WorldWideScience

Sample records for barwood cng cab

  1. Clean Cities Case Study: Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Barwood Cab Fleet Study Summary is the second in a new series called''Alternative Fuel Information Case Studies,'' designed to present real-world experiences with alternative fuels to fleet managers and other industry stakeholders

  2. CNG: a potential transport fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an alternative transport fuel. Advantages of its use are briefly described. Infra structural requirements, if it is to be used in India are outlined. Applications of CNG as transport fuel for buses and trucks in India are discussed. (P.R.K.). 5 refs

  3. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  4. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  5. Performance Characteristics Comparison of CNG Port and CNG Direct Injection in Spark Ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Patel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparative performance analysis is being carried out on a four cylinder, four stroke cycle, spark ignition engine having displacement volume 1297cc. The cylinder head of original gasoline based engine was modified by drilling holes from upper surfaces of head to individual combustion chamber to convert the engine in a CNG direct injection engine. The CNG port injection (CNG-PI system and CNG direct injection (CNG-DI system were incorporated with the single engine.  The engine was retrofitted to run on both CNG-PI and CNG-DI system alternately with common CNG tank and other engine loading and measurement system. The engine was equipped with electrical dynamometer having rheostat type loading. The CNG direct injection system was incorporated with various sensors and engine ECU. The operating parameters can be obtained on computer screen by loading the computer with engine through switch box. The engine was run over the speed range of 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm with incremental speed of 300 rpm. The performance parameters were calculated from observations and recorded for both CNG-PI and CNG-DI system. The experimental investigation exhibits that, the average 7-8% reduction in BSFC while the engine was running with CNG-DI system as compared to that of CNG-PI system. Also the engine produced 8-9% higher brake torque and hence higher brake power. The engine gives 6-7% higher brake thermal efficiency with CNG-DI system as compared to CNG-PI system.

  6. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply tank...

  7. Compressed natural gas (CNG) in fueled systems and the significance of CNG in vehicular transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayar, G. [Besikduzu, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2006-05-15

    Most NG vehicles operate using compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG's popularity stems, in part, from its clean-burning properties. In addition, more than 85,000 CNG vehicles, including one out of every five transit buses, are operating successfully today. This compressed gas is stored in similar fashion to a car's gasoline tank, attached to the rear, top, or undercarriage of the vehicle in a tube-shaped storage tank. A CNG tank can be filled in a similar manner, and in a similar amount of time, to a gasoline tank. (author)

  8. Trans Ocean Gas CNG transportation development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation is on the rise due to increased global demand for natural gas. However, the challenge of transporting LNG lies in finding suitable locations for import terminals. Compressed natural gas (CNG) transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets not practical for LNG or pipelines. The founder of Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. Financial support is needed to perform verification testing and for regulatory approval. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  9. Future perspective for CNG (Compressed Natural Gas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, D.

    1999-01-01

    Driving on natural gas (CNG, Compressed Natural Gas) has been the talk of the industry for many years now. Although the benefits of natural gas as an engine fuel have become well-known, this phenomenon does not seem to gain momentum in the Netherlands. Over the last few months, however, the attitude towards CNG seems to be changing. Energy companies are increasingly engaged in commercial activities, e.g. selling natural gas at petrol stations, an increasing number of car manufacturers are delivering natural gas vehicles ex-works, and recently the NGV (Natural Gas Vehicles) Holland platform was set up for the unequivocal marketing of natural gas as an engine fuel

  10. H/CNG pathway to hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugyra, W.J.; Martin, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The addition of hydrogen to natural gas to produce a 'premium' fuel offers an ideal bridge to the hydrogen and fuel cell era. This pathway provides many of the expected benefits of hydrogen and fuel cells, reduces cost and risk, and facilitates the transition to hydrogen incrementally through existing infrastructure, technologies and channels. The H/CNG pathway is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively in the context of: barriers to introducing hydrogen infrastructure and how they can be addressed; potential benefits (emissions, energy security) and drawbacks (range, technical compatibility) of H/CNG blended fuels; economics; and, comparative analysis to the use of ethanol in gasoline. Leveraging the NGV industry eases the transition to fuel cells by taking advantage of existing infrastructure, technologies, skills, codes and standards, and provides for incremental change that may be more acceptable to consumers, regulators and incumbent technology providers. The greatest benefits can be achieved through a two-track pathway. One would utilize small amounts of hydrogen in existing NGVs and installed power systems - much as ethanol is added to gasoline. The second introduce products designed specifically to operate on higher levels of H/CNG, like buses, in concentrations where the greatest emission benefits can be achieved. (author)

  11. Impact of CNG Crisis on Student's Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Kiran; Nadeem, Wajiha; Zia, Afsa; Shehzad, Shiza; Anwar, Zara

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the impact of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) crisis on Student's Academic Life of Karachi Pakistan. This research helps in observing the behavior of students and their educational progress includes depression and anxiety, rate of absenteeism and undesirable results in exams threatens due to CNG crisis and…

  12. Ford F250 Dedicated CNG Pickup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eudy, Leslie

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is encouraging the use of alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). To support this activity, DOE has directed the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct projects to evaluate the performance and acceptability of light-duty AFVs. In this study, we tested a pair of 1998 Ford F-250 pickups: one dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) model and a gasoline model as closely matched as possible. Each vehicle was run through a series of tests to evaluate acceleration, fuel economy, braking, and cold-start capabilities, as well as more subjective performance indicators such as handling, climate control, and noise

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of CNG urban taxi operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Increased emphasis on energy efficiency and air quality has resulted in a number of state and federal initiatives : examining the use of alternative fuels for motor vehicles. Texas' program for alternate fuels includes compressed : natural gas (CNG)....

  14. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: The Case of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Vehicles in California Households

    OpenAIRE

    Abbanat, Brian A.

    2001-01-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets and households for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, and fewer air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In the United States, the adoption of CNG technology has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This study addresses the potential market for CNG vehicles at the consumer level in California. Based on semi-structured pe...

  15. Survey for the development of compressed natural gas systems (CNG) for vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Abulamosha, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) vehicles have been used internationally by fleets for decades. The use of CNG vehicles results in less petroleum consumption, resulting in fewer air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions in most applications. In Europe, the adoption of CNG among consumers has been slowed by the availability of affordable gasoline and diesel fuel. This investigation addresses the current situation of the CNG vehicle at the manufacturing level and the consumer level in Europe. Bas...

  16. CNG INJECTOR RESEARCH FOR DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Majczak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the tests results of the prototype design of hydraulically assisted injector, that is designed for gas supply into diesel engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose a injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

  17. An experimental investigation of performance of diesel to CNG engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Sheelam; Gupta, Ayush; Garg, Ashutosh

    2018-05-01

    Over the past few decades, diesel engines are widely used in automobiles which is responsible for hazardous increase in pollution. Around the world, many countries are trying to reduce it by replacing diesel with CNG as a fuel which is more economical and leads to pollution free environment. Engineers came up with an idea to convert diesel engine to CNG engine. This conversion is possible by doing some alteration of engine components and it also include adding some extra components to the system which includes spark plug, valves etc. and by decreasing the compression ratio of the engine. It is used worldwide today and many countries have many programs to convert older, polluting diesel vehicles to CNG enable vehicles so that they can run on clean, economical natural gas. This is, an excellent way to reduce fuel cost, reduce pollution, reduce noise with minimum possible capital costs.first, second, and third level headings.

  18. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  19. Experimental investigation of the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG in a turbocharged spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momeni Movahed, M.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.; Mirsalim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is compared with gasoline and CNG modes. • BSFC, HC and CO emissions of the concomitant injection are lower than gasoline mode. • Deteriorations of the concomitant injection are negligible compared to gasoline mode. • Cylinder peak pressure and heat loss to coolant of the concomitant injection are lower than CNG mode. • Some shortcomings in CNG mode can be solved by changing the spark timing and lambda. - Abstract: Concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG is a new concept to overcome problems of bi-fueled spark ignition engines, which operate in single fuel mode, either in gasoline or in CNG mode. This experimental study indicates how some problems of gasoline mode such as retarded ignition timings for knock prevention and rich air–fuel mixture for component protection can be resolved with the concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG. Results clearly show that the concomitant injection improves thermal efficiency compared to gasoline mode. On the other hand, simultaneous injection of gasoline and CNG reduces some problems of CNG mode such as high cylinder pressure and heat loss to the engine coolant. This decreases the stringent requirements for thermal and mechanical strength of the engine components in CNG mode. In addition, it is shown that by modifying the spark advance and air fuel ratio in CNG mode, the engine operation improves in terms of NOx emissions and maximum in-cylinder pressure as the concomitant injection does. Nevertheless, new requirements such as an intercooler with higher cooling capacity are implied to the engine configuration. Finally, the most important concerns in control strategies of the engine control unit for a vehicle with concomitant injection of gasoline and CNG are discussed

  20. On Combustion in the CNG-Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Königsson, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a large interest in alternative transport fuels. There are two underlying reasons for this interest: the desire to decrease the environmental impact of transports and the need to compensate for the declining availability of petroleum. In the light of both these factors, the CNG-diesel dual fuelengine is an attractive concept. The primary fuel of the dual fuel engine is methane, which can be derived both from renewables and from fossil sources. Methane from organic waste, co...

  1. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  2. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  3. Innovation Ecosystem of CNG Vehicles: A Case Study of Its Cultivation and Characteristics in Sichuan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Ding

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the constraints of resources and environment, China is eager to cultivate a new industrial system with ecological characteristics in light of local circumstances. This paper selects the innovation ecosystem of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG vehicles in Sichuan, China as the objective of the case study to explore its cultivation and characteristics. The theoretical significance lies in three areas. Firstly, the cultivation path of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is manifested. Secondly, the symbiotic process model among the communities within the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is found. Thirdly, the substitutive process model of the CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem is discovered, which reveals the substitutability among innovation ecosystems, the communities of similar products, and the enterprises of similar products. This paper is of theoretical, practical, and political significance for the development of a CNG vehicle innovation ecosystem in emerging markets in terms of regional energy security and emission reduction.

  4. Feasibility study on utilization of associated gas as CNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  5. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  6. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  7. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides EPA’s interpretation of biogas quality and RIN generation requirements that apply to renewable fuel production pathways involving the injection into a commercial pipeline of biogas for use in producing renewable CNG or renewable LNG.

  8. Technical evaluation and assessment of CNG/LPG bi-fuel and flex-fuel vehicle viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinor, J. E.

    1994-05-01

    This report compares vehicles using compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and combinations of the two in bi-fuel or flex-fuel configurations. Evidence shows that environmental and energy advantages can be gained by replacing two-fuel CNG/gasoline vehicles with two-fuel or flex-fuel systems to be economically competitive, it is necessary to develop a universal CNG/LPG pressure-regulator-injector and engine control module to switch from one tank to the other. For flex-fuel CNG/LPG designs, appropriate composition sensors, refueling pumps, fuel tanks, and vaporizers are necessary.

  9. An assessment of the market for LPG and CNG in Peru's transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A. L.

    1999-01-01

    This is an abridged version of the report prepared by Boykiw and Company Limited to provide a technical, statistical and financial assessment of potential sales of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) or propane, and compressed natural gas (CNG) to the transportation sector in Peru. Results show that use of CNG and LPG in Peru's transportation sector will primarily be a function of the counrty's vehicle population, the economics of conversion and the availability of infrastructure. With regard to conversion, the fact that 62 per cent of the nation's one million vehicles are located in Lima, combined with their age, the prospects appear to be very favourable. Changing to LPG will also benefit the environment since carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides emissions will be significantly reduced. Similar environmental benefits are expected from the use of CNG. Assuming that low cost first generation conversion kits can be made available, in combination with the growing refueling infrastructure ( from one in 1994 to 9 by the end of 1999, and an additional five in 2000) should result in a dramatic increase in the number of vehicles using LPG. By contrast, the prospect for CNG as vehicle fuel is less favourable because of the much more complex and costly refuelling station required to make it practicable. Based on very incomplete information on the Lima fleet of vehicles and their operating characteristics, the total number of CNG-fuelled vehicles five years after CNG becomes available in Lima, is estimated at between 2,000 and 3,000, and CNG requirements of between 800,000 and 1,500,000 cubic feet per day

  10. On-road emission characteristics of CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhiliang; Cao, Xinyue; Shen, Xianbao; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xintong; He, Kebin

    2014-09-01

    To alleviate air pollution and lessen the petroleum demand from the motor vehicle sector in China, natural gas vehicles (NGVs) have been rapidly developed over the last several years. However, the understanding of the real-world emissions of NGVs is very limited. In this study, the emissions from 20 compressed-natural-gas-fueled bi-fuel taxis were measured using a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) under actual driving conditions in Yichang, China. The emission characteristics of the tested vehicles were analyzed, revealing that the average CO2, CO, HC and NOx emissions from the tested compressed-natural-gas (CNG) taxis under urban driving conditions were 1.6, 4.0, 2.0 and 0.98 times those under highway road conditions, respectively. The CO, HC and NOx emissions from Euro 3 CNG vehicles were approximately 40%, 55% and 44% lower than those from Euro 2 vehicles, respectively. Compared with the values for light-duty gasoline vehicles reported in the literature, the CO2 and CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were clearly lower; however, significant increases in the HC and NOx emissions were observed. Finally, we normalized the emissions under the actual driving cycles of the entire test route to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC)-based emissions using a VSP modes method developed by North Carolina State University. The simulated NEDC-based CO emissions from the tested CNG taxis were better than the corresponding emissions standards, whereas the simulated NEDC-based HC and NOx emissions greatly exceeded the standards. Thus, more attention should be paid to the emissions from CNG vehicles. As for the CNG-fueled bi-fuel taxis currently in use, the department of environmental protection should strengthen their inspection and supervision to reduce the emissions from these vehicles. The results of this study will be helpful in understanding and controlling emissions from CNG-fueled bi-fuel vehicles in China.

