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Sample records for bas batch air

  1. Chapter 19: HVAC Controls (DDC/EMS/BAS) Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    The HVAC Controls Evaluation Protocol is designed to address evaluation issues for direct digital controls/energy management systems/building automation systems (DDC/EMS/BAS) that are installed to control heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. (This chapter refers to the DDC/EMS/BAS measure as HVAC controls.) This protocol may also be applicable to industrial facilities such as clean rooms and labs, which have either significant HVAC equipment or spaces requiring special environmental conditions. This protocol addresses only HVAC-related equipment and the energy savings estimation methods associated with installing such control systems as an energy efficiency measure. The affected equipment includes: Air-side equipment (air handlers, direct expansion systems, furnaces, other heating- and cooling-related devices, terminal air distribution equipment, and fans); Central plant equipment (chillers, cooling towers, boilers, and pumps). These controls may also operate or affect other end uses, such as lighting, domestic hot water, irrigation systems, and life safety systems such as fire alarms and other security systems. Considerable nonenergy benefits, such as maintenance scheduling, system component troubleshooting, equipment failure alarms, and increased equipment lifetime, may also be associated with these systems. When connected to building utility meters, these systems can also be valuable demand-limiting control tools. However, this protocol does not evaluate any of these additional capabilities and benefits.

  2. Quasiparticle Band Structure of BaS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Tie-Yu; CHEN De-Yan; HUANG Mei-Chun

    2006-01-01

    @@ We calculate the band structure of BaS using the local density approximation and the GW approximation (GWA),i.e. in combination of the Green function G and the screened Coulomb interaction W. The Ba 4d states are treated as valence states. We find that BaS is a direct band-gap semiconductor. The result shows that the GWA band gap (Eg-Gw = 3.921 eV) agrees excellently with the experimental result (Eg-EXPT = 3.88 eV or 3.9eV).

  3. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  4. Identification, Functional Characterization and Regulon Prediction of a Novel Two Component System Comprising BAS0540-BAS0541 of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalani, Monisha; Kandari, Divya; Bhatnagar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Two component systems (TCSs) can be envisaged as complex molecular devices that help the bacteria to sense its environment and respond aptly. 41 TCSs are predicted in Bacillus anthracis, a potential bioterrorism agent, of which only four have been studied so far. Thus, the intricate signaling network contributed by TCSs remains largely unmapped in B. anthracis and needs comprehensive exploration. In this study, we functionally characterized one such system composed of BAS0540 (Response regulator) and BAS0541 (Histidine kinase). BAS0540-BAS0541, the closest homolog of CiaRH of Streptococcus in B. anthracis, forms a functional TCS with BAS0541 displaying autophosphorylation and subsequent phosphotransfer to BAS0540. BAS0540 was also found to accept phosphate from physiologically relevant small molecule phosphodonors like acetyl phosphate and carbamoyl phosphate. Results of qRT-PCR and immunoblotting demonstrated that BAS0540 exhibits a constitutive expression throughout the growth of B. anthracis. Regulon prediction for BAS0540 in B. anthracis was done in silico using the consensus DNA binding sequence of CiaR of Streptococcus. The predicted regulon of BAS0540 comprised of 23 genes, which could be classified into 8 functionally diverse categories. None of the proven virulence factors were a part of the predicted regulon, an observation contrasting with the regulon of CiaRH in Streptococci. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used to show direct binding of purified BAS0540 to the upstream regions of 5 putative regulon candidates- BAS0540 gene itself; a gene predicted to encode cell division protein FtsA; a self–immunity gene; a RND family transporter gene and a gene encoding stress (heat) responsive protein. A significant enhancement in the DNA binding ability of BAS0540 was observed upon phosphorylation. Overexpression of response regulator BAS0540 in B. anthracis led to a prodigious increase of ~6 folds in the cell length, thereby conferring it a filamentous

  5. Different Strategies for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Bas-Reliefs

    OpenAIRE

    M. Carfagni; L. Puggelli

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades several computer-based procedures have been devised with the aim of speeding up the 3D reconstruction from a single image in the form of bas-relief. At the same time, the use of rapid prototyping (RP) technology considerably spread enabling quick manufacture of 3D products directly from 3D modelling systems. The present paper presents a few consideration about different possible strategies for bas-reliefs manufacturing by using the main RP techniques (stereolithograp...

  6. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  7. 40 CFR 63.1321 - Batch process vents provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents provisions. 63.1321... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1321 Batch process vents provisions. (a) Batch process vents. Except as specified in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this...

  8. Business Administration Scale for Family Child Care, BAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talan, Teri N.; Bloom, Paula Jorde

    2009-01-01

    The "BAS for Family Child Care" is the first valid and reliable tool for measuring and improving the overall quality of business and professional practices in family child care settings. It is applicable for multiple uses, including program self-improvement, technical assistance and monitoring, training, research and evaluation, and public…

  9. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  10. Influence of air flow, temperature and agitation speed in the batch acetification process to obtain orange vinegar (Citrus sinensis var.W. Navel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ferreyra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the influence of process variables to produce orange vinegar. Orange juice was fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae until reach 14% v/v. The biooxidation was carried out with Acetobacter sp., in submerge culture using a laboratory scale fermentor. In order to avoid the inhibitory effect of ethanol on acetic acid bacteria, the orange wine was diluted to 6% v/v with a mineral solution. It was performed a factorial design 2k to study the influence of variables. It was studied air flow rate/agitation at levels of 0.3-0.6 vvm and 200-400 rpm and the effect of air flow rate/temperature at 0.4-0.6 vvm and 25- 30°C, respectively. Duplicate treatments were carried out and the results were evaluated in terms of productivity and fermentation yield. Statistical design (p-value<0.05 was analyzed using Statgraphics Centurion XV Corporate software. Treatments performed at 200 rpm and different air flow levels, did not show significant differences on acetification rate. At higher agitation speed and air flow rates, the productivity was high. The best yields were obtained at lower air flows levels and higher agitation speed. Temperature did not present statistically differences on studied variables. The best yield was obtained at 400 rpm and 0.3 vvm at 25°C. It can be concluded that agitation speed plays an important role for a better acetification rate however higher air flow rates causes less yields.

  11. Personības iezīmju un psiholoģiskās labklājības saistība

    OpenAIRE

    Zariņa, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot, kāda saistība pastāv starp personības iezīmēm un psiholoģisko labklājību, vai pastāv dzimumu atšķirības saistībā ar personības iezīmēm un kā izglītības rādītāji ir saistīti ar psiholoģisko labklājību. Pētījumā tika izmantotas divas aptaujas - Latvijas Personības aptauja (V.Perepjolkina, V.Reņģe, 2013) un Psiholoģiskās labklājības skalas (Ryff, 1989). Pētījumā piedalījās 170 pieaugušie vecumā no 30 līdz 40 gadiem. Kopumā iegūtie rezultāti apstiprina personības...

  12. Hybrid Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    Bayesian Optimization aims at optimizing an unknown non-convex/concave function that is costly to evaluate. We are interested in application scenarios where concurrent function evaluations are possible. Under such a setting, BO could choose to either sequentially evaluate the function, one input at a time and wait for the output of the function before making the next selection, or evaluate the function at a batch of multiple inputs at once. These two different settings are commonly referred to as the sequential and batch settings of Bayesian Optimization. In general, the sequential setting leads to better optimization performance as each function evaluation is selected with more information, whereas the batch setting has an advantage in terms of the total experimental time (the number of iterations). In this work, our goal is to combine the strength of both settings. Specifically, we systematically analyze Bayesian optimization using Gaussian process as the posterior estimator and provide a hybrid algorithm t...

  13. Le codage distribué pour un réseau de capteurs sans-fil basé sur les turbo codes en bloc

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yizhi

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse étudie les performances d'un réseau de capteurs sans-fil coopératif, basé sur un codage réseau algébrique linéaire appliqué au relais. On considère un schéma coopératif basé sur le code produit en bloc où un grand nombre de sources transmettent des données indépendantes codées par un premier code en bloc vers un seul destinataire avec l'aide du relais. Dans ce schéma, le relais applique le codage réseau algébrique linéaire en utilisant un code correcteur d'erreur systématique liné...

  14. Thermoluminescence properties of -irradiated Bi doped BaS nanostructures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surender Singh; Ankush Vij; S P Lochab; Ravi Kumar; Nafa Singh

    2011-07-01

    Bismuth doped barium sulphide nanocrystallities were prepared and characterized by XRD. Thermoluminescence (TL) studies of these samples after exposure to gamma radiation were carried out. The TL glow curve of the phosphors have two peaks at 403 K and 658 K while in their bulk counterparts these peaks were reported at 486 K and 570 K (Rao 1986). We noted that TL intensity increases with gamma exposure time in the range 30 min – 41 h which may be explained on the basis of track interaction model (TIM) and a high surface to volume ratio for the nanostructures. The kinetic parameters at various heating rates namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor (s) of BaS : Bi (0.4 mol%) sample was determined using Chen’s method. The deconvolution of curve was done using the GCD function suggested by Kitis. The effect of different heating rates and different amount of dose has also been discussed.

  15. Study on the Difference of BIS/BAS Scale between Sasang Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Jin Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in temperament between So-Yang (SY and So-Eum (SE Sasang types using Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS scale to elucidate the biopsychological mechanism underlying the Sasang typology, a traditional Korean personalized medicine. Methods. 248 university students were categorized into three Sasang types, and series of t-tests were conducted, separately for male and female participants, to examine the difference of Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS, Behavioral Activation System (BAS, BAS-Drive (BAS-D, BAS-Fun Seeking (BAS-FS, and BAS-Reward Responsiveness (BAS-RR scores between SY and SE Sasang types. Results. There were significant differences between Sasang types in the BIS/BAS subscales with consideration of gender. In male participants, BAS-total score of SY type (39.75±4.56 was significantly (t=2.462, p=0.016 higher than that of SE type (36.68±4.97. On the other hand, in female participants, BIS score of SY type (20.10±4.01 was significantly (t=-2.097, p=0.039 lower than that of SE type (21.83±3.91. Discussion. The current study suggested relationship between Sasang typology and Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems and showed significant differences in BIS/BAS scale between SY and SE Sasang types. Further studies on biological base of Sasang typology are needed.

  16. Tunisijas un Ēģiptes tirdzniecības attiecības ar ES Eiropas kaimiņattiecību politikas ietvaros.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmete, Anete

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba nosaukums ir Tunisijas un Ēģiptes tirdzniecības attiecības ar ES Eiropas kaimiņattiecību politikas ietvaros. Darba mērķis ir izpētīt, kā caur EKP ietekmi mainījušās starptautiskās tirdzniecības attīstības tendences Tunisijai un Ēģiptei ar ES un, pamatojoties uz gūtajiem rezultātiem, izanalizēt, kura no valstīm uzrādījusi labākus rezultātus tirdzniecības attiecību jomā. Darbā tiek pētīts, kā ES regulē tirdzniecības attiecību veidošanu ar Tunisiju un Ēģipti, demokrātijas un liber...

  17. Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory and Laboratory Assessment of BIS and BAS in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colder, Craig R; Trucco, Elisa M; Lopez, Hector I; Hawk, Larry W; Read, Jennifer P; Lengua, Liliana J; Weiczorek, William F; Eiden, Rina D

    2011-04-01

    There is considerable interest in Gray's reinforcement sensitivity theory. However, few measures of the behavioral approach (BAS) and inhibition systems (BIS) exist for children. Moreover, the theory was substantially revised a decade ago and measurement instruments are still largely based on the old theory. Our aim was to revise questionnaire and laboratory assessments of BIS and BAS for children. Performance on the Point Scoring Reaction Time Task for Children Revised (PSRTT-CR) conformed to theoretical expectations. Caregiver reports of BIS and BAS were associated with corresponding PSRTT-CR indices, suggesting cross-method convergent and discriminant validity. There was convergence with physiological correlates of BAS, but not physiological correlates of BIS. Overall, our revised measures represent promising instruments of children's BIS and BAS. PMID:21603055

  18. Dynamic Batch Bayesian Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Azimi, Javad; Fern, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Bayesian optimization (BO) algorithms try to optimize an unknown function that is expensive to evaluate using minimum number of evaluations/experiments. Most of the proposed algorithms in BO are sequential, where only one experiment is selected at each iteration. This method can be time inefficient when each experiment takes a long time and more than one experiment can be ran concurrently. On the other hand, requesting a fix-sized batch of experiments at each iteration causes performance inefficiency in BO compared to the sequential policies. In this paper, we present an algorithm that asks a batch of experiments at each time step t where the batch size p_t is dynamically determined in each step. Our algorithm is based on the observation that the sequence of experiments selected by the sequential policy can sometimes be almost independent from each other. Our algorithm identifies such scenarios and request those experiments at the same time without degrading the performance. We evaluate our proposed method us...

  19. Modelling of Batch Process Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli; Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    Here a batch cooling crystalliser is modelled and simulated as is a batch distillation system. In the batch crystalliser four operational modes of the crystalliser are considered, namely: initial cooling, nucleation, crystal growth and product removal. A model generation procedure is shown that s...

  20. Relation between constructs of BisBas questionnaire and some personality constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Sedlar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to examine relation between constructs relevant for Gray's neuropsychological model of motivation. According to Gray's theory, two general motivational systems underlie behavior and affect: a behavioral inhibition system (BIS and a behavioral activation system (BAS. BIS is sensitive to aversive stimuli, causes avoidance behaviors and is responsible for individual differences in anxiety. BAS is responsive to appetitive stimuli, triggers approach behavior and has been associated with individual differences in impulsivness. BIS activity has been related to the experience of negative emotions, whereas BAS activity has been associated with the experience of positive emotions. A total of 122 Slovenian students, aged 17–19 years, completed the BIS/BAS scale, the Impulsiveness-Venturesome-Empathy Scale IVE, State Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI-X2, The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule PANAS, and The Big Five Questionairre BFQ. Our results are consistent with those from recent empirical studies and provide support for Gray's theory. Measures of BIS were found to be positively related to trait anxiety and neuroticism, whereas measures of BAS were found to be positively related to impulsiveness and extraversion. Emotional component measured with PANAS did not distinguish BIS from BAS constructs. Both were found to be related to negative affect. With respect to construct validity these findings suggest that BIS/BAS scale is reasonably effective.

  1. Column and Batch Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch and column experiments were performed to determine the Cu(II binding capacity of silica-immobilized humin biomass. For column studies, 500 bed volumes of a 0.1 mM Cu(II solution were passed through humin packed columns at the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 mL/min. The biopolymer showed an average Cu binding capacity of 12 ± 1.5 mg/g and a Cu recovery of about 96.5 % ± 1.5. The breakthrough points for Cu(II alone were approximately 420, 390, 385, and 300 bed volumes for the flow rates of 1, 1.5, 2 and 3 mL/min, respectively. The interference studies demonstrated that at low concentrations, the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II did not seem to represent a major interference on Cu(II binding to the humin biopolymer. The selectivity showed by this biopolymer was Cu(II>Ca(II>Mg(II. On the other hand, batch experiments showed that Ca(II + Mg(II at 100mM each reduced the Cu(II binding to 73 %. However, 1000 mM concentrations of Ca(II and Mg(II, separately and in mixture, reduced the Cu(II binding to 47 %, 44 % and 31 %, respectively. The results of this study showed that immobilized humin in a silica matrix could represent an inexpensive bio-source for Cu removal from contaminated water, even in the presence of low concentrations of the hard cations Ca(II and Mg(II.

  2. Āfrikas Savienības nozīme miera un drošības uzturēšanā

    OpenAIRE

    Stankēviča, Sabīne

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba mērķis ir izvērtēt Āfrikas Savienības (ĀS) nozīmi miera un drošības uzturēšanā, darba sākumā izvirzot apgalvojumu, ka ĀS lielākie izaicinājumi miera uzturēšanā un konfliktu risināšanā ir nespēja nodrošināt nepieciešamo resursu mobilizāciju un spēku ģenerēšanu. Darba teorētiskajā ietvarā tiek aplūkoti miera uzturēšanas un konfliktu pārvaldības principi, kā arī reģionālo organizāciju loma miera uzturēšanā. Darba tālākajā gaitā tiek aplūkoti drošības izaicinājumi Āfrikā, ĀS izveid...

  3. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  4. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis.

  5. Bas-relief map using texture analysis with application to live enhancement of ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Huarui; Ma, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    For ultrasound imaging, speckle is one of the most important factors in the degradation of contrast resolution because it masks meaningful texture and has the potential to interfere with diagnosis. It is expected that researchers would explore appropriate ways to reduce the speckle noise, to find the edges of structures and enhance weak borders between different organs in ultrasound imaging. Inspired by the principle of differential interference contrast microscopy, a "bas-relief map" is proposed that depicts the texture structure of ultrasound images. Based on a bas-relief map, an adaptive bas-relief filter was developed for ultrafast despeckling. Subsequently, an edge map was introduced to enhance the edges of images in real time. The holistic bas-relief map approach has been used experimentally with synthetic phantoms and digital ultrasound B-scan images of liver, kidney and gallbladder. Based on the visual inspection and the performance metrics of the despeckled images, it was found that the bas-relief map approach is capable of effectively reducing the speckle while significantly enhancing contrast and tissue boundaries for ultrasonic images, and its speckle reduction ability is comparable to that of Kuan, Lee and Frost filters. Meanwhile, the proposed technique could preserve more intra-region details compared with the popular speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion technique and more effectively enhance edges. In addition, the adaptive bas-relief filter was much less time consuming than the Kuan, Lee and Frost filter and speckle reducing anisotropic diffusion techniques. The bas-relief map strategy is effective for speckle reduction and live enhancement of ultrasound images, and can provide a valuable tool for clinical diagnosis. PMID:25641600

  6. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  7. Interactive Effects of the BIS and the BAS on Trajectories of Alcohol Misuse after University Graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keough, Matthew T; O'Connor, Roisin M

    2015-01-01

    Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory predicts that those with a strong behavioral inhibition system (BIS) likely experience considerable anxiety and uncertainty during the transition out of university. Accordingly, they may continue to drink heavily to cope during this time (a period associated with normative reductions in heavy drinking), but only if they also have a strong behavioral approach system (BAS) to enhance the anxiolytic effects of drinking. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis. Participants completed online measures prior to and at 3-month intervals over the course of the year following graduation. As hypothesized, results showed that an elevated BIS predicted impeded maturing out, but only when the impulsivity facet of BAS was also elevated. In contrast, a strong BIS predicted rapid maturing out if BAS impulsivity was weak. Study findings advance our understanding of BIS-related alcohol misuse trajectories in young adulthood and provide direction for clinical interventions. PMID:26823652

  8. When Significant Others Suffer: German Validation of the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Christina; Krause, Lena; Hilzinger, Rebecca; Ditzen, Beate; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    There is a need of an economical, reliable, and valid instrument in the German-speaking countries to measure the burden of relatives who care for mentally ill persons. We translated the Burden Assessment Scale (BAS) and conducted a study investigating factor structure, psychometric quality and predictive validity. We used confirmative factor analyses (CFA, maximum-likelihood method) to examine the dimensionality of the German BAS in a sample of 215 relatives (72% women; M = 32 years, SD = 14, range: 18 to 77; 39% employed) of mentally ill persons (50% (ex-)partner or (best) friend; M = 32 years, SD = 13, range 8 to 64; main complaints were depression and/or anxiety). Cronbach’s α determined the internal consistency. We examined predictive validity using regression analyses including the BAS and validated scales of social systems functioning (Experience In Social Systems Questionnaire, EXIS.pers, EXIS.org) and psychopathology (Brief Symptom Inventory, BSI). Variables that might have influenced the dependent variables (e.g. age, gender, education, employment and civil status) were controlled by their introduction in the first step, and the BAS in the second step of the regression analyses. A model with four correlated factors (Disrupted Activities, Personal Distress, Time Perspective, Guilt) showed the best fit. With respect to the number of items included, the internal consistency was very good. The modified German BAS predicted relatives’ social systems functioning and psychopathology. The economical design makes the 19-item BAS promising for practice-oriented research, and for studies under time constraints. Strength, limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:27764109

  9. Data-driven batch schuduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Denehy, Tim [GOOGLE; Arpaci - Dusseau, Remzi [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Livny, Miron [UNIV OF WISCONSIN; Arpaci - Dusseau, Andrea C [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we develop data-driven strategies for batch computing schedulers. Current CPU-centric batch schedulers ignore the data needs within workloads and execute them by linking them transparently and directly to their needed data. When scheduled on remote computational resources, this elegant solution of direct data access can incur an order of magnitude performance penalty for data-intensive workloads. Adding data-awareness to batch schedulers allows a careful coordination of data and CPU allocation thereby reducing the cost of remote execution. We offer here new techniques by which batch schedulers can become data-driven. Such systems can use our analytical predictive models to select one of the four data-driven scheduling policies that we have created. Through simulation, we demonstrate the accuracy of our predictive models and show how they can reduce time to completion for some workloads by as much as 80%.

  10. Radiometric dating of brannerite and biotite minerals from Ladi-ka-bas, Sikar District, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper results of radiometric dating on brannerite and biotite minerals from Ladi-ka-bas area are reported. The area falls in the North Delhi Fold Belt of Rajasthan where occurrences of uranium mineralized rocks have been reported from a number of places. In Ladi-ka-bas area hydrothermal uranium mineralization is hosted within quartz-biotite schist, albitite, impure quartzite and carbonate rocks of the Mesoproterozoic Ajabgarh Group of Delhi Supergroup. The Branerite is the main uranium bearing phase in these mineralized rocks. The age data obtained in this study will be useful in understanding the uranium mineralization events in this very important region.

  11. Design and construction of a batch oven for investigation of industrial continuous baking processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby Andresen, Mette; Risum, Jørgen; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    A new batch oven has been constructed to mimic industrial convection tunnel ovens for research and development of continuous baking processes. The process parameters (air flow, air temperature, air humidity, height of baking area and the baking band velocity) are therefore highly controllable...... of the baking was documented over a range of temperatures (160C to 190C). Practical Applications The purpose of this paper is to describe a new specially designed pilot scale batch oven. The batch oven is designed and constructed to imitate the baking processes in continuous tunnel ovens with forced convection...

  12. BatchJobs and BatchExperiments: Abstraction Mechanisms for Using R in Batch Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Bischl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Empirical analysis of statistical algorithms often demands time-consuming experiments. We present two R packages which greatly simplify working in batch computing environments. The package BatchJobs implements the basic objects and procedures to control any batch cluster from within R. It is structured around cluster versions of the well-known higher order functions Map, Reduce and Filter from functional programming. Computations are performed asynchronously and all job states are persistently stored in a database, which can be queried at any point in time. The second package, BatchExperiments, is tailored for the still very general scenario of analyzing arbitrary algorithms on problem instances. It extends package BatchJobs by letting the user define an array of jobs of the kind apply algorithm A to problem instance P and store results. It is possible to associate statistical designs with parameters of problems and algorithms and therefore to systematically study their influence on the results. The packages main features are: (a Convenient usage: All relevant batch system operations are either handled internally or mapped to simple R functions. (b Portability: Both packages use a clear and well-defined interface to the batch system which makes them applicable in most high-performance computing environments. (c Reproducibility: Every computational part has an associated seed to ensure reproducibility even when the underlying batch system changes. (d Abstraction and good software design: The code layers for algorithms, experiment definitions and execution are cleanly separated and enable the writing of readable and maintainable code.

  13. Ceramic Bas-Reliefs of the Divine Comedy: A Gift from Italian Master Engo Babini

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Nianrui

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the China Jingdezhen International Ceramic Fair(CJICF),held annually since 2004,is to promote ceramic cultural exchanges and world ceramic development.Over a hundred foreign ceramists attended in 2009,when Engo Babini,a famous Italian carving master,introduced his elaborately created ceramic bas-reliefs of the Divine Comedy to enhance Sino-Italian friendship and

  14. 40 CFR 1065.170 - Batch sampling for gaseous and PM constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.170 Batch sampling...-through support bonded to the back and has an overall thickness of 40 ±20 µm. An inert polymer ring may...

  15. BatchJS: Implementing Batches in JavaScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasemier, D.

    2014-01-01

    None of our popular programming languages know how to handle distribution well. Yet our programs interact more and more with each other and our data resorts in databases and web services. Batches are a new addition to languages that can finally bring native support for distribution to our favourite

  16. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Medina-Rivero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes.

  17. Physicochemical Characteristics of Transferon™ Batches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, Gilberto; Favari, Liliana; Estrada-Parra, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Transferon, a biotherapeutic agent that has been used for the past 2 decades for diseases with an inflammatory component, has been approved by regulatory authorities in Mexico (COFEPRIS) for the treatment of patients with herpes infection. The active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of Transferon is based on polydispersion of peptides that have been extracted from lysed human leukocytes by a dialysis process and a subsequent ultrafiltration step to select molecules below 10 kDa. To physicochemically characterize the drug product, we developed chromatographic methods and an SDS-PAGE approach to analyze the composition and the overall variability of Transferon. Reversed-phase chromatographic profiles of peptide populations demonstrated batch-to-batch consistency from 10 representative batches that harbored 4 primary peaks with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 7%. Aminogram profiles exhibited 17 proteinogenic amino acids and showed that glycine was the most abundant amino acid, with a relative content of approximately 18%. Further, based on their electrophoretic migration, the peptide populations exhibited a molecular mass of about 10 kDa. Finally, we determined the Transferon fingerprint using a mass spectrometry tool. Because each batch was produced from independent pooled buffy coat samples from healthy donors, supplied by a local blood bank, our results support the consistency of the production of Transferon and reveal its peptide identity with regard to its physicochemical attributes. PMID:27525277

  18. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  19. Simulated Batch Production of Penicillin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, A.; Walker, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Describes a program in applied biology in which the simulation of the production of penicillin in a batch fermentor is used as a teaching technique to give students experience before handling a genuine industrial fermentation process. Details are given for the calculation of minimum production cost. (JR)

  20. Batching System for Superior Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Veridian's Portable Batch System (PBS) was the recipient of the 1997 NASA Space Act Award for outstanding software. A batch system is a set of processes for managing queues and jobs. Without a batch system, it is difficult to manage the workload of a computer system. By bundling the enterprise's computing resources, the PBS technology offers users a single coherent interface, resulting in efficient management of the batch services. Users choose which information to package into "containers" for system-wide use. PBS also provides detailed system usage data, a procedure not easily executed without this software. PBS operates on networked, multi-platform UNIX environments. Veridian's new version, PBS Pro,TM has additional features and enhancements, including support for additional operating systems. Veridian distributes the original version of PBS as Open Source software via the PBS website. Customers can register and download the software at no cost. PBS Pro is also available via the web and offers additional features such as increased stability, reliability, and fault tolerance.A company using PBS can expect a significant increase in the effective management of its computing resources. Tangible benefits include increased utilization of costly resources and enhanced understanding of computational requirements and user needs.

  1. Introduction. Les réformes de l’administration vues d’en bas

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Wilkin; Benoît Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Dans la continuité du précédent volume de Pyramides consacré aux « réformes de l’administration vues d’en bas » et en droite ligne du colloque du même nom organisé par le Cerap, le présent numéro tente à nouveau d’explorer les différentes dimensions des réformes par le bas. Ainsi, plutôt que de proposer des numéros à forte consonance thématique, l’option choisie est de présenter aux lecteurs une sélection d’articles caractérisés par leur diversité de contenu mais, en réalité, reliés entre eux...

  2. Utilisation d'un capteur inertiel comme aide au suivi basé vision

    OpenAIRE

    Aron, Michael; Simon, Gilles; Berger, Marie-Odile

    2006-01-01

    National audience L'un des principaux obstacles à l'obtention de systèmes de Réalité Augmentée effectifs est le manque de robustesse et/ou de précision des processus visant à acquérir la position de l'utilisateur au cours du temps. Cet article présente un système hybride, combinant un capteur inertiel à un système de suivi basé vision. Cette approche collaborative est motivée par le fait que les systèmes basés vision peuvent échouer lors du suivi, alors que les capteurs inertiels sont robu...

  3. GRAFISKĀ DIZAINA ĪPATNĪBAS VEGĀNISKU PĀRTIKAS PRODUKTU IEPAKOJUMA IZVEIDĒ

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmanis, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    Latvijas Univeritātes Pedagoģijas, psiholoģijas un mākslas fakultātes Izglītības zinātņu nodaļas "Māksla" profesionālā bakalaura studiju programmas 4. Kursa studenta Jāņa Hofmaņa (Stud. apl. Nr. jh08024) diplomdarbā „Grafiskā dizaina īpatnības vegānisku pārtikas produktu iepakojuma izveidē” tiek izpētīta vegānisma vēsture un grafiskā dizaina nosacījumi, lai izveidotu iepakojuma grafisko dizainu vegāniskam pārtikas produktam. Diplomdarbs sastāv no trīs daļām. Teorētiskajā daļā tiek apkopota in...

  4. Bacterial communities in pigmented biofilms formed on the sandstone bas-relief walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue-green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue-green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics.

  5. Dysregulation of the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) in Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: Review of Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Urošević, Snez̆ana; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, a call for increased research on bipolar disorder has been answered with methodologically diverse studies exploring goal striving, life events, cognitive style, decision-making, and neurobiological abnormalities in bipolar disorder. In order to further this spurt of research and to systematize our understanding of bipolar disorder, an integrative perspective is warranted. The behavioral approach system (BAS) dysregulation theory, proposed by Richard Depue and colleagues, prov...

  6. Digital Libraries and Portals Saving National Cultural Heritage (IMI–BAS Experience)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Radoslav; Paneva-Marinova, Desislava

    2011-01-01

    The current research activities of the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI—BAS) include the study and application of knowledge-based methods for the creation, integration and development of multimedia digital libraries with applications in cultural heritage. This report presents IMI-BAS’s developments at the digital library management systems and portals, i.e. the Bulgarian Iconographical Digital Library, the Bulgarian Folklore ...

  7. Atbrīvošana no kriminālatbildības

    OpenAIRE

    Pāps, Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba izstrādes mērķis izpētīt Krimināllikumā 58. pantā noteiktos atbrīvošanas no kriminālatbildības veidus, analizējot gan tiesu spriedumus, gan juridisko literatūru. Darba gaitā tiek skaidrots atbrīvošanas no kriminālatbildības jēdziens, tiesiskie priekšnosacījumi, piemērošanas kārtība, tiesiskās sekas, kas rodas personai, kuru atbrīvo no kriminālatbildības, kā arī salīdzināts regulējums ar ārvalstīm. Rakstot šo darbu autors ir secinājis, ka ir nepieciešamas izmaiņas gan Krimināll...

  8. Preparation and Characterization of BAS Reinforced with SiC Platelets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@BAS glass-ceramic powders were prepared by sol-gel processing. SiC platelets reinforced BAS glass-ceramic matrix composites with high density and uniform microstructure could be made using hot-pressing method. The related processing parameters were studied in this work, including effects of additional seed on transformation from H to M of barium aluminosilicate. DTA method was used to determine exact time to press mixture powders during hot-pressing for the purpose of effective densification. Microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated by mean of SEM, XRD and TEM techniques as well as three points bending test and single edge notched beam measurement. The results showed that the flexural strength and fracture toughness value of the BAS glass-ceramic matrix composites could be effectively improved by the addition of the SiC platelets. But the relative densities of composites were slightly decreased. The main toughening mechanism is crack deflection, platelets' pull-out and bridging. The increased value of flexural strength is contributed to the load transition effect from matrix to SiC platelets.

  9. Biopsychological structure of Yin-Yang using Cloninger's Temperament model and Carver and White's BIS/BAS scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun; Chae, Han

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White's Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger's temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger's temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger's four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p cross-cultural psychobiological study of the East and West. PMID:27231654

  10. NDA Batch 2002-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  11. Batch-oriented software appliances

    CERN Document Server

    Murri, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents AppPot, a system for creating Linux software appliances. AppPot can be run as a regular batch or grid job and executed in user space, and requires no special virtualization support in the infrastructure. The main design goal of AppPot is to bring the benefits of a virtualization-based IaaS cloud to existing batch-oriented computing infrastructures. In particular, AppPot addresses the application deployment and configuration on large heterogeneous computing infrastructures: users are enabled to prepare their own customized virtual appliance for providing a safe execution environment for their applications. These appliances can then be executed on virtually any computing infrastructure being in a private or public cloud as well as any batch-controlled computing clusters the user may have access to. We give an overview of AppPot and its features, the technology that makes it possible, and report on experiences running it in production use within the Swiss National Grid infrastructure SMSCG.

  12. Function and evolution of the serotonin-synthetic bas-1 gene and other aromatic amino acid decarboxylase genes in Caenorhabditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hare Emily E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC enzymes catalyze the synthesis of biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, throughout the animal kingdom. These neurotransmitters typically perform important functions in both the nervous system and other tissues, as illustrated by the debilitating conditions that arise from their deficiency. Studying the regulation and evolution of AADC genes is therefore desirable to further our understanding of how nervous systems function and evolve. Results In the nematode C. elegans, the bas-1 gene is required for both serotonin and dopamine synthesis, and maps genetically near two AADC-homologous sequences. We show by transformation rescue and sequencing of mutant alleles that bas-1 encodes an AADC enzyme. Expression of a reporter construct in transgenics suggests that the bas-1 gene is expressed, as expected, in identified serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. The bas-1 gene is one of six AADC-like sequences in the C. elegans genome, including a duplicate that is immediately downstream of the bas-1 gene. Some of the six AADC genes are quite similar to known serotonin- and dopamine-synthetic AADC's from other organisms whereas others are divergent, suggesting previously unidentified functions. In comparing the AADC genes of C. elegans with those of the congeneric C. briggsae, we find only four orthologous AADC genes in C. briggsae. Two C. elegans AADC genes – those most similar to bas-1 – are missing from C. briggsae. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that one or both of these bas-1-like genes were present in the common ancestor of C. elegans and C. briggsae, and were retained in the C. elegans line, but lost in the C. briggsae line. Further analysis of the two bas-1-like genes in C. elegans suggests that they are unlikely to encode functional enzymes, and may be expressed pseudogenes. Conclusions The bas-1 gene of C. elegans encodes a serotonin- and dopamine

  13. 间歇结晶过程的分批优化%Batch-to-batch Optimization of Batch Crystallization Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Woranee Paengjuntuek; Paisan Kittisupakorn; Amornchai Arpornwichanop

    2008-01-01

    It is the fact that several process parameters are either unknown or uncertain. Therefore, an optimal control profile calculated with developed process models with respect to such process parameters may not give an optimal performance when implemented to real processes. This study proposes a batch-to-batch optimization strat-egy for the estimation of uncertain kinetic parameters in a batch crystallization process of potassium sulfate produc-tion. The knowledge of a crystal size distribution of the product at the end of batch operation is used in the proposedmethodology. The updated kinetic parameters are applied for determining an optimal operating temperature policy for the next batch run.

  14. Relationships between Cloninger's biosocial model of personality and the behavioral inhibition/approach systems (BIS/BAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mardaga, Solange; Hansenne, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Novelty seeking and harm avoidance are two major temperamental dimensions from the Cloninger's biosocial model of personality that are theoretically related to Gray's behavioral approach system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS), respectively. The revised version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI-R) and the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales were developed to assess these constructs. Despite the theoretical relationships between the two models, no study investigated the a...

  15. Bank crisis ousts airBaltic minority owners

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Latvijas Krajbanka pakkus riigile osta airBalticu aktsiaid, mida airBalticu osanik Baltijas Aviacijas Sistemas (BAS) on laenude tagatiseks pantinud, tuues põhjuseks selle, et BASi suhtes on algatatud võlgade sissenõudmise protsess. Valitsus ostiski aktsiad ära, kuna nende hind oli soodne. Uue emissiooni võimalusest

  16. Combinatorial Batch Codes with Redundancy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Jiyoon; Mummert, Carl; Niese, Elizabeth; Schroeder, Michael w.

    2015-01-01

    A combinatorial batch code with redundancy $r$ and parameters $(n,k,m,t)$ can be represented as a system $C$ of $m$ (not necessarily distinct) subsets of an underlying $n$-element set $F$, so that each $k$-subset of $F$ can be covered by every $(m-r)$-subset $K$ of $C$ while taking no more than $t$ elements of $F$ with each set in $K$. The sum of the cardinalities of the sets in $C$ is the weight of the code. We focus on the case $t =1$, and determine the minimal weight for several ranges of ...

  17. Effects of CO2 enrichment and nutrients supply intermittency on batch cultures of Isochrysis galbana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picardo, Marta C; de Medeiros, José Luiz; Araújo, Ofélia de Queiroz F; Chaloub, Ricardo Moreira

    2013-09-01

    Aiming at enhanced performance to increase economic feasibility of microalgae based processes, Isochrysis galbana was grown in three modes of cultivation: batch, intermittent fed batch and semi-continuous. The batch mode was conducted under two regimes of aeration: conventional aeration and CO2 enriched aeration (5% v/v in air). Increased biomass productivity without significant impact on lipid accumulation was observed for CO2 enriched aeration relatively to cultivation aerated with air only. The intermittent fed batch cultivation policy was proven to be useful for lipid accumulation, increasing the lipid content by 19.8%. However, the semi-continuous mode resulted in higher productivity due to increased biomass concentration; the biomass productivity reached 0.51 g/(Ld). Fluorescence measurements were performed; the calculated low electron transport rate showed the need to increase the irradiance. The results showed that I. galbana can be grown in semi-continuous condition at high levels of biomass productivity.

  18. Band-overlap metallization of BaS, BaSe and BaTe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Wilkins, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The insulator-metal transition volumes for BaS, BaSe, and BaTe are calculated for the first time, using the self-consistent augmented spherical wave technique. The metallized transition volumes are smaller than those corresponding to the NaCl yields CsCl structural transitions, but, 10 to 15% larger than those obtained by the Herzfeld dielectric theory. The calculated equilibrium energy gaps in the NaCl structure underestimate the measured ones by 50 to 60%.

  19. Autobiogrāfisko atmiņu par laulību dzimumatšķirības pēc laulības šķiršanas

    OpenAIRE

    Kistnere, Kristīne

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma „Autobiogrāfisko atmiņu par laulību dzimumatšķirības pēc laulības šķiršanas” mērķis bija izpētīt autobiogrāfiskās atmiņas sievietēm un vīriešiem pēc laulības šķiršanas un atklāt, vai pastāv būtiskas atšķirības starp autobiogrāfiskajām atmiľām sievietēm un vīriešiem. Pētījumā piedalījās 60 respondenti, 30 sievietes un 30 vīrieši, kuriem ir šķirta laulība ar Latvijas Civillikuma Ģimenes tiesību daļas noteikumiem vai kuri ir laulības šķiršanas procesā, vecumā no 30 līdz 45 gadiem (M=38,...

  20. BAS-drive trait modulates dorsomedial striatum activity during reward response-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ávila, César

    2016-09-01

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, behavioral studies have found that individuals with stronger reward sensitivity easily detect cues of reward and establish faster associations between instrumental responses and reward. Neuroimaging studies have shown that processing anticipatory cues of reward is accompanied by stronger ventral striatum activity in individuals with stronger reward sensitivity. Even though establishing response-outcome contingencies has been consistently associated with dorsal striatum, individual differences in this process are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to study the relation between reward sensitivity and brain activity while processing response-reward contingencies. Forty-five participants completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire and performed a gambling task paradigm in which they received monetary rewards or punishments. Overall, our task replicated previous results that have related processing high reward outcomes with activation of striatum and medial frontal areas, whereas processing high punishment outcomes was associated with stronger activity in insula and middle cingulate. As expected, the individual differences in the activity of dorsomedial striatum correlated positively with BAS-Drive. Our results agree with previous studies that have related the dorsomedial striatum with instrumental performance, and suggest that the individual differences in this area may form part of the neural substrate responsible for modulating instrumental conditioning by reward sensitivity. PMID:26489979

  1. BAS-drive trait modulates dorsomedial striatum activity during reward response-outcome associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costumero, Víctor; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Fuentes, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Ávila, César

    2016-09-01

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, behavioral studies have found that individuals with stronger reward sensitivity easily detect cues of reward and establish faster associations between instrumental responses and reward. Neuroimaging studies have shown that processing anticipatory cues of reward is accompanied by stronger ventral striatum activity in individuals with stronger reward sensitivity. Even though establishing response-outcome contingencies has been consistently associated with dorsal striatum, individual differences in this process are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to study the relation between reward sensitivity and brain activity while processing response-reward contingencies. Forty-five participants completed the BIS/BAS questionnaire and performed a gambling task paradigm in which they received monetary rewards or punishments. Overall, our task replicated previous results that have related processing high reward outcomes with activation of striatum and medial frontal areas, whereas processing high punishment outcomes was associated with stronger activity in insula and middle cingulate. As expected, the individual differences in the activity of dorsomedial striatum correlated positively with BAS-Drive. Our results agree with previous studies that have related the dorsomedial striatum with instrumental performance, and suggest that the individual differences in this area may form part of the neural substrate responsible for modulating instrumental conditioning by reward sensitivity.

  2. Batch process design: an overview from control

    OpenAIRE

    Zuluaga Bedoya, Christian Camilo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: batch process design: an overview from control In this work, the topic of batch process design is addressed, through an analysis of the phenomenological-based model and using set-theoretic methods to deduce process constraints and parametric effects in state controllability. A review of literature is presented about characterization of batch process from point of view of design problem. Furthermore simultaneous process and control design is also reviewed, considering the main contri...

  3. BAS: Finanšu instrumentu manipulatīvie un aizdomīgie darījumi

    OpenAIRE

    Čečis, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    Kvalifikācijas darbs “BAS: Finanšu instrumentu manipulatīvie un aizdomīgie darījumi” apraksta moduli, kas izstrādāts bankas brokeru sistēmas BAS funkcionalitātes papildināšanai. Tā mērķis ir konstatēt bankas kontos notiekošos manipulatīvos un aizdomīgos darījumus ar finanšu instrumentiem. Tas darbosies importējot iepriekš speciāli sagatavotu izklājlapu failu ar laukiem, kas sagatavoti Bloomberg platformā. Balstoties uz šo failu, tiks salīdzināti dati ar BAS datubāzi un veicot analīzi, aizdomī...

  4. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  5. Nature of uranium mineralisation in the Kerpura - Tiwari-ka-bas Area, Sikar District, Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralisation of uraninite and brannerite occurs in the albitised metasedimentary and intrusive igneous rocks of Kerpura-Tiwari-ka-bas area in Sikar District, Rajasthan. Samples collected from well dumps contain 0.016 to 1.52% U3O8 with very low ThO2. The host rocks show wide variation in chemical composition due to varying degree of alkali metasomatism, associated alteration and composition of protoliths. The spatial distribution of uranium in groundwater as well as rock samples from well dumps indicates localisation of the uranium mineralisation along NNE-SSW and NW-SE directions in Kerpura block. Petrographic and lithogeochemical studies point towards close genetic relationship between alkali metasomatism and uranium mineralisation. The mineralisation seems to be due to mobilisation of uranium and other LILEs by metasomatising fluids and their deposition along shear zones at a later stage, which may not be spatially related to zones of intense albitisation. (author)

  6. Controlling the Colour of Metals: Intaglio and Bas-Relief Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jianfa; Papasimakis, Nikitas; Chen, Yifang; MacDonald, Kevin F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of indented ('intaglio') or raised ('bas-relief') sub-wavelength metamaterial patterns on a metal surface provides a mechanism for changing and controlling the colour of the metal without employing any form of chemical surface modification, thin-film coating or diffraction effects. We show that a broad range of colours can be achieved by varying the structural parameters of metamaterial designs to tune absorption resonances. This novel approach to the 'structural colouring' of pure metals offers great versatility and scalability for both aesthetic (e.g. jewellery design) and functional (e.g. sensors, optical modulators) applications. We focus here on visible colour but the concept can equally be applied to the engineering of metallic spectral response in other electromagnetic domains.

  7. Temporal knowledge discovery in big BAS data for building energy management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Cheng; Xiao, Fu; Madsen, Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    With the advances of information technologies, today's building automation systems (BASs) are capable of managing building operational performance in an efficient and convenient way. Meanwhile, the amount of real-time monitoring and control data in BASs grows continually in the building lifecycle...... the Symbolic Aggregate approXimation (SAX), motif discovery, and temporal association rule mining. This study also develops two methods for the efficient post-processing of knowledge discovered. The methodology has been applied to analyze the BAS data retrieved from a real building. The temporal knowledge...... discovered is valuable to identify dynamics, patterns and anomalies in building operations, derive temporal association rules within and between subsystems, assess building system performance and spot opportunities in energy conservation....

  8. Models, truth and realism: assessing Bas van Fraassen's views on scientific representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Ghins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an analysis of some aspects of Bas van Fraassen's views on representation. While I agree with most of his claims, I disagree on the following three issues. Firstly, I contend that some isomorphism (or at least homomorphism between the representor and what is represented is a universal necessary condition for the success of any representation, even in the case of misrepresentation. Secondly, I argue that the so-called "semantic" or "model-theoretic" construal of theories does not give proper due to the role played by true propositions in successful representing practices. Thirdly, I attempt to show that the force of van Fraassen's pragmatic - and antirealist - "dissolution" of the "loss of reality objection" loses its bite when we realize that our cognitive contact with real phenomena is achieved not by representing but by expressing true propositions about them.

  9. Jauniešu pašefektivitātes un apmierinātības ar dzīvi saistība ar vardarbības pieredzi bērnībā

    OpenAIRE

    Koškins, Ivars

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot, kādas ir saistības starp pašefektivitāti, apmierinātību ar dzīvi un vardarbības pieredzi bērnībā. Pētījumā piedalījās 169 jaunieši (131 sieviete, 38 vīrieši) vecumā no 19 līdz 25 gadiem, vidējais vecums – 21,53 (SD = 1,85) gadi, kuri pašlaik studē dažādas izglītības iestādēs (universitāte, institūts, koledža, tehnikums, arodskola) un dzīvo dažādās Latvijas pilsētās. Datu ievākšanai tika izmantotas šādas metodes: Bērnības traumas aptauja (Childhood Trauma Ques...

  10. Batch process. Changes and problems of a batch process; Bacchi prosesu no hensen to kadai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, T. [Asahi Engineering (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    One of the characteristics of the manufacture of fine chemical products is multikind production. The life cycles of chemical industrial products have become shorter, and the difference between these life cycles and those of the manufacturing facility has become larger. The use of an FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) has been demanded as the measure for solving the problems, and the advantages of a batch process have begun to be reconsidered. This paper describes the history of the development of a batch process, and then explains the problems of a batch process. The paper mentions the process control techniques, production information control systems, production support systems, training systems and process simulation systems as the main techniques supporting the development of a batch process. The paper mentions the modeling and standardizing of a batch process, systematic batch process designing methods and the modeling of a production control information system as the problems of a batch process. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Atklātā pirmkoda resursu vadības sistēma OpenERP

    OpenAIRE

    Grigore, Madara

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā “Atklātā pirmkoda resursu vadības sistēma OpenERP” tiek pētīts, kas ir resursu vadības sistēma (ERP), tiek aplūkotas, kādas ir atšķirības starp patentēto un atklātā pirmkoda ERP sistēmām un izpētīts, ko uzņēmums iegūst, ieviešot ERP risinājumu, un kādi ir iespējamie riski ar kuriem var saskarties uzņēmums pēc ERP risinājuma implementācijas. Tiek pētīts, kāpēc un kādas nesaderības var rasties starp uzņēmumu un ERP programmu, kā tās var mazināt. Darbā tiek pētīta atklātā pirmkoda...

