leclerc, M.Y.; Lindroth, A.; Liu, H.; Marchesini, L.B.; Montagnani, L.; Pita, G.; Rodeghiero, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Starr, G.; Stoy, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data, from 79 research sites located at latitudes ranging from ???3S to ???70N. Results showed that mean annual ER rate closely matches ER rate at mean annual temperature. Incorporation of site-specific BR into global ER model substantially improved simulated ER compared to an invariant BR at all sites. These results confirm that ER at the mean annual temperature can be considered as BR in empirical models. A strong correlation was found between the mean annual ER and mean annual gross primary production (GPP). Consequently, GPP, which is typically more accurately modeled, can be used to estimate BR. A light use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr -1, with the highest respiration rate over tropical forests and the lowest value in dry and high-latitude areas. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.