  11. COMBUSTION ANALYSIS OF A CNG DIRECT INJECTION SPARK IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rashid A. Aziz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was carried out on a dedicated compressed natural gas direct injection (CNG-DI engine with a compression ratio (CR of 14 and a central injection system. Several injection timing parameters from early injection timing (300 BTDC to partial direct injection (180 BTDC to full direct injection (120 BTDC were investigated. The 300 BTDC injection timing experiment was carried out to simulate the performance of a port injection engine and the result is used as a benchmark for engine performance. The full DI resulted in a 20% higher performance than the early injection timing for low engine speeds up to 2750 rpm. 180 BTDC injection timing shows the highest performance over an extensive range of engine speed because it has a similar volumetric efficiency to full DI. However, the earlier injection timing allowed for a better air–fuel mixing and gives superior performance for engine speeds above 4500 rpm. The engine performance could be explained by analysis of the heat release rate that shows that at low and intermediate engine speeds of 2000 and 3000, the full DI and partial DI resulted in the fastest heat release rate whereas at a high engine speed of 5000 rpm, the simulated port injection operation resulted in the fastest heat release rate.

  12. Perspectives of Biogas Conversion into Bio-CNG for Automobile Fuel in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for liquid and gaseous fuel for transportation application is growing very fast. This high consumption trend causes swift exhaustion of fossil fuel reserve as well as severe environment pollution. Biogas can be converted into various renewable automobile fuels such as bio-CNG, syngas, gasoline, and liquefied biogas. However, bio-CNG, a compressed biogas with high methane content, can be a promising candidate as vehicle fuel in replacement of conventional fuel to resolve this problem. This paper presents an overview of available liquid and gaseous fuel commonly used as transportation fuel in Bangladesh. The paper also illustrates the potential of bio-CNG conversion from biogas in Bangladesh. It is estimated that, in the fiscal year 2012-2013, the country had about 7.6775 billion m3 biogas potential equivalent to 5.088 billion m3 of bio-CNG. Bio-CNG is competitive to the conventional automobile fuels in terms of its properties, economy, and emission.

  13. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  14. Diesel/CNG Mixture Autoignition Control Using Fuel Composition and Injection Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion phasing is the main obstacle to the development of controlled auto-ignition based (CAI engines to achieve low emissions and low fuel consumption operation. Fuel combinations with substantial differences in reactivity, such as diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG, show desirable combustion outputs and demonstrate great possibility in controlling the combustion. This paper discusses a control method for diesel/CNG mixture combustion with a variation of fuel composition and fuel stratification levels. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber with both fuels directly injected into the chamber. The mixture composition was varied from 0 to 100% CNG/diesel at lambda 1 while the fuel stratification level was controlled by the injection phasing between the two fuels, with gaps between injections ranging from 0 to 20 ms. The results demonstrated the suppressing effect of CNG on the diesel combustion, especially at the early combustion stages. However, CNG significantly enhanced the combustion performance of the diesel in the later stages. Injection gaps, on the other hand, showed particular behavior depending on mixture composition. Injection gaps show less effect on combustion phasing but a significant effect on the combustion output for higher diesel percentage (≥70%, while it is contradictive for lower diesel percentage (<70%.

  15. CNG transport by ship with FRP pressure vessels access to east coast gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [Trans Ocean Gas Inc., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper discussed the Trans Ocean Gas (TOG) method for transporting compressed natural gas (CNG). CNG transportation offers an alternative method for transporting stranded natural gas to existing markets and for creating new natural gas markets that are not feasible for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or pipelines. Trans Ocean Gas Inc. (TOG) modified an existing fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) pressure vessel technology to safely store CNG on a ship. The newly developed containment system has proven to overcome all the deficiencies of steel-based systems. TOG patented the containment system and will license its use to owners of stranded gas and shipping service providers around the world. The CNG systems will be built and assembled throughout facilities in Atlantic Canada. FRP pressure vessels have been proven safe and reliable through critical applications in the national defense, aerospace, and natural gas vehicle industries. They are light-weight, highly reliable, have very safe failure modes, are corrosion resistant, and have excellent low temperature characteristics. Under TOG's scheme, natural gas can be stored at two thirds the density of LNG without costly processing. TOG's proposed design and testing of a CNG system was reviewed in detail. figs.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of Emissions Reduction through Vehicle Repair Compared to CNG Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Paul L; Lesko, Jon M; Stedman, Donald H

    1996-10-01

    In return for a temporary waiver from converting five vehicles to operate on compressed natural gas (CNG) for the Denver Clean Fuels program, the University of Denver identified, tested, repaired, and retested nine employee commuter vehicles. The results of the study validated the concept that employer-based identification and repair programs can be carried out in a cost-effective way. On average, each repaired vehicle removed fifty times more carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from Denver air than each CNG conversion. The average cost of each repair was eight times less than the average cost of each conversion. The average fuel economy benefit from the repairs was enough to pay for the average cost of repairs in less than three years of normal driving. When the expected lifetimes of repairs and conversions are included, the targeted repair program appears to be over sixty times more cost-effective as a CO emissions reduction strategy than CNG conversion.

  17. The Coselle CNG carrier : a new way to ship natural gas by sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenning, D.

    1999-01-01

    Coselle CNG carriers represent an emerging technology option for water-borne natural gas transportation. The idea behind the Coselle is to create a large but compact CNG storage system using pipe coiled into a carousel. The system promises to significantly improve the economics of shipping natural gas over short sea routes. This would unlock many gas reserves which are stranded because of the high costs associated with shipping natural gas by conventional tankers. The innovative patented technology for Coselle CNG carriers was described in this paper. The completed work on the technology is sufficient to allow a pilot project to proceed before the next step of commercialization of the technology. The technology can be applied in the Mediterranean Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Arabian Sea, Sakhalin Island, Canada's east coast, Deepwater offshore Brazil and Gulf of Mexico, and West Africa. 4 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  18. CNG: Aiming to be an energy company, not a gas company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, R.

    1997-01-01

    Long before regulatory changes in the US paved the way for the union of natural gas and electric utility companies, Consolidated Natural Gas Co. (CNG) embarked on a strategy that would serve the company well in the 1990s. In 1995, CNG began a corporate repositioning to meet mounting competition, switching emphasis from its regulated businesses to the non-regulated side. The goal: to become an energy player, not only in the US but internationally. This paper focuses on the company's operations, business plans, and management strategies. The paper gives an overview, then discusses production of oil and gas, the growing exploration program and plans for the future

  19. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  20. Project risk perspective on using LNG, CNG, and GTL concepts to monetise offshore stranded gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Blikom, Lars Petter

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses technology maturity and the key risks involved in establishing LNG, CNG, and GTL value chains in order to monetise offshore stranded and associated gas. The paper uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the economics of the various concepts and the impact of uncertainty. The conclusion is that LNG offers the most flexible value chain with the lowest level of risk exposure. CNG may offer better economics as long as the distance to market is fairly short. GTL must overcome significant technological challenges before becoming available for offshore use and also offers higher uncertainty in economic terms.

  1. New gas-fuelled engine. SBZ takes a look at the Iveco Daily CNG; Mit neuem Erdgasmotor. SBZ-Redaktion testet den Iveco Daily CNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-01-15

    In the van class, there are fewer natural-gas vehicles now on the market than before. One of these is the new Iveco Daily CNG, a low-emission industrial vehicle which is available both as a van or as a flatbed vehicle with sufficient rotary momentum and power. SBZ editor Thomas Dietrich of the Bonn office of SBZ tested several variants of the vehicle. (orig.)

  2. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  3. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  4. UPS CNG Truck Fleet Start Up Experience: Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2001-01-01

    UPS operates 140 Freightliner Custom Chassis compressed natural gas (CNG)-powered vehicles with Cummins B5.9G engines. Fifteen are participating in the Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project being funded by DOE's Office of Transportation Technologies and the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies

  5. Regulated and unregulated exhaust gas components from LD vehicles on petrol, diesel, LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Rijkeboer, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    Four fuels (petrol, LPG, CNG and diesel) are compared on passenger cars and lighter vans. The comparisons are made for the usual regulated components, but also for a number of unregulated components. The project was financed by the Dutch government, the association of gas suppliers, a number of

  6. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  7. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by

  8. Air quality and climate impacts due to CNG conversion of motor vehicles in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadud, Zia; Khan, Tanzila

    2013-12-17

    Dhaka had recently experienced rapid conversion of its motor vehicle fleet to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). This paper quantifies ex-post the air quality and climate benefits of the CNG conversion policy, including monetary valuations, through an impact pathway approach. Around 2045 (1665) avoided premature deaths in greater Dhaka (City Corporation) can be attributed to air quality improvements from the CNG conversion policy in 2010, resulting in a saving of around USD 400 million. Majority of these health benefits resulted from the conversion of high-emitting diesel vehicles. CNG conversion was clearly detrimental from climate change perspective using the changes in CO2 and CH4 only (CH4 emissions increased); however, after considering other global pollutants (especially black carbon), the climate impact was ambiguous. Uncertainty assessment using input distributions and Monte Carlo simulation along with a sensitivity analysis show that large uncertainties remain for climate impacts. For our most likely estimate, there were some climate costs, valued at USD 17.7 million, which is an order of magnitude smaller than the air quality benefits. This indicates that such policies can and should be undertaken on the grounds of improving local air pollution alone and that precautions should be taken to reduce the potentially unintended increases in GHG emissions or other unintended effects.

  9. The combustion behavior of diesel/CNG mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heikal, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The stringent emissions and needs to increase fuel efficiency makes controlled auto-ignition (CAI) based combustion an attractive alternative for the new combustion system. However, the combustion control is the main obstacles in its development. Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) that employs two fuels with significantly different in reactivity proven to be able to control the combustion. The RCCI concept applied in a constant volume chamber fuelled with direct injected diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) was tested. The mixture composition is varied from 0 - 100% diesel/CNG at lambda 1 with main data collection are pressure profile and combustion images. The results show that diesel-CNG mixture significantly shows better combustion compared to diesel only. It is found that CNG is delaying the diesel combustion and at the same time assisting in diesel distribution inside the chamber. This combination creates a multipoint ignition of diesel throughout the chamber that generate very fast heat release rate and higher maximum pressure. Furthermore, lighter yellow color of the flame indicates lower soot production in compared with diesel combustion.

  10. Influence of extensive compressed natural gas (CNG) usage on air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthawaree, Jeeranut; Sikder, Helena Akhter; Jones, Charlotte Emily; Kato, Shungo; Kunimi, Hitoshi; Mohammed Hamidul Kabir, Abu Naser; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    2012-07-01

    Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an inexpensive, indigenous energy resource which currently accounts for the majority of automobile and domestic energy consumption in Bangladesh. This extensive CNG usage, particularly within the capital city, Dhaka, heavily influences the atmospheric composition (and hence air quality), yet to date measurements of trace gases in regions dominated by CNG emissions are relatively limited. Here we report continuous observations of the atmospherically important trace gases O3, CO, SO2, NOx and volatile organic compounds (VOC), in ambient air in Dhaka City, Bangladesh, during May 2011. The average mixing ratios of O3, CO, SO2, and NOx for the measurement period were 18.9, 520.9, 7.6 and 21.5 ppbv, respectively. The ratios of CO to NO reveal that emissions from gasoline and CNG-fuelled vehicles were dominant during the daytime (slope of ˜26), while in contrast, owing to restrictions imposed on diesel fuelled vehicles entering Dhaka City, emissions from these vehicles only became significant during the night (slope of ˜10). The total VOC mixing ratio in Dhaka was ˜5-10 times higher than the levels reported in more developed Asian cities such as Tokyo and Bangkok, which consequently gives rise to a higher ozone formation potential (OFP). However, the most abundant VOC in Dhaka were the relatively long-lived ethane and propane (with mean mixing ratios of ˜115 and ˜30 ppbv, respectively), and as a consequence, the ozone formation potential per ppb carbon (ppbC) was lower in Dhaka than in Tokyo and Bangkok. Thus the atmospheric composition of air influenced by extensive CNG combustion may be characterized by high VOC mixing ratios, yet mixing ratios of the photochemical pollutant ozone do not drastically exceed the levels typical of Asian cities with considerably lower VOC levels.

  11. A structural, functional, and computational analysis suggests pore flexibility as the base for the poor selectivity of CNG channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Luisa Maria Rosaria; Bisha, Ina; De March, Matteo; Marchesi, Arin; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Demitri, Nicola; Mazzolini, Monica; Rodriguez, Alex; Magistrato, Alessandra; Onesti, Silvia; Laio, Alessandro; Torre, Vincent

    2015-07-07

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels, despite a significant homology with the highly selective K(+) channels, do not discriminate among monovalent alkali cations and are permeable also to several organic cations. We combined electrophysiology, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and X-ray crystallography to demonstrate that the pore of CNG channels is highly flexible. When a CNG mimic is crystallized in the presence of a variety of monovalent cations, including Na(+), Cs(+), and dimethylammonium (DMA(+)), the side chain of Glu66 in the selectivity filter shows multiple conformations and the diameter of the pore changes significantly. MD simulations indicate that Glu66 and the prolines in the outer vestibule undergo large fluctuations, which are modulated by the ionic species and the voltage. This flexibility underlies the coupling between gating and permeation and the poor ionic selectivity of CNG channels.