  12. Researchers at the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMI-BAS - Attestation Analysis - Results and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tabov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 attestation of the academic staff of the Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, was carried out. The attestation procedures and the results of their applying in practice are both described in the present paper. The level-drop in IMI-BAS is alarming. The main reason for it is the brain-drain, we suppose.

  13. LSF usage for batch at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Schwickerath, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Contributed poster to the CHEP07. Original abstract: LSF 7, the latest version of Platform's batch workload management system, addresses many issues which limited the ability of LSF 6.1 to support large scale batch farms, such as the lxbatch service at CERN. In this paper we will present the status of the evaluation and deployment of LSF 7 at CERN, including issues concerning the integration of LSF 7 with the gLite grid middleware suite and, in particular, the steps taken to endure an efficient reporting of the local batch system status and usage to the Grid Information System

  14. Waste heat recovery at the glass industry with the intervention of batch and cullet preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolianitis Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A promising option to reduce the specific energy consumption and CO2 emissions at a conventional natural gas fired container glass furnace deals with the advanced utilization of the exhaust gases downstream the air regenerators by means of batch and cullet preheating. A 3-dimensional computational model that simulates this process using mass and heat transfer equations inside a preheater has been developed. A case study for an efficient small-sized container glass furnace is presented dealing with the investigation of the impact of different operating and design configurations on specific energy consumption, CO2 emissions, flue gas energy recovery, batch temperature and preheater efficiency. In specific, the effect of various parameters is studied, including the preheater’s dimensions, flue gas temperature, batch moisture content, glass pull, combustion air excess and cullet fraction. Expected energy savings margin is estimated to 12-15%.

  15. Batch process. Application of CAE technique to a batch process; Bacchi purosesu eno CAE gijutsu no tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.; Nakai, K.; Oba, S. [Aspentic Japan Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    This paper introduces recent topics of the application of the CAE technique to a batch process. A batch distillation modeling tool (BATCHFRAC) is aimed at modeling a distillation tower and a batch reactor for a batch process for fine chemical products, and is provided as an expanded additional function for ASPEN FLUS batch distillation. A batch process designing system (BATCH PLUS) is a comprehensive batch process simulator for efficiently carrying out the designing, the development or the analysis of a complicated recipe-based batch process concerning medical treatment, biotechnology and agriculture. A batch process information control system (Batch/21) is provided as a system having an expanded and additional function for a batch process of InfoPlus/21, an information control system which enables the observation, management and controlling of a process. 4 figs.

  16. Design and Construction of a Batch Oven for Investigation of Industrial Continuous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenby, Mette; Nielsen, Brian; Risum, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    A new batch oven has been designed and build to model baking processes as seen in large scale tunnel ovens. In order to simulate the conditions found in tunnel ovens a number of critical parameters are controllable: The temperature, the humidity and the air velocity. The band movement is simulated...

  17. Multi-objective optimization of glycopeptide antibiotic production in batch and fed batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maiti, Soumen K.; Eliasson Lantz, Anna; Bhushan, Mani;

    2011-01-01

    as pareto optimal solutions. These solutions gives flexibility in evaluating the trade-offs and selecting the most suitable operating policy. Here, ε-constraint approach was used to generate the pareto solutions for two objectives: product concentration and product per unit cost of media, for batch and fed...... batch operations using process model for Amycolatopsis balhimycina, a glycopeptide antibiotic producer. This resulted in a set of several pareto optimal solutions with the two objectives ranging from (0.75gl−1, 3.97g$-1) to (0.44gl−1, 5.19g$-1) for batch and from (1.5gl−1, 5.46g$-1) to (1.1gl−1, 6.34g......$-1) for fed batch operations. One pareto solution each for batch and for fed batch mode was experimentally validated....

  18. First-principles investigation of BAs and BxGa1-xAs alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong De-Ping; Zhou Shou-Li; Wang Qi; Ren Xiao-Min

    2008-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations in the generalized gradient approximation, the electronic properties of BAs and BxGa1-xAs alloys are studied. At the Brillouin-zone centre, the lowest conduction band is the three-degenerate p-like Γ15c state rather than s-like Γ1c state, and the conduction band minimum (CBM) is along the △ line between the Γ and X points-at approximately 11/14(1,0,0)2π/a. With boron content at 0%-18.75%, BxGa1-xAs alloys have a small (2.6 eV) and relatively composition-independent band-gap bowing parameter, the band-gap increases monotonically by ~18meV/B% with increasing boron content. In addition, the formation enthalpies of mixing for BxGa1-xAs alloys with boron content at 6.25% and 12.5% are calculated, and the large formation enthalpies may explain the difficulty in alloying boron to GaAs.

  19. Profetas e santidades selvagens. Missionários e caraíbas no Brasil colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompa Cristina

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Na batalha pela conquista das almas selvagens, os caraíbas, os grandes xamãs dos Tupinambá, foram considerados pelos missionários como instrumentos do demônio. Ao mesmo tempo, nas fontes quinhentistas e seiscentistas encontramos as categorias de "santidade" ou "profeta", como tradução do termo indígena caraíba. Remetendo os relatos missionários ao contexto histórico e cultural em que se produziram, o artigo tenta identificar o campo semântico a partir do qual o Ocidente evangelizador realizou a leitura e a construção da alteridade indígena. O "profeta" aparece assim como uma construção negociada: a linguagem religiosa é o terreno de mediação, onde cada cultura, a ocidental e a indígena, encontram o sentido da "diversidade" da outra.

  20. Confidence belt for the rock thermal neutron parameters. NEROTH32.BAS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NEROTH32.BAS program, written in Quick Basic 4.0, allows us to calculate the thermal neutron parameters (as averaged over the entire thermal neutron energy spectrum and/or for neutrons of the velocity 2200 m/s) together with their standard deviations for a given rock, provided that the standard deviations of the input data are known. The input data are: rock matrix elemental composition (in an elemental or oxide form), rock matrix density, rock porosity, water saturation index of porosity, brine density, brine salinity, and density of saturating hydrocarbons (all data together with standard deviations) and, if occurred, measured rock matrix, brine and hydrocarbons absorption cross sections, respectively. The resulting neutron parameters are: diffusion length, diffusion coefficient, slowing down cross section and transport cross section (all parameters both in the length units and in the mass-length units). The size ''n'' of the ''sample'' taken for calculation of the standard deviations is optional. There is no limitation in the calculations as concerns the elemental composition of the rock matrix. An example of calculation for the Indiana Limestone and Mucharz Sandstone is shown. 9 refs. (author)

  1. Kombinētie darba vides riski speciālajās pirmsskolas izglītības iestādēs, aizsardzības un preventīvie pasākumi

    OpenAIRE

    Reinholds, Ingars

    2016-01-01

    Novērtēta kombinēta fizikālo, ergonomisko, psihosociālo u.c. faktoru ietekme speciālās pirmskolas izglītības iestādes darba vidē. Veikti objektīvie mērījumi, nosakot asinsspiediena un pulsa rādītājus. Statistiski analizēti speciālās un vispārējo pirmsskolas izglītības iestāžu darbinieku (95 respondenti) rezultāti par darbinieku veselību, spriedzes līmeni un darba vidi. Autors pielietojis FMEA metodi kombinēto risku analīzei. Noteikts, ka ergonomisko faktoru uzlabošana un darbinieku izglītošan...

  2. Déterminants socioéconomique du profit des exploitants des bas-fonds au Sud-Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Adegbola, Patrice Ygue; Saloufou, Moussabihatou R.; Adekambi, Souleimane Adeyemi; Coulibaly, Ousmane; Adetonah, Sounkoura; Huat, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Bon nombre d’études ont abordé les déterminants du profit dans les bas-fonds en se basant sur la fonction de production. Ces études ont été critiquées du fait de l’endogénéité des inputs. Le présent article se propose de prendre en compte cette critique. Ce qui permettra aux usagers des bas-fonds de réorienter leur choix par rapport aux cultures à pratiquer. Les données utilisées proviennent d’enquêtes réalisées dans le cadre du projet RAP par le Programme Analyse de la Politique Agricole. La...

  3. Jaunu premium segmenta automobiļu tirdzniecības veicināšana Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Klišāne, Katrīna

    2016-01-01

    Diplomdarba galvenais mērķis darba mērķis ir izpētīt Latvijas Premium segmenta automobiļu tirdzniecības nozari un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās tirdzniecības apjomu palielināšanai, pielietojot mārketinga instrumentus. Diplomdarbs sastāv no trim daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek apskatīti pārdošanas veicināšanas un integrētās mārketinga komunikācijas teorētiskie aspekti. Otrajā daļā, tiek apskatītas pasaules, Eiropas un Latvijas vieglo automobiļu tirgus tendences, konkurentu ietekme, pieprasījumu pēc Pre...

  4. Applying prior knowledge to model batch keeping-quality of cucumber batches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, R.E.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.; Jongbloed, G.

    2004-01-01

    Keeping-quality of individual cucumbers is limited by the green colour; the keeping-quality of batches of cucumbers is limited by the time it takes before 5␘f the cucumbers in the batch reach a predefined colour limit. From literature concerning the synthesis and degradation of chlorophyll and a pub

  5. Quality and Batch-to-Batch Consistency of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Haselberg, Rob; Burns, Chris; Wadhwa, Meenu; Schellekens, Huub

    2016-02-01

    Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and biological assays are essential parts in assessing quality attributes of biologicals. Here, we compared the quality of different marketed recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) products: originators, Eprex and NeoRecormon as well as 2 biosimilars, Retacrit and Binocrit. In addition, assessment of batch-to-batch variability was included by collecting 2 or more batches of each product. Common assays which included sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography, asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, capillary zone electrophoresis, and potency testing were used. Of the tested products and among batches of single products, variations in epoetin content, isoform profiles, and potency were found. Ultimately, this study demonstrated the high quality of epoetin products with some degree of variation among products and batches, confirming the "similar but not identical" paradigm of biologicals. PMID:26869417

  6. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  7. Exploring the Transition From Batch to Online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2010-01-01

    The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner of the tr......The transition from using computers in batch mode with punch cards, paper tape, piles of print, and lengthy response times to online mode by way of the video display terminal took place in most organizations in the 1970s and 1980s. The video display terminal was a significant forerunner...... structures, and acquire new skills. This work-in-progress paper extends an earlier study of the transition from batch to online, based on oral history interviews with (ex)-employees in two large Danish Service Bureaus. The paper takes the next step by ana-lyzing a particular genre: the commercial computer...

  8. Microdevice for aqueous humor drainage Maldonado Bas - Pförtner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Maldonado-Bas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: A microdevice for the treatment of refractory glaucoma is presented. The underlying concepts, its mechanisms of action and the surgical technique for implanting are explained and the results are analyzed. The microdevice was developed and the surgeries were performed at the Maldonado-Bas Eye Clinic (Cordoba, Argentina, under the rules established in the protocol approved by the provisions of the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Technology 430/7. File No.:1-47-25-649-07-1. METHODS: In a prospective study, following the protocol, 16 eyes with refractory glaucoma were included and operated. Intraocular pressure <21mmHg with or without additional medication was considered successful. The follow-up was one year. Averages, percentages and their 95% confidence bands were calculated. Analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to compare averages. RESULTS: The average preoperative intraocular pressure was 32.81 mmHg, SD ± 10.94 mmHg in a range of 14 to 50 mmHg. The average post-surgical intraocular pressure at one year was 12.43 mmHg, SD ± 2.85 mmHg in a range of 7 to 19 mmHg. The difference between the pre-and post-surgery average intraocular pressure was 20.38 mmHg. The number of successes was 14 eyes (87.5%, confidence interval (CI 95% 61.6% - 98.6%. The number of failures was two eyes (12.5%, CI 95% 1.43% - 38.4%. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that the microdevice is successful for the treatment of refractory glaucoma.

  9. Following an Optimal Batch Bioreactor Operations Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibarra-Junquera, V.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Virgen-Ortíz, J.J.;

    2012-01-01

    The problem of following an optimal batch operation model for a bioreactor in the presence of uncertainties is studied. The optimal batch bioreactor operation model (OBBOM) refers to the bioreactor trajectory for nominal cultivation to be optimal. A multiple-variable dynamic optimization of fed...... as the master system which includes the optimal cultivation trajectory for the feed flow rate and the substrate concentration. The “real” bioreactor, the one with unknown dynamics and perturbations, is considered as the slave system. Finally, the controller is designed such that the real bioreactor...

  10. Effects of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on depression: A one-year follow-up study in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanzhang; Xu, Yun; Chen, Zi

    2015-12-15

    Depression is a worldwide mental health problem among adolescents. The current study aimed to examine the roles of the behavioral inhibition system (BIS), behavioral activation system (BAS), and emotion regulation on adolescent depression. A total of 330 Chinese adolescents were recruited to complete initial assessments of BIS/BAS, emotion regulation, and depression, with a follow-up after one year. Depression on these two occasions was positively correlated with gender, age, initial scores of BIS/BAS activity, and with Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire scores for self-blame, rumination, putting into perspective, catastrophizing, and blaming others, and negatively correlated with initial positive reappraisal scores. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that higher BIS activity, catastrophizing, rumination, and lower positive reappraisal predicted depression after one year. However, after controlling for initial depression, these variables were indirectly related to subsequent depression. Implications are discussed for assessments of depression and interventions targeted at the BIS, BAS, and emotion regulation.

  11. Biopsychological structure of Yin-Yang using Cloninger’s Temperament model and Carver and White’s BIS/BAS scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Jin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychological structure of Yin-Yang based on the Sasang Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in relation to Carver and White’s Behavior Inhibition/Behavior Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale and Cloninger’s temperament model of the West. Methods. A total of 188 university students were classified as high (30%), middle (40%), and low (30%) groups based on their SPQ score and their differences in Cloninger’s temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales were analyzed using analysis of covariance after controlling the sex. Correlation among SPQ, Cloninger’s four temperaments and BIS/BAS subscales was also examined. Results. Significant differences in BAS (F = 11.703, p psychobiological study of the East and West. PMID:27231654

  12. Jelgavas Zinātniskā bibliotēka - atbalsta punkts sabiedrības integrācijas procesā

    OpenAIRE

    Agafonova, Viktorija

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba temats ir „Jelgavas Zinātniskā bibliotēka – atbalsta punkts sabiedrības integrācijas procesā”. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot Jelgavas Zinātniskās bibliotēkas lomu četru autores izvēlēto sociāli neaizsargāto sabiedrības grupu sociālās integrācijas procesā. Maģistra darba teorētisko pamatojumu veido aksioloģija, Informācijas un informācijas pakalpojumu lietojumvērtības teorija un Strukturālā funkcionālisma teorija. Datu ieguvei tika izmantotas kvalitatīvās pētniecības metodes - ...

  13. Simultaneous nitrification/denitrification in a biofilm airlift suspension (BAS) reactor with biodegradable carrier material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Evelyn; Hille, Andrea; He, Mei; Ochmann, Clemens; Horn, Harald

    2009-10-01

    Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in one reactor has been realized with different methods in the past. The usage of biodegradable biocompounds as biofilm carriers is new. The biocompounds were designed out of two polymers having different degradability. Together with suspended autotrophic biomass the biocompound particles were fluidized in an airlift reactor. Process water from sludge dewatering with a mean ammonium nitrogen concentration of 1150 mg L(-1) was treated in a two stage system which achieved a nitrogen removal of 75%. Batch experiments clearly indicate that nitrification can be localized in the suspended biomass and denitrification in the pore structure of the slowly degraded biocompounds. Images taken with CLSM prove the concept of the pore structure within the biocompounds, which provide both a heterotrophic biofilm and carbon source.

  14. Monte Carlo simulation on kinetics of batch and semi-batch free radical polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Jing

    2015-10-27

    Based on Monte Carlo simulation technology, we proposed a hybrid routine which combines reaction mechanism together with coarse-grained molecular simulation to study the kinetics of free radical polymerization. By comparing with previous experimental and simulation studies, we showed the capability of our Monte Carlo scheme on representing polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes. Various kinetics information, such as instant monomer conversion, molecular weight, and polydispersity etc. are readily calculated from Monte Carlo simulation. The kinetic constants such as polymerization rate k p is determined in the simulation without of “steady-state” hypothesis. We explored the mechanism for the variation of polymerization kinetics those observed in previous studies, as well as polymerization-induced phase separation. Our Monte Carlo simulation scheme is versatile on studying polymerization kinetics in batch and semi-batch processes.

  15. BAS C. VAN FRAASSEN'S CONSTRUCTIVE EMPIRICISM AND THE SCIENTIFIC SUCESS PROBLEM O EMPIRISMO CONSTRUTIVO DE BAS C. VAN FRAASSEN E O PROBLEMA DO SUCESSO CIENTÍFICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Simon

    2009-06-01

    -style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

    This paper aims to present the main aspects of Bas C. van Fraassen’s constructive empiricism, particularly regarding the problem of scientific success. In this way, the conceptions of the observable and the unobservable and their relations with the arguments ‘of miracle’ and ‘cosmic coincidence’, both criticized by van Fraassen, will be examined. The answers by authors who defend scientific realism will then be presented, as a counterpoint to the arguments of constructive empiricism. In the end, some more possible difficulties of constructive empiricism will be analyzed and a proposal to surpass them will be presented.

    O presente trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar os principais aspectos do Empirismo Construtivo de Bas C. van Fraassen, particularmente no que diz respeito ao problema do sucesso científico. Nesse contexto, serão examinadas as noções de observável e inobservável e suas relações com o ‘argumento do milagre’ e da ‘coincidência cósmica’, ambos criticados por van Fraassen. As respostas de autores que defendem o Realismo Científico serão então apresentadas, contrapondo-se aos argumentos do Empirismo Construtivo. Finalmente, possíveis dificuldades do Empirismo Construtivo serão ainda examinadas e uma proposta para superá-las será apresentada.

  16. Batch process. Optimum designing and operation of a batch process; Bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, S. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-09-05

    Since the control of a batch process becomes dynamic, it becomes necessary to handle the process differently from a continuous process in terms of the designing, operating and controlling of the process. This paper describes the characteristics and the problems to be solved of a batch process from three points of view, the designing, operation and controlling of the process. A major problem of a batch process is the designing difficulty. In a batch process, the amount of products capable of being manufactured per unit time by each apparatus and that by the whole plant structured by combining apparatuses are different, and therefore the time and apparatus capacity are wasted in some cases. The actual designing of a batch process involves various factors, such as the seasonal fluctuation of demand for products, the possibility of expanding the apparatuses in the future and the easiness of controlling the process, and the shipment of products during consecutive holidays and periodic maintenance, which are not included in the formulation of mathematical programming problems. Regarding the optimum operation of a batch process and the controlling of the same, descriptions of forming of a dynamic optimum operation pattern and verification of the sequence control system are given. 9 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Batch and fed-batch production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Guo-qing; KONG Qing; CHEN Qi-he; RUAN Hui

    2005-01-01

    The production of butyric acid by Clostridium butyricum ZJUCB at various pH values was investigated. In order to study the effect of pH on cell growth, butyric acid biosynthesis and reducing sugar consumption, different cultivation pH values ranging from 6.0 to 7.5 were evaluated in 5-L bioreactor. In controlled pH batch fermentation, the optimum pH for cell growth and butyric acid production was 6.5 with a cell yield of 3.65 g/L and butyric acid yield of 12.25 g/L. Based on these results, this study then compared batch and fed-batch fermentation of butyric acid production at pH 6.5. Maximum value (16.74 g/L) of butyric acid concentration was obtained in fed-batch fermentation compared to 12.25 g/L in batch fermentation. It was concluded that cultivation under fed-batch fermentation mode could enhance butyric acid production significantly (P<0.01) by C. butyricum ZJUCB.

  18. Using Forensics to Untangle Batch Effects in TCGA Data - TCGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Akbani, Ph.D., and colleagues at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a tool called MBatch to detect, diagnose, and correct batch effects in TCGA data. Read more about batch effects in this Case Study.

  19. Optimal operation of batch membrane processes

    CERN Document Server

    Paulen, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    This study concentrates on a general optimization of a particular class of membrane separation processes: those involving batch diafiltration. Existing practices are explained and operational improvements based on optimal control theory are suggested. The first part of the book introduces the theory of membrane processes, optimal control and dynamic optimization. Separation problems are defined and mathematical models of batch membrane processes derived. The control theory focuses on problems of dynamic optimization from a chemical-engineering point of view. Analytical and numerical methods that can be exploited to treat problems of optimal control for membrane processes are described. The second part of the text builds on this theoretical basis to establish solutions for membrane models of increasing complexity. Each chapter starts with a derivation of optimal operation and continues with case studies exemplifying various aspects of the control problems under consideration. The authors work their way from th...

  20. Korporatīvās un sociālās atbildības attīstības salīdzinājums Latvijā un Norvēģijā

    OpenAIRE

    Jenča-Salcēviča, Līga

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba autore ir Līga Jenča- Salcēviča, darba tēma “Korporatīvās un sociālās atbildības attīstības salīdzinājums Latvijā un Norvēģijā”. Ja Latvijā jēdziens korporatīvā sociālā atbildība (turpmāk – KSA) ir salīdzinoši jauns, tad Norvēģija tiek uzskatīta par vienu no līderiem pasaulē KSA jomā. Ir būtiski ir salīdzināt šīs KSA prakses Latvijā un Norvēģijā, un, balstoties uz labāko Norvēģijas praksi, Latvijas uzņēmumiem piemērot KSA stratēģijas pamatprincipu savā praksē. Maģistra darbs ...

  1. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the popula tion balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics, kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  2. Process Modeling for Batch Cooling Crystallization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧萍; 王静康

    2001-01-01

    The general mathematical model for batch cooling crystallization was established based on the population balance equation considering the change of slurry volume, and simulated with crystallization thermodynamics,kinetics and mass balance employing bed voidage. In the system of vitamin C-water-ethanol, reliability of this model was verified by comparison between simulation results and experimental data. The effects of operation parameters on product quality can be systematically investigated by modeling simulation.

  3. Pollution prevention applications in batch manufacturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Derek W.; O'Shaughnessy, James

    2004-02-01

    Older, "low-tech" batch manufacturing operations are often fertile grounds for gains resulting from pollution prevention techniques. This paper presents a pollution prevention technique utilized for wastewater discharge permit compliance purposes at a batch manufacturer of detergents, deodorants, and floor-care products. This manufacturer generated industrial wastewater as a result of equipment rinses required after each product batch changeover. After investing a significant amount of capital on end of pip-line wastewater treatment technology designed to address existing discharge limits, this manufacturer chose to investigate alternate, low-cost approaches to address anticipated new permit limits. Mass balances using spreadsheets and readily available formulation and production data were conducted on over 300 products to determine how each individual product contributed to the total wastewater pollutant load. These mass balances indicated that 22 products accounted for over 55% of the wastewater pollutant. Laboratory tests were conducted to determine whether these same products could accept their individual changeover rinse water as make-up water in formulations without sacrificing product quality. This changeover reuse technique was then implement at the plant scale for selected products. Significant reductions in wastewater volume (25%) and wastewater pollutant loading (85+%) were realized as a direct result of this approach.

  4. Semiautomated, Reproducible Batch Processing of Soy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoerne, Mary; Byford, Ivan W.; Chastain, Jack W.; Swango, Beverly E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer-controlled apparatus processes batches of soybeans into one or more of a variety of food products, under conditions that can be chosen by the user and reproduced from batch to batch. Examples of products include soy milk, tofu, okara (an insoluble protein and fiber byproduct of soy milk), and whey. Most processing steps take place without intervention by the user. This apparatus was developed for use in research on processing of soy. It is also a prototype of other soy-processing apparatuses for research, industrial, and home use. Prior soy-processing equipment includes household devices that automatically produce soy milk but do not automatically produce tofu. The designs of prior soy-processing equipment require users to manually transfer intermediate solid soy products and to press them manually and, hence, under conditions that are not consistent from batch to batch. Prior designs do not afford choices of processing conditions: Users cannot use previously developed soy-processing equipment to investigate the effects of variations of techniques used to produce soy milk (e.g., cold grinding, hot grinding, and pre-cook blanching) and of such process parameters as cooking times and temperatures, grinding times, soaking times and temperatures, rinsing conditions, and sizes of particles generated by grinding. In contrast, the present apparatus is amenable to such investigations. The apparatus (see figure) includes a processing tank and a jacketed holding or coagulation tank. The processing tank can be capped by either of two different heads and can contain either of two different insertable mesh baskets. The first head includes a grinding blade and heating elements. The second head includes an automated press piston. One mesh basket, designated the okara basket, has oblong holes with a size equivalent to about 40 mesh [40 openings per inch (.16 openings per centimeter)]. The second mesh basket, designated the tofu basket, has holes of 70 mesh [70 openings

  5. Are We Ready to Build a System for Assisting Blind People in Tactile Exploration of Bas-Reliefs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonamici, Francesco; Carfagni, Monica; Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the creation of methodologies and tools for facilitating the 3D reproduction of artworks and, contextually, to make their exploration possible and more meaningful for blind users is becoming increasingly relevant in society. Accordingly, the creation of integrated systems including both tactile media (e.g., bas-reliefs) and interfaces capable of providing the users with an experience cognitively comparable to the one originally envisioned by the artist, may be considered the next step for enhancing artworks exploration. In light of this, the present work provides a description of a first-attempt system designed to aid blind people (BP) in the tactile exploration of bas-reliefs. In detail, consistent hardware layout, comprising a hand-tracking system based on Kinect(®) sensor and an audio device, together with a number of methodologies, algorithms and information related to physical design are proposed. Moreover, according to experimental test on the developed system related to the device position, some design alternatives are suggested so as to discuss pros and cons. PMID:27563906

  6. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based. PMID:25697855

  7. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based.

  8. Batch Model for Batched Timestamps Data Analysis with Application to the SSA Disability Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingqi; Yuan, Ao; Che, Xuan; Huynh, Minh; Zhou, Chunxiao

    2016-01-01

    The Office of Disability Adjudication and Review (ODAR) is responsible for holding hearings, issuing decisions, and reviewing appeals as part of the Social Security Administration’s disability determining process. In order to control and process cases, the ODAR has established a Case Processing and Management System (CPMS) to record management information since December 2003. The CPMS provides a detailed case status history for each case. Due to the large number of appeal requests and limited resources, the number of pending claims at ODAR was over one million cases by March 31, 2015. Our National Institutes of Health (NIH) team collaborated with SSA and developed a Case Status Change Model (CSCM) project to meet the ODAR’s urgent need of reducing backlogs and improve hearings and appeals process. One of the key issues in our CSCM project is to estimate the expected service time and its variation for each case status code. The challenge is that the systems recorded job departure times may not be the true job finished times. As the CPMS timestamps data of case status codes showed apparent batch patterns, we proposed a batch model and applied the constrained least squares method to estimate the mean service times and the variances. We also proposed a batch search algorithm to determine the optimal batch partition, as no batch partition was given in the real data. Simulation studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. Finally, we applied the method to analyze a real CPMS data from ODAR/SSA.

  9. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  10. BATCH-GE: Batch analysis of Next-Generation Sequencing data for genome editing assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boel, Annekatrien; Steyaert, Woutert; De Rocker, Nina; Menten, Björn; Callewaert, Bert; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul; Willaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Targeted mutagenesis by the CRISPR/Cas9 system is currently revolutionizing genetics. The ease of this technique has enabled genome engineering in-vitro and in a range of model organisms and has pushed experimental dimensions to unprecedented proportions. Due to its tremendous progress in terms of speed, read length, throughput and cost, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) has been increasingly used for the analysis of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing experiments. However, the current tools for genome editing assessment lack flexibility and fall short in the analysis of large amounts of NGS data. Therefore, we designed BATCH-GE, an easy-to-use bioinformatics tool for batch analysis of NGS-generated genome editing data, available from https://github.com/WouterSteyaert/BATCH-GE.git. BATCH-GE detects and reports indel mutations and other precise genome editing events and calculates the corresponding mutagenesis efficiencies for a large number of samples in parallel. Furthermore, this new tool provides flexibility by allowing the user to adapt a number of input variables. The performance of BATCH-GE was evaluated in two genome editing experiments, aiming to generate knock-out and knock-in zebrafish mutants. This tool will not only contribute to the evaluation of CRISPR/Cas9-based experiments, but will be of use in any genome editing experiment and has the ability to analyze data from every organism with a sequenced genome. PMID:27461955

  11. KINETICS OF SORPTION OF FLUORIDE ON CALCINED MAGNESITE IN BATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singano, J. J.; Mashauri, D. A.; Mtalo, F. W.;

    1997-01-01

    A series of sorption of fluoride on calcined magnesite are obtained from thermostatic pH-chemostat and jar test experiments. The fluoride removal is observed not to start instantly, as normal, but after a lag time of up to ½ an hour of contact time. A model for sorption kinetics is developed, bas...

  12. Production of ethanol in batch and fed-batch fermentation of soluble sugar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeping in view of the demand and need for alternate energy source, especially liquid fuels and the availability of raw materials in Pakistan, we have carried out biochemical and technological studies for ethanol through fermentation of renewable substrates. Molasses and sugar cane have been used as substrate for yeast fermentation. Selected yeast were used in both batch and semi continuous fermentation of molasses. Clarified dilute molasses were fermented with different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ethanol concentration after 64 hours batch fermentation reached 9.4% with 90% yield based on sugar content. During feed batch system similar results were obtained after a fermentation cycle of 48 hours resulting in higher productivity. Similarly carbohydrates in fruit juices and hydro lysates of biomass can be economically fermented to ethanol to be used as feed stock for other chemicals. (author)

  13. CONVERSION OF PINEAPPLE JUICE WASTE INTO LACTIC ACID IN BATCH AND FED – BATCH FERMENTATION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Mochamad Busairi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple juice waste contains valuable components, which are mainly sucrose, glucose, and fructose. Recently, lactic acid has been considered to be an important raw material for the production of biodegradable lactide polymer. The fermentation experiments were carried out in a 3 litres fermentor (Biostat B Model under anaerobic condition with stirring speed of 50 rpm, temperature at 40oC, and pH of 6.00. Effect of feed concentration on lactic acid production, bacterial growth, substrate utilisation and productivity was studied. The results obtained from fed- batch culture fermentation showed that the maximum lactic acid productivity was 0.44 g/L.h for feed concentration of 90 g/L at 48 hours. Whereas the lactic acid productivity obtained from fed-batch culture was twice and half fold higher than that of batch culture productivity.  Buangan jus nanas mengandung komponen yang berharga terutama sukrosa, glukosa, dan fruktosa. Asam laktat adalah bahan baku yang terbaru dan penting untuk dibuat sebagai polimer laktat yang dapat terdegradasi oleh lingkungan. Percobaan dilakukan pada fermentor 3 liter (Model Biostat B di bawah kondisi anaerob dengan kecepatan pengadukan 50 rpm, temperatur 40oC, dan pH 6,00. Pengaruh konsentrasi umpan terhadap produksi asam laktat, pertumbuhan mikroba, pengggunaan substrat dan produktivitas telah dipelajari. Hasil yang didapatkan pada fermentasi dengan menggunakan sistem fed-batch menunjukkan bahwa produktivitas asam laktat maksimum adalah 0.44 g/L,jam dengan konsentrasi umpan, 90 g/L pada waktu 48 jam. Bahkan produktivitas asam laktat yang didapat pada kultur fed-batch lebih tinggi 2,5 kali dari pada proses menggunakan sistem batch

  14. Sojourn time distributions in a Markovian G-queue with batch arrival and batch removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Woo Shin

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a single server Markovian queue with two types of customers; positive and negative, where positive customers arrive in batches and arrivals of negative customers remove positive customers in batches. Only positive customers form a queue and negative customers just reduce the system congestion by removing positive ones upon their arrivals. We derive the LSTs of sojourn time distributions for a single server Markovian queue with positive customers and negative customers by using the first passage time arguments for Markov chains.

  15. AMMONOID SUCCESSION AT THE BAJOCIAN-BATHONIAN TRANSITION IN THE BAS AURAN AREA, DIGNE DISTRICT, SOUTH-EAST FRANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GIULIO PAVIA

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The uppermost Bajocian to lowermost Bathonian ammonoid succession has been studied in the Bas Auran area in view of choosing one of its sections as the Global Stratotype Section and Point (G.S.S.P. of the Bathonian Stage. The Bas Auran ammonite assemblages display exceptional values of record quality. The stratigraphic distribution of 629 specimens referred to 63 species and 35 genera, collected during the last forty years from three sections (Ravin du Bès, Ravin d'Auran, Ravin des Robines, is plotted and analyzed, bed by bed. Over 85 stratigraphic levels, through 9 m in thickness, have been studied at the top of the "Marno-calcaires à Cancellophycus" formation, ranging from the latest Bajocian (Parkinsoni Zone, Bomfordi Subzone to the earliest Bathonian (Zigzag Zone, Convergens Subzone and the base of the Macrescens Subzone. Ammonoid assemblages are composed of Northwest European and Mediterranean elements, associated with Sub-Mediterranean ones, allowing chronocorrelation between the Northwest European Convergens Subzone and the Sub-Mediterranean Parvum Subzone. The basal boundary of the Zigzag Zone and of the Bathonian Stage is placed at the base of Sturani's bed 23 in the Ravin du Bès section and is identified by the first occurrence of Gonolkites convergens, and coincides with the lowest occurrence of Morphoceras parvum. Features of the ammonoid succession indicate relatively homogeneous and good record quality, gradual biostratigraphic change and high degree of taxonomic similarity between the Bomfordi and Convergens subzones. Palaeontological criteria also indicate relatively high values of palaeontological and stratigraphic completeness at the base of levels RB070-RB071 (= level 23 in Sturani 1967 which corresponds to the Bajocian/Bathonian boundary. The Ravin du Bès Section, with forty-six successive ammonoid fossil-assemblages of the Convergens Subzone belonging to three biohorizons through five metres of thickness, shows maximum

  16. DE LA NOTE DE BAS DE PAGE AU LIEN HYPERTEXTE : PHILOSOPHIE DE L'IDENTIQUE ET STYLISTIQUE DE L'ECART.

    OpenAIRE

    Ertzscheid, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    Cette contribution se propose d'étudier les rapports entre la note de bas de page et le lien hypertexte. Nous nous proposons de revenir sur les raisons qui permettent d'établir une parenté forte de l'une à l'autre, dans l'optique d'une philosophie de l'identique. Nous présenterons ensuite par le détail l'ensemble des points qui nous permettent de considérer que le lien hypertexte renouvelle les fonctions traditionnelles de la note de bas de page et verrons en quoi celui-ci s'inscrit, davantag...

  17. Transfer of Campylobacter from a Positive Batch to Broiler Carcasses of a Subsequently Slaughtered Negative Batch: A Quantitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Gisbert Algaba, Ignacio; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to quantify Campylobacter cross-contamination from a positive batch of broiler chicken carcasses to a negative batch at selected processing steps and to evaluate the duration of this cross-contamination. During each of nine visits conducted in three broiler slaughterhouses, Campylobacter levels were determined on broiler carcasses originating from Campylobacter-negative batches processed immediately after Campylobacter-positive batches. Data were collected after four steps during the slaughter process (scalding, plucking, evisceration, and washing) at 1, 10, and 20 min after the start of the slaughter of the batches. Campylobacter levels in ceca of birds from Campylobacter-positive batches ranged from 5.62 to 9.82 log CFU/g. When the preceding positive batch was colonized at a low level, no (enumerable) carcass contamination was found in a subsequent negative batch. However, when Campylobacter levels were high in the positive batch, Campylobacter was found on carcasses of the subsequent negative batch but at levels significantly lower than those found on carcasses from the preceding positive batch. The scalding and the evisceration process contributed the least (< 1.5 log CFU/g) and the most (up to 4 log CFU/ g), respectively, to the Campylobacter transmission from a positive batch to a negative batch. Additionally, the number of Campylobacter cells transferred from positive to negative batches decreased over the first 20 min of sampling time. However, the reduction was slower than previously estimated in risk assessment studies, suggesting that pathogen transfer during crosscontamination is a complex process.

  18. PBSNG—Batch System for Farm Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Fromm; K.Genser; 等

    2001-01-01

    FBSNG [1] is a redesigned version of Farm Batch System (FBS[1]),which was developed as a batch process management system for off-line Run II data processing at FNAL.FBSNG is designed for UNIX computer farms and is capable of managing up to 1000 nodes in a single farm.FBSNG allows users to start arrays of parallel processes on one or more farm computers,It uses a simplified abstract resource counting method for load balancing between computers.The resource counting approach allows FBSNG to be a simple and flexible tool for farm resource management.FBSNG scheduler features include guaranteed and controllable” fair-share” scheduling.FBSNG is easily portable across different flavors of UNIX.The system has been successfully used at Fermilab as well as by off-site collaborators for several years on farms of different sizes and different platforms for off-line data processing,Monte-Carlo data generation and other tasks.

  19. Introduction. Les réformes de l’administration vues d’en bas – Volume III

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Wilkin; Benoît Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Déjà, le numéro 17 de Pyramides – premier des volumes consacrés aux réformes de l’administration vues d’en bas – avait mis en exergue le flux ininterrompu des réformes au sein de la fonction publique dans de nombreux pays tout au long de ces dernières décennies. Le constat est bien connu. Il implique toutefois des réflexions à portée plus générales et transversales lorsqu’on le pose dans le cadre d’une comparaison internationale. Ce numéro de Pyramides se veut, en effet, une mise en relief de...

  20. Inférence basée sur le plan pour l'estimation de petits domaines

    OpenAIRE

    RANDRIANASOLO, Toky; Tillé, Yves; Madre, Jean-Loup

    2014-01-01

    La forte demande de résultats à un niveau géographique fin, notamment à partir d’enquêtes nationales, a mis en évidence la fragilité des estimations sur petits domaines. Cette thèse propose d’y remédier avec des méthodes spécifiques basées sur le plan de sondage. Celles-ci reposent sur la construction de nouvelles pondérations pour chaque unité statistique. La première méthode consiste à optimiser le redressement du sous-échantillon d’une enquête inclus dans un domaine. La deuxième repose sur...

  1. Transformation d'ontologies basées sur la logique de description : Application dans le commerce électronique

    OpenAIRE

    Le Duc, Chan

    2004-01-01

    Ce travail s'inscrit dans le cadre de la formalisation des connaissances pour l'échange de données dans le domaine du Commerce Électronique. Cette formalisation basée sur la Logique de Description (LD) a pour objectif d'établir la transparence sémantique de l'échange de données entre des acteurs de profil différent. Lorsque les connaissances sont formalisées dans les ontologies des acteurs, la transparence sémantique de l'échange de données peut être assurée par la transformation des ontologi...

  2. Batch-to-batch pharmacokinetic variability confounds current bioequivalence regulations: A dry powder inhaler randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister Getz, E; Carroll, K J; Jones, B; Benet, L Z

    2016-09-01

    Current pharmacokinetic (PK) bioequivalence guidelines do not account for batch-to-batch variability in study design or analysis. Here we evaluate the magnitude of batch-to-batch PK variability for Advair Diskus 100/50. Single doses of fluticasone propionate and salmeterol combinations were administered by oral inhalation to healthy subjects in a randomized clinical crossover study comparing three different batches purchased from the market, with one batch replicated across two treatment periods. All pairwise comparisons between different batches failed the PK bioequivalence statistical test, demonstrating substantial PK differences between batches that were large enough to demonstrate bio-inequivalence in some cases. In contrast, between-replicate PK bioequivalence was demonstrated for the replicated batch. Between-batch variance was ∼40-70% of the estimated residual error. This large additional source of variability necessitates re-evaluation of bioequivalence assessment criteria to yield a result that is both generalizable and consistent with the principles of type I and type II error rate control. PMID:27037630

  3. Melting Properties of Loose and Granulated Glass Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing; DENG Zhenglu; XIE Jun; CHENG Jinshu; HAN Jianjun; ZHOU Xuedong

    2014-01-01

    The physical properties, the pre-reacting performance and melting properties of the loose glass batch and the granulated glass batch were investigated, respectively. The experimental results showed that compacted glass batch could reduce dust, use ultra-fine powder, and improve heat transfer efficiency. When loose glass batch was compressed into granular, the thermal conductivity was increased from 0.273 W/m•℃to 0.430 W/m•℃, the activation energy Ea of pre-reacting decreased from 178.77 kJ/mol to 143.30 kJ/mol. Using the pre-reacted granular glass batch can significantly reduce the melting time, increase the batch melting rate, and decrease the heat consumption of 1kg molten glass from 3591.24 to 3277.03kJ/kg.

  4. Adaptive quality prediction of batch processes based on PLS model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-fu; ZHANG Jie; WANG Gui-zeng

    2006-01-01

    There are usually no on-line product quality measurements in batch and semi-batch processes,which make the process control task very difficult.In this paper,a model for predicting the end-product quality from the available on-line process variables at the early stage of a batch is developed using partial least squares (PLS)method.Furthermore,some available mid-course quality measurements are used to rectify the final prediction results.To deal with the problem that the process may change with time,recursive PLS (RPLS) algorithm is used to update the model based on the new batch data and the old model parameters after each batch.An application to a simulated batch MMA polymerization process demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. TANK 50 BATCH 0 SALTSTONE FORMULATION CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.

    2006-06-05

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel were requested to confirm the Tank 50 Batch 0 grout formulation per Technical Task Request, SSF-TTR-2006-0001 (task 1 of 2) [1]. Earlier Batch 0 formulation testing used a Tank 50 sample collected in September 2005 and is described elsewhere [2]. The current testing was performed using a sample of Tank 50 waste collected in May 2006. This work was performed according to the Technical Task and Quality Assurance Plan (TT/QAP), WSRC-RP-2006-00594 [3]. The salt solution collected from Tank 50 in May 2006 contained approximately 3 weight percent more solids than the sample collected in September 2005. The insoluble solids took longer to settle in the new sample which was interpreted as indicating finer particles in the current sample. The saltstone formulation developed for the September 2005 Tank 50 Batch 0 sample was confirmed for the May 2006 sample with one minor exception. Saltstone prepared with the Tank 50 sample collected in May 2006 required 1.5 times more Daratard 17 set retarding admixture than the saltstone prepared with the September In addition, a sample prepared with lower shear mixing (stirring with a spatula) had a higher plastic viscosity (57 cP) than samples made with higher shear mixing in a blender (23cP). The static gel times of the saltstone slurries made with low shear mixing were also shorter ({approx}32 minutes) than those for comparable samples made in the blender ({approx}47 minutes). The addition of the various waste streams (ETP, HEU-HCAN, and GPE-HCAN) to Tank 50 from September 2005 to May 2006 has increased the amount of set retarder, Daratard 17, required for processing saltstone slurries through the Saltstone facility. If these streams are continued to be added to Tank 50, the quantity of admixtures required to maintain the same processing conditions for the Saltstone facility will probably change and additional testing is recommended to reconfirm the Tank 50 Saltstone formulation.

  6. Seasonal feeding habits of fishes in the river Bolshaya Uya (bas. Onega Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shustov Yury

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the seasonal feeding habits of five fish species (young trout, mustached loach , bullhead - sculpin , stickleback and minnow in one of the numerous tributaries of the Onega lake, also inhabited by trout. The results of investigation showed that not all the environmental situation are favorable for fish feeding. During the summer droughty period mustached loach limps in search of food due to the low water level. As a result, the intensity of fish feeding is extremely low, and more than half of them (60% even have empty stomach. In summer feeding period the potential food competitors of juvenile trout may be virtually all river fishes: minnow - for " air " fraction, that is imaginal and subimaginal stages of amphibiotic, airial and terrestrial insects, and mustached loach, bullhead-sculpin, stickleback - for "water "fraction, that is larvae and nymphs of amphibiotic invertebrates.

  7. ENGINEERING CONTRACT ON FY-2 BATCH 2 SATELLITES SIGNED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQing

    2004-01-01

    The signing ceremony of the Engineering Contract on FY-2 Batch 2 (FY-2 02) Satellites was held in Beijing by Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense (COSTIND) on August 31, 2004. The contract on the development and manufacture of FY-2 batch 2 satellites and the contract on the launch, test and control of FY-2 Batch 2 satellites were signed by China Meteorological Administration (CMA),

  8. ADVANCES ON BILINEAR MODELING OF BIOCHEMICAL BATCH PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ MARTÍNEZ, JOSÉ MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    [EN] This thesis is aimed to study the implications of the statistical modeling approaches proposed for the bilinear modeling of batch processes, develop new techniques to overcome some of the problems that have not been yet solved and apply them to data of biochemical processes. The study, discussion and development of the new methods revolve around the four steps of the modeling cycle, from the alignment, preprocessing and calibration of batch data to the monitoring of batches trajectories....

  9. A Survey of Batch Cataloging Practices and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Groups of bibliographic records are added to library catalogs with increasing frequency. Batch cataloging requires knowledge of bulk record transfer as well as current cataloging standards. While more efficient than cataloging items individually, batch cataloging requires different skills and creates new challenges. Responses to a wide-ranging online survey document the workload, tools, practices, and problems of batch cataloging. The unique characteristics of electronic resources affect many...

  10. Uzņēmējdarbības atbalsts un tā ietekme valsts konkurētspējas paaugstināšanā.

    OpenAIRE

    Beļinska, Aļona

    2016-01-01

    Mūsdienās katra valsts tiecas paaugstināt savu nacionālu konkurētspēju. Darba autors uzskata, ka eksistē cieša mijiedarbība starp valsts konkurētspēju un uzņēmējdarbības konkurētspēju, kuru savukārt tieši ietekme uzņēmējdarbības pieejamais atbalsts. Bakalaura darba mērķis ir novērtēt valsts konkurētspējas, uzņēmējdarbības konkurētspējas un uzņēmējdarbības atbalsta teorētiskos aspektus un to mijiedarbību, izpētīt un salīdzināt Latviju un Igauniju pēc Globāla Konkurētspējas Indeksa, Doing Busi...

  11. No vardarbības ģimenē cietušu pusaudžu ķermeņa tēla uztvere

    OpenAIRE

    Āboliņa, Liene

    2016-01-01

    Pētījums ir veikts ar mērķi pētīt ķermeņa uztveri pusaudžiem ar vardarbības ģimenē pieredzi. Mērķa izpildei izvirzīti trīs pētījuma jautājumi: vai pastāv sakarība starp vardarbības ģimenē pieredzes izteiktību un ķermeņa tēla uztveri? Kurām ķermeņa daļām un funkcijām no vardarbības ģimenē cietušiem pusaudžiem ir augsti negatīvas uztveres vērtējumi? Vai pastāv sakarība starp negatīvi uztvertām ķermeņa daļām un funkcijāsm un vadarbības pieredzes izteiktību? Pētījumā izvirzīti 4 darba uzdevumi - ...

