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Sample records for basal actinopterygian fish

  1. Tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    I.SASAGAWA; M.ISHIYAMA; H.YOKOSUKA; M.MIKAMI; T.UCHIDA

    2009-01-01

    The morphological features of tooth enamel and enameloid in actinopterygian fish are reviewed to provide basic data concerning the biomineralization of teeth in lower vertebrates. Enameloid, which covers the tooth surface, is a unique well-mineralized tissue and usually has the same functions as mammalian tooth enamel. However, the development of enameloi is different from that of the enamel produced by dental epithelial cells. Enameloid is made by a combination of odontoblasts and dental epithelial cells. An organic matrix that contains collagen is provided by odontoblasts, and then dental epithelial cells dissolve the degenerate matrix and suooly inorganic ions during advanced crystal growth in enameloid. It is likely that enameloid is a good model for studying the growth of well-mineralized hard tissues in vertebrates. Some actinopterygian fish possess a collar enamel layer that is situated at the surface of the tooth shaft, indicating that the origin of tooth enamel is found in fish. Collar enamel is thought to be a precursor of mammalian enamel, although it is thin and not well mineralized in comparison with enameloid. In Lepisosteus and Polypterus, both of which are living actinopterygians,both enameloid and enamel are found in the same tooth. Therefore, they ace suitable materials for examining the developmental processes of enameloid and enamel and the relationship among them.

  2. How warm is too warm for the life cycle of actinopterygian fishes?

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    Motani, Ryosuke; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-07-13

    We investigated the highest constant temperature at which actinopterygian fishes can complete their lifecycles, based on an oxygen supply model for cleavage-stage eggs. This stage is one of the most heat-sensitive periods during the lifecycle, likely reflecting the exhaustion of maternally supplied heat shock proteins without new production. The model suggests that average eggs would not develop normally under a constant temperature of about 36 °C or higher. This estimate matches published empirical values derived from laboratory and field observations. Spermatogenesis is more heat sensitive than embryogenesis in fishes, so the threshold may indeed be lower, at about 35 °C, unless actinopterygian fishes evolve heat tolerance during spermatogenesis as in birds. Our model also predicts an inverse relationship between egg size and temperature, and empirical data support this prediction. Therefore, the average egg size, and hence hatching size, is expected to shrink in a greenhouse world but a feeding function prohibits the survival of very small hatchlings, posing a limit to the shrinkage. It was once suggested that a marine animal community may be sustained under temperatures up to about 38 °C, and this value is being used, for example, in paleotemperature reconstruction. A revision of the value is overdue. (199/200).

  3. Evolution of the branchiostegal membrane and restricted gill openings in Actinopterygian fishes.

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    Farina, Stacy C; Near, Thomas J; Bemis, William E

    2015-06-01

    A phylogenetic survey is a powerful approach for investigating the evolutionary history of a morphological characteristic that has evolved numerous times without obvious functional implications. Restricted gill openings, an extreme modification of the branchiostegal membrane, are an example of such a characteristic. We examine the evolution of branchiostegal membrane morphology and highlight convergent evolution of restricted gill openings. We surveyed specimens from 433 families of actinopterygians for branchiostegal membrane morphology and measured head and body dimensions. We inferred a relaxed molecular clock phylogeny with branch length estimates based on nine nuclear genes sampled from 285 species that include all major lineages of Actinopterygii. We calculated marginal state reconstructions of four branchiostegal membrane conditions and found that restricted gill openings have evolved independently in at least 11 major actinopterygian clades, and the total number of independent origins of the trait is likely much higher. A principal component analysis revealed that fishes with restricted gill openings occupy a larger morphospace, as defined by our linear measurements, than do fishes with nonrestricted openings. We used a decision tree analysis of ecological data to determine if restricted gill openings are linked to certain environments. We found that fishes with restricted gill openings repeatedly occur under a variety of ecological conditions, although they are rare in open-ocean pelagic environments. We also tested seven ratios for their utility in distinguishing between fishes with and without restricted gill openings, and we propose a simple metric for quantifying restricted gill openings (RGO), defined as a ratio of the distance from the ventral midline to the gill opening relative to half the circumference of the head. Functional explanations for this specialized morphology likely differ within each clade, but its repeated evolution indicates a need

  4. Fauna and predator-prey relationships of Ettling, an actinopterygian fish-dominated Konservat-Lagerstatte from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany.

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    Martin Ebert

    Full Text Available The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria, field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME, is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts; turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti. Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead. Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds, where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils, many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim and France (Cerin dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon, suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean.

  5. Fauna and predator-prey relationships of Ettling, an actinopterygian fish-dominated Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany.

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    Ebert, Martin; Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Lane, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria), field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME), is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region) in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts); turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants) in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti). Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead). Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds), where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils), many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim) and France (Cerin) dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon), suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean.

  6. A microanatomical and histological study of the postcranial dermal skeleton of the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis

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    Louise Zylberberg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian stem-actinoterygian Cheirolepis canadensis is potentially important to understand the evolution of the dermal skeleton of osteichthyans, but the last detailed histological study on this taxon was published more than forty years ago. Here, we present new data about the morphology and the histological structure of scales, fulcra, and fin-rays in the Devonian actinopterygian Cheirolepis canadensis through SEM and photomicroscopy. The scales have a typical palaeoniscoid organisation, with ganoine layers overlaying dentine and a bony basal plate, but the ganoine surface lacks the characteristic microtubercles that have been described on the ganoine surface of the scales of polypterids and many other actinopterygians. Fin-rays are composed of segmented and ramified lepidotrichia that show a structure reminiscent of scales, with ganoine and dentine components lying on a thick bony base. We describe articular processes between lepidotrichia that are reminiscent of, and plausibly homologous with, the peg-and-socket articulations between the scales. The analysis of the postcranial dermal skeleton of Cheirolepis canadensis shows that structural similarities between scales and lepidotrichia of this basal actinopterygian are greater than in more recent actinopterygians. The new data on histological and microanatomical structure of the dermal skeleton lend additional support to the hypothesis that lepidotichia are derivatives of scales, though they are also compatible with the more general hypothesis that scales, lepidotrichia and fulcra belong to the same morphogenetic system.

  7. Demonstration of the Coexistence of Duplicated LH Receptors in Teleosts, and Their Origin in Ancestral Actinopterygians.

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    Gersende Maugars

    Full Text Available Pituitary gonadotropins, FSH and LH, control gonad activity in vertebrates, via binding to their respective receptors, FSHR and LHR, members of GPCR superfamily. Until recently, it was accepted that gnathostomes possess a single FSHR and a single LHR, encoded by fshr and lhcgr genes. We reinvestigated this question, focusing on vertebrate species of key-phylogenetical positions. Genome analyses supported the presence of a single fshr and a single lhcgr in chondrichthyans, and in sarcopterygians including mammals, birds, amphibians and coelacanth. In contrast, we identified a single fshr but two lhgcr in basal teleosts, the eels. We further showed the coexistence of duplicated lhgcr in other actinopterygians, including a non-teleost, the gar, and other teleosts, e.g. Mexican tetra, platyfish, or tilapia. Phylogeny and synteny analyses supported the existence in actinopterygians of two lhgcr paralogs (lhgcr1/ lhgcr2, which do not result from the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication (3R, but likely from a local gene duplication that occurred early in the actinopterygian lineage. Due to gene losses, there was no impact of 3R on the number of gonadotropin receptors in extant teleosts. Additional gene losses during teleost radiation, led to a single lhgcr (lhgcr1 or lhgcr2 in some species, e.g. medaka and zebrafish. Sequence comparison highlighted divergences in the extracellular and intracellular domains of the duplicated lhgcr, suggesting differential properties such as ligand binding and activation mechanisms. Comparison of tissue distribution in the European eel, revealed that fshr and both lhgcr transcripts are expressed in the ovary and testis, but are differentially expressed in non-gonadal tissues such as brain or eye. Differences in structure-activity relationships and tissue expression may have contributed as selective drives in the conservation of the duplicated lhgcr. This study revises the evolutionary scenario and nomenclature of

  8. Molecular developmental mechanism in polypterid fish provides insight into the origin of vertebrate lungs

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    Tatsumi, Norifumi; Kobayashi, Ritsuko; Yano, Tohru; Noda, Masatsugu; Fujimura, Koji; Okada, Norihiro; Okabe, Masataka

    2016-01-01

    The lung is an important organ for air breathing in tetrapods and originated well before the terrestrialization of vertebrates. Therefore, to better understand lung evolution, we investigated lung development in the extant basal actinopterygian fish Senegal bichir (Polypterus senegalus). First, we histologically confirmed that lung development in this species is very similar to that of tetrapods. We also found that the mesenchymal expression patterns of three genes that are known to play important roles in early lung development in tetrapods (Fgf10, Tbx4, and Tbx5) were quite similar to those of tetrapods. Moreover, we found a Tbx4 core lung mesenchyme-specific enhancer (C-LME) in the genomes of bichir and coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and experimentally confirmed that these were functional in tetrapods. These findings provide the first molecular evidence that the developmental program for lung was already established in the common ancestor of actinopterygians and sarcopterygians. PMID:27466206

  9. A long-bodied centriscoid fish from the basal Eocene of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia

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    Bannikov, Alexandre F.; Carnevale, Giorgio

    2012-05-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene transition is of crucial interest for interpreting the Cenozoic evolutionary radiation of vertebrates. A substantial increase of the number of vertebrate families occurred between the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene, with the appearance of most of the representatives of extant lineages. Basal Eocene marine fish diversity is currently poorly known, exclusively restricted to two assemblages from Denmark and Turkmenistan, respectively. Exceptionally well-preserved articulated skeletal remains of fishes have recently been discovered from a basal Eocene sapropelitic layer exposed along the Kheu River in the Republic of Kabardino-Balkaria, northern Caucasus, Russia. Here, we report on Gerpegezhus paviai gen. et sp. nov., a new peculiar syngnathoid fish from this new Ciscaucasian locality. The morphological structure of the single available specimen suggests that it is the first long-bodied member of the superfamily Centriscoidea, representing the sole member of the new family Gerpegezhidae, which forms a sister pair with the extant family Centriscidae.

  10. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

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    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  11. Feeding specializations in Late Triassic fishes

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    Cristina Lombardo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The ichthyofauna of the Zorzino Limestone represents an important proof of the richness and variety reached by bony fishes during the Norian and, at the same time, it testifies the beginning of the faunal transition which will be realized during the Jurassic. The thousands of specimens and the extraordinary quality of preservation found in the fossiliferous levels of this unit allowed, in the last years, not only to follow such a crucial moment in the evolution of vertebrates, but also to reconstruct the mode of life and the trophic adaptations reached by the different groups, living in the depositional basins. As evidence of this peculiar evolutionary period, the large predators at the highest trophic levels are still represented by ’primitive’ basal actinopterygians; on the contrary, the most derived neopterygians specialized in durophagy, a trophic niche previously almost unexploited by actinopterygians. Within the main trophic categories, anyway, we can find different morphological specializations, which probably allowed the fishes to exploit most of the available trophic resources.

  12. The clavobranchialis musculature in sarcopterygian fishes, and contribution to osteichthyan feeding and respiration

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    Johanson, Zerina

    2003-01-01

    Various fossil lungfish taxa preserve distinct depressions on the smooth postbranchial lamina of the dermal pectoral girdle. These depressions are largely unknown in other sarcopterygian fishes, but are present in the rhizodont sarcopterygian Strepsodus. Comparisons with extant actinopterygian fishe

  13. Freshwater actinopterygians of the Los Rastros Formation (Triassic, Bermejo Basin, Argentina

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    A. López-Arbarello

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper includes detailed descriptions of all fossil fishes known from the Los Rastros Formation (Ladinian; Bermejo Basin, Argentina. Four taxa are identified: Gualolepis carinaesquamosa  n. gen. n. sp., Rastrolepis  n. gen. with two species R . riojaensis n. sp. and R. latipinnata n. sp., and Challaiaelongata n. comb. Gualolepis  n. gen. and Rastrolepis n. gen. are incertae sedis actinopterygians. The opercular bones of Gualolepis resemble those in peipiaosteid acipenseriforms and the fish might be related with the Chondrostei. The most distinctive features of Rastrolepis are the narrow opercular region and the presence of a very large plate-like branchiostegal bone resembling the condition in the Redfieldiiformes. Challaiaelongata, originally described in the Australian genus Myriolepis, is here refered to the genus Challaia, previously known from the nearby Cuyo Basin and representing the first fish taxon common to both continental sequences. Furthermore, Challaia is shown to be a member of the Acrolepidae and represents the youngest record of the family in Gondwana. Alle fossilen Fische, die bisher von der Los Rastros Formation (Ladin; Bermejo-Becken, Argentinien bekannt sind, werden im Detail beschrieben. Vier Taxa können identifiziert werden: Gualolepis carinaesquamosa  n. gen. n. sp., Rastrolepis  n. gen., mit zwei Arten, R . riojaensis  n. sp. und R . latipinnata  n. sp., und Challaiaelongata comb. nov. Gualolepis  n. gen. und Rastrolepis  n. gen. Actynopterygier unsicherer systematischer Stellung. Die Operkular-Knochen von Gualolepis ähneln jenen der peipiaosteiden Acipenseriformen und das Taxon mag mit den Chondrostei verwandt sein. Die auffälligsten Merkmale von Rastrolepis sind die sehr schmale Operkularregion und das Vorhandensein eines sehr großen, plattigen Branchiostegale, das dem Zustand in Redfieldiiformen ähnelt. Challaiaelongata, ursprünglich zu der

  14. Chromosome evolution in fishes: a new challenging proposal from Neotropical species

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    Mauro Nirchio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a database containing cytogenetic data of Neotropical actinopterygian fishes from Venezuela obtained in a single laboratory for the first time. The results of this study include 103 species belonging to 74 genera assigned to 45 families and 17 out of the 40 teleost orders. In the group of marine fishes, the modal diploid number was 2n=48 represented in 60% of the studied species, while in the freshwater fish group the modal diploid complement was 2n=54, represented in 21.21 % of the studied species. The average number of chromosomes and the mean FN were statistically higher in freshwater fish than in marine fish. The degree of diversification and karyotype variation was also higher in freshwater fish in contrast to a more conserved cytogenetic pattern in marine fish. In contrast to the assumption according to which 48 acrocentric chromosomes was basal chromosome number in fish, data here presented show that there is an obvious trend towards the reduction of the diploid number of chromosomes from values near 2n=60 with high number of biarmed chromosomes in more basal species to 2n=48 acrocentric elements in more derived Actinopterygii.

  15. The fate of the duplicated androgen receptor in fishes: a late neofunctionalization event?

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    Haendler Bernard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on the observation of an increased number of paralogous genes in teleost fishes compared with other vertebrates and on the conserved synteny between duplicated copies, it has been shown that a whole genome duplication (WGD occurred during the evolution of Actinopterygian fish. Comparative phylogenetic dating of this duplication event suggests that it occurred early on, specifically in teleosts. It has been proposed that this event might have facilitated the evolutionary radiation and the phenotypic diversification of the teleost fish, notably by allowing the sub- or neo-functionalization of many duplicated genes. Results In this paper, we studied in a wide range of Actinopterygians the duplication and fate of the androgen receptor (AR, NR3C4, a nuclear receptor known to play a key role in sex-determination in vertebrates. The pattern of AR gene duplication is consistent with an early WGD event: it has been duplicated into two genes AR-A and AR-B after the split of the Acipenseriformes from the lineage leading to teleost fish but before the divergence of Osteoglossiformes. Genomic and syntenic analyses in addition to lack of PCR amplification show that one of the duplicated copies, AR-B, was lost in several basal Clupeocephala such as Cypriniformes (including the model species zebrafish, Siluriformes, Characiformes and Salmoniformes. Interestingly, we also found that, in basal teleost fish (Osteoglossiformes and Anguilliformes, the two copies remain very similar, whereas, specifically in Percomorphs, one of the copies, AR-B, has accumulated substitutions in both the ligand binding domain (LBD and the DNA binding domain (DBD. Conclusion The comparison of the mutations present in these divergent AR-B with those known in human to be implicated in complete, partial or mild androgen insensitivity syndrome suggests that the existence of two distinct AR duplicates may be correlated to specific functional differences that may be

  16. Spiracular air breathing in polypterid fishes and its implications for aerial respiration in stem tetrapods.

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    Graham, Jeffrey B; Wegner, Nicholas C; Miller, Lauren A; Jew, Corey J; Lai, N Chin; Berquist, Rachel M; Frank, Lawrence R; Long, John A

    2014-01-01

    The polypterids (bichirs and ropefish) are extant basal actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes that breathe air and share similarities with extant lobe-finned sarcopterygians (lungfishes and tetrapods) in lung structure. They are also similar to some fossil sarcopterygians, including stem tetrapods, in having large paired openings (spiracles) on top of their head. The role of spiracles in polypterid respiration has been unclear, with early reports suggesting that polypterids could inhale air through the spiracles, while later reports have largely dismissed such observations. Here we resolve the 100-year-old mystery by presenting structural, behavioural, video, kinematic and pressure data that show spiracle-mediated aspiration accounts for up to 93% of all air breaths in four species of Polypterus. Similarity in the size and position of polypterid spiracles with those of some stem tetrapods suggests that spiracular air breathing may have been an important respiratory strategy during the fish-tetrapod transition from water to land.

  17. Integrating multi-origin expression data improves the resolution of deep phylogeny of ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii).

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    Zou, Ming; Guo, Baocheng; Tao, Wenjing; Arratia, Gloria; He, Shunping

    2012-01-01

    The actinopterygians comprise nearly one-half of all extant vertebrate species and are very important for human well-being. However, the phylogenetic relationships among certain groups within the actinopterygians are still uncertain, and debates about these relationships have continued for a long time. Along with the progress achieved in sequencing technologies, phylogenetic analyses based on multi-gene sequences, termed phylogenomic approaches, are becoming increasingly common and often result in well-resolved and highly supported phylogenetic hypotheses. Based on the transcriptome sequences generated in this study and the extensive expression data currently available from public databases, we obtained alignments of 274 orthologue groups for 26 scientifically and commercially important actinopterygians, representing 17 out of 44 orders within the class Actinopterygii. Using these alignments and probabilistic methods, we recovered relationships between basal actinopterygians and teleosts, among teleosts within protacanthopterygians and related lineages, and also within acanthomorphs. These relationships were recovered with high confidence.

  18. Primitive Form of Bony Fish Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ With over 50,000 species,Osteichthyans, or bony fish, accounts for 98% of the present-day vertebrates. Bony fish falls into two groups: actinopterygians, meaning ray-finned bony fish, and sarcopterygians,meaning lobe-finned bony fish. The huge morphotype difference of the two catagories cast doubts on research into the origin and evolution of bony fish. The recent discovery of a primitive fish species by CAS researchers and their overseas colleagues provides a missing link between the two lineages, unveiling unique features for understanding primitive bony vertebrates.

  19. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana

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    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. Expression and phylogeny of candidate genes for sex differentiation in a primitive fish species, the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

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    Berbejillo, Julio; Martinez-Bengochea, Anabel; Bedo, Gabriela; Brunet, Frédéric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Vizziano-Cantonnet, Denise

    2012-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms underlying testis differentiation in basal actinopterygian fish remains poorly understood. The sex differentiation period was investigated in the Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii, by expression profiling of Sertoli cell transcription factors (dmrt1, sox9) that control testis differentiation in vertebrates; Leydig cell factors (cyp17a1, star) affecting androgen production; the androgen receptor (ar); a growth factor controlling testis development (igf1); and a gene coding for a gonadotropin hormone (lh). Two genes were characterised for the first time in the Siberian sturgeon (dmrt1, cyp17a1), while the others came from public databases. Sturgeon gonad development is very slow, with a late sexual differentiation time during their juvenile stage, and are still immature at 3 years of age. Immature fish showed a sex-dimorphic pattern; all the genes studied displayed a higher expression level in male gonads. We took advantage of the presence of juvenile fish with pre- and post-differentiated gonads (16 and 18 months old) to characterise them at the molecular level. The post-differentiated fish displayed a sex dimorphism of gene expression in their gonads for all genes studied, with the exception of sox9. The trends in undifferentiated fish lead us to propose that sturgeons undergoing male differentiation express high levels of Sertoli cell factors (dmrt1, sox9) and of genes involved in the production and receptivity of androgens (cyp17a1, star and ar) together with lh. Expression profiles and phylogenetic studies suggest that these genes are potential regulators of testis development in the Siberian sturgeon.

  1. Suspension and optical properties of the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates.

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    Kröger, Ronald H H; Gustafsson, Ola S E; Tuminaite, Inga

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the apparatus suspending the crystalline lens in the eyes of basal vertebrates. Data are presented for Holocephali (Chondrichthyes) and the actinopterygians Polypteriformes, Polyodontidae (Acipenseriformes), Lepisosteiformes, Amiiformes, and one teleost species, the banded archerfish (Toxotes jaculatrix). We also studied the optical properties of the lens in Polypteriformes, Lepisosteiformes, and the archerfish. Together with previously published results, our findings show that there are three basic types of lens suspension in vertebrates. These are i) a rotationally symmetric suspension (Petromyzontida, lampreys; Ceratodontiformes, lungfishes; Tetrapoda), ii) a suspension with a dorso-ventral axis of symmetry and a ventral papilla (all Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes), and iii) an asymmetric suspension with a ventral muscle and a varying number of ligaments (all Actinopterygii except for Acipenseriformes). Large eyes with presumably high spatial resolution have evolved in all groups. Multifocal lenses creating well-focused color images are also present in all groups studied. Stable and exact positioning of the lens, in many cases in combination with accommodative changes in lens position or shape, is achieved by all three types of lens suspension. It is somewhat surprising that lens suspensions are strikingly similar in Chondrichthyes and Acipenseriformes (Actinopterygii), while the suspension apparatus in Polypteriformes, usually being regarded as an actinopterygian group more basal than Acipenseriformes, are considerably more teleostean-like. This study completes a series of investigations on lens suspensions in nontetrapod vertebrates, covering all major groups except for the rare and highly derived coelacanths.

  2. Fishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜群山

    2002-01-01

    @@ Last Saturday my cousin (表兄) came to my home. We were very happy to see each other. We decided that the next day we went to fish. We got up very early that day. When we left home,the moon could still be seen in the sky.

  3. Why are there so few fish in the sea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete Vega, Greta; Wiens, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The most dramatic gradient in global biodiversity is between marine and terrestrial environments. Terrestrial environments contain approximately 75–85% of all estimated species, but occupy only 30 per cent of the Earth's surface (and only approx. 1–10% by volume), whereas marine environments occupy a larger area and volume, but have a smaller fraction of Earth's estimated diversity. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this disparity, but there have been few large-scale quantitative tests. Here, we analyse patterns of diversity in actinopterygian (ray-finned) fishes, the most species-rich clade of marine vertebrates, containing 96 per cent of fish species. Despite the much greater area and productivity of marine environments, actinopterygian richness is similar in freshwater and marine habitats (15 150 versus 14 740 species). Net diversification rates (speciation–extinction) are similar in predominantly freshwater and saltwater clades. Both habitats are dominated by two hyperdiverse but relatively recent clades (Ostariophysi and Percomorpha). Remarkably, trait reconstructions (for both living and fossil taxa) suggest that all extant marine actinopterygians were derived from a freshwater ancestor, indicating a role for ancient extinction in explaining low marine richness. Finally, by analysing an entirely aquatic group, we are able to better sort among potential hypotheses for explaining the paradoxically low diversity of marine environments. PMID:22319126

  4. Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids’ zone Video library Find a dermatologist Basal cell carcinoma Overview Basal cell carcinoma: This skin cancer ... that has received years of sun exposure. Basal cell carcinoma: Overview Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the ...

  5. Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A basal reinforced piled embankment consists of a reinforced embankment on a pile foundation. The reinforcement consists of one or more horizontal layers of geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) installed at the base of the embankment. The design of the GR is the subject of this thesis. A basal reinforce

  6. Rapid Assessment for basal cavities on Dahomey National Wildlife Refuge: Implications for Present and Future Bat Conservation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey of mature forested areas on the refuge was done to examine trees with basal cavities for bats. Though the refuge supports many large diameter trees with basal...

  7. Diversity of Mesozoic semionotiform fishes and the origin of gars (Lepisosteidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavin, Lionel

    2010-12-01

    Gars (Lepisosteidae) are ray-finned fishes with controversial relationships to other actinopterygian lineages. When fossil taxa are considered, gars are grouped with Mesozoic macrosemiids and `semionotids' in the Semionotiformes, but the intra-relationships within this order are still elusive. Here, the evolutionary history of gars is reinvestigated using a set of well-preserved extinct semionotiform taxa in a phylogenetic analysis. Results indicate that the gar lineage roots in a clade of Late Jurassic-Cretaceous semionotiform fishes. The closest relatives to gars were plant-eating and detritivorous freshwater fishes. The occurrence of semionotiform remains in Early and early Late Cretaceous continental deposits worldwide possibly reflects an important radiation of this group, comparable to the present-day diversification of cypriniforms. Other Late Triassic to Early Cretaceous semionotiform taxa are gathered in a single clade with weakly supported internal nodes, pointing out the necessity to better understand the osteology of these fishes.

  8. A Fish Assemblage from the Middle Eocene from Libya (Dur At-Talah) and the Earliest Record of Modern African Fish Genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Olga; Pinton, Aurélie; Cappetta, Henri; Adnet, Sylvain; Valentin, Xavier; Salem, Mustapha; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2015-01-01

    In the early nineteen sixties, Arambourg and Magnier found some freshwater fish (i.e., Polypterus sp., Siluriformes indet. and Lates sp.) mixed with marine members in an Eocene vertebrate assemblage at Gebel Coquin, in the southern Libyan Desert. This locality, aged ca 37-39Ma and now known under the name of Dur At-Talah, has been recently excavated. A new fish assemblage, mostly composed of teeth, was collected by the Mission Paléontologique Franco-Libyenne. In this paper, we describe freshwater fish members including a dipnoan (Protopterus sp.), and several actinopterygians: bichir (Polypterus sp.), aba fish (Gymnarchus sp.), several catfishes (Chrysichthys sp. and a mochokid indet.), several characiforms (including the tiger fish Hydrocynus sp., and one or two alestin-like fish), and perciforms (including the snake-head fish Parachanna sp. and at least one cichlid). Together with the fossiliferous outcrops at Birket Qarun in Egypt, the Libyan site at Dur At-Talah reduces a 10-Ma chronological gap in the fossil record of African freshwater fish. Their fish assemblages overlap in their composition and thus constitute a rather homogenous, original and significant amount of new elements regarding the Paleogene African ichthyofauna. This supports the establishment of the modern African freshwater fish fauna during this time period because these sites mostly contain the earliest members known in modern genera.

  9. Neuropsychiatry of the basal ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Ring, H.; Serra-Mestres, J

    2002-01-01

    This review aims to relate recent findings describing the role and neural connectivity of the basal ganglia to the clinical neuropsychiatry of basal ganglia movement disorders and to the role of basal ganglia disturbances in "psychiatric"' states. Articles relating to the relevant topics were initially collected through MEDLINE and papers relating to the clinical conditions discussed were also reviewed. The anatomy and connections of the basal ganglia indicate that these structures are import...

  10. Dates and rates of major pelagic deep-sea fish radiations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jan Yde; Miya, Masaki; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2013-01-01

    view of actinopterygian phylogeny. Taxon sampling was chosen with special emphasis on recent results, that showed phylogeny and age estimates from nuclear evidence, allowing us to compare the ages of stem- and crown group nodes of all major deep-sea pelagic fish radiations. Two extreme extinction rates......The pelagic realm of the deep-sea is home to some of the most spectacular fishes in terms of morphological adaptations, a probable consequence of the distinct hostile living conditions in this poorly known habitat. Detecting speciation patterns in open ocean fishes is often complicated from...... sexual encounters, comparing species richness and habitat alone tells us little about successful speciation in the pelagic deep-sea environment. The last two decades has expanded our knowledge on teleostean phylogeny from molecular data, although comparing nuclear, mitochondrial and hundreds of years...

  11. Metazoan parasite species richness in Neotropical fishes: hotspots and the geography of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, J L; Poulin, R

    2007-06-01

    Although research on parasite biodiversity has intensified recently, there are signs that parasites remain an underestimated component of total biodiversity in many regions of the planet. To identify geographical hotspots of parasite diversity, we performed qualitative and quantitative analyses of the parasite-host associations in fishes from Latin America and the Caribbean, a region that includes known hotspots of plant and animal biodiversity. The database included 10,904 metazoan parasite-host associations involving 1660 fish species. The number of host species with at least 1 parasite record was less than 10% of the total known fish species in the majority of countries. Associations involving adult endoparasites in actinopterygian fish hosts dominated the database. Across the whole region, no significant difference in parasite species richness was detected between marine and freshwater fishes. As a rule, host body size and study effort (number of studies per fish species) were good predictors of parasite species richness. Some interesting patterns emerged when we included only the regions with highest fish species biodiversity and study effort (Brazil, Mexico and the Caribbean Islands). Independently of differences in study effort or host body sizes, Mexico stands out as a hotspot of parasite diversity for freshwater fishes, as does Brasil for marine fishes. However, among 57 marine fish species common to all 3 regions, populations from the Caribbean consistently harboured more parasite species. These differences may reflect true biological patterns, or regional discrepancies in study effort and local priorities for fish parasitology research.

  12. Vismodegib in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaria, R N; Bowles, D W; Lewis, K D; Jimeno, A

    2012-07-01

    Vismodegib is a novel, small-molecule inhibitor of smoothened, a key component of the hedgehog signaling pathway. Increased hedgehog pathway signaling is critical in the development of hereditary and spontaneous basal cell carcinomas of the skin, and has been implicated in the development of a number of other tumors. In preclinical models, vismodegib demonstrated potent antitumor activity in hedgehog-dependent tumors, particularly basal cell carcinomas. Clinically, phase I and II studies showed dramatic anticancer activity in patients with advanced basal cell carcinomas. In January 2012, vismodegib was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic basal cell carcinomas of the skin.

  13. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  14. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Fish Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Fish Allergy Print A ... From Home en español Alergia al pescado About Fish Allergy A fish allergy is not exactly the ...

  15. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Karthiga

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Binkley and Johnson first reported this syndrome in 1951. But it was in 1960, Gorlin-Goltz established the association of basal cell epithelioma, jaw cyst and bifid ribs, a combination which is now frequently known as Gorlin-Goltz syndrome as well as Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS. NBCCS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait with high penetrance and variable expressivity. NBCCS is characterized by variety of cutaneous, dental, osseous, opthalmic, neurologic and sexual abnormalities. One such case of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is reported here with good illustrations.

  17. Cryotherapy in basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryotherapy has proved to be an effective tool in the management of various dermatoses. We report 6 patients with histopathologically proven basal cell carcinoma of variable sizes treated with liquid nitrogen cryotherapy by the open spray technique. Lesions tended to heal with depigmentation and scar formation. However depigmented areas often repigmented over a period of time.

  18. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogenomics using transcriptomic data from Solexa sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    Full Text Available The traditionally accepted relationships among basal jawed vertebrates have been challenged by some molecular phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial sequences. Those studies split extant gnathostomes into two monophyletic groups: tetrapods and piscine branch, including Chondrichthyes, Actinopterygii and sarcopterygian fishes. Lungfish and bichir are found in a basal position on the piscine branch. Based on transcriptomes of an armored bichir (Polypterus delhezi and an African lungfish (Protopterus sp. we generated, expressed sequences and whole genome sequences available from public databases, we obtained 111 genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic tree of basal jawed vertebrates and estimated their times of divergence. Our phylogenomic study supports the traditional relationship. We found that gnathostomes are divided into Chondrichthyes and the Osteichthyes, both with 100% support values (posterior probabilities and bootstrap values. Chimaeras were found to have a basal position among cartilaginous fishes with a 100% support value. Osteichthyes were divided into Actinopterygii and Sarcopterygii with 100% support value. Lungfish and tetrapods form a monophyletic group with 100% posterior probability. Bichir and two teleost species form a monophyletic group with 100% support value. The previous tree, based on mitochondrial data, was significantly rejected by an approximately unbiased test (AU test, p = 0. The time of divergence between lungfish and tetrapods was estimated to be 391.8 Ma and the divergence of bichir from pufferfish and medaka was estimated to be 330.6 Ma. These estimates closely match the fossil record. In conclusion, our phylogenomic study successfully resolved the relationship of basal jawed vertebrates based on transtriptomes, EST and whole genome sequences.

  19. Fish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a clear and consistent manner, so that consumers with food allergies and their caregivers can be informed as ... the menu, cross-contact with fish is possible. Ethnic ... fish. Avoid foods like fish sticks and anchovies. Some individuals with ...

  20. Fish Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, J. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    Provides related information about hearing in fish, including the sensory stimulus of sound in the underwater environment, mechanoreceptors in fish, pressure perception and the swimbladder, specializations in sound conduction peculiar to certain fish families. Includes numerous figures. (CS)

  1. The human airway epithelial basal cell transcriptome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil R Hackett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human airway epithelium consists of 4 major cell types: ciliated, secretory, columnar and basal cells. During natural turnover and in response to injury, the airway basal cells function as stem/progenitor cells for the other airway cell types. The objective of this study is to better understand human airway epithelial basal cell biology by defining the gene expression signature of this cell population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bronchial brushing was used to obtain airway epithelium from healthy nonsmokers. Microarrays were used to assess the transcriptome of basal cells purified from the airway epithelium in comparison to the transcriptome of the differentiated airway epithelium. This analysis identified the "human airway basal cell signature" as 1,161 unique genes with >5-fold higher expression level in basal cells compared to differentiated epithelium. The basal cell signature was suppressed when the basal cells differentiated into a ciliated airway epithelium in vitro. The basal cell signature displayed overlap with genes expressed in basal-like cells from other human tissues and with that of murine airway basal cells. Consistent with self-modulation as well as signaling to other airway cell types, the human airway basal cell signature was characterized by genes encoding extracellular matrix components, growth factors and growth factor receptors, including genes related to the EGF and VEGF pathways. Interestingly, while the basal cell signature overlaps that of basal-like cells of other organs, the human airway basal cell signature has features not previously associated with this cell type, including a unique pattern of genes encoding extracellular matrix components, G protein-coupled receptors, neuroactive ligands and receptors, and ion channels. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The human airway epithelial basal cell signature identified in the present study provides novel insights into the molecular phenotype and biology of

  2. Evidence of a specialized feeding niche in a Late Triassic ray-finned fish: evolution of multidenticulate teeth and benthic scraping in †Hemicalypterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Sarah Z

    2015-04-01

    Fishes have evolved to exploit multiple ecological niches. Extant fishes in both marine (e.g., rabbitfishes, surgeonfishes) and freshwater systems (e.g., haplochromine cichlids, characiforms) have evolved specialized, scoop-like, multidenticulate teeth for benthic scraping, feeding primarily on algae. Here, I report evidence of the oldest example of specialized multidenticulate dentition in a ray-finned fish, †Hemicalypterus weiri, from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of southeastern Utah (∼210-205 Ma), USA. †H. weiri is a lower actinopterygian species that is phylogenetically remote from modern fishes, and has evolved specialized teeth that converge with those of several living teleost fishes (e.g., characiforms, cichlids, acanthurids, siganids), with a likely function of these teeth being to scrape algae off a rock substrate. This finding contradicts previously held notions that fishes with multicuspid, scoop-like dentition were restricted to teleosts, and indicates that ray-finned fishes were diversifying into different trophic niches and exploring different modes of feeding earlier in their history than previously thought, fundamentally altering our perceptions of the ecological roles of fishes during the Mesozoic.

  3. The basal ganglia and apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramstaller, P P; Marsden, C D

    1996-02-01

    Ever since Liepmann's original descriptions at the beginning of the century apraxia has usually been attributed to damage confined to the cerebral cortex and/or cortico-cortical connecting pathways. However, there have been suggestions that apraxia can be due to deep subcortical lesions, which raises the question as to whether damage to the basal ganglia or thalamus can cause apraxia. We therefore analysed 82 cases of such 'deep' apraxias reported in the literature. These reports consisted of a small number (n=9) of cases studied neuropathologically, and a much larger group (n=73) in which CT or MRI was used to identify the size and extent of the lesion. The reports were subdivided into (i) those with small isolated lesions which involved nuclei of the basal ganglia or thalamus only, and not extending to involve periventricular or peristriatal white matter; (ii) those with large lesions which involved two or more of the nuclei, or one or more of these deep structures plus damage to closely adjacent areas including the internal capsule, periventricular or peristriatal white matter; and (iii) lesions sparing basal ganglia and thalamus but involving adjacent white matter. The main conclusions to be drawn from this meta-analysis are that lesions confined to the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) rarely, if ever, cause apraxia. Lesions affecting the lenticular nucleus or putamen nearly always intruded into the adjacent lateral white matter to involve association fibres, in particular those of the superior longitudinal fasciculus and frontostriatal connections. Apraxia occurred with deep lesions of the basal ganglia apparently sparing white matter in only eight out of the 82 cases. Apraxia was most commonly seen when there were lesions in the lenticular nucleus or putamen (58 out of 72 cases) with additional involvement of capsular, and particularly of periventricular or peristriatal, white matter. Lesions of the globus pallidus (no cases) or

  4. Migraine attacks the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bigal Marcelo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With time, episodes of migraine headache afflict patients with increased frequency, longer duration and more intense pain. While episodic migraine may be defined as 1-14 attacks per month, there are no clear-cut phases defined, and those patients with low frequency may progress to high frequency episodic migraine and the latter may progress into chronic daily headache (> 15 attacks per month. The pathophysiology of this progression is completely unknown. Attempting to unravel this phenomenon, we used high field (human brain imaging to compare functional responses, functional connectivity and brain morphology in patients whose migraine episodes did not progress (LF to a matched (gender, age, age of onset and type of medication group of patients whose migraine episodes progressed (HF. Results In comparison to LF patients, responses to pain in HF patients were significantly lower in the caudate, putamen and pallidum. Paradoxically, associated with these lower responses in HF patients, gray matter volume of the right and left caudate nuclei were significantly larger than in the LF patients. Functional connectivity analysis revealed additional differences between the two groups in regard to response to pain. Conclusions Supported by current understanding of basal ganglia role in pain processing, the findings suggest a significant role of the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of the episodic migraine.

  5. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... review gives an overview on the clinical characteristics of fish allergy and the molecular properties of relevant fish allergens. The advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis using a panel of well-defined fish allergens from different species is in the focus of the discussion. © 2016 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl...

  6. Basal jawed vertebrate phylogeny inferred from multiple nuclear DNA-coded genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Osamu

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analyses of jawed vertebrates based on mitochondrial sequences often result in confusing inferences which are obviously inconsistent with generally accepted trees. In particular, in a hypothesis by Rasmussen and Arnason based on mitochondrial trees, cartilaginous fishes have a terminal position in a paraphyletic cluster of bony fishes. No previous analysis based on nuclear DNA-coded genes could significantly reject the mitochondrial trees of jawed vertebrates. Results We have cloned and sequenced seven nuclear DNA-coded genes from 13 vertebrate species. These sequences, together with sequences available from databases including 13 jawed vertebrates from eight major groups (cartilaginous fishes, bichir, chondrosteans, gar, bowfin, teleost fishes, lungfishes and tetrapods and an outgroup (a cyclostome and a lancelet, have been subjected to phylogenetic analyses based on the maximum likelihood method. Conclusion Cartilaginous fishes have been inferred to be basal to other jawed vertebrates, which is consistent with the generally accepted view. The minimum log-likelihood difference between the maximum likelihood tree and trees not supporting the basal position of cartilaginous fishes is 18.3 ± 13.1. The hypothesis by Rasmussen and Arnason has been significantly rejected with the minimum log-likelihood difference of 123 ± 23.3. Our tree has also shown that living holosteans, comprising bowfin and gar, form a monophyletic group which is the sister group to teleost fishes. This is consistent with a formerly prevalent view of vertebrate classification, although inconsistent with both of the current morphology-based and mitochondrial sequence-based trees. Furthermore, the bichir has been shown to be the basal ray-finned fish. Tetrapods and lungfish have formed a monophyletic cluster in the tree inferred from the concatenated alignment, being consistent with the currently prevalent view. It also remains possible that

  7. The Basal Ganglia and Motor Control

    OpenAIRE

    Groenewegen, Henk J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the functional anatomy of the basal ganglia and their relationships with the thalamocortical system. The basal ganglia, including the striatum, pallidum, subthalamic nucleus, and substantia nigra, are involved in a number of parallel, functionally segregated cortical-subcortical circuits. These circuits support a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional-motivational brain functions. A main role of the basal ganglia is the learning and selection of the mos...

  8. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Lanciego, José L.; Luquin, Natasha; Obeso, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The “basal ganglia” refers to a group of subcortical nuclei responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive functions and behaviors, and emotions. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia model shows how information flows through the basal ganglia back to the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Although much of the model has remained, the model has been modified and amp...

  9. Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Joseph T.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    1986-01-01

    Explains the adaptations to Antarctic waters that Notothenioidei, a group of advanced bony fishes, have exhibited. Discusses the fishes' mechanisms of production of antifreeze properties and their capacities for neutral buoyancy in water. (ML)

  10. Fish Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art project that was inspired by Greek pottery, specifically dishes shaped as fish. Explains that fourth-grade students drew a fish shape that was later used to create their clay version of the fish. Discusses how the students examined the pottery to make decisions about color and design. (CMK)

  11. Early recognition of basal cell naevus syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra-Knol, HE; Scheewe, JH; van der Vlist, GJ; van Doorn, ME; Ausems, MGEM

    2005-01-01

    The basal cell naevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterised by major manifestations such as basal cell carcinomas, jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, and intracranial calcifications. Early recognition is important in order to reduce morbidity due to cutaneous and cerebral malignan

  12. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresler, Scott C; Padwa, Bonnie L; Granter, Scott R

    2016-06-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, or basal cell nevus syndrome (Gorlin syndrome), is a rare autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by development of basal cell carcinomas from a young age. Other distinguishing clinical features are seen in a majority of patients, and include keratocystic odontogenic tumors (formerly odontogenic keratocysts) as well as dyskeratotic palmar and plantar pitting. A range of skeletal and other developmental abnormalities are also often seen. The disorder is caused by defects in hedgehog signaling which result in constitutive pathway activity and tumor cell proliferation. As sporadic basal cell carcinomas also commonly harbor hedgehog pathway aberrations, therapeutic agents targeting key signaling constituents have been developed and tested against advanced sporadically occurring tumors or syndromic disease, leading in 2013 to FDA approval of the first hedgehog pathway-targeted small molecule, vismodegib. The elucidation of the molecular pathogenesis of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome has resulted in further understanding of the most common human malignancy.

  13. Metastatic Basal Cell Carcinoma Accompanying Gorlin Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeliz Bilir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts, the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  14. Metastatic Basal cell carcinoma accompanying gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilir, Yeliz; Gokce, Erkan; Ozturk, Banu; Deresoy, Faik Alev; Yuksekkaya, Ruken; Yaman, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome or basal cell nevus syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skeletal anomalies, numerous cysts observed in the jaw, and multiple basal cell carcinoma of the skin, which may be accompanied by falx cerebri calcification. Basal cell carcinoma is the most commonly skin tumor with slow clinical course and low metastatic potential. Its concomitance with Gorlin syndrome, resulting from a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene, may substantially change morbidity and mortality. A 66-year-old male patient with a history of recurrent basal cell carcinoma was presented with exophthalmus in the left eye and the lesions localized in the left lateral orbita and left zygomatic area. His physical examination revealed hearing loss, gapped teeth, highly arched palate, and frontal prominence. Left orbital mass, cystic masses at frontal and ethmoidal sinuses, and multiple pulmonary nodules were detected at CT scans. Basal cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy of ethmoid sinus. Based on the clinical and typical radiological characteristics (falx cerebri calcification, bifid costa, and odontogenic cysts), the patient was diagnosed with metastatic skin basal cell carcinoma accompanied by Gorlin syndrome. Our case is a basal cell carcinoma with aggressive course accompanying a rarely seen syndrome.

  15. Myxosporean hyperparasites of gill monogeneans are basal to the Multivalvulida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Mark A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myxosporeans are known from aquatic annelids but parasitism of platyhelminths by myxosporeans has not been widely reported. Hyperparasitism of gill monogeneans by Myxidium giardi has been reported from the European eel and Myxidium-like hyperparasites have also been observed during studies of gill monogeneans from Malaysia and Japan. The present study aimed to collect new hyperparasite material from Malaysia for morphological and molecular descriptions. In addition, PCR screening of host fish was undertaken to determine whether they are also hosts for the myxosporean. Results Heavy myxosporean infections were observed in monogeneans from two out of 14 fish and were detected from a further five fish using specific PCRs and pooled monogenean DNA. Positive DNA isolates were sequenced and were from a single species of myxosporean. Myxospore morphology was consistent with Myxidium with histozoic development in the parenchymal tissues of the monogenean. Simultaneous infections in the fish could not be confirmed microscopically; however, identical myxosporean DNA could be amplified from kidney, spleen and intestinal tract tissues using the specific PCR. Small subunit (SSU rDNA for the myxosporean was amplified and was found to be most similar (92% to that of another hyperparasitic myxosporean from a gill monogenean from Japan and to numerous multivalvulidan myxosporeans from the genus Kudoa (89-91%. Phylogenetic analyses placed the hyperparasite sequence basally to clades containing Kudoa, Unicapsula and Sphaerospora. Conclusions The myxosporean infecting the gill monogenean, Diplectanocotyla gracilis, from the Indo-Pacific tarpon, Megalops cyprinoides, is described as a new species, Myxidium incomptavermi, based on a histozoic development in the monogenean host and its phylogenetic placement. We have demonstrated for the first time that a myxosporean hyperparasite of gill monogeneans is detectable in the fish host. However

  16. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  17. Neglected giant scalp Basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; El-Charnoubi, Waseem-Asim Ghulam; Gehl, Julie;

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local...... control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence...

  18. Neglected Giant Scalp Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Larsen, MD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rarely, basal cell carcinoma grows to a giant size, invading the underlying deep tissue and complicating the treatment and reconstruction modalities. A giant basal cell carcinoma on the scalp is in some cases treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy, resulting in local control, a satisfactory long-term cosmetic and functional result. We present a case with a neglected basal cell scalp carcinoma, treated with wide excision and postoperative radiotherapy, reconstructed with a free latissimus dorsi flap. The cosmetic result is acceptable and there is no sign of recurrence 1 year postoperatively.

  19. Fish health and fish quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian

    Aquaculture is an expanding worldwide industry producing an increasing amount of fish every year. The quality of the fish meat is dependent upon many biological and non-biological factors. Infectious diseases are known to cause bleedings and damage of the muscle tissue that may lead to scarring...... are poorly described in fish. The present work in this thesis focused on: 1) examination of potential changes in the quality regarding texture of the muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after previous infection with the bacterial pathogens Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum; 2...... of these studies showed that previous infections by Yersinia ruckeri and Vibrio anguillarum gave rise to subsequent changes regarding textural quality parameters in fresh fish meat, while no differences were seen for cold-smoked meat from the same fish. The texture in previous infected fish was less flaky and less...

  20. Apico-basal polarity complex and cancer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammed Khursheed; Murali Dharan Bashyam

    2014-03-01

    Apico-basal polarity is a cardinal molecular feature of adult eukaryotic epithelial cells and appears to be involved in several key cellular processes including polarized cell migration and maintenance of tissue architecture. Epithelial cell polarity is maintained by three well-conserved polarity complexes, namely, PAR, Crumbs and SCRIB. The location and interaction between the components of these complexes defines distinct structural domains of epithelial cells. Establishment and maintenance of apico-basal polarity is regulated through various conserved cell signalling pathways including TGF, Integrin and WNT signalling. Loss of cell polarity is a hallmark for carcinoma, and its underlying molecular mechanism is beginning to emerge from studies on model organisms and cancer cell lines. Moreover, deregulated expression of apico-basal polarity complex components has been reported in human tumours. In this review, we provide an overview of the apico-basal polarity complexes and their regulation, their role in cell migration, and finally their involvement in carcinogenesis.

  1. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  2. Automatic basal slice detection for cardiac analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknezhad, Mahsa; Marchesseau, Stephanie; Brown, Michael S.