  12. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fracture Analysis of CNG High Pressure Container using Fractography and Measurement of Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Eui-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bursting accidents of pressure containers due to design and manufacturing defects are frequently occurring. Due to high-pressure gas or harmful substances, when this vessel is fractured, it can lead to catastrophic disasters. Especially, in the event of bursting accident of composite pressure vessel for CNG bus, many unspecified people can be damaged. Most of the accidents were caused by problems in the manufacturing process. The manufacturing process for TYPE2 pressure vessel is very complicated such as three drawing processes, two ironing processes and one spinning process. In the middle of process, various heat treatments are performed for imparting toughness and removing residual stresses. It should cause a serious problem such as bursting and fragmentation of the pressure container due to defects of this process. In this research, the fracture cause of CNG vessel is evaluated through fractography and measuring material property using IIT and analysis of chemical composition.

  14. Exhaust gas concentration of CNG fuelled direct injection engine at MBT timing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.K.; Aris, I.; Mahmod, S.; Sidek, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NO x , O 2 and CO 2 , were recorded and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the exercise. (author)

  15. Impact source location on composite CNG storage tank using acoustic emission energy based signal mapping method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byeong Hee; Yoon, Dong Jin; Park, Chun Soo [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Center for Safety Measurement, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin [Dept. of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is one of the most powerful techniques for detecting damages and identify damage location during operations. However, in case of the source location technique, there is some limitation in conventional AE technology, because it strongly depends on wave speed in the corresponding structures having heterogeneous composite materials. A compressed natural gas(CNG) pressure vessel is usually made of carbon fiber composite outside of vessel for the purpose of strengthening. In this type of composite material, locating impact damage sources exactly using conventional time arrival method is difficult. To overcome this limitation, this study applied the previously developed Contour D/B map technique to four types of CNG storage tanks to identify the source location of damages caused by external shock. The results of the identification of the source location for different types were compared.

  16. Comparative engine performance and emission analysis of CNG and gasoline in a retrofitted car engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahirul, M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Kalam, M.A.; Jayed, M.H.; Wazed, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative analysis is being performed of the engine performance and exhaust emission on a gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled retrofitted spark ignition car engine. A new 1.6 L, 4-cylinder petrol engine was converted to the computer incorporated bi-fuel system which operated with either gasoline or CNG using an electronically controlled solenoid actuated valve mechanism. The engine brake power, brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency, exhaust gas temperature and exhaust emissions (unburnt hydrocarbon, carbon mono-oxide, oxygen and carbon dioxides) were measured over a range of speed variations at 50% and 80% throttle positions through a computer based data acquisition and control system. Comparative analysis of the experimental results showed 19.25% and 10.86% reduction in brake power and 15.96% and 14.68% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at 50% and 80% throttle positions respectively while the engine was fueled with CNG compared to that with the gasoline. Whereas, the retrofitted engine produced 1.6% higher brake thermal efficiency and 24.21% higher exhaust gas temperature at 80% throttle had produced an average of 40.84% higher NO x emission over the speed range of 1500-5500 rpm at 80% throttle. Other emission contents (unburnt HC, CO, O 2 and CO 2 ) were significantly lower than those of the gasoline emissions.

  17. Spray-Wall Impingement of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Jet using Schlieren Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Mhadi Abaker

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is a low cost fuel with high availability in nature. However, it cannot be used by itself in conventional diesel engines due to its low flame speed and high ignition temperature. The addition of a secondary fuel to enhance the mixture formation and combustion process facilitate its wider use as an alternative fuel. An experimental study was performed to investigate the diesel-CNG dual fuel jet-wall impingement. A constant volume optical chamber was designed to facilitate maximum optical access for the study of the jet-wall impingement at different injection pressures, temperatures and injector-wall distances. The bottom plate of the test rig was made of aluminum (piston material and it was heated up to 500 K at ambient pressure. An injector driver was used to control the single-hole nozzle diesel injector combined with a natural gas injector. The injection timing of both injectors was synchronized with a camera trigger. The jet-wall impingement of diesel and diesel-CNG dual fuel jets was recorded with a high speed camera using Schlieren imaging technique and associated image processing software. The measurements of the jet radial penetration were higher in diesel-CNG dual fuel while the jet height travel along were higher in the case of diesel single fuel.

  18. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The CNG program in Argentine transport sector sources: present and forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres G, D.

    1988-01-01

    The CNG program in Argentina was formulated in the early 80's with the goal of reaching energy independence by means of a greater participation of natural gas in the energy demand. The transport sector is responsible of 30% of the total energy demand and 60% of all the oil consumption, so that any plan for substituting liquid fuels had to tackle transportation. The experiences which allowed gas to increase its participation from 27% to 33% may be profited by others interested in producing similar projects. (author)

  20. A study on the amount of pilot injection and its effects on rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture for a CNG/diesel dual-fuel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiqiang Lin; Wanhua Su [Tianjin University (China). State Key Laboratory of Engines

    2003-07-01

    A sequential port injection, lean-burn, fully electronically-controlled compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual-fuel engine has been developed based on a turbo-charged and inter-cooled direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine. During the optimisation of engine overall performance, the effects of pilot diesel and premixed CNG/air mixture equivalence ratio on emissions (CO, HC, NO{sub x}, soot), knocking, misfire and fuel economy are studied. The rich and lean boundaries of the premixed CNG/air mixture versus engine load are also provided, considering the acceptable values of NO{sub x} and THC emissions, respectively. It is interesting to find that there is a critical amount of pilot diesel for each load and speed point, which proved to be the optimum amount of pilot fuel. Any decrease in the amount of pilot diesel from this optimum amount results in an increase of NO{sub x} emissions, because the premixed CNG/air mixture must be made richer, otherwise THC emissions would increase. However, the soot emissions remain almost unchanged at a very low level. (author)

  1. Carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions from CNG heavy-duty engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, M.; Cericola, R.; Corbo, P.; Iannaccone, S.

    1993-01-01

    Previous works carried out in Istituto Motori laboratories have shown that natural gas is a suitable fuel for general means of transportation. This is because of its favorable effects on engine performance and pollutant emissions. The natural gas fueled engine provided the same performance as the diesel engine, met R49 emission standards, and showed very low smoke levels. On the other hand, it is well known that internal combustion engines emit some components that are harmful for human health, such as carbonyl compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This paper shows the results of carbonyl compounds and PAH emissions analysis for a heavy-duty Otto cycle engine fueled with natural gas. The engine was tested using the R49 cycle that is used to measure the regulated emissions. The test analysis has been compared with an analysis of a diesel engine, tested under the same conditions. Total PAH emissions from the CNG engine were about three orders of magnitude lower than from the diesel engine. Formaldehyde emission from the CNG engine was about ten times as much as from the diesel engine, while emissions of other carbonyl compounds were comparable

  2. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Jannik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization...

  3. Energy based source location by using acoustic emission for damage detection in steel and composite CNG tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Il Sik; Han, Byeong Hee; Park, Choon Su; Yoon, Dong Jin [Center for Safety Measurements, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Acoustic emission (AE) is an effective nondestructive test that uses transient elastic wave generated by the rapid release of energy within a material to detect any further growth or expansion of existing defects. Over the past decades, because of environmental issues, the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel for vehicles is increasing because of environmental issues. For this reason, the importance and necessity of detecting defects on a CNG fuel tank has also come to the fore. The conventional AE method used for source location is highly affected by the wave speed on the structure, and this creates problems in inspecting a composite CNG fuel tank. Because the speed and dispersion characteristics of the wave are different according to direction of structure and laminated layers. In this study, both the conventional AE method and the energy based contour map method were used for source location. This new method based on pre-acquired D/B was used for overcoming the limitation of damage localization in a composite CNG fuel tank specimen which consists of a steel liner cylinder overwrapped by GFRP. From the experimental results, it is observed that the damage localization is determined with a small error at all tested points by using the energy based contour map method, while there were a number of mis-locations or large errors at many tested points by using the conventional AE method. Therefore, the energy based contour map method used in this work is more suitable technology for inspecting composite structures.

  4. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO 2 -neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream

  5. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  6. Developing a strategy to speed up large-scale adoption of compressed-natural-gas-driven (CNG) cars. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egmond, Cees; Houtman, Simone; Jonkers, R.; Gelissen, R. [SenterNovem (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    Large-scale adoption of environmentally friendly, clean, silent and CO{sub 2}-neutral technological innovations into the market is necessary to reduce the human causes of the greenhouse effect and global warming. In theory, an innovation diffuses smoothly into the market following an S-shaped curve when the number of adopters is plotted against time. In practice, diffusion of innovation does not move smoothly from left to right on the S-shaped curve. Fundamental differences in the adoption characteristics between the visionary early adopters and the pragmatic mainstream cause diffusion to stop before reaching the mainstream market segment. This 'chasm' in the diffusion process is not the result of bad technology or bad products, but rather the result of 'incomplete' products that do not meet the needs of the pragmatic mainstream. In this paper, we report on a case study, conducted in the Netherlands, aimed at speeding up the adoption of the CNG car. This study contains an analysis of the market segments within a target group of local fleet owners. We used survey data covering about 200 local fleet owners. Through structured interviews and a questionnaire, we identified a niche group of the mainstream that would be most likely to adopt the CNG car. This niche is the group to target in a marketing strategy aimed at crossing the chasm. A focus-group discussion held with members of the niche identified the conditions under which the niche actors would consider buying CNG cars. Based on the results of this focus group and the niche market analysis, we concluded that the marketing of the CNG car is still in its beginning phase and has to focus on the early market. Following our recommendations, car dealers and the municipality of Leeuwarden are now developing a plan for marketing the CNG car. The marketing will focus on the early market as the first step into the mainstream.

  7. Air quality assessment in Delhi: before and after CNG as fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelani, Asha B; Devotta, Sukumar

    2007-02-01

    A number of policy measures have been activated in India in order to control the levels of air pollutants such as particulate matter, sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Delhi, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world, is also going through the implementation phase of the control policies. Ambient air quality data monitored during 2000 to 2003, at 10 sites in Delhi, were analyzed to assess the impact of implementation of these measures, specifically fuel change in vehicles. This paper presents the impact of policy measures on ambient air quality levels and also the source apportionment. CO and NO(2) concentration levels in ambient air are found to be associated with the mobile sources. The temporal variation of air quality data shows the significant effect of shift to CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) in vehicles.

  8. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ilker; Yilmaz, Harun; Cam, Omer

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW). All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  9. An experimental study on premixed CNG/H2/CO2 mixture flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz Ilker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of swirl number, gas composition and CO2 dilution on combustion and emission behaviour of CNG/H2/CO2 gas mixtures was experimentally investigated in a laboratory scale combustor. Irrespective of the gas composition, thermal power of the combustor was kept constant (5 kW. All experiments were conducted at or near stoichiometric and the local atmospheric conditions of the city of Kayseri, Turkey. During experiments, swirl number was varied and the combustion performance of this combustor was analysed by means of centreline temperature distributions. On the other hand, emission behaviour was examined with respect to emitted CO, CO2 and NOx levels. Dynamic flame behaviour was also evaluated by analysing instantaneous flame images. Results of this study revealed the great impact of swirl number and gas composition on combustion and emission behaviour of studied flames.

  10. Analysis of Engine Parameters at Using Diesel-LPG and Diesel-CNG Mixture in Compression-ignition Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Jukl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed on influence of diesel engine parameters that is used with mixture of gas and diesel fuel. The first part of the article describes diesel fuel systems where small part of diesel fuel is replaced by LPG or CNG fuel. These systems are often called as Diesel-Gas systems. Next part of the article focuses on tested car and measurement equipment. Measurement was performed by common-rail diesel engine in Fiat Doblň. Tests were carried out in laboratories of the Department of Engineering and Automobile Transport at the Mendel University in Brno. They were observed changes between emissions of used fuels – diesel without addition of gas, diesel + LPG and diesel + CNG mixture. It was found that that the addition of gas had positive effect on the performance parameters and emissions.

  11. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  12. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  13. Simulation and Empirical Studies of the Commercial SI Engine Performance and Its Emission Levels When Running on a CNG and Hydrogen Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaa Saaidia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a report on a simulation based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD and an empirical investigation of in-cylinder flow characteristics, In addition, it assesses the performance and emission levels of a commercial-spark ignited engine running on a CNG and Hydrogen blend in different ratios. The main objective was to determine the optimum hydrogen ratio that would yield the best brake torque and release the least polluting gases. The in-cylinder flow velocity and turbulence aspects were investigated during the intake stroke in order to analyze the intake flow behavior. To reach this goal, a 3D CFD code was adopted. For various engine speeds were investigated for gasoline, CNG and hydrogen and CNG blend (HCNG fueled engines via external mixtures. The variation of brake torque (BT, NOX and CO emissions. A series of tests were conducted on the engine within the speed range of 1000 to 5000 rpm. For this purpose, a commercial Hyundai Sonata S.I engine was modified to operate with a blend of CNG and Hydrogen in different ratios. The experiments attempted to determine the optimum allowable hydrogen ratio with CNG for normal engine operation. The engine performance and the emission levels were also analyzed. At the engine speed of 4200 rpm, the results revealed that beyond a ratio of 50% of the volume of hydrogen added to CNG a backfire phenomenon appeared. Below this ratio (0~40% of the hydrogen volume, the CNG and Hydrogen blend seemed to be beneficial for the engine performance and for curtailing the emission level. However, at low engine speeds, the NOX concentration increased simultaneously with hydrogen content. In contrast, at high engine speeds, the NOX concentration decreased to its lowest level compared to that reached with gasoline as a running fuel. The concentration levels of HC, CO2, and CO decreased with the increase of hydrogen percentage.