  12. A batch fabricated biomimetic dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northen, Michael T.; Turner, Kimberly L.

    2005-08-01

    The fine hair adhesive system found in nature is capable of reversibly adhering to just about any surface. This dry adhesive, best demonstrated in the pad of the gecko, makes use of a multilevel conformal structure to greatly increase inelastic surface contact, enhancing short range interactions and producing significant amounts of attractive forces. Recent work has attempted to reproduce and test the terminal submicrometre 'hairs' of the system. Here we report the first batch fabricated multi-scale conformal system to mimic nature's dry adhesive. The approach makes use of massively parallel MEMS processing technology to produce 20-150 µm platforms, supported by single slender pillars, and coated with ~2 µm long, ~200 nm diameter, organic looking polymer nanorods, or 'organorods'. To characterize the structures a new mesoscale nanoindenter adhesion test technique has been developed. Experiments indicate significantly improved adhesion with the multiscale system. Additional processing caused a hydrophilic to hydrophobic transformation of the surface and testing indicated further improvement in adhesion.

  13. Batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation in the fermentation of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zong-Min; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Yu, Yong-Jian; Li, Guo-Quan; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2015-09-01

    Solid-state fermentation of traditional Chinese vinegar is a mixed-culture refreshment process that proceeds for many centuries without spoilage. Here, we investigated bacterial community succession and flavor formation in three batches of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using pyrosequencing and metabolomics approaches. Temporal patterns of bacterial succession in the Pei (solid-state vinegar culture) showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) among three batches of fermentation. In all the batches investigated, the average number of community operational taxonomic units (OTUs) decreased dramatically from 119 ± 11 on day 1 to 48 ± 16 on day 3, and then maintained in the range of 61 ± 9 from day 5 to the end of fermentation. We confirmed that, within a batch of fermentation process, the patterns of bacterial diversity between the starter (took from the last batch of vinegar culture on day 7) and the Pei on day 7 were similar (90%). The relative abundance dynamics of two dominant members, Lactobacillus and Acetobacter, showed high correlation (coefficient as 0.90 and 0.98 respectively) among different batches. Furthermore, statistical analysis revealed dynamics of 16 main flavor metabolites were stable among different batches. The findings validate the batch-to-batch uniformity of bacterial community succession and flavor formation accounts for the quality of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Based on our understanding, this is the first study helps to explain the rationality of age-old artistry from a scientific perspective. PMID:25998816

  14. Batch process. Batch process used in a beer brewery; Biru kojo no bacchi purosesu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, K. [Kirin Engneering Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1997-09-05

    In a beer brewing process, there is a system in which unit operation of chemical engineering is combined with the techniques of food and fermentation engineering in order to brew beer meeting the quality concept. This paper introduces the characteristics of a batch system used in the brewing of beer and the control method for the brewing of beer. The characteristics of the batch system used in a beer brewing process are the following three. In order to minimize the quality variation ascribed to the raw materials and the process, the materials are blended in various parts of the system. In the saccharification step which determines the quality of beer, two methods, i.e. a batch method and a continuous method are used, and beer brewing companies employ a saccharification system meeting the condition for attaining a desired quality of their own products. Two mashing systems are operated at different cycles shifted by half cycle from each other, not starting both at a time, so as to level the peaks of the utilities, whereby the operation of the utility-related facility is optimized. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Improved batch correction in untargeted MS-based metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wehrens, Ron; Hageman, Jos A.; Eeuwijk, van Fred; Kooke, Rik; Flood, Pádraic J.; Wijnker, Erik; Keurentjes, Joost J.B.; Lommen, Arjen; Eekelen, van Henriëtte D.L.M.; Hall, Robert D.; Mumm, Roland; Vos, de Ric C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Batch effects in large untargeted metabolomics experiments are almost unavoidable, especially when sensitive detection techniques like mass spectrometry (MS) are employed. In order to obtain peak intensities that are comparable across all batches, corrections need to be performed. S

  16. Adaptive scheduling of batch servers in flow shops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Batch servicing is a common way of benefiting from economies of scale in manufacturing operations. Good examples of production systems that allow for batch processing are ovens found in the aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. In this paper we study the issue of dynamic scheduling o

  17. Communication and control in small batch part manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemersma, J.J.; Curtis, W.; Kals, H.J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a real-time control network as an integrated part of a shop floor control system for small batch part manufacturing. The shop floor control system is called the production control system (PCS). The PCS aims at an improved control of small batch part manufactu

  18. Retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' in Cronay, Switzerland - Preliminary project; Rehabilitation du Moulin d'en Bas, commune de Cronay. Etude d'avant-projet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) is a feasibility study for the retrofitting of the small hydro electric scheme 'Moulin d'en Bas' located in Cronay on the Mentue river, Switzerland. Two variants are considered. In the first one the existing scheme uses a 4.72 m water fall and its power amounts to about 25 kW. A 4-blades Kaplan turbine is foreseen to generate 160,000 kWh/y. In the second variant, weir and penstock have to be adapted in order to take advantage of the full 6.74 m water fall indicated in the water-use concession granted in 1952. A new fish pass has to be built as well. The resulting electric power is in this case 80 kW and the power generation by the turbo group 353,000 kWh/y, about 60% of which in the wintertime. Electricity production cost is estimated to be 0.282 CHF/kWh in the second variant.

  19. Spatial and interannual variability in Baltic sprat batch fecundity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haslob, H.; Tomkiewicz, Jonna; Hinrichsen, H.H.;

    2011-01-01

    in the central Baltic Sea, namely the Bornholm Basin, Gdansk Deep and Southern Gotland Basin. Environmental parameters such as hydrography, fish condition and stock density were tested in order to investigate the observed variability in sprat fecundity. Absolute batch fecundity was found to be positively related...... to fish length and weight. Significant differences in absolute and relative batch fecundity of Baltic sprat among areas and years were detected, and could partly be explained by hydrographic features of the investigated areas. A non-linear multiple regression model taking into account fish length...... and ambient temperature explained 70% of variability in absolute batch fecundity. Oxygen content and fish condition were not related to sprat batch fecundity. Additionally, a negative effect of stock size on sprat batch fecundity in the Bornholm Basin was revealed. The obtained data and results are important...

  20. Dynamic Simulation of Batch Photocatalytic Reactor (BPR) for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suman

    2012-08-01

    Reactive dyes discharged from dyehouse causes a serious environmental problem. UV/TiO2 photocatalysis has been employed effectively for these organic dyes removal from dye-house effluent. This process produces less amount of non-toxic final product. In this paper a photocatalytic reactor has been designed for Reactive red 198 (RR198) removal from aqueous solution. The reactor is operating in batch mode. After each batch, TiO2 catalyst has been separated and recycled in the next batch. Mathematical model equation of this batch photocatalytic reactor (BPR) has been developed considering Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. Simulation of BPR has been carried out using fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK) method and fifth order RK method (Butcher method). This simulation results can be used to develop an automatic photocatlytic reactor for industrial wastewater treatment. Catalyst activity decay and its effect on each batch have been incorporated in this model.

  1. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrma, Pavel R; Schweiger, Michael J; Humrickhouse, Carissa J; Moody, J Adam; Tate, Rachel M; Rainsdon, Timothy T; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E; Arrigoni, Benjamin M; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-03-29

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5-μm in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures <800°C, contributing to the formation of viscous glass-forming melt that trapped evolving batch gases. Primary foam did not occur in batches with larger quartz grains, ±75 μm in size, because their major portion dissolved at temperatures >800°C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160°C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B2O3, CaO, Li2O, MgO, and Na2O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  2. Biodenitrification in Sequencing Batch Reactors. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverstein, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering

    1996-01-23

    One plan for stabilization of the Solar Pond waters and sludges at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP), is evaporation and cement solidification of the salts to stabilize heavy metals and radionuclides for land disposal as low-level mixed waste. It has been reported that nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sub {minus}}) salts may interfere with cement stabilization of heavy metals and radionuclides. Therefore, biological nitrate removal (denitrification) may be an important pretreatment for the Solar Pond wastewaters at RFP, improving the stability of the cement final waste form, reducing the requirement for cement (or pozzolan) additives and reducing the volume of cemented low-level mixed waste requiring ultimate disposal. A laboratory investigation of the performance of the Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) activated sludge process developed for nitrate removal from a synthetic brine typical of the high-nitrate and high-salinity wastewaters in the Solar Ponds at Rocky Flats Plant was carried out at the Environmental Engineering labs at the University of Colorado, Boulder, between May 1, 1994 and October 1, 1995.

  3. Biodegradability of industrial textile wastewater - batch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paździor, Katarzyna; Klepacz-Smółka, Anna; Wrębiak, Julita; Liwarska-Bizukojć, Ewa; Ledakowicz, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Following new trends we applied oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests as well as long-term tests (in two batch bioreactors systems) in order to assess the biodegradability of textile wastewater. Effluents coming from a dyeing factory were divided into two streams which differed in inorganic and organic contaminants loads. Usefulness of the stream division was proved. Biodegradation of the low-loaded stream led to over 97% reduction of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) together with 80% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Most of the controlled parameter values were below the levels allowed by legislation for influents to surface water, whereas the high-loaded stream was so contaminated with recalcitrant organic compounds that despite the reduction of BOD5 by over 95%, COD, TOC, total nitrogen and total phosphorus levels exceeded permissible values. OUR tests were aimed at determination of the following kinetic parameters: maximum specific growth rate (μMax), half-saturation constant, hydrolysis constant and decay coefficient for activated sludge biomass for both types of textile wastewater studied. The values of kinetic parameters will be applied in activated sludge models used for prediction and optimisation of biological treatment of textile wastewater. PMID:27642827

  4. Batch-to-batch learning for model-based control of process systems with application to cooling crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forgione, M.

    2014-01-01

    From an engineering perspective, the term process refers to a conversion of raw materials into intermediate or final products using chemical, physical, or biological operations. Industrial processes can be performed either in continuous or in batch mode. There exist for instance continuous and batch

  5. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rishi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out at elevated solid loading up to 20% (w/v and a comparison kinetics of batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out using kinetic regimes. Under batch mode, the actual sugar concentration values at 20% initial substrate consistency were found deviated from the predicted values and the maximum sugar concentration obtained was 80.78 g/L. Fed-batch strategy was implemented to enhance the final sugar concentration to 127 g/L. The batch and fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and ethanol production of 34.78 g/L and 52.83 g/L, respectively, were achieved. Furthermore, model simulations showed that higher insoluble solids in the feed resulted in both smaller reactor volume and shorter residence time. Conclusion Fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis is an efficient procedure for enhancing the sugar concentration in the hydrolysate. Restricting the process to suitable kinetic regimes could result in higher conversion rates.

  6. A simplified approach to the drying of solids in a batch fluidised bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Srinivasakannan

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A simplified model for drying solids in the constant rate period in a batch fluidised bed was developed.It assumes the bed to be divided into dense and bubble phases with heat and mass transfer between the phases.The model predicts the constant-rate drying period, provided the fluid bed shape and material characteristics are known.The model is compared with experimental data reported in the literature covering a wide range of materials, gas flow rates, column diameters, material hold-ups, air temperatures and humidities.Model predictions compare satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  7. The Relationship between Behavioral Activation/ Inhibition Systems (BAS/BIS and Bullying/ Victimization Behaviors among Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Basharpoor

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:This research was conducted to investigate the relationship between behavioral activation-inhibition systems and bullyingvictimization behaviors among adolescents.Method:This was a correlational and cross-sectional study. Two hundred and thirty school boys were selected randomly by multistage cluster sampling method, and participated in this research. This sample responded to a demographic questionnaire, the Revised Olweus Bully/ Victim questionnaire and the child version of behavioral inhibition/activation systems Scale in their classrooms and in the presence of the researcher. The collected data were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions. Result:The results showed that bullying and victimization were correlated with both behavioral activation and behavioral inhibition systems (p<0.01. The results also showed that 18% of the variance in victimization and 31 % of the variance in bullying were explained by behavioral inhibition and behavioral activation systems respectively .Conclusion:The results of this study implied that BAS and BIS may play a role in the manifestation of bullying in adolescents.

  8. Mārketinga attīstības projekts uzņēmumā SIA "Mailigen"

    OpenAIRE

    Seržants, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    Uzņēmums SIA “Mailigen” pārstāv e-pasta mārketinga nozari un darbojas globālajā tirgū. Uzņēmums pasaulē konkurē vēl vismaz ar 300 konkurentiem. Lai uzņēmums būtu atpazīstams un, lai zīmols tiktu virzīts tirgū, ir nepieciešams mārketings. Uzņēmumam patlaban aktīvi izmanto tikai trīs mārketinga kanālus – e-pasta mārketings, satura mārketings un sociālo tīklu mārketings. Visi šie mārketinga kanāli tiek izmantoti bez darbības plāna un ir uzlabojami, kā arī tie darbojas uz esošo klientu bāzes. Dip...

  9. TSH BAS-CLIA方法的建立%Chemiluminescent Immunoassay for TSH Using Biotin-streptavidin System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹东光; 贺佑丰; 刘一兵; 沈德存; 韩世泉; 罗志福

    2003-01-01

    吖啶酯DMAE*NHS标记链亲和素, 用生物素标记一株TSH单克隆抗体, 另一株TSH单抗包被96微孔板, 建立TSH BAS-CLIA方法. 该方法标准曲线的线性相关系数为0.999,分析灵敏度为0.007mIU/L.批内变异系数为2.36%-3.66%, 批间变异系数为2.44%-4.35%, 平均回收率为101.7%.与TSH IRMA法的回归方程为: Y=-0.015+1.02X, 相关系数为0.989; 与本文的TSH CLIA也有明显相关, 相关方程为: Y=-0.24+1.01X, 相关系数为0.992;与Ciba Corining TSH CLIA临床测量值也呈明显相关.

  10. La basílica y el baptisterio del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abad Casal, Lorenzo

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a religious complex unearthed in the upper part of the high medieval city of Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete, matching the Madînat lyih mentioned by Arab sources. In the authors' opinion, it was the see of Eio, created at the start of the 7th century. The religious complex comprises a basilica with three aisles, a semicircular apse and an adjoining baptistry at the feet of the building, also in three sections. The paper provides a detailed study of the baptistry and of the different remodelling of the baptismal font and theorises on the location of the liturgical space.Se presenta el complejo religioso exhumado en la parte alta de la ciudad altomedieval del Tolmo de Minateda (Hellín, Albacete, correspondiente a la Madînat Iyih de las fuentes árabes y, en opinión de los autores, a la sede episcopal Eiotana/Elotana creada a principios del siglo VII. El conjunto religioso está compuesto por una basílica de tres naves con ábside semicircular y un baptisterio anexo situado a los pies del edificio, también con distribución tripartita. En este artículo se estudia detalladamente el baptisterio, así como las distintas remodelaciones de la piscina bautismal, y se propone una restitución del espacio litúrgico.

  11. La basílica de «Contributa Iulia» (Medina de las Torres, Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro MATEOS CRUZ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda el estudio del edificio más emblemático del foro de Contributa Iu lia: la basílica judiciaria de la ciudad. Su buen estado de conservación y la documentación de toda su planta arquitectónica han posibilitado un conocimiento real de su estructura, sus características constructivas y su doble orden arquitectónico. Destacan como elementos singulares del edificio la existencia de un ábside semi circular en el lado meridional así como la presencia de un criptopórtico, recurso arquitectónico utilizada para solucionar problemas topográficos derivados de una ciudad construida en una pendiente. Teniendo en cuenta estas características, debemos subrayar su temprana cronología de ejecución –a mediados del s. i d. C.– según se desprende de los datos aportados por los materiales cerámicos aparecidos en los contextos constructivos del edificio y las características de su decoración arquitectónica. Un último apartado del estudio analiza el edificio en relación con el urbanismo del foro de Contributa planteando una posible ordenación tripartita del espacio público.

  12. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Jjj of... - Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 7 Table 7 to Subpart JJJ... Table 7 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  13. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart U of... - Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams-Monitoring, Recordkeeping, and Reporting Requirements 6 Table 6 to... 6 to Subpart U of Part 63—Group 1 Batch Front-End Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent...

  14. Batch-specific discrimination using nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakidou, Georgia; Jakobsson, Andreas; Althoefer, Kaspar; Barras, Jamie

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the identification of batches of analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) tablets using nitrogen-14 nuclear quadrupole resonance spectroscopy ((14)N NQR). The high sensitivity of NQR to the electron charge distribution surrounding the quadrupolar nucleus enables the unique characterization of the crystal structure of the material. Two hypothesis were tested on batches of the same brand: the within the same batch variability and the difference between batches that varied in terms of their batch number and expiry date. The multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) did not provide any within-batches variations, indicating the natural deviation of a medicine manufactured under the same conditions. Alternatively, the statistical analysis revealed a significant discrimination between the different batches of paracetamol tablets. Therefore, the NQR signal is an indicator of factors that influence the physical and chemical integrity of the material. Those factors might be the aging of the medicine, the manufacturing, or storage conditions. The results of this study illustrate the potential of NQR as promising technique in applications such as detection and authentication of counterfeit medicines.

  15. FRIT DEVELOPMENT FOR SLUDGE BATCH 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Zamecnik, J.

    2010-05-13

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated a large number of Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) composition projections to support frit optimization for SB6 vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The evaluations discussed in this report occurred over a period of about 4 months, and included about 40 composition projections, developed by both Savannah River Remediation (SRR) and SRNL. Paper study assessments were used to evaluate the sludge composition projections with arrays of potential frit compositions using the predictive models in the DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Both nominal sludge compositions and sludge compositions with anticipated compositional variation were considered. The model predictions were used to identify candidate frit compositions for each SB6 projection and to provide some guidance to SRR on washing and blending strategies for SB6 preparation. This report presents a chronological review of this process and summarizes the findings at each stage. Following initial feedback from this work, the number of washes in Tank 51 was reduced to increase the projected sodium concentration in SB6. Analyses of predicted frit performance before and after a potential decant of Tank 40 showed that the post-decant SB6 composition would be difficult to process with any frit composition and that this scenario should be avoided. Based on the most recent SB6 projections (February 2010 SB6 composition projections developed at SRNL using the measured SB6 qualification sample composition and the revised Tank Farm washing plan), Frit 418 appears to be viable for SB6 processing at a target waste loading of 36%. A Nominal Stage PCCS Measurement Acceptability Region (MAR) assessment gave projected operating windows of 25-41% waste loading, limited by predictions of nepheline crystallization. The projected operating window is reduced to 25-38% waste loading when anticipated compositional variation is considered, again limited by

  16. Batch cooling crystallization and pressure filtration of sulphathiazole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häkkinen, Antti; Pöllänen, Kati; Karjalainen, Milja;

    2005-01-01

    crystal suspensions obtained through an unseeded batch-cooling-crystallization process was studied. Sulphathiazole, which is an antibiotic agent with multiple polymorphic forms, was produced by performing laboratory-scale cooling crystallization experiments from five different mixtures of water and propan...... the samples obtained from different solvents. The crystals produced in the batch-cooling-crystallization experiments were separated from the crystallizing solvents using a batch-type pressure Nutsche filter, and the filtration characteristics of the suspensions were evaluated on the basis of average filter...

  17. A New Batch Verifying Scheme for Identifying Illegal Signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adrian Atanasiu

    2013-01-01

    The concept of batch verifying multiple digital signatures is to find a method by which multiple digital signatures can be verified simultaneously in a lower time complexity than separately verifying all the signatures.In this article,we analyze the complexity of the batch verifying schemes defined by Li,Hwang and Chen in 2010,and propose a new batch verifying multiple digital signature scheme,in two variants:one for RSA-by completing the Harn's schema with an identifying illegal signatures algorithm,and the other adapted for a modified Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm protocol.

  18. Adaptative biochemical pathways and regulatory networks in Klebsiella oxytoca BAS-10 producing a biotechnologically relevant exopolysaccharide during Fe(III-citrate fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallo Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A bacterial strain previously isolated from pyrite mine drainage and named BAS-10 was tentatively identified as Klebsiella oxytoca. Unlikely other enterobacteria, BAS-10 is able to grow on Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon and energy source, yielding acetic acid and CO2 coupled with Fe(III reduction to Fe(II and showing unusual physiological characteristics. In fact, under this growth condition, BAS-10 produces an exopolysaccharide (EPS having a high rhamnose content and metal-binding properties, whose biotechnological applications were proven as very relevant. Results Further phylogenetic analysis, based on 16S rDNA sequence, definitively confirmed that BAS-10 belongs to K. oxytoca species. In order to rationalize the biochemical peculiarities of this unusual enterobacteriun, combined 2D-Differential Gel Electrophoresis (2D-DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry procedures were used to investigate its proteomic changes: i under aerobic or anaerobic cultivation with Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source; ii under anaerobic cultivations using Na(I-citrate or Fe(III-citrate as sole carbon source. Combining data from these differential studies peculiar levels of outer membrane proteins, key regulatory factors of carbon and nitrogen metabolism and enzymes involved in TCA cycle and sugar biosynthesis or required for citrate fermentation and stress response during anaerobic growth on Fe(III-citrate were revealed. The protein differential regulation seems to ensure efficient cell growth coupled with EPS production by adapting metabolic and biochemical processes in order to face iron toxicity and to optimize energy production. Conclusion Differential proteomics provided insights on the molecular mechanisms necessary for anaeorobic utilization of Fe(III-citrate in a biotechnologically promising enterobacteriun, also revealing genes that can be targeted for the rational design of high-yielding EPS producer strains.

  19. Streamflow generation in humid West Africa: the role of Bas-fonds investigated with a physically based model of the Critical Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, B.; Cohard, J. M.; Séguis, L.

    2015-12-01

    In West Africa, the drought initiated in the 70's-80's together with intense land-use change due to increasing food demand produced very contrasted responses on water budgets of the critical zone (CZ) depending on the lithological and pedological contexts. In Sahel, streamflow increased, mostly due to increasing hortonian runoff from soil crusting, and so did groundwater storage. On the contrary, in the more humid southern Sudanian area, streamflow decreased and no clear signal has been observed concerning water storage in this hard-rock basement area. There, Bas-fonds are fundamental landscape features. They are seasonally water-logged valley bottoms from which first order streams originate, mostly composed of baseflow. They are a key feature for understanding streamflow generation processes. They also carry an important agronomic potential due to their moisture and nutrient availability. The role of Bas-fond in streamflow generation processes is investigated using a physically-based coupled model of the CZ, ParFlow-CLM at catchment scale (10km²). The model is evaluated against classical hydrological measurements (water table, soil moisture, streamflow, fluxes), acquired in the AMMA-CATCH observing system for the West African monsoon, but also hybrid gravity data which measure integrated water storage changes. The bas-fond system is shown to be composed of two components with different time scales. The slow component is characterized by the seasonal and interannual amplitude of the permanent water table, which is disconnected from streams, fed by direct recharge and lowered by evapotranspiration, mostly from riparian areas. The fast component is characterized by thresholds in storage and perched and permanent water tables surrounding the bas-fond during the wet season, which are linked with baseflow generation. This is a first step toward integrating these features into larger scale modeling of the critical zone for evaluating the effect of precipitation

  20. Sociālā darbinieka loma vardarbības pret bērnu seku mazināšanai

    OpenAIRE

    Ozoliņa, Gunita

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba „Sociālā darbinieka loma vardarbības pret bērnu seku mazināšanai” mērķis ir noskaidrot kāda ir Dundagas novada sociālā dienesta sociālā darbinieka loma vardarbības ģimenē pret bērnu seku mazināšanai. Darbs sastāv no ievada, teorētiskās daļas ar apakšnodaļām, empīriskās daļas, secinājumiem un ieteikuma. Teorētiskajā daļā, kas balstīta uz sistēmisko, psihodinamisko un konstruktīvisma teorijām tiks aprakstīti vardarbības veidi, īstermiņa un ilgtermiņa sekas un sociālā darba teorij...

  1. Optimal configuration, design and operation of batch distillation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Low, K. H.

    2003-01-01

    The overall objective of this thesis is to study the optimal configuration. design and operating policy of batch distillation processes in different separation scenarios. In so doing, this work also aims to provide conceptual insights and compare the performance of the traditional regular column against unconventional columns. In the first part of the thesis, the optimal operation of extractive batch distillation is investigated. A rigorous dynamic optimisation approach based o...

  2. Optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dekkers, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The common cultivation of bakers' yeast is an aerobic fed-batch fermentation under sugar-limited growth. The ultimate objective of on-line computer control is to optimize the process through maximizing the productivity of biomass formation while minimizing the consumption of raw materials for the product. Results obtained on the optimal control of a fed-batch fermentation are given. The aspects to be considered are instrumentation, state estimation, optimization and process control.

  3. Differences of silicon photodiode spectral reflectance among the same batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A.L.Mu(n)oz Zurita; J.Campos Acosta; A.Pons Aglio; A.Shcherbakov

    2008-01-01

    Photodiode's reflectance plays an important role regarding the relation between responsivity and the incident flux. In this work we analyze how the spectral reflectance changes among photodiodes from the same manufacturer and batch and how the reflectance of three standard photodiodes has drifted during six years. The results show that the reflectance changes from diode to diode within the same batch and also show th.at the reflectance ofphotodiodes changes on time. This ageing is spectrally dependent.

  4. Dynamic Extensions of Batch Systems with Cloud Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compute clusters use Portable Batch Systems (PBS) to distribute workload among individual cluster machines. To extend standard batch systems to Cloud infrastructures, a new service monitors the number of queued jobs and keeps track of the price of available resources. This meta-scheduler dynamically adapts the number of Cloud worker nodes according to the requirement profile. Two different worker node topologies are presented and tested on the Amazon EC2 Cloud service.

  5. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan Sandra A.; Castro Heizir F. de

    2001-01-01

    Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose) or mixed (xylose and glucose) sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch culti...

  6. La cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (II: el ámbito alegórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Mahíques, Rafael

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Iconographical study of the frescoes of the cupola of the Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados (Valencia, painted by Antonio Palomino between 1701 and 1704. The author analyses the historical and allegorical aspects of the ensemble. The historical aspect is represented by miracles of the Virgin depicted on cartouches simulating monochrome bas-reliefs. The allegorical aspect appears in personifications of certain invocations of the Litany of Loreto (Salus, Refugium, Solatium and Auxilium, two others refer to the Virgin of the Destitute (Diligentia and Pietas, and as a corollary, the emblem of the crow feeding its young with its own blood, under the motto Desertorum Protectio. This article continues and completes “La Cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (I: El ámbito de la Gloria” (AEA, nº 317.

    Estudio iconográfico de los frescos de la cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia, obra de Antonio Palomino realizada entre 1701 y 1704. Aproximación a un análisis del ámbito histórico-alegórico del conjunto. El aspecto histórico es figurado con unos milagros de la Virgen representados en unas cartelas que simulan relieves monocromos. Lo alegórico se significa con unas personificaciones sobre algunas de las invocaciones de la Letanía Lauretana: Salus, Refugium, Solatium y Auxilium; otras dos referidas a la Virgen de los Desamparados: Diligentia y Pietas; y como corolario el emblema del cuervo que alimenta a sus pollos con la propia sangre, bajo el lema Desertorum Protectio. Este artículo guarda continuidad con otro anterior titulado: “La Cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (I: El ámbito de la Gloria”, completándose así el estudio (AEA, núm 317.

  7. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  8. Batch process monitoring based on multilevel ICA-PCA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang GE; Zhi-huan SONG

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we describe a new batch process monitoring method based on multilevel independent component analysis and principal component analysis (MLICA-PCA).Unlike the conventional multi-way principal component analysis (MPCA) method,MLICA-PCA provides a separated interpretation for multilevel batch process data.Batch process data are partitioned into two levels:the within-batch level and the between-batch level.In each level,the Gaussian and non-Ganssian components of process information can be separately extracted.I2,T2 and SPE statistics are individually built and monitored.The new method facilitates fault diagnosis.Since the two variation levels arc decomposed,the variables responsible for faults in each level can be identified and interpreted more easily.A case study of the Dupont benchmark process showed that the proposed method was more efficient and interpretable in fault detection and diagnosis,compared to the alternative batch process monitoring method.

  9. OPLS in batch monitoring - Opens up new opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souihi, Nabil; Lindegren, Anders; Eriksson, Lennart; Trygg, Johan

    2015-02-01

    In batch statistical process control (BSPC), data from a number of "good" batches are used to model the evolution (trajectory) of the process and they also define model control limits, against which new batches may be compared. The benchmark methods used in BSPC include partial least squares (PLS) and principal component analysis (PCA). In this paper, we have used orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS) in BSPC and compared the results with PLS and PCA. The experimental study used was a batch hydrogenation reaction of nitrobenzene to aniline characterized by both UV spectroscopy and process data. The key idea is that OPLS is able to separate the variation in data that is correlated to the process evolution (also known as 'batch maturity index') from the variation that is uncorrelated to process evolution. This separation of different types of variations can generate different batch trajectories and hence lead to different established model control limits to detect process deviations. The results demonstrate that OPLS was able to detect all process deviations and provided a good process understanding of the root causes for these deviations. PCA and PLS on the other hand were shown to provide different interpretations for several of these process deviations, or in some cases they were unable to detect actual process deviations. Hence, the use of OPLS in BSPC can lead to better fault detection and root cause analysis as compared to existing benchmark methods and may therefore be used to complement the existing toolbox. PMID:25604817

  10. [Characteristic of Particulate Emissions from Concrete Batching in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-feng; Zhou, Zhen; Zhong, Lian-hong; Yan, Jing; Qu, Song; Huang, Yu-hu; Tian, He- zhong; Pan, Tao

    2016-01-15

    With the economic development and population growth in Beijing, there is a strong need for construction and housing, which leads to the increase of the construction areas. Meanwhile, as a local provided material, the production of concrete has been raised. In the process of concrete production by concrete batching, there are numerous particulates emitted, which have large effect on the atmospheric environment, however, systematic study about the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission from concrete batching is still rare. In this study, we estimated the emission of particulates from concrete batching from 1991 to 2012 using emission factor method, analyzed the tempo-spatial characteristics of pollutant emission, established the uncertainty range by adopting Monte-Carlo method, and predicted the future emission in 2020 based on the relative environmental and economical policies. The results showed that: (1) the emissions of particulates from concrete batching showed a trend of "first increase and then decrease", reaching the maximum in 2005, and then decreased due to stricter emission standard and enhanced environmental management. (2) according to spatial distribution, the emission of particulates from concrete batch mainly concentrated in the urban area with more human activities, and the area between the fifth ring and the sixth ring contributed the most. (3) through scenarios analysis, for further reducing the emission from concrete batching in 2020, more stricter standard for green production as well as powerful supervision is needed.

  11. Saules kombinētās siltumenerģētiskās sistēmas darbības algortima un simulācijas modeļa izstrāde

    OpenAIRE

    Rochas, C.; Jaunzems, D

    2006-01-01

    Darbā var iepazīties ar jaunu saules kombinētās siltumenerģētiskās sistēmas prototipu – tā uzbūvi, darbības režīmiem, kā arī kontroles un vadības stratēģijas aprakstu. Paralēli ir izstrādāts jaunā sistēmas prototipa darbības un vadības algoritms, kas izmantots sistēmas simulācijas modeļa izveidē un pārbaudīts simulāciju programmas TRNSYS vidē.

  12. Perancangan Sistem Pengukuran pH dan Temperatur Pada Bioreaktor Anaerob Tipe Semi-Batch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Prasetyo Oetomo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Proses pada bioreaktor dapat dilakukan secara aerob yaitu menggunakan bantuan oksigen dan anaerob yaitu tidak menggunakan bantuan oksigen. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan fermentasi  enceng gondok untuk menghasilkan biogas menggunakan bioreaktor anaerob tipe semi-batch. Enceng gondok memiliki rasio C/N sebesar 22.5 – 35.84% yang merupakan komposisi optimum untuk ekstraksi biogas. Kinerja dari bioreaktor dalam produksi biogas dipengaruhi oleh beberapa parameter seperti pH dan temperatur. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan perancangan sistem pengukuran besaran pH dan temperatur secara online sehingga memudahkan dalam pengambilan data. Bahan yang digunakan pada proses fermentasi adalah campuran enceng gondok yang telah dicincang dan dicampur air dengan dua komposisi penambahan berbeda untuk dibandingkan. Pada Bioreaktor1 digunakan komposisi enceng gondok dan air sebesar 1:3 dan pada bioreaktor 2 digunakan komposisi enceng gondok dan air sebesar 0,75: 1,25. Hasil penelitian menyebutkan bahwa bioreaktor 2 dengan komposisi enceng gondok dan air sebesar 0,75: 1,25 menghasilkan biogas lebih aktif dibandingkan dengan bioreaktor 1 dengan komposisi enceng gondok dan air sebesar 1 : 3. Hal tersebut diketahui dari hasil pengukuran selama 76 hari. Dari hasil pengukuran juga diketahui bahwa penurunan nilai COD pada bioreaktor 2 lebih besar dari pada  bioreaktor 1.

  13. Incident-response monitoring technologies for aircraft cabin air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoha, Paul W.

    Poor air quality in commercial aircraft cabins can be caused by volatile organophosphorus (OP) compounds emitted from the jet engine bleed air system during smoke/fume incidents. Tri-cresyl phosphate (TCP), a common anti-wear additive in turbine engine oils, is an important component in today's global aircraft operations. However, exposure to TCP increases risks of certain adverse health effects. This research analyzed used aircraft cabin air filters for jet engine oil contaminants and designed a jet engine bleed air simulator (BAS) to replicate smoke/fume incidents caused by pyrolysis of jet engine oil. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) with X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) were used for elemental analysis of filters, and gas chromatography interfaced with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to analyze used filters to determine TCP isomers. The filter analysis study involved 110 used and 90 incident filters. Clean air filter samples exposed to different bleed air conditions simulating cabin air contamination incidents were also analyzed by FESEM/EDS, NAA, and GC/MS. Experiments were conducted on a BAS at various bleed air conditions typical of an operating jet engine so that the effects of temperature and pressure variations on jet engine oil aerosol formation could be determined. The GC/MS analysis of both used and incident filters characterized tri- m-cresyl phosphate (TmCP) and tri-p-cresyl phosphate (TpCP) by a base peak of an m/z = 368, with corresponding retention times of 21.9 and 23.4 minutes. The hydrocarbons in jet oil were characterized in the filters by a base peak pattern of an m/z = 85, 113. Using retention times and hydrocarbon thermal conductivity peak (TCP) pattern obtained from jet engine oil standards, five out of 110 used filters tested had oil markers. Meanwhile 22 out of 77 incident filters tested positive for oil fingerprints. Probit analysis of jet engine oil aerosols obtained

  14. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  15. Pays-Bas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    2001-01-01

    A great deal of effort is still needed to improve road safety in Europe. Criteria were formulated which can be used to determine whether there is sufficient need for government intervention in traffic and road safety. Evaluation tools were developed to determine the optimum size of the total governm

  16. Effect of batch and fed-batch growth modes on biofilm formation by Listeria monocytogenes at different temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Diana Alexandra Ferreira; Almeida, Marta A. S.; Teixeira, P.; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2009-01-01

    The influence of Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) biofilm formation feeding conditions (batch and fed-batch) at different temperatures on biofilm biomass and activity was determined. Biofilm biomass and cellular metabolic activity were assessed by Crystal Violet (CV) staining and 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide inner salt (XTT) colorimetric method, respectively. Live/Dead staining was also performed in order to get microscopic visualization of ...

  17. Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Warth, Benedikt

    2008-01-01

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant...

  18. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not

  19. SLUDGE BATCH VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) initiated processing Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) in the summer of 2010. In support of processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 to process SB6. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB6 available at the time from the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of SB6, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB6. The durability models were assessed over the expected Frit 418-SB6 composition range. Seventeen glasses were selected for the variability study based on the sludge projections used in the frit recommendation. Five of the glasses are based on the centroid of the compositional region, spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 32 to 40%. The remaining twelve glasses are extreme vertices (EVs) of the sludge region of interest for SB6 combined with Frit 418 and are all at 36% WL. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). After initiating the SB6 variability study, the measured composition of the SB6 Tank 51 qualification glass produced at the SRNL Shielded Cells Facility indicated that thorium was present in the glass at an appreciable concentration (1.03 wt%), which made it a reportable element for SB6. This concentration of ThO{sub 2} resulted in a second phase of experimental studies. Five glasses were formulated that were based on the centroid of the new sludge compositional region combined with Frit 418, spanning a WL range of 32 to 40%. These glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis and the PCT. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses (with and without thorium) were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass

  20. A study on clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces clavuligerus in batch, fed-batch and continuous processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Neto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Clavulanic acid (CA is a potent inhibitor of beta-lactamases, enzymes that are responsible for the hydrolysis of beta-lactam antibiotics. It is a secondary metabolite produced by the filamentous aerobic bacterium Streptomyces clavuligerus in submerged cultivations. In the present work clavulanic acid production in batch, fed-batch and continuous bioreactors was studied with the objective of increasing productivity. The operating conditions: temperature, aeration and agitation, were the same in all cases, 28º C, 0.5 vvm and 800 rpm, respectively. The CA concentration obtained in the fed-batch culture, 404 mg L-1, was ca twice the value obtained in the batch culture, 194 mg L-1, while 293 mg L-1 was obtained in the continuous culture. The highest productivity was obtained in the continuous cultivation, 10.6 mg L-1 h-1, as compared with 8.8 mg L-1 h-1 in the fed-batch process and 3.5 mg L-1 h-1 in the batch process, suggesting that continuous culture of Streptomyces clavuligerus is a promising strategy for clavulanic acid production.

  1. Butanol production by immobilised Clostridium acetobutylicum in repeated batch, fed-batch, and continuous modes of fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolejš, Igor; Krasňan, Vladimír; Stloukal, Radek; Rosenberg, Michal; Rebroš, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilised in polyvinylalcohol, lens-shaped hydrogel capsules (LentiKats(®)) was studied for production of butanol and other products of acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation. After optimising the immobilisation protocol for anaerobic bacteria, continuous, repeated batch, and fed-batch fermentations in repeated batch mode were performed. Using glucose as a substrate, butanol productivity of 0.41 g/L/h and solvent productivity of 0.63 g/L/h were observed at a dilution rate of 0.05 h(-1) during continuous fermentation with a concentrated substrate (60 g/L). Through the process of repeated batch fermentation, the duration of fermentation was reduced from 27.8h (free-cell fermentation) to 3.3h (immobilised cells) with a solvent productivity of 0.77 g/L/h (butanol 0.57 g/L/h). The highest butanol and solvent productivities of 1.21 and 1.91 g/L/h were observed during fed-batch fermentation operated in repeated batch mode with yields of butanol (0.15 g/g) and solvents (0.24 g/g), respectively, produced per gram of glucose.

  2. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorville, Nicolas, E-mail: nicolas.dorville@lpp.polytechnique.fr; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, UPMC, Université Paris Sud, Palaiseau (France)

    2015-09-15

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115–121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958–1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251–317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541–1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present

  3. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115–121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958–1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251–317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541–1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present

  4. Asymmetric kinetic equilibria: Generalization of the BAS model for rotating magnetic profile and non-zero electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorville, Nicolas; Belmont, Gérard; Aunai, Nicolas; Dargent, Jérémy; Rezeau, Laurence

    2015-09-01

    Finding kinetic equilibria for non-collisional/collisionless tangential current layers is a key issue as well for their theoretical modeling as for our understanding of the processes that disturb them, such as tearing or Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities. The famous Harris equilibrium [E. Harris, Il Nuovo Cimento Ser. 10 23, 115-121 (1962)] assumes drifting Maxwellian distributions for ions and electrons, with constant temperatures and flow velocities; these assumptions lead to symmetric layers surrounded by vacuum. This strongly particular kind of layer is not suited for the general case: asymmetric boundaries between two media with different plasmas and different magnetic fields. The standard method for constructing more general kinetic equilibria consists in using Jeans theorem, which says that any function depending only on the Hamiltonian constants of motion is a solution to the steady Vlasov equation [P. J. Channell, Phys. Fluids (1958-1988) 19, 1541 (1976); M. Roth et al., Space Sci. Rev. 76, 251-317 (1996); and F. Mottez, Phys. Plasmas 10, 1541-1545 (2003)]. The inverse implication is however not true: when using the motion invariants as variables instead of the velocity components, the general stationary particle distributions keep on depending explicitly of the position, in addition to the implicit dependence introduced by these invariants. The standard approach therefore strongly restricts the class of solutions to the problem and probably does not select the most physically reasonable. The BAS (Belmont-Aunai-Smets) model [G. Belmont et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 022108 (2012)] used for the first time the concept of particle accessibility to find new solutions: considering the case of a coplanar-antiparallel magnetic field configuration without electric field, asymmetric solutions could be found while the standard method can only lead to symmetric ones. These solutions were validated in a hybrid simulation [N. Aunai et al., Phys. Plasmas (1994-present) 20

  5. 40 CFR 63.492 - Batch front-end process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reporting... Batch front-end process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch front-end process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1322 - Batch process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reference control... Batch process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch process vents. The owner or operator of a Group 1 batch process vent, as determined using the procedures in § 63.1323, shall comply with...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1327 - Batch process vents-reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-reporting... Batch process vents—reporting requirements. (a) The owner or operator of a batch process vent or aggregate batch vent stream at an affected source shall submit the information specified in paragraphs...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1326 - Batch process vents-recordkeeping provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-recordkeeping... Batch process vents—recordkeeping provisions. (a) Group determination records for batch process vents... batch process vent subject to the group determination procedures of § 63.1323. Except for paragraph...

  9. 40 CFR 63.487 - Batch front-end process vents-reference control technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assumes that the batch unit operation is operating at the maximum design capacity of the EPPU for 12... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-reference... § 63.487 Batch front-end process vents—reference control technology. (a) Batch front-end process...

  10. Investigation of Rheological Impacts on Sludge Batch 3 as Insoluble Solids and Wash Endpoints are Adjusted

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing and immobilizing radioactive sludge slurry into a durable borosilicate glass. The DWPF has already processed three sludge batches (Sludge Batch 1A, Sludge Batch 1B, and Sludge Batch 2) and is currently processing the fourth sludge batch (Sludge Batch 3). A sludge batch is defined as a single tank of sludge slurry or a combination of sludge slurries from different tanks that has been or will be qualified before being transferred to DWPF. As a part of the Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) qualification task, rheology measurements of the sludge slurry were requested at different insoluble solids loadings. These measurements were requested in order to gain insight into potential processing problems that may occur as the insoluble solids are adjusted up or down (by concentration or dilution) during the process. As a part of this study, a portion of the ''as received'' SB3 sample was washed with inhibited water (0.015 M NaOH and 0.015 M NaNO2) to target 0.5M Na versus a measured 1M Na in the supernate. The purpose of the ''washing'' step was to allow a comparison of the SB3 rheological data to the rheological data collected for Sludge Batch 2 (SB2) and to determine if there was a dependence of the yield stress and consistency as a function of washing. The ''as received'' SB3 rheology data was also compared to SB3 simulants prepared by the Simulant Development Program in order to provide guidance for selecting a simulant that is more representative of the rheological properties of the radioactive sludge slurry. A summary of the observations, conclusions are: (1) The yield stress and plastic viscosity increased as the weight percent insoluble solids were increased for the ''as received'' and ''washed'' SB3 samples, at a fixed pH. (2) For the same insoluble solids loading, the yield stress for the SB2 sample is approximately a factor of three higher than the ''as received'' SB3 sample. There also appears to be small

  11. Revising the BIS/BAS Scale to study development: Measurement invariance and normative effects of age and sex from childhood through adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Luking, Katherine R; Anokhin, Andrey P; Gotlib, Ian H; Hayden, Elizabeth P; Olino, Thomas M; Peng, Chun-Zi; Hajcak, Greg; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-04-01

    Carver and White's (1994) Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scales have been useful tools for studying individual differences in reward-punishment sensitivity; however, their factor structure and invariance across development have not been well tested. In the current study, we examined the factor structure of the BIS/BAS Scales across 5 age groups: 6- to 10-year-old children (N = 229), 11- to 13-year-old early adolescents (N = 311), 14- to 16-year-old late adolescents (N = 353), 18- to 22-year-old young adults (N = 844), and 30- to 45-year-old adults (N = 471). Given poor fit of the standard 4-factor model (BIS, Reward Responsivity, Drive, Fun Seeking) in the literature, we conducted exploratory factor analyses in half of the participants and identified problematic items across age groups. The 4-factor model showed poor fit in our sample, whereas removing the BAS Fun Seeking subscale and problematic items from the remaining subscales improved fit in confirmatory factor analyses conducted with the second half of the participants. The revised model showed strict invariance across age groups and by sex, indicating consistent factor structure, item loadings, thresholds, and unique or residual variances. Additionally, in our cross-sectional data, we observed nonlinear relations between age and subscale scores, where scores tended to be higher in young adulthood than in childhood and later adulthood. Furthermore, sex differences emerged across development; adolescent and adult females had higher BIS scores than males in this age range, whereas sex differences were not observed in childhood. These differences may help us to understand the rise in internalizing psychopathology in adolescence, particularly in females. Future developmental studies are warranted to examine the impact of rewording problematic items. PMID:26302106

  12. Run-to-run product quality control of batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Li; SHI Ji-ping; CHENG Da-shuai; CHIU Min-sen

    2009-01-01

    Batch processes have been increasingly used in the production of low volume and high value added products.Consequently,optimization control in batch processes is crucial in order to derive the maximum benefit.In this paper,a run-to-run product quality control based on iterative learning optimization control is developed.Moreover,a rigorous theorem is proposed and proven in this paper,which states that the tracking error under the optimal iterative learning control (ILC) law can converge to zero.In this paper,a typical nonlinear batch continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) is considered,and the results show that the performance of trajectory tracking is gradually improved by the ILC.

  13. Batch Statistical Process Monitoring Approach to a Cocrystallization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarraguça, Mafalda C; Ribeiro, Paulo R S; Santos, Adenilson O Dos; Lopes, João A

    2015-12-01

    Cocrystals are defined as crystalline structures composed of two or more compounds that are solid at room temperature held together by noncovalent bonds. Their main advantages are the increase of solubility, bioavailability, permeability, stability, and at the same time retaining active pharmaceutical ingredient bioactivity. The cocrystallization between furosemide and nicotinamide by solvent evaporation was monitored on-line using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a process analytical technology tool. The near-infrared spectra were analyzed using principal component analysis. Batch statistical process monitoring was used to create control charts to perceive the process trajectory and define control limits. Normal and non-normal operating condition batches were performed and monitored with NIRS. The use of NIRS associated with batch statistical process models allowed the detection of abnormal variations in critical process parameters, like the amount of solvent or amount of initial components present in the cocrystallization.