    2016-03-01

    Identification of the basal slice in cardiac imaging is a key step to measuring the ejection fraction (EF) of the left ventricle (LV). Despite research on cardiac segmentation, basal slice identification is routinely performed manually. Manual identification, however, has been shown to have high inter-observer variability, with a variation of the EF by up to 8%. Therefore, an automatic way of identifying the basal slice is still required. Prior published methods operate by automatically tracking the mitral valve points from the long-axis view of the LV. These approaches assumed that the basal slice is the first short-axis slice below the mitral valve. However, guidelines published in 2013 by the society for cardiovascular magnetic resonance indicate that the basal slice is the uppermost short-axis slice with more than 50% myocardium surrounding the blood cavity. Consequently, these existing methods are at times identifying the incorrect short-axis slice. Correct identification of the basal slice under these guidelines is challenging due to the poor image quality and blood movement during image acquisition. This paper proposes an automatic tool that focuses on the two-chamber slice to find the basal slice. To this end, an active shape model is trained to automatically segment the two-chamber view for 51 samples using the leave-one-out strategy. The basal slice was detected using temporal binary profiles created for each short-axis slice from the segmented two-chamber slice. From the 51 successfully tested samples, 92% and 84% of detection results were accurate at the end-systolic and the end-diastolic phases of the cardiac cycle, respectively.

  3. Biomarkers for Basal-like Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, Jennifer R.; Torsten O. Nielsen

    2010-01-01

    Initially recognized through microarray-based gene expression profiling, basal-like breast cancer, for which we lack effective targeted therapies, is an aggressive form of carcinoma with a predilection for younger women. With some success, immunohistochemical studies have attempted to reproduce the expression profile classification of breast cancer through identification of subtype-specific biomarkers. This review aims to present an in depth summary and analysis of the current status of basal...

  4. One Fish, Two Fish, Redfish, You Fish!

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Katherine; Timmons, Maryellen; Medders, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The recreational fishing activity presented in this article provides a hands-on, problem-based experience for students; it unites biology, math, economics, environmental policy, and population dynamics concepts. In addition, the activity allows students to shape environmental policy in a realistic setting and evaluate their peers' work. By…

  5. Localized basal meningeal enhancement in tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; Grobbelaar, Marie; Steyn, Freda; Mapukata, Ayanda; Plessis, Jaco du [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Hospital, P.O. BOX 19063, Tygerberg (South Africa)

    2006-11-15

    Focal basal meningeal enhancement may produce a confusing CT picture in children with suspected tuberculous meningitis (TBM). To demonstrate the incidence, distribution and appearance of localized basal meningeal enhancement in children with TBM. CT scans of patients with definite (culture proven) and probable (CSF suggestive) TBM were retrospectively evaluated by two observers. Localized basal enhancement was documented as involving: unilateral cistern of the lateral fossa (CLF), unilateral sylvian fissure, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure in combination, unilateral CLF and sylvian fissure with ipsi- or contralateral ambient cistern and isolated quadrigeminal plate cistern. The study included 130 patients with TBM (aged 2 months to 13 years 9 months). Focal basal enhancement was seen in 11 patients (8.5%). The sylvian fissure was involved most commonly, followed by the lateral fossa cistern. The ambient cistern was involved in three patients and the quadrigeminal plate cistern in one. Focal areas of enhancement corresponded to the areas of infarction in every patient. Focal basal meningeal enhancement is common (8.5%) in paediatric TBM. This must be kept in mind when evaluating CT scans in children presenting with focal neurological findings, seizures or meningism in communities where TBM is endemic. (orig.)

  6. Somatotopic organization of the primate basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Somatotopic organization is a fundamental and key concept to understand how the cortico-basal ganglia loop works. It is also indispensable knowledge to perform stereotaxic surgery for movement disorders. Here I would like to describe the somatotopic organization of the basal ganglia, which consist of the striatum, subthalamic nucleus, globus pallidus and substantia nigra. Projections from motor cortical regions representing different body parts terminate in different regions of these nuclei. Basal ganglia neurons respond not only to the stimulation of the corresponding regions of the motor cortices, but also to active and passive movements of the corresponding body parts. On the basis of these anatomical and physiological findings, somatotopic organization can be identified in the motor territories of these nuclei in the basal ganglia. In addition, projections from functionally interrelated cortical areas partially converge through the cortico-basal ganglia loop, but nevertheless the somatotopy is still preserved. Disorganized somatotopy may explain, at least in part, the pathophysiology of movement disorders, such as Parkinson’s disease and dystonia.

  7. Fighting fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchi, E.; Guerrini, V.; Rinaldi, S.; Schaeffer, G.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce new combinatorial structures, called fighting fish, that generalize directed convex polyominoes by allowing them to branch out of the plane into independent substructures. On the one hand the combinatorial structure of fighting fish appears to be particularly rich: we show that their generating function with respect to the perimeter and number of tails is algebraic, and we conjecture a mysterious multivariate equidistribution property with the left ternary trees introduced by Del Lungo et al On the other hand, fighting fish provide a simple and natural model of random branching surfaces which displays original features: in particular, we show that the average area of a uniform random fighting fish with perimeter 2n is of order n 5/4: to the best of our knowledge this behaviour is non-standard and suggests that we have identified a new universality class of random structures. Dedicated to Tony Guttmann on the occasion of his 70th birthday.

  8. Identification of triple-negative and basal-like canine mammary carcinomas using four basal markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, N H; Lim, H Y; Im, K S; Kim, J H; Sur, J-H

    2013-05-01

    Molecular-based classification of canine mammary carcinomas (CMCs) has been a recent research focus. In human breast cancer, triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct molecular subgroups that are known for their poor prognosis, but these tumours are not yet well defined in the dog. The aim of this study was to determine whether CMCs include triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes by immunohistochemical assessment of expression of the oestrogen receptor (OR), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and four basal markers, cytokeratin (CK) 14, CK5/6, p63 and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study of 241 CMCs, 45 triple-negative tumours (OR(-), PR(-) and HER2(-)) were identified and this phenotype was associated with an unfavourable prognosis. In these tumours, the expression of CK14, CK5/6 and EGFR was related to clinicopathological parameters, while the expression of p63 was not relevant. The majority of the triple-negative tumours were of the basal-like phenotype, given that 75.6% of them expressed more than two basal markers. However, three of the basal markers were not uniformly expressed; therefore, the proportion of the basal-like phenotype was altered on the basis of the selection of the markers. Although both triple-negative and basal-like phenotypes are distinct entities in CMC, further study is needed to differentiate one from the other.

  9. Radiologic study of basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Tae Won [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    Several cases of jaw cyst-basal cell nevus-bifid rib syndrome are presented. This syndrome consists principally of multiple jaw cysts, basal cell nevi, and bifid ribs but no one component is present in all patients. The purpose of this paper is to review the multiple characteristics of this syndrome and present three cases in a family and additional 4 cases. The many malformations associated with the syndrome have variable expressively. In the cases, multiple jaw cysts, pal mar and plantar pittings, bridging of sella, temporoparietal bossing, hypertelorism, cleft palate, and dystopia canthoru m have been observed.

  10. Alabama ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, and freshwater fish species in Alabama. Vector polygons in this data set represent...

  11. Virginia ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and brackishwater fish species in Virginia. Vector polygons in this data...

  12. Maryland ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Maryland. Vector polygons in this data...

  13. Hawaii ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, marine, estuarine, and native stream fish species in coastal Hawaii. Vector polygons in this data...

  14. Louisiana ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for freshwater (inland) fish species in coastal Louisiana. Vector polygons represent water-bodies and other...

  15. Basal Cell Carcinoma in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Flohil (Sophie)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThere are many different cutaneous malignancies, but malignant melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent approximately 98% of all skin cancers.In literature, these three skin cancers are often divided into melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSC

  16. Immunosuppressive Environment in Basal Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje H; Nielsen, Patricia S; Gjerdrum, Lise M R;

    2016-01-01

    Interaction between tumour survival tactics and anti-tumour immune response is a major determinant for cancer growth. Regulatory T cells (T-regs) contribute to tumour immune escape, but their role in basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is not understood. The fraction of T-regs among T cells was analysed...

  17. Parallel basal ganglia circuits for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikosaka, Okihide; Ghazizadeh, Ali; Griggs, Whitney; Amita, Hidetoshi

    2017-02-02

    The basal ganglia control body movements, mainly, based on their values. Critical for this mechanism is dopamine neurons, which sends unpredicted value signals, mainly, to the striatum. This mechanism enables animals to change their behaviors flexibly, eventually choosing a valuable behavior. However, this may not be the best behavior, because the flexible choice is focused on recent, and, therefore, limited, experiences (i.e., short-term memories). Our old and recent studies suggest that the basal ganglia contain separate circuits that process value signals in a completely different manner. They are insensitive to recent changes in value, yet gradually accumulate the value of each behavior (i.e., movement or object choice). These stable circuits eventually encode values of many behaviors and then retain the value signals for a long time (i.e., long-term memories). They are innervated by a separate group of dopamine neurons that retain value signals, even when no reward is predicted. Importantly, the stable circuits can control motor behaviors (e.g., hand or eye) quickly and precisely, which allows animals to automatically acquire valuable outcomes based on historical life experiences. These behaviors would be called 'skills', which are crucial for survival. The stable circuits are localized in the posterior part of the basal ganglia, separately from the flexible circuits located in the anterior part. To summarize, the flexible and stable circuits in the basal ganglia, working together but independently, enable animals (and humans) to reach valuable goals in various contexts.

  18. Giant basal cell carcinoma Carcinoma basocelular gigante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Nasser

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer but the giant vegetating basal cell carcinoma reaches less than 0.5 % of all basal cell carcinoma types. The Giant BCC, defined as a lesion with more than 5 cm at its largest diameter, is a rare form of BCC and commonly occurs on the trunk. This patient, male, 42 years old presents a Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma which reaches 180 cm2 on the right shoulder and was negligent in looking for treatment. Surgical treatment was performed and no signs of dissemination or local recurrence have been detected after follow up of five years.O carcinoma basocelular é o tipo mais comum de câncer de pele, mas o carcinoma basocelular gigante vegetante não atinge 0,5% de todos os tipos de carcinomas basocelulares. O Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante, definido como lesão maior que 5 cm no maior diâmetro, é uma forma rara de carcinoma basocelular e comumente ocorre no tronco. Este paciente apresenta um Carcinoma Basocelular Gigante com 180cm² no ombro direito e foi negligente em procurar tratamento. Foi realizado tratamento cirúrgico e nenhum sinal de disseminação ou recorrência local foi detectada após 5 anos.

  19. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  20. Jurassic fishes of Gondwana Peces jurásicos de Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana López-Arbarello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic is an important period for understanding the origin of modern fish faunas, since it saw the first radiation - and in some cases the origin - of most modern groups. In chondrichthyans, neoselachian sharks and rays diversified during this time. In actinopterygians, the neopterygians, and among them the teleosts, experienced an important radiation, which led to the appearance of several of the modern teleosts groups. In the sarcopterygians, dipnoans and actinistians approached their current forms. However, the Jurassic fossil record of fishes is strongly biased towards the Northern Hemisphere. The only notable Early Jurassic fish fauna from Gondwana is that of the Kota Formation of India. For the Middle Jurassic, the most important Gondwanan fish faunas are those of the Aalenian-Bathonian Stanleyville Beds of the Democratic Republic of Congo, in which a distinct freshwater and a marine fauna are found. In the Late Jurassic, the Gondwanan record is slightly better, with important marine faunas being known from the Oxfordian Quebrada del Profeta in Chile and the Tithonian Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina. Freshwater faunas have been described from the Tithonian Talbragar Beds of eastern Australia and the Tithonian Cañadón Calcáreo Formation of Argentina. The taxonomic composition of the known marine actinopterygian faunas of Gondwana is in general agreement with faunas of the Northern Hemisphere. However, the Jurassic fish record from Gondwana is highly incomplete both stratigraphically and geographically, and most faunas are in need of revision, further hampering an interpretation of Jurassic fish evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.El Período Jurásico es muy importante para entender el origen de las ictiofaunas modernas, dado que evidenció la primera radiación - y en algunos casos el origen - de la mayoría de los grupos modernos. Así, los condrictios neoselacios se diversificaron durante este periodo. Los actinopterigios

  1. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production by fish muscle mitochondria: Potential role in acute heat-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banh, Sheena; Wiens, Lilian; Sotiri, Emianka; Treberg, Jason R

    2016-01-01

    Acute heat challenge is known to induce cell-level oxidative stress in fishes. Mitochondria are well known for the capacity to make reactive oxygen species (ROS) and as such are often implicated as a source of the oxidants associated with this thermally-induced oxidative stress. This implication is often asserted, despite little direct data for mitochondrial ROS metabolism in fishes. Here we characterize mitochondrial ROS metabolism in three Actinopterygian fish species at two levels, the capacity for superoxide/H2O2 production and the antioxidant thiol-reductase enzyme activities. We find that red muscle mitochondria from all three species have measurable ROS production and respond to different assay conditions consistent with what might be anticipated; assuming similar relative contributions from difference ROS producing sites as found in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria. Although there are species and assay specific exceptions, fish mitochondria may have a greater capacity to produce ROS than that found in the rat when either normalized to respiratory capacity or determined at a common assay temperature. The interspecific differences in ROS production are not correlated with thiol-based antioxidant reductase activities. Moreover, mimicking an acute in vivo heat stress by comparing the impact of increasing assay temperature on these processes in vitro, we find evidence supporting a preferential activation of mitochondrial H2O2 production relative to the increase in the capacity of reductase enzymes to supply electrons to the mitochondrial matrix peroxidases. This supports the contention that mitochondria may be, at least in part, responsible for the ROS that lead to oxidative stress in fish tissues exposed to acute heat challenge.

  2. Heart fossilization is possible and informs the evolution of cardiac outflow tract in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldanis, Lara; Carvalho, Murilo; Almeida, Mariana Ramos; Freitas, Francisco Idalécio; de Andrade, José Artur Ferreira Gomes; Nunes, Rafael Silva; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Freitas, Raul Oliveira; Rodrigues, Fábio; Siljeström, Sandra; Lima, Frederico Alves; Galante, Douglas; Carvalho, Ismar S; Perez, Carlos Alberto; de Carvalho, Marcelo Rodrigues; Bettini, Jefferson; Fernandez, Vincent; Xavier-Neto, José

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating cardiac evolution has been frustrated by lack of fossils. One celebrated enigma in cardiac evolution involves the transition from a cardiac outflow tract dominated by a multi-valved conus arteriosus in basal actinopterygians, to an outflow tract commanded by the non-valved, elastic, bulbus arteriosus in higher actinopterygians. We demonstrate that cardiac preservation is possible in the extinct fish Rhacolepis buccalis from the Brazilian Cretaceous. Using X-ray synchrotron microtomography, we show that Rhacolepis fossils display hearts with a conus arteriosus containing at least five valve rows. This represents a transitional morphology between the primitive, multivalvar, conal condition and the derived, monovalvar, bulbar state of the outflow tract in modern actinopterygians. Our data rescue a long-lost cardiac phenotype (119-113 Ma) and suggest that outflow tract simplification in actinopterygians is compatible with a gradual, rather than a drastic saltation event. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying cardiac evolution in fossils. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14698.001 PMID:27090087

  3. Bilateral germinoma of the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Andrea; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Ravegnani, Marcello; Nozza, Paolo; Abbruzzese, Arturo; Giangaspero, Felice; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Germinoma arising in the bilateral basal ganglia is exceedingly rare, with only five cases reported to date. Owing to non-specific clinical findings and the frequent presence of ill-defined abnormalities without a definite tumor mass on neuroimaging, the diagnosis can be difficult. We describe a case in which magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) findings suggested a tumor and supported the decision to perform biopsy of the lesion.

  4. Basal ganglia lesions in children and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Monika, E-mail: m.figatowska@mp.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Mierzewska, Hanna, E-mail: h.mierzewska@gmail.com [Department of Neurology of Children and Adolescents, Institute of Mother and Child, ul. Kasprzaka 17a, 01-211 Warsaw (Poland); Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta, E-mail: e-jurkiewicz@o2.pl [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Children' s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-05-15

    The term “basal ganglia” refers to caudate and lentiform nuclei, the latter composed of putamen and globus pallidus, substantia nigra and subthalamic nuclei and these deep gray matter structures belong to the extrapyramidal system. Many diseases may present as basal ganglia abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) – to a lesser degree – allow for detection of basal ganglia injury. In many cases, MRI alone does not usually allow to establish diagnosis but together with the knowledge of age and circumstances of onset and clinical course of the disease is a powerful tool of differential diagnosis. The lesions may be unilateral: in Rassmussen encephalitis, diabetes with hemichorea/hemiballism and infarction or – more frequently – bilateral in many pathologic conditions. Restricted diffusion is attributable to infarction, acute hypoxic–ischemic injury, hypoglycemia, Leigh disease, encephalitis and CJD. Contrast enhancement may be seen in cases of infarction and encephalitis. T1-hyperintensity of the lesions is uncommon and may be observed unilaterally in case of hemichorea/hemiballism and bilaterally in acute asphyxia in term newborns, in hypoglycemia, NF1, Fahr disease and manganese intoxication. Decreased signal intensity on GRE/T2*-weighted images and/or SWI indicating iron, calcium or hemosiderin depositions is observed in panthotenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy, Fahr disease (and other calcifications) as well as with the advancing age. There are a few papers in the literature reviewing basal ganglia lesions. The authors present a more detailed review with rich iconography from the own archive.

  5. Basal hydraulic conditions of Ice Stream B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Hermann; Kamb, Barclay

    1993-01-01

    Fifteen boreholes have been drilled to the base of Ice Stream B in the vicinity of UpB Camp. The boreholes are spread over an area of about 500 x 1000 m. Several till cores were retrieved from the bottom of the 1000-m-deep holes. Laboratory tests using a simple shear box revealed a yield strength of basal till of 2 kPa. This agrees well with in-situ measurements using a shear vane. Since the average basal shear stress of Ice Stream B with a surface slope of 0.1 degree is about 20 kPa, the ice stream cannot be supported by till that weak. Additional support for this conclusion comes from the basal water pressure that has been measured in all boreholes as soon as the hot water drill reached bottom. In several boreholes, the water pressure has been continuously monitored; in two of them, over several years. The water pressure varies but stays within 1 bar of flotation where ice overburden pressure and water pressure are equal. The ratio of water and overburden pressure lies between 0.986 and 1.002. This is an extremely high value as compared to other fast-moving ice masses; e.g., Variegated Glacier in surge has a ratio of 0.8, and Columbia Glacier - a fast-moving tidewater glacier - has a ratio of 0.9. It implies that water flow under the glacier occurs in a thin film and not in conduits that would drain away water too rapidly. It also implies that basal sliding must be very effective. Water flow under the glacier was measured in a salt-injection experiment where a salt pulse was released at the bottom of a borehole while 60 m down-glacier, the electrical resistance was measured between two other boreholes. A flow velocity of 7 mm/s was obtained.

  6. The Fishing Cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙雅飞; 乐伟国

    2008-01-01

    @@ 一、故事内容 A cat goes fishing every day. He wants to eat fish, but he can't catch any fish. One day, he goes to the river as usual. Suddenly, a fish comes out. He catches the fish and putsthe fish in the basket. He's very happy, but he forgest to put the lid on the basket.

  7. Fish gelatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boran, Gokhan; Regenstein, Joe M

    2010-01-01

    Gelatin is a multifunctional ingredient used in foods, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and photographic films as a gelling agent, stabilizer, thickener, emulsifier, and film former. As a thermoreversible hydrocolloid with a narrower gap between its melting and gelling temperatures, both of which are below human body temperature, gelatin provides unique advantages over carbohydrate-based gelling agents. Gelatin is mostly produced from pig skin, and cattle hides and bones. Some alternative raw materials have recently gained attention from both researchers and the industry not just because they overcome religious concerns shared by Jews and Muslims but also because they provide, in some cases, technological advantages over mammalian gelatins. Fish skins from a number of fish species are among the other sources that have been comprehensively studied as sources for gelatin production. Fish skins have a significant potential for the production of high-quality gelatin with different melting and gelling temperatures over a much wider range than mammalian gelatins, yet still have a sufficiently high gel strength and viscosity. Gelatin quality is industrially determined by gel strength, viscosity, melting or gelling temperatures, the water content, and microbiological safety. For gelatin manufacturers, yield from a particular raw material is also important. Recent experimental studies have shown that these quality parameters vary greatly depending on the biochemical characteristics of the raw materials, the manufacturing processes applied, and the experimental settings used for quality control tests. In this review, the gelatin quality achieved from different fish species is reviewed along with the experimental procedures used to determine gelatin quality. In addition, the chemical structure of collagen and gelatin, the collagen-gelatin conversion, the gelation process, and the gelatin market are discussed.

  8. Fish hemoglobins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.C. de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate hemoglobin, contained in erythrocytes, is a globular protein with a quaternary structure composed of 4 globin chains (2 alpha and 2 beta and a prosthetic group named heme bound to each one. Having myoglobin as an ancestor, hemoglobin acquired the capacity to respond to chemical stimuli that modulate its function according to tissue requirements for oxygen. Fish are generally submitted to spatial and temporal O2 variations and have developed anatomical, physiological and biochemical strategies to adapt to the changing environmental gas availability. Structurally, most fish hemoglobins are tetrameric; however, those from some species such as lamprey and hagfish dissociate, being monomeric when oxygenated and oligomeric when deoxygenated. Fish blood frequently possesses several hemoglobins; the primary origin of this finding lies in the polymorphism that occurs in the globin loci, an aspect that may occasionally confer advantages to its carriers or even be a harmless evolutionary remnant. On the other hand, the functional properties exhibit different behaviors, ranging from a total absence of responses to allosteric regulation to drastic ones, such as the Root effect.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... idiopathic basal ganglia calcification ( FIBGC , formerly known as Fahr disease) is a condition characterized by abnormal deposits of ... on chromosome 14q for idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr disease). Am J Hum Genet. 1999 Sep;65(3): ...

  10. Integrated profiling of basal and luminal breast cancers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adelaide, J.; Finetti, P.; Bekhouche, I.; Repellini, L.; Geneix, J.; Sircoulomb, F.; Charafe-Jauffret, E.; Cervera, N.; Desplans, J.; Parzy, D.; Schoenmakers, E.F.P.M.; Viens, P.; Jacquemier, J.; Birnbaum, D.; Bertucci, F.; Chaffanet, M.

    2007-01-01

    Basal and luminal are two molecular subtypes of breast cancer with opposite histoclinical features. We report a combined, high-resolution analysis of genome copy number and gene expression in primary basal and luminal breast cancers. First, we identified and compared genomic alterations in 45 basal

  11. Adenoid basal cell carcinoma and its mimics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Jetley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common malignant tumor of skin. The most common site (80% is head and neck. BCC exhibits a varied morphology such as adenoid, keratotic, sebaceous, basosquamous, apocrine, eccrine or fibroepithelial. Tumors with a similar histopathological picture are cutaneous adenoid cystic carcinoma and primary cutaneous cribriform apocrine carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry, along with clinical findings, acts as an adjunct in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Here, we present an interesting case of adenoid BCC in a 55-year-old man.

  12. Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary H. Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC remains the most common form of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC in Caucasians, with perhaps as many as 2 million new cases expected to occur in the United States in 2010. Many treatment options, including surgical interventions and nonsurgical alternatives, have been utilized to treat BCC. In this paper, two non-surgical options, imiquimod therapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT, will be discussed. Both modalities have demonstrated acceptable disease control rates, cosmetically superior outcomes, and short-term cost-effectiveness. Further studies evaluating long-term cure rates and long-term cost effectiveness of imiquimod therapy and PDT are needed.

  13. Mössbauer spectroscopy of Basal Ganglia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miglierini, Marcel, E-mail: marcel.miglierini@stuba.sk [Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovičova 3, 812 19 Bratislava, Slovakia and Regional Centre of Advanced Technologies and Materials (Czech Republic); Lančok, Adriana [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry AS CR, v. v. i., 250 68 Husinec-Řež 1001 (Czech Republic); Kopáni, Martin [Institute of Medical Physics, Biophysics, Informatics and Telemedicine, Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Sasinkova 2, 811 08 Bratislava (Slovakia); Boča, Roman [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of SS. Cyril and Methodius, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-27

    Chemical states, structural arrangement, and magnetic features of iron deposits in biological tissue of Basal Ganglia are characterized. The methods of SQUID magnetometry and electron microscopy are employed. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy is used as a principal method of investigation. Though electron microscopy has unveiled robust crystals (1-3 μm in size) of iron oxides, they are not manifested in the corresponding {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra. The latter were acquired at 300 K and 4.2 K and resemble ferritin-like behavior.

  14. Archaefructaceae, a new basal angiosperm family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ge; Ji, Qiang; Dilcher, David L; Zheng, Shaolin; Nixon, Kevin C; Wang, Xinfu

    2002-05-03

    Archaefructaceae is proposed as a new basal angiosperm family of herbaceous aquatic plants. This family consists of the fossils Archaefructus liaoningensis and A. sinensis sp. nov. Complete plants from roots to fertile shoots are known. Their age is a minimum of 124.6 million years from the Yixian Formation, Liaoning, China. They are a sister clade to all angiosperms when their characters are included in a combined three-gene molecular and morphological analysis. Their reproductive axes lack petals and sepals and bear stamens in pairs below conduplicate carpels.

  15. Fish Tales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.

    2010-07-06

    This talk is about fishing and the friendships that have resulted in its pursuit. It is also about theoretical physics, and the relationship of imagination and fantasy to the establishment of ideas about nature. Fishermen, like theoretical physicists, are well known for their inventive imaginations. Perhaps neither are as clever as sailors, who conceived of the mermaid. If one doubts the power of this fantasy, one should remember the ghosts of the many sailors who drowned pursuing these young nymphs. An extraordinary painting by J. Waterhouse is shown as Fig. 1. The enchantment of a mermaid must reflect an extraordinary excess of imagination on the part of the sailor, perhaps together with an impractical turn of mind. A consummated relationship with a mermaid is after all, by its very nature a fantasy incapable of realization. To a theoretical physicist, she is symbolic of many ideas we develop. There are many truths known to fisherman in which one might also find parallels to the goals of scientists: (1) A fish is the only animal that keeps growing after its death; (2) Nothing makes a fish bigger than almost being caught; (3) ''...of all the liars among mankind, the fisherman is the most trustworthy.'' (William Sherwood Fox, in Silken Lines and Silver Hooks); and (4) Men and fish are alike. They both get into trouble when they open their mouths. These quotes may be interpreted as reflecting skepticism regarding the honesty of fisherman, and probably do not reflect adequate admiration for a creative imagination. Is it fair to criticize a person for believing a falsehood that he or she sincerely believes to be true? The fisherman simultaneously invents the lie, and believes in it himself. The parallel with theoretical physics is perhaps only approximate, although we physicists may invent stories that we come to believe, on some rare occasions our ideas actually correspond to a more or less true descriptions of nature. These minor philosophical

  16. Fish Immunoglobulins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashoof, Sara; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    The B cell receptor and secreted antibody are at the nexus of humoral adaptive immunity. In this review, we summarize what is known of the immunoglobulin genes of jawed cartilaginous and bony fishes. We focus on what has been learned from genomic or cDNA sequence data, but where appropriate draw upon protein, immunization, affinity and structural studies. Work from major aquatic model organisms and less studied comparative species are both included to define what is the rule for an immunoglobulin isotype or taxonomic group and what exemplifies an exception. PMID:27879632

  17. Basal cell nevus syndrome or Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalakoti, Srikanth; Geller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) or Gorlin syndrome is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome sometimes known as the fifth phacomatosis, inherited in autosomal dominant fashion with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Gorlin syndrome is characterized by development of multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), jaw cysts, palmar or plantar pits, calcification of falx cerebri, various developmental skeletal abnormalities such as bifid rib, hemi- or bifid vertebra and predisposition to the development of various tumors. BCNS is caused by a mutation in the PTCH1 gene localized to 9q22.3. Its estimated prevalence varies between 1/55600 and 1/256000 with an equal male to female ratio. The medulloblastoma variant seen in Gorlin syndrome patients is of the desmoplastic type, characteristically presenting during the first 3 years of life. Therefore, children with desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be carefully screened for other features of BCNS. Radiation therapy for desmoplastic medulloblastoma should be avoided in BCNS patients as it may induce development of invasive BCCs and other tumors in the skin area exposed to radiation. This syndrome is a multisystem disorder so involvement of multiple specialists with a multimodal approach to detect and treat various manifestations at early stages will reduce the long-term sequelae and severity of the condition. Life expectancy is not significantly altered but morbidity from complications and cosmetic scarring can be substantial.

  18. Deep Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Omer; Sadanandan, Sajith Kecheril; Wählby, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is an important vertebrate model organism in biomedical research, especially suitable for morphological screening due to its transparent body during early development. Deep learning has emerged as a dominant paradigm for data analysis and found a number of applications in computer vision and image analysis. Here we demonstrate the potential of a deep learning approach for accurate high-throughput classification of whole-body zebrafish deformations in multifish microwell plates. Deep learning uses the raw image data as an input, without the need of expert knowledge for feature design or optimization of the segmentation parameters. We trained the deep learning classifier on as few as 84 images (before data augmentation) and achieved a classification accuracy of 92.8% on an unseen test data set that is comparable to the previous state of the art (95%) based on user-specified segmentation and deformation metrics. Ablation studies by digitally removing whole fish or parts of the fish from the images revealed that the classifier learned discriminative features from the image foreground, and we observed that the deformations of the head region, rather than the visually apparent bent tail, were more important for good classification performance.

  19. Evolution of a Functional Head Joint in Deep-Sea Fishes (Stomiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. David

    2017-01-01

    The head and anterior trunk region of most actinopterygian fishes is stiffened as, uniquely within vertebrates, the pectoral girdles have a direct and often strong connection through the posttemporal to the posterior region of the skull. Members of the mesopelagic fish family Stomiidae have their pectoral girdle separated from the skull. This connection is lost in several teleost groups, but the stomiids have an additional evolutionary novelty—a flexible connection between the occiput and the first vertebra, where only the notochord persists. Several studies suggested that stomiids engulf significantly large prey items and conjectured about the functional role of the anterior part of the vertebral column; however, there has been no precise anatomical description of this complex. Here we describe a unique configuration comprising the occiput and the notochordal sheath in Aristostomias, Eustomias, Malacosteus, Pachystomias, and Photostomias that represents a true functional head joint in teleosts and discuss its potential phylogenetic implications. In these genera, the chordal sheath is folded inward ventrally beneath its connection to the basioccipital and embraces the occipital condyle when in a resting position. In the resting position (wherein the head is not manipulatively elevated), this condyle is completely embraced by the ventral fold of the notochord. A manual manipulative elevation of the head in cleared and stained specimens unfolds the ventral sheath of the notochord. As a consequence, the cranium can be pulled up and back significantly farther than in all other teleost taxa that lack such a functional head joint and thereby can reach mouth gapes up to 120°. PMID:28146571

  20. Effects of different fat sources, technological forms and characteristics of the basal diet on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows - a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to study milk fatty acid (FA) profile in dairy cows in response to changes in dietary nutrient composition in relation to supplementation of fat sources, their technological form, addition of fish oil and main forage type in the basal diet. Data comprised 151 treatment

  1. Fishing amplifies forage fish population collapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Moriarty, Pamela E; Froehlich, Halley E; Hodgson, Emma E; Koehn, Laura E; Oken, Kiva L; Siple, Margaret C; Stawitz, Christine C

    2015-05-26

    Forage fish support the largest fisheries in the world but also play key roles in marine food webs by transferring energy from plankton to upper trophic-level predators, such as large fish, seabirds, and marine mammals. Fishing can, thereby, have far reaching consequences on marine food webs unless safeguards are in place to avoid depleting forage fish to dangerously low levels, where dependent predators are most vulnerable. However, disentangling the contributions of fishing vs. natural processes on population dynamics has been difficult because of the sensitivity of these stocks to environmental conditions. Here, we overcome this difficulty by collating population time series for forage fish populations that account for nearly two-thirds of global catch of forage fish to identify the fingerprint of fisheries on their population dynamics. Forage fish population collapses shared a set of common and unique characteristics: high fishing pressure for several years before collapse, a sharp drop in natural population productivity, and a lagged response to reduce fishing pressure. Lagged response to natural productivity declines can sharply amplify the magnitude of naturally occurring population fluctuations. Finally, we show that the magnitude and frequency of collapses are greater than expected from natural productivity characteristics and therefore, likely attributed to fishing. The durations of collapses, however, were not different from those expected based on natural productivity shifts. A risk-based management scheme that reduces fishing when populations become scarce would protect forage fish and their predators from collapse with little effect on long-term average catches.

  2. Fishes and tetrapods in the upper pennsylvanian (kasimovian) cohn coal member of the mattoon formation of illinois, United States: Systematics, paleoecology, and paleoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, D.; Falcon-Lang, H. J.; Benton, M.J.; Nelson, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    A newly discovered vertebrate assemblage is reported from the Upper Pennsylvanian (mid-to upper Kasimovian) Cohn Coal Member of the Mattoon Formation of southeast Illinois, United States. Teeth, scales, and spines of xenacanth (Dicentrodus, Orthacanthus, Triodus, Xenacanthus) and euselachian (Sphenacanthus) sharks dominate the assemblage. Less common are the teeth, scales, and centra of holocephalan (Helodus) and actinopterygian fishes, together with rare tetrapod (mainly pelycosaur) phalanges and centra. The assemblage occurs within a broad, shallow channel incised into a prominent Vertisol. The channel is interpreted as having been cut during a seasonally dry glacial phase when sea level was low, but filled during a subsequent transgression triggered by deglaciation. We interpret this as a brackish water (estuarine) assemblage, based on the co-occurrence of the vertebrate material with spirorbids (putative microconchids) and paleoecological inferences gleaned from a critical analysis of the literature dealing with Pennsylvanian fish ecology. This interpretation is broadly consistent with taphonomic data and the results of 87Sr/86Sr isotope analysis of shark material. The pelycosaur material may have been reworked from the lowstand Vertisol, however, and these animals occupied dryland niches that developed during glacial phases. ?? 2011 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  3. Sport Fishing Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The regulations for sport fishing on St. Vincent National Wildlife Refuge are outlined in this document. Fishing is only permitted from sunrise to sunset, and only...

  4. Fish Springs pond snail

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  5. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  6. Got a Sick Fish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Got a sick fish? Fish with disease can show a variety of signs. If you notice your pet fish having any unusual disease signs, contact your veterinarian ...

  7. Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Luis Cruz Leiva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome is an infrequent entity of very low incidence according to reports in medical literature. It is characterized by considerable groups of alterations which are presented in the organism in a variable way, and with localized lesions in the maxillofacial area. A 61 year-old white male patient who lives in the urban area of Cienfuegos city is presented. He has family references of numerous physical deformities since he was born such as mental retardation, presence of moles since the first decade of his life and augmentation of the mandibular body volume. The diagnosis was keratocysts based on the clinical and radiological examinations as well as histopathological studies.

  8. Basal body temperature recordings in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J; Iffy, L; Keyser, H H

    1976-01-01

    Basal body temperature (BBT) charts taken during the cycle of conception in cases that resulted in spontaneous abortion appear to provide the best available information concerning events associated with time of fertilization in doomed gestations. This study is based on a series of 227 patients who had early spontaneous abortion occurring between January 1967 and December 1974. A diagnosis of pregnancy initiated regular assays of urinary estrogen and pregnanediol excretion. Patients were instructed to report any bleeding episode which might occur, and to preserve all tissues that might be expelled. A total of 11 basal body temperature charts were obtained from patients who had subsequent early spontaneous abortion. Chromosome studies and histologic investigations were conducted. Another group of 11 consecutive BBT records were obtained from patients who had normal deliveries. The study shows that women with normal cycles experience a midcycle temperature rise requiring 1 to 3 days. In subsequent patients, this time limit was exceeded in 7 out of 11 cases of early abortion, and in 4 of 11 fertilization that resulted in an apparently normal gestation and infant. As temperature rise resulted from vigorous progesterone secretion by the corpus luteum, subnormal levels indicate inadequate steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase, and falling estrogen and progesterone levels predicted fetal demise in all cases. These findings are useful in the management of early pregnancy that follows repeated spontaneous first trimester abortions or a prolonged period of infertility. They also confirm experimental and clinical evidence regarding the role of ovulation defects in the occurrence of various types of reproductive wastage, including early abortion, anatomic and chromosome defects of the embryo and others. Prospective studies of cycles of conception through BBT recordings/hormone assays may shed light in the understanding of defects of human reproduction.

  9. Concentrated insulins: the new basal insulins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamos EM

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth M Lamos,1 Lisa M Younk,2 Stephen N Davis3 1Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Nutrition, 2Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 3Department of Medicine, University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD, USA Introduction: Insulin therapy plays a critical role in the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, there is still a need to find basal insulins with 24-hour coverage and reduced risk of hypoglycemia. Additionally, with increasing obesity and insulin resistance, the ability to provide clinically necessary high doses of insulin at low volume is also needed. Areas covered: This review highlights the published reports of the pharmacokinetic (PK and glucodynamic properties of concentrated insulins: Humulin-R U500, insulin degludec U200, and insulin glargine U300, describes the clinical efficacy, risk of hypoglycemic, and metabolic changes observed, and finally, discusses observations about the complexity of introducing a new generation of concentrated insulins to the therapeutic market. Conclusion: Humulin-R U500 has a similar onset but longer duration of action compared with U100 regular insulin. Insulin glargine U300 has differential PK/pharmacodynamic effects when compared with insulin glargine U100. In noninferiority studies, glycemic control with degludec U200 and glargine U300 is similar to insulin glargine U100 and nocturnal hypoglycemia is reduced. Concentrated formulations appear to behave as separate molecular entities when compared with earlier U100 insulin analog compounds. In the review of available published data, newer concentrated basal insulins may offer an advantage in terms of reduced intraindividual variability as well as reducing the injection burden in individuals requiring high-dose and large volume insulin therapy. Understanding the PK and pharmacodynamic properties of this new generation of insulins is critical to safe dosing, dispensing, and administration

  10. No Fishing Now,More Fish Later

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Fishing ban for ecological purposes starts on the Pearl River Since April1,a two-month ban on fishing has been imposed on the Pearl River valley in south China.It is the first fishing ban in this area with the purpose of preserving biodiversity in China’s third longest

  11. Microbiological spoilage of fish and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Huss, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    Spoilage of fresh and lightly preserved fish products is caused by microbial action. This paper reviews the current knowledge in terms of the microbiology of fish and fish products with particular emphasis on identification of specific spoilage bacteria and the qualitative and quantitative...

  12. Abnormal Basal Ganglia Functional Connectivity in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Luo; Yang Xia; Zhi-Wei Guo; Dong Zhou

    2011-01-01

    The basal ganglia have been implicated in a modulation role in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by an invasive electrophysioigic means.This paper investigates the basal ganglia functional connectivity by using the region-wise functional connection analysis in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRi) in IGE.The increased functional connectivity within basal ganglia,and between the basal ganglia and the thalamus,and decreased functional connectivity between basal ganglia and motor cortex are found in IGE compared with the controls. These findings not only implicate dysfunctional integration in the motor loop in IGE and the enhanced interaction in the modulated loop,but also suggest that the basal ganglia modulate the generalized epileptic discharges with the influence over thalamus in the corticothalamus network.

  13. Trophic connectivity and basal food sources sustaining tropical aquatic consumers along a mangrove to ocean gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudino, Marlucy Coelho; Pessanha, André Luiz Machado; Araújo, Francisco Gerson; Garcia, Alexandre Miranda

    2015-12-01

    Variations in the relative importance of autotrophic sources to aquatic consumers along environmental gradients and the trophic role of mangrove-derived detritus to marine coastal food webs are still poorly investigated in tropical systems. In this study, we employed stable isotope analyses to investigate the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers (decapod crustaceans and fishes) in a tropical estuary along an environmental gradient extending from the mangroves to the ocean. Additionally, we evaluated the 'outwelling hypothesis', which hypothesizes that mangrove-derived detritus exported to the adjacent marine area is a food source for marine macroconsumers at open and reef-protected sandy beaches. Primary producers and macroconsumers (62 and 214 samples, respectively) were collected at five locations across the main longitudinal axis of the Mamanguape estuary, a tropical Southwestern Atlantic estuary. There were marked shifts in carbon and nitrogen isotope values for both food sources and consumers along the estuarine-marine gradient, and the mixing model results revealed similar patterns of assimilation of basal food sources by decapod crustaceans and fishes. In the inner section of the estuary, consumers tended to assimilated nutrients derived mainly from mangrove and macroalgae, whereas nearer the mouth of the estuary and in the adjacent marine area they assimilated nutrients derived mainly from macroalgae, seagrass and organic matter in the sediment (SOM). These findings support the hypothesis that the relative importance of basal food sources to macroconsumers in this tropical estuarine system reflects the dominant autochthonous primary production at each location. In contrast, our results did not support the outwelling hypothesis that mangrove-originated detritus, in the form of senescent mangrove leaves, makes a significant contribution as a primary source of carbon to high-order consumers inhabiting adjacent ocean sandy beaches.

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. Basal cell carcinoma in oculo-cutaneous albinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin tumour especially affecting the white individuals worldwide. The exact incidence of basal cell carcinoma is not known from India but non melanoma skin cancers comprises about 1-2% of cutaneous tumour in India. The most common skin tumour is squamous cell carcinoma in albinism and the incidence of basal cell carcinoma is less. Hereby, we report a peculiar case of basal cell carcinoma in albinism to highlights the importance of early recognition and diagnosis of suspected lesions by performing histopathological examination in unusual circumstances. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2452-2454

  16. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Muzio Lorenzo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, also known as Gorlin syndrome, is a hereditary condition characterized by a wide range of developmental abnormalities and a predisposition to neoplasms. The estimated prevalence varies from 1/57,000 to 1/256,000, with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Main clinical manifestations include multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs, odontogenic keratocysts of the jaws, hyperkeratosis of palms and soles, skeletal abnormalities, intracranial ectopic calcifications, and facial dysmorphism (macrocephaly, cleft lip/palate and severe eye anomalies. Intellectual deficit is present in up to 5% of cases. BCCs (varying clinically from flesh-colored papules to ulcerating plaques and in diameter from 1 to 10 mm are most commonly located on the face, back and chest. The number of BBCs varies from a few to several thousand. Recurrent jaw cysts occur in 90% of patients. Skeletal abnormalities (affecting the shape of the ribs, vertebral column bones, and the skull are frequent. Ocular, genitourinary and cardiovascular disorders may occur. About 5–10% of NBCCS patients develop the brain malignancy medulloblastoma, which may be a potential cause of early death. NBCCS is caused by mutations in the PTCH1 gene and is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait with complete penetrance and variable expressivity. Clinical diagnosis relies on specific criteria. Gene mutation analysis confirms the diagnosis. Genetic counseling is mandatory. Antenatal diagnosis is feasible by means of ultrasound scans and analysis of DNA extracted from fetal cells (obtained by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling. Main differential diagnoses include Bazex syndrome, trichoepithelioma papulosum multiplex and Torre's syndrome (Muir-Torre's syndrome. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach. Keratocysts are treated by surgical removal. Surgery for BBCs is indicated when the number of lesions is limited; other treatments include laser

  17. [Vismodegib Therapy for Periocular Basal Cell Carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keserü, M; Green, S; Dulz, S

    2017-01-01

    Background Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest periorbital tumour. Mohs' micrographic surgery and secondary reconstruction is the therapeutic gold standard for periorbital BCC. In cases of inoperability for any reason, therapeutic alternatives are needed. Since the approval of vismodegib, an orally administered, targeted BCC therapy is available. Nevertheless there is little information on the use of vismodegib for periorbital BCC. Patients and Methods In a retrospective study, we analysed the data of 4 patients treated with vismodegib since 2014. The patients' mean age before starting therapy was 87 years. The mean maximum tumour diameter was 22.0 mm. Results The median follow-up was 17 months. The median treatment duration was 7.5 months. In 75 % of patients, complete clinical remission of BCC was achieved. In 25 % of patients, interim stabilisation of tumour growth was possible. The most common side effect of therapy was muscle spasm. Conclusion Vismodegib is an effective treatment option for patients with periorbital BCC, in whom surgical treatment is not possible for any reason.

  18. How Basal Ganglia Outputs Generate Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry H. Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basal ganglia (BG are a collection of subcortical nuclei critical for voluntary behavior. According to the standard model, the output projections from the BG tonically inhibit downstream motor centers and prevent behavior. A pause in the BG output opens the gate for behavior, allowing the initiation of actions. Hypokinetic neurological symptoms, such as inability to initiate actions in Parkinson’s disease, are explained by excessively high firing rates of the BG output neurons. This model, widely taught in textbooks, is contradicted by recent electrophysiological results, which are reviewed here. In addition, I also introduce a new model, based on the insight that behavior is a product of closed loop negative feedback control using internal reference signals rather than sensorimotor transformations. The nervous system is shown to be a functional hierarchy comprising independent controllers occupying different levels, each level controlling specific variables derived from its perceptual inputs. The BG represent the level of transition control in this hierarchy, sending reference signals specifying the succession of body orientations and configurations. This new model not only explains the major symptoms in movement disorders but also generates a number of testable predictions.

  19. Three Kinds of Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2012-01-01

    There are three kinds of fish. Fish you were given, fish you bought and fish you lease. This might sound a bit odd, but it is nevertheless the basis for the activities of Danish commercial fishers since the introduction of transferable fishing concessions (TFCs) in 2007. In the current 2012 reform...... of market based systems are wild speculation, concentration and monopolization of fishing access and subsequent leasing with fishing communities and new entrants very likely being worse off (see for example the chapter “From fishing rights to financial derivatives” is this volume or Olson 2011; Sumaila 2010...... will examine five Danish fishing operations and discuss how they have reacted in different ways to the newly introduced system of transferable fishing concessions. By introducing TFCs as a solution to fleet overcapacity, the EU Commission will also be introducing a system where buying, selling and leasing...

  20. A Prognostic Dilemma of Basal Cell Carcinoma with Intravascular Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niumsawatt, Vachara; Castley, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy; however, it very rarely metastasizes. Despite the low mortality caused by this cancer, once it spreads, it has dim prognosis. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma with rare intravascular invasion and review the literature for risk factors and management of metastasis.

  1. Mineralizing angiopathy with basal ganglia stroke in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal ganglia stroke is known following trivial head trauma. Recently a distinct clinic-radiological entity termed ′mineralizing angiopathy′ was described. We report an infant who developed basal ganglia stroke following trivial fall. His clinic-radiological features are described.

  2. Vismodegib resistance in basal cell carcinoma: not a smooth fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridky, Todd W; Cotsarelis, George

    2015-03-09

    In this issue of Cancer Cell, two complementary papers by Atwood and colleagues and Sharpe and colleagues show that basal cell carcinomas resistant to the Smoothened (SMO) inhibitor vismodegib frequently harbor SMO mutations that limit drug binding, with mutations at some sites also increasing basal SMO activity.

  3. Evolution and diversification of the basal transcription machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duttke, Sascha H C

    2015-03-01

    Transcription initiation was once thought to be regulated primarily by sequence-specific transcription factors with the basal transcription machinery being largely invariant. Gradually it became apparent that the basal transcription machinery greatly diversified during evolution and new studies now demonstrate that diversification of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) family yielded specialized and largely independent transcription systems.

  4. Basal ganglia - thalamus and the crowning enigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela eGarcia-Munoz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available When Hubel (1982 referred to layer 1 of primary visual cortex as …a ‘crowning mystery’ to keep area-17 physiologists busy for years to come... he could have been talking about any cortical area. In the 80’s and 90’s there were no methods to examine this neuropile on the surface of the cortex: a tangled web of axons and dendrites from a variety of different places with unknown specificities and doubtful connections to the cortical output neurons some hundreds of microns below. Recently, three changes have made the crowning enigma less of an impossible mission: the clear presence of neurons in layer 1 (L1, the active conduction of voltage along apical dendrites and optogenetic methods that might allow us to look at one source of input at a time. For all of those reasons alone, it seems it is time to take seriously the function of L1. The functional properties of this layer will need to wait for more experiments but already L1 cells are GAD67 positive, i.e., inhibitory! They could reverse the sign of the thalamic glutamate (GLU input for the entire cortex. It is at least possible that in the near future normal activity of individual sources of L1 could be detected using genetic tools. We are at the outset of important times in the exploration of thalamic functions and perhaps the solution to the crowning enigma is within sight. Our review looks forward to that solution from the solid basis of the anatomy of the basal ganglia output to motor thalamus. We will focus on L1, its afferents, intrinsic neurons and its influence on responses of pyramidal neurons in layers 2/3 and 5. Since L1 is present in the whole cortex we will provide a general overview considering evidence mainly from the somatosensory cortex before focusing on motor cortex.