  14. An analysis of price competitiveness of CNG (compressed natural gas) versus gasoline: estimation of the elasticities of demand by CNG in a recent period in Brazil; Uma analise da competitividade de preco do GNV (Gas Natural Veicular) frente a gasolina: estimacao das elasticidades da demanda por GNV no Brasil no periodo recente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto Junior, Helder; Roppa, Bruna; Biasi, Guilherme de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    One of the main determinants to the expansion of natural gas on the Brazilian domestic market is its price. Hence, it is important to analyze the price competitiveness of natural gas vis-a-vis its competitors. The current paper focuses on the market of natural gas in vehicles (the compressed natural gas - CNG), and uses co-integration techniques to estimate the price-elasticity of CNG, the cross-elasticity of CNG and gasoline, and the income-elasticity. The results suggest that price is a relevant factor in the long-run, while in the short-run income is the most significant determinant of the demand variation. In addition, the paper also shows an imperfect substitutability between CNG and gasoline. (author)

  15. Effects of pilot injection pressure on the combustion and emissions characteristics in a diesel engine using biodiesel–CNG dual fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Injection pressure of pilot fuel in dual fuel combustion (DFC) affects the engine power and exhaust emissions. • In the biodiesel–CNG DFC mode, the combustion begins and ends earlier as the pilot-fuel injection pressure increases. • The ignition delay in the DFC mode is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer than that in the diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode. • The smoke and NOx emissions are significantly reduced in the DFC mode. - Abstract: Biodiesel–compressed natural gas (CNG) dual fuel combustion (DFC) system is studied for the simultaneous reduction of particulate matters (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from diesel engine. In this study, biodiesel is used as a pilot injection fuel to ignite the main fuel, CNG of DFC system. In particular, the pilot injection pressure is controlled to investigate the characteristics of engine performance and exhaust emissions in a single cylinder diesel engine. The results show that the indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is lower than that of diesel single fuel combustion (SFC) mode at higher injection pressure. However, the combustion stability of biodiesel–CNG DFC mode is increased with the increase of pilot injection pressure. At the same injection pressure, the start of combustion of biodiesel–CNG DFC is delayed compared to diesel SFC due to the increase of ignition delay of pilot fuel. On the contrary, it is observed that as the pilot injection pressure increase, the combustion process begins and ends a little earlier for biodiesel–CNG DFC. The ignition delay in the DFC is about 1.2–2.6 °CA longer compared to diesel SFC, but decreases with increases of pilot injection pressure. Smoke and NOx emissions are decreased and increased, respectively, as the pilot injection pressure increases in the biodiesel–CNG DFC. In comparison to diesel SFC, smoke emissions are significantly reduced over all the operating conditions and NOx emissions also exhibited similar

  16. Environmentální aspekty provozu vozů na CNG

    OpenAIRE

    Raiskup, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřená na téma environmentální aspekty provozu vozů na CNG. Nejprve je představen zemní plyn jako palivo pro spalovací motory. Jsou zhodnoceny jeho výhody a nevýhody. Dále jsou popsány jednotlivé spalovací systémy a komponenty motoru na stlačený zemní plyn. Hlavní část práce je zaměřená na ekologii. Je popsán vliv na životní prostředí u spalování stlačeného zemního plynu v porovnání s konvenčními palivy. Toto porovnání je provedeno také podle objektivnější Well to W...

  17. Temporal variability of benzene concentration in the ambient air of Delhi: a comparative assessment of pre- and post-CNG periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khillare, P S; Hoque, Raza Rafiqul; Shridhar, Vijay; Agarwal, Tripti; Balachandran, S

    2008-06-15

    CNG (compressed natural gas) was fully implemented in public transport system in Delhi in December 2002. The study assesses the benzene concentration trends at two busy traffic intersections and a background site in Delhi, India. Monitoring was done for two different time periods viz; in the year 2001-2002 (pre-CNG) and two winter months (January and February) of the year 2007 (post-CNG) to assess the impact of various policy measures adopted by the government of Delhi to improve the air quality in the city. Annual average benzene concentration for the pre-CNG period was found to be 86.47+/-53.24 microg m(-3). Average benzene concentrations for the winter months (January-February) of pre- and post-CNG periods were 116.32+/-51.65 microg m(-3) and 187.49+/-22.50 microg m(-3), respectively. Enhanced values could be solely attributed to the increase in the vehicular population from 3.5 million in the year 2001-2002 to approximately 5.1 millions in the year 2007.

  18. Numerical Evaluation ofThe Performance ofA Compression Ignition Cng Engine For Heavy DutyTrucksWithAn Optimum Speed PowerTurbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Boretti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The turbocharged direct injection lean burn Diesel engine is the most efficient engine now in production for transport applications. CNG is an alternative fuel with a better carbon to hydrogen ratio therefore permitting reduced carbon dioxide emissions. It is injected in gaseous form for a much cleaner combustion almost cancelling some of the emissions of the Diesel and it permits a much better energy security within Australia. The paper discusses the best options currently available to convert Diesel engine platforms to CNG, with particular emphasis to the use of these CNG engines within Australia where the refuelling network is scarce. This option is determined in the dual fuel operation with a double injector design that couples a second CNG injector to the Diesel injector. This configuration permits the operation Diesel only or Diesel pilot and CNG main depending on the availability of refuelling stations where the vehicle operates. Results of engine performance simulations are performed for a straight six cylinder 13 litres truck engine with a novel power turbine connected to the crankshaft through a constant variable transmission that may be by-passed when non helpful to increase the fuel economy of the vehicle or when damaging the performances of the after treatment system.

  19. Injection characteristics study of high-pressure direct injector for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) using experimental and analytical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Z.; Rahim, MF Abdul; Mamat, R.

    2017-10-01

    The injection characteristics of direct injector affect the mixture formation and combustion processes. In addition, the injector is converted from gasoline operation for CNG application. Thus measurement of CNG direct injector mass flow rate was done by independently tested a single injector on a test bench. The first case investigated the effect of CNG injection pressure and the second case evaluate the effect of pulse-width of injection duration. An analytical model was also developed to predict the mass flow rate of the injector. The injector was operated in a choked condition in both the experiments and simulation studies. In case 1, it was shown that mass flow rate through the injector is affected by injection pressure linearly. Based on the tested injection pressure of 20 bar to 60 bar, the resultant mass flow rate are in the range of 0.4 g/s to 1.2 g/s which are met with theoretical flow rate required by the engine. However, in Case 2, it was demonstrated that the average mass flow rate at short injection durations is lower than recorded in Case 1. At injection pressure of 50 bar, the average mass flow rate for Case 2 and Case 1 are 0.7 g/s and 1.1 g/s respectively. Also, the measured mass flow rate at short injection duration showing a fluctuating data in the range of 0.2 g/s - 1.3 g/s without any noticeable trends. The injector model able to predict the trend of the mass flow rate at different injection pressure but unable to track the fluctuating trend at short injection duration.

  20. Experimental investigations of effects of EGR on performance and emissions characteristics of CNG fueled reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh Kalsi, Sunmeet; Subramanian, K.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NO_x emission decreased drastically in RCCI engine with EGR. • CO and HC emissions decreased with 8% EGR. • Smoke emission increased with EGR but is still less than base diesel. • Brake thermal efficiency does not change with EGR up to 15% • 8% EGR is optimum based on less CO, HC, NO_x except smoke. - Abstract: Experimental: tests were carried out on a single cylinder diesel engine (7.4 kW rated power at 1500 rpm) under dual fuel mode (CNG-Diesel) with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). Less reacting fuel (CNG) was injected inside the intake manifold using timed manifold gas injection system whereas high reactive diesel fuel was directly injected into the engine’s cylinder for initiation of ignition. EGR at different percentages (8%, 15% and 30%) was inducted to the engine through intake manifold and tests were conducted at alternator power output of 2 kW and 5 kW. The engine can operate under dual fuel mode with maximum CNG energy share of 85% and 92% at 5 kW and 2 kW respectively. The brake thermal efficiency of diesel engine improved marginally at 5 kW power output under conventional dual fuel mode with the CNG share up to 37% whereas the efficiency did not change with up to 15% EGR however it decreased beyond the EGR percentage. NO_x emission in diesel engine under conventional dual fuel mode decreased significantly and it further decreased drastically with EGR. The notable point emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions, which are major problems at part load in reactivity controlled compression ignition engine (RCCI), decreased with 8% EGR along with further reduction of NO_x. However, smoke emission is marginally higher with EGR than without EGR but it is still less than conventional mode (Diesel alone). The new concept emerged from this study is that CO and HC emissions of RCCI engine at part load can be reduced using EGR.

  1. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  2. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Effective utilization of associated gas as CNG; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado kiso chosa hokokusho. Zuihan gas no CNG to shite no yuko riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The Back Ho oilfield is the largest oilfield in Vietnam and at the same time is producing the largest amount of natural gas (associated gas) in Vietnam. Although the majority of the associated gas has been used in the power generation plant, a large amount of surplus gas is not effectively used because of shortage of fund and technologies. Accordingly, a feasibility study has been executed for a project to compress 20% of the associated gas into CNG, and use it effectively as automobile and factory fuel. As a result of the site survey, it was found that, although Vietnam consumes less amount of energy and emits less amount of CO2, the nation has a strong interest and a large amount of knowledge about global warming and CDM because the country is subjected to large effect of warming. Furthermore, it has been reconfirmed that introducing CNG into this territory is highly effective. Discussions have been made on places of installing the facilities, effective surplus gas utilization systems, facility specifications, utilities, and number of workers. Calculations were made on approximate cost of the facilities and the running cost. As a result of the surveys and discussions, it was determined that technological support from Japan and the Yen loan for environment with low interest rate are necessary. (NEDO)

  3. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab aprons. 230.81 Section 230.81 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights §...

  4. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  5. Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis of a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for CNG engine waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Zhang, Hongguang; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Enhua; Meng, Fanxiao; Liu, Hongda; Wang, Jingfu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a dual loop ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system is adopted to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and intercooler heat rejection of a six-cylinder CNG (compressed natural gas) engine. The thermodynamic, heat transfer, and optimization models for the dual loop ORC system are established. On the basis of the waste heat characteristics of the CNG engine over the whole operating range, a GA (genetic algorithm) is used to solve the Pareto solution for the thermodynamic and heat transfer performances to maximize net power output and minimize heat transfer area. Combined with optimization results, the optimal parameter regions of the dual loop ORC system are determined under various operating conditions. Then, the variation in the heat transfer area with the operating conditions of the CNG engine is analyzed. The results show that the optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT (high temperature) cycle are mainly influenced by the operating conditions of the CNG engine. The optimal evaporation pressure and superheat degree of the HT cycle over the whole operating range are within 2.5–2.9 MPa and 0.43–12.35 K, respectively. The optimal condensation temperature of the HT cycle, evaporation and condensation temperatures of the LT (low temperature) cycle, and exhaust temperature at the outlet of evaporator 1 are kept nearly constant under various operating conditions of the CNG engine. The thermal efficiency of the dual loop ORC system is within the range of 8.79%–10.17%. The dual loop ORC system achieves the maximum net power output of 23.62 kW under the engine rated condition. In addition, the operating conditions of the CNG engine and the operating parameters of the dual loop ORC system significantly influence the heat transfer areas for each heat exchanger. - Highlights: • A dual loop ORC system is adopted to recover the waste heat of a CNG engine. • Parametric optimization and heat transfer analysis are

  6. Studi Eksperimen Unjuk Kerja Mesin Diesel Menggunakan Sistem Dual Fuel Solar Gas CNG Dengan Variasi Tekanan Injeksi Gas Dan Derajat Waktu Injeksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Yoko Exoryanto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bahan bakar gas ini jika ditinjau dari ekonomis tergolong sangat murah dan ramah lingkungan. Namun, pengaplikasian bahan bakar gas CNG pada generator diesel dengan sistem dual fuel berdampak pada penurunan performansinya. Hal ini terjadi karena rasio campuran udara dan bahan bakar pada sistem dual fuel belum sesuai, sehingga perlunya penelitian lebih lanjut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk meningkatkan performa pada mesin diesel dengan memodifikasi saluran masuk udara dengan memasang injector gas CNG untuk memasukkan bahan bakar tersebut kedalam ruang bakar sehingga mesin diesel berubah menjadi sitem dual fuel. Tidak hanya saluran masuk udara saja yang di modifikasi tetapi, variasi start of injection dan tekanan gas yang masuk juga di variasikan. Penelitian ini di lakukan secara eksperimental dengan menginjeksikan gas CNG ke dalam ruang bakar melalui saluran hisap yang sudah terpasang injector. Proses pengaturan injeksi gas CNG diatur oleh ECU programamble melalui software VEMSTUNE. Sistem pengaturan yang dilakukan adalah mengatur derajat waktu injection (SOI dengan nilai 5o, 30o, 55o, dan 80o CA BTDC dan variasi tekanan masuk gas CNG dengan nilai 1, 1,5, 2, dan 2,5 N/m2. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan putaran mesin konstan sebesar 2000 rpm dengan beban 0 sampai 100 %. Hasil yang didapatkan dari eksperimen yang dilakukan kali ini, antara lain : performa dual fuel lebih optimal dibandingkan saat pengoperasian single fuel. Pengaturan paling optimal terjadi pada start of injection 80° CA BTDC dengan tekanan 1,5 gas CNG. Gas CNG dapat menggantikan porsi bahan bakar minyak solar sebesar 45,30 %. Nilai subtitusi minyak solar yang optimal sebesar 61,39 % dan SFC minyak solar rata-rata mengalami penurunan sebesar 47,10 %, tetapi SFC dual fuel rata-rata meningkat sebesar 47,67 % dibandingkan SFC single fuel. Nilai rata-rata efisiensi thermal turun sebesar 40,89 %, nilai AFR rata-rata turun dari 25,60 menjadi 12,90 dan Temperatur gas buang meningkat dari