  14. Biogas plasticization coupled anaerobic digestion: batch test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimel, Keith A

    2007-06-01

    Biogas has unique properties for improving the biodegradability of biomass solids during anaerobic digestion (AD). This report presents batch test results of the first investigation into utilizing biogas plasticization to "condition" organic polymers during active digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS). Preliminary design calculations based on polymer diffusion rate limitation are presented. Analysis of the 20 degrees C batch test data determined the first order (k(1)) COD conversion coefficient to be 0.167 day(-1) with a maximum COD utilization rate of 11.25 g L(-1) day(-1). Comparison of these batch test results to typical conventional AD performance parameters showed orders of magnitude improvement. These results show that biogas plasticization during active AD could greatly improve renewable energy yields from biomass waste materials such as MSW RDF, STP sludges, food wastes, animal manure, green wastes, and agricultural crop residuals. PMID:17054122

  15. Application of gain scheduling to the control of batch bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardello, Ralph; San, Ka-Yiu

    1987-01-01

    The implementation of control algorithms to batch bioreactors is often complicated by the inherent variations in process dynamics during the course of fermentation. Such a wide operating range may render the performance of fixed gain PID controllers unsatisfactory. In this work, a detailed study on the control of batch fermentation is performed. Furthermore, a simple batch controller design is proposed which incorporates the concept of gain-scheduling, a subclass of adaptive control, with oxygen uptake rate as an auxiliary variable. The control of oxygen tension in the biorector is used as a vehicle to convey the proposed idea, analysis and results. Simulation experiments indicate significant improvement in controller performance can be achieved by the proposed approach even in the presence of measurement noise.

  16. Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...... the radioactive lipid precursors were added on the apical, rather than on the basolateral, side. Theinsert cell cultures were obviously polarized. We argue that it is not reasonable to reject troublesome experimental results, when we do not know a priori that something went wrong. The ANOVA is a very useful...

  17. From Fed-batch to Continuous Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Nordblad, Mathias; Woodley, John M.;

    2015-01-01

    In this this paper, we use mechanistic modelling to guide the development of acontinuous enzymatic process that is performed as a fed-batch operation. In this workwe use the enzymatic biodiesel process as a case study. A mechanistic model developedin our previous work was used to determine...... measured components (triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, free fatty acid and fatty acid methyl esters(biodiesel)) much better than using fed-batch data alone given the smaller residuals. We also observe a reduction in the correlation between the parameters.The model was then used to predict that 5...... reactors are required (with a combined residence time of 30 hours) to reach a final biodiesel concentration within 2 % of the95.6 mass % achieved in a fed-batch operation, for 24 hours....

  18. La cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (I: el ámbito de la gloria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Mahíques, Rafael

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Iconographical study of the frescoes of the cupola of the Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados of Valencia, a work by Antonio Palomino, painted between 1701 and 1704. It is an approach to the analysis of the scope of the Celestial Glory. Here the Virgin appears as Queen and intercessor before the Throne of Grace, where, according to the iconographical tradition, St John The Baptist is included, and the arma Christi carried by angels. Around this nucleus they are arranged the Fortunate, grouped by the criterion of the Litany of Loreto, in which Mary is invoked with the titles of Queen of the Angels, of the Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, Martyrs, Confessors, Virgins and All the Saints. This article keeps continuity with another one previous titled. “La Cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (y II: El ámbito Histórico-Alegórico”, with which the study is completed.

    Estudio iconográfico de los frescos de la cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia, obra de Antonio Palomino realizada entre 1701 y 1704. Aproximación a un análisis del ámbito de la Gloria celestial. Aquí la Virgen aparece como reina e intercesora ante el Trono de Gracia, en donde, de acuerdo con la tradición iconográfica, se incluye a San Juan Bautista y los arma Christi portados por ángeles. En torno a este núcleo se disponen los bienaventurados, agrupados bajo el criterio de la Letanía Lauretana, en la cual María es invocada con los títulos de Reina de los Ángeles, de los Patriarcas, Profetas, Apóstoles, Mártires, Confesores, Vírgenes y de Todos los Santos. Este artículo tiene continuidad con otro titulado: “La Cúpula de la Basílica de la Virgen de los Desamparados de Valencia (y II: El ámbito Histórico-Alegórico”, con el cual se completa el estudio.

  19. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed. (authors)

  20. Radiation protection, radioactive waste management and site monitoring at the nuclear scientific experimental and educational centre IRT-Sofia at INRNE-BAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenov, Al; Stankov, D; Nonova, Tz; Krezhov, K

    2014-11-01

    This article identifies important components and describes the safe practices in implementing radiation protection and radioactive waste management programmes, and in their optimisation at the Nuclear Scientific Experimental and Educational Centre with research reactor IRT at INRNE-BAS. It covers the instrumentation and personal protective equipment and organisational issues related to the continuous site monitoring. The reactor is under major reconstruction and the measures applied to radiation monitoring of environment and working area focused on restricting the radiation exposure of the staff as well as compliance with international good practices related to the environmental and public radiation safety requirements are also addressed.

  1. Batch-related sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To report a series of patients with sterile endophthalmitis after intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB injection from 2 different batches of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods: Records of 11 eyes with severe inflammation after IVB injections from two different batches (7 eyes from one and 4 from the other on two separate days were evaluated. Fifteen eyes of 15 patients in one day were treated with one batch and 18 eyes of 17 patients were treated another day using another batch injected for different retinal diseases. Each batch was opened on the day of injection. We used commercially available bevacizumab (100 mg/4 ml kept at 4°C. Severe cases with hypopyon were admitted to the ward and underwent anterior chamber and vitreous tap for direct smear and culture. Results: Pain, redness and decreased vision began after 11-17 days. All had anterior chamber and vitreous reactions and 5 had hypopyon. Antibiotics and corticosteroids were initiated immediately, but the antibiotics were discontinued after negative culture results. Visual acuity returned to pre-injection levels in 10 eyes after 1 month and only in one eye pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Mean VA at the time of presentation with inflammation (1.76 ± 0.78 logMAR decreased significantly (P = 0.008 compared to the initial mean corrected VA (1.18 ± 0.55 logMAR; however, final mean corrected VA (1.02 ± 0.48 logMAR improved in comparison with the baseline but not to a significant level (P = 0.159. Conclusions: We report a cluster of sterile endophthalmitis following intravitreal injection of bevacizumab from the same batch of bevacizumab that has a favorable prognosis.

  2. Batch Private Keys Generation for RSA in Security Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun; CHEN Xin

    2005-01-01

    RSA public key cryptosystem is extensively used in information security systems.However, key generation for RSA cryptosystem requires multiplicative inversion over finite field, which has higher computational complexity, compared with either multiplication in common sense or modular multiplication over finite field. In order to improve the performance of key generation, we propose a batch private keys generation method in this paper. The method derives efficiency from cutting down multiplicative inversions over finite field. Theoretical analysis shows that the speed of batch private keys generation for s users is faster than that of s times solo private key generation. It is suitable for applications in those systems with large amount of users.

  3. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  4. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  5. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  6. Analysis and modelling of the energy requirements of batch processes; Analyse und Modellierung des Energiebedarfes in Batch-Prozessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2002-07-01

    This intermediate report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project aiming to model the energy consumption of multi-product, multi-purpose batch production plants. The utilities investigated were electricity, brine and steam. Both top-down and bottom-up approaches are described, whereby top-down was used for the buildings where the batch process apparatus was installed. Modelling showed that for batch-plants at the building level, the product mix can be too variable and the diversity of products and processes too great for simple modelling. Further results obtained by comparing six different production plants that could be modelled are discussed. The several models developed are described and their wider applicability is discussed. Also, the results of comparisons made between modelled and actual values are presented. Recommendations for further work are made.

  7. Mathematical modeling of lipase and protease production by Penicillium restrictum in a batch fermenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, D M; Sant'Anna, G L; Alves, T L

    1999-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model that describes time course variations of extracellular lipase and protease activities for the batch fermentation of the fungus Penicillium restrictum, a new and promising strain isolated from soil and wastes of a Brazilian babassu coconut oil industry. The fermentation process was modeled by an unstructured model, which considered the following dependent variables: cells, fat acid, dissolved oxygen concentrations, lipase and protease activities, and cell lysate concentration. The last variable represents the amount of cells that has been lysed by the shear stress and natural cell death. Proteases released to the medium, as consequence of this process, enhance lipase inactivation. The model is able to predict the effects of some operation variables such as air flow rate and agitation speed. The mathematical model was validated against batch-fermentation data obtained under several operating conditions. Because substrate concentration has antagonistic effects on lipase activity, a typical optimization scheme should be developed in order to minimize these deleterious effects while maximizing lipase activity. PMID:15304703

  8. Lipid production in batch and fed-batch cultures of Rhodosporidium toruloides from 5 and 6 carbon carbohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial lipids are a potential source of bio- or renewable diesel and the red yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is interesting not only because it can accumulate over 50% of its dry biomass as lipid, but also because it utilises both five and six carbon carbohydrates, which are present in plant biomass hydrolysates. Methods R. toruloides was grown in batch and fed-batch cultures in 0.5 L bioreactors at pH 4 in chemically defined, nitrogen restricted (C/N 40 to 100 media containing glucose, xylose, arabinose, or all three carbohydrates as carbon source. Lipid was extracted from the biomass using chloroform-methanol, measured gravimetrically and analysed by GC. Results Lipid production was most efficient with glucose (up to 25 g lipid L−1, 48 to 75% lipid in the biomass, at up to 0.21 g lipid L−1 h−1 as the sole carbon source, but high lipid concentrations were also produced from xylose (36 to 45% lipid in biomass. Lipid production was low (15–19% lipid in biomass with arabinose as sole carbon source and was lower than expected (30% lipid in biomass when glucose, xylose and arabinose were provided simultaneously. The presence of arabinose and/or xylose in the medium increased the proportion of palmitic and linoleic acid and reduced the proportion of oleic acid in the fatty acids, compared to glucose-grown cells. High cell densities were obtained in both batch (37 g L−1, with 49% lipid in the biomass and fed-batch (35 to 47 g L−1, with 50 to 75% lipid in the biomass cultures. The highest proportion of lipid in the biomass was observed in cultures given nitrogen during the batch phase but none with the feed. However, carbohydrate consumption was incomplete when the feed did not contain nitrogen and the highest total lipid and best substrate consumption were observed in cultures which received a constant low nitrogen supply. Conclusions Lipid production in R. toruloides was lower from arabinose and mixed

  9. SIA "Biznesa Konsaltinga Grupa"iekšējās kontroles un finansiālās darbības izpēte

    OpenAIRE

    Liepiņa, Liene

    2016-01-01

    Darbā tiek pētīta grāmatvedības un mārketinga uzņēmuma SIA BKG finansiālā darbība. Mūsdienās aktuāla ir problēma, ka uzņēmumi ātri kļūst maksātnespējīgi un bankrotē. Darba mērķis ir, balstoties uz finanšu analīzes un iekšējās kontroles teorētiskajām atziņām, izpētīt SIA BKG finanšu rādītājus un iekšējo kontroles sistēmu, kā arī izteikt priekšlikumus tālākai darbības uzlabošanai. Darbā tiek pētīts, kas teorētiski ir uzņēmuma iekšējās kontroles sistēma un finanšu analīze, atsevišķa uzmanība tie...

  10. Cilvēku tirdzniecības krimināltiesiskais raksturojums Latvijā un ārvalstīs

    OpenAIRE

    Krama, Klinta

    2016-01-01

    Cilvēku tirdzniecība ir noziegums, kas mūsdienās skar ikvienu pasaules valsti. Katru gadu aptuveni 4 miljoni cilvēku tiek pārdoti un nonāk verdzības stāvoklī. Lai arī ir pagājuši vairāki gadsimti, kopš verdzība oficiāli ir atcelta, joprojām- cilvēki pārdod cilvēkus. Darba mērķis ir analizēt starptautiskā un nacionālā mēroga normatīvos aktus un vērst uzmanību uz katra uzdevumu un nozīmi cilvēku tirdzniecības apkarošanā; pētīt kaimiņvalstu normatīvo regulējumu cīņā pret cilvēku tirdzniecību, an...

  11. Latvijas mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu dalība Eiropas savienības atbalsta programmās.

    OpenAIRE

    Huapaija-Delgado, Rolando

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba temats ir “Latvijas mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu dalība ES atbalsta programmās”. Maģistra darba mērķis – identificēt, kas ir galvenie faktori, kas nosaka Latvijas mazo un vidējo uzņēmumu zemos dalības un piesaistītā finansējuma rādītājus Eiropas Savienības piedāvātajās starptautiskajās atbalsta programmās un kā varētu veicināt šo rādītāju pieaugumu. Maģistra darbs sastāv no ievada, 3 nodaļām, secinājumiem, priekšlikumiem, literatūras saraksta, pielikumiem. Darba gaitā tiek teorētisk...

  12. Ab initio study of the structural, electronic and optical properties of BAs and BN compounds and BN{sub x}As{sub 1−x} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guemou, M., E-mail: guemoumhamed7@gmail.com [Engineering Physics Laboratory, Ibn Khaldoun University of Tiaret, Postbox 78-Zaaroura, 14000 Tiaret (Algeria); Abdiche, A.; Riane, R. [Applied Materials Laboratory, Research Center, University of Sidi Bel Abbes, 22000 Sidi Bel Abbes (Algeria); Khenata, R. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Département de Technologie, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria)

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we present a density-functional theory study of structural, electronic and optical properties of BAs, BN binary compounds and their ternary BN{sub x}As{sub 1−x} solid solutions. The calculations are done by using the all-electron full potential linear augmented plane-wave method (FP-LAPW) as employed in WIEN2k code. For the exchange-correlation potential, local-density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) have been used to calculate theoretical lattice parameters, bulk modulus, and its pressure derivative. The electronic band structure of these compounds have been calculated by using the above two approximations. We have also investigated in this article the density of state and the optical properties such as the dielectric function and the refractive index of BAs, BN and BN{sub 0.25}As{sub 0.75} compounds by using the above method. The results obtained for structural and electronic properties are compared with experimental data and other computational work. It has been found that the energy bands with all these approximations are similar except the band gap values. It has also been found that our results with LDA and GGA are in good agreement with other computational work wherever these are available.

  13. Lateralisation effect in comprehension of emotional facial expression: a comparison between EEG alpha band power and behavioural inhibition (BIS) and activation (BAS) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balconi, Michela; Mazza, Guido

    2010-05-01

    Asymmetry in comprehension of facial expression of emotions was explored in the present study by analysing alpha band variation within the right and left cortical sides. Second, the behavioural activation system (BAS) and behavioural inhibition system (BIS) were considered as an explicative factor to verify the effect of a motivational/emotional variable on alpha activity. A total of 19 participants looked at an ample range of facial expressions of emotions (anger, fear, surprise, disgust, happiness, sadness, and neutral) in random order. The results demonstrated that anterior frontal sites were more active than central and parietal sites in response to facial stimuli. Moreover, right and left side responses varied as a function of emotional types, with an increased right frontal activity for negative, aversive emotions vs an increased left response for positive emotion. Finally, whereas higher BIS participants generated more right hemisphere activation for some negative emotions (such as fear, anger, surprise, and disgust), BAS participants were more responsive to positive emotion (happiness) within the left hemisphere. Motivational significance of facial expressions was considered to elucidate cortical differences in participants' responses to emotional types.

  14. Ārējās komunikācijas loma novada pašvaldībā. Ķekavas novada pašvaldības gadījuma analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Bukonte, Anda

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba „Ārējās komunikācijas loma novada pašvaldībā. Ķekavas novada pašvaldības gadījuma analīze” mērķis ir noskaidrot, kāda ir Ķekavas novada pašvaldības ārējās komunikācijas prakse, kādā ir komunikācijas kanālu loma pašvaldības skatījumā, īpaši izceļot sociālo mediju lomu, kā arī noskaidrot, ko par pašvaldības ārējo komunikāciju domā Ķekavas novada iedzīvotāji. Bakalaura darba teorētiskajā daļā autore apskata tādus jēdzienus kā komunikācija, pašvaldība, sabiedriskās attiecības, ārē...

  15. Performance comparison of suspended bed and batch contactor chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones-García, I; Rayner, I; Levison, P R; Dickson, N; Purdom, G

    2001-01-26

    In some applications, the purification and recovery of biomolecules is performed via a cascade of batch adsorption and desorption stages using agitated contactors and related filtration devices. Suspended bed chromatography is a recent process-scale innovation that is applicable to these separations. This hybrid technique exploits the benefits of combining batch adsorption in an agitated contactor with elution in an enclosed column system. To some extent, the process is similar to batch contactor chromatography but can be fully contained and significantly quicker. The process has two steps; first the fluid containing the sample is mixed with the adsorbent in a stirred tank. Second, the slurry suspension is transferred directly into a specialized column, such as an IsoPak column. The media with the adsorbed product is formed as a packed bed, whilst the suspension liquid is passed out of the column. The product is then eluted from the packed bed utilizing standard column-chromatography techniques. The performance of the suspended bed and the agitated contactor operations are demonstrated both by full-scale experimental results and process simulations. The purification of ovalbumin from a hen-egg white feedstock by anion-exchange chromatography was used as a case study in order to prove the concept. With the availability of both pump-packed systems and shear-resistant media, suspended bed chromatography is a better alternative for a range of applications than the traditional batch separations using agitated contactors. PMID:11218119

  16. Adaptation to high throughput batch chromatography enhances multivariate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gregory A; Calzada, Joseph; Herzer, Sibylle; Rieble, Siegfried

    2015-09-01

    High throughput process development offers unique approaches to explore complex process design spaces with relatively low material consumption. Batch chromatography is one technique that can be used to screen chromatographic conditions in a 96-well plate. Typical batch chromatography workflows examine variations in buffer conditions or comparison of multiple resins in a given process, as opposed to the assessment of protein loading conditions in combination with other factors. A modification to the batch chromatography paradigm is described here where experimental planning, programming, and a staggered loading approach increase the multivariate space that can be explored with a liquid handling system. The iterative batch chromatography (IBC) approach is described, which treats every well in a 96-well plate as an individual experiment, wherein protein loading conditions can be varied alongside other factors such as wash and elution buffer conditions. As all of these factors are explored in the same experiment, the interactions between them are characterized and the number of follow-up confirmatory experiments is reduced. This in turn improves statistical power and throughput. Two examples of the IBC method are shown and the impact of the load conditions are assessed in combination with the other factors explored. PMID:25914370

  17. The second batch of environmental standard qualified list released

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Environmental Protection released the second batch of enterprises list that basically meet environment standards recently. Total 41 enterprises from 10 provinces and autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Gansu and so on are included in the list.

  18. A fixed-size batch service queue with vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Woo Lee

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with batch service queues with vacations in which customers arrive according to a Poisson process. Decomposition method is used to derive the queue length distributions both for single and multiple vacation cases. The authors look at other decomposition techniques and discuss some related open problems.

  19. A Storage Assignment Model for Batch Preparation in Process Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, J.; Selen, W.

    2010-01-01

    A new model formulation is developed for reducing the workload in pre-batching at a manufacturer of flavours and fragrances, by optimally assigning ingredients to different storage types, taking into account past usage of ingredients and several restrictions about volumes and number of storage units

  20. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    OpenAIRE

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengaduk...

  1. On the track of fish batches in three distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randrup, Maria; Wu, Haiping; Jørgensen, Bo M.

    2012-01-01

    Three fish products sampled in retail shops were traced back to their origin and fish from the same batch were tracked forward towards the retailer, thereby simulating a recall situation. The resulting distribution networks were very complex, but to the extent that companies were willing to provide...

  2. Research of an Efficient Variant of Batch RSA Algorithm%一种有效的Batch RSA算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 柳青; 李彤; 郝林

    2011-01-01

    提出了一种改进的Batch RSA算法来提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.该改进算法结合了负载转移技术和Multi-Power RSA技术,在Batch RSA算法的指数计算阶段提升Batch RSA算法的解密性能.实验结果和理论分析表明,该改进算法使得Batch RSA算法的解密性能得到显著提升,且易于并行实现,可使基于多核平台的Batch RSA算法的整体性能得到进一步提升.%This paper aimed at speeding up Batch RSA decryption. An efficient variant of Batch RSA was proposed to improve the Batch RSA decryption performance. The improved Batch RSA variant speeds up decryption by combining the load transferring technique and multi-power RSA technique in the exponentiation phase. The experimental result and the theoretical values show that the speed of the decryption is substantially improved and the variant can be efficiently implemented in parallel and parallel implementation of the variant on multi-core devices can further improve the overall performance of Batch RSA algorithm.

  3. Batch conversion of methane to methanol using Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as biocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Yeub; Hur, Dong Hoon; Lee, Jae Hoon; Park, Chang-Ho; Chang, In Seop; Lee, Jin Won; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-03-01

    Recently, methane has attracted much attention as an alternative carbon feedstock since it is the major component of abundant shale and natural gas. In this work, we produced methanol from methane using whole cells of Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b as the biocatalyst. M. trichosporium OB3b was cultured on NMS medium with a supply of 7:3 air/methane ratio at 30°C. The optimal concentrations of various methanol dehydrogenase inhibitors such as potassium phosphate and EDTA were determined to be 100 and 0.5 mM, respectively, for an efficient production of methanol. Sodium formate (40 mM) as a reducing power source was added to enhance the conversion efficiency. A productivity of 49.0 mg/l·h, titer of 0.393 g methanol/l, and conversion of 73.8% (mol methanol/mol methane) were obtained under the optimized batch condition. PMID:25563419

  4. Computer Simulation of Batch Grinding Process Based on Simulink 5.0

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; YANG Ying-jie; DENG Hui-yong; HUANG Guang-yao

    2005-01-01

    How to use Simulink software in grinding system was studied. The method of designing batch grinding subsystem and the steps of building batch grinding blockset were introduced. Based on batch grinding population balance model, batch grinding was simulated with Simulink. The results show that the simulation system designed with Simulink explain reasonably the impersonal rule of batch grinding. On the basis of batch grinding simulation, the computer simulation of mineral processing system with Simulink of grinding and classification, comminution, etc, can be properly explored.

  5. Glucoamylase production in batch, chemostat and fed-batch cultivations by an industrial strain of Aspergillus niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Beyer, Michael; Nielsen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    The Aspergillus niger strain BO-1 was grown in batch, continuous (chemostat) and fed-batch cultivations in order to study the production of the extracellular enzyme glucoamylase under different growth conditions. In the pH range 2.5-6.0, the specific glucoamylase productivity and the specific...... growth rate of the fungus were independent of pH when grown in batch cultivations. The specific glucoamylase productivity increased linearly with the specific growth rate in the range 0-0.1 h(-1) and was constant in the range 0.1-0.2 h(-1) Maltose and maltodextrin were non-inducing carbon sources...... compared to glucose, and the maximum specific growth rate was 0.19 +/- 0.02 h(-1) irrespective of whether glucose or maltose was the carbon source. In fed-batch cultivations, glucoamylase titres of up to 6.5 g 1(-1) were obtained even though the strain contained only one copy of the glaA gene....

  6. MASS PRODUCTION OF THE BENEFICIAL NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CARPOCAPSAE UTILIZING A FED-BATCH CULTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard D. Holmes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the batch and fed-batch mass production of Steinernema carpocapsae. S. carpocapsae is an entomoparasitic nematode that is used as a biological control agent of soil-borne crop insect pests. The ability and efficiency of fed-batch culture process was successful through the utilization of the nematode’s bacterial symbiont Xenorhabdus nematophila. Results from the fed-batch process were compared to those obtain from the standard batch process. The fed-batch process successively improved the mass production process of S. carpocapsae employing liquid medium technology. Within the first week of the fed-batch process (day six, the nematode density obtained was 202,000 nematodes mL−1; whereas on day six, batch culture mode resulted in a nematode density of 23,000 nematodes mL−1. The fed-batch process was superior to that of batch production with a yield approximately 8.8-fold higher. In fed-batch process, the nematode yield was improved 88.6 % higher within a short amount of time compared to the batch process. Fed-batch seems to make the process more efficient and possibly economically viable.

  7. Reproducibility of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Indices of disease activity (BASDAI), functional status (BASFI) and overall well-being (BAS-G) in anti-tumour necrosis factor-treated spondyloarthropathy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole R; Rytter, Anne; Suetta, Charlotte;

    2010-01-01

    The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Function Index (BASFI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G) (ranges 0-10) have gained widespread in use as self-reported measures of disease activity, functional impairment...... and overall well-being in patients with ankylosing spondylitis and other spondyloarthropathies (SpA). In Denmark, BASDAI, BASFI and BAS-G are systematically used to monitor treatment response in patients treated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to examine...

  8. On the choice of batch mode in order to maximize throughput

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of serial process configurations consisting of three processes and two machines shows interesting relations between the choice of batch mode (or batch structure), utilization of capacities and maximum throughput.

  9. JAVA Implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard Payne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The MIT iLab Shared Architecture is limited currently to running on the Microsoft Windows platform. A JAVA implementation of the Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been developed that can be used on other operating systems and still interoperate with the existing Microsoft .NET web services of MIT’s iLab ServiceBroker. The Batched iLab Shared Architecture has been revised and separates the Labserver into a LabServer that handles experiment management and a LabEquipment that handles experiment execution. The JAVA implementation provides a 3-tier code development model that allows code to be reused and to develop only the code that is specific to each experiment.

  10. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of multicomponent batch distillation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Jiménez

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to compare several of the commercial dynamic models for batch distillation available worldwide. In this context, BATCHFRAC™, CHEMCAD™ BATCH, and HYSYS.Plant® software performances are compared to experimental data. The software can be used as soft sensors, playing the roll of ad-hoc observers or estimators for control objectives. Rigorous models were used as an alternative to predict the concentration profile and to specify the optimal switching time from products to slop cuts. The performance of a nonlinear model obtained using a novel identification algorithm was also studied. In addition, the strategy for continuous separation was revised with residue curve map analysis using Aspen SPLIT™.

  11. Method to incorporate energy integration considerations in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain))

    Systemization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the product changeover problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation; and (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  12. A new look at energy integration in multiproduct batch processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corominas, J.; Espuna, A.; Puigjaner, L. (Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Systematization of an energy saving grass-root design and retrofitting technology based on process integration is a subject of increasing interest in plants running under the batch mode of operation. In this work, the solution to the changeover product problem is studied in order to achieve a feasible and optimized heat exchange network design for multiproduct batch plants. A new methodology is presented which is based on: (a) the campaign-mode of plant operation, (b) the study of energy integration for each campaign. The concept of Macronetwork is also introduced. This includes the heat exchanger network of all campaigns in an overall design, and contemplates the common matches between networks of campaigns of different products. Algorithms to obtain the best feasible matches and energy targets are presented and results of test-case studies are discussed to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  13. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Aguilera Puerto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco. The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results.

  14. MACROSCOPIC KINETIC MODELS OF GLYCEROL BATCH FERMENTATION WITH OSMOTOLERANT YEAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    l introductionGlycerol production by fermentation has beenwidely investigated to meet the great commercialdemand in last decades and osmotolerant yeast wasthe microorganism studied most. To analyze thefermentation process more efficiently, a kinetic modelshould be established but little works about it werereported because of its complicated metabolism ofglycerol [1-3]. Batch fermentation experiment showedthat low glucose concentration in the latterfermentation stage resulted in decrease in both glucoseconsu...

  15. Batch gating for data association in monocular SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra Paradas, Edmundo; Munguía Alcalá, Rodrigo Francisco; Bolea Monte, Yolanda; Grau Saldes, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the development and implementation of a single-camera SLAM system, introducing a novel data validation algorithm. A 6-DOF monocular SLAM method developed is based on the Delayed Inverse-Depth (DI-D) Feature Initialization, with the addition of a new data association batch validation technique, the Highest Order Hypothesis Compatibility Test, HOHCT. The DI-D initializes new features in the system defining single hypothesis for the initial depth of features by stoch...

  16. Group technology. [Increasing batch-lot production efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rome, C.P.

    1976-01-01

    Group Technology has been conceptually applied to the manufacture of batch-lots of 554 machined electromechanical parts which now require 79 different types of metal-removal tools. The products have been grouped into 7 distinct families which require from 8 to 22 machines in each machine-cell. Throughput time can be significantly reduced and savings can be realized from tooling, direct-labor, and indirect-labor costs.

  17. Feasibility of extractive distillation process variants in batch rectifier column

    OpenAIRE

    Stéger, Csaba; Varga, Viktoria; Horvath, Laszlo; Rev, Endre; Fonyo, Zsolt; Meyer, Michel; Lelkes, Zoltan

    2005-01-01

    A systematic comparison is presented about the separation tasks of azeotropic and close-boiling mixtures applying batch extractive distillation (BED) in rectifier. All the eight possible mixture types with at most a single azeotrope (minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes with heavy, light, and intermediate boiling entrainers; and close boiling mixtures with heavy and light entrainers) are compared. The main results of the feasibility studies on the hitherto unpublished cases are presented. A...

  18. Mathematical modeling of recombinant Escherichia coli aerobic batch fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Rafael S; Rocha, I; Ferreira, E. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, three competing unstructured mathematical models for the biomass growth by recombinant E. coli strains with different acetate inhibition kinetics terms were evaluated for batch processes at constant temperature and pH. The models considered the dynamics of biomass growth, acetate accumulation, substrate consumption, Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) production and three metabolic pathways for E. coli. Parameter estimation and model validation was carried out usi...

  19. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R) by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reac...

  20. Optimization of Recipe Based Batch Control Systems Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Šoštarec, A.; Gosak, D.; Hlupić, N.

    2012-01-01

    In the modern pharmaceutical industry many flexible batch plants operate under an integrated business and production system, using ISA S95 and ISA S88 standards for models and terminology, and implementing flexible recipe-based production. In the environment of constantly changing market conditions, adjustment to surroundings is a business necessity. To support necessary production improvement, regulatory authorities have introduced the risk based approach for the control of process dev...

  1. Industrial and Municipal Wastewater Treatment in the Sequencing Batch Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Vrtovsek, J.; Ros, M.

    2008-01-01

    A mixture of Industrial wastewater from chemical industry (varnish, paint and pigments production) and municipal wastewater was treated in pilot sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Results of the pilot experiments show that the foaming problem has great influence on the behavior of SBR, especially when the ratio between industrial and municipal wastewater is very high. Foaming problem was negligible when the mixture with φ; 20 % of the industrial wastewater and j = 80 % of the municipal wastewate...

  2. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    A.H Mahvi

    2008-01-01

    Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical ...

  3. Integration of virtualized worker nodes in standard batch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buege, Volker; Kunze, Marcel; Oberst, Oliver; Quast, Guenter; Scheurer, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 6980, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hessling, Hermann [HTW Berlin, University of Applied Sciences, 10318 Berlin (Germany); Kemp, Yves; Synge, Owen, E-mail: Oliver.Oberst@iwr.fzk.d [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-04-01

    Current experiments in HEP only use a limited number of operating system flavours. Their software might only be validated on one single OS platform. Resource providers might have other operating systems of choice for the installation of the batch infrastructure. This is especially the case if a cluster is shared with other communities, or communities that have stricter security requirements. One solution would be to statically divide the cluster into separated sub-clusters. In such a scenario, no opportunistic distribution of the load can be achieved, resulting in a poor overall utilization efficiency. Another approach is to make the batch system aware of virtualization, and to provide each community with its favoured operating system in a virtual machine. Here, the scheduler has full flexibility, resulting in a better overall efficiency of the resources. In our contribution, we present a lightweight concept for the integration of virtual worker nodes into standard batch systems. The virtual machines are started on the worker nodes just before jobs are executed there. No meta-scheduling is introduced. We demonstrate two prototype implementations, one based on the Sun Grid Engine (SGE), the other using Maui/Torque as a batch system. Both solutions support local job as well as Grid job submission. The hypervisors currently used are Xen and KVM, a port to another system is easily envisageable. To better handle different virtual machines on the physical host, the management solution VmImageManager is developed. We will present first experience from running the two prototype implementations. In a last part, we will show the potential future use of this lightweight concept when integrated into high-level (i.e. Grid) work-flows.

  4. Health advantages of transition to batch management system in farrow-to-finish pig herds

    OpenAIRE

    Vangroenweghe, F; Suls, L; Van Driessche, E.; Maes, Dominiek; De Graef, E.

    2012-01-01

    Sow batch management systems have become more popular due to advantages in labour planning, piglet batch sizes, all-in all-out practices and health management. The present study investigated the potential health advantages of 10 selected farrow-to-finish pig herds before and after transition from a one week batch management system to a four or five week batch management system. Five different animal categories (gilts, sows, piglets, growers and finishers) were sampled at three time points (T0...

  5. On-line Scheduling Algorithm for Penicillin Fed-batch Fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yao-feng; YUAN Jing-qi

    2005-01-01

    An on-line scheduling algorithm to maximize gross profit of penicillin fed-batch fermentation is proposed. According to the on-line classification method, fed-batch fermentation batches are classified into three categories. Using the scheduling strategy, the optimal termination sequence of batches is obtained. Pseudo on-line simulations for testing the proposed algorithm with the data from industrial scale penicillin fermentation are carried out.

  6. POMME. Reconstruction des champs 4D. Analyse basée sur les profils et mesures eulériennes - Expériences 7 et 9

    OpenAIRE

    Gaillard, Fabienne; Kermabon, Catherine; Mercier, Herle

    2003-01-01

    Ce document présente une synthèse combinant différents types de mesures in situ avec les analyses de données altimétriques faites par SOPRANE. Le modèle diagnostique avec filtre de kalman (KA_meso_V1.5, Kermabon et al, 2003), reconstruit les champs de température, salinité et courants sur un pavé d’océan. Nous présentons deux expériences, basées sur le même jeu de données. L’expérience 7 utilise les modes verticaux définis pour l’expérience de référence (Gaillard et al. 2002). L’expérience 9 ...

  7. Basında Yer Alan Namus Cinayetlerinin Sosyolojik Analizi /
    A Sociological Analysis of Honor Killings Reported by the Mass Media

    OpenAIRE

    İNCİ, Ülkü Hayriye

    2013-01-01

    Öz Erkek egemen toplumlarda kadına yönelik şiddetin kısmi bir kabul gördüğü bilinmektedir. Kadına yönelik şiddetin özel bir şekli de namus cinayetleridir. Son zamanlarda ulusal medyada kendisine oldukça fazla yer bulan namus cinayetleri, sosyolojik çalışmalarda da kendisine yer bulmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de son zamanlarda oldukça sık tartışılan namus cinayetlerinin sosyal ve kültürel hayattaki durumunu tartışmaya açmaktadır. Çalışma basında yer alan namus cinayetleri ile sını...

  8. Segmentation des tumeurs en imagerie médicale TEP basée sur la marche aléatoire 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Onoma, Dago Pacôme; Ruan, Su; Gardin, Isabelle; Monnehan, Georges Alain; Modzelewski, Romain; Vera, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Cet article présente une méthode de segmentation automatique basée sur la Marche Aléatoire (MA). Face à certains problèmes de l'algorithme original telles que la dépendance vis-à-vis du choix de l'hyperparamètre \\beta, ainsi que la probabilité d'un marcheur d'aller vers un label, fonction exclusivement du gradient d'intensité des niveaux de gris, nous proposons une approche permettant de résoudre ces problèmes. Elle consiste à rendre l'hyperparamètre \\beta adaptatif et à intégrer la densité d...

  9. Béatrice Fleury, La Guerre d’Algérie, ici et là-bas. Histoires d’anonymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ikken, Farid

    2015-01-01

    En France, en 2012, la commémoration des 50 ans de la fin de la guerre d’Algérie a non seulement mobilisé un nombre important de témoins ‒ issus de groupes mémoriels différents ‒, mais leurs témoignages ont également bénéficié d’une large médiatisation. C’est à ces témoins et à leur publicisation qu’est consacré l’ouvrage de Beatrice Fleury, La Guerre d’Algérie, ici et là-bas. Histoires d’anonymes. Auteure de travaux sur le témoignage et les médiations mémorielles, ici, elle interroge ceux re...

  10. Detail-Preserving Bas-relief on Surface from 3D Scene%细节保持的曲面浅浮雕算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 刘胜兰; 张丽艳

    2012-01-01

    A novel algorithm for making the bas-relief from 3D shape onto a curved surface is proposed in order to preserve relief details and get smooth relief-background transitions. Firstly, a continuous gradient field is obtained by special treatment on the silhouettes, which are located by Canny operator. Secondly, a flattened shape is achieved by compressing the magnitude of the gradient using a proposed nonlinear function. Subsequently, the details on the original 3D shape are maintained and also enhanced using the bilateral filtering on the gradient domain. Finally, the bas-relief on curved surface is reconstructed from the gradient domain by solving an integral equation. In order to eliminate the steps between relief and background, the background surface is associated to the equation as an optimal condition. The equation is solved accurately in frequency field with no need to set iteration stopping criteria by taking advantages of differential properties of Fourier transformation. The height of bas-relief, the detail sharpness and the transition smoothness can be effectively controlled by tuning the parameters. The experiments demonstrate that the parameters in the algorithm have intuitive geometry meaning, and the obtained bas-relief owns distinct details and smooth relief-background transitions.%为保持曲面浮雕的细节特征,改善浮雕与背景曲面的过渡效果,提出一种细节保持的曲面浮雕算法.首先采用Canny箅子在梯度域定位内外轮廓,获得连续的梯度域;其次提出非线性函数,并用其压缩梯度幅值实现形状压缩;再通过双边滤波算子来保持和增强浮雕细节;最终通过求解积分方程重建曲面浮雕.该算法将背景曲面作为积分方程的优化条件,使浮雕在轮廓处向曲面光滑过渡;在重建过程中利用Fourier变换的微分性质在频域实现方程的精确求解,无需设置迭代收敛条件;通过调整参数可方便地控制浮雕整体变化范围、

  11. Analyzing data flows of WLCG jobs at batch job level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Eileen; Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    With the introduction of federated data access to the workflows of WLCG, it is becoming increasingly important for data centers to understand specific data flows regarding storage element accesses, firewall configurations, as well as the scheduling of batch jobs themselves. As existing batch system monitoring and related system monitoring tools do not support measurements at batch job level, a new tool has been developed and put into operation at the GridKa Tier 1 center for monitoring continuous data streams and characteristics of WLCG jobs and pilots. Long term measurements and data collection are in progress. These measurements already have been proven to be useful analyzing misbehaviors and various issues. Therefore we aim for an automated, realtime approach for anomaly detection. As a requirement, prototypes for standard workflows have to be examined. Based on measurements of several months, different features of HEP jobs are evaluated regarding their effectiveness for data mining approaches to identify these common workflows. The paper will introduce the actual measurement approach and statistics as well as the general concept and first results classifying different HEP job workflows derived from the measurements at GridKa.

  12. Batch fabrication of micro-optical sensing and imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wippermann, F. C.; Reimann, A.; Oelschläger, A.; Dannberg, P.; Blöhbaum, F.; Koburg, C.; Köhler, T.

    2013-03-01

    As demonstrated in microelectronics, the batch fabrication based on the processing of wafers can lead to a significant reduction in prize as well as in size. This concept was adapted to the fabrication of imaging optics extensively used in mobile phone cameras relying on small pixels and low resolutions such as VGA. We report on batch fabricated customer specific opto-electronical modules used in machine sensing and automotive applications relying on large pixel sizes and non-conventional sensor characteristics. We specially focus on the lens mold mastering for the subsequent UV-replication since comparatively large sag heights of 250μm are required. Two technological approaches were applied, first, based on reflow of photoresist and, second, using diamond turning for the generation of a single lens mold and a subsequent step&repeat-process for array mastering on 8" wafers. Aspects of the optical design and simulation, the batch fabrication based on 8" wafers and characterization results are provided by the example of an f/1.1 opto-electronic sensor and an objective for a global shutter imager using 550x550 pixels with 3.6μm pitch.

  13. Fault Diagnosis of Batch Reactor Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Subramanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault diagnosis of a batch reactor gives the early detection of fault and minimizes the risk of thermal runaway. It provides superior performance and helps to improve safety and consistency. It has become more vital in this technical era. In this paper, support vector machine (SVM is used to estimate the heat release (Qr of the batch reactor both normal and faulty conditions. The signature of the residual, which is obtained from the difference between nominal and estimated faulty Qr values, characterizes the different natures of faults occurring in the batch reactor. Appropriate statistical and geometric features are extracted from the residual signature and the total numbers of features are reduced using SVM attribute selection filter and principle component analysis (PCA techniques. artificial neural network (ANN classifiers like multilayer perceptron (MLP, radial basis function (RBF, and Bayes net are used to classify the different types of faults from the reduced features. It is observed from the result of the comparative study that the proposed method for fault diagnosis with limited number of features extracted from only one estimated parameter (Qr shows that it is more efficient and fast for diagnosing the typical faults.

  14. Perancangan Sistem Pengaduk Pada Bioreaktor Batch Untuk Meningkatkan Produksi Biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candrika Widiartanti Yuwono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Proses anaerob merupakan proses fermentasi dimana memiliki proses yang berlangsung cukup lama. Dan pada bioreaktor anaerob sistem batch, diduga terdapat indikasi pada penurunan jumlah produksi biogas, yang disebabkan karena tejadi pengendapan atau pemisahan antara limbah cair dengan padatannya. Untuk itu muncul upaya untuk melakukan sistem pengadukan agar terjadi homogenitas dan bisa menyerupai seperti kondisi awal, sehingga diharapkan dapat memperpanjang masa produksi biogas. Adapun pengadukan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berpengaruh pada kehidupan mikroba. Dan pada penelitian ini akan dilakukan perancangan sistem pengaduk yang digerakkan oleh sebuah motor dimana menggunakan timer dan pengatur kecepatan. Desain disesuaikan dengan substrat yang digunakan yaitu limbah cair tahu dan eceng gondok, yang mengalami pengendapan sehingga pada pengaduk memiliki blade yang diletakkan di dasar dalam bioreaktor. Sistem pengadukan dilakukan pada saat nilai pH yang diamati tiap harinya mengalami penurunan, yaitu pada hari ke–24 pH bernilai 6,49. Dan pada pengukuran berikutnya ditunjukkan dengan pH bernilai 6,89. Pengadukan dilakukan secara pelan dengan putaran 170 rpm selama 2 x 1 menit. Hasil daripada jumlah produksi biogas yang dihasilkan bisa dibandingkan antara bioreaktor batch tidak berpengaduk dengan bioreaktor batch berpengaduk, dimana berturut-turut memiliki jumlah volume 467 mL (25 hari dan 873 mL (31 hari.

  15. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart VVVVVV of Part 63 Protection of Environment... of Part 63—Emission Limits and Compliance Requirements for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.11496, you must comply with the requirements for batch process vents as shown in the following...

  16. A General framework for the Synthesis and Operational Design of Batch Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodlogy for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  17. A general framework for the synthesis and operational design of batch processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaeconomou, Eirini; Gani, Rafiqul; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a general problem formulation and a general methodology for the synthesis of batch operations and the operational design of individual batch processes, such as mixing, reaction and separation. The general methodology described supplies the batch routes...

  18. Look-ahead strategies for controlling batch operations in industry : basic insights in rule construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Sullivan, W.A.; Ahmad, M.M.; Fichtner, D.; Sauer, W.; Weigert, G.; Zerna, T.

    2002-01-01

    Batching jobs in a manufacturing system is a very common policy in most industries. Main reasons for batching are avoidance of set ups and/or facilitation of material handling. Examples of batch-wise production systems are ovens found in aircraft industry and in semiconductor manufacturing. Starting

  19. OSAT: a tool for sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Batch effect is one type of variability that is not of primary interest but ubiquitous in sizable genomic experiments. To minimize the impact of batch effects, an ideal experiment design should ensure the even distribution of biological groups and confounding factors across batches. However, due to the practical complications, the availability of the final collection of samples in genomics study might be unbalanced and incomplete, which, without appropriate attention in sample-to-batch allocation, could lead to drastic batch effects. Therefore, it is necessary to develop effective and handy tool to assign collected samples across batches in an appropriate way in order to minimize the impact of batch effects. Results We describe OSAT (Optimal Sample Assignment Tool, a bioconductor package designed for automated sample-to-batch allocations in genomics experiments. Conclusions OSAT is developed to facilitate the allocation of collected samples to different batches in genomics study. Through optimizing the even distribution of samples in groups of biological interest into different batches, it can reduce the confounding or correlation between batches and the biological variables of interest. It can also optimize the homogeneous distribution of confounding factors across batches. It can handle challenging instances where incomplete and unbalanced sample collections are involved as well as ideally balanced designs.

  20. San Isidoro de León. Construcción y reconstrucción de una basílica románica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utrero Agudo, M.ª Á.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the main results obtained thanks to the archaeological analysis of the standing walls of the basilica of San Isidoro de León, paying special attention to those affecting its conception and evolution during the 11th and 12th centuries. The research devoted to this building is characterised by a long debate regarding its buildings phases and the patronage of the monarchy of Leon. The analysis records an original basilica built in the mid 11th century. This construction is substituted by another one bigger in scale and with a transept, which suffers an immediate ruin that will mainly destroy the occidental area of the hall. The brick vaults and the Lamb’s Door sited in this part of the building belong thus to the restoration works carried out in the mid 12th century.Este artículo presenta los principales resultados obtenidos en el análisis arqueológico de los alzados de la basílica de San Isidoro de León, centrándose principalmente en aquellos que afectan a su concepción y evolución durante los siglos XI y XII. La extensa investigación que se ha ocupado de este edificio se caracteriza por un prolongado debate en torno a sus fases constructivas y al mecenazgo de la monarquía leonesa. El presente análisis constata una basílica originaria construida a mediados del siglo XI. Esta construcción será sustituida por otra de mayor escala y con transepto, la cual sufre una temprana ruina que afectará principalmente a la mitad occidental del aula. Tanto las bóvedas de ladrillo de esa zona como la Puerta del Cordero pertenecen a la obra de restauración de mediados del siglo XII.

  1. Från standardprogram till utbildning i toppklass. Programutveckling av Tekniskt basår vid Chalmers tekniska högskola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Blomqvist

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I undersökning efter undersökning har larmrapporter beskrivit svenska elevers försämrade kunskaper i framförallt matematik. På landets högskolor har detta blivit ett växande problem eftersom många kurser kräver förkunskaper i matematik för att en student skall kunna tillgodogöra sig kursinnehållet. Särskilt de tekniska högskolorna har upplevt ”kunskapsraset” som problematiskt. Mot bakgrund av detta påbörjades för 10 år sedan en omarbetning av Tekniskt basår på Chalmers tekniska högskola. Bland annat gjordes kurserna i matematik mer omfattande och teoretiska moment infördes. En rekommenderad nivågruppering genomfördes där extra stödåtgärder sattes in för att stödja mer svagpresterande studenter. Förändringsarbetet resulterade i att andelen studenter som klarade samtliga kurser ökade signifikant, antal avhopp från programmet minskade och att basårsstudenterna i genomsnitt klarade sig bättre i sina fortsatta studier än de som kom direkt från gymnasiet. Författaren beskriver i artikeln hur ovanstående förändringsarbete gick till.

  2. Kinetic study of batch and fed-batch enzymatic saccharification of pretreated substrate and subsequent fermentation to ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta Rishi; Kumar Sanjay; Gomes James; Kuhad Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Enzymatic hydrolysis, the rate limiting step in the process development for biofuel, is always hampered by its low sugar concentration. High solid enzymatic saccharification could solve this problem but has several other drawbacks such as low rate of reaction. In the present study we have attempted to enhance the concentration of sugars in enzymatic hydrolysate of delignified Prosopis juliflora, using a fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis approach. Results The enzymatic hydroly...