  5. Fish protein intake induces fast-muscle hypertrophy and reduces liver lipids and serum glucose levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Fuminori; Mizushige, Takafumi; Uozumi, Keisuke; Hayamizu, Kohsuke; Han, Li; Tsuji, Tomoko; Kishida, Taro

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, fish protein was proven to reduce serum lipids and body fat accumulation by skeletal muscle hypertrophy and enhancing basal energy expenditure in rats. In the present study, we examined the precise effects of fish protein intake on different skeletal muscle fiber types and metabolic gene expression of the muscle. Fish protein increased fast-twitch muscle weight, reduced liver triglycerides and serum glucose levels, compared with the casein diet after 6 or 8 weeks of feeding. Furthermore, fish protein upregulated the gene expressions of a fast-twitch muscle-type marker and a glucose transporter in the muscle. These results suggest that fish protein induces fast-muscle hypertrophy, and the enhancement of basal energy expenditure by muscle hypertrophy and the increase in muscle glucose uptake reduced liver lipids and serum glucose levels. The present results also imply that fish protein intake causes a slow-to-fast shift in muscle fiber type.

  6. Permian-Triassic Osteichthyes (bony fishes): diversity dynamics and body size evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Carlo; Koot, Martha B; Kogan, Ilja; Brayard, Arnaud; Minikh, Alla V; Brinkmann, Winand; Bucher, Hugo; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    significant reduction in osteichthyan body size. Neopterygii, the clade that encompasses the vast majority of extant fishes, underwent another diversification phase in the Late Triassic. The Triassic radiation of Osteichthyes, predominantly of Actinopterygii, which only occurred after severe extinctions among Chondrichthyes during the Middle-Late Permian, resulted in a profound change within global fish communities, from chondrichthyan-rich faunas of the Permo-Carboniferous to typical Mesozoic and Cenozoic associations dominated by actinopterygians. This turnover was not sudden but followed a stepwise pattern, with leaps during extinction events.

  7. A standard experimental diet for the study of fatty acid requirements of weaning and first ongrowing stages of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.): selection of the basal diet

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P. (Peter); Van Stappen, G.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    A standard experimental diet was developed to study lipid nutrition in marine fish larvae during weaning and first ongrowing. Basal diets were prepared by extrusion-cooking, crumbling of the pellets, and sieving to obtain particles in the size ranges 150-300 µm and 300-500 µm. Three protein sources in the extruded basal diet were evaluated: (1) micronized cod protein granulate (COD); (2) a mixture of casein, gelatin, and albumin (CGA); (3) a mixture of cod fish meal, whey protein, soybean pro...

  8. Umatilla - Rough Fish Eradication

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In order to enhance environmental conditions in the McCormack Slough on Umatilla NWR, the population of rough fish, including common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and...

  9. Scorpion fish sting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002849.htm Scorpion fish sting To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Scorpion fish are members of the family Scorpaenidae, which ...

  10. Pittsburgh Fish Fry Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Lenten Fish Fry records for the Greater Pittsburgh region. Data is collected before and during the Lenten fish fry season each year by Code for Pittsburgh. Data is...

  11. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized...

  12. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish specie

  13. Medusivorous fishes, a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ates, R.M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A preliminary review is presented of fish species having consumed pelagic Cnidaria (Scyphozoa and Hydrozoa) as well as Ctenophora. Quantitative data are scarce. Knowledge of morphological and physiological adaptations of fishes foraging on gelatinous plankton is almost non-existent. Many fish species consume medusae and some reasons to suspect that there are even more that do so, are discussed.

  14. Basal ganglia calcification on computed tomography in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaoka, Shohei; Tani, Kenji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki and others

    1988-09-01

    The development of basal ganglia calcification was studied in 85 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by computed tomography (CT). Bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia was found to occur in 5 patients (5.9 %) with SLE, but was not seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and progressive systemic sclerosis. All were female with a mean age of 42 years (range 29 - 49). The patients with calcification of the basal ganglia had neurological symptoms, such as psychiatric problems (3 cases), grand mal seizures (1 case), CSF abnormalities (2 cases), and EEG changes (4 cases). There were significantly higher incidences of alopecia, cutaneous vasculitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia in the group with calcifications than those in the group with normal CT findings. Circulating immune complexes were detected and LE tests were positive in 2 patients. Endocrinological examination showed no abnormality in any. We suggest that basal ganglia calcification in SLE might be related to cerebral vasculitis.

  15. Multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas (basalomatosis) following cobalt irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, A.; Przybilla, B. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Dermatologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Peter, R.U. [Federal Armed Forces Medical Academy, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Radiobiology

    1995-10-01

    Basalomatosis is an uncommon skin condition characterized by the occurrence of multiple basal cell carcinomas. Many cases reported in the literature have been attributed to arsenic treatment in psoriasis patients. We report a patient with basalomatosis caused by cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co) irradiation. A 55-year-old farmer developed 43 basal cell carcinomas 20 years after treatment of an immuno-blastoma with {sup 60}Co irradiation. All the tumours were located within the radiation fields. Other possible causes of basalomatosis, such as arsenic intoxication and basal cell naevus syndrome, were excluded. The patient`s multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas probably represent a late adverse effect of the {sup 60}Co irradiation. (Author).

  16. Moderate evidence for a Lombard effect in a phylogenetically basal primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schopf

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available When exposed to enhanced background noise, humans avoid signal masking by increasing the amplitude of the voice, a phenomenon termed the Lombard effect. This auditory feedback-mediated voice control has also been found in monkeys, bats, cetaceans, fish and some frogs and birds. We studied the Lombard effect for the first time in a phylogenetically basal primate, the grey mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus. When background noise was increased, mouse lemurs were able to raise the amplitude of the voice, comparable to monkeys, but they did not show this effect consistently across context/individuals. The Lombard effect, even if representing a generic vocal communication system property of mammals, may thus be affected by more complex mechanisms. The present findings emphasize an effect of context, and individual, and the need for further standardized approaches to disentangle the multiple system properties of mammalian vocal communication, important for understanding the evolution of the unique human faculty of speech and language.

  17. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    OpenAIRE

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsych...

  18. Basal Dynamics and Internal Structure of Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolovick, Michael J.

    The internal structure of ice sheets reflects the history of flow and deformation experienced by the ice mass. Flow and deformation are controlled by processes occurring within the ice mass and at its boundaries, including surface accumulation or ablation, ice rheology, basal topography, basal sliding, and basal melting or freezing. The internal structure and basal environment of ice sheets is studied with ice-penetrating radar. Recently, radar observations in Greenland and Antarctica have imaged large englacial structures rising from near the bed that deform the overlying stratigraphy into anticlines, synclines, and overturned folds. The mechanisms that may produce these structures include basal freeze-on, travelling slippery patches at the ice base, and rheological contrasts within the ice column. In this thesis, I explore the setting and mechanisms that produce large basal stratigraphic structures inside ice sheets. First, I use radar data to map subglacial hydrologic networks that deliver meltwater uphill towards freeze-on structures in East Antarctica. Next, I use a thermomechanical flowline model to demonstrate that trains of alternating slippery and sticky patches can form underneath ice sheets and travel downstream over time. The disturbances to the ice flow field produced by these travelling patches produce stratigraphic folds resembling the observations. I then examine the overturned folds produced by a single travelling sticky patch using a kinematic flowline model. This model is used to interpret stratigraphic measurements in terms of the dynamic properties of basal slip. Finally, I use a simple local one-dimensional model to estimate the thickness of basal freeze-on that can be produced based on the supply of available meltwater, the thermal boundary conditions, ice sheet geometry, and the ice flow regime.

  19. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, T; Fernandes, I; Costa, V; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  20. Photodynamic therapy as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, T.; I. Fernandes; Costa, V.; Selores, M

    2011-01-01

    The authors decided to evaluate the possible use of methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) as adjunctive therapy for morpheaform basal cell carcinoma prior to standard surgical excision in order to reduce tumor size and volume and to facilitate surgical treatment. It was observed that MAL-PDT may be an option as an adjunctive therapy prior to standard surgical excision of morpheaform basal cell carcinoma, leading to less invasive surgery.

  1. Reassessing Models of Basal Ganglia Function and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Alexandra B.; Kreitzer, Anatol C.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia are a series of interconnected subcortical nuclei. The function and dysfunction of these nuclei has been studied intensively as it pertains to motor control, but more recently our knowledge of these functions has broadened to include prominent roles in cognition and affective control. This review will summarize historical models of basal ganglia function, findings which have supported or conflicted with these models, and emphasize recent work in animals and humans directly t...

  2. Cognitive-motor interactions of the basal ganglia in development

    OpenAIRE

    Gerry eLeisman; Orit eBraun-Benjamin; Robert eMelillo

    2014-01-01

    Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures and the neocortex throughout the human brain regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia, which regulate motor control, are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function. The basal ganglia are key elements in the control of reward-bas...

  3. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Anca; Mihaila, Doina; Foia, Liliana; Solovan, Caius

    2013-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain) can be applied and resolve such cases.

  4. An MRI atlas of the mouse basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Watson, Charles; Janke, Andrew L; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Paxinos, George; Reutens, David C

    2014-07-01

    The basal ganglia are a group of subpallial nuclei that play an important role in motor, emotional, and cognitive functions. Morphological changes and disrupted afferent/efferent connections in the basal ganglia have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders including psychiatric and movement disorders. While high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize changes in brain structure in mouse models of these disorders, no systematic method for segmentation of the C57BL/6 J mouse basal ganglia exists. In this study we have used high-resolution MR images of ex vivo C57BL/6 J mouse brain to create a detailed protocol for segmenting the basal ganglia. We created a three-dimensional minimum deformation atlas, which includes the segmentation of 35 striatal, pallidal, and basal ganglia-related structures. In addition, we provide mean volumes, mean T2 contrast intensities and mean FA and ADC values for each structure. This MR atlas is available for download, and enables researchers to perform automated segmentation in genetic models of basal ganglia disorders.

  5. A candidate region for Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome defined by genetic and physical mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, B.; Negus, K.; Berkman, J. [Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, or Gorlin`s syndrome) is a cancer predisposition syndrome charcterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and diverse developmental defects. The gene responsible for NBCCS, which is most likely to be a tumor suppressor gene, has previously been mapped to 9q22.3-q31 in a 12 cM interval between the microsatellite marker loci D9S12 and D9S109. Combined multipoint and haplotype analyses of Australian pedigrees has further refined the localization to a 2 cM interval between markers D9S196 and D9S180. Our loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies from sporadic (n= 58) and familial (n=41) BCCs indicate that 50% have deletions within the NBCCS candidate region. All LOH is consistent with the genetic mapping of the NBCCS locus. Additionally, one sporadic tumor indicates that the smallest region of overlap in the deletions is within the interval D9S287 (proximal) and D9S180 (distal). A series of YAC clones from within this region has been mapped by FISH to examine chimerism. These clones, which have been mapped with respect to one another, form a contig which encompasses the candidate region from D9S196 to D9S180.

  6. PML nuclear bodies contribute to the basal expression of the mTOR inhibitor DDIT4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, Jayme; Stathakis, Alex; Parker, Ellen; Chung, Dudley; Anthes, Livia E.; Koskowich, Kara L.; Lahsaee, Sara; Gaston, Daniel; Kukurba, Kimberly R.; Smith, Kevin S.; Chute, Ian C.; Léger, Daniel; Frost, Laura D.; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Lewis, Stephen M.; Eskiw, Christopher; Dellaire, Graham

    2017-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein is an essential component of PML nuclear bodies (PML NBs) frequently lost in cancer. PML NBs coordinate chromosomal regions via modification of nuclear proteins that in turn may regulate genes in the vicinity of these bodies. However, few PML NB-associated genes have been identified. PML and PML NBs can also regulate mTOR and cell fate decisions in response to cellular stresses. We now demonstrate that PML depletion in U2OS cells or TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts results in decreased expression of the mTOR inhibitor DDIT4 (REDD1). DNA and RNA immuno-FISH reveal that PML NBs are closely associated with actively transcribed DDIT4 loci, implicating these bodies in regulation of basal DDIT4 expression. Although PML silencing did reduce the sensitivity of U2OS cells to metabolic stress induced by metformin, PML loss did not inhibit the upregulation of DDIT4 in response to metformin, hypoxia-like (CoCl2) or genotoxic stress. Analysis of publicly available cancer data also revealed a significant correlation between PML and DDIT4 expression in several cancer types (e.g. lung, breast, prostate). Thus, these findings uncover a novel mechanism by which PML loss may contribute to mTOR activation and cancer progression via dysregulation of basal DDIT4 gene expression. PMID:28332630

  7. Do Fish Resist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Joseph Wadiwel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available There have been a number of scientific studies on the question of whether fish feel pain. Some have suggested that some fish indeed do feel pain and that this has significant welfare implications (2003. Others have argued that fish do not have the brain development necessary to feel pain. In terms of number of animals killed, the slaughter of sea animals for human consumption significantly exceeds that of any land animals that we use for food, and sea animal slaughter practices frequently lack any basic welfare protections. If fish can be shown to feel pain—or more importantly, if humans can agree that fish feel pain—then this would place a significant question mark over many contemporary fishing practices.  This article substitutes the question 'Do Fish Feel Pain?' with an alternative: 'Do Fish Resist?' It explores the conceptual problems of understanding fish resistance, and the politics of epistemology that surrounds and seeks to develop a conceptual framework for understanding fish resistance to human capture by exploring the development of fishing technologies - the hook, the net and contemporary aquaculture.

  8. Fish allergy: in review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Michael F; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-06-01

    Globally, the rising consumption of fish and its derivatives, due to its nutritional value and divergence of international cuisines, has led to an increase in reports of adverse reactions to fish. Reactions to fish are not only mediated by the immune system causing allergies, but are often caused by various toxins and parasites including ciguatera and Anisakis. Allergic reactions to fish can be serious and life threatening and children usually do not outgrow this type of food allergy. The route of exposure is not only restricted to ingestion but include manual handling and inhalation of cooking vapors in the domestic and occupational environment. Prevalence rates of self-reported fish allergy range from 0.2 to 2.29 % in the general population, but can reach up to 8 % among fish processing workers. Fish allergy seems to vary with geographical eating habits, type of fish processing, and fish species exposure. The major fish allergen characterized is parvalbumin in addition to several less well-known allergens. This contemporary review discusses interesting and new findings in the area of fish allergy including demographics, novel allergens identified, immunological mechanisms of sensitization, and innovative approaches in diagnosing and managing this life-long disease.

  9. Fish under exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; Planas, Josep V

    2011-06-01

    Improved knowledge on the swimming physiology of fish and its application to fisheries science and aquaculture (i.e., farming a fitter fish) is currently needed in the face of global environmental changes, high fishing pressures, increased aquaculture production as well as increased concern on fish well-being. Here, we review existing data on teleost fish that indicate that sustained exercise at optimal speeds enhances muscle growth and has consequences for flesh quality. Potential added benefits of sustained exercise may be delay of ovarian development and stimulation of immune status. Exercise could represent a natural, noninvasive, and economical approach to improve growth, flesh quality as well as welfare of aquacultured fish: a FitFish for a healthy consumer. All these issues are important for setting directions for policy decisions and future studies in this area. For this purpose, the FitFish workshop on the Swimming Physiology of Fish ( http://www.ub.edu/fitfish2010 ) was organized to bring together a multidisciplinary group of scientists using exercise models, industrial partners, and policy makers. Sixteen international experts from Europe, North America, and Japan were invited to present their work and view on migration of fishes in their natural environment, beneficial effects of exercise, and applications for sustainable aquaculture. Eighty-eight participants from 19 different countries contributed through a poster session and round table discussion. Eight papers from invited speakers at the workshop have been contributed to this special issue on The Swimming Physiology of Fish.

  10. Zoonoses associated with fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Shane

    2011-09-01

    The taxonomic group that composes the fishes is the most diverse group of vertebrates worldwide. The challenges of unique physiologies, a foreign environment, and many unknowns attract a passionate group of biologists and veterinarians. Economically, fishes have become vital as food, bait, and companion animals. Fishermen and fish handlers (processing plants) represent the historical human population exposed to fish zoonoses, but growth in aquaculture and aquarium hobbyists have led to an increase in published fish-borne zoonotic cases starting in the late 1950s that bloomed in the 1980s. Human physicians, particularly dermatologists and infectious disease specialists, are now more aware of fish-borne zoonoses, but they can be assisted with diagnosis when informed patients give more detailed histories with fish/water exposure.

  11. Southeast Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains biological resource data for estuarine, benthic, and pelagic fish in Southeast Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set represent locations of...

  12. Columbia River ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in Columbia River. Vector polygons in this...

  13. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  14. American Samoa ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in American Samoa. Vector polygons in this data set...

  15. Fish elevator and method of elevating fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truebe, Jonathan; Drooker, Michael S.

    1984-01-01

    A means and method for transporting fish from a lower body of water to a higher body of water. The means comprises a tubular lock with a gated entrance below the level of the lower body of water through which fish may enter the lock and a discharge passage above the level of the upper body of water. The fish raising means in the lock is a crowder pulled upward by a surface float as water from the upper body of water gravitationally flows into the closed lock filling it to the level of the upper body. Water is then pumped into the lock to raise the level to the discharge passage. The crowder is then caused to float upward the remaining distance through the water to the level of the discharge passage by the introduction of air into a pocket on the underside of the crowder. The fish are then automatically discharged from the lock into the discharge passage by the out of water position of the crowder. The movement of the fish into the discharge passage is aided by the continuous overflow of water still being pumped into the lock. A pipe may be connected to the discharge passage to deliver the fish to a selected location in the upper body of water.

  16. Cognitive-Motor Interactions of the Basal Ganglia in Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry eLeisman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits linking activity in anatomically segregated populations of neurons in subcortical structures regulate complex behaviors such as walking, talking, language comprehension, and other cognitive functions associated with frontal lobes. The basal ganglia are also crucial elements in the circuits that confer human reasoning and adaptive function and are key elements in the control of reward-based learning, sequencing, discrete elements that constitute complete motor acts, and cognitive function. Imaging studies of intact humans and electrophysiologic studies of the brains and behavior of other species confirm these findings. We know that the relation between the basal ganglia and the cerebral cortical region allows for connections organized into discrete circuits. Rather than serving as a means for widespread cortical areas to gain access to the motor system, these loops reciprocally interconnect a large and diverse set of cerebral cortical areas with the basal ganglia. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia associated with motor areas of the cerebral cortex is highly correlated with parameters of movement. Neuronal activity within the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops associated with the prefrontal cortex is related to the aspects of cognitive function. Thus, individual loops appear to be involved in distinct behavioral functions. Damage to the basal ganglia of circuits with motor areas of the cortex leads to motor symptoms, whereas damage to the subcortical components of circuits with non-motor areas of the cortex causes higher-order deficits. In this report, we review some of the anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral findings that have contributed to a reappraisal of function concerning the basal ganglia and cerebellar loops with the cerebral cortex and apply it in clinical applications to ADHD with biomechanics and a discussion of retention of primitive reflexes being highly associated with the condition.

  17. Vismodegib (ERIVEDGE°) In basal cell carcinoma: too many unknowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Basal cell carcinomas are the most common skin cancers. They are usually localised and carry a good prognosis. There is no standard treatment for the rare patients with metastatic basal cell carcinoma or very extensive basal cell carcinoma for whom surgery or radiotherapy is inappropriate. Vismodegib, a cytotoxic drug, is claimed to prevent tumour growth by inhibiting a pathway involved in tissue repair and embryogenesis. It has been authorised in the European Union for patients with metastatic or locally advanced and extensive basal cell carcinoma. Clinical evaluation of vismodegib is based on a non-comparative clinical trial involving 104 patients, providing only weak evidence. Twenty-one months after the start of the trial, 7 patients with metastases (21%) and 6 patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma (10%) had died. Given the lack of a placebo group, there is no way of knowing whether vismodegib had any effect, positive or negative, on survival. There were no complete responses among patients with metastases, but about one-third of them had partial responses. Among the 63 patients with locally advanced basal cell carcinoma, there were 14 complete responses and 16 partial responses. The recurrence rate in patients with complete responses was not reported. Similar results were reported in two other uncontrolled trials available in mid-2014. Vismodegib has frequent and sometimes serious adverse effects, including muscle spasms, fatigue and severe hyponatraemia. Cases of severe weight loss, alopecia, ocular disorders, other cancers (including squamous cell carcinoma) and anaemia have also been reported. More data are needed on possible hepatic and cardiovascular adverse effects. A potent teratogenic effect was seen in experimental animals. As vismodegib enters semen, contraception is mandatory for both men (condoms) and women. In practice, vismodegib has frequent and varied adverse effects, some of which are serious, while its benefits are poorly documented

  18. Toward sophisiticated basal ganglia neuromodulation: review on basal gaglia deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cunha, Claudio; Boschen, Suelen L.; Gómez-A, Alexander; Ross, Erika K.; Gibson, William S. J.; Min, Hoon-Ki; Lee, Kendall H.; Blaha, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    This review presents state-of-the-art knowledge about the roles of the basal ganglia (BG) in action-selection, cognition, and motivation, and how this knowledge has been used to improve deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Such pathological conditions include Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Tourette syndrome, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The first section presents evidence supporting current hypotheses of how the cortico-BG circuitry works to select motor and emotional actions, and how defects in this circuitry can cause symptoms of the BG diseases. Emphasis is given to the role of striatal dopamine on motor performance, motivated behaviors and learning of procedural memories. Next, the use of cutting-edge electrochemical techniques in animal and human studies of BG functioning under normal and disease conditions is discussed. Finally, functional neuroimaging studies are reviewed; these works have shown the relationship between cortico-BG structures activated during DBS and improvement of disease symptoms. PMID:25684727

  19. Conservation of shh cis-regulatory architecture of the coelacanth is consistent with its ancestral phylogenetic position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang Michael

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The modern coelacanth (Latimeria is the extant taxon of a basal sarcopterygian lineage and sister group to tetrapods. Apart from certain apomorphic traits, its morphology is characterized by a high degree of retention of ancestral vertebrate structures and little morphological change. An insight into the molecular evolution that may explain the unchanged character of Latimeria morphology requires the analysis of the expression patterns of developmental regulator genes and their cis-regulatory modules (CRMs. Results We describe the comparative and functional analysis of the sonic hedgehog (shh genomic region of Latimeria menadoensis. Several putative enhancers in the Latimeria shh locus have been identified by comparisons to sarcopterygian and actinopterygian extant species. Specific sequence conservation with all known actinopterygian enhancer elements has been detected. However, these elements are selectively missing in more recently diverged actinopterygian and sarcopterygian species. The functionality of the putative Latimeria enhancers was confirmed by reporter gene expression analysis in transient transgenic zebrafish and chick embryos. Conclusions Latimeria shh CRMs represent the ancestral set of enhancers that have emerged before the split of lobe-finned and ray-finned fishes. In contrast to lineage-specific losses and differentiations in more derived lineages, Latimeria shh enhancers reveal low levels of sequence diversification. High overall sequence conservation of shh conserved noncoding elements (CNE is consistent with the general trend of high levels of conservation of noncoding DNA in the slowly evolving Latimeria genome.

  20. Spontaneous behavior of basal Copionodontinae cave catfishes from Brazil (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Rantin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cave animals are particularly interesting due to their behavioral specializations, resultant from evolution in isolation. We present data from a spontaneous behavior study (spatial distribution and preference for microhabitats of two troglobitic catfish from Brazil: Glaphyropoma spinosum and a new species of Copionodon. We compared the data with those obtained of a sympatric epigean species, Copionodon pecten. These Trichomycteridae species belong to a basal and apparently monophyletic subfamily – Copionodontinae, endemic to Chapada Diamantina, central Bahia state, eastern Brazil. We observed the fishes in natural and laboratory conditions through ad libitum and focal animal methods. Each spatial behavioral category (hidden, bottom, midwater, surface and wall swimming and stationary in the bottom was timed individually, with a sample of 12 specimens per species. Unlike most troglobitic fishes, cave copionodontines tested herein did not extend exploratory behavior to midwater, with benthonic and thigmotactic-related exploratory behavior. This behavior is possibly related to its feeding behavior specializations, strong territorialism and photophobic behavior. The epigean Copionodon species is also benthonic. The spatial behavior of the cave Copionodontinae could be interpreted as a retained and plesiomorphic character-state in relation to other trichomycterid catfishes.

  1. Vaccination in Fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar

    vaccines have reduced the need for usage of antibiotics with more than 99 % since the 1980s. Fish can be vaccinated by three different administration routes: injection, immersion and oral vaccination. Injection vaccination (intraperitoneal injection of vaccine) is the most time consuming and labor...... intensive method, which however, provides the best protection of the fish. Immersion vaccination is used for immunization of a high number of small fish is cost-efficient and fast (30 sec immersion into vaccine). Oral vaccination (vaccine in feed) is the least efficient. As in higher vertebrates fish...... respond to vaccination by increasing the specific antibody titer and by activating the cellular responses. My talk will cover vaccination methods in fish, immune responses and some adverse effect of oil-adjuvanted vaccines in fish with reference to our work in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss....

  2. Selection of media for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Inger

    2001-01-01

    The available data concerning antimicrobial susceptibility testing of fish pathogens showed that there is no consensus to the basal medium currently being employed. Different media recommended for susceptibility testing of human pathogens (Mueller-Hinton Agar, Tryptone Soya Agar, Antibiotic Medium...

  3. Evidence for a divergence in function between two glucocorticoid receptors from a basal teleost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplicated glucocorticoid receptors (GR are present in most teleost fish. The evolutionary advantage of retaining two GRs is unclear, as no subtype specific functional traits or physiological roles have been defined. To identify factors driving the retention of duplicate GRs in teleosts, the current study examined GRs in representatives of two basal ray-finned fish taxa that emerged either side of the teleost lineage whole genome duplication event (WGD event, the acipenseriform, Acipenser ruthenus, (pre-WGD and the osteoglossimorph, Pantodon buchholzi, (post-WGD. Results The study identified a single GR in A. ruthenus (ArGR and two GRs in P. buchholzi (PbGR1 and PbGR2. Phylogenetic analyses showed that ArGR formed a distinct branch separate from the teleosts GRs. The teleost GR lineage was subdivded into two sublineages, each of which contained one of the two P. buchholzi GRs. ArGR, PbGR1 and PbGR2 all possess the unique 9 amino acid insert between the zinc-fingers of the DNA-binding domain that is present in one of the teleost GR lineages (GR1, but not the other (GR2. A splice variant of PbGR2 produces an isoform that lacked these 9 amino acids (PbGR2b. Cortisol stimulated transactivation activity of ArGR, PbGR2b and PbGR1 in vitro; with PbGR2b and PbGR1, the glucocorticoid 11-deoxycortisol was a more potent agonist than cortisol. The hormone sensitivity of PbGR2b and PbGR1 differed in the transactivation assay, with PbGR2b having lower EC50 values and greater fold induction. Conclusions The difference in transactivation activity sensitivity between duplicated GRs of P. buchholzi suggests potential functional differences between the paralogs emerged early in the teleost lineage. Given the pleiotropic nature of GR function in vertebrates, this finding is in accordance with the hypothesis that duplicated GRs were potentially retained through subfunctionalisation followed by gene sharing. A 9 amino acid insert in the DNA

  4. Do Fish Sleep?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Most fish can’t shut their eyes, so it’s easy to think they don’t sleep. But that’s like assuming humans don’t sleep because we can’t shut our ears to drown out sound. In fact, many species of fish take time out during the day or (more often) at night to enter a sleeplike stage. Some of these fish float in place, others lie on the bottom。

  5. Fish and wildlife surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the monitoring of radioactive contaminants in fish and wildlife species that inhabit the Colombia River and Hanford Site. Wildlife have access to areas of the Site containing radioactive contamination, and fish can be exposed to contamination in spring water entering the river along the shoreline. Therefore, samples are collected at various locations annually, generally during the hunting or fishing season, for selected species.

  6. Rapid Ecological Assessment of Forests in the Laurentian Mixed Forest-Great Lakes Coastal Biological Network, Midwest Region, National Wildlife Refuge System, US Fish & Wildlife Service: Forest Community Analysis: Seney NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Using relative basal area (%) by species of the 112 plots sampled across 11 stands at Seney NWR as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment (Corace et al. 2011), we...

  7. Intelligent Fish Freshness Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Gholam Hosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish species identification and automated fish freshness assessment play important roles in fishery industry applications. This paper describes a method based on support vector machines (SVMs to improve the performance of fish identification systems. The result is used for the assessment of fish freshness using artificial neural network (ANN. Identification of the fish species involves processing of the images of fish. The most efficient features were extracted and combined with the down-sampled version of the images to create a 1D input vector. Max-Win algorithm applied to the SVM-based classifiers has enhanced the reliability of sorting to 96.46%. The realisation of Cyranose 320 Electronic nose (E-nose, in order to evaluate the fish freshness in real-time, is experimented. Intelligent processing of the sensor patterns involves the use of a dedicated ANN for each species under study. The best estimation of freshness was provided by the most sensitive sensors. Data was collected from four selected species of fishes over a period of ten days. It was concluded that the performance can be increased using individual trained ANN for each specie. The proposed system has been successful in identifying the number of days after catching the fish with an accuracy of up to 91%.

  8. Anglers' fishing problem

    CERN Document Server

    Karpowicz, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The considered model will be formulated as related to "the fishing problem" even if the other applications of it are much more obvious. The angler goes fishing. He uses various techniques and he has at most two fishing rods. He buys a fishing ticket for a fixed time. The fishes are caught with the use of different methods according to the renewal processes. The fishes' value and the inter arrival times are given by the sequences of independent, identically distributed (i.i.d.) random variables with the known distribution functions. It forms the marked renewal--reward process. The angler's measure of satisfaction is given by the difference between the utility function, depending on the value of the fishes caught, and the cost function connected with the time of fishing. In this way, the angler's relative opinion about the methods of fishing is modelled. The angler's aim is to have as much satisfaction as possible and additionally he has to leave the lake before a fixed moment. Therefore his goal is to find two...

  9. Combating Illegal Fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Stanciu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing is a worldwide phenomenon. Its extent and its environmental,economic and social consequences are such that it has become a priority issue at international level. IUU fishingcontributes to the depletion of fish stocks and jeopardises protection and recovery measures put in place to ensure theviability of resources. It represents unfair competition for those who exploit fish resources legally. The Commissionhave been involved in the fight against IUU fishing for over a decade and in 2002 the Commission adopted an ActionPlan against IUU fishing inspired by the FAOs International Plan of Action to prevent, deter and eliminate IUUfishing of 2001. However, despite regional and international efforts to stop IUU fishing the phenomenon is still agrowing problem and as a result, the European Community intensified its action towards IUU fishing by launching aconsultation process in 2007. A Proposal to prevent, deter and eliminate IUU fishing was adopted in October 2007and a Regulation to prevent, deter and eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU fishing was adopted on 29September 2008, after a unanimous political agreement.

  10. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fish may contain high levels of mercury, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dioxins and other environmental contaminants. Shark, swordfish, tilefish (golden bass or golden snapper) and ...

  11. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face in elderly patients. We present three cases of basal cell carcinoma with good results with cryotherapy. This report aims to outline and to prove that in some difficult situations, a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-perform procedure with no contraindications and with minimal side effects (erythema, mild pain can be applied and resolve such cases. Keywords: basal cell carcinoma, cryotherapy

  12. An Unusual Location of Basal Cell Carcinoma: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgül Tepe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant skin tumour. Chronic sun exposure is considered as the main etiologic factor in its development. Although it mainly occurs on sun-exposed areas as the face and neck, it rarely develops on the forearms and/or arms. The etiologic factors which affect the anatomic distribution of basal cell carcinoma are not well-known. Here we report two patients who developed basal cell carcinoma on the forearm. None of the patients had a specific etiologic factor except for chronic sunlight exposure. The aim of our report is to show that this prevalant cutaneous malignancy can be encountered in rare/unusual areas. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 51-4

  13. Multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Ja; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-15

    We present two cases of multiple jaw cysts not associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 1 : a nine year-old boy visited CNU Hospital for orthodontic treatment and his radiographs showed cystic lesions surrounding the crowns of teeth 13 and 17 respectively, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. Subsequently, two more cysts were found on his follow-up radiographs in 12 and 15 months. The two cysts were determined to be odontogenic keratocysts. The boy had no skeletal abnormalities and no skin lesions associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Case 2: a fifty-eight year old man had three impacted third molars with pericoronal radiolucencies, which were diagnosed as dentigerous cysts. He had no additional abnormalities associated with basal cell nevus syndrome. Multiple jaw cysts can occur at any age, and periodic radiographic surveillance may be needed for any cases of impacted tooth.

  14. Computed tomography of granulomatous basal meningitis caused by pneumococcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonobe, Makoto; Takahashi, Shinichiro (Mito National Hospital, Ibaraki (Japan)); Ohara, Kazuo

    1983-07-01

    A case of 3-month-old female with ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' caused by pneumococcus was described. She suffered from high fever, vomiting, convulsion and loss of consciousness on January 28th, 1982. On admission the protein content of the spinal fluid was 280 mg/100 ml, the glucose 4 mg/100 ml and the cell count was 1206/3(L : 845, N : 361). Her symptoms and signs were deteriorated in spite of antibiotics and anticonvulsants. CT scan on the 10th day showed the enhanced basal cistern. She died on the 11th day but autopsy was not carried out. In this case, pneumococcus was cultured in CSF. This seemed to be the first case of ''granulomatous basal meningitis'' due to purulent meningitis in Japan.

  15. Ammonia distribution and excretion in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, D J; Wright, P A

    1987-05-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning ammonia production, storage and excretion in fish. Ammonia is the end product of protein catabolism and is stored in the body of fish in high concentrations relative to basal excretion rates. Ammonia, if allowed to accumulate, is toxic and is converted to less toxic compounds or excreted. Like other weak acids and bases, ammonia is distributed between tissue compartments in relation to transmembrane pH gradients. NH3 is generally equilibrated between compartments but NH4 (+) is distributed according to pH. Ammonia is eliminated from the blood upon passage through the gills. The mechanisms of branchial ammonia excretion vary between different species of fish and different environments, and primarily involves NH3 passive diffusion and NH4 (+)/Na(+) exchange. Water chemistry near the gill surface may also be important to ammonia excretion, but a more accurate measurement of the NH3 gradient across the gill epithelium is required before a more detailed analysis of NH3 and NH4 (+) excretion can be made.

  16. Kinome expression profiling and prognosis of basal breast cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquemier Jocelyne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Basal breast cancers (BCs represent ~15% of BCs. Although overall poor, prognosis is heterogeneous. Identification of good- versus poor-prognosis patients is difficult or impossible using the standard histoclinical features and the recently defined prognostic gene expression signatures (GES. Kinases are often activated or overexpressed in cancers, and constitute targets for successful therapies. We sought to define a prognostic model of basal BCs based on kinome expression profiling. Methods DNA microarray-based gene expression and histoclinical data of 2515 early BCs from thirteen datasets were collected. We searched for a kinome-based GES associated with disease-free survival (DFS in basal BCs of the learning set using a metagene-based approach. The signature was then tested in basal tumors of the independent validation set. Results A total of 591 samples were basal. We identified a 28-kinase metagene associated with DFS in the learning set (N = 73. This metagene was associated with immune response and particularly cytotoxic T-cell response. On multivariate analysis, a metagene-based predictor outperformed the classical prognostic factors, both in the learning and the validation (N = 518 sets, independently of the lymphocyte infiltrate. In the validation set, patients whose tumors overexpressed the metagene had a 78% 5-year DFS versus 54% for other patients (p = 1.62E-4, log-rank test. Conclusions Based on kinome expression, we identified a predictor that separated basal BCs into two subgroups of different prognosis. Tumors associated with higher activation of cytotoxic tumor-infiltrative lymphocytes harbored a better prognosis. Such classification should help tailor the treatment and develop new therapies based on immune response manipulation.

  17. Molecular characterization of Italian nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorino, L; Cusano, R; Nasti, S; Faravelli, F; Forzano, F; Baldo, C; Barile, M; Gliori, S; Muggianu, M; Ghigliotti, G; Lacaita, M G; Lo Muzio, L; Bianchi-Scarra, G

    2005-03-01

    Mutations in the PTCH gene, the human homolog of the Drosophila patched gene, have been found to lead to the autosomal dominant disorder termed Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome (NBCCS, also called Gorlin Syndrome). Patients display an array of developmental anomalies and are prone to develop a variety of tumors, with multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas occurring frequently. We provide here the results of molecular testing of a set of Italian Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients. Twelve familial patients belonging to 7 kindreds and 5 unaffected family members, 6 non-familial patients and an additional set of 7 patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the disease were examined for mutations in the PTCH gene. All of the Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome patients were found to carry variants of the PTCH gene. We detected nine novel mutations (1 of which occurring twice): 1 missense mutation (c.1436T>G [p.L479R]), 1 nonsense mutation (c.1138G>T [p.E380X]), 6 frameshift mutations (c.323_324ins2, c.2011_2012dup, c.2535_2536dup, c.2577_2583del, c.3000_3005del, c.3050_3051del), 1 novel splicing variant (c.6552A>T) and 3 mutations that have been previously reported (c.3168+5G>A, c.1526G>T [p.G509V], and c.3499G>A [p.G1167R]). None of the patients with multiple Basal Cell Carcinoma but no other criteria for the syndrome, carried germline coding region mutations.

  18. A review of stand basal area growth models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Hong-gang; Zhang Jian-guo; Duan Ai-guo; He Cai-yun

    2007-01-01

    Growth and yield modeling has a long history in forestry. The methods of measuring the growth of stand basal area have evolved from those developed in the U.S.A. and Germany during the last century. Stand basal area modeling has progressed rapidly since the first widely used model was published by the U.S. Forest Service. Over the years, a variety of models have been developed for predicting the growth and yield of uneven/even-aged stands using stand-level approaches. The modeling methodology has not only moved from an empirical approach to a more ecological process-based approach but also accommodated a variety of techniques such as: 1) simultaneous equation methods, 2) difference models, 3) artificial neural network techniques, 4) linear/nonlinear regression models, and 5) matrix models. Empirical models using statistical methods were developed to reproduce accurately and precisely field observations. In contrast, process models have a shorter history, developed originally as research and education tools with the aim of increasing the understanding of cause and effect relationships. Empirical and process models can be married into hybrid models in which the shortcomings of both component approaches can, to some extent, be overcome. Algebraic difference forms of stand basal area models which consist of stand age, stand density and site quality can fully describe stand growth dynamics. This paper reviews the current literature regarding stand basal area models, discusses the basic types of models and their merits and outlines recent progress in modeling growth and dynamics of stand basal area. Future trends involving algebraic difference forms, good fitting variables and model types into stand basal area modeling strategies are discussed.

  19. Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajanikanth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS or Gorlin - Goltz syndrome is an autosomal disorder principally characterized by cutaneous basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocysts, and skeletal anomalies. The major organ systems involved are skin, bones, central nervous system, eyes, gonads and endocrine. This particular syndrome is extensively described in the literature under different names. However, there are only few cases reported in the Indian literature. An unusual case of a 33-year old male with large odontogenic keratocyst involving impacted canine in the mandible, along with multiple cysts and impacted teeth in the maxilla; bifid rib and vertebral anomalies has been described.

  20. Development and Use of Genetic Methods for Assessing Aquatic Environmental Condition and Recruitment Dynamics of Native Stream Fishes on Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    299: 107 – 109. Thacker, C. E., Hardman, M. A. 2005. Molecular phylogeny of basal gobioid fishes : Rhyacichthyidae, Odontobutidae, Xenisthmidae... Fishes on Pacific Islands SERDP Project RC-1646 APRIL 2014 Michael J. Blum Tulane University James F. Gilliam North...Dynamics of Native Stream Fishes on Pacific Islands 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT

  1. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Areas Protected From Fishing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Designated Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) areas where fishing or the use of fishing gears has been restricted or modified in order to minimize the adverse effects of...

  2. Fish Springs NWR mammal, fish, amphibian, and reptile list

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following is a species list for mammals, fishes, amphibians, and reptiles found on or adjacent to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge, as of October, 1996.

  3. Metastatic basal cell carcinoma caused by carcinoma misdiagnosed as acne - case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aydin, Dogu; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis.......Basal cell carcinoma can be misdiagnosed as acne; thus, carcinoma should be considered in treatment-resistant acne. Although rare, neglected basal cell carcinoma increases the risk of metastasis....

  4. Alaskan sport fishing waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As a guide to newcomers and visitors, fishery biologists have compiled a list of some of the well-known fishing waters in Alaska. The list is merely a starting point...

  5. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  6. PARASITES OF FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intent of this chapter is to describe the parasites of importance to fishes maintained and used in laboratory settings. In contrast to the frist edition, the focus will be only on those parasites that pose a serious threat to or are common in fishes held in these confined en...

  7. Folkbiology of Freshwater Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Douglas L.; Ross, Norbert O.; Atran, Scott; Cox, Douglas; Coley, John; Proffitt, Julia B.; Blok, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    Cross-cultural comparisons of categorization often confound cultural factors with expertise. This paper reports four experiments on the conceptual behavior of Native American and majority-culture fish experts. The two groups live in the same general area and engage in essentially the same set of fishing-related behaviors. Nonetheless, cultural…

  8. Biannual Fish Survey, Spring 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The biannual fish survey was initiated in 1989 to monitor population trends of federally endangered fish species at Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge. Item 421 of...

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Umbilicus: A Comprehensive Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) typically occurs in sun-exposed sites. Only 16 individuals with umbilical BCC have been described in the literature, and the characteristics of patients with umbilical BCC are summarized. PubMed was used to search the following terms: abdomen, basal cell carcinoma, basal cell nevus syndrome, and umbilicus. Papers with these terms and references cited within these papers were reviewed. BCC of the umbilicus has been reported in five men and 11 women; one man had two tumors. Two patients had basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS). Other risk factors for BCC were absent. The tumor most commonly demonstrated nodular histology (64%, 9/14); superficial and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus variants were noted in three and two patients, respectively. The tumor was pigmented in eight individuals. Treatment was conventional surgical excision (87%, 13/15) or Mohs micrographic surgery (13%, 2/15); either adjuvant laser ablation or radiotherapy was performed in two patients. The prognosis after treatment was excellent with no recurrence or metastasis (100%, 16/16). In conclusion, BCC of the umbilicus is rare. It usually presents as a tumor with a non-aggressive histologic subtype in an individual with no risk factors for this malignancy. There has been no recurrence or metastasis following excision of the cancer. PMID:27738570

  10. Basal Cell Carcinoma Developing from Trichoepithelioma: Review of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, M. Ananta; Aryasomayajula, Sirish; Krishna, B.A. Rama

    2016-01-01

    Trichoepitheliomas (TE) are benign tumours but occasionally can undergo transformation to malignant neoplasms more commonly as Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC). The correct diagnosis between these tumours is very important because basal cell carcinoma is locally aggressive neoplasm and requires total surgical excision with wide healthy margins while trichoepithelioma needs simple excision. We describe three patients who developed basal cell carcinoma with facial trichoepitheliomas. The only clinical feature that distinguished the carcinomas from the trichoepitheliomas was their larger size, in all three patients, one patient with recurrent, hyper pigmented swelling with surface ulceration and in another patient there are multiple trichoepitheliomas, and other family members are also affected. The history, clinical features and histopathological findings were suggestive of the evolution of basal cell carcinoma directly from trichoepithelioma in our first two cases, but in the third case TE and BCC were separate lesions on face and we are uncertain about whether the BCC developed independently or by transformation from a trichoepithelioma. Based on our clinicopathological observations in the three patients and reports in the recent literature, BCC with follicular differentiation and trichoepithelioma are considered to be highly related. PMID:27134936

  11. PERIANTH DEVELOPMENT IN THE BASAL MONOCOT TRIGLOCHIN MARITIMA (JUNCAGINACEAE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buzgo, Matyas; Soltis, Douglas E.; Soltis, Pamela S.;

    2006-01-01

    Basal monocots exhibit considerable variation in inflorescence and floral structure. In some cases, such as Triglochin maritima, it is not clear whether the lateral and terminal structures of the inflores- cence are flowers or pseudanthia, or where the limits between flowers and inflorescence lie...

  12. Metacomprehension during Basal Reader Instruction: Do Teachers Promote It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Baumann, James F.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes elementary teachers' interactions with students during guided reading of basal reader selections to determine the extent to which the interactions promote students' metacomprehension abilities. Finds that teachers assumed most of the responsibility for students' comprehension themselves rather than conducting the lessons in a manner that…

  13. Utilizing Psycholinguistic Insights in Teaching via the Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Harold

    Ideas of educational psycholinguists Frank Smith and Kenneth Goodman can be combined with the ideas presented in current basal reader manuals to help teachers teach reading more effectively. Since reading and speaking are parallel processes, teachers may invite children to "read" with them, hearing the melody of language as they point to…

  14. Saccade learning with concurrent cortical and subcortical basal ganglia loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eN'guyen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Basal Ganglia is a central structure involved in multiple cortical and subcortical loops. Some of these loops are believed to be responsible for saccade target selection. We study here how the very specific structural relationships of these saccadic loops can affect the ability of learning spatial and feature-based tasks.We propose a model of saccade generation with reinforcement learning capabilities based onour previous basal ganglia and superior colliculus models. It is structured around the interactions of two parallel cortico-basal loops and one tecto-basal loop. The two cortical loops separately deal with spatial and non-spatial information to select targets in a concurrent way. The subcortical loop is used to make the final target selection leading to the production of thesaccade. These different loops may work in concert or disturb each other regarding reward maximization. Interactions between these loops and their learning capabilities are tested on different saccade tasks.The results show the ability of this model to correctly learn basic target selection based on different criteria (spatial or not. Moreover the model reproduces and explains training dependent express saccades toward targets based on a spatial criterion. Finally, the model predicts that in absence of prefrontal control, the spatial loop should dominate.

  15. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic neurotensin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Hoonakker, Amanda H; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-01

    Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that alters pre-synaptic dopamine (DA) activity like many psychostimulants. However, little is known about the post-synaptic dopaminergic impacts of mephedrone. The neuropeptide neurotensin (NT) provides inhibitory feedback for basal ganglia and limbic DA pathways, and post-synaptic D1 -like and D2 -like receptor activity affects NT tissue levels. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system NT content and the role of NT receptor activation in drug consumption behavior. Four 25 mg/kg injections of mephedrone increased NT content in basal ganglia (striatum, substantia nigra and globus pallidus) and the limbic regions (nucleus accumbens core), while a lower dosage (5 mg/kg/injection) only increased striatal NT content. Mephedrone-induced increases in basal ganglia NT levels were mediated by D1 -like receptors in the striatum and the substantia nigra by both D1 -like and D2 -like receptors in the globus pallidus. Mephedrone increased substance P content, another neuropeptide, in the globus pallidus, but not in the dorsal striatum or substantia nigra. Finally, the NT receptor agonist PD149163 blocked mephedrone self-administration, suggesting reduced NT release, as indicated by increased tissue levels, likely contributing to patterns of mephedrone consumption.

  16. Basal ganglia play a crucial role in decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Thibaut, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have suggested that the striatum, located at the interface of the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit, consists of separate circuits that serve distinct functions It plays an important role in motor planning, value processing, and decision making.

  17. Normal sexual dimorphism in the human basal ganglia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Everaerd, D.S.; Pol, C.; Franke, B.; Tendolkar, I.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Male and female brains differ in both structure and function. Investigating this sexual dimorphism in healthy subjects is an important first step to ultimately gain insight into sex-specific differences in behavior and risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. The basal ganglia are among the main regions

  18. [Successful therapy of metastatic basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutt, M; Mazur, F; Bergmann, M; Lemke, A J; Kaune, K M

    2014-11-01

    A 71-year-old man presented with giant basal cell carcinoma on the abdomen which had metastasized. He was treated with oral vismodegib. Both the primary ulcerated tumor on the abdomen and the metastases responded. Vismodegib was well tolerated without significant side effects. The tumor recurred promptly after vismodegib was discontinued, and then was resistant to therapy when vismodegib was re-administered.

  19. 北祁连山东段早石炭世棘鱼类、辐鳍鱼类和软骨鱼类--北祁连山东段石炭纪鱼类序列研究之一%EARLY CARBONIFEROUS FISHES (ACANTHODIAN,ACTINOPTERYGIANS AND CHONDRICHTHYES)FROM THE EAST SECTOR OF NORTH QILIAN MOUNTAIN,CHINA--Carboniferous fish sequence from the east sector of north Qilian Mountain(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王念忠; 金帆; 王炜

    2004-01-01

    对甘肃靖远一带和内蒙古自治区黑山地区早石炭世前黑山组、臭牛沟组和靖远组中三亚纲鱼类微体化石进行了形态学和古组织学研究.这些化石涉及7个目或亚目,含4属4种,其中有2新种.文中记述的属均为全球广布的属.建立了3个早石炭世鱼类组合,这是我国早石炭世第一个鱼类组合序列.辐鳍鱼类和软骨鱼类中2个目的化石均为我国早石炭世鱼类的首次记录.