  7. Assessment of on-road emissions of four Euro V diesel and CNG waste collection trucks for supporting air-quality improvement initiatives in the city of Milan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontaras, Georgios, E-mail: georgios.fontaras@jrc.ec.europa.eu [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Martini, Giorgio; Manfredi, Urbano; Marotta, Alessandro; Krasenbrink, Alois [Institute for Energy and Transport, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy); Maffioletti, Francesco; Terenghi, Roberto; Colombo, Mauro [AMSA, Azienda Milanese Servizi Ambientali, Milano (Italy)

    2012-06-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an extensive experimental study aiming to evaluate the performance and pollutant emissions of diesel and CNG waste collection trucks under realistic and controlled operating conditions in order to support a fleet renewal initiative in the city of Milan. Four vehicles (1 diesel and 3 CNG) were tested in two phases using a portable emission measurement system. The first phase included real world operation in the city of Milan while the second involved controlled conditions in a closed track. Emissions recorded from the diesel truck were on average 2.4 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 0.21 g/km for HC, 7.4 g/km for CO, 32.3 g/km for NO{sub x} and 46.4 mg/km for PM. For the CNG the values were 3.6 kg/km for CO{sub 2}, 2.19 g/km for HC, 15.8 g/km for CO, 4.38 g/km for NO{sub x} and 11.4 mg/km for PM. CNG vehicles presented an important advantage with regards to NO{sub x} and PM emissions but lack the efficiency of their diesel counterparts when it comes to CO, HC and particularly greenhouse gas emissions. This tradeoff needs to be carefully analyzed prior to deciding if a fleet should be shifted towards either technology. In addition it was shown that existing emission factors, used in Europe for environmental assessment studies, reflect well the operation for CNG but were not so accurate when it came to the diesel engine truck particularly for CO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. With regard to NO{sub x}, it was also shown that the limits imposed by current emission standards are not necessarily reflected in real world operation, under which the diesel vehicle presented almost 4 times higher emissions. Regarding CO{sub 2}, appropriate use of PEMS data and vehicle information allows for accurate emission monitoring through computer simulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigated diesel and CNG Euro V waste collection vehicles for municipal use Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO{sub x}-GhG emission trade-off should be considered prior to

  8. Analysis of a combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a CNG-B20 fuelled diesel engine under dual fuel mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj S. Shelke

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Carbon dioxide (CO2 is one of the primary greenhouse gases emitted by various human activities. CO2 is naturally present in the atmosphere as part of carbon cycle. Human activities are altering the carbon cycle by adding or removing CO2 to the atmosphere. The main human activity that emits the CO2 is combustion of fossil fuels for energy and transportation. Compression ignition (CI engines emit high amount of CO2 emission as it is the end product of complete combustion of hydro carbon fuels. Moreover, they emit higher NOx (nitrogen oxides and PM (particulate matter emissions and have higher fuel consumption. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on a CI engine under dual fuel mode with biodiesel as a pilot fuel and compressed natural gas (CNG as a main fuel. The effects of 10 % and 20 % CNG energy shares on performance and emission characteristics of the engine at rated (100% loads were studied. Experimental results indicate the beneficial of CNG addition on improvement in the engine efficiency, and reduction in NOx and CO2 emissions. The NOx and CO2 emissions decreased by 14.24 % and 30 % respectively at the rated load with biodiesel + CNG (20 % energy share as compared to base diesel. No knocking combustion was observed during the tests which confirm the smooth operation. The dual fuel operation with combination of CNG-biodiesel is an effective method to reduce NOx and CO2 emissions with an additional benefit of lower specific energy consumption.

  9. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    given mass, and the surface may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions with cells or as a carrier for co-pollutants. They also penetrate deeper into the lungs. Hydrocarbons, as lipid soluble compounds, can also penetrate the cell membranes of the lung cells, enter into the blood circulation and influence the whole organ system, even reach the brain. The aim of this study was to compare children's exposure to diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) exhaust particulates, which have been formed and then distributed into the human lung. Particulate measurements were carried out in the Technical Research Centre of Finland for two Euro 2 diesel buses with an oxidation catalyst on one and a partial-DPF catalyst on the other vehicle (DI-OC and DI-pDPF, respectively), and one Euro 3 natural gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). For the evaluation of particulate emissions in an urban bus route the Braunschweig City Driving Cycle, a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle was used. Particulate number size distributions were measured using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) instrument (Dekati Ltd, Finland) with the size range of 7 nm to 10 mum. The ELPI measurement system yields particulate number concentrations in 12 nonoverlapping size bins covering the whole measurement size range. Estimation of deposited particles into human lung system was computed with a lung deposition model based on a ICRP 66 lung deposition model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model includes specific information related to the subjects (including age, ventilation rate, breathing pattern, gender). The respiratory tract is divided into five main deposition regions: the anterior nasal region (ET1), the main extra thoracic region (ET2, including the posterior nasal region, mouth, pharynx and larynx), the bronchial region (BB, consisting of the trachea and bronchi), the bronchiolar region (bb, consisting of the

  10. RDE-based assessment of a factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašić, Davor; Rodman Oprešnik, Samuel; Seljak, Tine; Vihar, Rok; Baškovič, Urban Žvar; Wechtersbach, Tomaž; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2017-10-01

    On-road exhaust emissions of a Euro 5 factory bi-fuel CNG/gasoline light-duty vehicle equipped with the TWC were assessed considering the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) guidelines. The vehicle was equipped with a Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) that enabled the measurement of THC, CO, NOx, CO2, and CH4. With respect to the characteristics of the vehicle, the appropriate Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycles (WLTC) were selected and based on the requirements of the RDE legislation a suitable route was conceived. In addition to the moderate RDE-based route, an extended RDE-based route was also determined. The vehicle was driven along each defined route twice, once with each individual fuel option and with a fully warm vehicle. RDE routes feature a multitude of new driving patterns that are significantly different to those encountered in the NEDC. However, as these driving patterns can greatly influence the cumulative emissions an insight in to local time trace phenomena is crucial to understand, reason and to possibly reduce the cumulative emissions. Original contributions of this paper comprise analyses of the RDE-LDV local time resolved driving emissions phenomena of a CNG-powered vehicle that are benchmarked against the ones measured under the use of gasoline in the same vehicle and under similar operating conditions to reason emission trends through driving patterns and powertrain parameters and exposing the strong cold-start independent interference of CO and N2O infrared absorption bands in the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) analyzer. The paper provides experimental evidence on this interference, which significantly influences on the readings of CO emissions. The paper further provides hypotheses why CO and N2O interference is more pronounced when using CNG in LDVs and supports these hypotheses by PEMS tests. The study reveals that the vehicle's NOx real-world emission values of both conceived RDE-based routes when using both fuels are

  11. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  12. Gas Phase Emission Ratios From In-Use Diesel and CNG Curbside Passenger Buses in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J.; Canagaratna, M.; Jayne, J.; Nelson, D. D.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Williams, P.; Silva, P. J.; Shi, Q.; Ghertner, A.; Zahniser, M.; Worsnop, D.; Kolb, C.; Lanni, T.; Drewnick, F.; Demerjian, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured gas phase and particulate emissions from in use vehicles during two campaigns in New York City. The campaigns took place during two weeks in October, 2000 and four weeks in July-August, 2001. Passenger curbside buses were the primary focus of the study, but school buses and several other heavy duty diesel vehicles were also characterized. This paper describes the methodologies used to measure individual in use vehicles and presents the results of the gas phase measurements. Emission ratios for NO, NO2, SO2, N2O, CO, CH4 and H2CO relative to CO2 have been determined across several classes of buses. The gas phase concentrations were measured each second, using Tunable Infrared Laser Direct Absorption Spectroscopy (TILDAS). Some of the categories of buses into which the data has been sorted are; diesel (both 6V92 and Series 50) with and without the Continuous Regenerative Technology (CRT) retrofit, compressed natural gas powered(CNG) and hybrid diesel-electric buses. The New York Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) cooperated with this work, providing details about each of their buses followed. In addition to MTA buses, other New York City passenger bus operators were also measured. In September 2000, MTA began to switch to 30 ppm sulfur diesel fuel while it is believed the non MTA operators did not. The measured emission ratios show that low sulfur fuel greatly reduces the amount of SO2 per CO2. Roughly one third of the MTA fleet of diesel buses have been equipped with the CRT retrofit. The gas phase results of interest in this category show increased direct emission of NO2 and companion work (also submitted to the 12th CRC) show the impact the CRT refit has on particulate emissions. CNG buses show increased H2CO and CH4 emission ratios relative to diesel powered motors.

  13. Engaging with Community Advisory Boards (CABs) in Lusaka Zambia: perspectives from the research team and CAB members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinga, Alwyn; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2015-06-03

    The use of a Community Advisory Board (CAB) is one method of ensuring community engagement in community based research. To identify the process used to constitute CABs in Zambia, this paper draws on the perspectives of both research team members and CAB members from research groups who used CABs in Lusaka. Enabling and restricting factors impacting on the functioning of the CAB were identified. All studies approved by the University of Zambia Bioethics Research Committee (UBNZABREC) from 2008 - 2012 were reviewed to identify those studies that were likely to include a CAB. Eight teams with studies that included a CAB were identified. For each of these studies, consent was obtained to conduct an informal interview with a research team member and to obtain contact details for one CAB member. In total 14 interviews were conducted with 8 research team members and 6 CAB members from 12-30 August 2013. Identification of potential CAB members from the community and their participation in developing the terms of reference for CABs was perceived to have contributed to the success of the CAB. Due to the trust that the community had in members of their community the CABs were then in a stronger position to influence community participation in the research. Training of CAB members was identified as a factor that enhanced the functioning of a CAB. Lack of commitment and low literacy levels of CAB members posed a threat to the role of the CAB. Although compensation in the form of a stipend was not provided, CAB members were provided with transport reimbursements for attending meetings. Selection of CAB members from within the community contributed to community confidence in the CAB, enhancing its ability to act as an effective link between study team and community. This contributed positively to the conduct of the study and enhanced community awareness and acceptance of the research. However, establishment of study specific CABs has the potential to compromise CAB independence

  14. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  15. Performance analysis of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain using a CNG engine and supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Minggao; Zhang, Weilin; Wang, Enhua; Yang, Fuyuan; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhongyan; Yu, Ping; Ye, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Four different types of hybrid powertrain for heavy-duty vehicles are reviewed. • A novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is proposed and models are developed. • Performance characteristics are analyzed and compared to a conventional powertrain. • Fuel saving potential is evaluated and explained using energy efficiency method. - Abstract: Energy conservation is a very important task for the automotive industry. The use of hybrid electric vehicles can improve energy efficiency, thus reducing fuel consumption and carbon emissions. In this research, the performance characteristics of a novel coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain for a transit bus are presented. The power sources are a combination of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine and supercapacitors. A mathematical model for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain is established. Subsequently, an analysis program is developed based on Matlab and Advisor. The parameters are specified using experimental data. Afterwards, a rule-based control strategy is designed and optimized from the viewpoint of energy efficiency. Later, the system performance is evaluated using the Chinese Transit Bus City Driving Cycle and compared to a conventional powertrain. The results indicate that the proposed coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can fulfill the requirements of the transit bus and enhance the energy efficiency dramatically. Moreover, the average energy efficiency of the supercapacitors was found to be above 97% over the entire driving cycle. Using supercapacitors as energy storage devices for the coaxial power-split hybrid powertrain can effectively recover the kinetic energy during regenerative braking and is a good solution for transit buses that require frequent acceleration and deceleration.

  16. Computational exploration of cis-regulatory modules in rhythmic expression data using the "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC) and "CRM Network Generator" (CNG) programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiaris, Pavlos Stephanos; Tekath, Tobias; Staiger, Dorothee; Danisman, Selahattin

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the effect of cis-regulatory elements (CRE) and clusters of CREs, which are called cis-regulatory modules (CRM), in eukaryotic gene expression is a challenge of computational biology. We developed two programs that allow simple, fast and reliable analysis of candidate CREs and CRMs that may affect specific gene expression and that determine positional features between individual CREs within a CRM. The first program, "Exploration of Distinctive CREs and CRMs" (EDCC), correlates candidate CREs and CRMs with specific gene expression patterns. For pairs of CREs, EDCC also determines positional preferences of the single CREs in relation to each other and to the transcriptional start site. The second program, "CRM Network Generator" (CNG), prioritizes these positional preferences using a neural network and thus allows unbiased rating of the positional preferences that were determined by EDCC. We tested these programs with data from a microarray study of circadian gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Analyzing more than 1.5 million pairwise CRE combinations, we found 22 candidate combinations, of which several contained known clock promoter elements together with elements that had not been identified as relevant to circadian gene expression before. CNG analysis further identified positional preferences of these CRE pairs, hinting at positional information that may be relevant for circadian gene expression. Future wet lab experiments will have to determine which of these combinations confer daytime specific circadian gene expression.