  3. Acquisition of data from on-line laser turbidimeter and calculation of some kinetic variables in computer-coupled automated fed-batch culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Output signals of a commercially available on-line laser turbidimeter exhibit fluctuations due to air and/or CO2 bubbles. A simple data processing algorithm and a personal computer software have been developed to smooth the noisy turbidity data acquired, and to utilize them for the on-line calculations of some kinetic variables involved in batch and fed-batch cultures of uniformly dispersed microorganisms. With this software, about 103 instantaneous turbidity data acquired over 55 s are averaged and convert it to dry cell concentration, X, every minute. Also, volume of the culture broth, V, is estimated from the averaged output data of weight loss of feed solution reservoir, W, using an electronic balance on which the reservoir is placed. Then, the computer software is used to perform linear regression analyses over the past 30 min of the total biomass, VX, the natural logarithm of the total biomass, ln(VX), and the weight loss, W, in order to calculate volumetric growth rate, d(VX)/dt, specific growth rate, μ [ = dln(VX)/dt] and the rate of W, dW/dt, every minute in a fed-batch culture. The software used to perform the first-order regression analyses of VX, ln(VX) and W was applied to batch or fed-batch cultures of Escherichia coli on minimum synthetic or natural complex media. Sample determination coefficients of the three different variables (VX, ln(VX) and W) were close to unity, indicating that the calculations are accurate. Furthermore, growth yield, Yx/s, and specific substrate consumption rate, qsc, were approximately estimated from the data, dW/dt and in a ‘balanced’ fed-batch culture of E. coli on the minimum synthetic medium where the computer-aided substrate-feeding system automatically matches well with the cell growth. (author)

  4. A design algorithm for batch stirred tank transesterification reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Simplified algorithm for batch biodiesel reactor design was developed. ► C Sharp software tool for implementing the algorithm was also developed. ► 50 L/batch reactor was constructed and used to process neem oil biodiesel. ► Results showed that the produced neem biodiesel is a fuel grade product. ► Scale-up of the reactor was carried out using the developed software. - Abstract: A 50 L per batch, stirred tank reactor, suitable for carrying out transesterification of vegetable oils was designed and constructed. The major design assumptions included stainless steel plate thickness of 2 mm, reaction temperature of 60–65 °C and an initial/final fluid temperature of 25/70 °C. The calculated impeller Reynolds number was in the mixed regime zone of 10–104; the power number was varied between 1 and 5, while a typical propeller speed of 22.5 rev/s (or 1350 rev/min) was adopted. The limiting design conditions were maximum reactor diameter of 1.80 m, straight side height-to-diameter ratio in the range of 0.75–1.5 and minimum agitator motor power of 746 W (1 Hp). Based upon the design, a simple algorithm was developed and interpreted into Microsoft C Sharp computer programming language to enable scale up of the reactor. Performance testing of the realized reactor was carried out while using it to produce Neem oil biodiesel via base – catalyzed methanolysis, which yielded high quality fuel product.

  5. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists.

  6. Persistence of Escherichia coli in batch and continuous vermicomposting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Martin, Vincent J J; Gélinas, Yves

    2016-10-01

    Vermicomposting is a biooxidation process in which epigeicearthworms act in synergy with microbial populations to degrade organic matter. Vermicomposting does not go through a thermophilic stage as required by North American legislations for pathogen eradication. We examined the survival of a Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) labeled Escherichia coli MG1655 as a model for the survival of pathogenic bacteria in both small-scale batch and medium-scale continuously-operated systems to discern the influence of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, nutrient content and the indigenous vermicompost microbial community on pathogen abundance. In batch systems, the microbial community had the greatest influence on the rapid decline of E. coli populations, and the effect of earthworms was only visible in microbially-impoverishedvermicomposts. No significant earthworm density-dependent relationship was observed on E. coli survival under continuous operation. E. coli numbers decreased below the US EPA compost sanitation guidelines of 10(3)Colony Forming Units (CFU)/g (dry weight) within 18-21days for both the small-scale batch and medium-scale continuous systems, but it took up to 51days without earthworms and with an impoverished microbial community to reach the legal limit. Nutrient replenishment (i.e. organic carbon) provided by continuous feed input did not appear to extend E. coli survival. In fact, longer survival of E. coli was noticed in treatments where less total and labile sugars were available, suggesting that sugars may support potentially antagonist bacteria in the vermicompost. Total N, pH and humidity did not appear to affect E. coli survival. Several opportunistic human pathogens may be found in vermicompost, and their populations are likely kept in check by antagonists. PMID:27499290

  7. REAL WASTE TESTING OF SLUDGE BATCH 5 MELTER FEED RHEOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Stone, M.

    2010-03-17

    Clogging of the melter feed loop at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has reduced the throughput of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing. After completing a data review, DWPF attributed the clogging to the rheological properties of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) project. The yield stress of the SB5 melter feed material was expected to be high, based on the relatively high pH of the SME product and the rheological results of a previous Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  8. Simple multicomponent batch distillation procedure with a variable reflux policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut procedure for batch distillation simulation with a variable reflux policy. The procedure starts from a shortcut method developed by Sundaram and Evans in 1993 and uses an iterative cycle to calculate the reflux ratio at each moment. The functional relationship between the concentrations at the bottom and the dome is evaluated using the Fenske equation and is complemented with the equations proposed by Underwood and Gilliland. The results of this procedure are consistent with those obtained using a fast method widely validated in the relevant literature.

  9. Batch Mode Data Analysis at ORNL for Radiation Portal Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Global Nuclear Security Technology Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed two batch-mode data analysis tools to address the volume of data generated by radiation portal monitors (RPMs) deployed by the Second Line of Defense (SLD). The first of these tools, the ORNL Data Portal (ORNLDP), serves as both a repository and an analysis environment for the data generated by RPMs. The second tool, the In-Country Analysis Tool (ICAT), is portable and serves primarily as a small-scale analysis environment.

  10. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; Vautard, R.; Z. Klimont; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed bas...

  11. Application of Forward Osmosis Membrane in a Sequential Batch Reactor for Water Reuse

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Qingyu

    2011-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a novel membrane process that potentially can be used as an energy-saving alternative to conventional membrane processes. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance of a FO membrane to draw water from wastewater using seawater as draw solution. A study on a novel osmotic sequential batch reactor (OsSBR) was explored. In this system, a plate and frame FO cell including two flat-sheet FO membranes was submerged in a bioreactor treating the wastewater. We found it feasible to treat the wastewater by the OsSBR process. The DOC removal rate was 98.55%. Total nitrogen removal was 62.4% with nitrate, nitrite and ammonium removals of 58.4%, 96.2% and 88.4% respectively. Phosphate removal was almost 100%. In this OsSBR system, the 15-hour average flux for a virgin membrane with air scouring is 3.103 LMH. After operation of 3 months, the average flux of a fouled membrane is 2.390 LMH with air scouring (23% flux decline). Air scouring can help to remove the loose foulants on the active layer, thus helping to maintain the flux. Cleaning of the FO membrane fouled in the active layer was probably not effective under the conditions of immersing the membrane in the bioreactor. LC-OCD results show that the FO membrane has a very good performance in rejecting biopolymers, humics and building blocks, but a limited ability in rejecting low molecular weight neutrals.

  12. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  13. Inventario y clasificación de manifestaciones basálticas de Patagonia mediante imágenes satelitales y SIG, Provincia de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Mazzoni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Las mesetas basálticas constituyen un rasgo típico del paisaje patagónico. Su génesis está vinculada a derrames de lavas máficas que se produjeron en distintos períodos efusivos durante el Terciario y Cuaternario. De acuerdo a su edad, la morfología de los mantos lávicos ha sido modificada por diferentes procesos erosivos. Las coladas más antiguas han quedado sobreelevadas decenas a centenas de metros por procesos de inversión del relieve. En la zona de contacto entre el manto basáltico y la roca subyacente se originan manantiales que brindan un aporte de agua extra al ambiente patagónico extracordillerano, favoreciendo el desarrollo de pastizales húmedos (mallines que constituyen un recurso natural de alto valor económico, ecológico y escénico. Con el fin de contar con una herramienta que permita evaluar su importancia hidrológica, se llevó a cabo un inventario de estas formas volcánicas en la provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina. Para ello se aplicaron técnicas de procesamiento digital e interpretación visual de imágenes satelitales de mediana resolución espacial. Los resultados se expresaron cartográficamente y mediante bases de datos, integrándose la información en un entorno S.I.G. Los datos obtenidos para cada campo volcánico, referidos a aspectos topográficos, geológicos y geomorfológicos, superficie del campo lávico y presencia de mallines en sus laderas y áreas próximas, fueron analizados estadísticamente. La información así generada permitió obtener una caracterización general de estas formas del paisaje y diseñar un sistema de clasificación, además de corroborar su importancia en la localización y desarrollo de los mallines.

  14. Basında Yer Alan Namus Cinayetlerinin Sosyolojik Analizi /A Sociological Analysis of Honor Killings Reported by the Mass Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Hayriye İNCİ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Öz Erkek egemen toplumlarda kadına yönelik şiddetin kısmi bir kabul gördüğü bilinmektedir. Kadına yönelik şiddetin özel bir şekli de namus cinayetleridir. Son zamanlarda ulusal medyada kendisine oldukça fazla yer bulan namus cinayetleri, sosyolojik çalışmalarda da kendisine yer bulmaya başlamıştır. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’de son zamanlarda oldukça sık tartışılan namus cinayetlerinin sosyal ve kültürel hayattaki durumunu tartışmaya açmaktadır. Çalışma basında yer alan namus cinayetleri ile sınırlıdır. Çalışmada içerik analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Bu bağlamda, Türkiye’de meydana gelen namus cinayetlerinin yoğun olarak ortaya çıktığı bölgelerdeki sosyal sorunlar, farklı bölgelerdeki sosyal yapının namus cinayetlerini nasıl etkilediği, toplumda nasıl yansıma bulduğu ve özellikle kadınlar tarafından nasıl algılandığı konusu, basına yansıyan haberlerin içerik çözümlemesiyle ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Abstract Violence against women is somewhat acceptable in societies which dominated by the patriarchal system. One of the aspects of violence against women is honor killings. Nowadays, honor killings take place pretty much in Turkish national media. This article discusses the social and cultural basis of honor killings debated quite often recently. The work is limited to honor killings reported by mass media. In the work the content analysis method was used. In this context, social problems and social structures of different regions of Turkey analyzed to determine the source of problem. Additionally, the place of the honor killings, how they come up, and their effects on women and society have been presented with the content analysis of the news on the media.

  15. Physical volcanology, geochemistry and basin evolution of the Ediacaran volcano-sedimentary succession in the Bas Draâ inlier (Ouarzazate Supergroup, Western Anti-Atlas, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoui, Brahim; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Youbi, Nasrrddine

    2014-11-01

    New geologic mapping, lithofacies and granulometric analysis, and geochemistry from the volcano-sedimentary successions of the central part of the Bas Draâ inlier, Western Anti-Atlas, constrain the Ediacaran Ouarzazate Supergroup evolution during the post-collisional stage of the Pan-African orogeny. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis is the key aspect of the present contribution. We distinguished sixteen terrestrial volcanosedimentary lithofacies in the Bas Draâ succession (BDS), which reaches a total thickness of 2000 m. BDS evolution can be grouped into four units (Aouinet Aït Oussa I to IV, AO I-AO IV). The earliest volcanic activity produced rhyolitic ignimbrite sheets (AO I), which had been considered as lava flows by previous workers, and which were presumably related to caldera system(s). During AO II, a complex of high-silica andesitic and rhyolitic lavas formed, punctuated by the explosive eruption of a high-temperature silica-rich magma leading to the formation of parataxitic ignimbrite. AO III consists of basalt and andesite lava fields and small explosive, in parts phreatomagmatic volcanic vents. It is dissected by fluvial systems depositing external non-volcanic and local volcanic debris. BDS evolution terminated with the formation of a large SiO2-rich lava dome complex (AO IV), accompanied by small basalt effusive event. Volcanosedimentary facies analysis infers that the BDS evolved in a continental extensional setting developing in a low topography under humid paleoclimatic conditions. Alteration textures are dominated by a piemontite-calcite-albite-quartz (+ iron oxides) assemblage. Chemical analysis of BDS volcanic and subvolcanic rocks belongs to high-k calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic to alkaline magmatic trend typical for a post-collision setting. Trace elements spidergrams show a pattern typical for subduction-related suites of orogenic belts. REE patterns show moderate enrichment in LREE relative to flat HREE, with strong negative Eu

  16. Detection and isolation of Bluetongue virus from commercial vaccine batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumbarov, Velizar; Golender, Natalia; Erster, Oran; Khinich, Yevgeny

    2016-06-14

    In this report we describe the detection and identification of Bluetongue virus (BTV) contaminations in commercial vaccines. BTV RNA was detected in vaccine batches of Lumpy skin disease (LSD) and Sheep pox (SP) using quantitative PCR (qPCR) for VP1 and NS3 genes. Both batches were positive for VP1 and NS3 in qPCR. The LSD vaccine-derived sample was positive for VP1 and VP2 in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was examined by amplification of VP1, VP4, VP6, VP7, NS2 and NS3 gene segments in conventional PCR. The SP vaccine-derived sample was further propagated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) and Vero cells. Preliminary sequence analysis showed that the LSD vaccine-derived sequence was 98-99% similar to BTV9. Analysis of the six genomic segments from the SP vaccine-derived isolate showed the highest similarity to BTV26 (66.3-97.8%). These findings are particularly important due to the effect of BTV on cattle and sheep, for which the vaccines are intended. They also demonstrate the necessity of rigorous vaccine inspection and strict vaccine production control. PMID:27171751

  17. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  18. Transfer bonding technology for batch fabrication of SMA microactuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grund, T.; Guerre, R.; Despont, M.; Kohl, M.

    2008-05-01

    Currently, the broad market introduction of shape memory alloy (SMA) microactuators and sensors is hampered by technological barriers, since batch fabrication methods common to electronics industry are not available. The present study intends to overcome these barriers by introducing a wafer scale transfer process that allows the selective transfer of heat-treated and micromachined shape memory alloy (SMA) film or foil microactuators to randomly selected receiving sites on a target substrate. The technology relies on a temporary adhesive bonding layer between SMA film/foil and an auxiliary substrate, which can be removed by laser ablation. The transfer technology was tested for microactuators of a cold-rolled NiTi foil of 20 μm thickness, which were heat-treated in free-standing condition, then micromachined on an auxiliary substrate of glass, and finally selectively transferred to different target substrates of a polymer. For demonstration, the new technology was used for batch-fabrication of SMA-actuated polymer microvalves.

  19. SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR: A PROMISING TECHNOLOGY IN WASTEWATER TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Mahvi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater to surface or groundwater is very dangerous to the environment. Therefore treatment of any kind of wastewater to produce effluent with good quality is necessary. In this regard choosing an effective treatment system is important. Sequencing batch reactor is a modification of activated sludge process which has been successfully used to treat municipal and industrial wastewater. The process could be applied for nutrients removal, high biochemical oxygen demand containing industrial wastewater, wastewater containing toxic materials such as cyanide, copper, chromium, lead and nickel, food industries effluents, landfill leachates and tannery wastewater. Of the process advantages are single-tank configuration, small foot print, easily expandable, simple operation and low capital costs. Many researches have been conducted on this treatment technology. The authors had been conducted some investigations on a modification of sequencing batch reactor. Their studies resulted in very high percentage removal of biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total kjeldahl nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total suspended solids respectively. This paper reviews some of the published works in addition to experiences of the authors.

  20. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  1. Treatemnt of Wastewater with Modified Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡龙兴; 刘宇陆

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the removel of COD and nitrogen from wastewater with modified sequencing batch biofilm reactor,The strategy of simultaneous feeding and draining was explored.The results show that introduction of a new batch of wastewater and withdrawal of the purifeid water can be conducted simultaneously with the maximum volumetric exchange rate of about 70%,Application of this feeding and draining mode leads to the reduction of the cycle time,the increase of the utilization of the reactor volume and the simplification of the reactor structure.The treatment of a synthetic wastewater containing COD and nitrogen was investigated.The operation mode of F(D)-O(i.e.,simultaneous feeding and draining followed by the aerobic condition)was adopted.It was found that COD was degraded very fast in the initial reaction period of time,then reduced slowly and the ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen concentrations decreased and increased with time respectively,while the nitrite nitrogen level increased first and then reduced.The relationship between the COD or ammonia nitrogen loading and its removal rate was examined,and the removal of COD,ammonia nitrogen and total nitrogen could exceed 95%,90%and 80% respectively,The fact that nitrogen could e removed more completely under constant aeration(aerobic condition)of the SBBR operation mode is very interesting and could be explained in several respects.

  2. Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis under fed-batch culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A. Furlan

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol production by Candida parapsilosis was investigated under fed-batch cultivation, using single (xylose or mixed (xylose and glucose sugars as substrates. The presence of glucose in the medium induced the production of ethanol as secondary metabolite and improved specific rates of growth, xylitol formation and substrate consumption. Fractionated supply of the feed medium at constant sugar concentration did not promote any increase on the productivity compared to the single batch cultivation.A produção de xylitol por Candida parapsilosis foi investigada em regime de batelada alimentada, usando substratos açucarados de composição simples (xilose ou composta (xilose e glicose. A presença de glicose no meio induziu a formação de etanol como metabólito secundário. A suplementação fracionada do meio de alimentação numa concentração fixa de açúcar não resultou em aumento da produtividade em relação àquela alcançada em batelada simples.

  3. Batch Attribute-Based Encryption for Secure Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage is widely used by organizations due to its advantage of allowing universal access with low cost. Attribute-based encryption (ABE is a kind of public key encryption suitable for cloud storage. The secret key of each user and the ciphertext are associated with an access policy and an attribute set, respectively; in addition to holding a secret key, one can decrypt a ciphertext only if the associated attributes match the predetermined access policy, which allows one to enforce fine-grained access control on outsourced files. One issue in existing ABE schemes is that they are designed for the users of a single organization. When one wants to share the data with the users of different organizations, the owner needs to encrypt the messages to the receivers of one organization and then repeats this process for another organization. This situation is deteriorated with more and more mobile devices using cloud services, as the ABE encryption process is time consuming and may exhaust the power supplies of the mobile devices quickly. In this paper, we propose a batch attribute-based encryption (BABE approach to address this problem in a provably-secure way. With our approach, the data owner can outsource data in batches to the users of different organizations simultaneously. The data owner is allowed to decide the receiving organizations and the attributes required for decryption. Theoretical and experimental analyses show that our approach is more efficient than traditional encryption implementations in computation and communication.

  4. Bagasse hydrolyzates from Agave tequilana as substrates for succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes in batch and repeated batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Varela-Almanza, Karla María; Arriola-Guevara, Enrique; Martínez-Gómez, Álvaro de Jesús; Pelayo-Ortiz, Carlos; Toriz, Guillermo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was to obtain fermentable sugars by enzymatic or acid hydrolyses of Agave tequilana Weber bagasse in order to produce succinic acid with Actinobacillus succinogenes. Hydrolyses were carried out with mineral acids (sulfuric and hydrochloric acids) or a commercial cellulolytic enzyme, and were optimized statistically by a response surface methodology, having as factors the concentration of acid/enzyme and time of hydrolysis. The concentration of sugars obtained at optimal conditions for each hydrolysis were 21.7, 22.4y 19.8g/L for H2SO4, HCl and the enzymatic preparation respectively. Concerning succinic acid production, the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in the highest yield (0.446g/g) and productivity (0.57g/Lh) using A. succinogenes in a batch reactor system. Repeated batch fermentation with immobilized A. succinogenes in agar and with the enzymatic hydrolyzates resulted in a maximum concentration of succinic acid of 33.6g/L from 87.2g/L monosaccharides after 5 cycles in 40h, obtaining a productivity of 1.32g/Lh. PMID:26802183

  5. Intact cell mass spectrometry as a progress tracking tool for batch and fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmel, Michaela; Marchetti-Deschmann, Martina; Raus, Martin; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Šebela, Marek; Allmaier, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Penicillin production during a fermentation process using industrial strains of Penicillium chrysogenum is a research topic permanently discussed since the accidental discovery of the antibiotic. Intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) can be a fast and novel monitoring tool for the fermentation progress during penicillin V production in a nearly real-time fashion. This method is already used for the characterization of microorganisms and the differentiation of fungal strains; therefore, the application of ICMS to samples directly harvested from a fermenter is a promising possibility to get fast information about the progress of fungal growth. After the optimization of the ICMS method to penicillin V fermentation broth samples, the obtained ICMS data were evaluated by hierarchical cluster analysis or an in-house software solution written especially for ICMS data comparison. Growth stages of a batch and fed-batch fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum are differentiated by one of those statistical approaches. The application of two matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) instruments in the linear positive ion mode from different vendors demonstrated the universal applicability of the developed ICMS method. The base for a fast and easy-to-use method for monitoring the fermentation progress of P. chrysogenum is created with this ICMS method developed especially for fermentation broth samples.

  6. Citric acid production from hydrolysate of pretreated straw cellulose by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b using batch and fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Lv, Jinshun; Zhang, Tong; Deng, Yuanfang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, crude cellulase produced by Trichoderma reesei Rut-30 was used to hydrolyze pretreated straw. After the compositions of the hydrolysate of pretreated straw were optimized, the study showed that natural components of pretreated straw without addition of any other components such as (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, or Mg(2+) were suitable for citric acid production by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b, and the optimal ventilatory capacity was 10.0 L/min/L medium. Batch and fed-batch production of citric acid from the hydrolysate of pretreated straw by Yarrowia lipolytica SWJ-1b has been investigated. In the batch cultivation, 25.4 g/L and 26.7 g/L citric acid were yields from glucose and hydrolysate of straw cellulose, respectively, while the cultivation time was 120 hr. In the three-cycle fed-batch cultivation, citric acid (CA) production was increased to 42.4 g/L and the cultivation time was extended to 240 hr. However, iso-citric acid (ICA) yield in fed-batch cultivation (4.0 g/L) was similar to that during the batch cultivation (3.9 g/L), and only 1.6 g/L of reducing sugar was left in the medium at the end of fed-batch cultivation, suggesting that most of the added carbon was used in the cultivation.

  7. Kampaņu "Skaties ceļam acīs!" un "Dzīvības josta" efektivitāte un auditorijas attieksme

    OpenAIRE

    Vanaga, Katrīna

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darba "Kampaņu "Skaties ceļam acīs!" un "Dzīvības josta" efektivitāte un auditorijas attieksme" mērķis ir noskaidrot, kāda ir auditorijas attieksme, kā tās tiek vērtētas, kā arī vai tās ir efektīvas. Teorētiskajā daļā apskatīta teorija par reklāmu, reklāmas efektivitāti un sociālo mārketingu. Pētījumā izmantota kvantiatīvā pētījuma metode – aptauja un divas kvalitatīvas pētījuma metodes – daļēji strukturēta intervija un fokusgrupas diskusija. Bakalaura darbs sastāv no teorētiskās, ...

  8. Sievišķības reprezentācijas tipi žurnālā "Priekš Jums”.

    OpenAIRE

    Jablokova, Valērija

    2016-01-01

    Jablokova Valērija Sievišķības reprezentācijas tipi žurnālā "Priekš Jums”: maģistra darbs.- Rīga, 2016.- 73 lpp. Maģistra darbs ir veltīts sieviešu tipu aprakstošai analīzei un sievišķīguma reprezentācijai Rīgas Parīzes žurnālam „Jums”. Darbs sastāv no divām daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek aplūkots sievišķīguma jēdziens kā dzimuma pazīmju un sieviešu tipu kvalifikāciju literatūrā. Otrā daļā tiek aplūkota sieviešu tipu daudzveidība žurnāla „Jums” aplikācijās, kā arī tiek konkretizēts katra sieviešu t...

  9. Bioenerģētiskā starojuma pētniecības metodes un līdzekļi

    OpenAIRE

    Zommere, G; Trumsiņa, E

    2009-01-01

    Modernajā zinātnē cilvēka ķermenis tiek uzskatīts par enerģētisku sistēmu, kura ap sevi veido bioenerģētisko starojumu. Zinātne, izmantojot tehnoloģiskos atklājumus un pētot senās zināšanas, cenšas noskaidrot auras uzbūvi, izskatu, darbību un saistību ar dažādiem procesiem cilvēka ķermenī un apkārtējā vidē. Bioenerģētiskā starojuma fotogrāfijas tiek uzņemtas ar gāzizlādes vizualizācijas kameru, kuras pirmsākumi meklējami jau 19. gadsimta beigās. Kameras darbības princips balstās uz Kirlian...

  10. La socialisation au travail comme indicateur de développement professionnel : analyse des approches basées sur la mesure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Martineau

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur un aspect particulier du développement professionnel c’est-à-dire la socialisation professionnelle (ou organisationnelle. Plus spécifiquement, ce sont certains des aspects méthodologiques des recherches qui sont ici étudiés. Ainsi, les auteurs conduisent une réflexion critique sur les différents outils de mesure les plus utilisés dans les recherches sur la socialisation professionnelle. Les principales insuffisances des recherches sont identifiées et des pistes de perfectionnement des outils sont esquissées. Ils s’interrogent par ailleurs sur la pertinence des approches basées sur la mesure du processus de socialisation professionnelle.This article focuses on a particular aspect of professional development which is professional or organizational socialization. More specifically, some methodological aspects of research on professional socialization are studied here. Thus, the authors conduct a critical analysis on the various measurement tools used in the research on professional socialization. The main shortcomings of the research are identified and possible development tools are outlined. In addition, they also question the relevance of the approaches based on the measure of the process of professional socialization.

  11. Vidsprieguma gaisvadu elektropārvades līniju mehāniskās stiprības analīze

    OpenAIRE

    Januševskis, A; Meļņikovs, A; Vaicis, I

    2015-01-01

    Šajā darbā tiek piedāvāta gaisvadu elektropārvades līniju (EPL) mehāniskās stiprības analīzes metodika, kas balstās uz CAD/CAE programmatūras izmantošanu. Vispirms ar galīgo tilpumu metodi tiek novērtētas vēja radītās slodzes uz EPL un tās tuvumā esošo mežaudzi. Tad ar galīgo elementu metodi tiek analizēta mežaudzes koku, EPL balstu stabu un vadu stiprība un pašsvārstību frekvences. Papildus tiek pētīta skujkoku un lapkoku noturība pret sniega slodzēm. Parādīt...

  12. Biological Treatment of Leachate using Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WDMC Perera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE TA Abstract   In Sri Lanka municipal solid waste is generally disposed in poorly managed open dumps which lack liner systems and leachate collection systems. Rain water percolates through the waste layers to produce leachate which drains in to ground water and finally to nearby water bodies, degrading the quality of water. Leachate thus has become a major environmental concern in municipal waste management and treatment of leachate is a major challenge for the existing and proposed landfill sites.   The study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the usage of the Sequencing Batch Reactor in the treatment of the landfill leachate up to the proposed levels in the draft report of “Proposed Sri Lankan standard for landfill leachate to be disposed to the inland waters". Leachate collected from the open dumpsite at Meethotamulla, Western Province, Sri Lanka was used for leachate characterization.   SBR was constructed with a 10-liter working volume operated in an 18 hour cycle mode and each cycle consists of 15hours of aerobic, 2h settle and 0.5 h of fill/decant stages. The Dissolved Oxygen level within the SBR was maintained at 2 mg/l through the aerobic stage. Infeed was diluted with water during the acclimatization period and a leachate to water ratio of 55:45 was maintained. The removal efficiencies for different parameters were; COD (90.5%, BOD (92.6%, TS (92.1%, Conductivity (83.9%, Alkalinity (97.4%, Hardness (82.2%, Mg (80.5%, Fe (94.2%, Zn (63.4%, Cr (31.69%, Pb (99.6%, Sulphate (98.9%, and Phosphorus (71.4% respectively. In addition Ni and Cd were removed completely during a single SBR cycle. Thus the dilution of leachate in the dumpsites using municipal wastewater, groundwater or rainwater was identified as the most cost effective dilution methods. The effluent from the Sequencing batch reactor is proposed to be further treated using a constructed wetland before releasing to surface water.

  13. Two-stage assembly-type flowshop batch scheduling problem subject to a fixed job sequence

    OpenAIRE

    F J Hwang; B M T Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a two-stage assembly-type flowshop scheduling problem with batching considerations subject to a fixed job sequence. The two-stage assembly flowshop consists of m stage-1 parallel dedicated machines and a stage-2 assembly machine which processes the jobs in batches. Four regular performance metrics, namely, the total completion time, maximum lateness, total tardiness, and number of tardy jobs, are considered. The goal is to obtain an optimal batching decision for the prede...

  14. A CATASTROPHIC-CUM-RESTORATIVE QUEUING SYSTEM WITH CORRELATED BATCH ARRIVALS AND VARIABLE CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study a catastrophic-cum-restorative queuing system with correlated batch arrivals and service in batches of variable sizes. We perform the transient analysis of the queuing model. We obtain the Laplace Transform of the probability generating function of system size. Finally, some particular cases of the model have been derived and discussed. Keywords: Queue length, Catastrophes, Correlated batch arrivals, Broadband services, Variable service capacity, and Restoration.

  15. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  16. Sample Results From Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-14

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, cations (Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy - ICPES), and anions (Ion Chromatography Anions - IC-A). The analytical results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from previous macrobatch samples. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal (increasing cesium decontamination), due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  17. Study on the numerical simulation of batch sieving process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Hong-guang; MA Jiao; ZHAO Yue-min; CHEN Lun-jian

    2006-01-01

    Screening was widely used in many sectors of industry. However, it is rather incomplete to the cognition of the sieving process for us due to the daedal separation process involving interactions of thousands of particulates. To address this problem, two dimensional numerical simulation of batch sieving process was performed by adopting advanced discrete element method (DEM), which is one of the highly nonlinear digitized dynamic simulative methods and can be used to reveal the quantitative change from particle dimension level. DEM simulation results show that the jam phenomena of sieve-plate apertures of the "blinding particles" in the screen feed can be demonstrated vividly and results also reveal that the velocity of particle moving on the screen plate will vary along with the screen length. This conclusion will be helpful to the design and operation of screen.

  18. Simulated annealing and joint manufacturing batch-sizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Ruhul

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We address an important problem of a manufacturing system. The system procures raw materials from outside suppliers in a lot and processes them to produce finished goods. It proposes an ordering policy for raw materials to meet the requirements of a production facility. In return, this facility has to deliver finished products demanded by external buyers at fixed time intervals. First, a general cost model is developed considering both raw materials and finished products. Then this model is used to develop a simulated annealing approach to determining an optimal ordering policy for procurement of raw materials and also for the manufacturing batch size to minimize the total cost for meeting customer demands in time. The solutions obtained were compared with those of traditional approaches. Numerical examples are presented. .

  19. CONSOLIDATING BATCH AND TRANSACTIONAL WORKLOADS USING DEPENDENCY STRUCTURE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.NIVETHITHA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizations offer efficient services to their customers through cloud. These services can either be a batch or transactional workloads. To offer a real-time service, there comes a need to schedule these workloads in an efficient way. An idea to consolidate these workloads enables us to cut down the energy consumption and infrastructure cost. It will be harder to consolidate both these workloads due to the difference in their nature, performance goals and control mechanisms. The proposed work implements the concept of Dependency Structure Prioritization (DSP to assign priority to the job. This work tends to make effective resource utilization through reducing the number of job migration and missed deadline jobs by considering the deadline and the priority of the job as the most important evaluation factor.

  20. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  1. Analytical study plan: Shielded Cells batch 1 campaign; Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive operations in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will require that the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) perform analyses and special studies with actual Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste sludge. SRS Tank 42 and Tank 51 will comprise the first batch of sludge to be processed in the DWPF. Approximately 25 liters of sludge from each of these tanks will be characterized and processed in the Shielded Cells of SRTC. During the campaign, processes will include sludge characterization, sludge washing, rheology determination, mixing, hydrogen evolution, feed preparation, and vitrification of the waste. To complete the campaign, the glass will be characterized to determine its durability and crystallinity. This document describes the types of samples that will be produced, the sampling schedule and analyses required, and the methods for sample and analytical control

  2. Hadoop distributed batch processing for Gaia: a success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The DPAC Cambridge Data Processing Centre (DPCI) is responsible for the photometric calibration of the Gaia data including the low resolution spectra. The large data volume produced by Gaia (~26 billion transits/year), the complexity of its data stream and the self-calibrating approach pose unique challenges for scalability, reliability and robustness of both the software pipelines and the operations infrastructure. DPCI has been the first in DPAC to realise the potential of Hadoop and Map/Reduce and to adopt them as the core technologies for its infrastructure. This has proven a winning choice allowing DPCI unmatched processing throughput and reliability within DPAC to the point that other DPCs have started following our footsteps. In this talk we will present the software infrastructure developed to build the distributed and scalable batch data processing system that is currently used in production at DPCI and the excellent results in terms of performance of the system.

  3. Hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction in batch bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabot, Giovani L; Mecca, Jaqueline; Mesomo, Michele; Silva, Marceli F; Prá, Valéria Dal; de Oliveira, Débora; Oliveira, J Vladimir; Castilhos, Fernanda; Treichel, Helen; Mazutti, Marcio A

    2011-10-01

    This work is focused on hybrid modeling of xanthan gum bioproduction process by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae. Experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of stirred speed and superficial gas velocity on the kinetics of cell growth, lactose consumption and xanthan gum production in a batch bioreactor using cheese whey as substrate. A hybrid model was employed to simulate the bio-process making use of an artificial neural network (ANN) as a kinetic parameter estimator for the phenomenological model. The hybrid modeling of the process provided a satisfactory fitting quality of the experimental data, since this approach makes possible the incorporation of the effects of operational variables on model parameters. The applicability of the validated model was investigated, using the model as a process simulator to evaluate the effects of initial cell and lactose concentration in the xanthan gum production.

  4. Uranium Adsorption on Granular Activated Carbon – Batch Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Golovich, Elizabeth C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The uranium adsorption performance of two activated carbon samples (Tusaar Lot B-64, Tusaar ER2-189A) was tested using unadjusted source water from well 299-W19-36. These batch tests support ongoing performance optimization efforts to use the best material for uranium treatment in the Hanford Site 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. A linear response of uranium loading as a function of the solution-to-solid ratio was observed for both materials. Kd values ranged from ~380,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the B-64 material and ~200,000 to >1,900,000 ml/g for the ER2-189A material. Uranium loading values ranged from 10.4 to 41.6 μg/g for the two Tusaar materials.

  5. Treatment of Laboratory Wastewater by Sequence Batch reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These studies were conducted on the characterization and treatment of sewage mixed with waste -water of research and testing laboratory (PCSIR Laboratories Lahore). In this study all the parameters COD, BOD and TSS etc of influent (untreated waste-water) and effluent (treated waste-water) were characterized using the standard methods of examination for water and waste-water. All the results of the analyzed waste-water parameters were above the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS) set at National level. Treatment of waste-water was carried out by conventional sequencing batch reactor technique (SBR) using aeration and settling technique in the same treatment reactor at laboratory scale. The results of COD after treatment were reduced from (90-95 %), BOD (95-97 %) and TSS (96-99 %) and the reclaimed effluent quality was suitable for gardening purposes. (author)

  6. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  7. Fed-batch Fermentation of Lactic Acid Bacteria to Improve Biomass Production: A Theoretical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beng Lee, Boon; Tham, Heng Jin; Chan, Eng Seng

    Recently, fed-batch fermentation has been introduced in an increasing number of fermentation processes. Previous researches showed that fed-batch fermentation can increase the biomass yield of many strains. Improvement of the biomass yield is interested because biomass from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is widely used in food and pharmaceutical industry. The aim of this research is to study the ability and feasibility of fed-batch fermentation to improve biomass production of LAB. Appropriate model has been selected from literature. Monod equation described the substrate limitation of LAB and the product inhibition of LAB follows a non-competitive model. Furthermore, the lactic acid production follows Luedeking and Piret model. Then the models are applied to simulate the fermentation of batch and fed-batch cultures by using MATLAB. From the results of simulation, fed-batch fermentation showed that substrate limitation and substrate inhibition can be avoided. Besides that, the variable volume fed-batch fermentation also showed that product inhibition can be eliminated by diluting the product concentration with added fresh feed. However, it was found that fed-batch fermentation is not economically feasible because large amount of substrate is required to reduce the product inhibition effect. Therefore, fed-batch fermentation plays more importance role if the fermentation strain has high Ks value or low Kp value.

  8. Analysis of Mixing Characteristics of Batch Stirred Vessels Using the Networks-of-Zones Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Batch stirred vessels, being devoid of through flow, cannot be assessed by the classical response technique. However, visible inert tracers can be readily observed in a batch or semi-batch stirred vessel. Visible images of the mixing and dispersion of the tracer present a picture in both space and time of the mixing process. Axi-symmetric networks of backmixed zones were used in an image reconstruction approach to analytically characterize the mixing. Computer generated images were compared with experimental results. The qualitative agreement between the observed and calculated images suggests that the analysis of batch stirred reactors can be used to guide operational strategies to control internal concentration fields.

  9. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  10. Increased CPC batch size study for Tank 42 sludge in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been completed at TNX for the sludge-only REDOX adjusted flowsheet using Tank 42 sludge simulant in response to the Technical Task Request HLW/DWPT/TTR-980013 to increase CPC batch sizes. By increasing the initial SRAT batch size, a melter feed batch at greater waste solids concentration can be prepared and thus increase melter output per batch by about one canister. The increased throughput would allow DWPF to dispose of more waste in a given time period thus shortening the overall campaign

  11. Retardation characteristics of radionuclides in geologic media through batch and packed column experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batch and packed column experiments are performed to investigate the retardation characteristics of radionuclide,i.e, Cs-137 in geologic media. In batch experiment, the effects of important parameters on the sorption of radionuclide in geologic media, such as nuclide concentration, pH, and particle size are examined. The Kd value obtained from breakthrough curve was compared with that from the batch sorption experiment to investigate the applicability of the Kd value from batch experiment to prediction of radionuclide migration in dynamic flow through porous media. The proposed model of radionuclide migration in porous media is also verified using the experimental results. (Author)

  12. Sludge Batch 2 (Marcobath 3) Flowsheet Studies with Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D.C.

    2001-03-02

    Sludge-only process simulations of the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle were conducted for the two most likely scenarios for Sludge Batch 2 (Macrobatch 3). The two scenarios are a roughly 50:50 blend of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge and Tank 40 washed sludge by itself. The testing used new simulants of Tank 8 and Tank 40 washed sludge prepared at the University of South Carolina. The washing endpoint was about 0.5 moles sodium per liter supernate. This report summarizes both the simulant preparation and process simulation activities. The rheology work requested in the Task Plan will be documented in a separate report. Two scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for Tank 40 sludge. This was followed by a complete SRAT and SME simulation using Sludge Batch 1B acid stoichiometry (137.5 percent). Four scoping SRAT simulations were conducted for the Tank 8/40 blend. Three complete SRAT and SME simulations using blended sludge were then performed. One was at the recommended acid stoichiometry of 125 percent. The second used identical acid stoichiometry with HM levels of noble metals. The final run was at worst case noble metals and assumed complete transfer of the Formic Acid Feed Tank. Testing was completed without any major incidents. Hydrogen flow rates in excess of the design bases (0.65 lbs./hr for the SRAT and 0.23 lbs./hr for the SME) are marked in bold. Full details on the noble metals concentrations can be found in the body of the report.

  13. Integrating PROOF Analysis in Cloud and Batch Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Energy Physics (HEP) analysis are becoming more complex and demanding due to the large amount of data collected by the current experiments. The Parallel ROOT Facility (PROOF) provides researchers with an interactive tool to speed up the analysis of huge volumes of data by exploiting parallel processing on both multicore machines and computing clusters. The typical PROOF deployment scenario is a permanent set of cores configured to run the PROOF daemons. However, this approach is incapable of adapting to the dynamic nature of interactive usage. Several initiatives seek to improve the use of computing resources by integrating PROOF with a batch system, such as Proof on Demand (PoD) or PROOF Cluster. These solutions are currently in production at Universidad de Oviedo and IFCA and are positively evaluated by users. Although they are able to adapt to the computing needs of users, they must comply with the specific configuration, OS and software installed at the batch nodes. Furthermore, they share the machines with other workloads, which may cause disruptions in the interactive service for users. These limitations make PROOF a typical use-case for cloud computing. In this work we take profit from Cloud Infrastructure at IFCA in order to provide a dynamic PROOF environment where users can control the software configuration of the machines. The Proof Analysis Framework (PAF) facilitates the development of new analysis and offers a transparent access to PROOF resources. Several performance measurements are presented for the different scenarios (PoD, SGE and Cloud), showing a speed improvement closely correlated with the number of cores used.

  14. Optimal control of batch emulsion polymerization of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damslora, Andre Johan

    1998-12-31

    The highly exothermic polymerization of vinyl chloride (VC) is carried out in large vessels where the heat removal represents a major limitation of the production rate. Many emulsion polymerization reactors are operated in such a way that a substantial part of the heat transfer capacity is left unused for a significant part of the total batch time. To increase the reaction rate so that it matches the heat removal capacity during the course of the reaction, this thesis proposes the use of a sufficiently flexible initiator system to obtain a reaction rate which is high throughout the reaction and real-time optimization to compute the addition policy for the initiator. This optimization based approach provides a basis for an interplay between design and control and between production and research. A simple model is developed for predicting the polymerization rate. The model is highly nonlinear and open-loop unstable and may serve as an interesting case for comparison of nonlinear control strategies. The model is fitted to data obtained in a laboratory scale reactor. Finally, the thesis discusses optimal control of the emulsion polymerization reactor. Reduction of the batch cycle time is of major economic importance, as long as the quality parameters are within their specifications. The control parameterization had a major influence on the performance. A differentiable spline parameterization was applied and the optimization is illustrated in a number of cases. The best performance is obtained when the reactor temperature is obtained when the optimization is combined with some form of closed-loop control of the reactor temperature. 112 refs., 48 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Analysis of selected problems of biomass combustion process in batch boilers - experimental and numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szubel Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to list numerous groups of heating units that are used in households, such as boilers, stoves and units used as supporting heat sources, namely fireplaces. In each case, however, the same operational problems may be evoked [1]. To understand the causes of energy losses in a boiler system, a proper definition of significant elements of the unit’s heat balance is necessary. In the group of energy losses, the flue gas loss and the incomplete combustion loss are the most significant factors. The problem with the loss resulting from incomplete combustion, which is related to the presence of combustible substances in the exhaust, is especially significant in case of biomass boilers [2, 3]. The paper presents results of the research and the optimisation of the biomass combustion process in the 180 kW batch boiler. The studies described have been focused on the reduction of the pollutants emission, which was primarily realised by the modifications of the air feeding system. Results of the experiments and the CFD simulations have been compared and discussed. Both in case of the model as well as the experiment, positive influence of the modifications on the emission have been observed.

  16. Batch uniformity and energy efficiency improvements on a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precoppe, Marcelo; Janjai, Serm; Mahayothee, Busarakorn; Müller, Joachim

    2015-08-01

    Drying can add value, facilitate transport and extend the storage life of agro-products; therefore, in developing countries with poorly established cool-chains, drying is particularly effective. Furthermore, drying within small-scale village-based enterprises contributes to rural development. However, most equipment suitable to such operations yields a product of non-uniform quality and shows low levels of energy efficiency. The aim of this research was to improve the batch uniformity and the energy efficiency of a cabinet dryer suitable for smallholder farmers. Experiments were carried out with the cooperation of a dryer manufacturer and a group of users. On each trial 144.5 kg of peeled and deseeded litchis were placed at the dryer's 17 trays, that were stacked atop each other. Moisture content (wet basis) was reduced from 87 to 23 % in about 15.5 h. It was found that a low-cost modification to the dryer chamber's air inlet was able to improve heat distribution and increase the uniformity of the fruit's moisture content. In the original design, at the end of the drying process, moisture content of the fruits on the top tray was 38 % while at the bottom tray was 12 %. The modification to the dryer reduced this disparity and the final moisture content of the fruits placed at the top tray was 25 % while at the bottom tray was 21 %. In addition, the modification reduced the dryer's air mass flow from 0.3 to 0.1 kg s(-1) without jeopardizing drying forces, consequently the dryer energy efficiency increased from 33 to 42 %. PMID:26243902

  17. Starppersonu komunikācijas veida saistība ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitūze, Ieva

    2016-01-01

    Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot vai pusaudžu komunikācija ir saistīta ar pusaudžu pašvērtējumu un vientulības izjūtu. Pētījuma mērķa sasniegšanai tika izmantota Rozenberga pašvērtējuma skala, (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Rosenberg, 1965), UCLA vientulības skala, (The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1996). Komunikācijas izpētei tika izmantota Interpersonālās komunikācijas skala, (Interpersonal Communication Inventory, Millard & Bienvenu, 1971 Interpersonal Communicat...

  18. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  19. Removal of high concentration dimethyl methylphosphonate in the gas phase by repeated-batch reactions using TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study is to develop apparatuses that use TiO2 for effective decontamination of air contaminated by Sarin gas. We performed photocatalytic decomposition of gaseous dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) by TiO2 and identified the oxidization products. The high activity of TiO2 (0.01 g) was observed under UV-light irradiation and high concentration DMMP (33.5 μM) was removed rapidly. On the other hand, DMMP was not decreased under UV-light irradiation without TiO2. This indicates that photocatalytic treatment is very effective for the removal of DMMP. Methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, methyl formate, CO, CO2 and H2O were detected as the primary products. In the gas phase, no highly poisonous substances were detected. In order to examine the performance of photocatalytic activity during long-term reactions, we performed photocatalytic decomposition by repeated-batch reactions using TiO2. High photocatalytic activities decreased gradually. Meanwhile, the strong adsorption of TiO2 against DMMP was observed as photocatalytic activities decreased. During the repeated-batch reactions with the sample scaled up (TiO2: 0.1 g), the total amount of removed DMMP reached 968.5 μM by both photocatalytic decomposition and the strong adsorption of TiO2. These results suggest the possibility of removing large amounts of DMMP.

  20. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  1. Mediānu vienādības pārbaude divām vai vairākām grupām

    OpenAIRE

    Pētersone, Dace

    2016-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā tiek aplūkotas vairākas metodes mediānu vienādības pārbaudei. Mediānu atšķirībā no vidējās vērtības neietekmē izlēcēji un sadalījuma asimetriskums, tāpēc tā ir robusts centralitātes mērs. Pētījuma mērķis ir salīdzināt parametriskās un neparametriskās metodes, kuras tiek pielietotas mediānu vienādības pārbaudei, salīdzināt metožu efektivitāti un robustumu. Darbā tiek ģenerēti dati no dažādiem sadalījumiem un ar atšķirīgiem piesārņojuma līmeņiem, balstoties uz tiem, tiek veikta ...