  20. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G

    2013-10-03

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  1. The non-active stellar chromosphere: Ca II basal flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Martínez, M. I.; Schröder, K.-P.; Hauschildt, P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyse high-resolution, high-s/n European Southern Observatories (ESO)-archive spectra (from UVES, the UV echelle spectrograph) of 76 inactive or modestly active stars of spectral type G to M, main sequence and giants. Using PHOENIX model photospheres with Ca II K lines that match the observed line profiles, we (i) revise the effective temperatures, (ii) obtain a precise surface flux scale for each star and (iii) directly determine the exact surface fluxes of each Ca II K chromospheric emission with respect to the photospheric line profile. We find that our stellar sample exhibits a lower boundary to its chromospheric surface flux distribution with an unprecedented definition. From a subsample of the 25 least active stars, we obtain a simple empirical formula for the basal Ca II flux as a function of effective temperature: log {F^basal_{Ca II(H+K)}} = 7.05(± 0.31) log {T_eff} - 20.86(± 1.15). This is in good agreement with the Mg II basal flux. In a direct comparison with the large body of Mt Wilson S-measurements of the chromospheric Ca II emission and its well-defined cut-off, excellent agreement is achieved as well. A new result, however, is the small scatter of the least active star's fluxes about the basal flux. It is about 25 per cent and equals the residual uncertainties of our approach. At the same time, we do not find any evidence for a gravity dependence within these limits. This strongly confirms the basal flux as a well-defined and universal phenomenon, which characterizes every inactive chromosphere.

  2. Visual fields of four batoid fishes: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComb, D Michelle; Kajiura, Stephen M

    2008-02-01

    The visual fields of elasmobranch fishes are not well characterized even though this is a fundamental element of the visual system. The batoid fishes (skates, rays) form a monophyletic clade within the subclass Elasmobranchii and exhibit a broad range of morphologies and corresponding ecologies. We hypothesized that their visual field characteristics would reflect their diverse morphology and ecology. This was tested by quantifying the monocular, binocular and cyclopean horizontal and vertical visual fields of four batoid species (Raja eglanteria, Urobatis jamaicensis, Dasyatis sabina and Rhinoptera bonasus) that encompassed a range from a basal skate to a more derived ray. The horizontal and vertical visual fields differed significantly among species; however, all species possessed horizontal anterior and dorsal binocular overlaps. Urobatis jamaicensis, a small reef-associated stingray, demonstrated a 360 degrees panoramic visual field in the horizontal plane, and R. bonasus, a schooling benthopelagic ray, a 360 degrees panoramic view in the vertical plane. Large anterior binocular overlaps were measured in D. sabina (72 degrees ) and R. bonasus (46 degrees ) but came at the expense of large posterior blind areas. The anterior binocular overlaps in R. eglanteria (28 degrees ) and U. jamaicensis (34 degrees ) were smaller but were coupled with large monocular fields that provided expansive peripheral views. The most phylogenetically basal species, the clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), had the most reduced visual field in contrast to the more derived ray species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first comparative assessment of visual fields in basal vertebrates.

  3. Olfactory toxicity in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B; Baldwin, David H; Hara, Toshiaki J; Ross, Peter S; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2010-01-21

    Olfaction conveys critical environmental information to fishes, enabling activities such as mating, locating food, discriminating kin, avoiding predators and homing. All of these behaviors can be impaired or lost as a result of exposure to toxic contaminants in surface waters. Historically, teleost olfaction studies have focused on behavioral responses to anthropogenic contaminants (e.g., avoidance). More recently, there has been a shift towards understanding the underlying mechanisms and functional significance of contaminant-mediated changes in fish olfaction. This includes a consideration of how contaminants affect the olfactory nervous system and, by extension, the downstream physiological and behavioral processes that together comprise a normal response to naturally occurring stimuli (e.g., reproductive priming or releasing pheromones). Numerous studies spanning several species have shown that ecologically relevant exposures to common pollutants such as metals and pesticides can interfere with fish olfaction and disrupt life history processes that determine individual survival and reproductive success. This represents one of the pathways by which toxic chemicals in aquatic habitats may increasingly contribute to the decline and at-risk status of many commercially and ecologically important fish stocks. Despite our emerging understanding of the threats that pollution poses for chemical communication in aquatic communities, many research challenges remain. These include: (1) the determination of specific mechanisms of toxicity in the fish olfactory sensory epithelium; (2) an understanding of the impacts of complex chemical mixtures; (3) the capacity to assess olfactory toxicity in fish in situ; (4) the impacts of toxins on olfactory-mediated behaviors that are still poorly understood for many fish species; and (5) the connections between sublethal effects on individual fish and the long-term viability of wild populations. This review summarizes and integrates

  4. Why do fish school?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matz LARSSON

    2012-01-01

    Synchronized movements (schooling) emit complex and overlapping sound and pressure curves that might confuse the inner ear and lateral line organ (LLO) of a predator.Moreover,prey-fish moving close to each other may blur the electro-sensory perception of predators.The aim of this review is to explore mechanisms associated with synchronous swimming that may have contributed to increased adaptation and as a consequence may have influenced the evolution of schooling.The evolutionary development of the inner ear and the LLO increased the capacity to detect potential prey,possibly leading to an increased potential for cannibalism in the shoal,but also helped small fish to avoid joining larger fish,resulting in size homogeneity and,accordingly,an increased capacity for moving in synchrony.Water-movements and incidental sound produced as by-product of locomotion (ISOL) may provide fish with potentially useful information during swimming,such as neighbour body-size,speed,and location.When many fish move close to one another ISOL will be energetic and complex.Quiet intervals will be few.Fish moving in synchrony will have the capacity to discontinue movements simultaneously,providing relatively quiet intervals to allow the reception of potentially critical environmental signals.Besides,synchronized movements may facilitate auditory grouping of ISOL.Turning preference bias,well-functioning sense organs,good health,and skillful motor performance might be important to achieving an appropriate distance to school neighbors und aid the individual fish in reducing time spent in the comparatively less safe school periphery.Turning preferences in ancestral fish shoals might have helped fish to maintain groups and stay in formarion,reinforcing aforementioned predator confusion mechanisms,which possibly played a role in the lateralization of the vertebrate brain [Current Zoology 58 (1):116-128,2012].

  5. West Lake Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Sweet & Sour Fish is widely recognized as the best fish recipe found in the city of Hangzhou. The delectable tender sweet & sour dish would please the palate of even the most demanding gourmet. The unique preparation method follows: Method: Place a one kilogram grass carp in clear water for three days to eliminate any offensive odor, and allowing adequate time for defecation. Gut and clean the carp thoroughly. Slice open the belly, Make five equally spaced one centimeter deep incisions on one side of the fish, and another slanting cut through the thick meat on the opposite side. Be certain to ensure the

  6. Effects of the Basal Boundary on Debris-flow Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Lahusen, R. G.; Berti, M.

    2006-12-01

    Data aggregated from 37 large-scale experiments reveal some counterintuitive effects of bed roughness on debris-flow dynamics. In each experiment 10 m3 of water-saturated sand and gravel, mixed with 1 to 12% silt and clay by dry weight, was abruptly released from a gate at the head of a 2-m wide, 1.2-m deep, 82.5-m long rectangular flume inclined 31° throughout most of its length and adjoined to a gently sloping, planar runout surface at its toe. The flume's basal boundary consisted of either a smooth, planar concrete surface or a concrete surface roughened with a grid of conical bumps. Tilt-table tests with dry debris-flow sediment showed that this roughness imparted a basal friction angle of 38°, comparable to the sediment's internal friction angle of 38-42°, whereas the smooth-bed friction angle was 28°. About 20 electronic sensors installed in the flume yielded data on flow speeds and depths as well as basal stresses and pore pressures. Behavior observed in all experiments included development of steep, unsaturated, coarse-grained debris-flow snouts and tapering, liquefied, fine-grained tails. Flows on the rough bed were typically about 50% thicker and 20% slower than flows on the smooth bed, although the rough bed caused snout steepening that enabled flow fronts to move faster than expected, given the increased bed friction. Moreover, flows on rough beds ran out further than flows on smooth beds owing to enhanced grain-size segregation and lateral levee formation. With the rough bed, measured basal stresses and pore pressures differed little from values expected from static gravitational loading of partially liquefied debris. With the smooth bed, however, measured basal stresses and pore pressures were nearly twice as large as expected values. This anomaly resulted from flow disturbance at the upstream lips of steel plates in which sensors were mounted. The lips produced barely visible ripples in otherwise smooth flow surfaces, yet sufficed to generate

  7. Fish germ cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Fish, like many other animals, have two major cell lineages, namely the germline and soma. The germ-soma separation is one of the earliest events of embryonic development. Germ cells can be specifically labeled and isolated for culture and transplan-tation, providing tools for reproduction of endangered species in close relatives, such as surrogate production of trout in salmon. Haploid cell cultures, such as medaka haploid embryonic stem cells have recently been obtained, which are capable of mimicking sperm to produce fertile offspring, upon nuclear being directly transferred into normal eggs. Such fish originated from a mosaic oocyte that had a haploid meiotic nucleus and a transplanted haploid mitotic cell culture nucleus. The first semi-cloned fish is Holly. Here we review the current status and future directions of understanding and manipulating fish germ cells in basic research and reproductive technology.

  8. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  9. Of Fish and Micrornas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebr...

  10. SIS - Fish Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fish Assessment data set within the Species Information System (SIS) constraints information related to fishery stock assessments, including assessment meta-data...

  11. Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... debilitating (Miller, 1991). To date there is no antidote or effectivc treatment, so supportive care and medications ... Diagnosis, Management and Treatment, Chemical Structure, and Molecular Mechanism of Action. Additional Resources Ciguatera Fish Poisoning: Treatment, ...

  12. West Coast Fishing Ethnography

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Created as part of a 2012 BOEM study on OCS renewable energy space-use conflicts, this data contains the commercial and recreational fishing locations off the...

  13. Deformation Studies of NEEM, Greenland Basal Folded Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, K.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Montagnat, M.; Weikusat, I.

    2015-12-01

    Deep Greenland ice cores and airborne radio echo sounding (RES) images have recently revealed that basal ice flow of the Greenland Ice Sheet is very unstable. In many locations, a basal layer of disturbed ice is observed. At the NEEM, Greenland site this folding occurs at the boundary between the Eemian and glacial ice regimes, indicating that differences in physical properties of the ice play a role in the disturbance. Past work in metallurgy and ice suggests that impurity content controls grain evolution and therefore deformation. We hypothesize that the differences in ice flow seen deep in the NEEM ice core are controlled by differences in the impurity content of the ice layers. Here we present results of fabric, grain size, impurity content, and deformation studies from samples above and below this unstable boundary in the ice sheet.

  14. MRI of germinomas arising from the basal ganglia and thalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D.I.; Yoon, P.H.; Ryu, Y.H.; Jeon, P.; Hwang, G.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    We reviewed the MRI findings of germinomas originating from the basal ganglia, thalamus or deep white matter in 13 patients with 14 germinomas, excluding those in the suprasellar or pineal regions. Ten cases were confirmed as germinomas by stereotaxic biopsy, three by partial and one by total removal of the tumour. Analysis was focussed on the location and the signal characteristic of the tumour, haemorrhage, cysts within the tumour and any other associated findings. Thirteen of the tumours were in the basal ganglia and one in the thalamus. Haemorrhage was observed in seven patients, while twelve showed multiple cysts. Associated ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy was seen in three patients. The signal intensity of the parenchymal germinomas was heterogeneous on T1- and T2-weighted images due to haemorrhage, cysts and solid portions. We also report the MRI findings of germinomas in an early stage in two patients. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  15. Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (Gorlin-Goltz syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is an infrequent multisystemic disease inherited in a dominant autosomal way, which shows a high level of penetrance and variable expressiveness. It is characterized by odontogenic keratocysts in the jaw, multiple basal cell nevi carcinomas and skeletal abnormalities. This syndrome may be diagnosed early by a dentist by routine radiographic exams in the first decade of life, since the odontogenic keratocysts are usually one of the first manifestations of the syndrome. This case report presents a patient diagnosed as NBCCS by clinical, radiographic and histological findings in a 13-year-old boy. This paper highlights the importance of early diagnosis of NBCCS which can help in preventive multidisciplinary approach to provide a better prognosis for the patient.

  16. 基底节性失语%Basal Ganglia Aphasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆昱洲; 柳华; 艾青龙

    2008-01-01

    基底节病变常导致语言功能障碍,其表现彤式复杂,既可出现口语语言障碍,也可出现书面语语言障碍,几乎包括所有失语类型.文章就基底节解剖、基底节失语的定义、特点、机制以及病变部位对语言的影响做了综述.%Basal ganglion lesions often result in language impairment. Its patterns of manifestation are complicated. Patients may either have oral language disorders or written language disorders, which almost includes all types of aphasia, The article reviews the anatomy, definition, feature and mechanisms of basal ganglia aphasia as well as the effect of lesion sites on language.

  17. Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification Presented with Impulse Control Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Cem; Levent, Mustafa; Akbaba, Gulhan; Kara, Bilge; Yeniceri, Emine Nese; Inanc, Betul Battaloglu

    2015-01-01

    Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC), also referred to as Idiopathic Basal Ganglia Calcification (IBGC) or “Fahr's disease,” is a clinical condition characterized by symmetric and bilateral calcification of globus pallidus and also basal ganglions, cerebellar nuclei, and other deep cortical structures. It could be accompanied by parathyroid disorder and other metabolic disturbances. The clinical features are dysfunction of the calcified anatomic localization. IBGC most commonly presents with mental damage, convulsion, parkinson-like clinical picture, and neuropsychiatric behavior disorders; however, presentation with impulse control disorder is not a frequent presentation. In the current report, a 43-year-old male patient who has been admitted to psychiatry policlinic with the complaints of aggressive behavior episodes and who has been diagnosed with impulse control disorder and IBGC was evaluated in the light of the literature. PMID:26246920

  18. Apical versus Basal Neurogenesis Directs Cortical Interneuron Subclass Fate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Petros

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fate determination in the mammalian telencephalon, with its diversity of neuronal subtypes and relevance to neuropsychiatric disease, remains a critical area of study in neuroscience. Most studies investigating this topic focus on the diversity of neural progenitors within spatial and temporal domains along the lateral ventricles. Often overlooked is whether the location of neurogenesis within a fate-restricted domain is associated with, or instructive for, distinct neuronal fates. Here, we use in vivo fate mapping and the manipulation of neurogenic location to demonstrate that apical versus basal neurogenesis influences the fate determination of major subgroups of cortical interneurons derived from the subcortical telencephalon. Somatostatin-expressing interneurons arise mainly from apical divisions along the ventricular surface, whereas parvalbumin-expressing interneurons originate predominantly from basal divisions in the subventricular zone. As manipulations that shift neurogenic location alter interneuron subclass fate, these results add an additional dimension to the spatial-temporal determinants of neuronal fate determination.

  19. Basal autophagy is required for the efficient catabolism of sialyloligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Junichi; Wang, Li; Harada, Yoichiro; Huang, Chengcheng; Ishii, Kumiko; Mizushima, Noboru; Suzuki, Tadashi

    2013-09-13

    Macroautophagy is an essential, homeostatic process involving degradation of a cell's own components; it plays a role in catabolizing cellular components, such as protein or lipids, and damaged or excess organelles. Here, we show that in Atg5(-/-) cells, sialyloligosaccharides specifically accumulated in the cytosol. Accumulation of these glycans was observed under non-starved conditions, suggesting that non-induced, basal autophagy is essential for their catabolism. Interestingly, once accumulated in the cytosol, sialylglycans cannot be efficiently catabolized by resumption of the autophagic process, suggesting that functional autophagy is important for preventing sialyloligosaccharides from accumulating in the cytosol. Moreover, knockdown of sialin, a lysosomal transporter of sialic acids, resulted in a significant reduction of sialyloligosaccharides, implying that autophagy affects the substrate specificity of this transporter. This study thus provides a surprising link between basal autophagy and catabolism of N-linked glycans.

  20. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  1. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in basal ganglia disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández-Ruiz, Javier; Moreno-Martet, Miguel; Rodríguez-Cueto, Carmen; Palomo-Garo, Cristina; Gómez-Cañas, María; Valdeolivas, Sara; Guaza, Carmen; Romero, Julián; Guzmán, Manuel; Mechoulam, Raphael; Ramos, José A

    2011-01-01

    Cannabinoids are promising medicines to slow down disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD), two of the most important disorders affecting the basal ganglia. Two pharmacological profiles have been proposed for cannabinoids being effective in these disorders. On the one hand, cannabinoids like Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol or cannabidiol protect nigral or striatal neurons in experimental models of both disorders, in which oxid...

  2. The proprioception and neuromuscular stability of the basal thumb joint

    OpenAIRE

    Mobargha, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The basal thumb joint, or the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1) is an enigmatic construction. The concavo-convex shape of the CMC1 and wide range of movement, allows for both precision and power grips and is particularly susceptible to the development of osteoarthritis. Previous theories regarding the development of CMC1 osteoarthritis have focused on the role of gender, excessive joint load and ligament laxity as causative factors. An emerging theory is the role o...

  3. Translating structure to clinical properties of an ideal basal insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnikrishnan, A G; Bantwal, Ganapathi; Sahay, R K

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for ideal basal insulin which can overcome the unmet need of a truly once daily insulin, with a flat peakless profile. Useful for all types of patients Insulin degludec is next generation insulin with a unique mode of protraction of forming soluble multi-hexamers and slow continuous absorption giving it a flat profile compared to the existing basal insulin. In patients with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes, at steady-state, the mean terminal half-life of insulin degludec was 25 hours, i.e., approximately twice as long as for insulin glargine (half-life of 12.1 hours). In once-daily dosing regimen it reaches steady state after approximately 3 days. The duration of action of insulin degludec was estimated to be beyond 42 hours in euglycaemic clamp studies and this gives the unique opportunity of flexible time dosing which is not an available option with the existing basal insulin. The glucose-lowering effect is evenly distributed across a 24-hour dosing interval with insulin degludec having 4 times lower variability than insulin glargine. This is an important attribute given the narrow therapeutic window of insulin and the goal of achieving night time and inter-prandial glycaemic control without increasing the risk for hypoglycaemia, a goal that is challenging given the variability of absorption and lower PK half-lives of current basal insulin products. The combination of the ultra-long, flat and stable profile with an improved hour-to-hour and day-to-day variability could present an improved risk-benefit trade-off with the lower risk of hypoglycaemia, allowing for targeting improved levels of glycaemic control.

  4. Senescence in fishes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhead, A.D.

    1979-01-01

    A long-standing theory, that there is a fundamental difference in aging between fishes and higher vertebrates, is still alive in the minds of many. In 1932, Bidder proposed that aging was causatively related to the cessation of growth at sexual maturity. Fish, which continue to grow throughout their lives, would not age, and therefore were potentially immortal. His ideas were clearly disproven by Comfort, who established that the survival curves of a laboratory population of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, were very similar to those of a small mammal population under laboratory conditions. Recent data from field and laboratory studies, including histological evidence, amply confirm the occurrence of senescence in fishes. Natural death in fish has been associated with reproduction. There is good evidence for a number of species which shows that, with increasing size, the gonad forms a greater proportion of total body weight. In older, larger fish, extensive energy depletion for reproduction is suggested as an important factor in mortality. Reproductive modifications in older fish are also noted.

  5. Youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia surgery operation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi-Hua Wang; Da-Shuang Lu; Jie Cui; Bo-Lin Qiao; Jing-Chun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:Discuss surgical treatment of youth hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Methods:Retrospective analysis from January 2012 to April 2015 were adopted to bone flap craniotomy decompression for removal of hematoma and drainage drilling two kinds of surgical treatment of 46 cases of young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia.Results:Surgical operation, 28 patients postoperative review head CT, no further hemorrhage cases, residual hematoma volume 2-6 mL. Drilling drainage in the treatment of 18 patients, 1 case was bleeding again given surgical operation to remove the hematoma and the rest of the 17 cases without bleeding again, after 3 d, 17 cases of patients of postoperative hematoma drainage thoroughly. After 6 months, 46 cases of patients with postoperative review, GOS score light disability 9 cases, moderate disability 33 cases, 4 cases were severely disabled, curative effect is satisfied.Conclusions:Two kinds of operative methods each have advantages and disadvantages, young patients with hypertension cerebral hemorrhage in basal ganglia should according to patients' disease progression after speed, on admission patient's state of consciousness and head CT measured on admission hematoma volume, respectively.

  6. Movement Disorders Following Cerebrovascular Lesion in the Basal Ganglia Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinse

    2016-05-01

    Movement disorders are primarily associated with the basal ganglia and the thalamus; therefore, movement disorders are more frequently manifest after stroke compared with neurological injuries associated with other structures of the brain. Overall clinical features, such as types of movement disorder, the time of onset and prognosis, are similar with movement disorders after stroke in other structures. Dystonia and chorea are commonly occurring post-stroke movement disorders in basal ganglia circuit, and these disorders rarely present with tremor. Rarer movement disorders, including tic, restless leg syndrome, and blepharospasm, can also develop following a stroke. Although the precise mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of these conditions have not been fully characterized, disruptions in the crosstalk between the inhibitory and excitatory circuits resulting from vascular insult are proposed to be the underlying cause. The GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)ergic and dopaminergic systems play key roles in post-stroke movement disorders. This review summarizes movement disorders induced by basal ganglia and thalamic stroke according to the anatomical regions in which they manifest.

  7. Effects of aging on basal fat oxidation in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Marchetti, Christine M; Krishnan, Raj K

    2008-01-01

    Basal fat oxidation decreases with age. In obesity, it is not known whether this age-related process occurs independently of changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Therefore, body composition, resting energy expenditure, basal substrate oxidation, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2......)max) were measured in 10 older (age, 60 +/- 4 years; mean +/- SEM) and 10 younger (age, 35 +/- 4 years) body mass index-matched, obese, normal glucose-tolerant individuals. Fasting blood samples were also collected. Older subjects had slightly elevated fat mass (32.2 +/- 7.1 vs 36.5 +/- 6.7 kg, P...... = .16); however, waist circumference was not different between groups (104.3 +/- 10.3 vs 102.1 +/- 12.6 cm, P = .65). Basal fat oxidation was 22% lower (1.42 +/- 0.14 vs 1.17 +/- 0.22 mg/kg fat-free mass per minute, P = .03) in older subjects. The VO(2)max was also decreased in older individuals (44...

  8. Photodynamic therapy for basal cell skin cancer ENT-organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Volgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of photodynamic therapy in 96 patients with primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs are represented. For photodynamic therapy the Russian-made photosensitizer Photoditazine at dose of 0.6–1.4 mg/kg was used. Parameters were selected taking into account type and extent of tumor and were as follows: output power – 0.1–3.0 W, power density – 0.1–1.3 W/cm2, light dose – 100–400 J/cm2. The studies showed high efficacy of treatment for primary and recurrent basal cell skin cancer of nose, ear and external auditory canal – from 87.5 to 94.7% of complete regression. Examples of efficacy of the method are represented in the article. High efficacy and good cosmetic effects allowed to make a conclusion about perspectivity of photodynamic therapy for recurrent basal cell skin cancer of ENT-organs. 

  9. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  10. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  11. Pigmented basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid in Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Koo Lin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Lily Koo Lin1, Han Lee2, Eli Chang11Department of Oculoplastics, Doheny Eye Institute, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Pigmented basal cell carcinoma (PBCC of the eyelid has not been well cited in the literature, and is often overlooked in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions. We aim to describe PBCC of the eyelid in Hispanic patients.Methods: Retrospective review of patients with eyelid skin cancer who presented to the Department of Dermatology at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California and the Doheny Eye Institute from January 2002 to November 2005.Results: Sixty-nine of the 79 patients with eyelid skin cancer had basal cell carcinoma. Eight of these patients were Hispanic. Four of the eight Hispanic patients had PBCC.Conclusions: Although eyelid PBCC is regarded as a rare condition, it may occur more commonly in the Hispanic population and should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of pigmented eyelid lesions.Keywords: pigmented basal cell carcinoma, eyelid, skin cancer, lesions

  12. Lixisenatide as add-on therapy to basal insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown DX

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Xavier Brown, Emma Louise Butler, Marc Evans Diabetes Department, University Hospital Llandough, Cardiff, UK Abstract: Many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus do not achieve target glycosylated hemoglobin A1c levels despite optimally titrated basal insulin and satisfactory fasting plasma glucose levels. Current evidence suggests that HbA1c levels are dictated by both basal glucose and postprandial glucose levels. This has led to a consensus that postprandial glucose excursions contribute to poor glycemic control in these patients. Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 receptor agonist with a four-fold affinity for the GLP-1 receptor compared with native GLP-1. Importantly, lixisenatide causes a significant delay in gastric emptying time, an important determinant of the once-daily dosing regimen. An exendin-4 mimetic with six lysine residues removed at the C-terminal, lixisenatide has pronounced postprandial glucose-lowering effects, making it a novel incretin agent for use in combination with optimally titrated basal insulin. Lixisenatide exerts profound effects on postprandial glucose through established mechanisms of glucose-dependent insulin secretion and glucagon suppression in combination with delayed gastric emptying. This review discusses the likely place that lixisenatide will occupy in clinical practice, given its profound effects on postprandial glucose and potential to reduce glycemic variability. Keywords: lixisenatide, add-on therapy, insulin, GLP-1 receptor agonist, postprandial glucose, pharmacodynamics

  13. A Case of Basal Cell Adenoma of the Upper Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Kudoh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell adenoma is a rare type of benign salivary gland tumor found most commonly in the parotid gland. We present a rare case of basal cell adenoma arising in the minor salivary gland of the upper lip. The patient was a 59-year-old Japanese man who visited our department in December 2012 with a chief complaint of a mass in the upper lip, which had increased in size over several years. A mobile, elastic, and relatively soft mass without tenderness was palpable in the upper lip region. The mucosa of the upper lip covering the mass was normal. Tumor extirpation was performed under local anesthesia. Histologically, the tumor had a capsule and was composed of islands of relatively uniform, monotonous cells. Immunohistochemically, the inner tumor comprised tubuloductal structures that showed strong staining for CK7, while the outer tumor showed weak staining for CK7. The outer tumor cells also stained positively for CD10 and p63. The MIB-1 (Ki-67 labeling index was extremely low. Basal cell adenoma was diagnosed based on these results. The postoperative course was uneventful 12 months after surgery and there has been no recurrence.

  14. Fish cardiovascular physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Johanna; Weber, E Scott; Marty, Gary D; Hernandez-Divers, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Fish patients with cardiovascular disorders present a challenge in terms of diagnostic evaluation and therapeutic options. Veterinarians can approach these cases in fish using methods similar to those employed for other companion animals. Clinicians who evaluate and treat fish in private, aquarium, zoologic, or aquaculture settings need to rely on sound clinical judgment after thorough historical and physical evaluation. Pharmacokinetic data and treatments specific to cardiovascular disease in fish are limited; thus, drug types and dosages used in fish are largely empiric. Fish cardiovascular anatomy, physiology, diagnostic evaluation, monitoring, common diseases, cardiac pathologic conditions, formulary options, and comprehensive references are presented with the goal of providing fish veterinarians with clinically relevant tools.

  15. Diversity and ancestry of flatworms infecting blood of nontetrapod craniates "fishes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orélis-Ribeiro, Raphael; Arias, Cova R; Halanych, Kenneth M; Cribb, Thomas H; Bullard, Stephen A

    2014-01-01

    We herein review all published molecular studies (life history, taxonomy, and phylogeny) and summarize all GenBank sequences and primer sets for the "fish blood flukes". Further, by analysing new and all available sequence data for the partial D1-D2 domains of 28S from 83 blood fluke taxa, we explore the evolutionary expansion of flatworm parasitism in the blood of craniates. Based on this analysis, the blood flukes infecting marine bony fishes (Euteleostei) are monophyletic. The clade comprising the chondrichthyan blood fluke plus the marine euteleost blood flukes is the sister group to tetrapod blood flukes (spirorchiids and schistosomes). The innominate blood fluke cercariae from freshwater gastropods were monophyletic and sister to the clade comprising spirorchiids and schistosomes, but low nodal support indicated that they may represent a distinct blood fluke lineage with phylogenetic affinities also to fish blood flukes. Blood flukes that utilize gastropod intermediate hosts were monophyletic (unidentified gastropod cercariae+tetrapod blood flukes) and those utilizing bivalves and polychaetes were monophyletic (marine fish blood flukes). Low or no taxon sampling among blood flukes of basal fish lineages and primary division freshwater fish lineages are significant data gaps needing closure. We also note that no record of an infection exists in a hagfish (Myxiniformes), lamprey (Petromyzontiformes), or nontetrapod sarcopterygiian, i.e., coelacanth (Coelacanthimorpha) or lungfish (Dipnoi). The present phylogenetic analysis reiterated support for monophyly of Schistosomatidae and paraphyly of spirorchiids, with the blood flukes of freshwater turtles basal to those of marine turtles and schistosomes.

  16. Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite

  17. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Marques, Mónica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, Inês; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2015-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of this gene family took place earlier in gnathostome ancestry. Our data indicates the presence of single copy orthologs of the Sarcopterygii/Tetrapoda duplicates Tcn1 and Gif, and Tcn2, in Chondrichthyes. In addition, a highly divergent Cbl binder was found in the Elasmobranchii. We unveil a complex scenario forged by genome, tandem duplications and lineage-specific gene loss. Our findings suggest that from an ancestral transporter, exhibiting large spectrum and high affinity binding, highly specific Cbl transporters emerged through gene duplication and mutations at the binding pocket. PMID:25552533

  18. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon. Reactive fish show a higher degree of the neurogenesis...

  19. The forebrain of the blind cave fish Astyanax hubbsi (Characidae). I. General anatomy of the telencephalon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, G

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of the cell groups in the telencephalon of the teleost Astyanax hubbsi, based on series of transverse sections stained with the Nissl-Klüver-Barrera and Bodian procedures. The work was conducted for two reasons. Firstly, it was intended to determine the contribution of the forebrain of blind cave fish to certain forms of behavior. An understanding of the anatomy of the telencephalic organization is essential for such a neuroethological approach. The second purpose was to provide the cytoarchitectural basis for the experimental analysis of the fiber connectivity of the telencephalon of A. hubbsi. Furthermore, information about the forebrain of characids is widely lacking, and this study may thus provide important knowledge about the cellular organization of characid forebrains for comparative anatomists. The brain of A. hubbsi is slender and elongated. Both optic nerves and optic tectum are reduced. Three longitudinal sulci-s. ypsiliformis, s. externus and s. limitans telencephali-can be distinguished in the telencephalon. A fiber lamina reaching from the s. externus to the s. limitans telencephali separates the area dorsalis (D) from the area ventralis telencephali (V). The two hemispheres are connected by fibers decussating in the anterior commissure. Although cross sections revealed no distinct fiber laminae between cytoarchitectonic components, 17 cell masses could be delineated: ten of these belong to D, seven to V. The topological analysis yielded the following results. The dorsal telencephalon D consists of three longitudinal columns, termed pars medialis (Dm), pars dorsalis and centralis (Dd and Dc) considered together, and par lateralis (Dl), which converge into a uniform posterior part (Dp). The columns can be divided into several subregions: Dm1 and Dm2, as well as Dlv and Dld, precommissurally, Dm3 and Dm4 postcommisurally. At polus posterior levels nucleus tenia can be identified. The ventral telencephalon (V) is arranged

  20. Freshwater and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxen, R. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Severe radioactive contamination of the freshwater environment could have serious consequences for both drinking water and fish. Most of the Nordic countries have an abundance of freshwater lakes and rivers. Finland alone has about 56,000 lakes, each with a surface area of 1 hectare or more. Nearly 10% of Finland`s surface is covered with lakes and rivers. In Sweden, about 9% of the surface area is freshwater, in Norway about 5%, and in Denmark only about 2%. Freshwater plays a minor role in Iceland, but even there numerous rivers discharge from the volcanic soils to the Ocean. Cs-137 and {sup 90}Sr are likely to be the most important radionuclides with respect to long term radioactive contamination of freshwater. If radioactive deposition occurs in the absence of snow and ice radionuclides will contaminate the surface water directly and may rapidly enter the aquatic food chain. Fish which eat contaminated plankton become contaminated almost immediately. Deposition during summer increases the transfer for radionuclides to fish since fish metabolism is faster during the warm season. During the cold period, fish metabolism is slow and thus uptake and excretion of radiocaesium are also slow. (EG). 18 refs.

  1. Immunity to Fish Rhabdoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen K. Purcell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of the family Rhabdoviridae are single-stranded RNA viruses and globally important pathogens of wild and cultured fish and thus relatively well studied in their respective hosts or other model systems. Here, we review the protective immune mechanisms that fish mount in response to rhabdovirus infections. Teleost fish possess the principal components of innate and adaptive immunity found in other vertebrates. Neutralizing antibodies are critical for long-term protection from fish rhabdoviruses, but several studies also indicate a role for cell-mediated immunity. Survival of acute rhabdoviral infection is also dependent on innate immunity, particularly the interferon (IFN system that is rapidly induced in response to infection. Paradoxically, rhabdoviruses are sensitive to the effects of IFN but virulent rhabdoviruses can continue to replicate owing to the abilities of the matrix (M protein to mediate host-cell shutoff and the non‑virion (NV protein to subvert programmed cell death and suppress functional IFN. While many basic features of the fish immune response to rhabdovirus infections are becoming better understood, much less is known about how factors in the environment affect the ecology of rhabdovirus infections in natural populations of aquatic animals.

  2. Can Fish Catch On in Your Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzow, John W.; Kane, Philip N.

    1983-01-01

    Presented are several classroom activities using fish. These include gyotaku (Japanese fish printing), use of a dichotomous key to classify fish, "invent-a-fish" activities, and others. Includes discussion of fish facts and copies of fish key and invent-a-fish cards. (JN)

  3. Dynamite fishing in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Lorna M; Kalangahe, Baraka

    2015-12-30

    Fishing using explosives is common in Tanzanian waters; it is considered to be more widely practised now than at any other point in history. Mwambao Coastal Community Network, a Tanzanian NGO carried out a multi-stakeholder consultation in April 2014 initiated through the concern of private investors and tourism operators. Consultations were held with villagers, fisheries officers, government officers, hoteliers, dive operators, fish processors, NGOs and other key individuals, and shed some light on key factors enabling this practice to flourish. Key areas identified for attention include engendering political will at all levels, upholding of the law through a non-corrupt enforcement and judicial system, and defining clear roles and responsibilities for monitoring and surveillance. The work identified other successful initiatives which have tackled this pervasive practice including projects that build local capacity for marine governance, villages that have declared themselves intolerant of blast-fishing, and private-public partnerships for patrol and protection.

  4. [Ciguatera fish poisoning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Erwan; Bouchut, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Ciguatera, an ichtyosarcotoxism linked to the consumption of usually healthy coral fish is a common poisoning in the Pacific, Caribbean and Indian Ocean where it is endemic. However, increased tourism and commercial transportation of tropical fish for consumption make it an unexceptional intoxication in countries away from its endemic area. Environmental stresses such as climate changes also contribute to the expansion of its geographical area. The non-specific clinical symptomatology is characterized by the occurrence of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous and general signs few hours after eating a ciguatoxic fish. The diagnosis is clinical and relatively easy in endemic areas but much less for physicians who are rarely confronted with, which is a source of prolonged diagnostic delays and a significant increase in spending. Treatment of ciguatera is symptomatic but new treatments, still experimental, give a real hope for the future.

  5. Expression of stromelysin 3 in basal cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribier, B; Noacco, G; Peltre, B; Grosshans, E

    2001-01-01

    Stromelysin 3 is a member of the metalloproteinase family, which is expressed in various remodelling processes. The prognosis of breast cancers and squamous cell carcinomas is correlated to the level of expression of this protein. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate the expression of stromelysin 3 in the major types of basal cell carcinomas. We selected cases of primary tumours that were fully excised, without previous biopsy: 40 Pinkus tumors, 40 superficial, 40 nodular, 38 morpheiform basal cell carcinomas and 10 cases showing deep subcutaneous or muscular invasion. Immunohistochemistry was carried out using monoclonal anti-ST3 antibodies (MC Rio, IGBMC Strasbourg), and evaluated on a semi-quantitative scale from 0 to 3. Positively stained cells were restricted to the periphery of the epithelial cells, which, by contrast, never expressed stromelysin 3. The global rate of expression was 27% in Pinkus tumors, 65% in superficial, 72.5% in nodular, 87% in morpheiform and 100% in deeply invasive carcinomas. The rates of tumours showing the highest number of positively stained cells (class 2 or 3) were respectively 7.5%, 20%, 45%, 63% and 100%. This systematic study of stromelysin3 expression in basal cell carcinomas confirms that it is a marker of poor prognosis, because the rate of positive tumours was much higher in aggressive carcinomas. Moreover, the majority of tumours showing an intense expression (i.e. the highest number of positively stained cells in their stroma) were of the morpheiform and deeply invasive types, which are of poor prognosis. Altogether, the studies performed on cutaneous tumours are consistent with the theory of stromelysin 3 playing an active role in tumour progression.

  6. Basal salivary cortisol secretion and susceptibility to upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Turner, Ronald B; Doyle, William J

    2016-03-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids (GCs) are well-established. However, whether the net effect of GC-elicited alterations in immune function is sufficient to influence a clinically relevant outcome in healthy adults has yet to be shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether inter-individual differences in basal salivary cortisol production are associated with increased risk and severity of infection and subsequent illness following experimental exposure to a virus that causes the common cold. The present analyses combine archival data from three viral-challenge studies. Participants were 608 healthy adults, aged 18 to 55 years (49.2% female; 65.8% white), who each completed a three-day saliva collection protocol; was subsequently exposed to a virus that causes the common cold; and monitored for 5 days for objective signs of infection (presence of challenge virus in nasal secretions) and clinical illness (mucus weight, mucociliary clearance time). Basal cortisol production (operationalized as the calculated area-under-the-curve averaged across the 3 days) showed a graded association with infection risk, with those producing higher levels of cortisol being at greater risk. Cortisol also showed a continuous association with duration of viral shedding, an indicator of viral replication and continuing infection, such that higher cortisol concentrations predicted more days of shedding. Cortisol was not, however, related to severity of objective illness. These findings are the first to demonstrate in healthy adults an association between basal cortisol production and an objectively measured and clinically relevant infectious disease outcome.

  7. A phylogenomic approach to resolve the basal pterygote divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sabrina; Strauss, Sascha; von Haeseler, Arndt; Hadrys, Heike

    2009-12-01

    One of the most fascinating Bauplan transitions in the animal kingdom was the invention of insect wings, a change that also contributed to the success and enormous diversity of this animal group. However, the origin of insect flight and the relationships of basal winged insect orders are still controversial. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain the phylogeny of winged insects: 1) the traditional Palaeoptera hypothesis (Ephemeroptera + Odonata, Neoptera), 2) the Metapterygota hypothesis (Ephemeroptera, Odonata + Neoptera), and 3) the Chiastomyaria hypothesis (Odonata, Ephemeroptera + Neoptera). Neither phylogenetic analyses of single genes nor even multiple marker systems (e.g., molecular markers + morphological characters) have yet been able to conclusively resolve basal pterygote divergences. A possible explanation for the lack of resolution is that the divergences took place in the mid-Devonian within a short period of time and attempts to solve this problem have been confounded by the major challenge of finding molecular markers to accurately track these short ancient internodes. Although phylogenomic data are available for Neoptera and some wingless (apterygote) orders, they are lacking for the crucial Odonata and Ephemeroptera orders. We adopt a multigene approach including data from two new expressed sequence tag projects-from the orders Ephemeroptera (Baetis sp.) and Odonata (Ischnura elegans)-to evaluate the potential of phylogenomic analyses in clarifying this unresolved issue. We analyzed two data sets that differed in represented taxa, genes, and overall sequence lengths: maxspe (15 taxa, 125 genes, and 31,643 amino acid positions) and maxgen (8 taxa, 150 genes, and 42,541 amino acid positions). Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses both place the Odonata at the base of the winged insects. Furthermore, statistical hypotheses testing rejected both the Palaeoptera and the Metapterygota hypotheses. The comprehensive molecular data set

  8. Correlation transfer from basal ganglia to thalamus in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsma, Pamela; Doiron, Brent; Rubin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Spike trains from neurons in the basal ganglia of parkinsonian primates show increased pairwise correlations, oscillatory activity, and burst rate compared to those from neurons recorded during normal brain activity. However, it is not known how these changes affect the behavior of downstream thalamic neurons. To understand how patterns of basal ganglia population activity may affect thalamic spike statistics, we study pairs of model thalamocortical (TC) relay neurons receiving correlated inhibitory input from the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), a primary output nucleus of the basal ganglia. We observe that the strength of correlations of TC neuron spike trains increases with the GPi correlation level, and bursty firing patterns such as those seen in the parkinsonian GPi allow for stronger transfer of correlations than do firing patterns found under normal conditions. We also show that the T-current in the TC neurons does not significantly affect correlation transfer, despite its pronounced effects on spiking. Oscillatory firing patterns in GPi are shown to affect the timescale at which correlations are best transferred through the system. To explain this last result, we analytically compute the spike count correlation coefficient for oscillatory cases in a reduced point process model. Our analysis indicates that the dependence of the timescale of correlation transfer is robust to different levels of input spike and rate correlations and arises due to differences in instantaneous spike correlations, even when the long timescale rhythmic modulations of neurons are identical. Overall, these results show that parkinsonian firing patterns in GPi do affect the transfer of correlations to the thalamus.

  9. Basal physiological parameters in domesticated tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xu, Xin-Li; Ding, Ze-Yang; Mao, Rong-Rong; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Lü, Long-Bao; Wang, Li-Ping; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Chen; Xu, Lin; Yang, Yue-Xiong

    2013-04-01

    Establishing non-human primate models of human diseases is an efficient way to narrow the large gap between basic studies and translational medicine. Multifold advantages such as simplicity of breeding, low cost of feeding and facility of operating make the tree shrew an ideal non-human primate model proxy. Additional features like vulnerability to stress and spontaneous diabetic characteristics also indicate that the tree shrew could be a potential new animal model of human diseases. However, basal physiological indexes of tree shrew, especially those related to human disease, have not been systematically reported. Accordingly, we established important basal physiological indexes of domesticated tree shrews including several factors: (1) body weight, (2) core body temperature and rhythm, (3) diet metabolism, (4) locomotor rhythm, (5) electroencephalogram, (6) glycometabolism and (7) serum and urinary hormone level and urinary cortisol rhythm. We compared the physiological parameters of domesticated tree shrew with that of rats and macaques. Results showed that (a) the core body temperature of the tree shrew was 39.59±0.05 ℃, which was higher than that of rats and macaques; (b) Compared with wild tree shrews, with two activity peaks, domesticated tree shrews had only one activity peak from 17:30 to 19:30; (c) Compared with rats, tree shrews had poor carbohydrate metabolism ability; and (d) Urinary cortisol rhythm indicated there were two peaks at 8:00 and 17:00 in domesticated tree shrews, which matched activity peaks in wild tree shrews. These results provided basal physiological indexes for domesticated tree shrews and laid an important foundation for diabetes and stress-related disease models established on tree shrews.

  10. Fish remains and humankind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The four papers in this issue represent a trawl of the reports presented to the Fourth meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group, which met at the University of York in 1987. The conference discussed material from many parts of the world - from Australasia to the north-west coast of America - and many eras, ranging in date from the early Pleistocene to the 1980s. It demonstrated both the variety of work being carried out and the growing interest in ancient fish remains. Internet Archaeology plans to publish other batches of papers from this conference. These reports will demonstrate the effort being made to distinguish between assemblages of fish remains which have been deposited by people and those which occur in ancient deposits as a result of the action of other agents. To investigate this area, experiments with modern material and observations of naturally occurring fish bone assemblages are supplemented with detailed analysis of ancient and modern fish remains. The papers published here illustrate the breadth of research into osteology, biogeography, documentary research, and the practicalities of recovering fish remains. Read, digest and enjoy them! Using the Internet for publishing research papers is not only ecologically sound (saving paper, etc. it disseminates scholarship to anyone anywhere on the planet with access to what is gradually becoming necessary technology in the late 20th century. Hopefully, future groups of papers will include video and audio material recorded at the conference, and so enable those who could not attend to gain further insights into the meeting and the scholarship underpinning this area of research.

  11. Fish stem cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ni; Li, Zhendong; Hong, Yunhan

    2011-04-13

    Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on "Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer", we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  12. Fish Stem Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Hong, Zhendong Li, Yunhan Hong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have the potential for self-renewal and differentiation. First stem cell cultures were derived 30 years ago from early developing mouse embryos. These are pluripotent embryonic stem (ES cells. Efforts towards ES cell derivation have been attempted in other mammalian and non-mammalian species. Work with stem cell culture in fish started 20 years ago. Laboratory fish species, in particular zebrafish and medaka, have been the focus of research towards stem cell cultures. Medaka is the second organism that generated ES cells and the first that gave rise to a spermatogonial stem cell line capable of test-tube sperm production. Most recently, the first haploid stem cells capable of producing whole animals have also been generated from medaka. ES-like cells have been reported also in zebrafish and several marine species. Attempts for germline transmission of ES cell cultures and gene targeting have been reported in zebrafish. Recent years have witnessed the progress in markers and procedures for ES cell characterization. These include the identification of fish homologs/paralogs of mammalian pluripotency genes and parameters for optimal chimera formation. In addition, fish germ cell cultures and transplantation have attracted considerable interest for germline transmission and surrogate production. Haploid ES cell nuclear transfer has proven in medaka the feasibility of semi-cloning as a novel assisted reproductive technology. In this special issue on “Fish Stem Cells and Nuclear Transfer”, we will focus our review on medaka to illustrate the current status and perspective of fish stem cells in research and application. We will also mention semi-cloning as a new development to conventional nuclear transfer.

  13. Simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lan-Tian; Meng, Zhenyu; Shao, Fangwei; Zhang, Li-Feng

    2016-01-01

    A highly useful tool for studying lncRNAs is simultaneous RNA-DNA FISH, which reveals the localization and quantitative information of RNA and DNA in cellular contexts. However, a simple combination of RNA FISH and DNA FISH often generates disappointing results because the fragile RNA signals are often damaged by the harsh conditions used in DNA FISH for denaturing the DNA. Here, we describe a robust and simple RNA-DNA FISH protocol, in which amino-labeled nucleic acid probes are used for RNA FISH. The method is suitable to detect single-RNA molecules simultaneously with DNA.

  14. Fish Hatchery Management in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Akankali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish hatchery management is efficient tool in intensive fish culture. The vital requirements of fish hatchery, hatchery construction, concrete tank construction, nursery, rearing and production ponds, fish seed hatchery, hormone in fish spawning, hypophysation, compounds used for induced breeding, hormone administration, spawning and rearing, steps in artificial propagation, hatchery management, nursery management are basic elements in effective hatchery management. The article reviews these vital elements to re-awaken fish farmers, Fisheries students private and public sectors in the formulation of fisheries policies.

  15. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... defects than standard excisions with 4 or 6 mm margins. Closure of skin defects was achieved by side-to-side closure in 49% and by local flaps in 40%. There were no relapses during the observation time. The safety, cosmetic and functional outcome were excellent. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that MMS...

  16. Delayed Diagnosis: Giant Basal Cell Carcinoma of Scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Didar Balcı,

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Although basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common form of skin cancer, the scalp lesions of BCC have been rarely reported. Giant BCC is defined as a tumor larger than 5 cm in diameter and only 0.5-1 % of all BCCs achieve this size. We report a case of giant BCC on the scalp that was treated with topical coticosteroids and antifungal shampoo for five years. BCC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in erythematous plaque type lesions resistant to therapy with long duration localized on the scalp.

  17. The basal ganglia: an overview of circuits and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Amy A; Basso, Michele A

    2008-01-01

    The technique of electrical stimulation of brain tissue-known clinically as deep brain stimulation (DBS)-is at the fore of treatment of human neurological disease. Here we provide a general overview highlighting the anatomy and circuitry of the basal ganglia (BG). We introduce common disease states associated with BG dysfunction and current hypotheses of BG function. Throughout this introductory review we direct the reader to other reviews in this special issue of Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews highlighting the interaction between basic science and clinical investigation to more fully understand the BG in both health and disease.

  18. Basal cell carcinomas in elderly patients treated by cryotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chiriac A.; Mihaila D.; Foia L; Solovan C

    2013-01-01

    Anca Chiriac,1 Doina Mihaila,2 Liliana Foia,3, Caius Solovan4 1Department of Dermatology, Nicolina Medical Center, 2Department of Pathology, St Maria Children's Hospital, 3Surgical Department, Grigore T Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iaşi, Romania; 4Victor Babe University of Medicine, Timişoara, Romania Abstract: Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant skin tumor with high incidence in our country, especially in rural areas, on sun-exposed skin (particularly on the face) in ...