  17. Lessons of the Past. Development of an alternative fuel infrastructure. The case of LPG/CNG in the Netherlands and other countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backhaus, J.; Bunzeck, I.G.

    2010-04-01

    The introduction of an alternative transport fuel always bears a challenge that is often referred to as a 'chicken and egg' problem: while people will only become interested in and start switching to a new fuel if sufficient refuelling stations are available, industry will only start investing in the development of a refuelling infrastructure if the market is sufficiently developed and existing stations are economically viable. Governments have a variety of, for example, fiscal or regulatory measures at hand to facilitate and support the introduction of an alternative transport fuel. This report describes and analyses the introduction of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) in the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, Canada and Argentina. In particular, the report pays attention to the development of station coverage and vehicle numbers for these alternative fuels. Drivers and barriers to the introduction of LPG or CNG, such as fuel price developments, supporting policy instruments or a lack thereof were identified. Main focus are the Netherlands where LPG was introduced in the mid-1950s. A comparison of developments in the Netherlands with the other four countries reveals that well concerted efforts by policy makers and industry supporting a parallel development of vehicle uptake and refuelling station availability may lead to the firm establishment of an alternative fuel market. The report concludes with lessons learned for the introduction of hydrogen as an alternative transport fuel.

  18. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  19. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model that...

  20. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  1. Choice of precipitant and calcination temperature of precursor for synthesis of NiCo2O4 for control of CO-CH4 emissions from CNG vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Suverna; Prasad, Ram

    2018-03-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is most appropriate an alternative of conventional fuel for automobiles. However, emissions of carbon-monoxide and methane from such vehicles adversely affect human health and environment. Consequently, to abate emissions from CNG vehicles, development of highly efficient and inexpensive catalysts is necessary. Thus, the present work attempts to scan the effects of precipitants (Na 2 CO 3 , KOH and urea) for nickel cobaltite (NiCo 2 O 4 ) catalysts prepared by co-precipitation from nitrate solutions and calcined in a lean CO-air mixture at 400°C. The catalysts were used for oxidation of a mixture of CO and CH 4 (1:1). The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface-area, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy; temperature programmed reduction and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The Na 2 CO 3 was adjudged as the best precipitant for production of catalyst, which completely oxidized CO-CH 4 mixture at the lowest temperature (T 100 =350°C). Whereas, for catalyst prepared using urea, T 100 =362°C. On the other hand the conversion of CO-CH 4 mixture over the catalyst synthesized by KOH limited to 97% even beyond 400°C. Further, the effect of higher calcination temperatures of 500 and 600°C was examined for the best catalyst. The total oxidation of the mixture was attained at higher temperatures of 375 and 410°C over catalysts calcined at 500 and 600°C respectively. Thus, the best precipitant established was Na 2 CO 3 and the optimum calcination temperature of 400°C was found to synthesize the NiCo 2 O 4 catalyst for the best performance in CO-CH 4 oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Study of gas (CNG) SI engine with pre-chamber. Improvement of the indicated thermal efficiency on lean mixture with EGR and supercharging; Fukushitsushiki hibana tenka asshuku tennen gas (CNG) engine ni kansuru kenkyu. Kakyu to EGR ni yoru kihakuiki no netsukoritsu kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetani, H.; Fukutani, I. [Polytechnic University, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1998-10-15

    As lean burn of compressed natural gas (CNG) is applied to conventional gasoline engines, a combustion period largely increases, resulting in large combustion fluctuation and low thermal efficiency. Heterogeneous spacial air/fuel ratios also have an effect on combustion in lean burn area. By preparing a pre-chamber for a combustion chamber of high- compression ratio CNG pre-mixing SI engines to utilize premixture turbulence, rapid flame propagation is obtained in lean burn area, resulting high combustion performance. Furthermore, study was made on improvement of combustion performance in lean burn area under various compression ratios, intake pressures, pre-chamber shapes and EGR ratios. As a result, lean burn operation at high intake pressure by supercharging showed possible improvement of a thermal efficiency and expansion of inflammable limits. Higher thermal efficiency in lean burn area was also obtained by using higher compression ratios considering heat loss. Although EGR was effective in controlling NOx formed in lean burn area, strict control of both air excess rate and EGR rate was required to prevent lower thermal efficiency. 2 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cab technology integration laboratory demonstration with moving map technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    A human performance study was conducted at the John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe Center) using a locomotive research simulatorthe Cab Technology Integration Laboratory (CTIL)that was acquired by the Federal Railroad Ad...

  4. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    of an irregular room model using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method has been presented. CABS has been simulated in the irregular room model. Measurements of CABS in a real irregular room have been performed. The performance of CABS was affected by the irregular shape of the room due to the corner...

  5. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this end...

  6. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  7. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers.

  8. Biomechanical effects of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginus, Kyle A; Marklin, Richard W; Seeley, Patricia; Simoneau, Guy G; Freier, Stephen

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the best location to place a conventional mobile computer supported by a commercially available mount in a light truck cab. U.S. and Canadian electric utility companies are in the process of integrating mobile computers into their fleet vehicle cabs. There are no publications on the effect of mobile computer location in a vehicle cab on biomechanical loading, performance, and subjective assessment. The authors tested four locations of mobile computers in a light truck cab in a laboratory study to determine how location affected muscle activity of the lower back and shoulders; joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrist; user performance; and subjective assessment. A total of 22 participants were tested in this study. Placing the mobile computer closer to the steering wheel reduced low back and shoulder muscle activity. Joint angles of the shoulders, elbows, and wrists were also closer to neutral angle. Biomechanical modeling revealed substantially less spinal compression and trunk muscle force. In general, there were no practical differences in performance between the locations. Subjective assessment indicated that users preferred the mobile computer to be as close as possible to the steering wheel. Locating the mobile computer close to the steering wheel reduces risk of injuries, such as low back pain and shoulder tendonitis. Results from the study can guide electric utility companies in the installation of mobile computers into vehicle cabs. Results may also be generalized to other industries that use trucklike vehicles, such as construction.

  9. Characteristics of Early Flame Development in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition CNG Engine Fitted with a Variable Swirl Control Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Rashid Abd Aziz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of the structure of the induction flow on the characteristics of early flames in a lean-stratified and lean-homogeneous charge combustion of compressed natural gas (CNG fuel in a direct injection (DI engine at different engine speeds. The engine speed was varied at 1500 rpm, 1800 rpm and 2100 rpm, and the ignition timing was set at a 38.5° crank angle (CA after top dead center (TDC for all conditions. The engine was operated in a partial-load mode and a homogeneous air/fuel charge was achieved by injecting the fuel early (before the intake valve closure, while late injection during the compression stroke was used to produce a stratified charge. Different induction flow structures were obtained by adjusting the swirl control valves (SCV. Using an endoscopic intensified CCD (ICCD camera, flame images were captured and analyzed. Code was developed to analyze the level of distortion of the flame and its wrinkledness, displacement and position relative to the spark center, as well as the flame growth rate. The results showed a higher flame growth rate with the flame kernel in the homogeneous charge, compared to the stratified combustion case. In the stratified charge combustion scenario, the 10° SCV closure (medium-tumble resulted in a higher early flame growth rate, whereas a homogeneous charge combustion (characterized by strong swirl resulted in the highest rate of flame growth.

  10. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  11. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC...... from April-September 2014 in New York excluding Manhattan and NYC's two airports. Tableau was used as the visual analytics tool, and PostgreSQL in combination with PostGIS was used as the data processing engine. Our findings show that the performance of Green cabs in isolated zip codes differ...

  12. California Basin Studies (CaBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    The California Continental Borderland's present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10 6 years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10 6 years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation

  13. Boron-purity-dependent Raman spectra of CaB6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, M.; Yang, I. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Cho, B. K.

    2006-01-01

    We report significant differences in the Raman spectra of two different kinds of CaB 6 single crystals grown from boron with a purity of 99.9 % (3N) or 99.9999 % (6N). Our Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) show peaks around 781 (T 2g ), 1141 (E g ), and 1283 cm -1 (A 1g ), and they are very similar to previous Raman spectra of CaB 6 . The E g mode shows a characteristic double-peak feature due to an additional weak broad peak centered around 1158 cm -1 . However, the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (6N) show sharp peaks around 771 (T 2g ), 1137 (E g ), and 1266 cm -1 (A 1g ). The peak frequencies are down shifted as much as ∼17 cm -1 . In addition, no additional peak feature is observed for the E g mode so that the mode is symmetric in the case of CaB 6 (6N). The X-ray powder diffraction patterns for both CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) show that the lattice parameters are essentially the same. The majority of the impurity in the 99.9 %-pure (3N) boron is C. Thus, we doped CaB 6 (6N) with C, making Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 , and looked for differences in the Raman spectra. The Raman spectra of Ca(B 0.995 C 0.005 ) 6 are nearly identical to those of CaB 6 (6N), indicating that the differences between the Raman spectra of CaB 6 (3N) and CaB 6 (6N) are not due to a C impurity. The Raman results show that the presence of impurities, not the amount of them, is enough to trigger local symmetry breaking in CaB 6 . The broadening of T 2g , the additional E g2 mode and the asymmetry of A 1g in CaB 6 (3N) can be understood in terms of the symmetry of the arrangements of the boron octahedra lowered by local symmetry breaking.

  14. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  15. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. 238.447 Section 238.447 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where the...

  17. Prototype design and test of a collision protection system for cab car engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Advancements in the design of rail cars can : potentially prevent the structural collapse of : space occupied by a cab car engineer : during a train collision. With adequate : survival space maintained, the next : crashworthiness objective is to mini...

  18. Prototype design of a collision protection system for cab car engineers - fabrication and test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Advancements in the structural crashworthiness of passenger rail cars now make it possible to preserve the compartmentalized : space occupied by a cab car engineer during a train collision. In order to translate this additional protection into improv...

  19. Biological Control of White Rot in Garlic Using Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Seop Han

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available White rot caused by Sclerotium cepivorum was reported to be severe soil-born disease on garlic. Disease progress of white rot of garlic (Allium sativum L. was investigated during the growing season of 2009 to 2011 at Taean and Seosan areas. The white rot disease on bulb began to occur from late April and peaked in late May. The antifungal bacteria, Burkholderia pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 was tested in field bioassay for suppression of white rot disease. As a result of the nucleotide sequence of the gene 16S rRNA, CAB008106-4 strain used in this study has been identified as B. pyrrocinia. B. pyrrocinia CAB080106-4 isolate suppressed the white rot with 69.6% control efficacy in field test. These results suggested that B. pyrrocinia CAB08106-4 isolate could be an effective biological control agent against white rot of garlic.

  20. Mapping Chinese Agricultural and Allied Sciences Journals Indexed in CAB Abstracts Database

    OpenAIRE

    Arundhati Kaushik; Superna Sharma; Lokendra Singh Rajput

    2013-01-01

    CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International) is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural rese...

  1. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  2. ABC versus CAB for cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a prospective, randomized simulator-based trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsch, Stephan; Tschan, Franziska; Semmer, Norbert K; Zobrist, Roger; Hunziker, Patrick R; Hunziker, Sabina

    2013-09-06

    After years of advocating ABC (Airway-Breathing-Circulation), current guidelines of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) recommend CAB (Circulation-Airway-Breathing). This trial compared ABC with CAB as initial approach to CPR from the arrival of rescuers until the completion of the first resuscitation cycle. 108 teams, consisting of two physicians each, were randomized to receive a graphical display of either the ABC algorithm or the CAB algorithm. Subsequently teams had to treat a simulated cardiac arrest. Data analysis was performed using video recordings obtained during simulations. The primary endpoint was the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations. The time to execution of the first resuscitation measure was 32 ± 12 seconds in ABC teams and 25 ± 10 seconds in CAB teams (P = 0.002). 18/53 ABC teams (34%) and none of the 55 CAB teams (P = 0.006) applied more than the recommended two initial rescue breaths which caused a longer duration of the first cycle of 30 compressions and two ventilations in ABC teams (31 ± 13 vs.23 ± 6 sec; P = 0.001). Overall, the time to completion of the first resuscitation cycle was longer in ABC teams (63 ± 17 vs. 48 ± 10 sec; P ABC with an earlier start of CPR and a shorter time to completion of the first 30:2 resuscitation cycle. These findings endorse the change from ABC to CAB in international resuscitation guidelines.