  2. Devona Stipinu svītas dolomītu slāņkopas uzbūve un fizikāli mehāniskās īpašības Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Lapsele, Māra

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darbā “Devona Stipinu svītas dolomītu slāņkopas uzbūve un fizikāli mehāniskās īpašības Latvijā” ir raksturota Stipinu svītas dolomītu uzbūve ģeoloģiskajā griezumā, to struktūra, mikrotekstūra pieslīpņos un plānslīpējumos, kā arī dolomītu fizikāli mehāniskās īpašības, un pētītas minēto īpašību kopsakarības. Pētījuma rezultātā noskaidrots, ka dolomīta nodilumizturībai ir cieša saikne ar tā kristālu saaugumu, formu un izmēru, kas savukārt atkarīgi no ieža veidošanās apstākļiem un pēcsed...

  3. E-komercijas attīstība Eiropas Savienības digitālās ekonomikas ieviešanas stratēģijas kontekstā.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapsiņa, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    Digitālā ekonomika Eiropas Savienībā šobrīd ir viena no galvenajām prioritātēm, ko ir noteikusi Eiropas Komisija ar izstrādāto Digitālo vienoto tirgus stratēģiju Eiropai visām Eiropas Savienības dalībvalstīm. Digitālai ekonomikai ir būtiska loma uzņēmējdarbības veicināšanā, kas ietver e-komerciju, IKT, jaunākās tehnoloģijas un inovācijas. Būtiski ir identificēt e-komercijas izmantošanas tendences un šķēršļus, kas pastāv Eiropas Savienības dalībvalstīs Tāpēc ir apskatīta digitālā ekonomika, e-...

  4. Māsu izpratnes pilnveide par pacientu izglītošanu primārajā un sekundārajā veselības aprūpē

    OpenAIRE

    Fridrihsone, Baiba

    2016-01-01

    Pacientu izglītošana ir māsas pienākums, tomēr, māszinības programmās, kā arī veselības aprūpes iestādēs, pacientu izglītošana tiek veikta nepilnīgi vai netiek veikta nemaz. Problēmas risināšanai tika izvirzīts mērķis: izzināt kā pilnveidot māsu izpratni par pacientu izglītošanu primārajā un sekundārajā veselības aprūpē. Pētāmā grupa bija Latvijas Universitātes, Medicīnas fakultātes, profesionālās bakalaura studiju programmas (PBSP) “Māszinības” 4.kursa studenti, kuri pārstāvēja sešas māsu ap...

  5. A comparative study of sequencing batch reactor and moving-bed sequencing batch reactor for piggery wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwannate Sombatsompop

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to comparatively study the efficiency of piggery wastewater treatment by the moving-bed sequencing batch reactor (moving-bed SBR system with held medium, and the conventional sequencing batch reactor (SBR system, by varying the organic load from 0.59 to 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The COD treatment efficiency of the SBR and moving-bed SBR was higher than 60% at an organic load of 0.59 kgCOD/m3.d and higher than 80% at the organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The BOD removal efficiency was greater than 90% at high organic loads of 1.18-2.36 kgCOD/m3.d. The moving-bed SBR gave TKN removal efficiency of 86-93%, whereas the SBR system exhibited the removal efficiency of 75-87% at all organic loads. The amount of effluent suspended solids for SBR systems exceeded the piggery wastewater limit of 200 mg/L at the organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d while that for the moving-bed SBR system did not. When the organic load was increased, the moving-bed SBR system yielded better treatment efficiency than that of the SBR system. The wastewater treated by the moving-bed SBR system met the criteria of wastewater standard for pig farms at all organic loads, while that treated by the SBR system was not satisfactory at a high organic load of 2.36 kgCOD/m3.d.

  6. Production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor and its application in decolorization of dyestuffs : (Ⅰ) Production of laccase by batch and repeated-batch processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The production of laccase by Coriolus versicolor wasstudied. The effect of cultivation conditions on laccase productionby Coriolus versicolor was examined to obtain optimal medium andcultivation conditions. Both batch and repeated-batch processeswere performed for laccase production. In repeated-batchfermentation with self-immobilized mycelia, total of 14 cycles wereperformed with laccase activity in the range between 3.4 and 14.8U/ml.

  7. Meeting Report: Batch-to-Batch Variability in Estrogenic Activity in Commercial Animal Diets—Importance and Approaches for Laboratory Animal Research

    OpenAIRE

    Heindel, Jerrold J.; vom Saal, Frederick S.

    2007-01-01

    We report information from two workshops sponsored by the National Institutes of Health that were held to a) assess whether dietary estrogens could significantly impact end points in experimental animals, and b) involve program participants and feed manufacturers to address the problems associated with measuring and eliminating batch-to-batch variability in rodent diets that may lead to conflicting findings in animal experiments within and between laboratories. Data were presented at the work...

  8. Improving the batch-to-batch reproducibility of microbial cultures during recombinant protein production by regulation of the total carbon dioxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenzsch, Marco; Gnoth, Stefan; Kleinschmidt, Martin; Simutis, Rimvydas; Lübbert, Andreas

    2007-03-10

    Batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes performed during the manufacturing processes of biologics can be increased by operating the cultures at feed rate profiles that are robust against typically arising disturbances. Remaining randomly appearing deviations from the desired path should be suppressed automatically by manipulating the feed rate. With respect to the cells' physiology it is best guiding the cultivations along an optimal profile of the specific biomass growth rate mu(t). However, there are two problems that speak for further investigations: Upon severe disturbances that may happen during the fermentation, the biomass concentration X may significantly deviate from its desired value, then a fixed mu-profile leads to a diminished batch-to-batch reproducibility. Second, the specific growth rate cannot easily be estimated online to a favourably high accuracy, hence it is difficult to determine the deviations in mu from the desired profile. The alternative discussed here solves both problems by keeping the process at the corresponding total cumulative carbon dioxide production-profile: it is robust against distortions in X and the controlled variable can accurately be measured online during cultivations of all relevant sizes. As compared to the fermentation practice currently used in industry, the experimental results, presented at the example of a recombinant protein production with Escherichia coli cells, show that CPR-based corrections lead to a considerably improved batch-to-batch reproducibility.

  9. 基于流形调和变换的浅浮雕生成算法%Bas-relief Generation Using Manifold Harmonics Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博; 刘胜兰; 张丽艳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a novel algorithm for bas-relief generation from 3D shape is presented based on manifold harmonics spectral analysis. The algorithm focuses on achieving detail-preserving bas-relief independent on the resolution of height field by using exact mesh representation. Firstly, the coordinates of the mesh vertices can be seen as discrete signal, and are transformed to the frequency domain by means of discrete harmonic analysis. During the transformation, the differential geometry properties and topology information of the mesh are utilized. Secondly, according to the proposed definition of energy of harmonic transform coefficients, the frequency is segmented into low, high and noisy frequency bands. Subsequently, the algorithm ignores the noisy frequency component, compresses the low frequency component linearly into a small range, and nonlinearly compresses the high frequency adaptively. Finally, the new frequency is mapped back to space domain by use of reverse harmonic. Experiments demonstrate that the detail on the relief can be enhanced by tuning parameters of an isotropic diffusion filter and using the strategy of spectral segmentation.%针对利用3D网格生成浅浮雕不能使用精确的网格表示、浮雕细节保持特性依赖于规则采样高度域上分辨率的问题,提出一种基于3D网格频域分析的浅浮雕算法.从信号处理的角度出发,首先利用网格的几何微分性质和拓扑结构通过离散调和变换将网格的深度信号变换到频域;其次提出一种基于几何频率能量的频域划分策略,将频率分割为低频、高频和噪声,再对低频进行线性压缩,利用各项同性的扩散函数对高频进行自适应非线性压缩并过滤噪声,得到信号在频域上一组新的变换系数;最后利用调和逆变换将处理后的频域映射到信号的空域重建浮雕模型.实验结果表明,该算法可通过控制频谱的分割和扩散函数的参数实现浮雕模型细节的增强.

  10. Biodegradation of high concentrations of phenol by baker’s yeast in anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Najafpoor

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol, as a pure substance, is used in many fields because of its disinfectant, germicidal, local anesthetic, and peptizing properties. Aqueous solutions of phenol are produced as waste in industries and discharged into the environment. Therefore, elevated concentrations of phenol may be found in air or water because of industrial discharge or the use of phenolic products. Method: The strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in this project were natural strains previously purchased from Razavy company. They were grown at 30°C on Petri plates containing yeast extract glucose (YGC and then purified by being spread onto new plates, and isolated colonies were obtained. These colonies provided the basis of selection. Prepared strains were applied in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (ASBRs as first seed. The experiment conditions were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. After the determined runs were performed using Design-Expert software, data were analyzed using mentioned software as well. Results: This study evaluated the capability of baker’s yeast to remove phenol in high concentrations. The tested strains showed excellent tolerance to phenol toxicity at concentrations up to 6100 mg/L. Study of the batch degradation process showed that the phenol removal rate could exceed 99.9% in 24 hours at a concentration of 1000 mg/L. The results showed catechol is the first intermediate product of phenol degradation. In survey results of the Design–Expert software, R2 and Adeq precision were 0.97 and 25.65, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that ASBR performs robustly under variable influent concentrations of inhibitory compounds. The high removal performance despite the high phenol concentration may be a result of reactor operating strategies. Based on the progressive increase of inlet phenol concentration, allowing for an enhanced biomass acclimation in a short time, results at the microbiological levels

  11. Intronic Polymorphisms in the CDKN2B-AS1 Gene Are Strongly Associated with the Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Coronary Artery Disease in the Saudi Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed AbdulAzeez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association studies identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on the chromosome 9p21.3 conferring the risk for CAD (coronary artery disease in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. We performed a genetic association study to investigate the effect of 12 candidate SNPs within 9p21.3 locus on the risk of CAD in the Saudi population of the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. A total of 250 Saudi CAD patients who had experienced an myocardial infarction (MI and 252 Saudi age-matched healthy controls were genotyped using TaqMan assay. Controls with evidenced lack of CAD provided 90% of statistical power at the type I error rate of 0.05. Five percent of the results were rechecked for quality control using Sanger sequencing, the results of which concurred with the TaqMan genotyping results. Association analysis of 12 SNPs indicated a significant difference in the genotype distribution for four SNPs between cases and controls (rs564398 p = 0.0315, χ2 = 4.6, odds ratio (OD = 1.5; rs4977574 p = 0.0336, χ2 = 4.5, OD = 1.4; rs2891168 p = 1.85 × 10 − 10, χ2 = 40.6, OD = 2.1 and rs1333042 p = 5.14 × 10 − 9, χ2 = 34.1, OD = 2.2. The study identified three protective haplotypes (TAAG p = 1.00 × 10 − 4; AGTA p = 0.022 and GGGCC p = 0.0175 and a risk haplotype (TGGA p = 2.86 × 10 − 10 for the development of CAD. This study is in line with others that indicated that the SNPs located in the intronic region of the CDKN2B-AS1 gene are associated with CAD.

  12. Association of CDKN2BAS Polymorphism rs4977574 with Coronary Heart Disease: A Case-Control Study and a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Huang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to explore the significant association between a non-protein coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs4977574 of CDKN2BAS gene and coronary heart disease (CHD. A total of 590 CHD cases and 482 non-CHD controls were involved in the present association study. A strong association of rs4977574 with CHD was observed in females (genotype: p = 0.002; allele: p = 0.002, odd ratio (OR = 1.57, 95% confidential interval (CI = 1.18–2.08. Moreover, rs4977574 was more likely to be a risk variant of CHD under the recessive model in females (χ2 = 10.29, p = 0.003, OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.31–2.77. A breakdown analysis by age had shown that there was an 87% increased risk of CHD for females younger than 65 years (genotype: χ2 = 14.64, degrees of freedom (df = 2, p = 0.0002; allele: χ2 = 11.31, df = 1, p = 0.0008, OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.30–2.70. Similar observation was also found in males younger than 65 years (genotype: χ2 = 8.63, df = 2, p = 0.04; allele: χ2 = 7.55, df = 1, p = 0.006, OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.11–1.90. p values were adjusted by age, sex, smoking, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. Meta-analysis of 23 studies among 36,452 cases and 39,781 controls showed a strong association between rs4977574 and the risk of CHD (p < 0.0001, OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.22–1.31.

  13. Improvement of Efficiency and Electrical Energy Consumption of AB74 Degradation Process using A Novel Cylindrical Batch Photochemical Reactor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Olya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of electric energy consumption in degradation of Indigo Carmine based on a new cylindrical batch suspension photocatalytic reactor designing concerning the main engineering parameters such as mixing, reaction kinetic, mass transfer, catalyst illumination, and inherent potential of contaminant was done. The most degradation efficiency was observed within in air flow rate 1.2L.min-1, initial hydrogen peroxide concentration 0.0294mol.L-1, pH between 2-3, initial dye concentration 10mg.L-1, and initial TiO2 dose 2g.L-1. Applying optimum condition eventuated 76.09% TOC reduction after 60 min reaction time. The results show that designed reactor is extremely affective in reduction of operational cost.

  14. REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES IN DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A (MACROBATCH 8)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reboul, S.; Diprete, D.; Click, D.; Bannochie, C.

    2011-12-20

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that the waste producer 'shall report the curie inventory of radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115.' As part of the strategy to meet WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type all radionuclides that have half-lives longer than 10 years and contribute greater than 0.01 percent of the total curie inventory from the time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial list of radionuclides to be reported is based on the design-basis glass identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report. However, it is required that the list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that meet the 'greater than 0.01% of the curie inventory' criterion. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, and U-238; and Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete list of reportable radionuclides must also include these sets of U and Pu isotopes - and the U and Pu isotopic mass distributions must be identified. The DWPF receives HLW sludge slurry from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tank 40. For Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), the waste in Tank 40 contained a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the Sludge Batch 7 (SB7) material transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. This sludge blend is also referred to as Macrobatch 8. Laboratory analyses of a Tank 40 sludge sample were performed to quantify the concentrations of pertinent radionuclides in the SB7a waste. Subsequently

  15. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.

    2011-04-19

    During processing at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), high sulfate concentrations in the feed are a concern to DWPF as it can lead to the formation of a detrimental, sulfate-rich, molten salt phase on the surface of the glass melt pool. To avoid these issues, a sulfate concentration limit was implemented into the Product Composition Control System (PCCS). Related to SB7a frit development efforts, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) assessed the viability of using the current 0.6 wt % SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} limit set for SB6 (in glass) and the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} solubility limit in PCCS to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations, targeted waste loadings, and inclusion of secondary streams (e.g., Actinide Removal Process (ARP)) with two recommended frits (Frit 418 and Frit 702) for SB7a processing. For a nominal SB7a blend with a 63 inch SB6 heel remaining in Tank 40 (projection SB7a-63), a 0.60 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} in glass limit was determined for waste loadings of 34 wt% up to 40 wt% with Frit 418 based on crucible melts with batched chemicals. SRNL also examined the inclusion of ARP for the same blending scenario (SB7a-63-ARP) with Frit 418 and at least a 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} level, and waste loadings of 34 wt% to 40 wt% were also acceptable. When a visible yellow and/or white sulfate salt layer was visible on the surface of any cooled glass, it was assumed to have surpassed the solubility limit of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} for that particular composition. All of the glasses fabricated at these concentrations did not exhibit a sulfate rich salt layer on the surface of the glass melt and retained the majority of the batched SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. At higher levels of SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} 'spiked' into the projected sludge compositions over the aforementioned interval of waste loadings, with Frit 418, low viscosity sulfur layers were observed on the surface of glass melts which confirm exceeding the solubility

  16. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pressure drop. (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents... § 63.489 Batch front-end process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (B) If the scrubber is subject to regulations in 40 CFR parts 264 through 266 that have required a... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Batch process vents-monitoring... Batch process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner or operator of a...

  18. Monitoring and Characterization of Crystal Nucleation and Growth during Batch Crystallization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadam, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Batch crystallization is commonly used in pharmaceutical, agrochemical, specialty and fine chemicals industry. The advantages of batch crystallization lie in its ease of operation and the relatively simple equipment that can be used. On the other hand a major disadvantage associated with it is the i

  19. Role of batch depletion of broiler houses on the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken flocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Birthe; Rattenborg, Erik; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    Aims: The effect of batch depletion of broiler houses for campylobacter occurrence in broiler flocks was estimated in 10 flocks, each comprising a separate female and male batch. Methods and Results: The chicks were sampled first bq; cloacal swabs in the broiler houses before the start of the dep...

  20. Degradation of the herbicide mecoprop in an aerobic aquifer determined by laboratory batch studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    The potential of a shallow aerobic aquifer to degrade the herbicide Mecoprop (2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid) was evaluated in the laboratory using groundwater and sediment suspension batches. Mecoprop was added to the batches to obtain concentrations of 65, 140, 400 and 1400 μg...

  1. 40 CFR 417.10 - Applicability; description of the soap manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing by batch kettle subcategory. 417.10 Section 417.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Soap Manufacturing by Batch Kettle Subcategory § 417.10 Applicability; description of the...

  2. Fed-batch fermentation dealing with nitrogen limitation in microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Y.; Rinzema, A.; Tramper, J.; Bruin, E. de; Bol, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the later stages of a batch fermentation for microbial transglutaminase production by Streptoverticillium mobaraense the availability of a nitrogen source accessible to the microorganism becomes critical. Fed-batch fermentation is investigated with the aim of avoiding this substrate limitation. W

  3. Batch and continuous extraction of bromelain enzyme by reversed micelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Frattini Fileti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to optimize the conditions for bromelain extraction by reversed micelles from pineapple juice (Ananas comosus. The purification was carried out in batch extraction and a micro-column with pulsed caps for continuous extraction. The cationic micellar solution was made of BDBAC as a surfactant, isooctane as a solvent and hexanol as a co-solvent. For the batch process, a purification factor of 3 times at the best values of surfactant agent, co-solvent and salt concentrations, pH of the back and forward extractions were, 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3.5 and 8, respectively. For the continuous operation, independent variables optimal point was determined: ratio between light phase flow rate and total flow rate equal to 0.67 and 1 second for the time interval between the pulses. This optimal point led to a productivity of 1.29 mL/min and a purification factor of 4.96.Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal otimizar as condições para extração da bromelina do suco do abacaxi (Ananas comosus por micelas reversas. A purificação foi feita usando o processo de extração em batelada e contínuo, este último em uma micro-coluna de campânulas pulsantes. A solução micelar catiônica foi preparada com o surfactante BDBAC, i-octano como solvente e hexanol como co-solvente. Na extração em batelada encontrou-se um fator de purificação de 3 vezes, e seus melhores valores de concentração do agente surfactante, co-solvente e sal, de pH da re-extração e extração, foram respectivamente iguais a: 100 mM, 10% v/v, 1 M, 3,5 e 8. Para a operação contínua, as variáveis independentes ótimas foram: 0,67 para a razão entre as taxas de fluxos da fase leve e a total e 1 s para o intervalo de tempo entre pulsos das campânulas. Este ponto ótimo leva a uma produtividade de 1,29 mL/min e a um fator de purificação igual a 4,96.

  4. Inhibition of Sulfide Mineral Oxidation by Surface Coating Agents: Batch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, J.; Ji, M. K.; Yun, H. S.; Park, Y. T.; Gee, E. D.; Lee, W. R.; Jeon, B.-H.

    2012-04-01

    Mining activities and mineral industries have impacted on rapid oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) which leads to Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) formation. Some of the abandoned mines discharge polluted water without proper environmental remediation treatments, largely because of financial constraints in treating AMD. Magnitude of the problem is considerable, especially in countries with a long history of mining. As metal sulfides become oxidized during mining activities, the aqueous environment becomes acid and rich in many metals, including iron, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others. The toxic heavy metals are responsible for the environmental deterioration of stream, groundwater and soils. Several strategies to remediate AMD contaminated sites have been proposed. Among the source inhibition and prevention technologies, microencapsulation (coating) has been considered as a promising technology. The encapsulation is based on inhibition of O2 diffusion by surface coating agent and is expected to control the oxidation of pyrite for a long time. Potential of several surface coating agents for preventing oxidation of metal sulfide minerals from both Young-Dong coal mine and Il-Gwang gold mine were examined by conducting batch experiments and field tests. Powdered pyrite as a standard sulfide mineral and rock samples from two mine outcrops were mixed with six coating agents (KH2PO4, MgO and KMnO4 as chemical agents, and apatite, cement and manganite as mineral agents) and incubated with oxidizing agents (H2O2 or NaClO). Batch experiments with Young-Dong coal mine samples showed least SO42- production in presence of KMnO4 (16% sulfate production compared to no surface coating agents) or cement (4%) within 8 days. In the case of Il-Gwang mine samples, least SO42- production was observed in presence of KH2PO4 (8%) or cement (2%) within 8 days. Field-scale pilot tests at Il-Gwang site also showed that addition of KH2PO4 decreased sulfate production from 200 to

  5. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  6. Case-by-case risk assessment of broiler meat batches: An effective control strategy for Campylobacter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bjarke Bak; Nauta, Maarten; Korsgaard, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, the Danish government decided to take new measures to control Salmonella and Campylobacter in Danish and imported retail meat. The legal basis for these new measures was article 14 in the EU food law, which states that food shall not be placed on the market if it is unsafe, among others...... and the results of more than 3,000 batches of broiler meat tested since 2007. The risk was assessed for batches with one or more samples positive for Campylobacter (>100 cfu/g). Reductions in the number of positive batches from 2007 to 2010 were observed for both domestic (from 17% to 7%, p=0.01) and imported......, for reasons of contamination. This provision allows each member state to make a specific risk assessment of food batches, and decide whether a batch poses an unacceptable risk to the consumer or not. Here we present the basis for the risk assessment model on Campylobacter used in this new approach...

  7. Le politique par le bas

    OpenAIRE

    Birmingham, David; Cabanes, Robert; Cahen, Michel; Chavagne, Jean-Pierre; Cook, Manuela; Israel, Paolo; Larsen, Ingemai; Léonard, Yves; Louault, Frédéric; Marchal, Roland; Marin, Richard; Massa, Jean-Michel; Mathias, Suzeley Kalil; Messiant, Christine; Morier-Genoud, Éric

    2016-01-01

    Lusotopie is an international comparatist journal devoted to political analysis of contemporary spaces stemming from Portuguese history and colonization. It deals with general issues in political analysis (nationalism, ethnicity, neo-liberalism, State reform, federalism, gender, civil war, media, civil society, election, etc.): it provides an original approach within this heterogeneous postcolonial space on the four continents and in numerous Diasporas. Founded in 1994, Lusotopie has publishe...

  8. Sample Results from Routine Salt Batch 7 Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-05-13

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT) and Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT) samples from several of the “microbatches” of Integrated Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 7B have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES), and Ion Chromatography Anions (IC-A). The results from the current microbatch samples are similar to those from earlier samples from this and previous macrobatches. The Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) continue to show more than adequate Pu and Sr removal, and there is a distinct positive trend in Cs removal, due to the use of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) notes that historically, most measured Concentration Factor (CF) values during salt processing have been in the 12-14 range. However, recent processing gives CF values closer to 11. This observation does not indicate that the solvent performance is suffering, as the Decontamination Factor (DF) has still maintained consistently high values. Nevertheless, SRNL will continue to monitor for indications of process upsets. The bulk chemistry of the DSSHT and SEHT samples do not show any signs of unusual behavior.

  9. Catalytic hydroliquefaction of coal: about the methodology in batch experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besson, M.; Bacaud, R.; Charcosset, H.; Cebolla-Burillo, V.; Oberson, M.

    1986-03-01

    The results of catalytic hydroliquefaction under batch conditions depend on a large number of variables. The present results concern a few of these variables, in particular the influence of the catalyst concentration, of the mode of sulfidation or (and) of introduction of the catalyst in the coal/solvent mixture, and of the nature of the model compound solvent. The results indicate that increasing the concentration of catalyst increase the conversion of coal into toluene soluble products and the hydrogen consumption but has a small effect on oil formation. An inhibition of the figst fractions of a NiMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst added is shown. Strong effects of the sulfiding mode of an iron oxide catalyst, and of the temperature of introduction of the iron oxide into the autoclave are observed relative to the hydrogenation activity of the iron catalyst, when at the same time there is no influence on coal conversions. The replacement of tetralin by a non-donor solvent, 1-methylnaphthalene, suggests that the direct hydrogen transfer process from molecular hydrogen to coal fragment radicals on the catalyst surface may be important. 9 tabs., 4 firs., 16 refs.

  10. Separation of Benzene and Cyclohexane by Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jiao; ZHANG Weijiang; GUI Xia

    2007-01-01

    Azeotropic liquid mixture cannot be separated by conventional distillation. But extractive distillation or combination of the two can be valid for them. An experiment to separate benzene and cyclohexane by batch extractive distillation was carried out with N, N-dimethylformide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and their mixture as extractive solvent. The effect of the operation parameterssuch as solvent flow rate and reflux ratio on the separation was studied under the same operating conditions. The results show that the separation effect was improved with the increase of solvent flow rate and the reflux ratio; all the three extractive solvents can separate benzene and cyclohexane, with DMF being the most efficient one, the mixture the second, and DMSO the least. In the experiment the best operation conditions are with DMF as extractive solvent, the solvent flow rate being 12.33 mL/min, and the reflux ratio being 6. As a result, we can get cyclohexane from the top of tower with the average product content being 86.98%, and its recovering ratio being 83.10%.

  11. Design of Batch Pressing Mechanism for Bedded Standard Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jianguang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In stability analysis of rock soil engineering, before establishing similar physical simulation model, many match experiments on similar material are required, the current standard sample forming processes are difficult to satisfy the uniformity and compactness in the same sample set often, and have obvious defects in the molding process, molding efficiency and bedding processing. A pressing mechanism consists of adjustable concave-convex composite mould, multi-function trough, drive screw and framework is designed, the mould is pressed nto material to fill directly. Each layered material, dip angle, thickness and position can be controlled, forming number for each lot is adjustable, uniform of the same lot is good, all parts are detachable, operation is also simple. This mechanism is suitable for small batch forming, and has obvious advantages in bedding controlling, forming efficiency, forming quality and operation convenience, which can work well for match experiments before large-scale physical similar simulation experiment, geotechnical experiment, composite rock mass experiment, also can be used to make micro physical model with engineering structure.

  12. Microfabrication-derived DDS: From batch to individual production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, K

    2008-06-01

    As a result of recent advances in microfabrication technology (MFT), microparticles including microcapsules and microspheres can be prepared individually and the disadvantages of the conventional microparticles produced by batch production, i.e. (i) low loading efficiency, (ii) large size variation, and (iii) initial burst release, have been remedied. In addition, all conventional microparticles have the same structure, a spherical shape, so they have only one function, sustained release. Threelayer microcapsules (TLMCs) have been designed to address these issues. TLMCs consist of a surface layer, a drug carrying layer, and a basement layer. TLMCs have sustained release as well as adhesiveness and targeting functions. TLMCs are prepared using ink-jet printer nozzle technology. The obtained TLMCs are used for the oral delivery of peptide/protein drugs and long-term sustained-release injection preparation. In addition, self-dissolving micropiles (SDMPs) can be individually produced by MFT as a percutaneous preparation. MFT allows biopharmaceutical drugs like insulin, erythropoietin, and growth hormone to be absorbed through the skin. Thus, advances in MFT have accelerated the development of pharmaceutical technology.

  13. EFFECT OF DYE CONCENTRATION ON SEQUENCING BATCH REACTOR PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vaigan ، M. R. Alavi Moghaddam ، H. Hashemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dyes have been identified as problematic compounds in textile industries wastewater as they are water soluble and cannot be easily removed by conventional aerobic biological treatment systems. The treatability of a reactive dye (Brill Blue KN-R by sequencing batch reactor and the influence of the dye concentration on system performance were investigated in this study. Brill Blue KN-R is one of the main dyes that are used in textile industries in Iran. Four cylindrical Plexiglas reactors were run for 36 days (5 days for acclimatization of sludge and 31 days for normal operation at different initial dye concentrations. The dye concentrations were adjusted to be 20, 25, 30 and 40 mg/L in the reactors R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectively. In all reactors, effective volume, influent wastewater flowrate and sludge retention time were 5.5 L, 3.0 L/d and 10 d, respectively. According to the obtained data, average dye removal efficiencies of R1, R2, R3 and R4 were 57% ± 2, 50.18% ± 3, 44.97% ± 3 and 30.98% ± 3, respectively. The average COD removal efficiencies of all reactors were 97% ± 1, 97.12% ± 1, 96.93% ± 1 and 97.22% ± 1, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was decreased by increasing the dye concentration with the correlation coefficient of 0.997.

  14. Simultaneous denitrifying phosphorus accumulation in a sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Linjiang; HAN Wei; WANG Lei; YANG Yongzhe; WANG Zhiying

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the biological treatment process,denitrifying phosphorus accumulation(DNPA)and its affecting factors were studied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)with synthetic wastewater.The results showed that when acetate was used as the sole carbon resource in the influent.the sludge acclimatized under anaerobic/aerobic operation had good phosphorus removal ability.Denitrifying phosphorus accumulation was observed soon when fed with nitrate instead of aeration following the anaerobic stage,which is a vital premise to DNPA.If DNPA sludge is fed with nitrate prior to the anaerobic stage,the DNPA would weaken or even disappear.At the high concen tration of nitrate fed in the anoxic stage,the longer anoxic time needed,the better the DNPA was.Induced DNPA did not disappear even though an aerobic stage followed the anoxic stage,but the shorter the aerobic stage lasted,the higher the proportions of phosphorus removal via DNPA to total removal.

  15. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  16. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  17. Degradation of formaldehyde in anaerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor (ASBBR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, N.S. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zaiat, M. [Laboratorio de Processos Biologicos (LPB), Departamento de Hidraulica e Saneamento, Escola de Engenharia de Sao Carlos (EESC), Universidade de Sao Paulo - USP, Engenharia Ambiental, Bloco 4-F, Av. Joao Dagnone, 1100 Santa Angelina, 13.563-120 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: zaiat@sc.usp.br

    2009-04-30

    The present study evaluated the degradation of formaldehyde in a bench-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor, which contained biomass immobilized in polyurethane foam matrices. The reactor was operated for 212 days at 35 deg. C with 8 h sequential cycles, under different affluent formaldehyde concentrations ranging from 31.6 to 1104.4 mg/L (formaldehyde loading rates from 0.08 to 2.78 kg/m{sup 3} day). The results indicate excellent reactor stability and over 99% efficiency in formaldehyde removal, with average effluent formaldehyde concentration of 3.6 {+-} 1.7 mg/L. Formaldehyde degradation rates increased from 204.9 to 698.3 mg/L h as the initial concentration of formaldehyde was increased from around 100 to around 1100 mg/L. However, accumulation of organic matter was observed in the effluent (chemical oxygen demand (COD) values above 500 mg/L) due to the presence of non-degraded organic acids, especially acetic and propionic acids. This observation poses an important question regarding the anaerobic route of formaldehyde degradation, which might differ substantially from that reported in the literature. The anaerobic degradation pathway can be associated with the formation of long-chain oligomers from formaldehyde. Such long- or short-chain polymers are probably the precursors of organic acid formation by means of acidogenic anaerobic microorganisms.

  18. Biological hydrogen production measured in batch anaerobic respirometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Oh, Sang-Eun; Kim, In S; Van Ginkel, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The biological production of hydrogen from the fermentation of different substrates was examined in batch tests using heat-shocked mixed cultures with two techniques: an intermittent pressure release method (Owen method) and a continuous gas release method using a bubble measurement device (respirometric method). Under otherwise identical conditions, the respirometric method resulted in the production of 43% more hydrogen gas from glucose than the Owen method. The lower conversion of glucose to hydrogen using the Owen protocol may have been produced by repression of hydrogenase activity from high partial pressures in the gastight bottles, but this could not be proven using a thermodynamic/rate inhibition analysis. In the respirometric method, total pressure in the headspace never exceeded ambient pressure, and hydrogen typically composed as much as 62% of the headspace gas. High conversion efficiencies were consistently obtained with heat-shocked soils taken at different times and those stored for up to a month. Hydrogen gas composition was consistently in the range of 60-64% for glucose-grown cultures during logarithmic growth but declined in stationary cultures. Overall, hydrogen conversion efficiencies for glucose cultures were 23% based on the assumption of a maximum of 4 mol of hydrogen/ mol of glucose. Hydrogen conversion efficiencies were similar for sucrose (23%) and somewhat lower for molasses (15%) but were much lower for lactate (0.50%) and cellulose (0.075%).

  19. Changes of Resistance During Polyelectrolyte-enhanced Stirred Batch Ultrafiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Xin-Sheng; Kwang-Ho CHOO

    2007-01-01

    The permeation flux or the resistance in the ultrafiltration process is mainly limited by osmotic pressure,and it may originate from various kinds of polymer interactions. However, the real origin of permeation resistance hasn't been clarified yet in the light of polymer solution nature. The removal of nitrate contamination by polyelectrolytes was carried out with stirred batch ultrafiltration. The polyelectrolyte concentrations both in permeate and retentate were analyzed with total organic carbon analyzer and permeate mass was acquired by electronic balance connected with computer. The total resistance was calculated and interpreted based on the osmotic pressures in three concentration regimes. In the dilute region, the resistance was proportional to polymer concentration; in the semidilute region, the resistance depended on polymer concentration in the parabolic relationship; in the highly concentrated solution regime, the osmotic pressure factor (OPF) would dominate the total resistance; and the deviation from OPF control could come from the electrostatic repulsion between the tightly compacted and charged polyelectrolyte particles at extremely concentrated solution regime. It was first found that dilute and semidilute concentration regions can be easily detected by plotting the log-log curves of the polymer concentration versus the ratio of the total resistance to polymer concentration. The new concept OPF was defined and did work well at highly concentrated regime.

  20. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  1. Efficient flotation of yeast cells grown in batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, M C; Greenhalf, W; Laluce, C

    1996-05-01

    A fast flotation assay was used to select new floating yeast strains. The flotation ability did not seem to be directly correlated to total extracellular protein concentration of the culture. However, the hydrophobicity of the cell was definitely correlated to the flotation capacity. The Saccharomyces strains (FLT strains) were highly hydrophobic and showed an excellent flotation performance in batch cultures without additives (flotation agents) and with no need for a special flotation chamber or flotation column. A stable and well-organized structure was evident in the dried foam as shown by scanning electron microscopy which revealed its unique structure showing mummified cells (dehydrated) attached to each other. The attachment among the cells and the high protein concentration of the foams indicated that proteins might be involved in the foam formation. The floating strains (strains FLT) which were not flocculent and showed no tendency to aggregate, were capable of growing and producing ethanol in a synthetic medium containing high glucose concentration as a carbon source. The phenomenon responsible for flotation seems to be quite different from the flocculation phenomenon. PMID:18626952

  2. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  3. Biodegradation of phenanthrene in an anaerobic batch reactor: growth kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Nasrollahzadeh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research was to demonstrate the ability of mixed consortia of microorganisms to degrade high concentrations of phenanthrene (PHE as the sole carbon source. Batch experiments were carried out by the induction of mineral salt medium containing PHE to the seed culture and monitoring PHE biodegradation. The microbial propagation was conducted using PHE concentrations in the range of 20 to 100 mg/l. The microbial growth on PHE was defined based on Monod and modified Logistic rate models. The kinetic studies revealed that maximum specific growth rates (μm for PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 0.12, 0.23 and 0.035 h-1, respectively. The doubling times for microbial population in PHE concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 mg/l were 13, 15 and 17.5 h, respectively. Also, maximum cell dry weight (xm of 54.23 mg/l was achieved, while the inhibition coefficient was 0.023 h-1. It was observed that the experimental data were well represented by the proposed models. It was also found that the biodegradation of PHE was successfully performed by the isolated strains.

  4. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  5. Autovadītāju gaidīšanas laiks un tā saistība ar personības iezīmēm augsta un zema sociālā statusa frustrācijas avota situācijā.

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiļevskis, Kārlis

    2016-01-01

    Agresīvas braukšanas uzvedība ir pasaulē plaši izplatīta parādība, plaši pētīta psiholoģijas un starpdisciplinārās nozarēs. Ir būtiski pētīt agresīvas braukšanas uzvedības izpausmes, tās iemeslus un iespējamos kavējošos agresīvās braukšanas uzvedības apstākļus, lai varētu izprast agresīvas braukšanas uzvedības cēloņsakarības un uzvedību ietekmējošus apstākļus . Šī pētījuma mērķis bija noskaidrot, vai pastāv statistiski nozīmīgas atšķirības starp autovadītāju gaidīšanas laiku un tā sakarības a...

  6. Emocionālās izdegšanas sindroms garīgās veselības aprūpē strādājošo māsu vidū

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetkovs, Andrejs

    2016-01-01

    Maģistra darba tēma – “Emocionālās izdegšanas sindroms garīgās veselības aprūpē strādājošo māsu vidū”. Pētījuma mērķis ir noskaidrot sakarības starp emocionālā intelekta līmeni un emocionālā izdegšanas sindroma attīstības pakāpi garīgās veselības aprūpē strādājošajām māsām. Saskaņā ar pētījuma tēmu tika izvirzīta hipotēze – pastāv sakarība starp garīgās veselības aprūpē strādājošo māsu emocionālā intelekta līmeni un emocionālās izdegšanas sindroma attīstības pakāpi. Lai sasniegtu pētījuma mē...

  7. Grease waste and sewage sludge co-digestion enhancement by thermal hydrolysis: batch and fed-batch assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, R; Nielfa, A; Pérez, A; Bouchy, L; Fdz-Polanco, M

    2014-01-01

    Grease waste (GW) is an adequate substrate for sewage sludge co-digestion since, coming from a waste water treatment plant, it has a high methane potential (489 NmLCH(4)/gVSin); however, no synergistic effect takes place when co-digesting with 52%VS grease. Conversely, thermal hydrolysis (TH) improves the anaerobic digestion of GW (43% higher kinetics) and biological sludge (29% more methane potential). Therefore, the application of TH to a co-digestion process was further studied. First, biochemical methane potential tests showed that the best configuration to implement the TH to the co-digestion process is pretreating the biological sludge alone, providing a 7.5% higher methane production (398 NmLCH(4)/gVSin), 20% faster kinetics and no lag-phase. Its implementation in a fed-batch operation resulted in considerable methane production (363 NmLCH(4)/gVSin) and TH improved the rheology and dewaterability properties of the digestate. This leads to important economical savings when combined with co-digestion, reducing final waste management costs and showing interesting potential for full-scale application. PMID:24804667

  8. Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

    1996-02-01

    Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control.

  9. A Single Dynamic Metabolic Model Can Describe mAb Producing CHO Cell Batch and Fed-Batch Cultures on Different Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Julien; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CHO cell culture high productivity relies on optimized culture medium management under fed-batch or perfused chemostat strategies enabling high cell densities. In this work, a dynamic metabolic model for CHO cells was further developed, calibrated and challenged using datasets obtained under four different culture conditions, including two batch and two fed-batch cultures comparing two different culture media. The recombinant CHO-DXB11 cell line producing the EG2-hFc monoclonal antibody was studied. Quantification of extracellular substrates and metabolites concentration, viable cell density, monoclonal antibody concentration and intracellular concentration of metabolite intermediates of glycolysis, pentose-phosphate and TCA cycle, as well as of energetic nucleotides, were obtained for model calibration. Results suggest that a single model structure with a single set of kinetic parameter values is efficient at simulating viable cell behavior in all cases under study, estimating the time course of measured and non-measured intracellular and extracellular metabolites. Model simulations also allowed performing dynamic metabolic flux analysis, showing that the culture media and the fed-batch strategies tested had little impact on flux distribution. This work thus paves the way to an in silico platform allowing to assess the performance of different culture media and fed-batch strategies.

  10. Shortcut Procedure for Inverted Batch Distillation Column (Ⅰ) Multicomponent Ideal System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inverted batch distillation colunm(stripper) is opposed to a conventional batch distillation column(rectifier). It has a storage vessel at the top and products leave the column at the bottom. The batch stripper is favourable to separate mixtures with a small amount of light components by removing the heavy components as bottom products. In this paper, we are presenting a shortcut procedure based on our earlier work for design and simulation of the inverted batch distillation column, which is equivalent to the Fenske-Underwood-Gilliland procedure for continuous distillation. Given a separation task, we propose to compute the minimum number of stages(Nbmin)and the minimum reboil ratio(Rbmin) required in a batch stripper,which are the stages and reboil ratio required in a hypothetical inverted batch distillation colnmn operating in total reboil ratio or having an infinite number of stages,respectively. Then, it is shown that the performance of inverted batch columns with a finite number of stages and reboil ratios could be correlated in Gilliland coordinates with the minimum stages Nbmin and the minimum reboil ratio Rbmin.

  11. Simulation of kefiran production of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 in fed-batch reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamas Cheirsilp

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of kefiran production by Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens JCM6985 has been investigated. A mathematical model taking into account the mechanism of exopolysaccharides production has been developed. Experiments were carried out in batch mode in order to obtain kinetic model parameters that were further applied to simulate fed-batch processes. A simplification of parameter fitting was also introduced for complicated model. The fed-batch mode allows more flexibility in the control of the substrate concentration as well as product concentration in the culture medium. Based on the batch mathematical model, a fed-batch model was developed and simulations were done. Simulation study in fed-batch reactor resulted that substrate concentration should be controlled at 20 g L-1 to soften the product inhibition and also to stimulate utilization of substrate and its hydrolysate. From simulation results of different feeding techniques, it was found that constant feeding at 0.01 L h-1 was most practically effective feeding profile for exopolysaccharides production in fed-batch mode.

  12. Atividade peroxidásica em basófilos de Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines Chelidae Peroxidase activity in the basophils of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Afonso da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As peroxidases, presentes nos peroxissomos e lisossomos, pertencem às oxidases e atuam como catalítico para o peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2, posteriormente decomposto pela oxidação de cossubstratos, evitando danos celulares.(¹ Foi aplicada a técnica da peroxidase(2 em esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, comparando com sangue humano, para avaliação da atividade e controle da reação. O esfregaço sanguíneo humano apresentou marcações em neutrófilos, fagócitos com muitos lisossomos e peroxissomos (Figura 1. Nos esfregaços sanguíneos de Phrynops geoffroanus, as marcações apresentaram-se nos basófilos (Figura 2, que representam de 10% a 25% dos leucócitos de quelônios e possuem grande número de granulações citoplasmáticas,(3 sugerindo a presença de grande quantidade de enzimas e organelas como lisossomos e peroxissomos, possivelmente associadas a sua participação em reações imunes. A atividade peroxidásica representa resposta do organismo a ações ambientais danosas, servindo como marcador biológico.Peroxidase, present in peroxisomes and lysosomes, belongs to the oxidases and acts as a catalyst for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and is later decomposed by oxidation of cosubstrates thereby preventing cell damage.(1 The peroxidase technique(2 was applied to blood smears of Phrynops geoffroanus and the results compared with human blood to evaluate the activity and control of the reaction. The human blood film showed markings in neutrophils and phagocytes with many lysosomes and peroxisomes (Figure 1. In blood smears of Phrynops geoffroanus, the markings were on the basophils (Figure 2, that represent 10% to 25% of leukocytes of turtles and have a large number of cytoplasmatic granules(3 suggesting the presence of large amounts of enzymes and organelles such as lysosomes and peroxisomes, possibly associated with their participation in immune reactions. Peroxidase activity is the body's response to harmful

  13. Los campos volcánicos basálticos monogénicos de la Isla de Tenerife (Canarias, España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dóniz Páez, F. Javier

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available For the first time, the different basaltic volcanic fields of the island of Tenerife have been delimited. To do so, different criteria have been taken into consideration: topographic, geological, genetic, structural and morfological. This way a total of five different volcanic fields have been identified (Teno, Pedro Gil, Bilma-Abeque, Teide and Valle San Lorenzo-Las Galletas all of them with different, and even contrasted, number of volcanic cones, densities and spatial organization, which, in many ways, match with each one of the great complex volcanic morphostructures of the island: the old volcanic massifs, the volcanic rifts and the Teide- Cañadas volcanic complex.

    [es] Por primera vez se delimitan los diferentes campos volcánicos basálticos de la isla de Tenerife. Para su individualización se han tenido en cuenta criterios topográficos, geológicos, genéticos, estructurales y morfológicos. Se han identificado un total de cinco campos de volcanes (Teno, Pedro Gil, Bilma-Abeque, Teide y Valle San Lorenzo-Las Galletas con número de conos, densidades y organizaciones espaciales de los mismos diferentes y en algunos casos contrastadas, que coinciden, a grandes rasgos, con cada una de las grandes morfoestructuras volcánicas complejas de la isla: los macizos volcánicos antiguos, las dorsales eruptivas y el complejo Teide-Cañadas. [fr] Pour la première fois, les différents champs volcaniques basaltiques de l'île de Tenerife furent délimités. Afin de les individualiser, on utilisa des critères topographiques, géologiques, génétiques, structuraux et morphologiques. Un total de cinq champs de volcans furent identifiés (Teno, Pedro Gil, Bilma-Abeque, Teide et Valle San Lorenzo-Las Galletas, avec un nombre de cônes, de densités et d'organisations différents et parfois même contrastés, coïncidant dans leurs grandes lignes, avec chacunes des grandes morphostructures volcaniques complexes de l'île.

  14. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  15. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 51 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David; Best, David

    2010-04-28

    Qualification simulant testing was completed to determine appropriate processing conditions and assumptions for the Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) Shielded Cells demonstration of the DWPF flowsheet using the qualification sample from Tank 51 for SB6 after SRNL washing. It was found that an acid addition window of 105-139% of the DWPF acid equation (100-133% of the Koopman minimum acid equation) gave acceptable Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) results for nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 117%, 133%, and 150% stoichiometry (Koopman) were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 42 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 150% acid run reached 110% of the DWPF SRAT limit of 0.65 lb H{sub 2}/hr, and the 133% acid run reached 75% of the DWPF SME limit of 0.223 lb H{sub 2}/hr. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 25 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two other processing issues were noted. First, incomplete mercury suspension impacted mercury stripping from the SRAT slurry. This led to higher SRAT product mercury concentrations than targeted (>0.45 wt% in the total solids). Associated with this issue was a general difficulty in quantifying the mass of mercury in the SRAT vessel as a function of time, especially as acid stoichiometry increased. About ten times more mercury was found after drying the 150% acid SME product to powder than was indicated by the SME product sample results. Significantly more mercury was also found in the 133% acid SME product samples than was found during the SRAT cycle sampling. It appears that mercury is segregating from the bulk slurry in the SRAT vessel, as mercury amalgam deposits for example, and is not being resuspended by the agitators. The second processing issue

  16. MELT RATE FURNACE TESTING FOR SLUDGE BATCH 5 FRIT OPTIMIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D; Fox, K; Pickenheim, B; Stone, M

    2008-10-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) with a frit composition for Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) to optimize processing. A series of experiments were designed for testing in the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF). This dry fed tool can be used to quickly determine relative melt rates for a large number of candidate frit compositions and lead to a selection for further testing. Simulated Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product was made according to the most recent SB5 sludge projections and a series of tests were conducted with frits that covered a range of boron and alkali ratios. Several frits with relatively large projected operating windows indicated melt rates that would not severely impact production. As seen with previous MRF testing, increasing the boron concentration had positive impacts on melt rate on the SB5 system. However, there appears to be maximum values for both boron and sodium above which the there is a negative effect on melt rate. Based on these data and compositional trends, Frit 418 and a specially designed frit (Frit 550) have been selected for additional melt rate testing. Frit 418 and Frit 550 will be run in the Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF), which is capable of distinguishing rheological properties not detected by the MRF. Frit 418 will be used initially for SB5 processing in DWPF (given its robustness to compositional uncertainty). The Frit 418-SB5 system will provide a baseline from which potential melt rate advantages of Frit 550 can be gauged. The data from SMRF testing will be used to determine whether Frit 550 should be recommended for implementation in DWPF.