  19. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic System and Orexin Neurons: Effects on Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villano, Ines; Messina, Antonietta; Valenzano, Anna; Moscatelli, Fiorenzo; Esposito, Teresa; Monda, Vincenzo; Esposito, Maria; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco; Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Monda, Marcellino; Messina, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic system has an important role in attentive functions. The cholinergic system can be activated by different inputs, and in particular, by orexin neurons, whose cell bodies are located within the postero-lateral hypothalamus. Recently the orexin-producing neurons have been proved to promote arousal and attention through their projections to the BF. The aim of this review article is to summarize the evidence showing that the orexin system contributes to attentional processing by an increase in cortical acetylcholine release and in cortical neurons activity. PMID:28197081

  20. FishFrame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degel, Henrik; Jansen, Teunis

    2006-01-01

    . Development and test of software modules can be done once and reused by all. The biggest challenge in this is not technical – it is in organisation, coordination and trust. This challenge has been addressed by FishFrame - a web-based datawarehouse application. The “bottom-up” approach with maximum involvement...... value to users and in the end improves the way we work with our data. FishFrame version 4.2 is presented and the lessons learned from the process are discussed....

  1. Fish and Bird

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秀波

    2010-01-01

    人物:B——Bird L——Little Fish M——Mother Fish N——Narracor(旁白)道具:角色头饰 N:一条生活在河里的Little Fish对天空充满了好奇,一心想飞到天空去看看。此时,Little Fish正依偎在Mother Fish身边,好奇地望着天空。

  2. Bioinspiration from fish for smart material design and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, G. V.; Madden, P. G. A.; Tangorra, J. L.; Anderson, E.; Baker, T. V.

    2011-09-01

    Fish are a potentially rich source of inspiration for the design of smart materials. Fish exemplify the use of flexible materials to generate forces during locomotion, and a hallmark of fish functional design is the use of body and fin deformation to power propulsion and maneuvering. As a result of nearly 500 million years of evolutionary experimentation, fish design has a number of interesting features of note to materials engineers. In this paper we first provide a brief general overview of some key features of the mechanical design of fish, and then focus on two key properties of fish: the bilaminar mechanical design of bony fish fin rays that allows active muscular control of curvature, and the role of body flexibility in propulsion. After describing the anatomy of bony fish fin rays, we provide new data on their mechanical properties. Three-point bending tests and measurement of force inputs to and outputs from the fin rays show that these fin rays are effective displacement transducers. Fin rays in different regions of the fin differ considerably in their material properties, and in the curvature produced by displacement of one of the two fin ray halves. The mean modulus for the proximal (basal) region of the fin rays was 1.34 GPa, but this varied from 0.24 to 3.7 GPa for different fin rays. The distal fin region was less stiff, and moduli for the different fin rays measured varied from 0.11 to 0.67 GPa. These data are similar to those for human tendons (modulus around 0.5 GPa). Analysis of propulsion using flexible foils controlled using a robotic flapping device allows investigation of the effect of altering flexural stiffness on swimming speed. Flexible foils with the leading edge moved in a heave show a distinct peak in propulsive performance, while the addition of pitch input produces a broad plateau where the swimming speed is relatively unaffected by the flexural stiffness. Our understanding of the material design of fish and the control of tissue

  3. Fish Hold Effluent and Fish Hold Cleaning Wastewater Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    summarized in Table 1). EPA estimated that mid-size fishing vessels, such as gill netters , and purse seiners found in Alaska, and shrimp boats in the Gulf...size fishing boats such as gill netters , fish holds are typically cleaned using a garden hose at a flow rate of approximately 10 to 12 gpm (USEPA...Small: salmon trollers and longliners 1,500 Daily when fishing 500 - 600 150 - 200 Mid-size: gill netters , purse seiners and shrimp boats

  4. Significant Effects of Fishing Gear Selectivity on Fish Life History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenlin; SUN Peng; YAN Wei; HUANG Liuyi; TANG Yanli

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few decades, extreme changes have occurred in the characters of exploited fish populations. The majority of these changes have affected the growth traits of fish life history, which include a smaller size-at-age, an earlier age-at-maturation and among others. Currently, the causes of these life history traits changes still require systematic analyses and empirical studies. The explanations that have been cited are merely expressed in terms of fish phenotypic adaptation. It has been claimed that the original traits of fish can be recovered once the intensity of exploitation of the fish is controlled. Sustained environmental and fishing pressure will change the life history traits of most fish species, so the fish individual’s traits are still in small size-at-age and at earlier age-at-maturation in exploited fish populations. In this paper, we expressed our view of points that fishing gear has imposed selectiv-ity on fish populations and individuals as various other environmental factors have done and such changes are unrecoverable. Ac-cording to the existing tend of exploited fish individual’s life history traits, we suggested further researches in this field and provided better methods of fishery management and thereby fishery resources protection than those available early.

  5. Fish Commoditization: Sustainability Strategies to Protect Living Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mimi E.; Pitcher, Tony J.

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of early fishing on aquatic ecosystems were minimal, as primitive technologies were used to harvest fish primarily for food. As fishing technology grew more sophisticated and human populations dispersed and expanded, local economies transitioned from subsistence to barter and trade. Expanded trade networks and mercantilization led to…

  6. Fish and fish oil in health promotion and disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish is an important dietary component due to its contribution of valuable nutrients. In addition to the high quality protein and micronutrients provided, fish is the primary source of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids which are found in oils of ‘fatty’ cold water fish. Biomedical evidence supports th...

  7. Basal Complex and Basal Venation of Odonata Wings: Structural Diversity and Potential Role in the Wing Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H.; Ghoroubi, N.; Malaki, M.; Darvizeh, A.; Gorb, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    Dragonflies and damselflies, belonging to the order Odonata, are known to be excellent fliers with versatile flight capabilities. The ability to fly over a wide range of speeds, high manoeuvrability and great agility are a few characteristics of their flight. The architecture of the wings and their structural elements have been found to play a major role in this regard. However, the precise influence of individual wing components on the flight performance of these insects remains unknown. The design of the wing basis (so called basal complex) and the venation of this part are responsible for particular deformability and specific shape of the wing blade. However, the wing bases are rather different in representatives of different odonate groups. This presumably reflects the dimensions of the wings on one hand, and different flight characteristics on the other hand. In this article, we develop the first three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the proximal part of the wings of typical representatives of five dragonflies and damselflies families. Using a combination of the basic material properties of insect cuticle, a linear elastic material model and a nonlinear geometric analysis, we simulate the mechanical behaviour of the wing bases. The results reveal that although both the basal venation and the basal complex influence the structural stiffness of the wings, it is only the latter which significantly affects their deformation patterns. The use of numerical simulations enabled us to address the role of various wing components such as the arculus, discoidal cell and triangle on the camber formation in flight. Our study further provides a detailed representation of the stress concentration in the models. The numerical analysis presented in this study is not only of importance for understanding structure-function relationship of insect wings, but also might help to improve the design of the wings for biomimetic micro-air vehicles (MAVs). PMID:27513753

  8. Clinical variants, stages, and management of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubomir A Dourmishev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal cell carcinoma (BCC is the most common paraneoplastic disease among human neoplasms. The tumor affects mainly photoexposed areas, most often in the head and seldom appears on genitalia and perigenital region. BCC progresses slowly and metastases are found in less than 0.5% of the cases; however, a considerable local destruction and mutilation could be observed when treatment is neglected or inadequate. Different variants as nodular, cystic, micronodular, superficial, pigment BCC are described in literature and the differential diagnosis in some cases could be difficult. The staging of BCC is made according to Tumor, Node, Metastasis (TNM classification and is essential for performing the adequate treatment. Numerous therapeutic methods established for treatment of BCC, having their advantages or disadvantages, do not absolutely dissolve the risk of relapses. The early diagnostics based on the good knowledge and timely organized and adequate treatment is a precondition for better prognosis. Despite the slow progress and numerous therapeutic methods, the basal cell carcinoma should not be underestimated.

  9. Basal autophagy protects cardiomyocytes from doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Marcela; Troncoso, Rodrigo; Martínez, Gonzalo J; Chiong, Mario; Castro, Pablo F; Lavandero, Sergio

    2016-08-31

    Doxorubicin (Doxo) is one of the most effective anti-neoplastic agents but its cardiotoxicity has been an important clinical limitation. The major mechanism of Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity is associated to its oxidative capacity. However, other processes are also involved with significant consequences for the cardiomyocyte. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiotoxicity but to date it is not clear how Doxo alters that process and its consequence on cardiomyocytes viability. Here we investigated the effect of Doxo 1uM for 24h of stimulation on cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. We showed that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy. This inhibition is due to both Akt/mTOR signaling pathway activation and Beclin 1 level decrease. To assess the role of autophagy on Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death, we evaluated the effects 3-methyladenine (3-MA), bafilomycin A1 (BafA), siRNA Beclin 1 (siBeclin 1) and rapamycin (Rapa) on cell viability. Inhibition of autophagy with 3-MA, BafA and siBeclin 1 increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release but, when autophagy was induced by Rapa, Doxo-induced cardiomyocyte death was decreased. These results suggest that Doxo inhibits basal autophagy and contributes to cardiomyocyte death. Activation of autophagy could be used as a strategy to protect the heart against Doxo toxicity.

  10. The evolution of floral biology in basal angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Peter K

    2010-02-12

    In basal angiosperms (including ANITA grade, magnoliids, Choranthaceae, Ceratophyllaceae) almost all bisexual flowers are dichogamous (with male and female functions more or less separated in time), and nearly 100 per cent of those are protogynous (with female function before male function). Movements of floral parts and differential early abscission of stamens in the male phase are variously associated with protogyny. Evolution of synchronous dichogamy based on the day/night rhythm and anthesis lasting 2 days is common. In a few clades in Magnoliales and Laurales heterodichogamy has also evolved. Beetles, flies and thrips are the major pollinators, with various degrees of specialization up to large beetles and special flies in some large-flowered Nymphaeaceae, Magnoliaceae, Annonaceae and Aristolochiaceae. Unusual structural specializations are involved in floral biological adaptations (calyptras, inner staminodes, synandria and food bodies, and secretory structures on tepals, stamens and staminodes). Numerous specializations that are common in monocots and eudicots are absent in basal angiosperms. Several families are poorly known in their floral biology.

  11. Morphological elucidation of basal ganglia circuits contributing reward prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumino eFujiyama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies in monkeys have shown that dopaminergic neurons respond to the reward prediction error. In addition, striatal neurons alter their responsiveness to cortical or thalamic inputs in response to the dopamine signal, via the mechanism of dopamine-regulated synaptic plasticity. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the striatum exhibits synaptic plasticity under the influence of the reward prediction error and conduct reinforcement learning throughout the basal ganglia circuits.The reinforcement learning model is useful; however, the mechanism by which such a process emerges in the basal ganglia needs to be anatomically explained. The actor–critic model has been previously proposed and extended by the existence of role sharing within the striatum, focusing on the striosome/matrix compartments. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to confirm morphologically, partly because of the complex structure of the striosome/matrix compartments. Here, we review recent morphological studies that elucidate the input/output organization of the striatal compartments.

  12. Coordinated Beating of Algal Flagella is Mediated by Basal Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Kirsty; Goldstein, Raymond

    Cilia or flagella often exhibit synchronized behavior. This includes phase-locking, as seen in Chlamydomonas, and metachronal wave formation in the respiratory cilia of higher organisms. Since the observations by Gray and Rothschild of phase synchrony of nearby swimming spermatozoa, it has been a working hypothesis that synchrony arises from hydrodynamic interactions between beating filaments. Recent work on the dynamics of physically separated pairs of flagella isolated from the multicellular alga Volvox has shown that hydrodynamic coupling alone is sufficient for synchrony. However, the situation is more complex when considering multiple flagella on a single cell. We suggest that a mechanism, internal to the cell, provides an additional flagellar coupling. For instance, flagella of Chlamydomonas mutants deficient in filamentary connections between basal bodies are found to display markedly different synchronization from the wildtype. Diverse flagellar coordination strategies found in quadri-, octo- and hexadecaflagellates reveal further evidence that intracellular couplings between flagellar basal bodies compete with hydrodynamic interactions to determine the precise form of flagellar synchronization in unicellular algae.

  13. Carcinogenesis of basal cell carcinomas: genetics and molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, J P

    2002-04-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the skin is the most common type of cancer in humans. Like squamous cell carcinomas, they are also believed to be ultraviolet (UV)-induced, but several data suggest that some differences might exist in the mechanisms of their UV induction. The originating cells may arise from interfollicular basal cells, hair follicles or sebaceous glands, thus from a deeper zone than the SCC ones, which probably means exposure to different doses or wavelengths of UV. The p53 gene and the patched gene (PTCH) are major targets of UV for BCC induction. Mutations in p53 are present in about 56% of human BCC, even small early lesions. The "UV signature" is observed in 65% of them. Mutations in the PTCH play also a major role in BCC development, being responsible for hereditary BCCs in Gorlin's syndrome, sporadic BCC, and BCCs isolated from xeroderma pigmentosum, although with a lower incidence of "UV signature". Smoothened-activating mutations and PTCH2 mutations are also involved in BCC formation. Transgenic mice overexpressing Smoothened or Sonic hedgehog in the skin spontaneously produce skin lesions resembling human BCCs, but contrary to findings in the hairless albino mouse and with SCC, no data on experimental UV induction of BCCs are available.

  14. Treatment of nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), also known as Gorlin syndrome, is characterized by various embryological deformities and carcinoma formation. It is caused by PTCHI gene mutations and is autosomal dominantly inherited. Some of the main symptoms of NBCCS are multiple basal cell carcinomas, multiple keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) of the mandible, hyperkeratosis of the palmar and plantar, skeletal deformity, calcification of the falx cerebri, and facial defomity. Recurrent KCOT is the main symptom of NBCCS and is present in approximately 90% of patients. In NBCCS, KCOTs typically occur in multiples. KCOTs can be detected in patients under the age of 10, and new and recurring cysts develop until approximately the age of 30. The postoperation recurrence rate is approximately 60%. This case report presents a 14-year-old female patient with a chief complaint of a cyst found in the maxilla and mandible. The patient was diagnosed with NBCCS, and following treatment of marsupialization and enucleation, the clinical results were satisfactory. PMID:27847737

  15. Mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic dynorphin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Christopher L; Alburges, Mario E; Hoonakker, Amanda J; Fleckenstein, Annette E; Hanson, Glen R

    2014-08-25

    Mephedrone (4-methymethcathinone) is a synthetic cathinone designer drug that disrupts central nervous system (CNS) dopamine (DA) signaling. Numerous central neuropeptide systems reciprocally interact with dopaminergic neurons to provide regulatory counterbalance, and are altered by aberrant DA activity associated with stimulant exposure. Endogenous opioid neuropeptides are highly concentrated within dopaminergic CNS regions and facilitate many rewarding and aversive properties associated with drug use. Dynorphin, an opioid neuropeptide and kappa receptor agonist, causes dysphoria and aversion to drug consumption through signaling within the basal ganglia and limbic systems, which is affected by stimulants. This study evaluated how mephedrone alters basal ganglia and limbic system dynorphin content, and the role of DA signaling in these changes. Repeated mephedrone administrations (4 × 25 mg/kg/injection, 2-h intervals) selectively increased dynorphin content throughout the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus, decreased dynorphin content within the frontal cortex, and did not alter dynorphin content within most limbic system structures. Pretreatment with D1 -like (SCH-23380) or D2 -like (eticlopride) antagonists blocked mephedrone-induced changes in dynorphin content in most regions examined, indicating altered dynorphin activity is a consequence of excessive DA signaling. Synapse, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A.; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A.

    2014-01-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr’s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr’s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr’s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr’s disease. PMID:24983277

  17. Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufaddel, Amir A; Al-Hassani, Ghanem A

    2014-07-01

    Familial idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (Fahr`s disease) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by symmetrical and bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia. Calcifications may also occur in other brain regions such as dentate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebral cortex. Both familial and non-familial cases of Fahr`s disease have been reported, predominantly with autosomal-dominant fashion. The disease has a wide range of clinical presentations, predominantly with neuropsychiatric features and movement disorders. Psychiatric features reported in the literature include: cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, delusions, manic symptoms, anxiety, schizophrenia-like psychosis, and personality change. Other clinical features include: Parkinsonism, ataxia, headache, seizures, vertigo, stroke-like events, orthostatic hypotension, tremor, dysarthria, and paresis. Fahr`s disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric symptoms, particularly when associated with movement disorder. The disease should be differentiated from other conditions that can cause intracranial calcification. No specific treatment is currently available. Further research is needed to bridge the gap existing in our current knowledge of the prevalence, etiology, symptoms, and treatment of Fahr`s disease.

  18. Lemongrass-Fried Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 500 grams grass carp, several stalks of lemongrass, 5 leaves of lettuce. Condiments: 10 grams sweet sauce (made from fermented flour, scallion powder and ginger root powder); yolk of one egg, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional). Method: 1. Cut the fish into pieces. Mash

  19. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  20. Yet Another Fish Tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalasz, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Last month the "Rocky Mountain News" reported that a survey by an emeritus professor at University of Colorado Boulder found that only 23 of 825 faculty members on the campus were registered Republicans. But on his "New York Times" blog, Stanley Fish brushed off the survey's significance from a familiarly Fishian stance. A faculty's political…

  1. ChillFish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller

    2016-01-01

    Breathing exercises can help children with ADHD control their stress level, but it can be hard for a child to sustain attention throughout such an exercise. In this paper, we present ChillFish, a breath-controlled biofeedback game designed in collaboration with ADHD professionals to investigate...

  2. The fish egg microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Y. Liu Prof. dr. F. Govers (promotor); Prof. dr. J.M. Raaijmakers (promotor); Dr. I. de Bruijn (co-promotor); Wageningen University, 13 June 2016, 170 pp. The fish egg microbiome: diversity and activity against the oomycete pathogen Saprolegnia Emerging oomycete pat

  3. Access and Fishing Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, I look at the implications of transferable quotas on the organization of production; that is, how fishing activities are structured around access to the individual and transferable quotas and how, in turn, the quotas structure the production. Therefore, this chapter will give...

  4. Fish in Mutton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Ingredients:500 grams mutton and 750 grams live fish Condiments:Salt for taste, ginger, scallion, soup, water chestnut powder, gourmet powder Method: 1.Quick-boil the clean mutton. then put scallion, ginger, salt, gourmet powder and pepper powder into it and cook until

  5. Hydrodynamics of fossil fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Thomas; Altringham, John; Peakall, Jeffrey; Wignall, Paul; Dorrell, Robert

    2014-08-07

    From their earliest origins, fishes have developed a suite of adaptations for locomotion in water, which determine performance and ultimately fitness. Even without data from behaviour, soft tissue and extant relatives, it is possible to infer a wealth of palaeobiological and palaeoecological information. As in extant species, aspects of gross morphology such as streamlining, fin position and tail type are optimized even in the earliest fishes, indicating similar life strategies have been present throughout their evolutionary history. As hydrodynamical studies become more sophisticated, increasingly complex fluid movement can be modelled, including vortex formation and boundary layer control. Drag-reducing riblets ornamenting the scales of fast-moving sharks have been subjected to particularly intense research, but this has not been extended to extinct forms. Riblets are a convergent adaptation seen in many Palaeozoic fishes, and probably served a similar hydrodynamic purpose. Conversely, structures which appear to increase skin friction may act as turbulisors, reducing overall drag while serving a protective function. Here, we examine the diverse adaptions that contribute to drag reduction in modern fishes and review the few attempts to elucidate the hydrodynamics of extinct forms.

  6. Fish Facts. Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mike

    This lesson plan is designed for a 50-minute class to teach extension home economists and homemakers about buying, storing, and using fish. The lesson plan contains references, a list of equipment needed, objectives, and the presentation. The presentation consists of an outline of instruction coordinated with methods of instruction and aids and…

  7. Fish Culture Economics and Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ogamba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish culture economics and extension was reviewed to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices. The cost and benefits of fish culture need be known before participation in the business. There is need for cross-link between research and the fishing community. Prior to introduction of any new innovation in fisheries extension and evaluation of such programmers, the agency responsible for such exercise should have full knowledge of the existing farming practice/techniques and the reasons behind them. In assessing or evaluating the impact of any new techniques or programmers, consideration should be given to such factors as natural conditions, local infrastructures, socio cultural setting, farmers’ production aims and labor economics. The study reviews the types of feasibility study, a typical feasibility study and report on a fish farm project and detail analysis of culture extension to enable fish culturist plan effectively before involved in fish culture and practices.

  8. Report on Fish Springs - 1958

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document discusses field survey results from several trips to Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge during the summer of 1958. The following information is...

  9. LCA of Danish fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products.......The article presents the main results from a PhD dissertation about environmental impacts from Danish fish products....

  10. Temperature - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  11. KLA - Live Hauling of Fish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In certain markets, live fish can be sold for substantially higher prices than fresh dressed fish. A significant live-haul industry has developed in the U.S. and...

  12. Anadromous fish inventory: Summary volume

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summary volume, with discussion, on anadromous fish inventories, species lists, histories of fisheries, habitat, key spawning and rearing areas, runs/escapements,...

  13. Catálogo de los ejemplares tipo de peces depositados en la colección del Laboratorio de Ecología del Departamento de Zoología, ENCB, IPN Catalogue of fish types housed at Colección del Laboratorio de Ecología del Departamento de Zoología, ENCB, IPN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Fabiola Guzmán

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la información de los ejemplares tipo de peces actinopterigios depositados en la colección del Laboratorio de Ecología, de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, de acuerdo a la recomendación 72F del Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica. La información fue documentada con base en el análisis bibliográfico de las descripciones originales, los diccionarios, catálogos, etiquetas y ejemplares en cuestión. Los tipos corresponden a holotipos y paratipos y designan a seis especies, dos géneros y una familia. Cuatro de los seis nombres de especie son válidos y uno más se usa bajo una nueva combinación.Information regarding type specimens of actinopterygian fishes housed at Laboratorio de Ecología, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas-IPN, is provided. This information follows the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature recommendation 72F. Data were documented based on the analysis of original descriptions, dictionaries, catalogues, labels and specimens themselves. The types comprise holotypes and paratypes, which correspond to six species, two genera, and 1 family names. Four of the six species names are still valid and one is used under a new combination.

  14. The role of the nervous system in fish evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H Hofmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in the evolution and adaptation of animals. All sensory and motor functions as well as cognitive abilities are organized in the brain and spinal cord. Volumetric measurements of different brain regions were made in more than 150 species of ray finned fishes as well as in several outgroups. In Actanthopterygii, the hypothalamus shows greatest enlargement most likely due to an enormous visual input via the nucleus glomerulosos. The telencephalon is highly differentiated in many acanthopterygii, mostly coral reef species, but its relative size is not much effected. There is, however, a clear shift from olfactory to visual functions in ray finned fishes. In species with a highly differentiated telencephalon, the area where place memory may be located is very prominent. In basal ray finned fishes, lungfish, amphibia and elasmobranchs, the olfactory bulb is relatively large and the ratio of the olfactory bulb and telencephalon large as well. This holds also for elopomorpha and spiny eels, but in most other groups vision dominates. Apart from differences between larger clades, variation in brain architecture are also seen in closely related species and even between sexes of the same species. Profound differences are present in the cerebellum between male and female swordtails and in the telencephalon of sticklebacks. Morphometric analysis of brain architecture turned out to be an important tool to study the evolution and adaptations of the brain in fishes.

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer with brain metastases: a comparison between basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Niwińska (Anna); W. Olszewski (Wojciech); M. Murawska (Magdalena); K. Pogoda (Katarzyna)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to divide the group of triple-negative breast cancer patients with brain metastases into basal-like and non-basal-like biological subtypes in order to compare clinical features and survival rates in those two groups. A comprehensive analysis of 111 consecutive t

  16. Marine ice sheet model performance depends on basal sliding physics and sub-shelf melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, Rupert Michael; Warner, Roland Charles; Galton-Fenzi, Benjamin Keith; Gagliardini, Olivier; Zwinger, Thomas; Greve, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Computer models are necessary for understanding and predicting marine ice sheet behaviour. However, there is uncertainty over implementation of physical processes at the ice base, both for grounded and floating glacial ice. Here we implement several sliding relations in a marine ice sheet flow-line model accounting for all stress components and demonstrate that model resolution requirements are strongly dependent on both the choice of basal sliding relation and the spatial distribution of ice shelf basal melting.Sliding relations that reduce the magnitude of the step change in basal drag from grounded ice to floating ice (where basal drag is set to zero) show reduced dependence on resolution compared to a commonly used relation, in which basal drag is purely a power law function of basal ice velocity. Sliding relations in which basal drag goes smoothly to zero as the grounding line is approached from inland (due to a physically motivated incorporation of effective pressure at the bed) provide further reduction in resolution dependence.A similar issue is found with the imposition of basal melt under the floating part of the ice shelf: melt parameterisations that reduce the abruptness of change in basal melting from grounded ice (where basal melt is set to zero) to floating ice provide improved convergence with resolution compared to parameterisations in which high melt occurs adjacent to the grounding line.Thus physical processes, such as sub-glacial outflow (which could cause high melt near the grounding line), impact on capability to simulate marine ice sheets. If there exists an abrupt change across the grounding line in either basal drag or basal melting, then high resolution will be required to solve the problem. However, the plausible combination of a physical dependency of basal drag on effective pressure, and the possibility of low ice shelf basal melt rates next to the grounding line, may mean that some marine ice sheet systems can be reliably simulated at

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain transgenic fishes with accelerated growth and for designing surrogate fishes. Methods for receiving unisexual shoals of salmon and sturgeon female fishes with the view of obtaining a large quantity of caviar, as well as receiving sterile (triploid fishes are analyzed. Great attention is given to androgenesis, particularly to disperm one, in connection with the problem of conserving rare and vanishing fish species using only sperm genetic material. Examples how distant hybrids may be obtained with the use of disperm androgenesis and alkylated DNA are given. Methods of obtaining fish primordium germ cells, recent developments in cultivation of fish stem cells and their use in biotechnology, as well as ones of transplantation of oogonium and spermatogonium to obtain surrogate fishes. The examples of successful experiments on spermatogonial xenotransplantation and characteristic of antifreezing fish proteins and also the prospect of their practical usage are given.

  18. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  19. Fish freshness rapid detection based on fish-eye image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Zang, Yue; Wo, Qiqi; Zou, Chen; Wang, Nan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Dadong

    Study a new method for detecting fish freshness. During the experiment, we choose freshest fish-eyes images via digital camera to add computing the synthesis of the latest fish-eye image .Next figure out every image's signal strength. Finally, we analysis relation between the change of the image's energy and the value (pH, electrical conductivity, TVBN) by Modeling of Partial Least Squares Regression. The result shows that we can detect freshness of fish quickly, conveniently, simply and accurately through the fish-eye image energy change.

  20. Ultrastructural characteristics of the caeca of basal polyopisthocotylean monogeneans of the families Chimaericolidae and Hexabothriidae parasitic on cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddubnaya, Larisa G; Hemmingsen, Willy; Reed, Cecile; Gibson, David I

    2015-07-01

    Ultrastructural differences are shown between the caecal organization in three blood-feeding polyopisthocotylean monogeneans, i.e., the chimaericolid Chimaericola leptogaster from the holocephalan Chimaera monstrosa and two hexabothriids, Callorhynchocotyle callorhynchi from the holocephalan Callorhynchus capensis and Rajonchocotyle emarginata from the elasmobranch Amblyraja radiata. In C. leptogaster, digestive cells and connecting syncytium, joined close to the luminal surface by septate junctions, are arranged alternately along the caecal epithelial wall; the nuclear regions of both cell types are sunk below the general level of the caecal epithelium; a concave depression on the apical margin of the digestive cells bears lamellae; and this depression is covered by a lamellate bubble formed by thin projections emanating from the connecting syncytium. The luminal surface of the connecting syncytium is covered with outgrowths terminating in the form of long, narrow processes. In R. emarginata and C. callorhynchi, the predominant digestive cells are at different stages of development and occur in groups, developing digestive cells bulge into the caecal lumen from the connecting syncytium with contact sites present close to the luminal surface, and the luminal surface structures of both the connecting syncytium and the digestive cells are short lamellae. In these two hexabothriids, a holocrine (or apocrine) process for the elimination of digestive product is assumed via the detachment of fully differentiated, bulging digestive cells. Free, apparently sloughed digestive cells and residual bodies are present within the caecal lumen, and replacement digestive cells are numerous in the connecting syncytium. In the chimaericolid, free bubbles containing residual bodies and portions of digestive cells filled with degenerating digestive vesicles occur in the caecal lumen along with large amounts of male and female reproductive material. The usefulness of characteristics of the caecal ultrastructure as taxonomic traits at the family level is discussed.

  1. Metazoan Parasites of Antarctic Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oğuz, Mehmet Cemal; Tepe, Yahya; Belk, Mark C; Heckmann, Richard A; Aslan, Burçak; Gürgen, Meryem; Bray, Rodney A; Akgül, Ülker

    2015-06-01

    To date, there have been nearly 100 papers published on metazoan parasites of Antarctic fishes, but there has not yet been any compilation of a species list of fish parasites for this large geographic area. Herein, we provide a list of all documented occurrences of monogenean, cestode, digenean, acanthocephalan, nematode, and hirudinean parasites of Antarctic fishes. The list includes nearly 250 parasite species found in 142 species of host fishes. It is likely that there are more species of fish parasites, which are yet to be documented from Antarctic waters.

  2. Cadmium induced histopathology in the olfactory epithelium of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debraj Roy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Histopathology on the olfactory organ of a snakehead fish, Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1793 were assessed after exposing the fish to 2.5 mg/L and 5mg/L of CdCl2 for 15 days, 30 days and 45 days. Cellular organization of the epithelium was affected severely with degeneration of sensory and supporting cells and hyperplasia of basal cells and mucous cells. Mucous cell proliferation indicates the upregulation of mucous secretion to protect the epithelium from toxic effect of cadmium. The olfactory epithelium was endowed with the multipotent basal cells which differentiate into sensory cells, supporting cells and other cell types of the epithelium during normal cells turn over and in the event of cell death.  However, due to cadmium exposure proliferating basal cells failed to differentiate into normal cells and the undifferentiated proliferated cell formed lump and intraepithelial lesion altering the composition of the entire epithelium. Present study indicates that in prolonged exposure to cadmium chloride olfactory functions of the fish might be impaired due to loss of all sensory cells.

  3. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  4. Genomic analysis of smoothened inhibitor resistance in basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Hayley J; Pau, Gregoire; Dijkgraaf, Gerrit J; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Modrusan, Zora; Januario, Thomas; Tsui, Vickie; Durham, Alison B; Dlugosz, Andrzej A; Haverty, Peter M; Bourgon, Richard; Tang, Jean Y; Sarin, Kavita Y; Dirix, Luc; Fisher, David C; Rudin, Charles M; Sofen, Howard; Migden, Michael R; Yauch, Robert L; de Sauvage, Frederic J

    2015-03-09

    Smoothened (SMO) inhibitors are under clinical investigation for the treatment of several cancers. Vismodegib is approved for the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Most BCC patients experience significant clinical benefit on vismodegib, but some develop resistance. Genomic analysis of tumor biopsies revealed that vismodegib resistance is associated with Hedgehog (Hh) pathway reactivation, predominantly through mutation of the drug target SMO and to a lesser extent through concurrent copy number changes in SUFU and GLI2. SMO mutations either directly impaired drug binding or activated SMO to varying levels. Furthermore, we found evidence for intra-tumor heterogeneity, suggesting that a combination of therapies targeting components at multiple levels of the Hh pathway is required to overcome resistance.

  5. Basal Secretion of Lysozyme from Human Airways in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Roger

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the basal release of lysozyme from isolated human lung tissues. Measurements of lysozyme in the fluids derived from lung preparations were performed using a rate-of-lysis assay subsequent to acidification of the biological samples. Lysozyme released from bronchial preparations into fluids was greater than that observed for parenchymal tissues. The lysozyme quantities detected in bronchial fluids were not modified by removal of the surface epithelium. Furthermore, the quantities of lysozyme in bronchial fluids was correlated with the size of the bronchial preparations. These results suggest that the lysozyme was principally secreted by the human bronchi (submucosal layer rather than by parenchyma tissues and that a greater release was observed in the proximal airways.

  6. Petrophysical evaluation methods: basal quartz formation, Manyberries Area , Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Hydrocarbons, both oil and gas, have been discovered in the basal quartz formation in the Manyberries area of SE Alberta. Estimation of producible fluids and hydrocarbons in place has been difficult due to the very shaly nature of the reservoir rock. Calculations of water saturation with no corrections for clay conductivity underestimates the hydrocarbons in place. The Waxman-Smits evaluation technique, which provides a method to account for clay conductivities, was used to estimate water saturation based on total porosity. Work of other authors provides a technique to correlate total and effective porosities. This was used to estimate effective porosity and subsequently water saturation based on the effective porosity. Error analysis was undertaken to estimate the uncertainty in the calculated water saturations.

  7. Desalination of Basal Water by Mesoporous Carbons Nanocomposite Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongdong; Ahn, Youngho; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Kim, Eun-Sik

    2016-02-01

    The hydro-transportation process used to obtain bitumen from the Alberta oil sands produces large volume of basal depressurization water (BDW), which contains high salt concentrations. In this research, thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membrane technology applied to treat BDW in lab-scale, and evaluated water properties before and after the treatment. The average rejection ratios of ionic species were 95.2% and 92.8% by TFN membrane (with ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs)) and thin-film composite (TFC) (without OMCs) membrane, respectively. The turbidity and total dissolved solids (TDS) were completely rejected in all treatment conditions. Interestingly, the water flux of TFN membrane was dramatically increased compared to TFC membrane. The increase of water flux was believed to be caused by the increased membrane surface hydrophilicity and nano-pore effects by the OMCs.

  8. Redefinition and global estimation of basal ecosystem respiration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Wenping; Luo, Yiqi; Li, Xianglan;

    2011-01-01

    Basal ecosystem respiration rate (BR), the ecosystem respiration rate at a given temperature, is a common and important parameter in empirical models for quantifying ecosystem respiration (ER) globally. Numerous studies have indicated that BR varies in space. However, many empirical ER models still...... use a global constant BR largely due to the lack of a functional description for BR. In this study, we redefined BR to be ecosystem respiration rate at the mean annual temperature. To test the validity of this concept, we conducted a synthesis analysis using 276 site-years of eddy covariance data...... use efficiency GPP model (i.e., EC-LUE) was applied to estimate global GPP, BR and ER with input data from MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications) and MODIS (Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). The global ER was 103 Pg C yr −1, with the highest respiration...

  9. Basal ganglia calcification as a putative cause for cognitive decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Basal ganglia calcifications (BGC may be present in various medical conditions, such as infections, metabolic, psychiatric and neurological diseases, associated with different etiologies and clinical outcomes, including parkinsonism, psychosis, mood swings and dementia. A literature review was performed highlighting the main neuropsychological findings of BGC, with particular attention to clinical reports of cognitive decline. Neuroimaging studies combined with neuropsychological analysis show that some patients have shown progressive disturbances of selective attention, declarative memory and verbal perseveration. Therefore, the calcification process might represent a putative cause for dementia syndromes, suggesting a probable link among calcinosis, the aging process and eventually with neuronal death. The increasing number of reports available will foster a necessary discussion about cerebral calcinosis and its role in determining symptomatology in dementia patients

  10. A basal tyrannosauroid dinosaur from the Late Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xing; Clark, James M; Forster, Catherine A; Norell, Mark A; Erickson, Gregory M; Eberth, David A; Jia, Chengkai; Zhao, Qi

    2006-02-01

    The tyrannosauroid fossil record is mainly restricted to Cretaceous sediments of Laurasia, although some very fragmentary Jurassic specimens have been referred to this group. Here we report a new basal tyrannosauroid, Guanlong wucaii gen. et sp. nov., from the lower Upper Jurassic of the Junggar Basin, northwestern China. G. wucaii is the oldest known tyrannosauroid and shows several unexpectedly primitive pelvic features. Nevertheless, the limbs of G. wucaii share several features with derived coelurosaurs, and it possesses features shared by other coelurosaurian clades. This unusual combination of character states provides an insight into the poorly known early radiation of the Coelurosauria. Notably, the presumed predatory Guanlong has a large, fragile and highly pneumatic cranial crest that is among the most elaborate known in any non-avian dinosaur and could be comparable to some classical exaggerated ornamental traits among vertebrates.

  11. Favourable results of Mohs micrographic surgery for basal cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gniadecki, Robert; Glud, Martin; Mortensen, Kia

    2015-01-01

    was 66.1 years. The most common localisations were the forehead (31.3%), the nose (31.0%) and the cheek (14.7%). Primary BCC comprised 54.0%; the remaining cases were relapses, most frequently after curettage (36.9%), radiotherapy (18.9%) and photodynamic therapy (11.7%). MMS leads to 40% smaller skin......INTRODUCTION: Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm with an annual incidence approaching 200/100,000 person-years. Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is widely used in North America and in Europe for treatment of BCC. This technique ensures radical tumour removal, sparing...... of the surrounding healthy skin, and it also offers higher cure rates than standard tumour excision with a predefined margin of healthy skin. The superiority of MMS relies on the fact that the entire (100%) margin of the excised tissue is examined microscopically for residual tumour in contrast to the traditional...

  12. Basal lamina structural alterations in human asymmetric aneurismatic aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cotrufo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal lamina (BL is a crucial mechanical and functional component of blood vessels, constituting a sensor of extracellular microenvironment for endothelial cells and pericytes. Recently, an abnormality in the process of matrix microfibrillar component remodeling has been advocated as a mechanism involved in the development of aortic dilation.We focused our attention on BL composition and organization and studied some of the main components of the Extracellular Matrix such as Tenascin, Laminins, Fibronectin, type I, III and IV Collagens.We used surgical fragments from 27 patients, submitted to operation because of aortic root aneurysm and 5 normal aortic wall specimens from heart donors without any evidence for aneurysmal or atherosclerotic diseases of the aorta. Two samples of aortic wall were harvested from each patient, proximal to the sinotubular junction at the aortic convexity and concavity. Each specimen was processed both for immunohistochemical examination and molecular biology study.We compared the convexity of each aortic sample with the concavity of the same vessel, and both of them with the control samples. The synthesis of mRNA and the levels of each protein were assessed, respectively, by RTPCR and Western Blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry elucidated the organization of BL, whose composition was revealed by molecular biology. All pathological samples showed a wall thinner than normal ones. Basal lamina of the aortic wall evidentiated important changes in the tridimensional arrangement of its major components which lost their regular arrangement in pathological specimens. Collagen I, Laminin a2 chain and Fibronectin amounts decreased in pathological samples, while type IV Collagen and Tenascin synthesis increased. Consistently with the common macroscopic observation that ascending aorta dilations tend to expand asymmetrically, with prevalent involvement of the vessel convexity and relative sparing of the concavity, Collagen type

  13. Auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear responses in chinchillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex León

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The auditory efferent system has unique neuroanatomical pathways that connect the cerebral cortex with sensory receptor cells. Pyramidal neurons located in layers V and VI of the primary auditory cortex constitute descending projections to the thalamus, inferior colliculus, and even directly to the superior olivary complex and to the cochlear nucleus. Efferent pathways are connected to the cochlear receptor by the olivocochlear system, which innervates outer hair cells and auditory nerve fibers. The functional role of the cortico-olivocochlear efferent system remains debated. We hypothesized that auditory cortex basal activity modulates cochlear and auditory-nerve afferent responses through the efferent system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochlear microphonics (CM, auditory-nerve compound action potentials (CAP and auditory cortex evoked potentials (ACEP were recorded in twenty anesthetized chinchillas, before, during and after auditory cortex deactivation by two methods: lidocaine microinjections or cortical cooling with cryoloops. Auditory cortex deactivation induced a transient reduction in ACEP amplitudes in fifteen animals (deactivation experiments and a permanent reduction in five chinchillas (lesion experiments. We found significant changes in the amplitude of CM in both types of experiments, being the most common effect a CM decrease found in fifteen animals. Concomitantly to CM amplitude changes, we found CAP increases in seven chinchillas and CAP reductions in thirteen animals. Although ACEP amplitudes were completely recovered after ninety minutes in deactivation experiments, only partial recovery was observed in the magnitudes of cochlear responses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that blocking ongoing auditory cortex activity modulates CM and CAP responses, demonstrating that cortico-olivocochlear circuits regulate auditory nerve and cochlear responses through a basal efferent tone. The diversity of the

  14. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Beckers

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  15. The nervous systems of basally branching nemertea (palaeonemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Patrick; Loesel, Rudi; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a lot of studies have been published dealing with the anatomy of the nervous system in different spiralian species. The only nemertean species investigated in this context probably shows derived characters and thus the conditions found there are not useful in inferring the relationship between nemerteans and other spiralian taxa. Ingroup relationships within Nemertea are still unclear, but there is some agreement that the palaeonemerteans form a basal, paraphyletic grade. Thus, palaeonemertean species are likely the most informative when comparing with other invertebrate groups. We therefore analyzed the nervous system of several palaeonemertean species by combining histology and immunostaining. 3D reconstructions based on the aligned slices were performed to get an overall impression of the central nervous system, and immunohistochemistry was chosen to reveal fine structures and to be able to compare the data with recently published results. The insights presented here permit a first attempt to reconstruct the primary organization of the nemertean nervous system. This comparative analysis allows substantiating homology hypotheses for nerves of the peripheral nervous system. This study also provides evidence that the nemertean brain primarily consists of two lobes connected by a strong ventral commissure and one to several dorsal commissures. During nemertean evolution, the brain underwent continuous compartmentalization into a pair of dorsal and ventral lobes interconnected by commissures and lateral tracts. Given that this conclusion can be corroborated by cladistic analyses, nemerteans should share a common ancestor with spiralians that primarily have a simple brain consisting of paired medullary, frontally commissurized and reinforced cords. Such an organization resembles the situation found in presumably basally branching annelids or mollusks.

  16. COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDIES ABOUT CHICKEN SUB-BASAL CONNECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN BERGHES

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The studies aimed to describe the nervous formations from the base of the cranium in the hen and domestic duck. These clarifications are necessary in order to disclose some unknown facts regarding this region in the poultry species used preponderantly in laboratory studies of the aviary flu. The vegetative connections from the base of the skull have been studied on 10 poultry specimens, 5 hens and 5 ducks. The animals have been euthanatized using chloroform and a special dye has been injected through the heart in order to achieve a better differentiation of the nervous formations. Dissection was performed under a magnifying glass using instruments adequate to highly fine dissections. Photos and sketches of the dissected pieces have been taken. Nomina Anatomica (2003 was used to describe the observed formations.The studies showed that the cranial cervical ganglia around which is the sub-basal nervous tissue, is located on the border of the occipital hole, at the basis of the temporal pyramid, much deeper than in mammalians; it is better developed in the duck (3-4 mm than in the hen (1-2 mm; the cranial cervical ganglia has the shape of a globe in gallinaceans and it is long in shape in the ducks. A multitude of connecting branches were observed around the lymph node, linking it to the vague nerve, to the hypoglossal nerve, to the glossopharyngeal nerve and to the transversal paravertebral chain which is specific to poultry; an obvious branch detaches from the cranial pole, which is the sub-basal connective, while the cervical connective detaches from the caudal pole, connecting it to the cervical-thoracic lymph node.

  17. Speciation in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    The field of speciation has seen much renewed interest in the past few years, with theoretical and empirical advances that have moved it from a descriptive field to a predictive and testable one. The goal of this review is to provide a general background on research on speciation as it pertains to fishes. Three major components to the question are first discussed: the spatial, ecological and sexual factors that influence speciation mechanisms. We then move to the latest developments in the field of speciation genomics. Affordable and rapidly available, massively parallel sequencing data allow speciation studies to converge into a single comprehensive line of investigation, where the focus has shifted to the search for speciation genes and genomic islands of speciation. We argue that fish present a very diverse array of scenarios, making them an ideal model to study speciation processes.

  18. Herpesviruses that Infect Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Kotler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are host specific pathogens that are widespread among vertebrates. Genome sequence data demonstrate that most herpesviruses of fish and amphibians are grouped together (family Alloherpesviridae and are distantly related to herpesviruses of reptiles, birds and mammals (family Herpesviridae. Yet, many of the biological processes of members of the order Herpesvirales are similar. Among the conserved characteristics are the virion structure, replication process, the ability to establish long term latency and the manipulation of the host immune response. Many of the similar processes may be due to convergent evolution. This overview of identified herpesviruses of fish discusses the diseases that alloherpesviruses cause, the biology of these viruses and the host-pathogen interactions. Much of our knowledge on the biology of Alloherpesvirdae is derived from research with two species: Ictalurid herpesvirus 1 (channel catfish virus and Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus.

  19. Consumers’ attitude towards fish meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Conte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this paper is to show the factors that may affect consumers’ attitude towards farmed fish products. Consumers ask new products on the basis of different quality attributes: stability, safety, composition, better health effects, environment protection, etc. Different and controversial opinions on farmed and wild fish are also explored by literature review. The authors pay attention also to fish welfare as an emerging issue and effective information about fish products as a factor exerting a positive influence on consumers’ decision of purchase. Some relevant legislative notes on the paper’s topics are also cited. The qualitative aspects of aquaculture fish and the consumers’ demand and choice need further studies, according to some factors, such as the changing consumers’ attitudes towards fish products, the different fish quality perception and the development in the aquaculture systems.

  20. Of Fish and Micrornas

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Fish is an important small vertebrate multidisciplinary model for investigating various aspects of reproduction, development, disease (immunology, toxicology, carcinogenesis), and aging. It is also an important model for comparative and evolutionary studies because it represents the lower vertebrates and serves as an essential link to early vertebrate evolution. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are 18-22 nucleotide-long endogenous RNAs that bind to specific mRNAs, usually at the 3’-untranslate...

  1. Fish Synucleins: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Toni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synucleins (syns are a family of proteins involved in several human neurodegenerative diseases and tumors. Since the first syn discovery in the brain of the electric ray Torpedo californica, members of the same family have been identified in all vertebrates and comparative studies have indicated that syn proteins are evolutionary conserved. No counterparts of syns were found in invertebrates suggesting that they are vertebrate-specific proteins. Molecular studies showed that the number of syn members varies among vertebrates. Three genes encode for α-, β- and γ-syn in mammals and birds. However, a variable number of syn genes and encoded proteins is expressed or predicted in fish depending on the species. Among biologically verified sequences, four syn genes were identified in fugu, encoding for α, β and two γ (γ1 and γ2 isoforms, whereas only three genes are expressed in zebrafish, which lacks α-syn gene. The list of “non verified” sequences is much longer and is often found in sequence databases. In this review we provide an overview of published papers and known syn sequences in agnathans and fish that are likely to impact future studies in this field. Indeed, fish models may play a key role in elucidating some of the molecular mechanisms involved in physiological and pathological functions of syn proteins.

  2. A Novel Basal Body Protein That Is a Polo-like Kinase Substrate Is Required for Basal Body Segregation and Flagellum Adhesion in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Zhou, Qing; Li, Ziyin

    2015-10-01

    The Polo-like kinase (PLK) in Trypanosoma brucei plays multiple roles in basal body segregation, flagellum attachment, and cytokinesis. However, the mechanistic role of TbPLK remains elusive, mainly because most of its substrates are not known. Here, we report a new substrate of TbPLK, SPBB1, and its essential roles in T. brucei. SPBB1 was identified through yeast two-hybrid screening with the kinase-dead TbPLK as the bait. It interacts with TbPLK in vitro and in vivo, and is phosphorylated by TbPLK in vitro. SPBB1 localizes to both the mature basal body and the probasal body throughout the cell cycle, and co-localizes with TbPLK at the basal body during early cell cycle stages. RNAi against SPBB1 in procyclic trypanosomes inhibited basal body segregation, disrupted the new flagellum attachment zone filament, detached the new flagellum, and caused defective cytokinesis. Moreover, RNAi of SPBB1 confined TbPLK at the basal body and the bilobe structure, resulting in constitutive phosphorylation of TbCentrin2 at the bilobe. Altogether, these results identified a basal body protein as a TbPLK substrate and its essential role in promoting basal body segregation and flagellum attachment zone filament assembly for flagellum adhesion and cytokinesis initiation.

  3. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpandev Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30 therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A 1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216 switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6% to week 24 (1.0% in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001, while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort.