  3. On-road and laboratory emissions of NO, NO2, NH3, N2O and CH4 from late-model EU light utility vehicles: Comparison of diesel and CNG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtíšek-Lom, Michal; Beránek, Vít; Klír, Vojtěch; Jindra, Petr; Pechout, Martin; Voříšek, Tomáš

    2018-03-01

    Exhaust emissions of eight Euro 6 light duty vehicles - two station wagons and six vans - half powered by diesel fuel and half by compressed natural gas (CNG) were examined using both chassis dynamometer and on-road testing. A portable on-board FTIR analyzer was used to measure concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds - NO, NO 2 and ammonia, of CO, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and greenhouse gases CO 2 , methane and N 2 O. Exhaust flow was inferred from engine control unit data. Total emissions per cycle were compared and found to be in good agreement with laboratory measurements of NO X , CO and CO 2 during dynamometer tests. On diesel engines, mean NO X emissions were 136-1070mg/km in the laboratory and 537-615mg/km on the road, in many cases nearly an order of magnitude higher compared to the numerical value of the Euro 6 limit. Mean N 2 O emissions were 3-19mg/km and were equivalent to several g/km CO 2 . The measurements suggest that NO X and N 2 O emissions from late-model European light utility vehicles with diesel engines are non-negligible and should be continuously assessed and scrutinized. High variances in NO X emissions among the tested diesel vehicles suggest that large number of vehicles should be tested to offer at least some insights about distribution of fleet emissions among vehicles. CNG engines exhibited relatively low emissions of NO X (12-186mg/km) and NH 3 (10-24mg/km), while mean emissions of methane were 18-45mg/km, under 1g/km CO 2 equivalent, and N 2 O, CO, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were negligible. The combination of a relatively clean-burning fuel, modern engine technology and a three-way catalyst has resulted in relatively low emissions under the wide variety of operating conditions encountered during the tests. The on-board FTIR has proven to be a useful instrument capable of covering, with the exception of total hydrocarbons, essentially all gaseous pollutants of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Both positive and negative regulatory elements mediate expression of a photoregulated CAB gene from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castresana, C; Garcia-Luque, I; Alonso, E; Malik, V S; Cashmore, A R

    1988-01-01

    We have analyzed promoter regulatory elements from a photoregulated CAB gene (Cab-E) isolated from Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. These studies have been performed by introducing chimeric gene constructs into tobacco cells via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression studies on the regenerated transgenic plants have allowed us to characterize three positive and one negative cis-acting elements that influence photoregulated expression of the Cab-E gene. Within the upstream sequences we have identified two positive regulatory elements (PRE1 and PRE2) which confer maximum levels of photoregulated expression. These sequences contain multiple repeated elements related to the sequence-ACCGGCCCACTT-. We have also identified within the upstream region a negative regulatory element (NRE) extremely rich in AT sequences, which reduces the level of gene expression in the light. We have defined a light regulatory element (LRE) within the promoter region extending from -396 to -186 bp which confers photoregulated expression when fused to a constitutive nopaline synthase ('nos') promoter. Within this region there is a 132-bp element, extending from -368 to -234 bp, which on deletion from the Cab-E promoter reduces gene expression from high levels to undetectable levels. Finally, we have demonstrated for a full length Cab-E promoter conferring high levels of photoregulated expression, that sequences proximal to the Cab-E TATA box are not replaceable by corresponding sequences from a 'nos' promoter. This contrasts with the apparent equivalence of these Cab-E and 'nos' TATA box-proximal sequences in truncated promoters conferring low levels of photoregulated expression. Images PMID:2901343

  5. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  6. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping Chinese Agricultural and Allied Sciences Journals Indexed in CAB Abstracts Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati Kaushik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available CAB Abstracts published by CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Biosciences International is the premier database for agricultural and allied sciences literature. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of index coverage in CAB Abstracts and to identify the core journals in the field of agricultural and allied sciences published in China. The study depicts the trend of Chinese agricultural and allied sciences journals, which is successfully proving a gateway of the agricultural research in China to merge into the main stream of the world.

  8. Steering Control in a Low-Cost Driving Simulator: A Case for the Role of Virtual Vehicle Cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecheri, Sami; Lobjois, Régis

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate steering control in a low-cost driving simulator with and without a virtual vehicle cab. In low-cost simulators, the lack of a vehicle cab denies driver access to vehicle width, which could affect steering control, insofar as locomotor adjustments are known to be based on action-scaled visual judgments of the environment. Two experiments were conducted in which steering control with and without a virtual vehicle cab was investigated in a within-subject design, using cornering and straight-lane-keeping tasks. Driving around curves without vehicle cab information made drivers deviate more from the lane center toward the inner edge in right (virtual cab = 4 ± 19 cm; no cab = 42 ± 28 cm; at the apex of the curve, p vehicle width. This produces considerable differences in the steering trajectory. Providing a virtual vehicle cab must be encouraged for more effectively capturing drivers' steering control in low-cost simulators.

  9. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interior wall of the cab and 56 inches above the floor. See Figure 1. ER27OC06.005 (5) The observer shall... records of the following data. The records created under this procedure shall be retained and made readily... suspected reason(s) for the failure. [71 FR 63136, Oct. 27, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009] ...

  10. Reduction in cab and psb A RNA transcripts in response to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, B R; Chow, W S; Strid, A; Anderson, J M

    1991-06-17

    The cab and psb A RNA transcript levels have been determined in Pisum sativum leaves exposed to supplementary ultraviolet-B radiation. The nuclear-encoded cab transcripts are reduced to low levels after only 4 h of UV-B treatment and are undetectable after 3 days exposure. In contrast, the chloroplast-encoded psb A transcript levels, although reduced, are present for at least 3 days. After short periods of UV-B exposure (4 h or 8 h), followed by recovery under control conditions, cab RNA transcript levels had not recovered after 1 day, but were re-established to ca. 60% of control levels after 2 more days. Increased irradiance during exposure to UV-B reduced the effect upon cab transcripts, although the decrease was still substantial. These results indicate rapid changes in the cellular regulation of gene expression in response to supplementary UV-B and suggest increased UV-B radiation may have profound consequences for future productivity of sensitive crop species.

  11. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  12. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Edwardsiella tarda [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Edwardsiella tarda 名詞 一般 * * * * Edwar...dsiella tarda ... MeSH D020609 200906083854859187 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Edwardsiella tarda

  13. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Edwardsiella ictaluri [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Edwardsiella ictaluri 名詞 一般 * * * * Edwar...dsiella ictaluri ... MeSH D020610 200906051921978774 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Edwardsiella ictaluri

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Ralstonia solanacearum [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Ralstonia solanacearum 名詞 一般 * * * * Ralstonia sol...anacearum ... MeSH D043368 200906091329391991 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Ralstonia solanacearum

  15. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sulfolobus solfataricus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sulfolobus solfataricus 名詞 一般 * * * * Sulfolobus solfataricus ... MeSH D048229 200906045592943760 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sulfolobus solfataricus

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites australis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites australis 名詞 一般 * * * ...* ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites australis

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites communis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites communis 名詞 一般 * * * *... ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites communis

  18. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Dirofilaria immitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dirofilaria immitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Dirofilaria immit...is ... MeSH D004183 200906050138784430 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Dirofilaria immitis

  19. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomit...ans 名詞 一般 * * * * Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans ... MeSH D016976 200906016161948020 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

  20. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Streptococcus mitis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Streptococcus mitis 名詞 一般 * * * * Streptococcus mit...is ... MeSH D034361 200906051281920120 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Streptococcus mitis

  1. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Thiocapsa roseopersicina [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Thiocapsa roseopersicina 名詞 一般 * * * * Thiocapsa rose...opersicina ... MeSH D020616 200906079314739029 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Thiocapsa roseopersicina

  2. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Sphingomonadaceae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sphingomonadaceae 名詞 一般 * * * * Sphi...ngomonadaceae ... MeSH D042301 200906094653102667 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Sphingomonadaceae

  3. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Campylobacter upsaliensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Campylobacter upsaliensis 名詞 一般 *... * * * Campylobacter upsaliensis ... MeSH D044885 200906036434053162 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Campylobacter upsaliensis

  4. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Morganella morganii [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Morganella morganii 名詞 一般 * * * * Morganella morg...anii ... MeSH D020613 200906053401612729 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Morganella morganii

  5. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis... 名詞 一般 * * * * Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D016925 200906025325177003 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis

  6. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 名詞 一般... * * * * Yersinia pseudotuberculosis ... MeSH D015011 200906011755952514 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

  7. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: von Willebrand病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term von Willebrand病 名詞 一般 * * * * von Willebrand...病 ... MeSH D014842 200906053707829497 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 von Willebrand 病

  8. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Brucella melitensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brucella melitensis 名詞 一般 * * * * Brucella melitens...is ... MeSH D017347 200906028294406644 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Brucella melitensis

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Threskiornithidae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Threskiornithidae 名詞 一般 * * * * ト...キ科 トキカ トキカ Thesaurus2015 200906034071654875 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Threskiornithidae

  10. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Phoradendron属 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phoradendron属 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * Phoradendron...属 ... MeSH D028184 200906006893995689 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phoradendron 属

  11. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Aeromonas salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aeromonas salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * * * Aeromonas salmon...icida ... MeSH D048409 200906081596351600 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aeromonas salmonicida

  12. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Aliivibrio salmonicida [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aliivibrio salmonicida 名詞 一般 * * * * Aliivibrio salmon...icida ... MeSH D044165 200906023365578059 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Aliivibrio salmonicida

  13. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Heligmosomatoidea [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Heligmosomatoidea 名詞 一般 * * * * Heligmos...omatoidea ... MeSH D006369 200906085224079623 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Heligmosomatoidea

  14. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Neorickettsia risticii [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Neorickettsia risticii 名詞 一般 * * * * Neorickettsia... risticii ... MeSH D041103 200906043905068374 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Neorickettsia risticii

  15. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Piscirickettsiaceae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Piscirickettsiaceae 名詞 一般 * * * * Piscirickettsia...ceae ... MeSH D044147 200906033138096892 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Piscirickettsiaceae

  16. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Neorickettsia sennetsu [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Neorickettsia sennetsu 名詞 一般 * * * * Neorickettsia... sennetsu ... MeSH D041101 200906077083053908 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Neorickettsia sennetsu

  17. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma ovipneum...oniae ... MeSH D045802 200906092922912910 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

  18. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Chlamydophila pneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Chlamydophila pneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Chlamydophila pneum...oniae ... MeSH D016993 200906005356438556 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Chlamydophila pneumoniae

  19. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma pneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma pneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma pneumonia...e ... MeSH D009177 200906010320106380 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma pneumoniae

  20. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae 名...詞 一般 * * * * Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ... MeSH D016977 200906089064706214 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

  1. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 名詞 一般 * * * * Mycoplasma hyopneum...oniae ... MeSH D045705 200906033834508852 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae

  2. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Prevotella melaninogenica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Prevotella melaninogenica 名詞 一般 * * * * Prevotella mela...ninogenica ... MeSH D001443 200906099099181179 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Prevotella melaninogenica

  3. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Tetrahymena pyriformis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena pyriformis 名詞 一般 * * * * Tetrahymena... pyriformis ... MeSH D013769 200906097287118996 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena pyriformis

  4. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Tetrahymena thermophila [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tetrahymena thermophila 名詞 一般 * * * * Tetrahymena... thermophila ... MeSH D016808 200906086486381246 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Tetrahymena thermophila

  5. J-GLOBAL MeSH Dictionary: Bacillus stearothermophilus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Bacillus stearothermophilus 名詞 一般 * * * * Bacillus stea...rothermophilus ... MeSH D001411 200906079736943583 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Bacillus stearothermophilus

  6. Potential air toxics hot spots in truck terminals and cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Thomas J; Davis, Mary E; Hart, Jaime E; Blicharz, Andrew; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric

    2012-12-01

    Hot spots are areas where concentrations of one or more air toxics--organic vapors or particulate matter (PM)--are expected to be elevated. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA*) screening values for air toxics were used in our definition of hot spots. According to the EPA, a screening value "is used to indicate a concentration of a chemical in the air to which a person could be continually exposed for a lifetime ... and which would be unlikely to result in a deleterious effect (either cancer or noncancer health effects)" (U.S. EPA 2006). Our characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs; namely 18 hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether [MTBE], acetone, and aldehydes) was added onto our ongoing National Cancer Institute-funded study of lung cancer and particulate pollutant concentrations (PM with an aerodynamic diameter highways. In Phase 1 of our study, 15 truck terminals across the United States were each visited for five consecutive days. During these site visits, sorbent tubes were used to collect 12-hour integrated samples of hydrocarbons and aldehydes from upwind and downwind fence-line locations as well as inside truck cabs. Meteorologic data and extensive site information were collected with each sample. In Phase 2, repeat visits to six terminals were conducted to test the stability of concentrations across time and judge the representativeness of our previous measurements. During the repeat site visits, the sampling procedure was expanded to include real-time sampling for total hydrocarbon (HC) and PM2.5 at the terminal upwind and downwind sites and inside the truck cabs, two additional monitors in the yard for four-quadrant sampling to better characterize the influence of wind, and indoor sampling in the loading dock and mechanic shop work areas. Mean and median concentrations of VOCs across the sampling locations in and around the truck terminals showed significant variability in the upwind concentrations as well as in the intensity of

  7. Determinants of tobacco use and prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers in Bengaluru City, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punith Shetty

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tobacco is a most important risk factor for various types of cancer as well as some noncommunicable disease. Around 34.6% of Indian population consume tobacco. The tobacco consumption is higher in some vulnerable population such as drivers, daily wage laborers, and policemen. Tobacco consumption is known to cause oral cancers, and screening for oral cancer in these individuals is known to reduce mortality from cancer. The study was designed to assess the determinants of tobacco use and the prevalence of oral precancerous lesions in cab drivers. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study among cab drivers at prepaid taxi counters in Bengaluru city. A total of 450 cab drivers were enrolled in the study, of which 225 cab drivers were interviewed during morning hours and remaining half at night time using a semi-structured questionnaire. All were screened for oral cancer/precancerous lesions. Results: Nearly 70.88% of cab drivers were consuming tobacco in any form. Long working hours, working at night, and family members consuming tobacco were significant risk factors for tobacco use among cab drivers. Forty-eight drivers were detected to have oral precancerous lesions. Conclusions: It was very evident that long hours of driving and infrequent shifts played a greater role in acquiring the habit. Behavioral counseling and new laws need to be formed to limit the working hours in drivers to have an effective tobacco control.