  17. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  18. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  19. Dependence of morphology on agitation intensity in fed-batch cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and its implications for recombinant protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, A; Christensen, L H; Hansen, K; Nienow, A W; Thomas, C R

    2002-03-30

    We previously reported that, although agitation conditions strongly affected mycelial morphology, such changes did not lead to different levels of recombinant protein production in chemostat cultures of Aspergillus oryzae (Amanullah et al., 1999). To extend this finding to another set of operating conditions, fed-batch fermentations of A. oryzae were conducted at biomass concentrations up to 34 g dry cell weight/L and three agitation speeds (525, 675, and 825 rpm) to give specific power inputs between 1 and 5 kWm(-3). Gas blending was used to control the dissolved oxygen level at 50% of air saturation except at the lowest speed where it fell below 40% after 60-65 h. The effects of agitation intensity on growth, mycelial morphology, hyphal tip activity, and recombinant protein (amyloglucosidase) production in fed-batch cultures were investigated. In the batch phase of the fermentations, biomass concentration, and AMG secretion increased with increasing agitation intensity. If in a run, dissolved oxygen fell below approximately 40% because of inadequate oxygen transfer associated with enhanced viscosity, AMG production ceased. As with the chemostat cultures, even though mycelial morphology was significantly affected by changes in agitation intensity, enzyme titers (AGU/L) under conditions of substrate limited growth and controlled dissolved oxygen of >50% did not follow these changes. Although the measurement of active tips within mycelial clumps was not considered, a dependency of the specific AMG productivity (AGU/g biomass/h) on the percentage of extending tips was found, suggesting that protein secretion may be a bottle-neck in this strain during fed-batch fermentations. PMID:11835142

  20. Transient and Stationary Losses in a Finite-Buffer Queue with Batch Arrivals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chydzinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the number of losses, caused by the buffer overflows, in a finite-buffer queue with batch arrivals and autocorrelated interarrival times. Using the batch Markovian arrival process, the formulas for the average number of losses in a finite time interval and the stationary loss ratio are shown. In addition, several numerical examples are presented, including illustrations of the dependence of the number of losses on the average batch size, buffer size, system load, autocorrelation structure, and time.

  1. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Batch Process Vents 2 Table 2 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63 Protection of Environment...—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Batch Process Vents As required in § 63.2460, you must meet... process vents: For each . . . Then you must . . . And you must . . . 1. Process with Group 1 batch...

  2. Devona Daugavas svītas augstas stiprības dolomītu slāņkopas uzbūve un fizikāli mehāniskās īpašības Latvijā

    OpenAIRE

    Upītis, Jānis

    2016-01-01

    Darbā ir raksturota Daugavas svītas dolomītu slāņkopa. Pētījums pamatojas uz ģeoloģiskā griezuma aprakstu, dolomītu plānslīpējumu pētījumiem un dolomītu nodilumizturības testiem ar Losandželosas un Mikro-Devala metodi 5 Latvijas dolomīta atradnēs: Birži-Pūteļi, Kalnciems, Ropaži, Piekalni un Jaunarāji. Šāda veida pētījumi Latvijā līdz šim nav veikti, un ir svarīgi rast priekšstatu par izturīgo dolomītu izplatību griezumā un konkrētās atradnēs, kā arī salīdzināt ar abām metodēm iegūtos datus. ...

  3. Un récit de vie en yiddish alsacien : Henry Schwab de Gerstheim, Bas-Rhin A life story in Alsatian Yiddish: Henri Schwab from Gerstheim, Bas-Rhin אַ לעבנס–דערציילונג אויף עלזאַסער ייִדיש : הענרי שוואַב פֿון גערשטהיים, נידער–רײַן

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Starck

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the “Memoirs” of Henri Schwab (born in 1890, a Yiddish speaker from the Alsatian village of Gerstheim, in the Bas-Rhin. His testimony, recorded in the 1960s, will be published separately, as well as other life stories (Marcel Sulzer, Arthur Zivy about Durmenach published since 1995 by Les Cahiers du CREDYO (Mulhouse.The interview is composed both of prewritten texts read by Henri Schwab during the discussion and of spontaneous dialogues between the writer, the interviewer and other informants.The presentation highlights the most significant points of the interview (family memories, education, tradition and customs of Alsatian Jews as well as some linguistic aspects, like the place of Yiddish language in Alsace in the decades preceding the Great War and the characteristics of Western Yiddish, as spoken by Henri Schwab.דער אַרטיקל פּרעזענטירט די זכרונות פֿון אַ ייִדיש–רעדנדיקן עלזאַסער ייִד, הענרי שוואַב, געבוירן אין 1890 אין גערשטהיים, אַ שטעטל אין נידער–רײַן. דער אינטערוויו איז אויפֿגענומען געוואָרן אין די זעכציקער יאָרן און וועט פּובליקירט ווערן אין דער סעריע לעבנס–דערציילונגען (מאַרסעל זולצער, אַרטור ציווי פֿון דורמענעך וואָס דערשײַנען זינט 1995 אינעם זשורנאַל Les Cahiers du CREDYO פֿונעם צענטער פֿאַר דער פֿאָרשונג פֿון מערבֿ–ייִדיש אין מילוז.אינעם אינטערוויו זענען פֿאַראַן שטעלן וווּ דער אינפֿאָרמאַנט לייענט פֿאָר זײַנע פֿון פֿריִער צוגעגרייטע ענטפֿערס, און אַנדערע וווּ ער שמועסט ספּאָנטאַן מיטן אינטערוויויִרער און א

  4. 地铁环境与设备监控系统控制器配置方案%Options for the Allocation of Controllers of BAS in Subways Huang Yongbo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永波

    2011-01-01

    This article introduces the allocation options for the primary controllers of the BAS in subways:the most popular and mainstrcam option is setting a suite of the redudant controllers at both ends of the station;another simpler option adopted by a portion of subways is just setting a suite of the redundant controller at one end of the station.The two different options are analyzed and compared form the perspective of reliability and economy.A more optimized allocation of the primary controllers of the BAS in subway stations im the future is put forward,A pair of mutual-redundant controllers is set separately at both ends of the station to improve the reliability and to reduce incestment.%主要介绍地铁工程环境与设备监控系统(BAS)配置方案:一种是国内大部分城市地铁工程中广泛应用的在车站两端各配置一组BAS冗余控制器的主流配置方案,另一种是在部分线路中已实施的仅在车站一端配置一组BAS冗余控制器的简化配置方案.从系统运行可靠性、系统投资经济性方面,对这两种方案进行分析比较.同时,提出对今后地铁车站级BAS控制器配置进一步优化的推荐方案,即互为冗余的两台控制器分开布置在车站两端,以提高系统运行的可靠性,并节省投资.

  5. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  6. Impact de l’organisation des structures paysagères sur les dynamiques de ruissellement de surface en domaine bocager. Etude comparée de 3 petits bassins versants bas-normands

    OpenAIRE

    Viel, Vincent; Delahaye, Daniel; Reulier, Romain

    2014-01-01

    La caractérisation et la quantification des transferts sédimentaires dans les hydrosystèmes bas-normands constituent aujourd’hui des enjeux majeurs, non seulement en termes de connaissance du fonctionnement des hydrosystèmes, mais également pour la gestion des milieux et de leurs ressources naturelles (Directive Cadre sur l’Eau, Loi sur l’Eau et les Milieux Aquatiques). En effet, les conséquences associées à ces transferts peuvent être catastrophiques pour les populations (inondations, pollut...

  7. Aerobic Granulation in Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR Treating Saline Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Taheri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Aerobic sludge granulation is an advanced phenomenonin which its mechanisms have not been understood. Granulation can be a promising and novel biological wastewater treatment technology to eliminate organic and inorganic materials in future. High salinity is a parameter which leads to plasmolisatian and reduction of the cell activity. This could be a problem for biological treatment of the saline wastewater. Aerobic granule was formed and investigated during this study. Materials and Methods: This study is an intervention study on the treatment of wastewater with 500-10000 mg/L concentration of NaCl by sequencing batch reactor. Asynthesized wastewater including nutrient required for microorganism's growth was prepared. Input and output pH and EC were measured. Range of pH and DO varied between 7-8, and 2-5 mg/L, respectively. SEM technology was used to identify graduals properties.Results: In terms of color, granules divided into two groups of light brown and black. Granule ranged in 3-7mm with the sediment velocity of 0.9-1.35 m/s and density of 32-60 g/L.Properties of granules were varied. Filamentous bacteria and fungi were dominant in some granules. However non filamentous bacteria were dominant in others. EDX analysis indicated the presence of Ca and PO4.Conclusion: Granules with non filamentous bacterial were compact and settled faster. Presence of different concentrations of salinity leaded to plasmolysis of the bacterial cells and increased concentrations of EPS  in the system as a result  of which granulation accelerated. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso

  8. Characteristics of anoxic phosphors removal in sequence batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-yi; PAN Mian-li; Yan Min; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake was investigated in sequencing batch reactors using denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) sludge. The lab-scale experiments were accomplished under conditions of various nitrite concentrations (5.5, 9.5, and 15 mg/L) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (1844, 3231, and 6730 mg/L). The results obtained confirmed that nitrite, MLSS, and pH were key factors, which had a significant impact on anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake in the biological phosphorous removal process. The nitrites were able to successfully act as electron acceptors for phosphorous uptake at a limited concentration between 5.5 and 9.5 mg/L. The denitrification and dephosphorous were inhibited when the nitrite concentration reached 15 mg/L. This observation indicated that the nitrite would not inhibit phosphorus uptake before it exceeded a threshold concentration. It was assumed that an increase of MLSS concentration from 1844 mg/L to 6730 mg/L led to the increase of denitrification and anoxic P-uptake rate. On the contrary, the average P uptake/N denitrifying reduced from 2.10 to 1.57 mg PO43--P/mg NO3--N. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing MLSS of the DEPHANOX system might shorten the reaction time of phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake. However, excessive MLSS might reduce the specific denitrifying rate. Meanwhile, a rapid pH increase occurred at the beginning of the anoxic conditions as a result of denitrification and anoxic phosphate uptake. Anaerobic P release rate increased with an increase in pH. Moreover, when pH exceeded a relatively high value of 8.0, the dissolved P concentration decreased in the liquid phase, because of chemical precipitation. This observation suggested that pH should be strictly controlled below 8.0 to avoid chemical precipitation if the biological denitrifying phosphorus removal capability is to be studied accurately.

  9. SLUDGE BATCH 5 VARIABILITY STUDY WITH FRIT 418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raszewski, F; Tommy Edwards, T; David Peeler, D

    2008-09-29

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) in early FY 2009. In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frit 418 as a transitional frit to initiate processing of SB5. This recommendation was based on the results of assessments on the compositional projections for SB5 available at that time from both the Liquid Waste Organization (LWO) and SRNL (using a model-based approach). To support qualification of the Frit 418-SB5 system, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the acceptability of the Frit 418-SB5 glasses with respect to durability and the applicability of the current durability models. Twenty one glasses were selected for the variability study based on the available SB5 projections primarily spanning a waste loading (WL) range of 25-37%. In order to account for the addition of caustic to Tank 40, which occurred in July 2008, 3 wt% Na2O was added to the original Tank 40 heel projections. The addition of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream to the blend composition was also included. Two of the glasses were fabricated at 25% and 28% WL in order to challenge the homogeneity constraint of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) for SB5 coupled operations. These twenty one glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The results of this study indicate that Frit 418 is a viable option for sludge-only and coupled operations. The addition of ARP did not have any negative impacts on the acceptability and predictability of the variability study glasses. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable as compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) reference glass regardless of the thermal history and were also predictable using the current PCCS model for durability. The homogeneity constraint can

  10. Batch Cooling Crystallization of Potassium Sulphate from Water Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalšan, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch cooling crystallization, at the rotation speed of 700 min–1, of an aqueous solution of a potassium sulphate has been investigated on a laboratory scale. The effect of hydrodynamics conditions on the crystallization process were investigated by using different type of impellers. Two types of impellers were investigated; the four-pitched blade impeller which generates axi-al flow and the six-blades Rusthon turbine which generates radial flow. The experiments were performed at four different linear cooling rates in the range from 8-20 °C h–1 for both types of impeller.The influence of the cooling rates on the metastable zone width, the crystallization kinetics and the granulometric properties of the obtained crystals were investigated. The experimental data show that higher cooling rate expands the metastable zone for all the types of impeller (Fig. 2 and influences the crystal size distribution (Fig. 7 and Fig. 8.At low cooling rates, supersaturation was kept at a constant value for a longer period. It resulted in improved conditions for mass transfer and the crystals grew. Bigger crystals were obtained at lower cooling rates (Fig. 7.It is stated that radial flow (Rusthon turbine is particularly inappropriate for the nucleation process, and for crystallization. Nucleation started at a lower temperature and higher supersaturation (Fig. 3. These conditions resulted in a high nucleation’s rate and large number of nucleation centres.Also, the obtained crystals settled on the wall of the reactor, baffles and stirrer. A great part of the obtained crystals was agglomerated. The nucleation order, n and coefficient of nucleation, kn were determined for different cooling rates (Fig. 5a. The nucleation order is higher at radial flow (nucleation started at higher supersaturation. The relation between the rate of concentration drop in a solution and supersaturation has beenapproximated with a power low equation (Fig. 5b. For the used impellers

  11. The second batch of RE export quota in 2009 released/Brief News

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"Regulation on Import and Export of Commodities of the People's Republic of China",the Ministry of Commerce released the second batch of RE export quota of common trade in 2009 on June 29.

  12. A cellular automata model for simulating fed-batch penicillin fermentation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Naigong; Ruan Xiaogang

    2006-01-01

    A cellular automata model to simulate penicillin fed-batch fermentation process(CAPFM)was established in this study,based on a morphologically structured dynamic penicillin production model,that is in turn based on the growth mechanism of penicillin producing microorganisms and the characteristics of penicillin fed-batch fermentation.CAPFM uses the three-dimensional cellular automata as a growth space,and a Moore-type neighborhood as the cellular neighborhood.The transition roles of CAPFM are designed based on mechanical and structural kinetic models of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes.Every cell of CAPFM represents a single or specific number of penicillin producing microorganisms,and has various state.The simulation experimental results show that CAPFM replicates the evolutionary behavior of penicillin batch-fed fermentation processes described by the structured penicillin production kinetic model accordingly.

  13. A Novel Operation Policy for Dilute Component Separation Quasi-batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗祎青; 袁希钢; 杨祖杰; 刘春江

    2005-01-01

    A new operation policy--quasi-batch distillation for recovering infinitesimal amounts species existing in a mixture is presented. In quasi-batch distillation operation, feed is introduced with a constant flow rate onto the feed stage of the column, and the flow rate of the distillate is the same as that of the feed, whereas the bottom product is withdrawn periodically. The behavior of quasi-batch distillation is simulated and analyzed through an example on heavy water separation. Comparing with continuous or batch distillation, the new operation policy is more reliable and efficient to achieve higher recovery of dilute component. This is especially suitable for separating small amount of precious species from large amount of raw material.

  14. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production.

  15. CONVERTING FROM BATCH TO CONTINUOUS INTENSIFIED PROCESSING IN THE STT? REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fluid dynamics, the physical dimensions and characteristics of the reaction zones of continuous process intensification reactors are often quite different from those of the batch reactors they replace. Understanding these differences is critical to the successful transit...

  16. Enhanced methane production via repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of enriched microbial consortia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhiman; Guo, Rongbo; Xu, Xiaohui; Wang, Lin; Dai, Meng

    2016-09-01

    Using batch and repeated batch cultivations, this study investigated the effects of bioaugmentation with enriched microbial consortia (named as EMC) on methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage of potato slurry, as well as on the indigenous bacterial community. The results demonstrated that the improved methane production and shift of the indigenous bacterial community structure were dependent on the EMC/sludge ratio and bioaugmentation patterns. The methane yield and production rate in repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC were, respectively, average 15% and 10% higher than in one-time bioaugmentation pattern of EMC. DNA-sequencing approach showed that the enhanced methane production in the repeated batch bioaugmentation pattern of EMC mainly resulted from the enriched iron-reducing bacteria and the persistence of the introduced Syntrophomonas, which led to a rapid degradation of individual VFAs to methane. The findings contributed to understanding the correlation between the bioaugmentation of microbial consortia, community shift, and methane production. PMID:27262722

  17. UNBOUNDED BATCH SCHEDULING WITH A COMMON DUE WINDOW ON A SINGLE MACHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongluan ZHAO; Guojun LI

    2008-01-01

    The common due window scheduling problem with batching on a single machine is dealt with to minimize the total penalty of weighted earliness and tardiness. In this paper it is assumed that a job incurs no penalty as long as it is completed within the common due window. It is the first time for the due window scheduling to be extended to this situation so that jobs can be processed in batches. An unbounded version of batch scheduling is also considered. Hence, jobs, no matter how many there are, can be processed in a batch once the machine is free. For two cases that the location of due window is either a decision variable or a given parameter, polynomial algorithms are proposed based on several optimal properties.

  18. MOFCOM announced supplement to the first batch of 2012 export quotas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The Ministry of Commerce of China supplemented the first batch of rare earth export quotas, which were assigned to the companies that had passed the inspection of the Ministry of Environmental Protection.

  19. Preparing cellulose nanocrystal/acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene nanocomposites using the master-batch method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Libo; Zhang, Yang; Meng, Yujie; Anusonti-Inthra, Phuriwat; Wang, Siqun

    2015-07-10

    The master-batch method provides a simple way to apply cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) as reinforcement in a hydrophobic matrix. The two-stage process includes making high-CNC content (70 wt%) master batch pellets, then mixing acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene with the master batch pellets to prepare the ABS/CNC nanocomposite in extruder. SEM image indicates that self-assembled CNC nanosheets disperse evenly throughout the polymer matrix. The improved mechanical properties shown in tensile and DMA tests reveal that the CNC combines well with the ABS. TGA results show that the thermal degradation temperature of CNC in the master batch increases because of the protection of the ABS coating. This approach not only improves the dispersion ability and the thermal stability of CNC, but it is also applicable to use with other hydrophobic thermoplastics in industrial scale production. PMID:25857992

  20. Data Driven Modeling for Monitoring and Control of Industrial Fed-Batch Cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonné, Dennis; Alvarez, María Antonieta; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology for development of a set of discrete-time sequence models for batch control based on historical and online operating data is presented and investigated experimentally. The modeling is based on the two independent characteristic time dimensions of batch processing, being...... convergence of iterative learning control is combined with the closed-loop performance of model predictive control to form an optimal controller aiming to ensure reliable and reproducible operation of the batch process. This learning model predictive controller may also be used for optimizing control through...... optimization of the bioreactor operations model. The modeling and preliminary control performance is demonstrated on an industrial fed-batch protein cultivation production process. The presented methods lend themselves directly for application as Process Analytical Technologies....

  1. Quality of rolled barley flakes as affected by batch of grain and processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, B; Abrahamsson, L; Aman, P

    1994-02-01

    Rolled barely flakes were prepared from three different batches of grain by pearling, steaming and rolling. Autoclaved and malted barleys from the three batches were also processed in the same way. Analysis of the nine products showed that both batch of barley and process had significant effects on chemical composition and viscosity. Puddings were prepared from the products and mechanical consistency, juiciness and grain consistency were graded on both newly prepared and heated puddings by a sensory taste panel. Batch of barley had no effect on mechanical consistency but significant effects on juiciness and grain consistency. Type of processing had significant effect on all three parameters for both newly prepared and heated puddings. PMID:8153065

  2. Energy Management Strategies for a Pneumatic-Hybrid Engine Based on Sliding Window Pattern Recognition Stratégies de gestion de l’énergie pour un moteur hybride pneumatique basées sur la reconnaissance du cycle de conduite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanco A.

    2009-11-01

    recognition method is based on a correlation function. To improve analysis, all the results obtained with different energy management strategies are compared with a Dynamic Programming approach (DP considered as the optimal solution. Results show that about 40% of fuel saving can be achieved by DP. The VPC and DPR strategies give better results than the CPC strategy, not so far from the results obtained with DP. Cet article présente comparativement des stratégies de gestion de l’énergie pour un nouveau concept de moteur hybride : l’hybride pneumatique. Dans cette configuration spécifique, c’est le moteur lui-même qui est hybridé (et non le véhicule. Plusieurs stratégies de gestion d’énergie sont proposées dans cet article. La première est dite Causale (CS car basée sur des principes heuristiques de décision. La deuxième est basée sur la minimisation d’un critère d’équivalence et est appelée stratégie à Coefficient de Pénalité Constant (CPC. Dans ce cas, les flux d’énergie (depuis chaque source chimique ou pneumatique sont décrits dans des unités identiques. Ainsi, pour un même travail à produire, il est possible de faire une « balance » entre la consommation nécessaire selon chacune des deux sources d’énergie, et ceci avec un coefficient de pondération constant. La troisième stratégie utilise un coefficient de pondération variable selon la quantité d’air disponible dans le réservoir (i.e. état de charge et est appelée stratégie à Coefficient de Pénalité Variable (VPC. Dans ce cas, le coefficient de pénalité est une fonction non-linéaire de la pression dans le réservoir. Un autre raisonnement consiste à considérer qu’il est nécessaire d’adapter également le coefficient à la situation de conduite (embouteillage, urbain, routier, autoroutier..., pour cela il est impératif de reconnaître la situation de conduite. Le coefficient peut alors être adapté, selon la situation reconnue à la valeur optimale pr

  3. OPTIMAL FEED STRATEGY FOR FED-BATCH GLYCEROL FERMENTATION DETERMINED BY MAXIMUM PRINCIPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    1 IntroductionGlycerol fed-batch fermentation is attractive tocommercial application since it can control theglucose concentration by changing the feed rate andget a high glycerol yield, therefore it is essential todevelop an optimal glucose feed strategy. For mostof fed-batch fermentation, optimization of feed ratewas based on Pontryagin's maximum principle [if.Since the term of feed rate appears linearly in theHamiltonian, the optimal feed rate profile usuallyconsists of ba,lg-bang intervals and singular ...

  4. The functionalization of carbon nanotubes using a batch oscillatory flow reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi, Sonia; Bonyadi, S; Castell, P.; Martinez, M.T.; Mackley, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient method for the functionalizing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) using oscillatory flow mixing (OFM). A 3. l batch oscillatory flow reactor (OFR) was designed and constructed for pilot scale functionalization of MWCNT in order to potentially improve their compatibility within a thermoplastic polyphenylene sulphide (PPS) matrix. The OFM batch reactor consisted of a jacketed cylindrical vessel with a vertical axial oscillator that contained a series of b...

  5. STUDY ON MAXIMUM SPECIFIC SLUDGE ACIVITY OF DIFFERENT ANAEROBIC GRANULAR SLUDGE BY BATCH TESTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The maximum specific sludge activity of granular sludge from large-scale UASB, IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were investigated by batch tests. The limitation factors related to maximum specific sludge activity (diffusion, substrate sort, substrate concentration and granular size) were studied. The general principle and procedure for the precise measurement of maximum specific sludge activity were suggested. The potential capacity of loading rate of the IC and Biobed anaerobic reactors were analyzed and compared by use of the batch tests results.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF INTERMITTENT CHLORINATION SYSTEM IN BIOLOGICAL EXCESS SLUDGE REDUCTION BY SEQUENCING BATCH REACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Takdastan ، N. Mehrdadi ، A. A. Azimi ، A. Torabian ، G. Nabi Bidhendi

    2009-01-01

    The excessive biological sludge production is one of the disadvantages of aerobic wastewater treatment processes such as sequencing batch reactors. To solve the problem of excess sludge production, oxidizing some of the sludge by chlorine, thus reducing the biomass coefficient as well as the sewage sludge disposal may be a suitable idea. In this study, two sequencing batch reactors, each with 20 L volume and controlled by on-line system were used. After providing the steady state conditions i...

  7. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: A cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Buhule, Olive D.; Minster, Ryan L.; Nicola L. Hawley; Mario eMedvedovic; Guangyun eSun; Satupaitea eViali; Ranjan eDeka; Stephen T McGarvey; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One),...

  8. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: a cautionary tale

    OpenAIRE

    Buhule, Olive D.; Minster, Ryan L.; Nicola L. Hawley; Medvedovic, Mario; SUN, GUANGYUN; Viali, Satupaitea; Deka, Ranjan; Stephen T McGarvey; Weeks, Daniel E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One), s...

  9. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS PRODUCTION BY BATCH REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Zhukov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an energy-efficient method for producing SiC-based composites via doping with oxide eutectic compositions and batch granulometry regulation. The influence of batch granulometry on physico-mechanical properties of ceramics is studied, and fractions ratio is determined allowing us to obtain a dense material with improved strength and fracture toughness. Such ceramics shows excellent mechanical behavior and holds much promise as a structural and armor material.

  10. Green, Eco, Innovative Design, and Manufacturing Technology of a 1-Ton per Batch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerdsuwan Somrat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal treatment of waste by incineration is considered an ultimate solution in order to get rid of waste properly by using the combustible properties of waste and transforming them into inert form and gaseous emission, with the main advantage of a huge reduction in mass and volume of treated waste, destruction of the dangerous components in waste, and obtaining green and clean energy from the exothermal reaction from the completed combustion process. In order to achieve the main goal of incineration, a good design, construction, supervision, and intensive operation and maintenance must be taken into account, especially for the small-scale incinerator. This research will deal with the green, innovative, and eco design and manufacturing technology of a 1-ton per batch municipal solid waste (MSW incinerator. The concept design of the incinerator will focus on the design of the feeding process where only one batch of waste will be discharged into the combustion chamber at one time instead of the semi-feed process, as found in the conventional incinerator. This will ease the operation of the operator and reduce the operating cost. Moreover, the innovative design includes the redesign of combustion air injection into either the primary or secondary combustion chamber in order to achieve the 3Ts of combustion (time, temperature. and turbulence. This design can eliminate the use of an auxiliary burner in the primary combustion chamber. Rethinking the innovative design of using recirculation hot flue gas for preheating of wet garbage in order to pre-dry the waste before combustion is also taken into account. The manufacturing process of the wall composition as well as other parts of the incinerator are also examined.

  11. Initial Sulfate Solubility Study for Sludge Batch 4 (SB4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorier, T

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this task is to provide the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) with an assessment of the viability of using the current 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and/or the possibility of increasing the SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility limit to account for anticipated sulfur concentrations in Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit was implemented for processing of Frit 418-Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) to avoid the formation of sulfate inclusions in the glass and/or the formation of a molten sulfate-rich phase on the melt pool in the DWPF melter. The presence of such a phase on the surface of the melt pool increases corrosion rates of melter components, enhances the potential for steam excursions in a slurry-fed waste glass melter, and creates the potential for undesirable current paths that could deplete energy delivered to the melter due to the electrical conductivity of the molten salt layer. This suite of sulfate-solubility tests began by testing the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case for SB4 (as defined by Lilliston and Shah, 2004)--based on this being the most conservative (having the highest predicted viscosity when coupled with specific frits, it could potentially have the greatest impact on SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility) blending scenario of SB4 with the heel of SB3 for SO{sub 4}{sup =} solubility. Frits 320 and 418 were tested with SB4 and the tests indicated that at the current SO{sub 4}{sup =} limit (in glass) and the tested waste loadings (30% and 40%), neither Frit 320 nor Frit 418 could be utilized with SB4 (for the 1200-canister, 2nd transfer case composition originally provided). More specifically, SO{sub 4}{sup =} was observed on the surface with the SB4 composition and Frit 320 at 40% waste loading (WL) and 0.6 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}, and with Frit 418 at 30% and 40% WL and 0.5 wt% SO{sub 4}{sup =}. As alternative frits were being developed--Frits 447, 448, and 449, that contained CaO and/or V

  12. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    The objective of this study was to determine a sulfate solubility limit in glass for Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). The SB7b composition projection provided by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) on May 25, 2011 was used as the basis for formulating glass compositions to determine the sulfate limit. Additions of Na{sub 2}O to the projected sludge composition were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) due to uncertainty in the final concentration of Na{sub 2}O for SB7b, which is dependent on washing effectiveness and the potential need to add NaOH to ensure an acceptable projected operating window. Additions of 4, 6, and 8 wt % Na{sub 2}O were made to the nominal May 25, 2011 composition projection. An updated SB7b composition projection was received from SRR on August 4, 2011. Due to compositional similarities, no additional experimental work using the August 4, 2011 compositions was considered to be necessary for this study. Both Frit 418 and Frit 702 were included in this study. The targeted sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) concentrations of the study glasses were selected within the range of 0.6 to 0.9 wt % in glass. A total of 52 glass compositions were selected based on the compositional variables of Na{sub 2}O addition, Actinide Removal Process (ARP) stream addition, waste loading, frit composition, and sulfate concentration. The glasses were batched, melted, and characterized following SRNL procedures. Visual observations were recorded for each glass after it cooled and used as in indicator of sulfur retention. Representative samples of each of the glasses fabricated were subjected to chemical analysis to determine whether the targeted compositions were met, as well as to determine the quantity of sulfate that was retained after melting. In general, the measured composition data showed that there were only minor issues in meeting the targeted compositions for the study glasses, and the measured sulfate concentrations for each study glass were within 10% of

  13. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSVI air-pollution-control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.;

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts fro...

  14. Geochemical modeling of leaching from MSWI air-pollution control residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrup, T.; Dijkstra, J.J.; Comans, R.N.J.; Sloot, van der H.A.; Christensen, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an improved understanding of the leaching behavior of waste incineration air-pollution-control (APC) residues in a long-term perspective. Leaching was investigated by a series of batch experiments reflecting leaching conditions after initial washout of highly soluble salts from r

  15. Analysis and modelling of the energy consumption of chemical batch plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieler, P.S.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes two different approaches for the energy analysis and modelling of chemical batch plants. A top-down model consisting of a linear equation based on the specific energy consumption per ton of production output and the base consumption of the plant is postulated. The model is shown to be applicable to single and multi-product batches for batch plants with constant production mix and multi-purpose batch plants in which only similar chemicals are produced. For multipurpose batch plants with highly varying production processes and changing production mix, the top-down model produced inaccurate results. A bottom-up model is postulated for such plants. The results obtained are discussed that show that the electricity consumption for infrastructure equipment was significant and responsible for about 50% of total electricity consumption. The specific energy consumption for the different buildings was related to the degree of automation and the production processes. Analyses of the results of modelling are presented. More detailed analyses of the energy consumption of this apparatus group show that about 30 to 40% of steam energy is lost and thus a large potential for optimisation exists. Various potentials for making savings, ranging from elimination of reflux conditions to the development of a new heating/cooling-system for a generic batch reactor, are identified.

  16. Model Integrasi Penjadwalan Produksi Batch dan Penjadwalan Perawatan dengan Kendala Due Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi .

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the integration model of batch production and preventive maintenance scheduling on a single machine producing an item to be delivered at a common due date. The machine is a deteriorating machine that requires preventive maintenance to ensure the availability of the machine at a desired service level. Decision variables of the model are the number of preventive maintenances, the schedule, length of production runs, as well as the number of batches, batch sizes and the production schedule of the resulting batches for each production run. The objective function of the model is to minimize the total cost consisting of inventory costs during parts processing, setup cost and cost of preventive maintenance. The results show three important points: First, the sequence of optimal batches always follows the SPT (short processing time. Second, variation of preventive maintenance unit cost does not influence the sequence of batches. Third, the first production run length from production starting time is smaller than the next production run length and this pattern continues until the due date. When in process inventory unit cost is increased, the pattern will continue until a specified cost limit, and beyond the limit the pattern will change to be the opposite pattern.

  17. An LMI Method to Robust Iterative Learning Fault-tolerant Guaranteed Cost Control for Batch Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Limin; CHEN Xi; GAO Furong

    2013-01-01

    Based on an equivalent two-dimensional Fornasini-Marchsini model for a batch process in industry,a closed-loop robust iterative learning fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control scheme is proposed for batch processes with actuator failures.This paper introduces relevant concepts of the fault-tolerant guaranteed cost control and formulates the robust iterative learning reliable guaranteed cost controller (ILRGCC).A significant advantage is that the proposed ILRGCC design method can be used for on-line optimization against batch-to-batch process uncertainties to realize robust tracking of set-point trajectory in time and batch-to-batch sequences.For the convenience of implementation,only measured output errors of current and previous cycles are used to design a synthetic controller for iterative learning control,consisting of dynamic output feedback plus feed-forward control.The proposed controller can not only guarantee the closed-loop convergency along time and cycle sequences but also satisfy the H∞ performance level and a cost function with upper bounds for all admissible uncertainties and any actuator failures.Sufficient conditions for the controller solution are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs),and design procedures,which formulate a convex optimization problem with LMI constraints,are presented.An example of injection molding is given to illustrate the effectiveness and advantages of the ILRGCC design approach.

  18. On-line Batch Process Monitoring and Diagnosing Based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xu; SHAO Hui-he

    2006-01-01

    A new on-line batch process monitoring and diagnosing approach based on Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) was proposed. This method does not need to predict the future observations of variables, so it is more sensitive to fault detection and stronger implement for monitoring. In order to improve the monitoring performance,the variables trajectories of batch process are separated into several blocks. The key to the proposed approach for on-line monitoring is to calculate the distance of block data that project to low-dimension Fisher space between new batch and reference batch. Comparing the distance with the predefine threshold, it can be considered whether the batch process is normal or abnormal. Fault diagnosis is performed based on the weights in fault direction calculated by FDA. The proposed method was applied to the simulation model of fed-batch penicillin fermentation and the results were compared with those obtained using MPCA. The simulation results clearly show that the on-line monitoring method based on FDA is more efficient than the MPCA.

  19. An order-picking operations system for managing the batching activities in a warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cathy H. Y.; Choy, K. L.; Ho, G. T. S.; Lee, C. K. M.

    2014-06-01

    Nowadays, customer orders with high product variety in small quantities are often received and requested for timely delivery. However, the order-picking process is a labour-intensive and costly activity to handle those small orders separately. In such cases, small orders are often grouped into batches so that two or more orders can be served at once to increase the picking efficiency and thus reduce the travel distance. In this paper, an order-picking operations system (OPOS) is proposed to assist the formulation of an order-picking plan and batch-handling sequence. The study integrates a mathematical model and fuzzy logic technique to divide the receiving orders into batches and prioritise the batch-handling sequence for picking, respectively. Through the proposed system, the order-picking process can be managed as batches with common picking locations to minimise the travel distance, and the batch-picking sequence can be determined as well. To demonstrate the use of the system, a case study in a third-party logistics warehouse is presented, and the result shows that both the order-picking activity and labour utilisation can be better organised.

  20. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  1. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  2. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  3. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  4. CATALYTIC WET AIR OXIDATION OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS USING A Pt CATALIST SUPPORTED ON MULTIWALLED CARBON NANOTUBES

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Ovejero; José L. Sotelo; Araceli Rodríguez; Ana Vallet; Juan García

    2011-01-01

    In this work, catalytic wet air oxidation in a batch reactor was studied by catalytic wet air oxidation to treat industrial wastewater. Basic Yellow 11, a basic dye, was employed as a model compound and platinum supported over multi-walled nanotubes (Pt/MWNT) was used as catalyst. Additionally, two different industrial wastewaters were tested. The results prove the high effectivity of this treatment, showing high extents of total organic carbon and toxicity removal of the final effluent. We c...

  5. An Empirical State Error Covariance Matrix for Batch State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisbee, Joseph H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    state estimate, regardless as to the source of the uncertainty. Also, in its most straight forward form, the technique only requires supplemental calculations to be added to existing batch algorithms. The generation of this direct, empirical form of the state error covariance matrix is independent of the dimensionality of the observations. Mixed degrees of freedom for an observation set are allowed. As is the case with any simple, empirical sample variance problems, the presented approach offers an opportunity (at least in the case of weighted least squares) to investigate confidence interval estimates for the error covariance matrix elements. The diagonal or variance terms of the error covariance matrix have a particularly simple form to associate with either a multiple degree of freedom chi-square distribution (more approximate) or with a gamma distribution (less approximate). The off diagonal or covariance terms of the matrix are less clear in their statistical behavior. However, the off diagonal covariance matrix elements still lend themselves to standard confidence interval error analysis. The distributional forms associated with the off diagonal terms are more varied and, perhaps, more approximate than those associated with the diagonal terms. Using a simple weighted least squares sample problem, results obtained through use of the proposed technique are presented. The example consists of a simple, two observer, triangulation problem with range only measurements. Variations of this problem reflect an ideal case (perfect knowledge of the range errors) and a mismodeled case (incorrect knowledge of the range errors).

  6. Izglītības ilgtspējīgai attīstībai pamatprincipi ģeogrāfijas apguvē pamatskolā

    OpenAIRE

    Saulīte, Elza

    2016-01-01

    Izglītība ilgtspējīgai attīstībai (IIA) ir būtiska mūsdienu izglītības satura sastāvdaļa, kuras realizēšanu nosaka vairāki reglamentējoši dokumenti. Šajā pētījumā akcentēta ilgtspējīgas attīstības nozīme, pētīti gan globālie, gan Latvijas politiskie dokumenti, kuri attiecas uz IIA mācīšanu ģeogrāfijas mācību priekšmetā 7. – 9. klasei, īsi aprakstītas nozīmīgākās IIA tēmas, veikta 9. klašu skolēnu un ģeogrāfijas skolotāju anketēšana, lai noskaidrotu vai skolās māca par klimata pārmaiņām un eko...

  7. OPTIMIZING BATCH REKEYING INTERVAL FOR SECURE GROUP COMMUNICATION BASED ON QUEUING MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid growth of Internet spawns many group oriented multicast applications like Internet pay TV, news dissemination and stock quote system. The fortes of these applications are the support of dynamic, scalable group membership and group members are geographically divergent. As members of the group move in and out, an imperative cryptographic rekeying model should be applied to preserve the confidentiality of the group. A symmetric key called as session key is employed to defend the group communication data during transit. Forward and backward secrecy is attained by updating the session key for every change in group membership. Depends on the application immediate rekeying or batch rekeying can be used employed. The problem with the batch rekeying algorithm is to determine the pertinent batch size and the optimal time for rekeying process. The main aim is to propose a mathematical model based on queuing theory principles by considering the request for rekeying as Poisson process, rekeying service as an exponential distribution. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed using Java based simulator. By varying the arrival rate and rekeying service rate the optimal batch size can be attained. The optimal rekeying interval improves the performance of the group when the group membership grows dynamically. Reduces the long waiting time of the rekeying requests and find the best batch size for the rekeying. Proposed mathematical model analyses the various control parameters for batch rekeying and locates the best values for the batch size and interval time using the M/M/1/K model queues.

  8. Dose and batch-dependent hepatobiliary toxicity of 10 nm silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella De Maglie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are widely used because of their antimicrobial properties in medical devices and in a variety of consumer products. The extensive use of AgNPs raises concerns about their potential toxicity, although it is still difficult to draw definite conclusions about their toxicity based on published data. Our preliminary studies performed to compare the effect of the AgNPs size (10-40-100 nm on toxicity, demonstrated that the smallest AgNPs determine the most severe toxicological effects. In order to best investigate the impact of physicochemical characteristics of 10 nm AgNPs on toxicity, we compare three different batches of 10 nm AgNPs slightly different in size distribution (Batch A: 8.8±1.7 nm; Batch B: 9.4±1.7 nm; Batch C: 10.0±1.8 nm. Mice were intravenously treated with two doses (5 and 10 mg/kg of the 3 AgNPs. 24 hours after the treatment, mice were euthanized and underwent complete necropsy. Tissues were collected for histopathological examination and total silver content was determined in tissues by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. All batches induced severe hepatobiliary lesions, i.e. marked hepatocellular necrosis and massive hemorrhage of the gall bladder. The toxicity was dose-dependent and interestingly, the toxic effects were more severe in mice treated with batches A and B that contained smaller AgNPs. Since the total silver mass concentration was similar, the observed batch-dependent toxicity suggest that even subtle differences in size may contribute to relevant changes in the toxicological outcomes, confirming the fundamental involvement of physicochemical features with respect to toxicity.

  9. Algal Feedback and Removal Efficiency in a Sequencing Batch Reactor Algae Process (SBAR to Treat the Antibiotic Cefradine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianqiu Chen

    Full Text Available Many previous studies focused on the removal capability for contaminants when the algae grown in an unexposed, unpolluted environment and ignored whether the feedback of algae to the toxic stress influenced the removal capability in a subsequent treatment batch. The present research investigated and compared algal feedback and removal efficiency in a sequencing batch reactor algae process (SBAR to remove cefradine. Three varied pollution load conditions (10, 30 and 60 mg/L were considered. Compared with the algal characteristics in the first treatment batch at 10 and 30 mg/L, higher algal growth inhibition rates were observed in the second treatment batch (11.23% to 20.81%. In contrast, algae produced more photosynthetic pigments in response to cefradine in the second treatment batch. A better removal efficiency (76.02% was obtained during 96 h when the alga treated the antibiotic at 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Additionally, the removal rate per unit algal density was also improved when the alga treated the antibiotic at 30 or 60 mg/L in the first treatment batch, respectively and at 30 mg/L in the second treatment batch. Our result indicated that the green algae were also able to adapt to varied pollution loads in different treatment batches.

  10. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  11. SLUDGE BATCH 6/TANK 40 SIMULANT CHEMICAL PROCESS CELL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, David

    2010-04-28

    Phase III simulant flowsheet testing was completed using the latest composition estimates for SB6/Tank 40 feed to DWPF. The goals of the testing were to determine reasonable operating conditions and assumptions for the startup of SB6 processing in the DWPF. Testing covered the region from 102-159% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. Nitrite ion concentration was reduced to 90 mg/kg in the SRAT product of the lowest acid run. The 159% acid run reached 60% of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) limit of 0.65 lb H2/hr, and then sporadically exceeded the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) limit of 0.223 lb H2/hr. Hydrogen generation rates peaked at 112% of the SME limit, but higher than targeted wt% total solids levels may have been partially responsible for rates seen. A stoichiometric factor of 120% met both objectives. A processing window for SB6 exists from 102% to something close to 159% based on the simulant results. An initial recommendation for SB6 processing is at 115-120% of the current DWPF stoichiometric acid equation. The addition of simulated Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) streams to the SRAT cycle had no apparent impact on the preferred stoichiometric factor. Hydrogen generation occurred continuously after acid addition in three of the four tests. The three runs at 120%, 118.4% with ARP/MCU, and 159% stoichiometry were all still producing around 0.1 lb hydrogen/hr at DWPF scale after 36 hours of boiling in the SRAT. The 120% acid run reached 23% of the SRAT limit and 37% of the SME limit. Conversely, nitrous oxide generation was subdued compared to previous sludge batches, staying below 29 lb/hr in all four tests or about a fourth as much as in comparable SB4 testing. Two processing issues, identified during SB6 Phase II flowsheet testing and qualification simulant testing, were monitored during Phase III. Mercury material balance closure was impacted by acid stoichiometry

  12. Kinetics of D-lactic acid production by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD using repeated batch fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Wang, Limin; Li, Fengsong; Hua, Dongliang; Ma, Cuiqing; Ma, Yanhe; Xu, Ping

    2010-08-01

    D-lactic acid was produced by Sporolactobacillus sp. strain CASD in repeated batch fermentation with one- and two-reactor systems. The strain showed relatively high energy consumption in its growth-related metabolism in comparison with other lactic acid producers. When the fermentation was repeated with 10% (v/v) of previous culture to start a new batch, D-lactic acid production shifted from being cell-maintenance-dependent to cell-growth-dependent. In comparison with the one-reactor system, D-lactic acid production increased approximately 9% in the fourth batch of the two-reactor system. Strain CASD is an efficient D-lactic acid producer with increased growth rate at the early stage of repeated cycles, which explains the strain's physiological adaptation to repeated batch culture and improved performance in the two-reactor fermentation system. From a kinetic point of view, two-reactor fermentation system was shown to be an alternative for conventional one-reactor repeated batch operation. PMID:20374976

  13. Time requirements in closed and open batch distillation arrangements for separation of a binary mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shuo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Batch time requirements are provided for the separation of binary zeotropic mixtures in two different multivessel columns (with and without vapor bypass, a non-cyclic two-vessel column and a regular batch column based on dynamic simulations. The first three columns are operated as closed (total reflux systems and the regular batch column is operated as an open (partial reflux system. We analyze the effects of feed composition, relative volatility and product specification on the time requirements. The multivessel arrangements perform better than the regular batch column, which requires from 4.00 to 34.67% more time to complete a given separation. The elimination of the vapor bypass in the multivessel column is impractical though it has a positive effect on the batch time requirements. Thus, the multivessel column, with the vapor stream bypassing the intermediate vessel, is proposed as the best candidate for a binary zeotropic mixture with low concentration of light component, low relative volatility and high product purity demand. Furthermore, an experimental multivessel column with vapor bypass is built and the corresponding experiments verify the simulations.

  14. Comparison of batch and column tests for the elution of artificial turf system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, O; Kalbe, U; Berger, W; Nordhauβ, K; Christoph, G; Walzel, H-P

    2012-12-18

    Synthetic athletic tracks and turf areas for outdoor sporting grounds may release contaminants due to the chemical composition of some components. A primary example is that of zinc from reused scrap tires (main constituent, styrene butadiene rubber, SBR), which might be harmful to the environment. Thus, methods for the risk assessment of those materials are required. Laboratory leaching methods like batch and column tests are widely used to examine the soil-groundwater pathway. We tested several components for artificial sporting grounds with batch tests at a liquid to solid (LS) ratio of 2 L/kg and column tests with an LS up to 26.5 L/kg. We found a higher zinc release in the batch test eluates for all granules, ranging from 15% higher to 687% higher versus data from column tests for SBR granules. Accompanying parameters, especially the very high turbidity of one ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) or thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) eluates, reflect the stronger mechanical stress of batch testing. This indicates that batch test procedures might not be suitable for the risk assessment of synthetic sporting ground components. Column tests, on the other hand, represent field conditions more closely and allow for determination of time-dependent contaminants release. PMID:23153171

  15. Stage 2 Process Performance Qualification (PPQ): a Scientific Approach to Determine the Number of PPQ Batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhayattil, Ajay; Alsmeyer, Daniel; Chen, Shu; Hye, Maksuda; Ingram, Marzena; Sanghvi, Pradeep

    2016-08-01

    The approach documented in this article reviews data from earlier process validation lifecycle stages with a described statistical model to provide the "best estimate" on the number of process performance qualification (PPQ) batches that should generate sufficient information to make a scientific and risk-based decision on product robustness. This approach is based upon estimation of a statistical confidence from the current product knowledge (Stage 1), historical variability for similar products/processes (batch-to-batch), and label claim specifications such as strength. The analysis is to determine the confidence level with the measurements of the product quality attributes and to compare them with the specifications. The projected minimum number of PPQ batches required will vary depending on the product, process understanding, and attributes, which are critical input parameters for the current statistical model. This new approach considers the critical finished product CQAs (assay, dissolution, and content uniformity), primarily because assay/content uniformity and dissolution as well as strength are the components of the label claim. The key CQAs determine the number of PPQ batches. This approach will ensure that sufficient scientific data is generated to demonstrate process robustness as desired by the 2011 FDA guidance.