  4. Switching from basal or basal-bolus insulin to biphasic insulin aspart 30: Results from the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Arpandev; Shetty, Raman; Rajkumar, C; Bantwal, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the safety and efficacy of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) therapy in the Indian patients with type 2 diabetes previously on basal or basal-bolus insulin therapies. Materials and Methods: Patients switching from insulin glargine, neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 in the Indian cohort of the A1 chieve study were included. Safety and efficacy of treatment was evaluated over 24 weeks. Results: A total of 422 patients (pre-study basal-bolus insulin, 49; NPH insulin, 157; insulin glargine, 216) switched to BIAsp 30. Pre-study insulin doses were 0.61 ± 0.26 U/kg, 0.34 ± 0.2 U/kg and 0.40 ± 0.21 U/kg and the mean week 24 BIAsp 30 doses were 0.50 ± 0.21 U/kg, 0.35 ± 0.15 U/kg and 0.42 ± 0.16 U/kg in the prior basal-bolus insulin, NPH insulin and insulin glargine groups, respectively. No serious adverse drug reactions, major or nocturnal hypoglycemia were reported. The proportion of patients experiencing overall hypoglycemia was significantly lower from baseline (5.6%) to week 24 (1.0%) in the pre-study insulin-glargine group and appeared to be lower in pre-study NPH insulin and basal-bolus insulin groups. Glycemic control improved significantly from baseline week 24 in the pre-study NPH insulin and insulin-glargine groups (P < 0.001), while it appeared to improve in the pre-study basal-bolus group. Quality of life was positively impacted after 24 weeks in all 3 groups. Conclusion: The switch from basal or basal-bolus insulin to BIAsp 30 was safe, well tolerated and improved the glycemic control in this Indian cohort. PMID:25143902

  5. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ying; Subedee, Ashim; Bloushtain-Qimron, Noga;

    2015-01-01

    genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin) profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree......Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated...... of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required...

  6. [Biological value of protein from raw fish and canned fish].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganoviak, Z M; Lipka, E M

    1983-01-01

    The authors evaluated the nutritive value of protein from 4 kinds of raw fish (herring, cod, mackerel, sprat) and its preserves. Experiments were made on rats fed the diets containing fish protein (8-10% of the total diet). Experiments included the determination of apparent and genuine digestibility, net protein utilization, and net dietary protein caloric value. Evidence was obtained that protein from fish and its preserves is characterized by high digestibility coefficient as compared with casein and egg powder. The highest net protein utilization was noted in animal groups fed the diet containing protein from raw fish. Protein assimilability from fish preserves was on the average 15% lower than that from raw fish.

  7. Basal forebrain degeneration precedes and predicts the cortical spread of Alzheimer's pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Taylor W.; Nathan Spreng, R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Aisen, Paul; Petersen, Ronald; Jack, Clifford R; Jagust, William; Trojanowki, John Q.; Toga, Arthur W; Beckett, Laurel; Green, Robert C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Morris, John; Leslie M Shaw; Khachaturian, Zaven

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable debate whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) originates in basal forebrain or entorhinal cortex. Here we examined whether longitudinal decreases in basal forebrain and entorhinal cortex grey matter volume were interdependent and sequential. In a large cohort of age-matched older adults ranging from cognitively normal to AD, we demonstrate that basal forebrain volume predicts longitudinal entorhinal degeneration. Models of parallel degeneration or entorhinal origin received ne...

  8. Epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular Epidemiology of basal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquiria Pessoa Chinem

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O carcinoma basocelular é a neoplasia maligna mais comum em humanos e sua incidência vem aumentando nas últimas décadas. Sua grande frequência gera significativo ônus ao sistema de saúde, configurando problema de saúde pública. Apesar das baixas taxas de mortalidade e de rara ocorrência de metástases, o tumor pode apresentar comportamento invasivo local e recidivas após o tratamento, provocando importante morbidade. Exposição à radiação ultravioleta representa o principal fator de risco ambiental associado a sua gênese. Entretanto, descrevem-se outros elementos de risco: fotótipos claros, idade avançada, história familiar de carcinomas de pele, olhos e cabelos claros, sardas na infância e imunossupressão, além de aspectos comportamentais, como exercício profissional exposto ao sol, atividade rural e queimaduras solares na juventude. Entre 30% e 75% dos casos esporádicos estão associados à mutação do gene patched hedgehog, mas outras alterações genéticas são ainda descritas. A neoplasia é comumente encontrada concomitantemente com lesões cutâneas relacionadas à exposição solar crônica, tais como: queratoses actínicas, lentigos solares e telangiectasias faciais. A prevenção do carcinoma basocelular se baseia no conhecimento de fatores de risco, no diagnóstico e tratamento precoces e na adoção de medidas específicas, principalmente, nas populações susceptíveis. Os autores apresentam uma revisão da epidemiologia do carcinoma basocelular.Basal cell carcinoma is the most common malignant neoplasm in humans and its incidence has increased over the last decades. Its high frequency significantly burdens the health system, making the disease a public health issue. Despite the low mortality rates and the rare occurrence of metastases, the tumor may be locally invasive and relapse after treatment, causing significant morbidity. Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the main environmental risk factor

  9. Traumatic bilateral basal ganglia bleed: A report of rare two cases and review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankane, Vivek Kumar; Gupta, Tarun Kumar; Jaiswal, Gaurav

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic basal ganglia hemorrhage (TBGH) is relatively uncommon. Bilateral basal ganglia hematoma after trauma is extremely rare and is limited to case reports. We report two cases of traumatic bilateral basal ganglia hemorrhage and review the literature in brief. Both cases were managed conservatively. The general incidence of TBGH is reported between 2.4% and 3% of closed head injury. However, the incidence is higher in postmortem studies (9.8%). Bilateral traumatic basal ganglia hematoma is extremely rare. Descriptions are limited to case reports.

  10. SWALLOWED FISH BONES IN MALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacko HB

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the different aspects, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic of 114 cases of fish bones in the upper digestive tract . Methods: One hundred fourteen patients with fish bones suspected in the upper digestive tract were admitted in our department between February 2010 and October 2012. Results: There was a predominance of the male: 66 men (58%. The average age of the patients was 26 years with extremes 3 to 62 years old. The tongue base and vallecula are constituted the principals locations 66.66%. In the majority of the cases the fish bones were removed by direct pharyngoscopy in 43.86 %. We have not notified any serious complications. Conclusion: Therefore this study shows the foreign fish bones are frequently just as well in children as adult. The fish bones are particularly lodged in tongue base. The classical methods of extraction are permit to remove the all foreign fish bones.

  11. Epigenetic’s role in fish pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cal Delgado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The agouti coat colour gene encodes a paracrine signalling molecule whose differential expression produces the characteristic dorsal-ventral pigment pattern observed in most mammals. We have recently demonstrated that this well-characterised mechanism from mammals also applies to fish with their much more complex pigment patterns. However, the developmental mechanism through which agouti acts to establish these colour differences remains unclear. The present study was undertaken to explore the molecular mechanisms that regulate agouti gene expression by in-vivo functional characterization of the agouti promoter and identification of possible putative regulatory elements that govern basal promoter activity. Specifically, the investigation was focused on the occurrence and role of CpG dinucleotides methylation in the agouti putative promoter sequence and on a possible epigenetic level of regulation of agouti expression. We report here expression analyses of eGFP expression from transgenic zebrafish containing an 8kb-agouti-Tol2-eGFP construct. eGFP expression was specifically found in the brain area and neural tube of Tol2 transposon vector transgenic embryos. Computer-based analysis revealed a putative CpG island immediately proximal to the translation start site. Global inhibition of methylation with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine promoted agouti production in association with decreasing CpG methylation. Taken together, these data identify a contributory role for DNA methylation in regulating agouti expression in zebrafish embryogenesis.

  12. Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastien eHelie; Srinivasa eChakravarthy; Ahmed A. Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Many computational models of the basal ganglia have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the basal ganglia, computational cognitive neuroscience models have focused on how the basal ganglia can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on computational cognitive neuroscience models of the basal ganglia and how they use the neuroanatomy of the basal gangl...

  13. Modulation of antioxidant defense and immune response in zebra fish (Danio rerio) using dietary sodium propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Kavandi, Morteza

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the effect of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response and expression of antioxidant enzyme genes in zebra fish (Danio rerio). Six hundred healthy zebra fish (0.42 ± 0.06 g) supplied, randomly stocked in 12 aquariums and fed on basal diets supplemented with different levels of sodium propionate [0 (control), 5, 10 and 20 g kg(-1)] for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, mucosal immune parameters (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz), antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT) as well as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene expression were measured. The results revealed feeding on sodium propionate significantly up-regulated inflammatory response genes (TNF-α, IL-1β, Lyz) in a dose-dependent manner (P fish fed the basal diet and deceased with elevation of sodium propionate levels in the diet. These results showed beneficial effects of dietary sodium propionate on mucosal immune response as well as the antioxidant defense of zebra fish.

  14. Effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyu; Wang, Erlong; Qin, Zhenyang; Zhou, Zhen; Geng, Yi; Chen, Defang

    2016-12-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish. A total of 320 healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were randomized into four groups; the control group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 IUkg-1 of vitamin E, while the three experimental groups were fed the same basal diet with reduced vitamin E content (0, 25, or 50 IUkg-1). Findings showed that fish in the experimental groups mainly presented with sekoke disease, exophthalmia, leprnorthsis, and ascites. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes comprised nutritional myopathy with muscle fiber denaturation and necrosis, and multi-tissue organ swelling, degeneration, and necrosis. Compared with the control group, RBC count, hemoglobin content, vitamin E concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower in all three experimental groups. However, malondialdehyde content was considerably higher in experimental groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in glutathione peroxidase activity among groups. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E deficiency (E deficiency in fish. These findings reveal the complete systematic pathological effect of vitamin E deficiency in common carp, which may be applicable to other fish and animals.

  15. Gonadal development in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Tanaka, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate reproduction depends on the function of 2 distinct gametes, sperm and eggs, which develop in 2 different organs, the testis and the ovary. Testes and ovaries are composed of germ cells, supporting cells and interstitial cells. In this review, we describe the origin and the fate of these cell lineages and how they interact with each other to form sexually dimorphic reproductive organs in medaka. We delineate how the temporally different association and establishment of these lineages contribute to a variety of seemingly different sex differentiation processes among teleost fish. Thus, teleosts represent an intriguing group in which to study the fundamental processes of gonadal development through comparing conserved and unique mechanisms.

  16. Fish intelligence, sentience and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Culum

    2015-01-01

    Fish are one of the most highly utilised vertebrate taxa by humans; they are harvested from wild stocks as part of global fishing industries, grown under intensive aquaculture conditions, are the most common pet and are widely used for scientific research. But fish are seldom afforded the same level of compassion or welfare as warm-blooded vertebrates. Part of the problem is the large gap between people's perception of fish intelligence and the scientific reality. This is an important issue because public perception guides government policy. The perception of an animal's intelligence often drives our decision whether or not to include them in our moral circle. From a welfare perspective, most researchers would suggest that if an animal is sentient, then it can most likely suffer and should therefore be offered some form of formal protection. There has been a debate about fish welfare for decades which centres on the question of whether they are sentient or conscious. The implications for affording the same level of protection to fish as other vertebrates are great, not least because of fishing-related industries. Here, I review the current state of knowledge of fish cognition starting with their sensory perception and moving on to cognition. The review reveals that fish perception and cognitive abilities often match or exceed other vertebrates. A review of the evidence for pain perception strongly suggests that fish experience pain in a manner similar to the rest of the vertebrates. Although scientists cannot provide a definitive answer on the level of consciousness for any non-human vertebrate, the extensive evidence of fish behavioural and cognitive sophistication and pain perception suggests that best practice would be to lend fish the same level of protection as any other vertebrate.

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGY OF THE FISH AQUACULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    L. P. Buchatsky

    2013-01-01

    The latest progress in biotechnology on fish aquaculture and different modern methods of investigations for increasing of fish productivity in aquaculture are analyzed. Except for the applied aspect, the use of modern biotechnological methods of investigations opens new possibilities for fundamental researches of sex-determining mechanisms, polyploidy, distant hybridization, and developmental biology of bony fishes. Review contains examples of utilizing modern biotechnology methods to obtain ...

  18. 75 FR 6058 - Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish Hatchery and Stocking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Federal Sport Fish Restoration; California Department of Fish and Game Fish.... Under the Sport Fish Restoration Act (SFRA), FWS proposes to fund actions associated with the operation...: Under the SFRA (Pub. L. 106-408), FWS has authority to grant Federal funds from the Sport...

  19. GLUT-1 Expression in Cutaneous Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdou, Asmaa Gaber; Eldien, Marwa Mohammad Serag; Elsakka, Daliah

    2015-09-01

    Glucose uptake is a key regulating step in glucose metabolism and is mediated by facilitative glucose transporters (GLUTs), and GLUT-1 is the predominant glucose transporter in many types of human cells. Cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represent the most common skin cancer in Egypt. The present study aimed at evaluation of the pattern and distribution of GLUT-1 in cutaneous BCC (16 cases) and SCC (16 cases) by means of immunohistochemistry. GLUT-1 was expressed in all SCC (100%) and in 62.5% of BCC. Membranous pattern of GLUT-1 was seen in 62.5% of SCC and 31.25% of BCC. Positivity (P = .02) and percentage (P = .000) of GLUT-1 expression were in favor of SCC in comparison to BCC. The high percentage of GLUT-1 expression was associated with high grade in SCC (P = .03). The immunoreactivity for GLUT-1 was more in the periphery of malignant nests of SCC while it was more in the center of BCC nests. GLUT-1 is overexpressed in cutaneous non-melanoma skin cancer. Its expression in SCC is related to differentiation status, and its expression in BCC is intimately associated with squamous metaplastic areas.

  20. Thresholds in the sliding resistance of simulated basal ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Emerson

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We report laboratory determinations of the shear resistance to sliding melting ice with entrained particles over a hard, impermeable surface. With higher particle concentrations and larger particle sizes, Coulomb friction at particle-bed contacts dominates and the shear stress increases linearly with normal load. We term this the sandy regime. When either particle concentration or particle size is reduced below a threshold, the dependence of shear resistance on normal load is no longer statistically significant. We term this regime slippery. We use force and mass balance considerations to examine the flow of melt water beneath the simulated basal ice. At high particle concentrations, the transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle size is comparable to the thickness of the melt film that separates the sliding ice from its bed. For larger particle sizes, a transition from sandy to slippery behavior occurs when the particle concentration drops sufficiently that the normal load is no longer transferred completely to the particle-bed contacts. We estimate that the melt films separating the particles from the ice are approximately 0.1 µm thick at this transition. Our laboratory results suggest the potential for abrupt transitions in the shear resistance beneath hard-bedded glaciers with changes in either the thickness of melt layers or the particle loading.

  1. Effects of aging on nitrergic system in human basal nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Lopes dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a gaseous molecule that plays a role in a number of physiologic processes. The available evidence suggests that NO is a major neurotransmitter involved in motor control and emotion/behavior modulation. To investigate the distribution and morphology of the nitrergic system in human basal nuclei, we studied samples from the striatum, globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra and pedunculopontine nucleus of 20 human brains from subjects without neurologic/psychiatric diseases. The samples were stained for NADPH-diaphorase using histochemistry and for neuronal NO synthase using immunohistochemistry. We then analyzed the nitrergic neuronal density and its morphometric parameters. Our data demonstrated that: (I the most posterior regions of the striatum exhibit a higher neuronal density; (II the limbic cortex-associated areas of the striatum exhibit higher neuronal density than other functional subdivisions; (III approximately 90% of the neurons in the subthalamic nucleus express NO; (IV the pedunculopontine nucleus exhibits a massive nitrergic neuronal density; (V in the globus pallidus, there is a marked presence of NO neurons in the medial medullary lamina; and (VI nitrergic neurons were not detected in the substantia nigra. Aging did not change the neuronal density or the morphometric parameters of nitrergic neurons in the analyzed nuclei.

  2. Everolimus for Compassionate Use in Multiple Basal Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eibenschutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and has been shown to have antineoplastic activity in addition to its use as an immunosuppressive agent for the prevention of organ transplant rejection. We report the use of everolimus for the compassionate treatment of four elderly, nontransplant patients presenting with multiple basal cell carcinomas (BCC. All patients had a long history of BCC, had refused surgery as a current treatment option, and did not respond to alternative treatments (including topical 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod. Patients were treated with oral everolimus (1.5–3.0 mg daily for 12 months or longer: a complete and sustained response was seen in one case, and partial responses were seen in two other cases. Everolimus was well tolerated in these elderly patients. These promising preliminary data suggest that further dose-finding, controlled clinical studies are warranted to evaluate the antineoplastic effects of everolimus in patients affected by BCC who cannot or will not undergo surgery.

  3. Neglected Basal Cell Carcinomas in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Varga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although tumors on the surface of the skin are considered to be easily recognizable, neglected advanced skin neoplasms are encountered even in the 21st century. There can be numerous causes of the delay in the diagnosis: fear of the diagnosis and the treatment, becoming accustomed to a slowly growing tumor, old age, a low social milieu, and an inadequate hygienic culture are among the factors leading some people not to seek medical advice. The treatment of such advanced neoplasms is usually challenging. The therapy of neglected cases demands an individual multidisciplinary approach and teamwork. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC, the most common cutaneous tumor, usually develops in the elderly, grows slowly, and has an extremely low metastatic potential; these factors are suggesting that BCCs might well be the “ideal candidates” for neglected tumors. Five neglected advanced cases of BCC were diagnosed in our dermatological institute between 2000 and 2009. The clinical characteristics and treatment modalities of these neoplasms are discussed, together with the possible causes of the neglect.

  4. Basal ganglia outputs map instantaneous position coordinates during behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Joseph W; Li, Suellen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Rossi, Mark A; Bartholomew, Ryan A; Yin, Henry H

    2015-02-11

    The basal ganglia (BG) are implicated in many movement disorders, yet how they contribute to movement remains unclear. Using wireless in vivo recording, we measured BG output from the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in mice while monitoring their movements with video tracking. The firing rate of most nigral neurons reflected Cartesian coordinates (either x- or y-coordinates) of the animal's head position during movement. The firing rates of SNr neurons are either positively or negatively correlated with the coordinates. Using an egocentric reference frame, four types of neurons can be classified: each type increases firing during movement in a particular direction (left, right, up, down), and decreases firing during movement in the opposite direction. Given the high correlation between the firing rate and the x and y components of the position vector, the movement trajectory can be reconstructed from neural activity. Our results therefore demonstrate a quantitative and continuous relationship between BG output and behavior. Thus, a steady BG output signal from the SNr (i.e., constant firing rate) is associated with the lack of overt movement, when a stable posture is maintained by structures downstream of the BG. Any change in SNr firing rate is associated with a change in position (i.e., movement). We hypothesize that the SNr output quantitatively determines the direction, velocity, and amplitude of voluntary movements. By changing the reference signals to downstream position control systems, the BG can produce transitions in body configurations and initiate actions.

  5. Basal Lamina Mimetic Nanofibrous Peptide Networks for Skeletal Myogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasa, I. Ceren; Gunduz, Nuray; Kilinc, Murat; Guler, Mustafa O.; Tekinay, Ayse B.

    2015-11-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial for the coordination and regulation of cell adhesion, recruitment, differentiation and death. Therefore, equilibrium between cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and matrix-associated signals are important for the normal functioning of cells, as well as for regeneration. In this work, we describe importance of adhesive signals for myoblast cells’ growth and differentiation by generating a novel ECM mimetic peptide nanofiber scaffold system. We show that not only structure but also composition of bioactive signals are important for cell adhesion, growth and differentiation by mimicking the compositional and structural properties of native skeletal muscle basal lamina. We conjugated laminin-derived integrin binding peptide sequence, “IKVAV”, and fibronectin-derived well known adhesive sequence, “RGD”, into peptide nanostructures to provide adhesive and myogenic cues on a nanofibrous morphology. The myogenic and adhesive signals exhibited a synergistic effect on model myoblasts, C2C12 cells. Our results showed that self-assembled peptide nanofibers presenting laminin derived epitopes support adhesion, growth and proliferation of the cells and significantly promote the expression of skeletal muscle-specific marker genes. The functional peptide nanofibers used in this study present a biocompatible and biodegradable microenvironment, which is capable of supporting the growth and differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts into myotubes.

  6. Vismodegib: in locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2012-07-30

    Vismodegib is the first Hedgehog pathway inhibitor to be approved in the US, where it is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic basal cell carcinoma (BCC), or with locally advanced BCC that has recurred following surgery or who are not candidates for surgery, and who are not candidates for radiation. Vismodegib selectively and potently inhibits the Hedgehog signalling pathway by binding to Smoothened, thereby inhibiting the activation of Hedgehog target genes. Oral vismodegib was effective in the treatment of patients with locally advanced (n = 63) or metastatic (n = 33) BCC, according to the results of an ongoing, noncomparative, multinational, pivotal, phase II trial (ERIVANCE BCC). In this trial (using a clinical cutoff date of 26 November 2010), the independent review facility overall response rate was 42.9% in patients with locally advanced BCC and 30.3% in patients with metastatic BCC. In both patients with locally advanced BCC and those with metastatic BCC, the median duration of response was 7.6 months and median progression-free survival was 9.5 months. Oral vismodegib had an acceptable tolerability profile in patients with advanced BCC.

  7. Basal magnetic flux and the local solar dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Stenflo, J O

    2012-01-01

    The average unsigned magnetic flux density in magnetograms of the quiet Sun is generally dominated by instrumental noise. Due to the entirely different scaling behavior of the noise and the solar magnetic pattern it has been possible to determine the standard deviation of the Gaussian noise distribution and remove the noise contribution from the average unsigned flux density for the whole 15-yr SOHO/MDI data set and for a selection of SDO/HMI magnetograms. There is a very close correlation between the MDI disk-averaged unsigned vertical flux density and the sunspot number, and regression analysis gives a residual level of 2.7 G when the sunspot number is zero. The selected set of HMI magnetograms, which spans the most quiet phase of solar activity, has a lower limit of 3.0 G to the noise-corrected average flux density. These apparently cycle-independent levels may be identified as a basal flux density, which represents an upper limit to the possible flux contribution from a local dynamo, but not evidence for ...

  8. Fish Karyome: A karyological information network database of Indian Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpure, Naresh Sahebrao; Pathak, Ajey Kumar; Pati, Rameshwar; Singh, Shri Prakash; Singh, Mahender; Sarkar, Uttam Kumar; Kushwaha, Basdeo; Kumar, Ravindra

    2012-01-01

    'Fish Karyome', a database on karyological information of Indian fishes have been developed that serves as central source for karyotype data about Indian fishes compiled from the published literature. Fish Karyome has been intended to serve as a liaison tool for the researchers and contains karyological information about 171 out of 2438 finfish species reported in India and is publically available via World Wide Web. The database provides information on chromosome number, morphology, sex chromosomes, karyotype formula and cytogenetic markers etc. Additionally, it also provides the phenotypic information that includes species name, its classification, and locality of sample collection, common name, local name, sex, geographical distribution, and IUCN Red list status. Besides, fish and karyotype images, references for 171 finfish species have been included in the database. Fish Karyome has been developed using SQL Server 2008, a relational database management system, Microsoft's ASP.NET-2008 and Macromedia's FLASH Technology under Windows 7 operating environment. The system also enables users to input new information and images into the database, search and view the information and images of interest using various search options. Fish Karyome has wide range of applications in species characterization and identification, sex determination, chromosomal mapping, karyo-evolution and systematics of fishes.

  9. Sautéed Fish Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: A fresh fish, cooking oil, scallion, ginger, egg white, salt, MSG, cooking wine, cornstarch. Directions: 1. Clean and scale the fish and take out the internal organs. 2. Fillet the fish. Slice the fish into thin pieces. Coat the fish

  10. Fish oil quality of by-product (fish skin from swangi fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Ode Huli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The skin of swangi fish is a potential fish skin to be produced for fish oil. The objectives of this research were aimed to determine the yield and the best quality of fish oil and also to compare fatty acid profile of the fish according to different extraction methods. Fish oil extractions were used by wet rendering method with extraction temperatures of 60, 70, 80, 90, 100°C for 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Fish oil quality was determined by the chemical oil characteristics i.e. PV, FFA, AV, anisidin, and TOTOX. Fatty acid profile was analyzed using gas chromatography (Shimadzu. The results of the study showed that the highest fish oil yield in each treatment was obtained extraction temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes with percentage of 0.33, (70°C for 30 minutes 0.46, (80°C for 30 minutes 1.23, (90°C for 20 minutes 1.14 and (100°C for 20 minutes 0.84. These values were lower compare to Bligh & Dyer and Soxhlet methods. Then, the best fish oil quality was resulted on temperature extraction of 60°C for 30 minutes with PV, FFA, anisidin, AV, and TOTOX were 9.17 meq/kg, 6.92%, 13,77 mg KOH/g, 0.86 meq/kg and 19.19 meq/kg, respectively. FUFA fatty acid compositions of swangi skin fish oil especially EPA and DHA in wet rendering method were gained 0.73% and 2.53%, respectively. These results were lower than Bligh & Dyer method which was consisted of 3.66% (EPA, and 13.29% (DHA and also Soxhlet extraction method with value of EPA was 2.78% and DHA was 9.62%.Keywords: EPA, extraction temperature, DHA, fish oil quality, fish skin

  11. Fissura palatina reparada: fechamento velofaríngeo antes e durante o som basal Cleft palate repair: velopharyngeal closure before and during the basal tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giseane Conterno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Portadores de fissura palatina apresentam inadequado fechamento velofaríngeo (FVF, com consequente hipernasalidade vocal que pode ser diminuída com o som basal. OBJETIVO: Comparar o FVF durante a realização do som basal com a emissão em registro modal, em pacientes com fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo de Casos com quatro homens adultos, portadores de fissura palatina pós-forame reparada. Imagens do FVF por nasofaringoscopia, durante a emissão da vogal [a] em registro modal e basal. Julgamento das imagens realizado por quatro otorrinolaringologistas. RESULTADOS: Em três sujeitos, não houve mudança no tipo de FVF entre os registros analisados; as modificações que ocorreram na maioria dos sujeitos referem-se apenas ao grau de movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, pois, em registro basal, o movimento das paredes laterais da faringe se manteve, o movimento da parede posterior da faringe estabilizou, o movimento do véu palatino diminuiu discretamente, e a Prega de Passavant se evidenciou. CONCLUSÕES: O tipo de FVF se manteve em três dos quatro sujeitos analisados, quando comparado o registro modal com o basal, havendo modificações no grau da movimentação das estruturas envolvidas, evidenciando a Prega de Passavant.Patients with palatine fissure have inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC, with consequent vocal hypernasality which can be reduced by a basal tone. AIM: to compare VPC during a basal tone with the emission of a modal recording, in patients with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: case study with four adult men, all with repaired post-foramen palatine fissure. VPC images through nasal-pharyngoscopy during the emission o f the [a] vowel in a modal and basal recording. The images were studied by four ENTs. RESULTS: in three subjects there was no change in the type of VPC considering the recordings analyzed; the changes which happened to most of the subjects

  12. Fishes and humankind III. Editorial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K. G. Jones

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of this group of three papers form part of the 1987 meeting of the International Council for Archaeozoologists Fish Remains Working Group which took place at the University of York, U. K. The papers illustrate an increased awareness of the significance of ichthyological research to archaeology and cover three areas of research: taphonomy; fishing artefacts; and fish remains recovered from an excavation. Jones sheds some light on the relative robustness of the bewildering array of elements in a fish skeleton by recording damage to a skeleton when it is trampled. His paper suggests an index of robustness which might be used to assess the degree of fragmentation in archaeological assemblages. Kemp reports on the excavation of a small medieval building located adjacent to medieval fish ponds created by Cistercian monks in North Yorkshire, England. In addition to the structural evidence, an impressive assemblage of weights, presumably net weights, found on or near the site is published. Perhaps most significant is a large lead weight which may have been used to weight catches of fish from the ponds. Fish remains recovered from two excavations at the quayside at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England are discussed by Nicholson. Around 6000 identified bones form the basis for the study, the majority of which were identified as Gadid (cod family or herring. While the main food fishes typify fish bone assemblages from most post-Roman urban archaeological sites, the identification of small fishes such as sandeels, smelt, gobies and buttefish may indicate the utilisation of fish not nowadays considered as food at all. Given the diversity of species (30 individual species identified it is suggested that the remains from the main bone-producing organic horizons, dated to the late twelfth to thirteenth centuries, may include discard from a nearby fishmarket.

  13. Chromium oxide (51Cr2O3 used as biological marker was not absorbed by fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Z. Sakita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate absorption of radio-labeled chromium oxide (51Cr2O3, used as biological marker in nutrition studies with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. An experimental diet with approximately 58 µCi of specific activity of the element was encapsulated and fed daily to 35 adult Nile tilapia; a group of 35 fish was used as control feeding on a basal diet. At the beginning of the experiment five fish from each group were randomly selected and blood samples were drawn from control (BC and experimental fish (BE. Fish were then euthanized by anesthetic overdoses and samples of the liver tissue (LT, renal tissue (RT, stomach without content (S, intestine without content (I, gills tissue (GT, muscle tissue (fillet; MT, visceral fat (VF, content of the digestive tract (CTDE and water aquarium were collected from the experimental fish. The procedure was repeated daily for one week. Simple linear regressions were adjusted - days of collection vs. determination coefficients, and were established for statistical comparisons of the measured activity of 51Cr readings in sampled blood and tissues (logarithmic transformation for samples of the control and experimental fish. No differences (P>0.05 were detected between samples from BC fish and BE, RT, VF, MT and LT of treated fish, but samples of GT, I, S, CTDE and WA from the tanks holding fish which received the experimental diet differed from control (P<0.05. The experimental results indicate that the trivalent chromium in the form of 51Cr2O3 was not significantly absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, gills or another possible route of absorption under these experimental conditions and with Nile tilapia. Therefore, this marker was shown to be inert and can be safely used in nutrition studies.

  14. Conifer density within lake catchments predicts fish mercury concentrations in remote subalpine lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herring, Garth; Johnson, Branden L.; Graw, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Remote high-elevation lakes represent unique environments for evaluating the bioaccumulation of atmospherically deposited mercury through freshwater food webs, as well as for evaluating the relative importance of mercury loading versus landscape influences on mercury bioaccumulation. The increase in mercury deposition to these systems over the past century, coupled with their limited exposure to direct anthropogenic disturbance make them useful indicators for estimating how changes in mercury emissions may propagate to changes in Hg bioaccumulation and ecological risk. We evaluated mercury concentrations in resident fish from 28 high-elevation, sub-alpine lakes in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Fish total mercury (THg) concentrations ranged from 4 to 438 ng/g wet weight, with a geometric mean concentration (±standard error) of 43 ± 2 ng/g ww. Fish THg concentrations were negatively correlated with relative condition factor, indicating that faster growing fish that are in better condition have lower THg concentrations. Across the 28 study lakes, mean THg concentrations of resident salmonid fishes varied as much as 18-fold among lakes. We used a hierarchal statistical approach to evaluate the relative importance of physiological, limnological, and catchment drivers of fish Hg concentrations. Our top statistical model explained 87% of the variability in fish THg concentrations among lakes with four key landscape and limnological variables: catchment conifer density (basal area of conifers within a lake's catchment), lake surface area, aqueous dissolved sulfate, and dissolved organic carbon. Conifer density within a lake's catchment was the most important variable explaining fish THg concentrations across lakes, with THg concentrations differing by more than 400 percent across the forest density spectrum. These results illustrate the importance of landscape characteristics in controlling mercury bioaccumulation in fish.

  15. Sustained high basal motion of the Greenland ice sheet revealed by borehole deformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryser, Claudia; Luethi, Martin P.; Andrews, Lauren C.;

    2014-01-01

    Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high am...

  16. [Neurobiology of parkinsonism. I. Neural substrates an neurochemistry of the basal ganglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, S; Garcia-Cairasco, N

    1995-09-01

    Movement disorders, in general, are characterized by a breakdown in the integrated coordination of posture and motion by multiple brain and muscular systems. In the expression of parkinsonism, in particular, critical and altered structures such as substantia nigra, appear to be related to the cortex-basal ganglia and thalamus-basal ganglia sub-circuits.

  17. Left common basal pyramid torsion following left upper lobectomy/segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Li; Cheng, Yen-Po; Cheng, Ching-Yuan; Wang, Bing-Yen

    2015-05-01

    Lobar or segmental lung torsion is a severe complication of lung resection. To the best of our knowledge, common basal pyramid torsion has never been reported. We describe a case of left basal pyramid torsion after left upper lobectomy and superior segmentectomy, which was successfully treated by thoracoscopic surgery.

  18. Somatic Cell Fusions Reveal Extensive Heterogeneity in Basal-like Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Su

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Basal-like and luminal breast tumors have distinct clinical behavior and molecular profiles, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. To interrogate processes that determine these distinct phenotypes and their inheritance pattern, we generated somatic cell fusions and performed integrated genetic and epigenetic (DNA methylation and chromatin profiling. We found that the basal-like trait is generally dominant and is largely defined by epigenetic repression of luminal transcription factors. Definition of super-enhancers highlighted a core program common in luminal cells but a high degree of heterogeneity in basal-like breast cancers that correlates with clinical outcome. We also found that protein extracts of basal-like cells are sufficient to induce a luminal-to-basal phenotypic switch, implying a trigger of basal-like autoregulatory circuits. We determined that KDM6A might be required for luminal-basal fusions, and we identified EN1, TBX18, and TCF4 as candidate transcriptional regulators of the luminal-to-basal switch. Our findings highlight the remarkable epigenetic plasticity of breast cancer cells.

  19. Metacognitive Theory Applied: Strategic Reading Instruction in the Current Generation of Basal Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Maribeth Cassidy; Hopkins, Carol J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the content of eight basal reading series (published in 1989) to determine how and the extent to which lessons and activities that promote metacomprehension behaviors necessary for independent reading were included. Finds that basal authors made considerable efforts to incorporate activities and lessons that promote or foster strategic…

  20. Expression of basal cell keratins in human prostate cancer metastases and cell lines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, G.J.L.H. van; Aalders, M.W.; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, C.A.; Ruiter, D.J.; Schalken, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Within normal human prostate epithelium, basal and luminal cells can be discriminated by their expression of keratins (K). While basal cells express K5/14, luminal cells show expression of K8/18 and an intermediate cell population can be identified by co-expression of K5/18. Prostate cancer is predo

  1. The fish endocrine pancreas: review, new data, and future research directions in ontogeny and phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youson, J H; Al-Mahrouki, A A; Amemiya, Y; Graham, L C; Montpetit, C J; Irwin, D M

    2006-09-01

    The literature on the ontogeny and phylogeny of the endocrine pancreas of ray-finned fishes is summarized since the latest review in fish [Youson, J.H., Al-Mahrouki, A.A., 1999. Review. Ontogenetic and phylogenetic development of the endocrine pancreas (islet organ) in fishes. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 116, 303-335]. A basic description and a demonstration of the diversity of the fish islet organ is provided through new immunohistochemical data on islet tissue from a basal teleost, an osteoglossomorph, and a more derived teleost, a perciforme. Unlike the previous review, the present report provides a review and discussion of the utility of sequence data of insulin, somatostatin, and NPY- and glucagon-family peptides in phylogenetic analyses of jawed and jawless fishes. The present study also provides the first comparative analysis of sequences of preprohormones of endocrine peptides from closely related basal teleost species. Some nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence data for preprosomatostatins (PPSS-I and/or -II) are compared for four species of bonytongues, Osteoglossomorpha, and with PPSSs of the white sucker, Catostomus commersoni, representing Cypriniformes, a more generalized teleost order. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the PPSSs of these species and others from databases indicates good support for the monophyly of Osteoglossomorpha and some support for the present taxonomic grouping of the osteoglossomorphs examined, and also the white sucker. However, PPSS may have limited phylogenetic utility due to the relative short sequence, particularly in resolving relationships among lineages that diverged over a short period of time. Since in the few fish species examined we have just touched the surface in describing the diversity of structure of the islet organ, and likely the nature of the products of its cells, this report promotes the continued study of this organ.

  2. Refractory epilepsy and basal ganglia: the role of seizure frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouilleret, V.; Trebossen, R.; Mantzerides, M.; Semah, F.; Ribeiro, M.J. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, I2BM/DSV, CEA, 91 - Orsay (France); Bouilleret, V. [CHU Bicetre, Unite de Neurophysiologie et d' Epileptologie, AP-HP, 75 - Paris (France); Chassoux, F. [Hopital Saint Anne, Service de Neurochirurgie, 75 - Paris (France); Biraben, A. [CHU, Service de Neurologie, Hopital Pontchaillou, 35 - Rennes (France)

    2008-02-15

    Objectives. - A decrease of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake in basal ganglia (B.G.) was recently reported in medically refractory epilepsy. The purpose of this study was to assess the involvement of dopaminergic neurotransmission in refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy (T.L.E.) and its relationship to glucose metabolism and morphological changes. Methods. - Twelve T.L.E. patients were studied using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA PET and MRI and compared with healthy control volunteers. Morphological cerebral changes were assessed using Voxel-Based Morphometry (V.B.M.). Student t test statistical maps of functional and morphological differences between patients and controls were obtained using a general linear model. Results. - In T.L.E. patients, [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was reduced to the same extent in caudate and putamen in both cerebral hemispheres as well as in the substantia nigra (S.N.). These dopaminergic functional alterations occurred without any glucose metabolism changes in these areas. The only mild morphological abnormality was found in striatal regions without any changes in the S.N.. Conclusion. - The present study provides support for dopaminergic neurotransmission involvement in T.L.E.. The discrepancies between G.M.V. atrophy and the pattern of [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-L-DOPA suggest that B.G. involvement is not related to structural subcortical abnormalities. A functional decrease can be ruled out as there was no change of the glycolytic pathway metabolism in these areas. (authors)

  3. Association of basal forebrain volumes and cognition in normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Grothe, M; Fischer, F U; Heinsen, H; Kilimann, I; Teipel, S; Fellgiebel, A

    2014-01-01

    The basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS) is known to undergo moderate neurodegenerative alterations during normal aging and severe atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been suggested that functional and structural alterations of the BFCS mediate cognitive performance in normal aging and AD. But, it is still unclear to what extend age-associated cognitive decline can be related to BFCS in normal aging. We analyzed the relationship between BFCS volume and cognition using MRI and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery in a cohort of 43 healthy elderly subjects spanning the age range from 60 to 85 years. Most notably, we found significant associations between general intelligence and BFCS volumes, specifically within areas corresponding to posterior nuclei of the nucleus basalis of Meynert (Ch4p) and the nucleus subputaminalis (NSP). Associations between specific cognitive domains and BFCS volumes were less pronounced. Supplementary analyses demonstrated that especially the volume of NSP but also the volume of Ch4p was related to the volume of widespread temporal, frontal, and parietal gray and white matter regions. Volumes of these gray and white matter regions were also related to general intelligence. Higher volumes of Ch4p and NSP may enhance the effectiveness of acetylcholine supply in related gray and white matter regions underlying general intelligence and hence explain the observed association between the volume of Ch4p as well as NSP and general intelligence. Since general intelligence is known to attenuate the degree of age-associated cognitive decline and the risk of developing late-onset AD, the BFCS might, besides the specific contribution to the pathophysiology in AD, constitute a mechanism of brain resilience in normal aging.

  4. Impact of basal forebrain cholinergic inputs on basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Cagri T; Pare, Denis; Zaborszky, Laszlo

    2015-01-14

    In addition to innervating the cerebral cortex, basal forebrain cholinergic (BFc) neurons send a dense projection to the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). In this study, we investigated the effect of near physiological acetylcholine release on BLA neurons using optogenetic tools and in vitro patch-clamp recordings. Adult transgenic mice expressing cre-recombinase under the choline acetyltransferase promoter were used to selectively transduce BFc neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 and a reporter through the injection of an adeno-associated virus. Light-induced stimulation of BFc axons produced different effects depending on the BLA cell type. In late-firing interneurons, BFc inputs elicited fast nicotinic EPSPs. In contrast, no response could be detected in fast-spiking interneurons. In principal BLA neurons, two different effects were elicited depending on their activity level. When principal BLA neurons were quiescent or made to fire at low rates by depolarizing current injection, light-induced activation of BFc axons elicited muscarinic IPSPs. In contrast, with stronger depolarizing currents, eliciting firing above ∼ 6-8 Hz, these muscarinic IPSPs lost their efficacy because stimulation of BFc inputs prolonged current-evoked afterdepolarizations. All the effects observed in principal neurons were dependent on muscarinic receptors type 1, engaging different intracellular mechanisms in a state-dependent manner. Overall, our results suggest that acetylcholine enhances the signal-to-noise ratio in principal BLA neurons. Moreover, the cholinergic engagement of afterdepolarizations may contribute to the formation of stimulus associations during fear-conditioning tasks where the timing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli is not optimal for the induction of synaptic plasticity.

  5. Erosion and basal forces in granular flow experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvitale, Nicoletta; Bowman, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Extreme mass wasting avalanche events such as rock, snow and ice avalanches, debris flows, and pyroclastic flows are among the most hazardous geological phenomena. These events driven by gravity, can travel for long distance and high speed, increasing their volumes as they can entertain material along their path. The erosion of material and its entrainment can greatly affect the overall dynamics of transportation, either enhancing or impeding the avalanche mobility depending on flow dynamics and characteristics of the substrate. However, the mechanisms and processes acting at the base as they travel over deformable or erodible substrates are still poor understood. Experiments, simulations and field measurements indicate that large fluctuations can occur in basal forces and stresses, which may be the result of non-uniform load transfer within the mass, and rolling, bouncing and sliding of the particles along the bed. In dense granular materials, force distributions can propagate through filamentary chain structures that carry a large fraction of the forces within the system. Photoelastic experiments on two-dimensional, monodisperse, gravity-driven flows have shown that force chains can transmit high localized forces to the boundary of dense granular flows. Here we describe the preliminary setup and results of 2D experiments on polydisperse granular flows of photoelastic disks down a small flume designed to acquire the forces exerted at the boundaries of the flow and to analyze their effects on an erodible bed. The intended outcome of this research is to provide better information on the complex mechanism of erosion and its effects on avalanche behaviour.

  6. Laser ablation of basal cell carcinomas guided by confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Heidy; Cordova, Miguel; Nehal, Kishwer; Rossi, Anthony; Chen, Chih-Shan Jason; Rajadhyaksha, Milind

    2016-02-01

    Laser ablation offers precise and fast removal of superficial and early nodular types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). Nevertheless, the lack of histological confirmation has been a limitation. Reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) imaging combined with a contrast agent can offer cellular-level histology-like feedback to detect the presence (or absence) of residual BCC directly on the patient. We conducted an ex vivo bench-top study to provide a set of effective ablation parameters (fluence, number of passes) to remove superficial BCCs while also controlling thermal coagulation post-ablation to allow uptake of contrast agent. The results for an Er:YAG laser (2.9 um and pulse duration 250us) show that with 6 passes of 25 J/cm2, thermal coagulation can be effectively controlled, to allow both the uptake of acetic acid (contrast agent) and detection of residual (or absence) BCCs. Confirmation was provided with histological examination. An initial in vivo study on 35 patients shows that the uptake of contrast agent aluminum chloride) and imaging quality is similar to that observed in the ex vivo study. The detection of the presence of residual tumor or complete clearance was confirmed in 10 wounds with (additional) histology and in 25 lesions with follow-up imaging. Our results indicate that resolution is sufficient but further development and use of appropriate contrast agent are necessary to improve sensitivity and specificity. Advances in RCM technology for imaging of lateral and deep margins directly on the patient may provide less invasive, faster and less expensive image-guided approaches for treatment of BCCs.

  7. Stem cell and neurogenic gene-expression profiles link prostate basal cells to aggressive prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingxiao; Park, Daechan; Zhong, Yi; Lu, Yue; Rycaj, Kiera; Gong, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Liu, Xin; Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Whitney, Pamela; Calhoun-Davis, Tammy; Takata, Yoko; Shen, Jianjun; Iyer, Vishwanath R; Tang, Dean G

    2016-02-29

    The prostate gland mainly contains basal and luminal cells constructed as a pseudostratified epithelium. Annotation of prostate epithelial transcriptomes provides a foundation for discoveries that can impact disease understanding and treatment. Here we describe a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of human benign prostatic basal and luminal epithelial populations using deep RNA sequencing. Through molecular and biological characterizations, we show that the differential gene-expression profiles account for their distinct functional properties. Strikingly, basal cells preferentially express gene categories associated with stem cells, neurogenesis and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) biogenesis. Consistent with this profile, basal cells functionally exhibit intrinsic stem-like and neurogenic properties with enhanced rRNA transcription activity. Of clinical relevance, the basal cell gene-expression profile is enriched in advanced, anaplastic, castration-resistant and metastatic prostate cancers. Therefore, we link the cell-type-specific gene signatures to aggressive subtypes of prostate cancer and identify gene signatures associated with adverse clinical features.

  8. 76 FR 20707 - Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas County, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project; Kittitas... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction... FEIS on the proposed Cle Elum Dam Fish Passage Facilities and Fish Reintroduction Project....

  9. Assessment demersal fish stocks Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corten, A.A.H.M.; Goudswaard, P.C.; Heessen, H.J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The RIVO project "Assessment of demersal fish stocks in Mauritania" was commissioned by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of The Netherlands to produce information on the state of the demersal fish stocks (species that live near the bottom) in Mauritania, in particular octopus and shrimps. These stock

  10. Fish In Mutton Equals Delicious

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    CHINESE characters are pictographs. The character "delicious" consists of "fish" and "sheep." In fact, there are few recipes that uses fish and mutton as main ingredients, Yet, there is one dish called "fisn in mutton" whose taste is good enough to make people understand the connotation of

  11. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  12. Fish and Wildlife Mitigation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    NORTHERN CALIFORNIA COUNCIL OF FLY FISHING CLUBS Bob Baiocchi Vice President Conservation Chairman 1859 Salida Way Paradise, CA 95969 (916...PROJECT CALIFORNIA FIRST PHASE SPECIAL REPORT FISH AND WILDLIFE MITIGATION PLAN DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SACRAMENTO DISTRICT...CORPS OF ENGINEERS SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 20081029163 DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER lufontuiioitfoir tktr Defense- CMtutucnity DTIC

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fouw JC de; Egmond HP van; Speijers GJA; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This review on ciguatera fish poisoning contains information on the ciguatera intoxication syndrome and the provoking ciguatoxins (CTXs) and gambiertoxin-4b (GTX-4B), of which CTX-1 is a major component at the end of food chain (the carnivore fish). Data on chemical structures and detection methods

  14. Sexual signals in electric fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Bernd

    1990-01-01

    Electroreceptive bony fishes of Africa (the Mormyriformes) and South America (the Gymnotiformes) detect and communicate with conspecifics by their continuously discharging electric organs. Laboratory studies of members of each group are beginning to reveal the mechanisms of communicating with and finding mates, offering much scope for future studies of the behavioral ecology of electric fishes.

  15. Basal body structure and composition in the apicomplexans Toxoplasma and Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Maria E; Dubremetz, Jean-Francois; Morrissette, Naomi S

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa encompasses numerous important human and animal disease-causing parasites, including the Plasmodium species, and Toxoplasma gondii, causative agents of malaria and toxoplasmosis, respectively. Apicomplexans proliferate by asexual replication and can also undergo sexual recombination. Most life cycle stages of the parasite lack flagella; these structures only appear on male gametes. Although male gametes (microgametes) assemble a typical 9+2 axoneme, the structure of the templating basal body is poorly defined. Moreover, the relationship between asexual stage centrioles and microgamete basal bodies remains unclear. While asexual stages of Plasmodium lack defined centriole structures, the asexual stages of Toxoplasma and closely related coccidian apicomplexans contain centrioles that consist of nine singlet microtubules and a central tubule. There are relatively few ultra-structural images of Toxoplasma microgametes, which only develop in cat intestinal epithelium. Only a subset of these include sections through the basal body: to date, none have unambiguously captured organization of the basal body structure. Moreover, it is unclear whether this basal body is derived from pre-existing asexual stage centrioles or is synthesized de novo. Basal bodies in Plasmodium microgametes are thought to be synthesized de novo, and their assembly remains ill-defined. Apicomplexan genomes harbor genes encoding δ- and ε-tubulin homologs, potentially enabling these parasites to assemble a typical triplet basal body structure. Moreover, the UNIMOD components (SAS6, SAS4/CPAP, and BLD10/CEP135) are conserved in these organisms. However, other widely conserved basal body and flagellar biogenesis elements are missing from apicomplexan genomes. These differences may indicate variations in flagellar biogenesis pathways and in basal body arrangement within the phylum. As apicomplexan basal bodies are distinct from their metazoan counterparts, it may be possible to

  16. Snapshots of past fish faunas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Inge Bødker; Ediger, Vedat

    2016-01-01

    Analyses of fish remains from sediment cores make it possible to detect not only commonly caught fish from prehistoric times, but also species without any economic importance, but with high value of paleaoecological reconstructions. In this study, fish bones from sediment cores reaching several...... thousand years back and taken in the Baltic and Black Seas were analysed. All fish remains dealt with postdate the last glaciations and are from the last marine/brackish stages of both seas. In the Baltic cores, 13+ species were found, the most abundant ones being sand-eel and clupeids (herring and sprat...... before industrial fishing for them began. Clupeids, in the Baltic samples also sand-eel, dominate the materials. Both contain species that would hardly be expected on archaeological sites. Experience from this study leads to methodological recommendations regarding dating of material from sediment cores...