  16. Decolouration of industrial metal-complex dyes in successive batches by active cultures of Trametes pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rodríguez-Couto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The decolouration of the metal-complex dyes Bemaplex Navy M-T (150 mg/L and Bezaktiv Blue BA (150 mg/L in nine successive batches by immobilised cultures of the white-rot fungus Trametes pubescens was studied. Two different types of immobilisation supports were used: the commercial carriers Kaldnes™ K1 (synthetic supports and sunflower-seed shells (SS (natural supports. Bemaplex showed more resistance to degradation by T. pubescens cultures than Bezaktiv, especially in the K1 cultures. Thus, SS cultures led to decolouration percentages higher than 59% for Bemaplex in all the batches save for the last two and higher than 50% for Bezaktiv in all the batches except for the 2nd and 9th ones. K1 cultures showed decolouration percentages for Bemaplex higher than 42% in batches 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7 and for Bezaktiv higher than 70% in all the batches save for the last one. Dye decolouration was mainly due to enzyme action (biodegradation.

  17. Vers une nouvelle méthodologie de conception des bâtiments, basée sur leurs performances bioclimatiques

    OpenAIRE

    Chesné, Lou

    2012-01-01

    With the current issues concerning the potential savings in the building sector, reducing building energy consumption is a key point. Up to now, efforts have been focused on insulation to separate the inner ambiance from the fluctuation of the outside air temperature. However, insulating a building from its environment deprives it from the renewable free energy sources which exchange with the envelope, either they are heating or cooling sources. Using the building envelope to exploit these re...

  18. Une méthode pour estimer l’interception du rayonnement par un couvert bas : application au colza avant montaison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denoroy Pascal

    2002-01-01

    introduire dans l’équation 2 un paramètre représentant le taux de couverture du sol. Si l’estimation par mesure directe de epsiloni et donc l’estimation de k sont assez simples, au moins dans le principe pour un couvert développé en hauteur (colza après montaison [3], une telle mesure devient beaucoup plus complexe dans le cas d’un couvert discontinu et bas. Dans ce milieu hétérogène (et souvent dans des conditions hivernales sévères, une distribution représentative des capteurs de rayonnement est difficile, les risques de perturbation de la mesure (salissure des capteurs, déréglages sont élevés. Plusieurs études ont déjà traité de epsiloni et k dans le cas du colza [3-7]. Elles sont fondées sur des mesures d’interception du rayonnement et concernent des couverts fermés, après montaison. Une autre approche consiste à effectuer un calcul précis de PARi avec des modèles détaillés utilisant une description complète des paramètres (géométriques et radiatifs du feuillage, et du rayonnement incident [8]. Mais les données nécessaires sont alors nombreuses, complexes à obtenir et donc généralement non disponibles en expérimentation. Pour répondre aux besoins de calcul de l’interception du rayonnement dans les phases d’installation du colza, cet article présente une méthode permettant de calculer epsiloni en tenant compte des principales caractéristiques de la morphologie du couvert et du régime radiatif auquel ce dernier est soumis. Les données nécessaires sont limitées : l’indice foliaire, les taux de couverture du sol (deux définitions, la latitude du lieu considéré, la date et le rayonnement incident quotidien. Ce calcul permet une estimation du coefficient moyen d’extinction k (équation 2. On verra que k peut être corrélé à l’IF, la période de l’année et la latitude du lieu, ce qui permet de proposer une estimation simple de k et donc un calcul simplifié de epsiloni, adapté au cas des faibles IF

  19. Repeated-batch production of kojic acid in a cell-retention fermenter using Aspergillus oryzae M3B9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, H M; Chen, C C; Giridhar, R; Chang, T S; Wu, W T

    2005-06-01

    A cell-retention fermenter was used for the pilot-scale production of kojic acid using an improved strain of Aspergillus oryzae in repeated-batch fermentations. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources used, sucrose and yeast extract promoted pellet morphology of fungi and higher kojic acid production. Repeated-batch culture using a medium replacement ratio of 75% gave a productivity of 5.3 gL(-1)day(-1) after 11.5 days of cultivation. While batch culture in shake-flasks resulted in a productivity of 5.1 gL(-1)day(-1), a productivity of 5 gL(-1)day(-1) was obtained in a pilot-scale fermenter. By converting the batch culture into repeated batches, the non-productive downtime of cleaning, filling and sterilizing the fermenter between each batch were eliminated, thereby increasing the kojic acid productivity. PMID:15895266

  20. BAS系微晶玻璃抗氧化涂层的制备与性能%Preparation and properties of BAS glass-ceramics based anti-oxidation coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦玉峰; 周萌; 范成洲; 郑晓慧; 吴剑锋; 堵永国; 肖加余

    2011-01-01

    利用2层不同软化温度和不同热膨胀系数的BaO-A12O3-SiO2(BAS)系微晶玻璃,采用浆料涂覆浸渍-多层共烧的方法制备了2种双层同组分和1种双层不同组分的Cf/SiC复合材料抗氧化涂层.3种结构的BAS系微晶玻璃涂层完整、无明显缺陷,涂层与Cf/SiC复合材料的结合状态良好,有助于提高Cf/SiC复合材料的抗氧化性能.双层不同组分的BAS系微晶玻璃涂层在1200~1350℃范围内对提高Cf/SiC复合材料抗氧化性能的作用显著,失重速率和失重量均明显减小.与未包覆涂层的复合材料相比,包覆双层不同组分涂层的复合材料经历600次(每次保温10 min)热冲击后的失重降低了1/2~2/3,保留的强度提高了7~15倍.%Two kinds of BaO-A12O3-SiO2 (BAS) glass-ceramics with different soften points and thermal expansion coefficients were employed to prepare three kinds of gradient coatings for carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide(Cf/SiC) composite. These coatings were fabricated with slurry deposition combined dipping method and multi-co-firing technology. These BAS glass-ceramics based coatings were integrated and defect-free. The coatings and the composites bind tightly, which can improve the anti-oxidation performance of the coated Cf/SiC composite.All coating systems can protect Cf/SiC composite from oxidation. The graded coatings protect Cf/SiC composite markedly, and the mass loss rate and mass loss of coated composites are reduced greatly within 1200~ 1350 ℃.Compared with uncoated composite, the mass loss of the coated composite is reduced by 1/2~2/3, and the reminant bending strength is enhanced 7~15 times after 600 thermal shock cycles in the experimental range.

  1. LifeRaft: Data-Driven, Batch Processing for the Exploration of Scientific Databases

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaodan; Malik, Tanu

    2009-01-01

    Workloads that comb through vast amounts of data are gaining importance in the sciences. These workloads consist of "needle in a haystack" queries that are long running and data intensive so that query throughput limits performance. To maximize throughput for data-intensive queries, we put forth LifeRaft: a query processing system that batches queries with overlapping data requirements. Rather than scheduling queries in arrival order, LifeRaft executes queries concurrently against an ordering of the data that maximizes data sharing among queries. This decreases I/O and increases cache utility. However, such batch processing can increase query response time by starving interactive workloads. LifeRaft addresses starvation using techniques inspired by head scheduling in disk drives. Depending upon the workload saturation and queuing times, the system adaptively and incrementally trades-off processing queries in arrival order and data-driven batch processing. Evaluating LifeRaft in the SkyQuery federation of astr...

  2. Optimization of cyclosporin A production by Beauveria nivea in continuous fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Huijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop the effective control method for fed-batch culture of cyclosporin A production, we chose fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 as feeding nutrients and compared their productivities in relation to different concentrations. The feeding rate of three kinds of feeding materials was controlled to maintain the suitable residual concentration. The fed-batch fermentation results indicated that the optimal concentrations of fructose, L-valine and (NH42HPO4 were about 20 g/L, 0.5 g/L and 0.6 g/L for cyclosporin A production, respectively. The cultivation of Beauveria nivea could produce cyclosporin A up to 6.2 g/L for 240 hrs through a continuous feeding-rate-controlled-batch process under the optimal feeding conditions.

  3. Fuzzy logic feedback control for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Chao; Voltan, Diego S; Keshwani, Deepak R; Meyer, George E; Kuhar, Pankaj S

    2016-06-01

    A fuzzy logic feedback control system was developed for process monitoring and feeding control in fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass, dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Digested glucose from hydrolysis reaction was assigned as input while doser feeding time and speed of pretreated biomass were responses from fuzzy logic control system. Membership functions for these three variables and rule-base were created based on batch hydrolysis data. The system response was first tested in LabVIEW environment then the performance was evaluated through real-time hydrolysis reaction. The feeding operations were determined timely by fuzzy logic control system and efficient responses were shown to plateau phases during hydrolysis. Feeding of proper amount of cellulose and maintaining solids content was well balanced. Fuzzy logic proved to be a robust and effective online feeding control tool for fed-batch enzymatic hydrolysis.

  4. Oxidative stability of frozen mackerel batches ― A multivariate data analysis approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbo Ekgreen, M.; Frosch, Stina; Baron, Caroline Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Mackerel are usually caught in the autumn and often frozen either on board the fishing vessel or soon after landing. Due to the seasonality of the catching period, mackerel can be stored frozen for a long time period before entering the production chain. However, frozen storage of fatty fish...... such as mackerel can lead to a significant loss in fish quality primarily due to oxidation of the long chain omega-3 fatty acids. These quality changes results in significant loss for the fish processing industries and in fish with poor eating quality. In order to investigate batch-to-batch variation due...... to different catching methods and different freezing procedures 6 batches of frozen mackerel were obtained from the local producer of caned mackerel. Fish were processed as soon as possible after landing i.e. headed, gutted and individually frozen at the industry. However, one of the catch was abused...

  5. Modeling and Optimization for Short-term Scheduling of Multipurpose Batch Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国辉; 鄢烈祥; 史彬

    2014-01-01

    In the past two decades, short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants has received significant at-tention. Most scheduling problems are modeled using either state-task-network or resource-task-network (RTN) process representation. In this paper, an improved mixed integer linear programming model for short-term schedul-ing of multipurpose batch plants under maximization of profit is proposed based on RTN representation and unit-specific events. To solve the model, a hybrid algorithm based on line-up competition algorithm and linear pro-gramming is presented. The proposed model and hybrid algorithm are applied to two benchmark examples in lit-erature. The simulation results show that the proposed model and hybrid algorithm are effective for short-term scheduling of multipurpose batch plants.

  6. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  7. Design of batch operations: Systematic methodology for generation and analysis of sustainable alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a new methodology that is able to generate, screen and identify sustainable alternatives to continuous chemical processes as well as processes operating in the batch mode. The methodology generates the sustainable (design) alternatives by locating...... processes are described, highlighting the main differences between them. Through two case studies, the application of the methodology, to obtain sustainable design alternatives for batch plants, is highlighted....... the operational, environmental, economical and safety related problems inherent in the process (batch or continuous). Alternatives that are more sustainable, compared to a reference, are generated and evaluated by addressing one or more of the identified problems. A decomposition technique as well as a set...

  8. Optimal Feed Rate Control of Escherichia coli Fed-batch Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an optimal control algorithm for E. coli fed-batch fermentation has been developed. A simple material balance model is used to describe the E. coli fermentation process. The optimal feed rate control of a primary metabolite process is studied and a biomass production is used as an example. An optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process is usually done using the calculus of variations to determine an optimal feed rate profile. In the optimal control literature the problem is formulated as a free final time problem where the control objective is to maximise biomass at the end of the process. The obtained optimal feed rate profile consists of sequences of maximum and minimum feed rates. The obtained results are used for optimization of E. coli fed-batch fermentation and the presented simulations show a good efficiency of the developed optimal feed rate profile.

  9. Functional Unfold Principal Component Regression Methodology for Analysis of Industrial Batch Process Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Nørregaard, Rasmus; Sin, Gürkan;

    2016-01-01

    process operating at Novozymes A/S. Following the FUPCR methodology, the final product concentration could be predicted with an average prediction error of 7.4%. Multiple iterations of preprocessing were applied by implementing the methodology to identify the best data handling methods for the model......This work proposes a methodology utilizing functional unfold principal component regression (FUPCR), for application to industrial batch process data as a process modeling and optimization tool. The methodology is applied to an industrial fermentation dataset, containing 30 batches of a production....... It is shown that application of functional data analysis and the choice of variance scaling method have the greatest impact on the prediction accuracy. Considering the vast amount of batch process data continuously generated in industry, this methodology can potentially contribute as a tool to identify...

  10. Rescheduling to Minimize Total Completion Time Under a Limit Time Disruption for the Parallel Batch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-yan; MU Yun-dong; GUO Xiao; HAO Yun

    2015-01-01

    In the rescheduling on a single machine, a set of the original jobs has already been scheduled, in order to make a given objective function is optimal. The decision maker needs to insert the new jobs into the existing schedule without excessively disrupting it. A batching machine is a machine that can handle up to some jobs simultaneously. In this paper, we consider the total completion time under a limit on the sequence disruptions for parallel batching based on rescheduling. For the parallel batching problem based on rescheduling, we research the properties of feasible schedules and optimal schedules on the total completion time under a limit on the maximum time disruptions or total time disruptions, in which the jobs are sequenced in SPT order, and give out the pseudo-polynomial time algorithms on the number of jobs and the processing time of jobs by applying the dynamic programming method.

  11. A Batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixture Clustering with Automatic Model Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiechang Wen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the learning framework of maximum weighted likelihood (MWL proposed by Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this paper will develop a batch Rival Penalized Expectation-Maximization (RPEM algorithm for density mixture clustering provided that all observations are available before the learning process. Compared to the adaptive RPEM algorithm in Cheung, 2004 and 2005, this batch RPEM need not assign the learning rate analogous to the Expectation-Maximization (EM algorithm (Dempster et al., 1977, but still preserves the capability of automatic model selection. Further, the convergence speed of this batch RPEM is faster than the EM and the adaptive RPEM in general. The experiments show the superior performance of the proposed algorithm on the synthetic data and color image segmentation.

  12. Extension de l’aire de repartition de Gammarus tigrinus Sexton en 1973 aux Pays-Bas, et quelques remarques sur la concurrence avec les Gammares indigenes (Crustacea, Amphipoda)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Harry

    1974-01-01

    Range extensions of the alien amphipod Gammarus tigrinus Sexton, 1939, in the Netherlands have been surveyed in 1973. Only a few extensions were discovered, whereas some localities where the species previously has been recorded, now were found deserted. The present occurrence of competing local gamm

  13. Study of a sequencing batch reactor performance in soft drink wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cuba Terán

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.A sequencing batch aerobic reactor in pilot scale was constructed and operated with intermittent aeration in Wastewater Treatment Lab of Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia de Unesp at Presidente Prudente city. Research was conducted in order to improve reactor’s performance in organic matter and nitrogen removal by means of the application of different aeration times. In 12 and 14 hours long batch tests, with 6 and 8 hours of aeration, more than 96% of organic matter was removed by the third hour in both cases, in the other hand, nitrification showed 50 and 55% of removal at the end of every cycle. Tough showing nitrate removal, denitrification requires more research to be done in order to obtain more accurate data related with best cycle time for both pollutants removal.Key-words: sequencing batchs, aerobic treatment, industrial wastewater.

  14. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayancsik, B.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-10-13

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above.

  15. Stratified randomization controls better for batch effects in 450K methylation analysis: A cautionary tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olive D. Buhule

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Batch effects in DNA methylation microarray experiments can lead to spurious results if not properly handled during the plating of samples. Methods: Two pilot studies examining the association of DNA methylation patterns across the genome with obesity in Samoan men were investigated for chip- and row-specific batch effects. For each study, the DNA of 46 obese men and 46 lean men were assayed using Illumina's Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In the first study (Sample One, samples from obese and lean subjects were examined on separate chips. In the second study (Sample Two, the samples were balanced on the chips by lean/obese status, age group, and census region. We used methylumi, watermelon, and limma R packages, as well as ComBat, to analyze the data. Principal component analysis and linear regression were respectively employed to identify the top principal components and to test for their association with the batches and lean/obese status. To identify differentially methylated positions (DMPs between obese and lean males at each locus, we used a moderated t-test.Results: Chip effects were effectively removed from Sample Two but not Sample One. In addition, dramatic differences were observed between the two sets of DMP results. After removing'' batch effects with ComBat, Sample One had 94,191 probes differentially methylated at a q-value threshold of 0.05 while Sample Two had zero differentially methylated probes. The disparate results from Sample One and Sample Two likely arise due to the confounding of lean/obese status with chip and row batch effects.Conclusion: Even the best possible statistical adjustments for batch effects may not completely remove them. Proper study design is vital for guarding against spurious findings due to such effects.

  16. Batching alternatives for Phase I retrieval wastes to be processed in WRAP Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the next two decades, the transuranic (TRU) waste now stored in the 200 Area burial trenches and storage buildings is to be retrieved, processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Module 1 facility, and shipped to a final disposal facility. The purpose of this document is to identify the criteria that can be used to batch suspect TRU waste, currently in retrievable storage, for processing through the WRAP Module 1 facility. These criteria are then used to generate a batch plan for Phase 1 Retrieval operations, which will retrieve the waste located in Trench 4C-04 of the 200 West Area burial ground. The reasons for batching wastes for processing in WRAP Module 1 include reducing the exposure of workers and the environment to hazardous material and ionizing radiation; maximizing the efficiency of the retrieval, processing, and disposal processes by reducing costs, time, and space throughout the process; reducing analytical sampling and analysis; and reducing the amount of cleanup and decontamination between process runs. The criteria selected for batching the drums of retrieved waste entering WRAP Module 1 are based on the available records for the wastes sent to storage as well as knowledge of the processes that generated these wastes. The batching criteria identified in this document include the following: waste generator; type of process used to generate or package the waste; physical waste form; content of hazardous/dangerous chemicals in the waste; radiochemical type and quantity of waste; drum weight; and special waste types. These criteria were applied to the waste drums currently stored in Trench 4C-04. At least one batching scheme is shown for each of the criteria listed above

  17. Le Bassin de Ribeira Seca de Santiago, Cap Vert: une gestion basée sur l´approche GIRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januário da Rocha Nascimento

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l´auteur caractérise l´eau et l´agriculture des îles du Cap Vert et analyse les défis del´eau après la construction du barrage de Poilao dans la Vallée de Ribeira Seca, sur l´île de Santiago,en se servant de l´approche GIRE (Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau. Au niveau de la législation,il s´avère nécessaire de proposer de nouvelles lois, décrets et règlements qui soient en accord avecnotre réalité, en opposition à un important lot d´instruments juridiques inapplicables, obsolètes et decompréhension difficile. La construction du barrage de Poilão a produit des impacts environnementaux,socio-économiques et sur l´irrigation. Il s´agit de trouver un modèle de gestion qui s´adapte à la réalitédu Cap Vert et de l´île de Santiago, regroupant tous les partenaires pour une gestion durable de lavallée de Ribeira Seca et qui puisse servir d´exemple aux futurs barrages à construire.In this article, the author characterizes the water and agriculture of the islands of Cape Verde andanalyzes the challenges in the water after the dam construction Poilao in the Valley of Ribeira Seca,on the island of Santiago, using the IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management approach. Interms of legislation, it is necessary to propose new laws, decrees and regulations that are consistentwith our reality, as opposed to a large batch of inapplicable legal instruments obsolete and difficult tounderstand. The construction of the dam has produced Poilão environmental, socio-economic impactsand irrigation. It is to find a model that fits the reality of Cape Verde and Santiago Island, involvingall partners for the sustainable management of the valley of Ribeira Seca and that can serve as anexample to future to build dams.

  18. Batch sodium borohydride hydrolysis systems: Effect of sudden valve opening on hydrogen generation rate

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. F. Ferreira; Coelho, F; Rangel, C. M.; Pinto, A. M. F. R.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to investigate the potential of hydrogen (H 2) generation by hydrolysis of sodium borohydride solution (10 wt% NaBH 4 and 7 wt% NaOH), in batch reactors, operating at moderate pressures (up to #8764;1.2 MPa), in the presence of a powdered nickel-ruthenium based catalyst, reused between 311 and 316 times, to feed on-demand a proton exchange membrane fuel cell. A different approach to the testing of the performance of the batch NaBH 4 hydrolysis system is explore...

  19. Results of initial analyses of the salt (macro) batch 9 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics or observations, such as floating solids, the presence of large amount of solids, or unusual colors. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  20. Results Of Initial Analyses Of The Salt (Macro) Batch 9 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-10-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt (Macro) Batch 9 for processing through the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). This document reports the initial results of the analyses of samples of Tank 21H. Analysis of the Tank 21H Salt (Macro) Batch 9 composite sample indicates that the material does not display any unusual characteristics. Further results on the chemistry and other tests will be issued in the future.

  1. Sensor combination and chemometric variable selection for online monitoring of Streptomyces coelicolor fed-batch cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ödman, Peter; Johansen, C.L.; Olsson, L.;

    2010-01-01

    -one-batch-out cross-validation, and the best models had root mean square error of cross-validation values of 1.02 g l(-1) biomass and 0.8 g l(-1) total amino acids, respectively. The fluorescence data were also explored by parallel factor analysis. The analysis revealed four spectral profiles present......Fed-batch cultivations of Streptomyces coelicolor, producing the antibiotic actinorhodin, were monitored online by multiwavelength fluorescence spectroscopy and off-gas analysis. Partial least squares (PLS), locally weighted regression, and multilinear PLS (N-PLS) models were built for prediction...

  2. Change in hyphal morphology of Aspergillus Oryzae during fed-batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack, Martin Brian; Olsson, Lisbeth; Hansen, K;

    2006-01-01

    the batch phase from 2.8-2.9 up to 4.0-4.4 mu m. The diameter of the hyphal elements remained constant, around 4 mu m, after the feed was started. However, the diameter of the immediate hyphal tip, where the enzyme secretion is thought to take place, increased dramatically with up to a factor 2.5 during......Industrial enzymes are often produced by filamentous fungi in fed-batch cultivations. During cultivation, the different morphological forms displayed by the fungi have an impact on the overall production. The morphology of a recombinant lipase producing Aspergillus oryzae strain was investigated...

  3. A Combination of Varying Column Pressure and Total Reflux—Total Efflux in Batch Distillation Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGWeijiang; QUHongmei; 等

    2002-01-01

    A novel operation of batch distillation-combination of varying colum pressure and total reflux-total efflux is studied experimentally. In the operation, the product is accumulated at the top of the column under total reflux and then drained off completely, and the column pressure is varying in the whole process. This process has been industrialized successfully with large profits. The conventional mode of batch distillation is improved by this method effectively: the separation eficiency and the yield of product are increased greatly, the operation time is shortened and the production cost is cut down. Moreover, the amount of condensation water is decreased and the over-high reboiler temperature is lowered.

  4. A Practical SSL Server Performance Improvement Algorithm Based on Batch RSA Decryption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shi-qun; WU Yong-dong; ZHOU Jian-ying; CHEN Ke-fei

    2008-01-01

    The secure socket layer/ transport layer security(SSL/TLS) handshake protocol uses public key cryptographic algorithms such as RSA for key establishment. Typically, public key cryptographic algorithm is computational intensive due to the modular multiplications. Therefore, SSL/TLS servers often become swamped while performing public key decryptious when the simultaneous requests increase quickly. A batch RSA decryption algorithm was proposed. The novel algorithm provides the reasonable response time and opti-mizes server performance significantly. The decryption speedup is proportional to the batch size b, for instance,the speedup factor is 4, while in Shacham's scheme the acceleration rate is only 2.5 when b=4.

  5. Biodiesel and FAME synthesis assisted by microwaves: Homogeneous batch and flow processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hernando; P. Leton; M.P. Matia; J.L. Novella; J. Alvarez-Builla [Universidad de Alcala, Madrid (Spain). Planta Piloto de Quimica Fina

    2007-07-15

    Fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) have been prepared under microwave irradiation, using homogeneous catalysis, either in batch or in a flow system. The quality of the biodiesel obtained has been confirmed by GC analysis of the isolated product. While the initial experiments have been performed in a small scale laboratory batch reactor, the best experiment has been straightforward converted into a stop-flow process, by the use of a microwave flow system. Compared with conventional heating methods, the process using microwaves irradiation proved to be a faster method for alcoholysis of triglycerides with methanol, leading to high yields of FAME. Short communication. 19 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. A biochemically structured model for ethanol fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus: A batch fermentation and kinetic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sansonetti, Sascha; Hobley, Timothy John; Calabrò, V.;

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic batch fermentations of ricotta cheese whey (i.e. containing lactose) were performed under different operating conditions. Ethanol concentrations of ca. 22gL−1 were found from whey containing ca. 44gL−1 lactose, which corresponded to up to 95% of the theoretical ethanol yield within 15h...... ethanol, lactose, biomass and glycerol during batch fermentation could be described within a ca. 6% deviation, as could the yield coefficients for biomass and ethanol produced on lactose. The model structure confirmed that the thermodynamics considerations on the stoichiometry of the system constrain the...... metabolic coefficients within a physically meaningful range thereby providing valuable and reliable insight into fermentation processes....

  7. Kinetics studies of uranium sorption by powdered corn cob in batch and fixed bed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Sorption of uranium (VI) from aqueous solution onto powdered corn cob has been carried out using batch and fixed-bed technique. The experimental results in batch technique were fitted well with pseudo second-order kinetics model. In the fixed bed technique, Thomas and Bohart-Adams models were evaluated by linear regression analysis for U(VI) uptake in different flow rates, bed heights and initial concentrations. The column experimental data were fitted well with Thomas mode (r (2) = 0.999), but the Bohart-Adams model (r (2) = 0.911), predicted poor performance of fixed-bed column. PMID:26843973

  8. Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protect yourself and your family. Learn more Air Quality at Work Workers should breathe easy while on the job, but worksites with poor air quality put employees at risk. Healthy air is essential ...

  9. Air protection. Ochrana ovzdusia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siska, F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses problems of air pollution control, air pollution abatement and effects of air pollution. Air pollution caused by black and brown coal combustion, by fossil-fuel power plants and by coking plants is evaluated. Air pollution by dusts, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, ammonia as well arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, chromium, gallium, cobalt, manganese, copper, nickel, lead, plutonium, titanium and vanadium, which sometimes accompany ashes in coal, is analyzed. Methods of air pollution abatement such as fluidized bed combustion, coal preparation, desulfurization or dry coke quenching are described. Systems for air pollution control are presented: air filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitators. Systems of air pollution measurement and recording are evaluated. Propagation of air pollutants in the atmosphere as well as the factors which influence pollutant propagation are characterized. Problems associated with site selection for fossil-fuel power plants are also discussed. An analysis of economic aspects of air pollution abatement and air pollution control is made. (55 refs.)

  10. HEPA air filter (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pet dander and other irritating allergens from the air. Along with other methods to reduce allergens, such ... controlling the amount of allergens circulating in the air. HEPA filters can be found in most air ...

  11. Bad Air Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Bad Air Day Air Quality and Your Health In many parts of the country, summer has the worst air quality of any season. When the forecast says ...

  12. Nonlinear GPC with In-place Trained RLS-SVM Model for DOC Control in a Fed-batch Bloreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯絮影; 于涛; 王建林

    2012-01-01

    In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) was produced in a fed-batch bioreactor at the optimal dissolved oxygen concentration (DOC) and growth medium temperature. However, it is very difficult to control the DOC using conventional controllers because of the poorly understood and constantly changing dynamics of the bioprocess. A generalized predictive controller (GPC) based on a nonlinear autoregressive integrated moving average exogenous (NARIMAX) model is presented to stabilize the DOC by manipulation of air flow rate. The NARIMAX model is built by an improved recursive least-squares support vector machine, which is trained by an in-place computation scheme and avoids the computation of the inverse of a large matrix and memory reallocation. The proposed nonlinear GPC algorithm requires little preliminary knowledge of the fermentation process, and directly obtains the nonlinear model in matrix form by using iterative multiple modeling instead of linearization at each sampling period. By application of an on-line bioreactor control, experimental results demonstrate the robustness, effectiveness and advantages of the new controller.

  13. Upgrading of a mechanical biological treatment plant with a solid anaerobic digestion batch: a real case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco

    2012-10-01

    The energetic and treatment efficiency analysis of an existing mechanical biological treatment (MBT) plant shows that more than 60% of the 25 kWh consumed per each tonne of non-differentiated waste (NDW) treated is due to the electric fans. About 7.5 kWh per tonne of NDW is used for supplying the process air for stabilizing the waste organic fraction (WOF). Exploitation of the solid anaerobic digestion batch (SADB) for processing the WOF before it enters the aerobic section of the MBT leads to the production of biogas and, when subsequently fed to a gas engine, electric power at a magnitude of about 150 kWh per tonne of WOF, resulting in an energy surplus of about 48 kWh per tonne of NDW treated by the MBT facility. The SADB can also reduce the organic load rate at which the aerobic section operates up to 40%, leading to further positive effects on the whole MBT process. PMID:22751849

  14. Konya’da şehirleşmeye bağlı bağıl nem ve su buharı basıncı değişiklikleri

    OpenAIRE

    TÜRKOĞLU, Necla; ÇİÇEK, İhsan

    2007-01-01

    Bu çalısmada sehirlesmenin nemlilik üzerindeki etkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla Konya ve KarapınarMeteoroloji *stasyonlarının bagıl nem ve su buharı basıncı verileri ele alınmıstır. Nemliligin gün içindekidegisimini saptamak için 07:00, 14:00, 21:00 ve günlük ortalamaya ait veriler degerlendirilmistir. Sehirlerdeyıl içinde bütün aylarda 07:00, 21:00 ve günlük ortalamaya ait verilerde negatif, ögle saatlerinde ise pozitifbagıl nem farkları saptanmıstır. Pozitif fark sehirlerde ögle saa...

  15. Kan basıncı ölçüm aletlerimiz ne kadar doğru ölçüyor: kurumsal sürekli bakım programı

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Dişcigil, Güzel; BAŞAK, Okay; Kaplan, Hülya; Çeçen, Serpil; Bozkaya, Ayfer

    2006-01-01

    Amaç: Sfigmomanometre fizik muayenenin önemli bir parçasıdır ve kan basıncı kontrolünün temel taslarından birisidir. Sfigmomanometrelerin dogru ölçüm yapabilmesi için kalibrasyonlarının ve bakımlarının yapılması gerekmektedir. Bu çalısma, Adnan Menderes Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi'nde kullanımda olan sfigmomanometrelerin degerlendirmesini yapmak ve aletlerin düzenli aralıklarla kontrolünü saglayabilmek için bir program olusturabilmek mevcut sorunları saptamak amacıyla yapılmıstır. ...

  16. Comparaison du modèle géométrique "WINNER II" à un modèle déterministe basé rayon : Application aux contextes industriels

    OpenAIRE

    El Hariri Essamlali, Kaoutar; Combeau, Pierre; Pousset, Yannis; Vauzelle, Rodolphe

    2011-01-01

    Ce papier présente une comparaison des résultats de modélisation du canal radio en milieu industriel indoor, issu du modèle statistique WINNER d'une part, et d'un modèle déterministe tridimensionnel basé rayons allié à des méthodes asymptotiques enfréquence d'autre part. Cette comparaison est réalisée à partir des paramètres larges bandes que sont le retard moyen et la dispersion des retards calculés sur un grand nombre de réponses impulsionnelles issues des deux modèles. Les premiers résulta...

  17. Psihosociālo darba vides risku saistība ar nodarbināto darbspējām un veselības paradumiem zvanu centros

    OpenAIRE

    Rūtiņa-Rūtenberga, Sarmīte

    2016-01-01

    „Psihosociālo darba vides risku saistība ar nodarbināto darbspējām un veselības paradumiem zvanu centros”. Darba autore: Sarmīte Rūtiņa-Rūtenberga. Darba zinātniskā vadītāja: asociētā profesore, Dr.med. Ženija Roja. Darba izklāstīts uz 117 lapām, ietver 45 attēlus, 13 tabulas, 9 pielikumus un 46 informatīvos avotus. Literatūras analīzē noskaidrots, ka psihosociālajiem darba vides faktoriem ir dažāda ietekme uz nodarbināto drošību un veselību. Psihosociālo darba vides faktoru radītā riska anal...

  18. Psihosociālie darba vides riski un dzelzceļa darbinieku darbspējas. Veselības veicināšanas pasākumi"

    OpenAIRE

    Piščeva, Aļona

    2016-01-01

    „Psihosociālie darba vides riski un dzelzceļa darbinieku darbspējas. Veselības veicināšanas pasākumi”. Darba autore: Aļona Piščeva. Darba zinātniskā vadītāja: Dr. med., LU asociētā profesore Ženija Roja. Darbs izklāstīts uz 71 lpp., ietver 21 attēlus, 3 tabulas, 6 pielikumus, 53 informatīvos avotus. Pētījums sastāv no četrām daļām. Pirmajā daļā tiek sniegts vispārējs dzelzceļa nozares raksturojums un apkopoti darba vides riski dzelzceļa darbiniekiem, sniegts teorētisks pārskats par psihosoci...

  19. II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi Mizah Basını ve İçeriklerinden Seçilmiş Örnekler Humor Press of the II. Constitutional Era and Selected Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih SEYHAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available July 24, 1908, when Second Constitution was declared is animportant date for the history of Turkish Press as well as the history ofTurkish Politics, Turkish Literature History and the history of TurkishLaw. The Turkish press has entered a new era on that date, got rid of the bonds which were limiting the media and the newspapers wereprinted without the supervision of censorship board for the first time.By this freedom, numerous newspapers and magazines joined to pressand also humor magazines has taken place in that area. In this regard,the date July 24, 1908 represents a greater sense for Turkish humormedia. According to the information we have today, about a 30 yearperiod from the II. Abdulhamids’ ascending to the throne until thedeclaration of the II. Constitutional Monarchy although five or sixnewspapers were published but none of the newspapers or magazines ofhumor was allow to be published. This date has been declared as apress feast; in fact it is a lot more the feast of humor publishing.In this study, the humor newspapers named Boşboğaz ileGüllabi, Püsküllü Belâ, Lala, Malum and Kahya Kadın will be analyzedwhich were published after the period called pressexplosion consecutively the declaration of II. Constitutional Monarchy.During the analysis, firstly they will be presented by the information inthe samples and later the topics covered will be determined by thecontent analysis method. In addition, discourse analysis will be done forunderstanding the messages of the cartoons, news and articles. Theoverview of humor magazines to the declaration of Constitution and theway of its treatment to social and political issues of that period are thegoals of this study. II. Meşrutiyet’in ilan edildiği 24 Temmuz 1908 tarihi, TürkSiyasî Tarihi, Türk Edebiyat Tarihi, Türk Hukuk Tarihi gibi alanlar içinolduğu kadar Türk Basın Tarihi için de çok önemlidir. Türk basını butarihte yeni bir döneme girmiş ve kendisini s

  20. Influence of batch-to-batch reproducibility of Luna C-18(2) packing material, nature of column wall material, and column diameter on the liquid chromatographic analysis of basic analytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, RJM; Ruyter, E; Debets, AJJ; Claessens, HA; Cramers, CA; de Jong, GJ

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects arising on transferring liquid chromatography (LC) methods developed on conventional size columns to micro LC, i.e. the influence of batch-to-batch reproducibility of packing material, the nature of the column wall material, and the column inner diameter. it was shown th

  1. Las presencias de los padres en las instituciones educativas y la configuración del trabajo docente: el caso de una escuela privada de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires The Presence Of Parents And The Configuration Of Teachers' Work In Educational Institutions: The Case Of A Private School In Buenos Aires City

    OpenAIRE

    Lucía Petrelli

    2008-01-01

    La hipótesis que estructura este artículo sostiene que el modo en que se configura el trabajo de los docentes de una escuela de gestión privada de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires está vinculado con las presencias de los padres de los alumnos en la institución. Aquí reflexionamos sobre el trabajo de los docentes basándonos en el enfoque antropológico relacional que recupera los significados producidos por diferentes actores (maestros, padres de los niños) que intervienen en la construcción de una pr...

  2. Psychrophilic anaerobic digestion of swine manure slurry in sequencing batch reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masse, D.I. [Agriculture Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Food Research Branch; Droste, R.L. [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1993-12-31

    This work presents preliminary results of an ongoing laboratory study to evaluate the feasibility of psychrophilic anaerobic digestion in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) for stabilizing, deodorizing and adding value to swine manure. Preliminary results show that the process is feasible. (author). 14 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. Combined age and segregated kinetic model for industrial-scale penicillin fed-batch cultivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.F.; Lauwerijssen, M.J.C.; Yuan, J.Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a cell age model forPenicillium chrysogenum fed-batch cultivation to supply a qualitative insight into morphology-associated dynamics. The average ages of the segregated cell populations, such as growing cells, non-growing cells and intact productive cells, were estimated by this

  4. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  5. Synthesis of Peptide Amides using Sol-Gel Immobilized Alcalase in Batch and Continuous Reaction System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corici, L.N.; Frissen, A.E.; Zoelen, van D.J.; Eggen, I.F.; Peter, F.; Davidescu, C.; Boeriu, C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Two commercial proteases from Bacillus licheniformis (Alcalase 2.4 L FG and Alcalase 2.5 L, Type DX) were screened for the production of Z-Ala-Phe-NH2 in batch reaction. Alcalase 2.4 L FG was the most efficient enzyme for the C-terminal amidation of Z-Ala-Phe-OMe using ammonium carbamate as ammonium

  6. Effects of plants and essential oils on ruminal in vitro batch culture methane production and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, plants (14) and essential oils (EO; 88) from plants that are naturalized to, or can be successfully grown in North America were evaluated in a batch culture in vitro screening experiments with ruminal fluid as potential anti-methanogenic additives for ruminant diets. Essential oils we...

  7. Experimental Verification of Dynamic Operation of Continuous and Multivessel Batch Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittgens, Bernd

    1999-07-01

    This thesis presents a rigorous model based on first principles for dynamic simulation of the composition dynamics of a staged high-purity continuous distillation columns and experiments performed to verify it. The thesis also demonstrates the importance of tray hydraulics to obtain good agreement between simulation and experiment and derives analytic expressions for dynamic time constants for use in simplified and vapour dynamics. A newly developed multivessel batch distillation column consisting of a reboiler, intermediate vessels and a condenser vessel provides a generalization of previously proposed batch distillation schemes. The total reflux operation of this column was presented previously and the present thesis proposes a simple feedback control strategy for its operation based on temperature measurements. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by simulations and verified by laboratory experiments. It is concluded that the multivessel column can be easily operated with simple temperature controllers, where the holdups are only controlled indirectly. For a given set of temperature setpoints, the final product compositions are independent of the initial feed composition. When the multivessel batch distillation column is compared to a conventional batch column, both operated under feedback control, it is found that the energy required to separate a multicomponent mixture into highly pure products is much less for the multivessel system. This system is also the simplest one to operate.

  8. The Effects of Batch Reactor Extraction on Antioxidant Activity from Scurulla atropurpurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti I. Rahmawati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The main active compounds of benalu teh’s include alkaloids and flavonoids, therefore antioxidant of it has big potential to develop. In the context of extraction, the traditional (boiling in the water until one-third remain extraction require a long extraction time and result in low yields of extraction also antioxidant activities. Approach: Batch reactor is extraction at high temperature under applied pressure to keep the solvent under liquid phase, by this technology we hope to obtain better results. Optimum extraction conditions of benalu teh need to be discovered to obtain the antioxidant inside it. Benalu teh was extracted using traditional and batch reactor with different solvents (water, 30, 50, 70 and 99% ethanol at different temperatures (40-180°C for different time periods (10-20 min under additional pressure 0.2 MPa. Results: The best extraction condition by batch reactor extraction was 30% ethanol solvent at temperature 100°C for 10 min. Conclusion: Batch reactor extraction gave a better result than traditional extraction on extract yield, radical scavenging activities and total phenolic compound compared with the traditional extraction.

  9. The economic order decision with continuous dynamic pricing and batch supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, A.H.J.; Herings, P.J.J.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    We study an infinite horizon model, where a seller orders his product in batches of fixed size. A sales strategy determines both the order moments and the sales path between these moments. Under some natural conditions on the seller’s revenue function, the strategy that maximizes the seller’s time-d

  10. The development of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Stephen; Ştefan, Andrei; Lovett, David; Montague, Gary; Lennox, Barry

    2015-01-10

    This paper describes a simulation of an industrial-scale fed-batch fermentation that can be used as a benchmark in process systems analysis and control studies. The simulation was developed using a mechanistic model and validated using historical data collected from an industrial-scale penicillin fermentation process. Each batch was carried out in a 100,000 L bioreactor that used an industrial strain of Penicillium chrysogenum. The manipulated variables recorded during each batch were used as inputs to the simulator and the predicted outputs were then compared with the on-line and off-line measurements recorded in the real process. The simulator adapted a previously published structured model to describe the penicillin fermentation and extended it to include the main environmental effects of dissolved oxygen, viscosity, temperature, pH and dissolved carbon dioxide. In addition the effects of nitrogen and phenylacetic acid concentrations on the biomass and penicillin production rates were also included. The simulated model predictions of all the on-line and off-line process measurements, including the off-gas analysis, were in good agreement with the batch records. The simulator and industrial process data are available to download at www.industrialpenicillinsimulation.com and can be used to evaluate, study and improve on the current control strategy implemented on this facility. PMID:25449107

  11. Variation in Sensory Profile of Individual Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Same Production Batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    The variation in sensory profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), belonging to the same aquaculture production batch and handled the same way, was explored by using objective sensory profiling on heat-treated minced fillets. In addition, quality index, mechanical texture, pH, fat, and wate...

  12. A novel energy-efficient batch stripper: Thermodynamic feasibility, cost analysis and CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing energy demand, depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns have stimulated intensive research in improving the energetic potential of well-established process units through process intensification route. In this contribution, a novel internal heat integration scheme is introduced for batch stripping. Aiming to improve the thermodynamic efficiency of this transient distillation column, the tower is proposed to primarily divide into two diabatic sections. The upper section (top stripper) is operated at elevated pressures (heat source) keeping the lower part (bottom stripper) at normal state (heat sink) so that there exists a thermal driving force between them. With this goal, the proposed heat integrated batch stripper (HIBS) additionally requires a couple of internal heat exchangers, a compressor and a pressure reducing throttling valve. To quantify the benefits achieved by this novel scheme over a conventional standalone column, we use three performance indexes, namely energy savings, total annualized cost and CO2 emissions. Finally, the proposed HIBS configuration is demonstrated by simulating a binary system of cyclohexane and toluene. - Highlights: • A novel energy-efficient batch stripper is introduced. • Stripper is proposed to divide into two diabatic sections. • Two divided sections are thermally integrated by a couple of heat exchangers. • The mechanism is illustrated by the batch processing of a binary system

  13. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  14. 40 CFR 205.57-6 - Acceptance and rejection of batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batches. 205.57-6 Section 205.57-6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  15. 40 CFR 205.57-7 - Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance and rejection of batch sequence. 205.57-7 Section 205.57-7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks §...

  16. Production and partial characterization of alkaline feruloyl esterases by Fusarium oxysporum during submerged batch cultivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topakas, E.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Production of feruloyl esterases (FAEs) by Fusarium oxysporum was enhanced by optimization of initial pH of the culture medium, the type and concentration of nitrogen and carbon source. Submerged batch cultivation in a laboratory bioreactor (17 1) produced activity at 82 nkat g(-1) dry substrate...

  17. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  18. Comparison of batch and continuous multi-column protein A capture processes by optimal design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Daniel; Angarita, Monica; Müller-Späth, Thomas; Steinebach, Fabian; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    Multi-column capture processes show several advantages compared to batch capture. It is however not evident how many columns one should use exactly. To investigate this issue, twin-column CaptureSMB, 3- and 4-column periodic counter-current chromatography (PCC) and single column batch capture are numerically optimized and compared in terms of process performance for capturing a monoclonal antibody using protein A chromatography. Optimization is carried out with respect to productivity and capacity utilization (amount of product loaded per cycle compared to the maximum amount possible), while keeping yield and purity constant. For a wide range of process parameters, all three multi-column processes show similar maximum capacity utilization and performed significantly better than batch. When maximizing productivity, the CaptureSMB process shows optimal performance, except at high feed titers, where batch chromatography can reach higher productivity values than the multi-column processes due to the complete decoupling of the loading and elution steps, albeit at a large cost in terms of capacity utilization. In terms of trade-off, i.e. how much the capacity utilization decreases with increasing productivity, CaptureSMB is optimal for low and high feed titers, whereas the 3-column process is optimal in an intermediate region. Using these findings, the most suitable process can be chosen for different production scenarios. PMID:26992151

  19. Batch Metadata Editing - Dspace 1.6: a workshop/tutorial to inform and build skills

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Leonie; Lewis, Stuart; Newton-Wade, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    A new feature of the DSpace 1.6 Software is "Batch Metadata Editing". It gives Repository staff the ability to export metadata and change it easily for re-upload into the system. Once you try this "Data Entry" will never be the same.

  20. Batch crystallization of rhodopsin for structural dynamics using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wenting; Nogly, Przemyslaw; Rheinberger, Jan; Kick, Leonhard M.; Gati, Cornelius; Nelson, Garrett; Deupi, Xavier; Standfuss, Jörg; Schertler, Gebhard; Panneels, Valérie, E-mail: valerie.panneels@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute, OFLC/103, 5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-06-27

    A new batch preparation method is presented for high-density micrometre-sized crystals of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin for use in time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography at an X-ray free-electron laser using a liquid jet. Rhodopsin is a membrane protein from the G protein-coupled receptor family. Together with its ligand retinal, it forms the visual pigment responsible for night vision. In order to perform ultrafast dynamics studies, a time-resolved serial femtosecond crystallography method is required owing to the nonreversible activation of rhodopsin. In such an approach, microcrystals in suspension are delivered into the X-ray pulses of an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) after a precise photoactivation delay. Here, a millilitre batch production of high-density microcrystals was developed by four methodical conversion steps starting from known vapour-diffusion crystallization protocols: (i) screening the low-salt crystallization conditions preferred for serial crystallography by vapour diffusion, (ii) optimization of batch crystallization, (iii) testing the crystal size and quality using second-harmonic generation (SHG) imaging and X-ray powder diffraction and (iv) production of millilitres of rhodopsin crystal suspension in batches for serial crystallography tests; these crystals diffracted at an XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source using a liquid-jet setup.