  17. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  18. Sex Determination Mechanisms in Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Quanqi; SUN Xiaohua; QI Jie; WANG Zhigang; WANG Xinglian; WANG Xubo; ZHAI Teng

    2009-01-01

    In fish, sex determination (SD) system shows high variation. The SD mechanisms include environmental and genetic regulation. The research on SD system and related genes in intensively studied fish species was reviewed. Although some genes have been described as sex-related, only DMRTlbY can be considered as a master sex determination gene and none of them has been util-ized in aquaculture. The variation of fish SD system, the importance of sex-related genes in evolution research and the relations be-tween environmental factors and sex-related genes were also discussed. The fish sex determination mechanism remains largely un-known. Further research needs to be done considering the significance of fish SD studies in basic and applied aspects.

  19. Adult Neurogenesis in Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Julia; Brand, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Teleost fish have a remarkable neurogenic and regenerative capacity in the adult throughout the rostrocaudal axis of the brain. The distribution of proliferation zones shows a remarkable conservation, even in distantly related teleost species, suggesting a common teleost ground plan of proliferation zones. There are different progenitor populations in the neurogenic niches-progenitors positive for radial glial markers (dorsal telencephalon, hypothalamus) and progenitors with neuroepithelial-like characteristics (ventral telencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum). Definition of these progenitors has allowed studying their role in normal growth of the adult brain, but also when challenged following a lesion. From these studies, important roles have emerged for intrinsic mechanisms and extrinsic signals controlling the activation of adult neurogenesis that enable regeneration of the adult brain to occur, opening up new perspectives on rekindling regeneration also in the context of the mammalian brain.

  20. Airborne laser fish finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiao; Li, Zaiguang; Huang, Houzheng

    1998-05-01

    An experimental airborne laser fish finder has been developed and field trial has been conducted. The Q-switched and frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser output is of 100 HZ pulse repetition rate, 2 MW peak power, 8 ns pulse width. The green light receiving telescope is transmissive with 1400 mm focal length and 200 mm aperture. The varying-gain control of PMT and logarithmic amplifier are used to compress the 105 dynamic range of received signals. The main features of data real-time processing subsystem are of 200 Ms/s sampling rate, 8 bit resolution, adjacent average treatment of return waveforms with high noise, and pseudo-color display of water depth.

  1. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Sport Fishing Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Sport Fishing Plans covers the assesment and managment strategies for sport fishing in the Refuge. Focus is on bass, crappie,...

  2. Fish Management Plan : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is the Fish Management Plan for Muscatatuck NWR. The Plan provides an introduction to the Refuge, a description of the area, a description of the fish resource...

  3. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  4. Neosho National Fish Hatchery contaminants survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Fish were collected from Neosho National Fish Hatchery (NNFH) to determine if metal or organic contaminants were elevated in the biota located on the hatchery. Whole...

  5. Immunomodulatory Effectiveness of Fish Oil and omega-3 Fatty Acids in Human Non-melanoma Skin Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Khurram; Mohd Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal; Yuen, Ng Pei; Zulfakar, Mohd Hanif

    2016-01-01

    Fish oil is composed of various fatty acids among which omega-3 fatty acids are considered as most beneficial. The effects of fish oil on the activity of a topical anticancer drug, imiquimod, and the immunomodulatory activity of omega-3 fatty acids was investigated in human basal and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Imiquimod-fish oil mixture exhibited higher carcinoma cell growth inhibition and immunomodulatory activity than imiquimod alone, especially against squamous cell carcinoma cells. Omega-3 fatty acids exhibited growth inhibition of both basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and modulated the immune response. Omega-3 fatty acids of fish oil serve as inducers of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, and as suppressors of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which not only depress tumor growth but also adequately control the inflammatory side effects of imiquimod. Thus, imiquimod administration with fish oil could be beneficial for inhibition of non-melanoma skin carcinoma cells but further in vivo studies are needed to understand their role in skin cancer.

  6. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedgepeth, J (Tenera Environmental, LLC); Johnson, Gary E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J (BioSonics Inc.)

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  7. Prognostic Value of Basal Serum Thyroglobulin Levels, but Not Basal Antithyroglobulin Antibody (TgAb Levels, in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Neshandar Asli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prognostic values of serum thyroglobulin (Tg and antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb levels, measured immediately before I-131remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, have been advocated by some researchers; however, it had controversial outcomes. This study was carried out to examine this dilemma and to check the clinical significance of basal serum Tg and TgAb levels and postablation iodine 131whole body scan(WBS findings in DTC patients. Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of 500 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who had undergone treatment between 2003 and 2010, were assessed. Of those, 149 patients with results of basal serum thyroglobulin concentration and whole body scan using radioactive iodine were included. Age, sex, tumour histology, basal thyroglobulin (Tg, anti-thyroglobulin (TgAb and TSH concentration, radioactive iodine doses in each hospitalization, numbers of hospitalization, and results of whole body scans were recorded. The relationship among basal Tg, TgAb, TSH, and whole body scan with hospitalization number and total radioactive iodine doses were assessed. Results: A total of 149 patients, including 123 (83% females and 26 (17% males, with a mean age of 40±15 years, took part in the study. The mean (SD basal Tg, TgAb, and TSH were 91.7±169.2 ng/mL (0.1-1000 ng/mL, 250±893 U/mL (0-9000 U/m L, and 64.8±61.5 µU/mL (30-689 U/mLµ, respectively. A total of 52 (34.9% cases had TgAb levels greater than 100 U/mL. The mean basal Tg in patients who were admitted three or more times was significantly greater than that of patients with one hospitalization (p=0.026. In addition, the mean of Tg in patients who received 7.4 GBq radioactive iodine or less was significantly lower than the others (p=0.003. The mean of TgAb and TSH were not different between these groups. In the results of the whole body scans, patients with metastasis had higher frequency of

  8. Fish and Soup of Hubei Cuisine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    I was very impressed by the delicious freshwater fish dish from the well-known Changjiang River and Dongting Lake, the first time I travelled to Hubei Province. Hubei is famous for its freshwater fish dishes since it has so many lakes. The steamed Wuchang fish is one. Wuchang fish is pure, tender and fat and is considered a first-class freshwater fish. Waiters in local restaurants usually bring the fresh Wuchang fish to the

  9. Fisheries and aquatic resources--fish health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Fish health research at Leetown had its origin in the 1930’s when the Leetown Fish Hatchery and Experiment Station was constructed. In 1978, the National Fish Health Research Laboratory, now a component of the Leetown Science Center, was established to solve emerging and known disease problems affecting fish and other aquatic organisms critical to species restoration programs. Center scientists develop methods for the isolation, detection, and identification of fish pathogens and for prevention and control of fish diseases.

  10. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Nakamura

    Full Text Available Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay; the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010. This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable

  11. Tropical fishes dominate temperate reef fish communities within western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yohei; Feary, David A; Kanda, Masaru; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is resulting in rapid poleward shifts in the geographical distribution of tropical and subtropical fish species. We can expect that such range shifts are likely to be limited by species-specific resource requirements, with temperate rocky reefs potentially lacking a range of settlement substrates or specific dietary components important in structuring the settlement and success of tropical and subtropical fish species. We examined the importance of resource use in structuring the distribution patterns of range shifting tropical and subtropical fishes, comparing this with resident temperate fish species within western Japan (Tosa Bay); the abundance, diversity, size class, functional structure and latitudinal range of reef fishes utilizing both coral reef and adjacent rocky reef habitat were quantified over a 2 year period (2008-2010). This region has undergone rapid poleward expansion of reef-building corals in response to increasing coastal water temperatures, and forms one of the global hotspots for rapid coastal changes. Despite the temperate latitude surveyed (33°N, 133°E) the fish assemblage was both numerically, and in terms of richness, dominated by tropical fishes. Such tropical faunal dominance was apparent within both coral, and rocky reef habitats. The size structure of the assemblage suggested that a relatively large number of tropical species are overwintering within both coral and rocky habitats, with a subset of these species being potentially reproductively active. The relatively high abundance and richness of tropical species with obligate associations with live coral resources (i.e., obligate corallivores) shows that this region holds the most well developed temperate-located tropical fish fauna globally. We argue that future tropicalisation of the fish fauna in western Japan, associated with increasing coral habitat development and reported increasing shifts in coastal water temperatures, may have considerable positive economic

  12. Characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yating Kong; Xifeng Pan; Qimei Zhang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To introduce the characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke and the rehabilitative interventions.DATA SOURCES: Articles related to stroke, subcortical aphasia, basal ganglia aphasia and language rehabilitation published in Chinese from January 1988 to December 2005 were searched in Chinese journal full-text database (CJFD) using the keywords of"stroke, basal ganglia aphasia, language rehabilitation" in Chinese. Meanwhile, English articles about aphasia published from January 1982 to December 2005 were searched in and Pubmed database. Besides, several books associated with the contents were looked through manually.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, the articles about the pathomechanism and neurolinguistic characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, diagnostic methods of aphasia and language rehabilitation were selected, and those had no obvious relation with the above contents were excluded.Inclusive criteria: literatures explain the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, neurolinguistic pathogenesis and methods of rehabilitation therapy in details. The repetitive studies were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 95 literatures about basal ganglia aphasia were collected, including 31 about the clinical characteristics of basal ganglia aphasia, 45 about its neurolinguistic pathogenesis, 5 about the evaluation and classification of aphasia, and 14 about its rehabilitation therapy. Thirty accorded with the inclusive criteria were used for review, and the other 65 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: Concisely introduced the definition, past investigation of basal ganglia aphasia after stroke, then dwelled on the multiplicity neurolinguistics characteristics. Aphasia evaluation was dependent upon clinical aphasic symptoms. The relationship between symptom and focus of infection was explored, and the mechanism of pathosis language behavior on basal ganglia aphasia patients was understood to provide consequence data that could

  13. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  14. The Fresh-water Fishes of Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfred, E.R.

    1966-01-01

    CONTENTS Page Introduction 5 Materials................... 6 The environment................. 7 Ichthyological literature of Singapore........... 9 Aquarium fishes................. io Pond culture fishes................ n Introduced species................. 12 Acknowledgements................ 13 Syst

  15. Floral gene resources from basal angiosperms for comparative genomics research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohong

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Floral Genome Project was initiated to bridge the genomic gap between the most broadly studied plant model systems. Arabidopsis and rice, although now completely sequenced and under intensive comparative genomic investigation, are separated by at least 125 million years of evolutionary time, and cannot in isolation provide a comprehensive perspective on structural and functional aspects of flowering plant genome dynamics. Here we discuss new genomic resources available to the scientific community, comprising cDNA libraries and Expressed Sequence Tag (EST sequences for a suite of phylogenetically basal angiosperms specifically selected to bridge the evolutionary gaps between model plants and provide insights into gene content and genome structure in the earliest flowering plants. Results Random sequencing of cDNAs from representatives of phylogenetically important eudicot, non-grass monocot, and gymnosperm lineages has so far (as of 12/1/04 generated 70,514 ESTs and 48,170 assembled unigenes. Efficient sorting of EST sequences into putative gene families based on whole Arabidopsis/rice proteome comparison has permitted ready identification of cDNA clones for finished sequencing. Preliminarily, (i proportions of functional categories among sequenced floral genes seem representative of the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome, (ii many known floral gene homologues have been captured, and (iii phylogenetic analyses of ESTs are providing new insights into the process of gene family evolution in relation to the origin and diversification of the angiosperms. Conclusion Initial comparisons illustrate the utility of the EST data sets toward discovery of the basic floral transcriptome. These first findings also afford the opportunity to address a number of conspicuous evolutionary genomic questions, including reproductive organ transcriptome overlap between angiosperms and gymnosperms, genome-wide duplication history, lineage

  16. HBV genotypes prevalence, precore and basal core mutants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baha, Warda; Ennaji, My Mustapha; Lazar, Fatiha; Melloul, Marouane; El Fahime, Elmostafa; El Malki, Abdelouahad; Bennani, Abdelouaheb

    2012-08-01

    The study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genomic heterogeneity has become a major issue in investigations aimed at understanding the relationship between HBV mutants and the wide spectrum of clinical and pathological conditions associated with HBV infection. The objective of the current study was to find out the pattern of HBV genotypes circulating in Morocco and to investigate the precore (PC) and basal core promoter (BCP) mutants' status in Moroccan chronic hepatitis B patients. Viral genotypes were determined in 221 chronic carriers using INNO-LiPA HBV assay and hemi-nested PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in 70 samples, and multiplex PCR method was used to confirm some genotyping results. PC and CP mutants were determined using Inno-Lipa. All isolates were successfully genotyped. The genotype distribution was D in 90.45% of cases, A (5.9%), E (1 case), and mixed genotypes (5 A/D and 2 D/F) in 3.17% patients. HBV carried in the HBV/D samples could be assigned to D7 (63.3%), D1 (32.7%) and 2% of strains to each D4 and D5, all HBV/A belonged to A2 subgenotype and HBV/E strain could not be sub-genotyped. In 70 studied strains, HBV mutants were detected in 88.6% of cases; PC mutants were detected in (40%) of patients and 21.5% present a mixture of wild type and G1896A mutation. BCP mutants were observed in 65.7% of cases, 22.9% were found to have the T1762/1764A double mutation, 18.6% had A1762/1764T mutation and 22.9% of patients showed the A1762T/G1764A double mutation with either A1762T/G1764T mutation. Co-infection by PC and BCP mutants was detected in 52.9% of cases. Movement from place to place most likely shapes the observed genotype distribution and consequent prevalence of genotypes other than A2 or D7 in this population. High circulation of PC and BCP mutants is common in chronic hepatitis B infection in Morocco.

  17. [Basal cell carcinoma of prostate: a report of three cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Ma, L L; Zhang, S D; Lu, M; Tian, Y; He, Q; Jin, J

    2016-02-18

    To explore the clinical pathological characteristics and improve the recognition in the diagnosis and treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of prostate. Three cases of BCC of prostate were reported and the relevant literature was reviewed to investigate the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. We analyzed three cases of prostatic BCC. Their ages were within a range of 57 to 83 years. One of them complained of hematuria and two complained of dysuria. All of them presented with prostatic hyperplasia. Two of them presented with high prostate specific antigen (PSA) and one with normal PSA. Case 1 had prostate cancer invasion of bladder, rectal fascia, with lymph node metastasis, bone metastasis and lung metastases. The patient received bladder resection+bilateral ureteral cutaneous ureterostomy+lymph node dissection on November 2, 2014 . Postoperative pathological diagnosis showed BCC. Reexamination of pelvic enhanced MRI in January 8, 2015 suggested pelvic recurrence. Abdominal enhanced CT showed multiple liver metastases and pancreatic metastasis on July 11, 2015. Prostate cancer specific death occurred in October 2015. Case 2 was diagnosed as BCC in prostate biopsy on March 27, 2015. Positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET-CT) showed pulmonary metastasis and bone metastasis. Then the patient received chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and local radiation therapy. Reexamination of PET-CT on January 11, 2016 showed that the lung metastase tumors and bone metastase tumors were larger than before. Up to January 10, 2016, the patient was still alive. Postoperative pathological changes of transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) in case 3 showed BCC might be considered. The PET-CT suggested residual prostate cancer, which might be associated with bilateral pelvic lymph node metastasis. In April 20, 2016, the review of PET-CT showed pelvic huge irregular hybrid density shadow, about 14.5 cm×10.0 cm×12.9 cm in size, and tumor recurrence was

  18. Formation of Oceanic Lithosphere by Basal Magma Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, V. M.; Cardoso, R. R.; Alexandrino, C. H.

    2009-12-01

    The thermal models of the lithosphere proposed to date have failed to provide satisfactory accounts of some of the important features in large-scale variations of ocean floor bathymetry and heat flow. The systematic difference between model calculations and observational data have given rise to the so-called “oceanic heat flow paradox”, for which no satisfactory solution has been found for over the last forty years. In the present work, we point out that this paradox is a consequence of the assumption that lateral temperature variations are absent in the sub-lithospheric mantle. In the present work we propose a simple magma accretion model and examine its implications for understanding the thermal field of oceanic lithosphere. The new model (designated VBA) assumes existence of lateral variations in magma accretion rates and temperatures at the boundary zone between the lithosphere and the asthenosphere, similar in character to those observed in magma solidification processes in the upper crust. However, unlike the previous thermal models of the lithosphere, the ratio of advection to conduction heat transfer (the Peclet number) is considered a space dependent variable. The solution to the problem of variable basal heat input has been obtained by the method of integral transform. The results of VBA model simulations reveal that the thickness of the young lithosphere increases with distance from the ridge axis, at rates faster than those predicted by Half-Space Cooling and Plate models. Another noteworthy feature of the new model is its ability to account for the main observational features in the thermal behavior of both young and old oceanic lithosphere. Thus, heat flow and bathymetry variations calculated on the basis of the VBA model provide vastly improved fits to respective observational datasets. More importantly, the improved fits to bathymetry and heat flow have been achieved for the entire age range of oceanic lithosphere and without the need to invoke

  19. Myogenesis in the basal bilaterian Symsagittifera roscoffensis (Acoela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanninger Andreas

    2008-09-01

    , Symsagittifera roscoffensis shows a very complex musculature. Although data on presumably basal acoel clades are still scarce, the information currently available suggests an elaborated musculature with longitudinal, circular and U-shaped muscles as being part of the ancestral acoel bodyplan, thus increasing the possibility that Urbilateria likewise had a relatively complicated muscular ground pattern.

  20. Are the basal cells of the mammalian epididymis still an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, S

    2014-10-01

    Basal cells are present in the columnar pseudostratified epithelium covering the epididymis of all mammalian species, which regulates the microenvironment where the functionally incompetent germ cells produced by the testis are matured and stored. Striking novelties have come from investigations on epididymal basal cells in the past 30-40 years. In addition to an earlier hypothesised scavenger role for basal cells, linked to their proven extratubular origin and the expression of macrophage antigens, basal cells have been shown to be involved in cell-cell cross-talk, as well as functioning as luminal sensors to regulate the activity of principal and clear cells. Involvement of basal cells in the regulation of electrolyte and water transport by principal cells was hypothesised. This control is suggested to be mediated by the local formation of prostaglandins. Members of the aquaporin (AQP) and/or aquaglyceroporin family (AQP3, AQP7 and AQP8) are also specifically expressed in the rat epididymal basal cells. Transport of glycerol and glycerylphosphorylcholine from the epithelium of the epididymis to the lumen in relation to sperm maturation may be mediated by AQP. Most probably basal cells collaborate to the building up of the blood-epididymis barrier through cell adhesion molecules, implying an involvement in immune control exerted towards sperm cells, which are foreigners in the environment in which they were produced.

  1. Reconstructing basal boundary conditions in a regional ice sheet model: Application to Jakobshavn Isbræ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, M.; Maxwell, D. A.; Truffer, M.

    2012-04-01

    A crucial assumption in all ice sheet models concerns the nature and parametrization of the basal boundary condition. Direct observations on large spatial scales are not possible, but inverse methods can be used to determine the distribution of basal properties from surface measurements. We developed open-source iterative inverse algorithms and applied them to PISM, a hybrid ice sheet model that solves a combination of the Shallow Ice and Shallow Shelf Approximations. In a regional-scale model of Jakobshavn Isbræ, the fastest flowing ice stream of Greenland, we invert for basal stickiness over the entire drainage basin. The sensitivity of the reconstructed basal stickiness to the following modeling choices is evaluated: temperature distribution within the ice, definition of the misfit functional, tolerance for the stopping criterion and initial estimates of basal stickiness. The effects and the management of missing data are analyzed. In 2002 the floating tongue of Jakobshavn Isbræ disintegrated catastrophically, leading to increased speeds and rapid thinning of the inland ice. Detailed velocity maps from before and after this breakup allow us to compare retrieved basal parameters and to track the continuing evolution of the basal boundary condition.

  2. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  3. Uniformity in the basal metabolic rate of marsupials: its causes and consequences Uniformidad en la tasa metabólica basal de marsupiales: sus causas y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRIAN K. MACNAB

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the variation (98.8 % in basal rate of metabolism (BMR in 70 species of marsupials is correlated with body mass, although lowland species have higher basal rates than highland species and burrowers have lower basal rates than non-burrowers. These factors collectively account for 99.2 % of the variation in marsupial BMR. Marsupials differ in BMR from eutherians by having no species with a high basal rate by general mammalian standards, even when consuming vertebrates or grass, food habits that are associated with very high basal rates in eutherians. The absence of high basal rates in marsupials reflects the absence of a correlation of rate of reproduction with basal rate, a correlation present in eutherians. These differences have two consequences: (1 marsupials are less tolerant of cold environments than eutherians, and (2 marsupials coexist with eutherians only when both have food habits associated with low basal rates and therefore when eutherians have reduced rates of reproduction. In Australia and South America marsupial carnivores diversified in the absence of eutherian equivalents. The importation to mainland Australia of dingos by humans appears to have been the immediate cause for the extinction of thylacines, Tasmanian devils, and eastern quolls. Carnivorous marsupials in South America were replaced by eutherians with the completion of the Panamanian land bridge. Macropods, which have lower basal rates than eutherian grazers, survive in central Australia probably because of their adjustment to xeric environments, whereas introduced domestic stock require the provision of water by humansGran parte de la variación (98,5 en la tasa metabólica basal de 70 especies de marsupiales se correlaciona con la masa corporal, aunque las especies de tierras bajas tienes tasas basales mayores que las de tierras altas, y las especies subterráneas tienes BMR’s menores que las no subterráneas. Colectivamente, estos factores dan cuenta de un

  4. Combining a GLP-1 receptor agonist and basal insulin: study evidence and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carris, Nicholas W; Taylor, James R; Gums, John G

    2014-12-01

    Most patients with diabetes mellitus require multiple medications to achieve glycemic goals. Considering this and the increasing incidence of type 2 diabetes worldwide, the need for effective combination therapy is pressing. Basal insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes. Though both classes of medication are exclusively injectable, which may cause initial hesitation from providers, evidence for their combined use is substantial. This review summarizes the theoretical benefit, supporting evidence, and implementation of a combined basal insulin-GLP-1 receptor agonist regimen. Basal insulin added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist reduces hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) without weight gain or significantly increased hypoglycemia. A GLP-1 receptor agonist added to basal insulin reduces HbA1c and body weight. Compared with the addition of meal-time insulin to basal insulin, a GLP-1 receptor agonist produces similar or greater reduction in HbA1c, weight loss instead of weight gain, and less hypoglycemia. Gastrointestinal adverse events are common with GLP-1 receptor agonists, especially during initiation and titration. However, combination with basal insulin is not expected to augment expected adverse events that come with using a GLP-1 receptor agonist. Basal insulin can be added to a GLP-1 receptor agonist with a slow titration to target goal fasting plasma glucose. In patients starting a GLP-1 receptor agonist, the dose of basal insulin should be decreased by 20 % in patients with an HbA1c ≤8 %. The evidence from 15 randomized prospective studies supports the combined use of a GLP-1 receptor agonist with basal insulin in a broad range of patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes.

  5. Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for reef, pelagic, benthic, and estuarine fish species in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Vector...

  6. Bristol Bay, Alaska Subarea ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species in the Bristol Bay Subarea. The Subarea...

  7. Coastal Resources Atlas: Long Island: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for Long Island, New York. Vector polygons...

  8. Multisensor for fish quality determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olafsdottir, G.; Nesvadba, P.; Di Natale, C.

    2004-01-01

    The European fish industry is still reluctant to implement methods other than sensory to monitor freshness and quality of fish products, although general concensus exists about the importance of various quality attributes and the need for methods to monitor quality. The objective of the project...... FAIR CT98-4076 (MUSTEC) was to evaluate several physico-chemical techniques and to integrate their outputs into a more robust estimate of the freshness quality of fish. The techniques used for this multisensor approach were based on visible light spectroscopy, electrical properties, image analysis...

  9. Who cares about fish welfare?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Grimsrud, Kristine; Nielsen, Hanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; second, to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and third, to examine Norwegian opinions ab...... concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This paper aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon....

  10. Selectivity of fish ladders: a bottleneck in Neotropical fish movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Agostinho

    Full Text Available Although dozens of fish ladders have been constructed at dams of Brazilian reservoirs, there are few studies evaluating their efficiency as a tool for the conservation of Neotropical ichthyofauna, especially for migratory species. Therefore, the present study evaluated the selectivity of the species that entered and ascended the fish ladder located next to Lajeado Dam (Luis Eduardo Magalhães Hydroelectric Power Plant on the Tocantins River. Samples were taken monthly from November, 2002 through October, 2003, in the resting pools of the ladder, using cast nets, and in the downstream stretch, using gillnets. The selectivity of the ladder in attracting fish was evaluated by comparing the occurrence, relative abundance, dominance and the congruence of abundance ranks of migratory and non-migratory species in the ladder and in the stretch of river immediately downstream. Species richness and fish abundance in the resting pools were used to evaluate selectivity along the ladder. The effects on selectivity by temporal variations in water level downriver and maximum flow velocity in the fish ladder were also analyzed. Out of the 130 species recorded downriver, 62.3% were caught in the ladder, and migratory species were clearly favored. However, more than 2/3 of the catch belonged to only three species (Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Psectrogaster amazonica and Oxydoras niger. Although the majority of the species that entered the ladder were able to reach its top, there was a sharp reduction in abundance of individuals towards the top. Temporal variations in the water level below the dam influenced richness and abundance of fish concentrated downstream and in the ladder, with lower values during periods of low water. In the ladder, a maximum flow velocity of 2.3 m/s, although also selective, proved to be more appropriate for fish ascension than a velocity of 2.8 m/s. It was concluded that the entry and ascension of the fish in the ladder were not congruent with

  11. Lymphatic and blood vessels in basal and triple-negative breast cancers: characteristics and prognostic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rabab A A; Ellis, Ian O; Mahmmod, Ali M; Hawkes, E Claire; Green, Andrew R; Rakha, Emad A; Martin, Stewart G

    2011-06-01

    Basal and triple-negative breast cancer phenotypes are characterised by unfavourable biological behaviour and outcome. Although certain studies have examined their pathological and molecular profile, the vascular characteristics of lymphatic and blood vessels have not been examined. Immunohistochemical staining with podoplanin, CD34 and CD31 was used to examine lymphatic and microvessel density, as well as vascular invasion in 197 basal-like and in 99 triple-negative breast tumours and compared against 200 non-basal and 334 non-triple-negative cases. All specimens were lymph node negative. Vascular invasion was identified as blood or lymphatic vascular invasion by the differential expression of markers. All measurements were correlated with clinicopathological features and prognosis. No significant difference was detected between the basal and triple-negative groups in terms of lymphatic or microvessel density or vascular invasion. However, both the basal and the triple-negative groups showed significantly higher microvessel density than did the non-basal and non-triple-negative groups (P=0.017 and Pcontrols. Interestingly, vascular invasion, almost entirely lymphatic invasion, was detected in 27% of the basal and in 26% of the triple-negative groups with no significant difference in comparison with control groups. In both basal and triple negatives, vascular invasion was associated with poorer survival by univariate and multivariate analyses. The 20-year overall survival rate in basal-like tumours was 55% in vascular invasion-positive cases compared with 73% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.012), and 46% in triple-negative vascular invasion-positive compared with 79% in vascular invasion-negative tumours (P=0.001). Basal-like vs non-basal-like and triple-negative vs non-triple-negative tumours have similar vascular characteristics in terms of lymphatic vessel density and vascular invasion but higher microvessel density, suggesting that such groups may

  12. Basal buoyancy and fast-moving glaciers: in defense of analytic force balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, C. J.

    2016-06-01

    The geometric approach to force balance advocated by T. Hughes in a series of publications has challenged the analytic approach by implying that the latter does not adequately account for basal buoyancy on ice streams, thereby neglecting the contribution to the gravitational driving force associated with this basal buoyancy. Application of the geometric approach to Byrd Glacier, Antarctica, yields physically unrealistic results, and it is argued that this is because of a key limiting assumption in the geometric approach. A more traditional analytic treatment of force balance shows that basal buoyancy does not affect the balance of forces on ice streams, except locally perhaps, through bridging effects.

  13. Mechanisms and efficacy of vismodegib in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Shivan H; Motamedi, Kevin K; Ochsner, Matthew C; Song, Tara E; Hybarger, C Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Historically patients with advanced basal cell carcinoma have been subjected to large surgical resections for the treatment of their disease. However, with the development of vismodegib, a first in class molecule that acts to inhibit the hedgehog pathway, patients with advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma may have renewed hope in limiting the morbidity involved with surgery. Preliminary data shows a relatively good safety profile and promising results, although further research remains to be conducted. Current progress on utilization of vismodegib for the treatment of advanced basal cell carcinoma is reviewed in this article. Only literature with objective clinical evidence was included in this review.

  14. Real-Time Fish Observation and Fish Category Database Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Pang Lin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed real-time video stream system for underwater fish observation in the real world. The system, based on a three-tier architecture, includes capture devices unit, stream processor unit, and display devices unit. It supports variety of capture source devices, such as HDV, DV, WebCam, TV Card, Capture Card, and video compression formats, such as WMV, FLV/SWF, MJPEG, MPEG-2/4. The system has been demonstrated in Taiwan for long-term underwater fish observation. CCTV cameras and high-definition cameras are deployed on our system. Video compression methods and image processing methods are implemented to reduce network transfer flow and data storage space. Marine ecologists and end users can browse these real-time video streams via the Internet to understand the ecological changes immediately. These video data is preserved to form a resource base for marine ecologists. Based on the video data, fish detection is implemented. However, it is complicated in the unconstrained underwater environment, due to the water flow causes the water plants sway severely. In this paper, a bounding-surrounding boxes method is proposed to overcome the problem. It efficiently classifies moving fish as the foreground objects and the swaying water plants as the background objects. It enables to remove the irrelevant information (without fish to reduce the massive amount of video data. Moreover, fish tracking is implemented to acquire multiple species of fish images with varied angles, sizes, shapes, and illumination to construct a fish category database.

  15. Interaction between fish spoilage bacteria Pseudomonas sp and Shewanella putrefaciens in fish extracts and on fish tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Melchiorsen, Jette

    1996-01-01

    The interaction between fish spoilage bacteria, Pseudomonas sp. and Shewanella putrefaciens, was investigated using fish extract and fish tissue as model systems. Isolates of Pseudomonas that produced iron chelators, siderophores, inhibited growth of S. putrefaciens in a fish-extract-agar diffusion...

  16. Basal-like phenotype is not associated with patient survival in estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Jumppanen, Mervi; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia; Kauraniemi, Päivikki; Tanner, Minna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lundin, Mikael; Krogh, Morten; Kataja, Pasi; Borg, Åke; Fernö, Mårten; Isola, Jorma

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Basal-phenotype or basal-like breast cancers are characterized by basal epithelium cytokeratin (CK5/14/17) expression, negative estrogen receptor (ER) status and distinct gene expression signature. We studied the clinical and biological features of the basal-phenotype tumors determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cDNA microarrays especially within the ER-negative subgroup. Methods IHC was used to evaluate the CK5/14 status of 445 stage II breast cancers. The gene expression...

  17. 78 FR 53156 - Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council; Teleconference AGENCY: Fish... Wildlife Service (Service), announce a public teleconference of the Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership.... App., we announce that Sport Fishing and Boating Partnership Council will hold a...

  18. Massachusetts Recreational Fishing Demand Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stated preference choice experiment data were collected in 2012 from Massachuestts saltwater recreational fishermen. Saltwater anglers fishing in Massachusetts (MA)...

  19. Hawaii ESI: FISHPT (Fish Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for native stream and anchialine pool fish species in coastal Hawaii. (Anchialine pools are small,...

  20. AKRO: Guided Angler Fish Landings

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...

  1. AFSC: Various fish maturity studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Knowledge of the reproductive biology of fish and crab stocks is critical to stock assessment estimates of the reproductive potential (typically measured as spawning...

  2. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important...... viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies...... for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain...

  3. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production...

  4. Final Report : Anadromous Fish Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A creel census was conducted during the 1981 Russian River sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka (Walbaum), sport fishery to determine harvest and angler participation....

  5. Effects of herbicides on fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Keith R.; Dalhoff, Kristoffer; Volz, David

    2013-01-01

    Herbicides are used to control weeds and are usually targeted to processes and target sites that are specific to plants. As a result, most herbicides are not acutely toxic to fish. Exceptions to this general rule are uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation and some herbicides that interfere...... have been observed in fish exposed to herbicides, these have either been observed at large concentrations that would be rarely found in surface waters inhabited by fish or, as in the case of behavior and olfaction, have not been linked to ecologically relevant responses on survival, growth, development......, and reproduction. As with all pesticides, herbicides may have indirect effects in fish. These effects are mediated by herbicide-induced changes in food webs or in the physical environment. Indirect effects can only occur if direct effects occur first and would be mediated by the killing of plants by herbicides...

  6. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family......, denominated the parvalbumins. This cross-reactivity has been indicated to be of clinical relevance for several species, since patients with a positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge to cod will also react with other fish species, such as herring, plaice and mackerel. In spite...

  7. Stochastic stomach theory of fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency distribu......Fish stomach dynamics is discussed and introduced analytically by a simple individually-based stomach model for total stomach content. The predator encounters food (meals) in a Poisson process, starting to search for a new meal when the stomach is empty. Basic equations for the frequency...... evacuation. The average rate of food consumption and the functional response are derived from simple renewal theory and from obtaining the average of the gastric evacuation rates. Effects of meal size biased stomach sampling are introduced. As a primer on modelling the stomach content of piscivorous fish...... and direction for further developments of fish stomach theory are discussed. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Tortugas Reef Fish Census (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a long term data set collecting visual census transect data on reef fishes at staions located at Rileys Hump, Tortugas South Ecological Reservee.

  9. Statistical modelling of fish stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine

    1999-01-01

    for modelling the dynamics of a fish population is suggested. A new approach is introduced to analyse the sources of variation in age composition data, which is one of the most important sources of information in the cohort based models for estimation of stock abundancies and mortalities. The approach combines...... and it is argued that an approach utilising stochastic differential equations might be advantagous in fish stoch assessments....

  10. Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Raúl; Nam-Cha, Syong H; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario F; Gamallo-Amat, C

    2006-03-01

    Basal cell adenoma of the salivary glands is an uncommon type of monomorphous adenoma. Its most frequent location is the parotid gland. It usually appears as a firm and mobile slow-growing mass. Histologically, isomorphic cells in nests and interlaced trabecules with a prominent basal membrane are observed. It is also characterized by the presence of a slack and hyaline stroma and the absence of myxoid or condroid stroma. In contrast to pleomorphic adenoma, it tends to be multiple and its recurrence rate after surgical excision is high. Due to prognostic implications, differential diagnosis with basal cell adenocarcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma is mandatory. We describe a case of basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. We also review the literature and discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare entity.

  11. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  12. Endoscopic considerations treating hydrocephalus caused by basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Roth

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery may potentially play a significant role in the initial management of patients with large basal ganglia and large thalamic tumors causing obstructive hydrocephalus. Technical nuances and individualized goals are crucial for optimal outcomes.

  13. Altitude of the top of the basal confining unit in the Powder River structural basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent the altitude, in feet above North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), of the basal confining unit in the Powder River basin. The data are...

  14. ATG12-ATG3 connects basal autophagy and late endosome function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrow, Lyndsay; Debnath, Jayanta

    2015-01-01

    In addition to supporting cell survival in response to starvation or stress, autophagy promotes basal protein and organelle turnover. Compared to our understanding of stress-induced autophagy, little is known about how basal autophagy is regulated and how its activity is coordinated with other cellular processes. We recently identified a novel interaction between the ATG12-ATG3 conjugate and the ESCRT-associated protein PDCD6IP/Alix that promotes basal autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Moreover, ATG12-ATG3 is required for diverse PDCD6IP-mediated functions including late endosome distribution, exosome secretion, and viral budding. Our results highlight the importance of late endosomes for basal autophagic flux and reveal distinct roles for the core autophagy proteins ATG12 and ATG3 in controlling late endosome function.

  15. Bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions in children: an update (2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccoli, Giulio [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Section of Neuroradiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Yannes, Michael Paul [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Nardone, Raffaele [Paracelsus Medical University, Department of Neurology, Christian Doppler Klinik, Salzburg (Austria); Bailey, Ariel [West Virginia University, Department of Radiology, Morgantown, WV (United States); Goldstein, Amy [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Neurology, Section of Metabolic Disorders and Neurogenetics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    In children, many inherited or acquired neurological disorders may cause bilateral symmetrical signal intensity alterations in the basal ganglia and thalami. A literature review was aimed at assisting neuroradiologists, neurologists, infectious diseases specialists, and pediatricians to provide further understanding into the clinical and neuroimaging features in pediatric patients presenting with bilateral symmetrical basal ganglia and thalamic lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We discuss hypoxic-ischemic, toxic, infectious, immune-mediated, mitochondrial, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders affecting the basal ganglia and thalami. Recognition and correct evaluation of basal ganglia abnormalities, together with a proper neurological examination and laboratory findings, may enable the identification of each of these clinical entities and lead to earlier diagnosis. (orig.)

  16. Basal Cell Carcinomas in Gorlin Syndrome: A Review of 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gorlin syndrome (Naevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the PTCH gene with a birth incidence of approximately 1 in 19,000. Patients develop multiple basal cell carcinomas of the skin frequently in early life and also have a predisposition to additional malignancies such as medulloblastoma. Gorlin Syndrome patients also have developmental defects such as bifid ribs and other complications such as jaw keratocysts. We studied the incidence and frequency of basal cell carcinomas in 202 Gorlin syndrome patients from 62 families and compared this to their gender and mutation type. Our data suggests that the incidence of basal cell carcinomas is equal between males and females and the mutation type cannot be used to predict disease burden.

  17. A comparison of basal reflectivity and ice velocity in East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Jacobel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ground-based radio echo sounding data acquired along the 1700 km US-ITASE traverse have been used to determine ice attenuation and relative basal reflectivity across the major catchments funneling ice from East Antarctica to the Ross Ice Shelf. We find that basal reflectivity varies locally by up to 40 dB which we interpret as due to changes in the phase state at the bed. Some, though not all, areas of high local reflectivity are observed to have flat-lying bed reflections indicative of sub-glacial lakes. We compare basal reflectivity to ice balance velocity and find a general association of higher flow speeds with high radar reflection strength. This set of observations from two independent remotely sensed geophysical data sets extends the range of field observations to the interior of East Antarctica and confirms the importance of basal lubrication on modulating the ice dynamics of the largest ice sheet on the planet.

  18. Red Alder Basal Area, by Stream Reach, for the Pacific Northwest

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Red alder (Alnus rubra) are a common component of forests in Western Oregon and Washington. This file provides an estimate of red alder basal area in western Oregon...

  19. Triple negative breast carcinomas: similarities and differences with basal like carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agusti; Prat, Jaime

    2009-12-01

    The cDNA microarrays allows the classification of breast cancers into 6 groups: luminal A, luminal B, luminal C, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive, and basal-like. This latter is characterized by the expression of basal cytokeratins (CKs), and frequent negativity for hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. There is a marked parallelism between triple negative breast carcinomas and basal-like carcinoma, but these are not equivalent terms. Estimated concordance is around 80%. CK5 seems to be the best marker for the identification of these tumors. Other good markers to identify these tumors are CK14, CK17, and epidermal growth factor receptor. A subset of triple negative breast carcinomas has myoepithelial differentiation, with positivities for smooth muscle actin, p63, S-100, and CD10 among others. Recent studies suggest that basal like carcinomas are originated from mammary stem cells.

  20. What's New in Research and Treatment of Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... basal cell nevus syndrome. For example, the drug vismodegib (Erivedge) has been shown to lower the number ... do, these cancers can be hard to treat. Vismodegib and sonidegib, drugs that target the hedgehog signaling ...

  1. Validation of Algorithms for Basal Insulin Rate Reductions in Type 1 Diabetic Patients Practising Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Type 1 Diabetes With a Subcutaneous Insulin Pump; Adjustment of the Recommended Basal Insulin Flow Rate in the Event of Physical Activity; Adjustment of the Recommended Prandial Insulin in the Event of Physical Activity

  2. Mandarin Fish and Fine Fried Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: one mandarin fish, shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper, corn starch, salt and flour. Direction: 1. Scale and clean the fish. Remove the skin and bones. Cut the fish meat into slivers. Add shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper and salt to the fish

  3. Undulatory fish swimming : from muscles to flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, U.K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2006-01-01

    Undulatory swimming is employed by many fish for routine swimming and extended sprints. In this biomechanical review, we address two questions: (i) how the fish's axial muscles power swimming; and (ii) how the fish's body and fins generate thrust. Fish have adapted the morphology of their axial musc

  4. Basal ganglia dysfunction in idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder parallels that in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolinski, Michal; Griffanti, Ludovica; Piccini, Paola; Roussakis, Andreas A; Szewczyk-Krolikowski, Konrad; Menke, Ricarda A; Quinnell, Timothy; Zaiwalla, Zenobia; Klein, Johannes C; Mackay, Clare E; Hu, Michele T M

    2016-08-01

    SEE POSTUMA DOI101093/AWW131 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging dysfunction within the basal ganglia network is a feature of early Parkinson's disease and may be a diagnostic biomarker of basal ganglia dysfunction. Currently, it is unclear whether these changes are present in so-called idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, a condition associated with a high rate of future conversion to Parkinson's disease. In this study, we explore the utility of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to detect basal ganglia network dysfunction in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We compare these data to a set of healthy control subjects, and to a set of patients with established early Parkinson's disease. Furthermore, we explore the relationship between resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging basal ganglia network dysfunction and loss of dopaminergic neurons assessed with dopamine transporter single photon emission computerized tomography, and perform morphometric analyses to assess grey matter loss. Twenty-six patients with polysomnographically-established rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 48 patients with Parkinson's disease and 23 healthy control subjects were included in this study. Resting state networks were isolated from task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data using dual regression with a template derived from a separate cohort of 80 elderly healthy control participants. Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging parameter estimates were extracted from the study subjects in the basal ganglia network. In addition, eight patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, 10 with Parkinson's disease and 10 control subjects received (123)I-ioflupane single photon emission computerized tomography. We tested for reduction of basal ganglia network connectivity, and for loss of tracer uptake in rapid eye movement sleep

  5. Vaccines for fish in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerset, Ingunn; Krossøy, Bjørn; Biering, Eirik; Frost, Petter

    2005-02-01

    Vaccination plays an important role in large-scale commercial fish farming and has been a key reason for the success of salmon cultivation. In addition to salmon and trout, commercial vaccines are available for channel catfish, European seabass and seabream, Japanese amberjack and yellowtail, tilapia and Atlantic cod. In general, empirically developed vaccines based on inactivated bacterial pathogens have proven to be very efficacious in fish. Fewer commercially available viral vaccines and no parasite vaccines exist. Substantial efficacy data are available for new fish vaccines and advanced technology has been implemented. However, before such vaccines can be successfully commercialized, several hurdles have to be overcome regarding the production of cheap but effective antigens and adjuvants, while bearing in mind environmental and associated regulatory concerns (e.g., those that limit the use of live vaccines). Pharmaceutical companies have performed a considerable amount of research on fish vaccines, however, limited information is available in scientific publications. In addition, salmonids dominate both the literature and commercial focus, despite their relatively small contribution to the total volume of farmed fish in the world. This review provides an overview of the fish vaccines that are currently commercially available and some viewpoints on how the field is likely to evolve in the near future.

  6. BACTERIAL DESEASES IN SEA FISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Strunjak-Perović

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available With development of the fish culturing in the sea, the interest in their health also increased. The reason for this are diseases or rather mortality that occur in such controlled cultures and cause great economic losses. By growing large quantities of fish in rather small species, natural conditions are changed, so fish is more sensitive and prone to infection agents (viruses, bacteria, parasites. Besides, a large fish density in the cultural process accelerates spreading if the diseases, but also enables a better perception of them. In wild populations sick specimen very quickly become predator’s prey, witch makes it difficult to note any pathological changes in such fish. There are lots of articles on viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases nowdays, but this work deals exclusively with bacterial deseases that occur in the controlled sea cultures (vibriosis, furunculosis, pastherelosis, nocardiosis, mycobaceriosis, edwardsielosis, yersiniosis, deseases caused by bacteria of genera Flexibacter, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas, Streptococus and bacteria nephryithis. Yet, the knowledge of these deseases vary, depending on wether a fish species is being cultured for a longer period of time or is only being introduced in the controlled culture.

  7. Trophic structure of a coastal fish community determined with diet and stable isotope analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, A J; Collie, J S; Taylor, D L

    2016-09-01

    A combination of dietary guild analysis and nitrogen (δ(15) N) and carbon (δ(13) C) stable-isotope analysis was used to assess the trophic structure of the fish community in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds, an area off southern New England identified for offshore wind energy development. In the autumn of 2009, 2010 and 2011, stomach and tissue samples were taken from 20 fish and invertebrate species for analysis of diet composition and δ(15) N and δ(13) C signatures. The food chain in Rhode Island and Block Island Sounds comprises approximately four trophic levels within which the fish community is divided into distinct dietary guilds, including planktivores, benthivores, crustacivores and piscivores. Within these guilds, inter-species isotopic and dietary overlap is high, suggesting that resource partitioning or competitive interactions play a major role in structuring the fish community. Carbon isotopes indicate that most fishes are supported by pelagic phytoplankton, although there is evidence that benthic production also plays a role, particularly for obligate benthivores such as skates Leucoraja spp. This type of analysis is useful for developing an ecosystem-based approach to management, as it identifies species that act as direct links to basal resources as well as species groups that share trophic roles.

  8. Characteristics of Growth and Yield Formation of Rice in Rice-Fish Farming System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; ZHANG Hong-cheng; HU Xiao-jun; DAI Qi-gen; ZHANG Yong-jiang

    2006-01-01

    By using single rice cultivation as a control, the effect of rice-fish culture on growth dynamic, plant type and yield formation of rice was studied. The results showed as follows: rice-fish culture improved the physical-chemical properties of arable layer soil of paddy field, extended growth period of rice, increased dry matter and LAI of different growth stages,improved three top leaves area, deterred the degeneration of leaves function, increased the diameter of stem, promoted the growth of roots and the formation of roots in the extended stem. At the same time, rice-fish culture extended the length of basal internodes, increased the number of internodes, uplifted the gravity of plant, and depressed the root vigor. For the grain yield and yield structure of rice, rice-fish culture decreased ear/tillering ratio, spikelet/panicle and seed set percentage,increased grain weight. If variety choice and cultivation technology were controlled appropriately, rice-fish culture could increase the effective panicles and improve grain yield of rice.

  9. Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas in fatal non-missile head injury in man.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J H; Doyle, D.; Graham, D I; Lawrence, A E; McLellan, D R

    1986-01-01

    Deep intracerebral (basal ganglia) haematomas were found post mortem in 63 of 635 fatal non-missile head injuries. In patients with a basal ganglia haematoma, contusions were more severe, there was a reduced incidence of a lucid interval, and there was an increased incidence of road traffic accidents, gliding contusions and diffuse axonal injury than in patients without this type of haematoma. Intracranial haematoma is usually thought to be a secondary event, that is a complication of the ori...

  10. Successful imiquimod treatment of multiple basal cell carcinomas after radiation therapy for Hodgkin's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyeler, Mirjam; Urosevic, Mirjana; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Dummer, Reinhard

    2005-01-01

    We present a case of a 55-year-old male patient who developed five basal cell carcinomas 23 years after radiation therapy of Hodgkin's disease. In 1980 he received radiation therapy twice. Due to relapses, he was treated with aggressive polychemotherapy and underwent autologous stem cell transplantation, which then led to complete remission. Until now he is in complete remission. However, multiple superficial basal cell carcinomas have developed on irradiation fields that have been successfully treated by imiquimod.

  11. Changes in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Okuchi, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Osaka Police Hospital (Japan); Miyamoto, S. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Sakaki, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Hiramatsu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Tominaga, M. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Kamada, Y. [Dept. of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan); Iwasaki, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Nara Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1994-11-01

    We report specific changes bilaterally in the basal ganglia and thalamus following reperfusion after complete cerebral ischaemia. A 69-year-old man, resuscitated after cardiac arrest, showed symmetrical low-density lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus on CT. MRI revealed methaemoglobin derived from minor haemorrhage in the basal ganglia and thalamus, not evident on CT. We suggest that this haemorrhage results from diapedesis of red blood cells through the damaged capillary endothelium following reperfusion. (orig.)

  12. Rationale supporting basal insulin-incretin combined therapies in type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by an insulin secretory defect that cannot compensate for insulin resistance. Such relative defect is present in the fasting state (insufficient basal insulin levels) and contributes to overnight hyperglycaemia; it is even more pronounced in the postprandial state when it is then the main responsible factor for hyperglycaemia following meals. An original approach to correct these two disturbances is to propose a therapy combining the injection of a basal insul...

  13. The Basal Ganglia as a Substrate for the Multiple Actions of Amphetamines

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Reka; Yamamoto, Bryan K.

    2011-01-01

    Amphetamines are psychostimulant drugs with high abuse potential. Acute and chronic doses of amphetamines affect dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei that are anatomically positioned to integrate cognitive, motor and sensorimotor inputs from the cortex. Amphetamines can differentially alter the functioning of specific BG circuits to produce neurochemical changes that affect cognition, movement, and drug seeking behavior thro...

  14. Characterization of a Crabs Claw Gene in Basal Eudicot Species Epimedium sagittatum (Berberidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Sun; Wenjun Huang; Zhineng Li; Haiyan Lv; Hongwen Huang; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    The Crabs Claw (CRC) YABBY gene is required for regulating carpel development in angiosperms and has played an important role in nectary evolution during core eudicot speciation. The function or expression of CRC-like genes has been explored in two basal eudicots, Eschscholzia californica and Aquilegia formosa. To further investigate the function of CRC orthologous genes related to evolution of carpel and nectary development in basal eudicots, a CRC ortholog, EsCRC, was isolated and character...

  15. Dopaminergic Control of the Exploration-Exploitation Trade-Off via the Basal Ganglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Mark D.; Khamassi, Mehdi; Gurney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We continuously face the dilemma of choosing between actions that gather new information or actions that exploit existing knowledge. This “exploration-exploitation” trade-off depends on the environment: stability favors exploiting knowledge to maximize gains; volatility favors exploring new options and discovering new outcomes. Here we set out to reconcile recent evidence for dopamine’s involvement in the exploration-exploitation trade-off with the existing evidence for basal ganglia control of action selection, by testing the hypothesis that tonic dopamine in the striatum, the basal ganglia’s input nucleus, sets the current exploration-exploitation trade-off. We first advance the idea of interpreting the basal ganglia output as a probability distribution function for action selection. Using computational models of the full basal ganglia circuit, we showed that, under this interpretation, the actions of dopamine within the striatum change the basal ganglia’s output to favor the level of exploration or exploitation encoded in the probability distribution. We also found that our models predict striatal dopamine controls the exploration-exploitation trade-off if we instead read-out the probability distribution from the target nuclei of the basal ganglia, where their inhibitory input shapes the cortical input to these nuclei. Finally, by integrating the basal ganglia within a reinforcement learning model, we showed how dopamine’s effect on the exploration-exploitation trade-off could be measurable in a forced two-choice task. These simulations also showed how tonic dopamine can appear to affect learning while only directly altering the trade-off. Thus, our models support the hypothesis that changes in tonic dopamine within the striatum can alter the exploration-exploitation trade-off by modulating the output of the basal ganglia. PMID:22347155

  16. Association of basal serum testosterone levels with ovarian response and in vitro fertilization outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Mei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate basal testosterone (T levels during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle as a predictor for ovarian response and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcome. Method We analyzed data retrospectively from hospital-based IVF center including one thousand two hundred and sixty Chinese Han women under their first IVF cycle reached the ovum pick-up stage, without polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS or endometriosis undergoing long IVF protocol. Patients were divided into 2 groups. Group 1: patients with diminished ovarian reserve (basal FSH >10 IU/L (n = 187; Group 2: patients with normal ovarian reserve (basal FSH Results Basal T levels were markly different between pregnant and non-pregnant women in Group 1; whereas not in Group 2. A testosterone level of 47.85 ng/dl was shown to predict pregnancy outcome with a sensitivity of 52.8% and specificity of 65.3%; and the basal T was correlated with the numbers of large follicles (> 14 mm on HCG day in Group 1. Significantly negative correlations were observed between basal T, days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins after adjusting for confounding factors in both groups. Conclusion In women with diminished ovarian reserve, basal T level was a predictor for the number of large follicles on HCG day and pregnancy outcome; but could not in those with normal serum FSH. Basal T levels were associated with both days of stimulation and total dose of gonadotropins, indicating that lower level of T might relate with potential ovarian poor response.

  17. Urticaria after methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Christopher M; Green, W Harris; Hatfield, H Keith; Cognetta, Armand B

    2012-11-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is utilized in several countries for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma, but allergic sensitization has been reported by the manufacturer. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of urticaria following MAL-PDT in a patient with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Prophylactic use of antihistamines may allow continued use of MAL-PDT in this setting.

  18. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-01-01

    During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy...

  19. The Pedunculopontine Tegmental Nucleus as a Motor and Cognitive Interface between the Cerebellum and Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Fumika Mori; Ken-ichi Okada; Taishin Nomura; Yasushi Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze) and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory). The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control ...

  20. The fishes of Genome 10K

    KAUST Repository

    Bernardi, Giacomo

    2012-09-01

    The Genome 10K project aims to sequence the genomes of 10,000 vertebrates, representing approximately one genome for each vertebrate genus. Since fishes (cartilaginous fishes, ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned fishes) represent more than 50% of extant vertebrates, it is planned to target 4,000 fish genomes. At present, nearly 60 fish genomes are being sequenced at various public funded labs, and under a Genome 10K and BGI pilot project. An additional 100 fishes have been identified for sequencing in the next phase of Genome 10K project. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Fish and mussels: importance of fish for freshwater mussel conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Co-extinctions have received trivial consideration in discussions about the global conservation crisis, even though recent studies have emphasised their importance. This situation is even more pronounced in freshwater ecosystems where this phenomenon is largely unrecognized. In this presentation we explore the role of fish for freshwater mussels’ conservation. Freshwater mussels’ need fish as a host to complete their life cycle and given this premise is expected that changes in the fish community due to species extinctions or additions may have great effects. We reviewed the published information and we found: 1 that most of the studies were published in the last few years; 2 that most of the studies were performed in North America (69%, which is probably due to the high number of endemic threatened species in this continent; 3 that most of the mussel species that are specialists in fish hosting are listed as vulnerable or endangered (55%; 4 most studies were performed in laboratory (83% and 5 that the majority of studies were focused on life cycle or on identifying suitable fish hosts of freshwater mussel species with few studies focusing on threats. Since the interaction between fish and freshwater mussels can be easily disrupted and serious threats to this interaction have arisen (e.g. loss and fragmentation of habitat, changes in river flow, climate change, introduction of invasive species, pollution a more holistic approach is needed to find the best management strategies to conserve these animals. In addition, more field studies are required and more information on African, South American and Asian species is essential. Neglect the possible fundamental role of fish in the decline or extinction of freshwater mussels may impair the success of any measure devoted to their conservation; therefore, this issue cannot be ignored.

  2. Replacement of Dietary Fish Oil with Vegetable Oils Improves the Growth and Flesh Quality of Large Yellow Croaker (Larmichthys crocea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Qingyuan; MAI Kangsen; SHENTU Jikang; AI Qinghui; ZHONG Huiying; JIANG Yujian; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Chunxiao; GUO Sitong

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5%fish meal and 6.4%menhaden fish oil;whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50%soybean oil (SO50), 100%soybean oil (SO100) and 100%palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent sa-tiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 (P0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and wa-ter loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4℃) (P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under dif-ferent storage conditions (1 d, 4℃;7 d, 4℃;4 weeks,-20℃;8 weeks,-20℃) decreased significantly after partial or complete re-placement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  3. Lesions of the basal forebrain cholinergic system in mice disrupt idiothetic navigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam S Hamlin

    Full Text Available Loss of integrity of the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons is a consistent feature of Alzheimer's disease, and measurement of basal forebrain degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging is emerging as a sensitive diagnostic marker for prodromal disease. It is also known that Alzheimer's disease patients perform poorly on both real space and computerized cued (allothetic or uncued (idiothetic recall navigation tasks. Although the hippocampus is required for allothetic navigation, lesions of this region only mildly affect idiothetic navigation. Here we tested the hypothesis that the cholinergic medial septo-hippocampal circuit is important for idiothetic navigation. Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons were selectively lesioned in mice using the toxin saporin conjugated to a basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal marker, the p75 neurotrophin receptor. Control animals were able to learn and remember spatial information when tested on a modified version of the passive place avoidance test where all extramaze cues were removed, and animals had to rely on idiothetic signals. However, the exploratory behaviour of mice with cholinergic basal forebrain lesions was highly disorganized during this test. By contrast, the lesioned animals performed no differently from controls in tasks involving contextual fear conditioning and spatial working memory (Y maze, and displayed no deficits in potentially confounding behaviours such as motor performance, anxiety, or disturbed sleep/wake cycles. These data suggest that the basal forebrain cholinergic system plays a specific role in idiothetic navigation, a modality that is impaired early in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders of Basal Ganglia Origin: Restoring Function or Functionality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Thomas; DeLong, Mahlon R

    2016-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is highly effective for both hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders of basal ganglia origin. The clinical use of DBS is, in part, empiric, based on the experience with prior surgical ablative therapies for these disorders, and, in part, driven by scientific discoveries made decades ago. In this review, we consider anatomical and functional concepts of the basal ganglia relevant to our understanding of DBS mechanisms, as well as our current understanding of the pathophysiology of two of the most commonly DBS-treated conditions, Parkinson's disease and dystonia. Finally, we discuss the proposed mechanism(s) of action of DBS in restoring function in patients with movement disorders. The signs and symptoms of the various disorders appear to result from signature disordered activity in the basal ganglia output, which disrupts the activity in thalamocortical and brainstem networks. The available evidence suggests that the effects of DBS are strongly dependent on targeting sensorimotor portions of specific nodes of the basal ganglia-thalamocortical motor circuit, that is, the subthalamic nucleus and the internal segment of the globus pallidus. There is little evidence to suggest that DBS in patients with movement disorders restores normal basal ganglia functions (e.g., their role in movement or reinforcement learning). Instead, it appears that high-frequency DBS replaces the abnormal basal ganglia output with a more tolerable pattern, which helps to restore the functionality of downstream networks.

  5. Dissociating hippocampal and basal ganglia contributions to category learning using stimulus novelty and subjective judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seger, Carol A; Dennison, Christina S; Lopez-Paniagua, Dan; Peterson, Erik J; Roark, Aubrey A

    2011-04-15

    We identified factors leading to hippocampal and basal ganglia recruitment during categorization learning. Subjects alternated between blocks of a standard trial and error category learning task and a subjective judgment task. In the subjective judgments task subjects categorized the stimulus and then instead of receiving feedback they indicated the basis of their response using 4 options: Remember: Conscious episodic memory of previous trials. Know-Automatic: Automatic, rapid response accompanied by conscious awareness of category membership. Know-Intuition: A "gut feeling" without fully conscious knowledge of category membership. Guess: Guessing. In addition, new stimuli were introduced throughout the experiment to examine effects of novelty. Categorization overall recruited both the basal ganglia and posterior hippocampus. However, basal ganglia activity was found during Know judgments (both Automatic and Intuition), whereas posterior hippocampus activity was found during Remember judgments. Granger causality mapping indicated interactions between the basal ganglia and hippocampus, with the putamen exerting directed influence on the posterior hippocampus, which in turn exerted directed influence on the posterior caudate nucleus. We also found a region of anterior hippocampus that showed decreased activity relative to baseline during categorization overall, and showed a strong novelty effect. Our results indicate that subjective measures may be effective in dissociating basal ganglia from hippocampal dependent learning, and that the basal ganglia are involved in both conscious and unconscious learning. They also indicate a dissociation within the hippocampus, in which the anterior regions are sensitive to novelty, and the posterior regions are involved in memory based categorization learning.

  6. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  7. A synthesis of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Joseph A; Fahnestock, Mark A; Catania, Ginny A; Aschwanden, Andy; Clow, Gary D.; Colgan, William T.; Gogineni, Prasad S.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Nowicki, Sophie M .J.; Paden, John D; Price, Stephen F.; Seroussi, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The basal thermal state of an ice sheet (frozen or thawed) is an important control upon its evolution, dynamics and response to external forcings. However, this state can only be observed directly within sparse boreholes or inferred conclusively from the presence of subglacial lakes. Here we synthesize spatially extensive inferences of the basal thermal state of the Greenland Ice Sheet to better constrain this state. Existing inferences include outputs from the eight thermomechanical ice-flow models included in the SeaRISE effort. New remote-sensing inferences of the basal thermal state are derived from Holocene radiostratigraphy, modern surface velocity and MODIS imagery. Both thermomechanical modeling and remote inferences generally agree that the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream and large portions of the southwestern ice-drainage systems are thawed at the bed, whereas the bed beneath the central ice divides, particularly their west-facing slopes, is frozen. Elsewhere, there is poor agreement regarding the basal thermal state. Both models and remote inferences rarely represent the borehole-observed basal thermal state accurately near NorthGRIP and DYE-3. This synthesis identifies a large portion of the Greenland Ice Sheet (about one third by area) where additional observations would most improve knowledge of its overall basal thermal state.

  8. Basal testosterone, leadership and dominance: A field study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meij, Leander; Schaveling, Jaap; van Vugt, Mark

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the role of basal testosterone as a potential biological marker of leadership and hierarchy in the workplace. First, we report the result of a study with a sample of male employees from different corporate organizations in the Netherlands (n=125). Results showed that employees with higher basal testosterone levels reported a more authoritarian leadership style, but this relationship was absent among those who currently held a real management position (i.e., they had at least one subordinate). Furthermore, basal testosterone levels were not different between managers and non-managers, and testosterone was not associated with various indicators of status and hierarchy such as number of subordinates, income, and position in the organizational hierarchy. In our meta-analysis (second study), we showed that basal testosterone levels were not associated with leadership in men nor in women (9 studies, n=1103). Taken together, our findings show that basal testosterone is not associated with having a leadership position in the corporate world or related to leadership styles in leaders. We suggest that basal testosterone could play a role in acquiring leadership positions through dominant and authoritarian behavior.

  9. Bax/bcl-2: cellular modulator of apoptosis in feline skin and basal cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madewell, B R; Gandour-Edwards, R; Edwards, B F; Matthews, K R; Griffey, S M

    2001-01-01

    Bcl-2 and bax are two members of the BCL-2 gene family that play a prominent role in the regulation of apoptosis. Bax and bcl-2 expression were examined immunohistochemically in normal (healthy) feline skin and in 24 benign feline cutaneous basal cell tumours. The tumours were also examined for cellular proliferation by measurement of reactivity for the proliferation marker Ki-67, and for apoptosis by in-situ labelling for fragmented DNA. Bcl-2 was detected in normal basal epithelium and in 23 of 24 basal cell tumours. Bax was detected in both basal and suprabasal epithelium, but in only seven of 24 tumours. For tumours that expressed both bax and bcl-2, the bax:bcl-2 ratio was low. Neither bax nor bcl-2 expression was detected in 14 feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas. Basal cell tumours showed modest cellular proliferation (median, 17.5% Ki-67- reactive cells), but few (less than 1%) apoptotic cells. The slow, indolent growth of feline cutaneous basal cells in these benign skin tumours may be a response, at least in part, to opposing regulatory expressions of bcl-2 and bax.

  10. The pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus as a motor and cognitive interface between the cerebellum and basal ganglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumika Mori

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of ascending activating systems, brainstem cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg are involved in the regulation of motor control (locomotion, posture and gaze and cognitive processes (attention, learning, and memory. The PPTg is highly interconnected with several regions of the basal ganglia, and one of its key functions is to regulate and relay activity from the basal ganglia. Together, they have been implicated in the motor control system (such as voluntary movement initiation or inhibition, and modulate aspects of executive function (such as motivation. In addition to its intimate connection with the basal ganglia, projections from the PPTg to the cerebellum have been recently reported to synaptically activate the deep cerebellar nuclei. Classically, the cerebellum and basal ganglia were regarded as forming separated anatomical loops that play a distinct functional role in motor and cognitive behavioral control. Here, we suggest that the PPTg may also act as an interface device between the basal ganglia and cerebellum. As such, part of the therapeutic effect of PPTg deep brain stimulation to relieve gait freezing and postural instability in advanced Parkinson’s disease patients might also involve modulation of the cerebellum. We review the anatomical position and role of the PPTg in the pathway of basal ganglia and cerebellum in relation to motor control, cognitive function, and Parkinson’s disease.

  11. 21 CFR 102.45 - Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.45 Fish sticks or portions made from minced fish. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as fish sticks...

  12. Multiplex-FISH (M-FISH): technique, developments and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, L

    2006-01-01

    Multiplex FISH (M-FISH) represents one of the most significant developments in molecular cytogenetics of the past decade. Originally designed to generate 24 colour karyotyping, the technique has spawned many variations and an equally diverse range of applications. In tumour and leukaemia cytogenetics, the two groups that have been targeted represent both ends of the cytogenetic spectrum: those with an apparently normal karyotype (suspected of harbouring small rearrangements not detectable by conventional cytogenetics) and those with a complex aberrant karyotype (which are difficult to karyotype accurately due to the sheer number of aberrations). In research, mouse M-FISH provides a powerful tool to characterize mouse models of a disease. In addition, the ability to accurately karyotype single metaphases without selection makes M-FISH the perfect tool in chromosome breakage studies and for characterizing clonal evolution of tumours. Finally, M-FISH has emerged as the perfect partner for the developing genomic microarray (array CGH) technologies, providing a powerful approach to gene discovery.

  13. THE CLASSIC WAY OF FISH PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurica Kalember

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Today's population faces great difficulties in fish marketing, although it is very valuable food. The classic supply with fresh fish has little influence on its consumption, which is not remarkable anyhow. Therefore one shulud be reminded on the classic, almost forgotten, ways of fish processing that can substantially increase fish assortment and improve its distribution. After cleaning and cutting the fish (primary procedures in its processing, comes salting, after which the salted fish can become an end-product or it can be one of many semi-products in the fish production chain. The most common methods of fish salting are dry-salting, dry-wet-salting (Greek-Dalmatian and wet-salting (pickling. The aim of fish drying is its dehydratation. Our country has the experience of traditional drying, sun-drying and natural drying of fish. Each of these has its own special qualities, depending on the fish species and the drying temperature. Smoked fish gets a very distinctive and spicy aroma and a specific colour. There are two kinds of smoking - cold and warm - based on the smoke derived from burning some special trees or, lately, from smoke preparations. Marinades are old procedures of fish processing in acetic acid and specific spices which can be prepared cold, fried or cooked. Fish-roe of some specific fish species has a special value and is considered a delicacy. The most precious black caviar is derived from the sturgeon roe and some of its related species.

  14. Pond Fish Culture Practices in Nigeria

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    J.A. Akankali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pond fish culture practices in Nigeria was reviewed to refresh the minds of fish and other interested stake holders on some basic principles involved in pond fish culture. Fish pond system is the commonest agricultural techniques in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Profit making, job creation, provision of raw materials for several industries and increase in foreign exchange earnings are some benefits. However, loss of land and introduction some water borne diseases are some disadvantages in pond fish culture. This articles reviews the fish pond management processes, stocking of ponds, feeding of fish, types of culture, fish farming combined with other branches of agriculture, rearing of fish for purposes other than food, other fish culture, types of fish used for fish culture in central east Africa, general biology of the species of value in fish culture and suitable combinations of fish for stocking to reawaken the minds of individuals, companies and government on the need to develop pond fish culture in Nigeria.

  15. Persistent and Pervasive Basal Freeze-on: Implications for the Preservation of the Oldest Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Ferraccioli, F.; Braaten, D. A.; Corr, H. F.; Creyts, T. T.; Das, I.; Frearson, N.; Jordan, T. A.; Studinger, M.; Wolovick, M.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate records from ice cores are based on the assumption that the stratigraphy is relatively simple and that the ice at the bottom of the ice sheet is undisturbed. The search for the oldest ice has targeted low accumulation areas such as Dome A and deep basins such as the Aurora Basin. The preservation of old ice will be significantly altered if there is widespread freeze-on at the base of the ice sheet. Previous evidence for basal freeze-on from the interior of major ice sheets has been limited to the thin layers of sediment-laden ice at the base of deep ice cores and the accretion ice from Lake Vostok. Here we present the first evidence for widespread freeze-on to the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet from data collected by a seven nation International Polar Year Expedition to Dome A. In the extensive radar data over the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains, we have identified distinct near-bed reflectors in the generally homogenous basal ice. The near-bed reflectors originate at the ice sheet bed coincident with flat, bright reflectors, sites associated with basal water. We interpret these near-bed reflectors as the interface between meteoric ice and ice frozen onto the base of the ice sheet. These frozen-on reflectors can be traced up to 100 km along flow. The thickness of the frozen-on basal ice reaches a maximum of 1100m that, in this case, represents 10-20% of the ice thickness along flowlines. In some sites, the frozen-on ice deflects the overlying meteoric ice upward 100's of meters indicating the ice accretion process influences the entire overlying ice sheet. The process of basal freeze-on beneath large ice sheets is likely persistent and pervasive. We infer that a significant fraction of the base of the East Antarctic ice sheet contains frozen-on ice and the process of widespread accretion must be considered in the search for the oldest ice. For example, the upper 70m thick accretion ice (accretion ice 1) from the Vostok ice core may be the result

  16. Cloning of fish enzymes and other fish protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macouzet, M; Simpson, B K; Lee, B H

    1999-01-01

    Fish metabolism needs special enzymes that have maximum activity at very different conditions than their mammalian counterparts. Due to the differences in activity, these enzymes, especially cold-adapted proteases, could be used advantageously for the production of some foods. In addition to the enzymes, this review describes some other unique fish polypeptides such as antifreeze proteins, fluorescent proteins, antitumor peptides, antibiotics, and hormones, that have already been cloned and used in food processing, genetic engineering, medicine, and aquaculture. Recombinant DNA technology, which allows these biological molecules to be cloned and overexpressed in microorganisms is also described, highlighting innovative applications. The expected impact of cloning fish proteins in different fields of technology is discussed.

  17. New basal iguanodonts from the Cedar Mountain formation of Utah and the evolution of thumb-spiked dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T McDonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basal iguanodontian dinosaurs were extremely successful animals, found in great abundance and diversity almost worldwide during the Early Cretaceous. In contrast to Europe and Asia, the North American record of Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts has until recently been limited largely to skulls and skeletons of Tenontosaurus tilletti. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein we describe two new basal iguanodonts from the Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation of eastern Utah, each known from a partial skull and skeleton. Iguanacolossus fortis gen. et sp. nov. and Hippodraco scutodens gen. et sp. nov. are each diagnosed by a single autapomorphy and a unique combination of characters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Iguanacolossus and Hippodraco add greatly to our knowledge of North American basal iguanodonts and prompt a new comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of basal iguanodont relationships. This analysis indicates that North American Early Cretaceous basal iguanodonts are more basal than their contemporaries in Europe and Asia.

  18. Hatcheries, Harvest and Wild Fish: An Integrated Program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and is located on the Warm Springs River within the Warm Springs Indian...

  19. Importance of basal processes in simulations of a surging Svalbard outlet glacier

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    R. Gladstone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outlet glacier of Basin 3 (B3 of Austfonna icecap, Svalbard, is one of the fastest outlet glaciers in Svalbard, and shows dramatic changes since 1995. In addition to previously observed seasonal summer speed up associated with the melt season, the winter speed of B3 has accelerated approximately five fold since 1995. We use the Elmer/Ice full Stokes model for ice dynamics to infer spatial distributions of basal drag for the winter seasons of 1995, 2008 and 2011. This "inverse" method is based on minimising discrepancy between modelled and observed surface velocities, using satellite remotely sensed velocity fields. We generate steady state temperature distributions for the three time periods. Frictional heating caused by basal sliding contributes significantly to basal temperatures of the B3 outlet glacier, which exhibits a uniform steady state basal temperature at pressure melting point in all three cases. We present a sensitivity experiment consisting of transient simulations under present day forcing to demonstrate that using a temporally fixed basal drag field obtained through inversion can lead to thickness change errors of the order of 2 m per year. Hence it is essential to incorporate the evolution of basal processes in future projections of the basin. Informed by a combination of our inverse method results and previous studies, we hypothesize a system of processes and feedbacks involving till deformation and basal hydrology to explain both the seasonal accelerations and the ongoing inter-annual speed up, and speculate on the wider relevance of deformable till mechanics to non-surging glaciers.

  20. Investigating changes in basal conditions of Variegated Glacier prior and during its 1982–1983 surge

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    O. Gagliardini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Variegated Glacier (Alaska is known to surge periodically after a sufficient amount of cumulative mass balance is reached, but this observation is difficult to link with changes in the basal conditions. Here, using a 10-year dataset, consisting in surface topography and surface velocity observations along a flow line for 25 dates, we have reconstructed the evolution of the basal conditions prior and during the 1982–1983 surge. The model solves the full-Stokes problem along the central flow line using the finite element method. For the 25 dates of the dataset, the basal friction parameter distribution is inferred using the inverse method proposed by Arthern and Gudmundson (2010. This method is here slightly modified by incorporating a regularisation term in the cost function to avoid short wave length changes in the friction parameter. Our results indicate that dramatic changes in the basal conditions occurred between 1973 to 1983. Prior to the surge, periodical changes can be observed between winter and summer, with a regular increase of the sliding from 1973 to 1982. During the surge, the basal friction decreased dramatically and an area of very low friction moved from the upper part of the glacier to its terminus. Using a more complex friction law, these changes in basal sliding are then interpreted in terms of basal water pressure. It confirms that dramatic changes took place in the subglacial drainage system of Variegated Glacier, moving from a relatively efficient drainage system prior to the surge to an inefficient one during the surge. By reconstructing the water pressure evolution at the base of the glacier it is possible to infer realistic scenarios for the hydrological history leading to the occurrence of a surge.

  1. Phene synergism between root hair length and basal root growth angle for phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Magalhaes Amade; Postma, Johannes Auke; Lynch, Jonathan Paul

    2015-04-01

    Shallow basal root growth angle (BRGA) increases phosphorus acquisition efficiency by enhancing topsoil foraging because in most soils, phosphorus is concentrated in the topsoil. Root hair length and density (RHL/D) increase phosphorus acquisition by expanding the soil volume subject to phosphorus depletion through diffusion. We hypothesized that shallow BRGA and large RHL/D are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition, meaning that their combined effect is greater than the sum of their individual effects. To evaluate this hypothesis, phosphorus acquisition in the field in Mozambique was compared among recombinant inbred lines of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) having four distinct root phenotypes: long root hairs and shallow basal roots, long root hairs and deep basal roots, short root hairs and shallow basal roots, and short root hairs and deep basal roots. The results revealed substantial synergism between BRGA and RHL/D. Compared with short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes, long root hairs increased shoot biomass under phosphorus stress by 89%, while shallow roots increased shoot biomass by 58%. Genotypes with both long root hairs and shallow roots had 298% greater biomass accumulation than short-haired, deep-rooted phenotypes. Therefore, the utility of shallow basal roots and long root hairs for phosphorus acquisition in combination is twice as large as their additive effects. We conclude that the anatomical phene of long, dense root hairs and the architectural phene of shallower basal root growth are synergetic for phosphorus acquisition. Phene synergism may be common in plant biology and can have substantial importance for plant fitness, as shown here.

  2. Influence of montmorillonites exchange capacity on the basal spacing of cation–anion organo-montmorillonites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanqin, Wu [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zepeng, Zhang, E-mail: unite508@163.com [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Yunhua, Wang [Zhejiang Fenghong New Material Co., Ltd. (China); Libing, Liao [School of Materials Sciences and Technology, China University of Geosciences, No. 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 (China); Jiansheng, Zhang [Tangshan College, Tangshan 063000 (China)

    2014-11-15

    Graphical abstract: This picture shows the distribution of organic modifier (CTAB and SDS) in Mt interlayer and the basal spacing changes of Mt modified by CTAB and SDS. Organic modifier molecule in Mt interlayer is more and more orderly. The basal spacing of Mt is from 1.5 nm to 5 nm as modifier added. - Highlights: • The d{sub 001} of Ca-Mt, R-Na-Mt, Na-Mt modified by CTAB and SDS can reach 5 nm. • It is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater d{sub 001} if CEC is lower. • The organic molecules distribution in cation–anion OMt was analyzed. • The influence mechanism of Ca-Mt CEC on the d{sub 001} was discussed. - Abstract: With cationic and anionic surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulfonate (SDS) as modifiers, Ca-montmorillonites (Ca-Mt), artificial Na-montmorillonites (R-Na-Mt) and natural Na-montmorillonites (Na-Mt) with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) were modified by solution intercalation method, respectively. Then cation–anion organo-montmorillonites (OMt) were prepared. The influence of CEC on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt and the influence mechanism were discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential testing. The results indicate that the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt is related to CEC. For the same type montmorillonites, the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt decreases with the increase of CEC and it is easier to get cation–anion OMt with greater basal spacing when CEC is lower. Moreover, the CEC of Na-Mt has the greatest influence on the basal spacing of cation–anion OMt.

  3. A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Simon Conway; Caron, Jean-Bernard

    2014-08-28

    Knowledge of the early evolution of fish largely depends on soft-bodied material from the Lower (Series 2) Cambrian period of South China. Owing to the rarity of some of these forms and a general lack of comparative material from other deposits, interpretations of various features remain controversial, as do their wider relationships amongst post-Cambrian early un-skeletonized jawless vertebrates. Here we redescribe Metaspriggina on the basis of new material from the Burgess Shale and exceptionally preserved material collected near Marble Canyon, British Columbia, and three other Cambrian Burgess Shale-type deposits from Laurentia. This primitive fish displays unambiguous vertebrate features: a notochord, a pair of prominent camera-type eyes, paired nasal sacs, possible cranium and arcualia, W-shaped myomeres, and a post-anal tail. A striking feature is the branchial area with an array of bipartite bars. Apart from the anterior-most bar, which appears to be slightly thicker, each is associated with externally located gills, possibly housed in pouches. Phylogenetic analysis places Metaspriggina as a basal vertebrate, apparently close to the Chengjiang taxa Haikouichthys and Myllokunmingia, demonstrating also that this primitive group of fish was cosmopolitan during Lower-Middle Cambrian times (Series 2-3). However, the arrangement of the branchial region in Metaspriggina has wider implications for reconstructing the morphology of the primitive vertebrate. Each bipartite bar is identified as being respectively equivalent to an epibranchial and ceratobranchial. This configuration suggests that a bipartite arrangement is primitive and reinforces the view that the branchial basket of lampreys is probably derived. Other features of Metaspriggina, including the external position of the gills and possible absence of a gill opposite the more robust anterior-most bar, are characteristic of gnathostomes and so may be primitive within vertebrates.

  4. Some Basic Principles of Fish processing in Nigeria

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    J.F.N. Abowei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Some basic principles offish processing in Nigeria is reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products. Processing of fish into forms for human consumption or suitable to be used as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish to maximize returns on processing investment. Fish canning, mince fish, fish silage, acid silage, fermented silage, composition of silage, nutritional value of fish silage, fish meal, raw materials for fish meal production, general processes in fish meal production: wet process, dry process, composition and quality, problems in fish processing, production of fish meal locally, local alternatives, comparison between fish silage and fish meal, product evaluation, quality control assessment methods, fish storage, fish anatomy and physiology, chemical composition of fish, fish spoilage types, fish off-flavor management and control, off-flavor mechanism, offflavor in live fish, other causes of off-flavor in fish, natural chemicals in fish, culture system and fish off-flavor control are reviewed to provide information for fish culturist to effectively manage the processing of their products.

  5. TRANSGENIC FISH MODEL IN ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

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    Madhuri Sharma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of experiments and the use of drugs have been performed in fish. The fish may be used as model organism in various biological experiments, including environmental toxicology. Aquatic animals are being engineered to increase aquaculture production, for medical and industrial research, and for ornamental reasons. Fish have been found to play an important role in assessing potential risks associated with exposure to toxic substances in aquatic environment. Hence, it has been thought that the development of transgenic fish can enhance the use of fish in environmental toxicology. India has developed experimental transgenics of rohu fish, zebra fish, cat fish and singhi fish. Genes, promoters and vectors of indigenous origin are now available for only two species namely rohu and singhi for engineering growth. Development of fish model carrying identical transgenes to those found in rodents is beneficial and has shown that several aspects of in vivo mutagenesis are similar between the two classes of vertebrates. Fish shows the frequencies of spontaneous mutations similar to rodents and respond to mutagen exposure consistent with known mutagenic mechanisms. The feasibility of in vivo mutation analysis using transgenic fish has been demonstrated and the potential value of transgenic fish as a comparative animal model has been illustrated. Therefore, the transgenic fish can give the significant contribution to study the environmental toxicity in animals as a whole.

  6. The ethics of fish welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J C

    2009-12-01

    The topic of fish welfare in the context of commercial fisheries is a difficult one. From traditionally anthropocentric or human-centred perspectives, fishes are simply objects for humans to use as they see fit. When it is argued that anthropocentrism is arbitrary, it may appear that a strong animal rights position is the only recourse, with the result that humans ought not to use animals in the first place, if it is at all possible. It can be argued that both positions fail to view human beings as part of the natural world. If human beings are viewed as part of the world from which they live, then it has to be asked what it means to be respectful of the animals which humans use and from which they live. From this perspective, concern for the welfare of the fishes humans eat is simply what should be expected from humans as good citizens in the community of living creatures.

  7. Picornaviruses and reoviruses of fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, J.R.; Ahne, Winfried; Kurstak, E.

    1989-01-01

    The number of fish viruses isolated in cell culture or observed by electron microscopy continues to increase rapidly. Until recently, most viruses that were isolated from finfish and characterized were found to be members of the Rhabdoviridae, Iridoviridae, or Herpesviridae (Wolf and Mann 1980). In a comprehensive review of fish viruses published in 1984, there were no picornaviruses and only two reoviruses listed (Wolf 1984). The expansion of aquaculture into the rearing of new species at high density in different geographic areas, and the use of improved methods of detection that include newly developed cell lines and increased sampling effort, have led to the discovery of fish viruses representing nearly all families of animal viruses. Among the newest additions, are a member of the family Picornaviridae and several new viruses that belong within the Reoviridae.

  8. DNA vaccines for aquacultured fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, N; LaPatra, S E

    2005-04-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) vaccination is based on the administration of the gene encoding the vaccine antigen, rather than the antigen itself. Subsequent expression of the antigen by cells in the vaccinated hosts triggers the host immune system. Among the many experimental DNA vaccines tested in various animal species as well as in humans, the vaccines against rhabdovirus diseases in fish have given some of the most promising results. A single intramuscular (IM) injection of microgram amounts of DNA induces rapid and long-lasting protection in farmed salmonids against economically important viruses such as infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). DNA vaccines against other types of fish pathogens, however, have so far had limited success. The most efficient delivery route at present is IM injection, and suitable delivery strategies for mass vaccination of small fish have yet to be developed. In terms of safety, no adverse effects in the vaccinated fish have been observed to date. As DNA vaccination is a relatively new technology, various theoretical and long-term safety issues related to the environment and the consumer remain to be fully addressed, although inherently the risks should not be any greater than with the commercial fish vaccines that are currently used. Present classification systems lack clarity in distinguishing DNA-vaccinated animals from genetically modified organisms (GMOs), which could raise issues in terms of licensing and public acceptance of the technology. The potential benefits of DNA vaccines for farmed fish include improved animal welfare, reduced environmental impacts of aquaculture activities, increased food quality and quantity, and more sustainable production. Testing under commercial production conditions has recently been initiated in Canada and Denmark.

  9. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  10. Proceedings of a symposium on the neurobiology of the basal ganglia. Glasgow, United Kingdom, July 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    The basal ganglia occupy a commanding place in neuroscience research, in clinical neurology and in biomedical education. The paucity of our understanding of the role of the basal ganglia in normal everyday life combined with our more extensive knowledge of their deficiencies in a variety of clinical syndromes is a potent spur to continuing investigation. That some of these neurodegenerative syndromes-such as Parkinson's disease-are already common only heightens the need for insight in the face of a population with increasing expectations of longevity. About a decade ago an explosion of information on the connectivity and immunocytochemistry of forebrain structures gave rise to concepts which have shaped the fabric of basal ganglia theory-'patch and matrix', 'disinhibition', 'parallel circuits'. Some of these ideas seemed to facilitate an understanding of the basal ganglia, others to render them more complex and impenetrable. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the work of the last decade has tended towards consolidation and refinement. However, several new developments are receiving attention, many of them related to disorders of the basal ganglia. The realisation that some forms of Parkinson's disease have a genetic determinant is gaining strength. The molecular biology of the dopaminergic synapse on the one hand and of the production of insoluble proteins on the other will clearly influence future research into therapeutic options and neuroprotection. The importance of apoptosis, neural plasticity and free radical formation remains unresolved but these are potential areas of promise. Meanwhile, scanning techniques for brain imaging are allowing real time investigation of the working striatum in normal and disordered humans and animals.We believe that the time is opportune for a broad review of current thinking on the basal ganglia in health and disease. The following articles are based on presentations given at a Symposium on the Neurobiology of the Basal Ganglia held at

  11. Lacustrine Basal Ages Constrain the Last Deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Jeffrey; Laabs, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Basal radiocarbon ages from 21 high-elevation lakes limit the timing of final Pleistocene deglaciation in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah, USA. The lakes are located in glacial valleys and cirques 5 to 20 km upstream from LGM terminal moraines at elevations from 2830 to 3475 m. Many are impounded behind recessional moraines. Cores were retrieved from a floating platform with a percussion corer driven to the point of refusal. All penetrated inorganic silty clay beneath gyttja. AMS radiocarbon analyses were made on terrestrial macrofossils, daphnia ephippia, pollen concentrates, and bulk sediment retrieved from the base of each core. No radiocarbon reservoir effect was observed when bulk dates were checked against terrestrial material. Radiocarbon results were converted to calendar years using the IntCal09 calibration curve in OxCal 4.1. Given the stratigraphy observed in the cores, these calibrated basal ages are considered close limits on the timing of the local deglaciation and lake formation. The oldest three lakes have basal radiocarbon ages that calibrate to a few centuries after the Bölling/Alleröd warming, indicating that the landscape was becoming ice free at this time. These are followed by an overlapping group of five lakes with basal ages between 13.5 and 13.0 ka BP. Five more cores, from four separate lakes, have basal ages tightly clustered between 13.0 and 12.5 ka BP. Three of these lakes are dammed by moraines, suggesting glacial activity during the early part of the Younger Dryas interval. The lone kettle lake in the study yielded a basal age of 12.3 ka BP, considerably younger than the basal age of 13.9 ka BP from a nearby lake filling a bedrock basin, indicating that buried ice may have been locally stable for more than a millennium after deglaciation. The remaining seven lakes have basal ages between 12.0 and 11.0 ka BP. Four of these lakes are also dammed by moraines. These two non-overlapping clusters of basal ages for moraine

  12. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, R L; Goldburg, R J; Primavera, J H; Kautsky, N; Beveridge, M C; Clay, J; Folke, C; Lubchenco, J; Mooney, H; Troell, M

    2000-06-29

    Global production of farmed fish and shellfish has more than doubled in the past 15 years. Many people believe that such growth relieves pressure on ocean fisheries, but the opposite is true for some types of aquaculture. Farming carnivorous species requires large inputs of wild fish for feed. Some aquaculture systems also reduce wild fish supplies through habitat modification, wild seedstock collection and other ecological impacts. On balance, global aquaculture production still adds to world fish supplies; however, if the growing aquaculture industry is to sustain its contribution to world fish supplies, it must reduce wild fish inputs in feed and adopt more ecologically sound management practices.

  13. Fish Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergneau-Grosset, Claire; Nadeau, Marie-Eve; Groff, Joseph M

    2017-01-01

    The scientific literature contains a wealth of information concerning spontaneous fish neoplasms, although ornamental fish oncology is still in its infancy. The occurrence of fish neoplasms has often been associated with oncogenic viruses and environmental insults, making them useful markers for environmental contaminants. The use of fish, including zebrafish, as models of human carcinogenesis has been developed and knowledge gained from these models may also be applied to ornamental fish, although more studies are required. This review summarizes information available about fish oncology pertaining to veterinary clinicians.

  14. Basal and Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Stimulated Plasma Cortisol Levels Among Egyptian Autistic Children: Relation to Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewedi Doaa H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autism is a disorder of early childhood characterized by social impairment, communication abnormalities and stereotyped behaviors. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA axis deserves special attention, since it is the basis for emotions and social interactions that are affected in autism. Aim To assess basal and stimulated plasma cortisol, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH levels in autistic children and their relationship to disease characteristics. Methods Fifty autistic children were studied in comparison to 50 healthy age-, sex- and pubertal stage- matched children. All subjects were subjected to clinical evaluation and measurement of plasma cortisol (basal and stimulated and ACTH. In addition, electroencephalography (EEG and intelligence quotient (IQ assessment were done for all autistic children. Results Sixteen% of autistic patients had high ACTH, 10% had low basal cortisol and 10% did not show adequate cortisol response to ACTH stimulation. Autistic patients had lower basal (p = 0.032 and stimulated cortisol (p = 0.04 and higher ACTH (p = 0.01 than controls. Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS score correlated positively with ACTH (r = 0.71, p = 0.02 and negatively with each of basal (r = -0.64, p = 0.04 and stimulated cortisol (r = -0.88, p Conclusions The observed hormonal changes may be due to a dysfunction in the HPA axis in autistic individuals. Further studies are warranted regarding the role of HPA axis dysfunction in the pathogenesis of autism.

  15. Expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinhal, Maria Aparecida Silva; Almeida, Maria Carolina Leal; Costa, Alessandra Scorse; Theodoro, Thérèse Rachell; Serrano, Rodrigo Lorenzetti; Machado Filho, Carlos D'Apparecida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Background Heparanase is an enzyme that cleaves heparan sulfate chains. Oligosaccharides generated by heparanase induce tumor progression. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma comprise types of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Objectives Evaluate the glycosaminoglycans profile and expression of heparanase in two human cell lines established in culture, immortalized skin keratinocyte (HaCaT) and squamous cell carcinoma (A431) and also investigate the expression of heparanase in basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and eyelid skin of individuals not affected by the disease (control). Methods Glycosaminoglycans were quantified by electrophoresis and indirect ELISA method. The heparanase expression was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRTPCR). Results The A431 strain showed significant increase in the sulfated glycosaminoglycans, increased heparanase expression and decreased hyaluronic acid, comparing to the HaCaT lineage. The mRNA expression of heparanase was significantly higher in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma compared with control skin samples. It was also observed increased heparanase expression in squamous cell carcinoma compared to the Basal cell carcinoma. Conclusion The glycosaminoglycans profile, as well as heparanase expression are different between HaCaT and A431 cell lines. The increased expression of heparanase in Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma suggests that this enzyme could be a marker for the diagnosis of such types of non-melanoma cancers, and may be useful as a target molecule for future alternative treatment. PMID:27828631

  16. Acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemia: diffusion-weighted MRI

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    Lee, Eun Ja; Park, Chan Sup [Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Koyang-City, Gyunggi-Do (Korea); Park, Jong-Ho [Myongji Hospital, Kwandong University, College of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Koyang (Korea); Ihn, Yon kwon; Kim, Young Joo [The Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Seon Kyu [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We studied four patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure who developed sudden choreic movement disorders. The clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, MR imaging findings, and clinical outcome in each patient were evaluated. All four patients had long-term diabetes mellitus and severe azotaemia. Brain MR findings consisted of bilateral symmetric basal ganglia lesions, with decreased signal intensity on T1-weighted images and increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images. All three patients who underwent diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) showed signal intensities similar to those of the surroundings in regions corresponding to increased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, with slightly increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. Two of the patients showed small focal areas of restricted diffusion within the basal ganglia lesions. After haemodialysis, follow-up MR imaging in all patients demonstrated that the basal ganglia lesions had regressed markedly, with some residual changes. The movement disorders also improved in all patients. A syndrome associated with acute bilateral basal ganglia lesions in diabetic uraemic patients is rare, with reversible changes demonstrated by clinical and imaging findings. DWI showed that the bilateral basal ganglia lesions in this syndrome were primarily vasogenic in origin, although there were small foci of cytotoxic oedema within the lesions. (orig.)

  17. Sensitivity of basal conditions in an inverse model: Vestfonna ice cap, Nordaustlandet/Svalbard

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    M. Schäfer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Vestfonna ice cap (Svalbard are dominated by fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Its mass balance is poorly known and affected dynamically by these fast-flowing outlet glaciers. Hence, it is a challenging target for ice flow modeling. Precise knowledge of the basal conditions and implementation of a good sliding law are crucial for the modeling of this ice cap. Here we use the full-Stokes finite element code Elmer/Ice to model the 3-D flow over the whole ice cap. We use a Robin inverse method to infer the basal friction from the surface velocities observed in 1995. Our results illustrate the importance of the basal friction parameter in reproducing observed velocity fields. We also show the importance of having variable basal friction as given by the inverse method to reproduce the velocity fields of each outlet glacier – a simple parametrization of basal friction cannot give realistic velocities in a forward model. We study the robustness and sensitivity of this method with respect to different parameters (mesh characteristics, ice temperature, errors in topographic and velocity data. The uncertainty in the observational parameters and input data proved to be sufficiently small as not to adversely affect the fidelity of the model.

  18. Childhood onset generalised dystonia can be modelled by increased gain in the indirect basal ganglia pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, T D

    2003-11-01

    Clinical experience suggests an important role of the indirect basal ganglia pathway in the genesis of childhood onset generalised dystonia, but it has been difficult to reconcile the increased muscle activity in dystonia with the current model of basal ganglia function in which the indirect pathway is considered primarily inhibitory. The aim of this study was to present a modification of the direct-indirect pathway model, in which the indirect pathway is inverting rather than purely inhibitory, so that while high signals are inhibited, low signals are amplified. As the basal ganglia may be a feedback loop that modifies cortical activity, instability from excessive gain in this feedback loop could explain features of dystonia. A detailed mathematical model is provided, together with simulations of cortical cell population spiking behaviour when connected through a basal ganglia loop. The simulations show that increased gain in the indirect pathway relative to the direct pathway can lead to unstable uncontrolled synchronous oscillations in cortex and basal ganglia. This behaviour could result in dystonia. The model provides a consistent explanation for the association of dystonia with parkinsonism and disorders characterised by dopamine depletion, the ability to treat some dystonias with dopamine, the ability of neuroleptic drug treatment to cause an acute dystonic reaction treatable with anticholinergic drugs, and the ability of pallidotomy or deep brain stimulation of the internal pallidum to alleviate symptoms of generalised dystonia.

  19. Sub-Kilometer Scale Basal Roughness of the Siple Coast Ice Streams, West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. A.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2006-12-01

    The anastomosing series of dynamic, basally lubricated ice streams found on the Siple Coast of West Antarctica play an important role in regulating the mass balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). Geological controls on lubrication, elucidated by gravity, magnetics and seismic data, have proven important in understanding the evolution of these features. An additional indicator of basal properties, the basal roughness of ice sheets, may be an indicator of crustal geology and glacial modification, as well as a controlling parameter on ice dynamics and subglacial hydrology. For the Siple Coast ice streams, Fourier analysis of > 5 kilometer morphology (Siegert et al. 2004) revealed a correlation between ice streams and low bed roughness. Coherent high resolution data allows analysis of along track roughness at tens of meters resolution (Peters et al. 2005), however these data are limited in coverage. We extend roughness estimates into to the hundreds-of-meters length scale, using both frequency domain and autocorrelation methods, using incoherent 60 MHz radio echo sounding data collected between 1991 and 1996 on a five kilometer grid. The data cover the Bentley Subglacial Trench, Bindschadler Ice Stream, Siple Dome and the onset region of Kamb Ice Stream. SAR-processed coherent sounding data collected in 2001 are used to confirm these methods. We test for confinement of ice stream rapid basal motion to distinct morphological provinces; assess the hypothesis that marine sediments blanket much of interior of the basal WAIS; and look for correlation between ice flow and textural anisotropy.

  20. Primary cilia in the basal cells of equine epididymis: a serendipitous finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Silvana

    2013-04-01

    Occurrence of a solitary cilium was an unexpected discovery while studying the ultrastructure of epididymal epithelium in equidae. Primary cilia were detected in epididymal basal cells of all individuals of the equines studied - horses, donkey and mules - independently from age and tract of the duct, emerging from the basal cell surface and insinuating into the intercellular spaces. More rarely solitary cilia occurred also at the luminal surface of the principal cells. The ciliary apparatus was constituted by a structurally typical basal body continuous with the finger-like ciliary shaft extending from the cell surface, and an adjacent centriole oriented at right angles to the basal body. The cilium was structured as the typical primary, non-motile cilia found in many mammalian cells, having a 9+0 microtubular pattern. The basal diplosome was randomly associated with other cellular organelles including the Golgi complex, the endoplasmic reticulum, the microfilament network, the plasma membrane, vesicles and pits. Primary ciliogenesis is a new and unexpected finding in the epididymal epithelium. A monitoring role of luminal factors and extracellular liquids might be attributed to this organelle, likely acting as chemical receptor of the luminal environment, thus modulating the epithelial function by a cell-to-cell crosstalk involving the entire epithelium.