  8. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... sound field in the whole room, and short impulse response.  In a standard listening room (180 m3) only 4 loudspeakers are needed, 2 more than a traditional stereo setup. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP system. The time based approached might help with the understanding of sound field control...

  9. Electro-deposition painting process improvement of cab truck by Six Sigma concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawitu, Kitiya; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    The case study company is a manufacturer of trucks and currently facing a high rework cost due to the thickness of the electro-deposited paint (EDP) of the truck cab is lower than standard. In addition, the process capability is very low. The Six Sigma concept consisting of 5 phases (DMAIC) is applied to determine new parameter settings for each significant controllable factor. After the improvement, EDP thickness of the truck cab increases from 17.88μ to 20μ (i.e. standard = 20 ± 3μ). Moreover, the process capability indexes (Cp and Cpk) are increased from 0.9 to 1.43, and from 0.27 to 1.43, respectively. This improvement could save the rework cost about 1.6M THB per year.

  10. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  11. Homogeneous preparation of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) from sugarcane bagasse cellulose in ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kelin; Wang, Ben; Cao, Yan; Li, Huiquan; Wang, Jinshu; Lin, Weijiang; Mu, Chaoshi; Liao, Dankui

    2011-05-25

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) were prepared homogeneously in a 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AmimCl) ionic liquid system from sugarcane bagasse (SB). The reaction temperature, reaction time, and molar ratio of butyric (propionic) anhydride/anhydroglucose units in the cellulose affect the butyryl (B) or propionyl (P) content of CAB or CAP samples. The (13)C NMR data revealed the distribution of the substituents of CAB and CAP. The thermal stability of sugar cane bagasse cellulose was found by thermogravimetric analysis to have decreased after chemical modification. After reaction, the ionic liquid was effectively recycled and reused. This study provides a new way for high-value-added utilization of SB and realizing the objective of turning waste into wealth.

  12. Ergonomics in drivers' cabs on open-cast mining machines; Ergonomie bei Fuehrerstaenden auf Tagebaugeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vater, L. [Ergonomie/Gefahrstoffe, Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Senftenberg (Germany)

    2004-08-12

    Ergonomically designed driver's cabs also contribute directly to the increase in safety at work. In the course of the electrical re-design of the open-cast mining machines new drivers' cabs, which eliminate ergonomic deficits, were used. Other important aspects in addition to the improvements in the environmental factors noise, vibration and dust, are in particular the visibility conditions, visualisation of process data and monitoring as well as operating concepts. Taking into account the different types of machine drivers' cabs with a modified basic design and bearing design are used. Optimisation of the installation of the monitors and the basic structuring of the control panels was carried out. In addition to the increase in the effectiveness of control another aim is to minimise faulty operation by the driver when changing machines frequently. (orig.)

  13. CABS-flex 2.0: a web server for fast simulations of flexibility of protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriata, Aleksander; Gierut, Aleksandra Maria; Oleniecki, Tymoteusz; Ciemny, Maciej Pawel; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2018-05-14

    Classical simulations of protein flexibility remain computationally expensive, especially for large proteins. A few years ago, we developed a fast method for predicting protein structure fluctuations that uses a single protein model as the input. The method has been made available as the CABS-flex web server and applied in numerous studies of protein structure-function relationships. Here, we present a major update of the CABS-flex web server to version 2.0. The new features include: extension of the method to significantly larger and multimeric proteins, customizable distance restraints and simulation parameters, contact maps and a new, enhanced web server interface. CABS-flex 2.0 is freely available at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSflex2.

  14. A comparative study of the effect of automobile pollution on pulmonary function tests of exposed cab drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urbanization is associated with an enormous increase in vehicular traffic emitting exhausts and polluting the atmosphere. Emissions from vehicular traffic constitute the most significant source of ultraparticle in an urban environment. Cab drivers who work near areas located in the vicinity of traffic junctions through which maximum number of vehicles passes are more prone to develop health issues pertaining to the respiratory system. The effect of this occupational hazard in this unorganised workforce is not adequately studied. This study is designed to determine the effect of air pollution on the pulmonary system in cab drivers exposed to automobile exhaust. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted by performing pulmonary function tests (PFTs on 20 cab drivers who are exposed to automobile exhaust by virtue of their work venue nearer to traffic junctions and comparing them with 20 age, gender-matched, and anthropometric profile cab drivers who work in a rural setting free from vehicular air pollution. PFT by computerized spirometer measuring forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume (FEV 1 , FEV1/FVC, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and forced expiratory flow (FEF 25%-75% were measured. Statistical analysis was done by Student′s t test (two-tailed, independent for intergroup analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant decline in dynamic pulmonary function parameters in the study group when compared. FVC, FEV in first second, PEFR, FEV 1 /FVC, and FEF 25%-75% were all found to be statistically significantly lower in cab drivers as compared to control group (P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study finds a significant decline in various PFT parameters recorded in the study group as compared with the control group. These suggests a tendency for obstructive lung disease among cab drivers exposed to a polluted urban environment.

  15. Radioimmunotherapy of human colon cancer xenografts by using 131I labeled-CAb1 F(ab')2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling; Xu Huiyun; Mi Li; Bian Huijie; Qin Jun; Xiong Hua; Feng Qiang; Wen Ning; Tian Rong; Xu Liqing; Shen Xiaomei; Tang Hao; Chen Zhinan

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Therapeutic efficacy, suitable dose, and administration times of 131 I-CAb 1 F(ab') 2 , a new monoclonal antibody therapeutics specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colon cancer, were investigated in this article. Methods and Materials: In human colon cancer xenografts, 131 I-CAb 1 F(ab') 2 at the dose of 125 μCi, 375 μCi, and 1125 μCi were administrated intraperitoneally on Days 6 and 18 after implantation of HR8348 cells with CAb 1 high reactivity. Survival time and tumor growth inhibition rate were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 131 I-CAb 1 F(ab') 2 in treatment of colon cancer xenografts. Results: Treatment of 125, 375, and 1125 μCi 131 I-CAb1 F(ab') 2 did not significantly decrease the mean survival time of nude mice when compared with nontreated groups (p = 0.276, 0.865, 0.582, respectively). Moreover, the mean survival times of nude mice receiving 375 μCi and 1125 μCi 131 I-CAb1 F(ab') 2 were significantly longer than that of 5-FU-treated groups (p 0.018 and 0.042). Tumor growth inhibition rates of the first therapy were 35.67% and 41.37%, with corresponding 131 I-labeled antibody dosage of 375 μCi and 1125 μCi. After single attack dosage, second reinforcement therapy may rise efficacy significantly. Tumor growth inhibition rates of 125 μCi, 375 μCi, and 1125 μCi 131 I-labeled antibody on Day 20 posttherapy were 42.65%, 56.56%, and 84.41%, respectively. Histopathology examination revealed that tissue necrosis of various degrees was found in 131 I-CAb1 F(ab') 2 -treated groups. Conclusion: 131 I-CAb 1 F(ab') 2 is safe and effective for colon cancer. It may be a novel and potentially adjuvant therapeutics for colon cancer

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 皮膚科 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 皮膚科 名詞 一般 * * * * 皮膚科学 ヒフカガク ヒフカガク Thesaurus2015 200906013368077667 V LS52 MULTI_WORD 皮膚 科

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Arctoscopus japonicus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Arctoscopus japonicus 名詞 一般 * * *... * ハタハタ ハタハタ ハタハタ Thesaurus2015 200906005405770421 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Arctoscopus japonicus

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 摩擦材 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 摩擦材 名詞 一般 * * * * 摩擦材料 マサツザイリョウ マサツザイリョー Thesaurus2015 200906053382563592 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 摩擦 材

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 摩擦板 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 摩擦板 名詞 一般 * * * * クラッチディスク クラッチディスク クラッチディスク Thesaurus2015 200906037919613065 V MF07 MULTI_WORD 摩擦 板

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 壁摩擦 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 壁摩擦 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 壁面摩擦 ヘキメンマサツ ヘキメンマサツ Thesaurus2015 200906044938071954 V MF04 MULTI_WORD 壁 摩擦

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 管摩擦 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 管摩擦 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 管摩擦 カンマサツ カンマサツ Thesaurus2015 200906038981672090 C MF04 MULTI_WORD 管 摩擦

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 摩擦熱 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 摩擦熱 名詞 一般 * * * * 摩擦熱 マサツネツ マサツネツ Thesaurus2015 200906075078768009 C MF04 MULTI_WORD 摩擦 熱

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 摩擦杭 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 摩擦杭 名詞 一般 * * * * 摩擦杭 マサツグイ マサツグイ Thesaurus2015 200906085722469390 C AA34 MULTI_WORD 摩擦 杭

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 摩擦力 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 摩擦力 名詞 一般 * * * * 摩擦力 マサツリョク マサツリョク Thesaurus2015 200906095522829479 C MF04 MULTI_WORD 摩擦 力

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: SPL [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term SPL 名詞 一般 * * * * 音圧レベル オンアツレベル オンアツレベル Thesaurus2015 200906093984514667 V PA03 UNKNOWN_1 SPL

  6. Nikkaji Dictionary: レベルシン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term レベルシン 名詞 一般 * * * * レベルシン ... Nikkaji J2.006.667I 200906023817912954 C CA06 MULTI_WORD レベル シン

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 人事管理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 人事管理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 人事管理 ジンジカンリ ジンジカンリ Thesaurus2015 200906050420064520 C BJ01 MULTI_WORD 人事 管理

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 質管理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 質管理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 品質管理 ヒンシツカンリ ヒンシツカンリ Thesaurus2015 200906017013755341 V BI01 MULTI_WORD 質 管理

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 熱管理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 熱管理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 熱管理 ネツカンリ ネツカンリ Thesaurus2015 200906033204266427 C CC08 MULTI_WORD 熱 管理

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 管理職 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 管理職 名詞 一般 * * * * 管理者 カンリシャ カンリシャ Thesaurus2015 200906025741356618 V BD01 MULTI_WORD 管理 職

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 水管理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 水管理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 水管理 ミズカンリ ミズカンリ Thesaurus2015 200906062042752934 C AC20 MULTI_WORD 水 管理

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 群管理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 群管理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 群管理 グンカンリ グンカンリ Thesaurus2015 200906044871472894 C IB03 MULTI_WORD 群 管理

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 管理者 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 管理者 名詞 一般 * * * * 管理者 カンリシャ カンリシャ Thesaurus2015 200906025741356618 C BD01 MULTI_WORD 管理 者

  14. Nikkaji Dictionary: (+)-ケタミン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term (+)-ケタミン 名詞 一般 * * * * (+)-ケタミン ... Nikkaji J343.931C 200906055071390379 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 ( + )- ケタ ミン

  15. Nikkaji Dictionary: (R)-ケタミン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term (R)-ケタミン 名詞 一般 * * * * (R)-ケタミン ... Nikkaji J238.629A 200906052675671229 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 ( R ) - ケタ ミン

  16. Nikkaji Dictionary: ノルケタミン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ノルケタミン 名詞 一般 * * * * ノルケタミン ... Nikkaji J397.916D 200906056292209128 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 ノルケタミン

  17. Nikkaji Dictionary: (S)-ケタミン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term (S)-ケタミン 名詞 一般 * * * * (S)-ケタミン ... Nikkaji J238.630E 200906035290813586 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 ( S ) - ケタ ミン

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 会計学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 会計学 名詞 一般 * * * * 会計学 カイケイガク カイケイガク Thesaurus2015 200906067126426759 C ID01 MULTI_WORD 会計 学

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 無食欲 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 無食欲 名詞 一般 * * * * 食欲不振 ショクヨクフシン ショクヨクフシン Thesaurus2015 200906012651582800 V LS51 MULTI_WORD 無 食欲

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 信頼率 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 信頼率 名詞 一般 * * * * 信頼度 シンライド シンライド Thesaurus2015 200906047834797529 V BI01 MULTI_WORD 信頼 率

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 信頼性 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 信頼性 名詞 一般 * * * * 信頼性 シンライセイ シンライセイ Thesaurus2015 200906011568540610 C BI01 MULTI_WORD 信頼 性

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 信憑性 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 信憑性 名詞 一般 * * * * 信頼度 シンライド シンライド Thesaurus2015 200906047834797529 V BI01 MULTI_WORD 信憑 性

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 信頼域 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 信頼域 名詞 一般 * * * * 信頼区間 シンライクカン シンライクカン Thesaurus2015 200906078231719690 V BI01 MULTI_WORD 信頼 域

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 信頼度 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 信頼度 名詞 一般 * * * * 信頼度 シンライド シンライド Thesaurus2015 200906047834797529 C BI01 MULTI_WORD 信頼 度

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 栄養士 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 栄養士 名詞 一般 * * * * 栄養士 エイヨウシ エイヨーシ Thesaurus2015 200906032097297202 C LS73 名詞 栄養士

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 栄養塩 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 栄養塩 名詞 一般 * * * * 栄養塩類 エイヨウエンルイ エイヨーエンルイ Thesaurus2015 200906092287498614 V LS11 MULTI_WORD 栄養 塩

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 低栄養 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 低栄養 名詞 一般 * * * * 栄養失調 エイヨウシッチョウ エイヨーシッチョー Thesaurus2015 200906035724378514 V LS51 MULTI_WORD 低 栄養

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 栄養膜 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 栄養膜 名詞 一般 * * * * 栄養芽層 エイヨウガソウ エイヨーガソー Thesaurus2015 200906047340958333 V LS16 MULTI_WORD 栄養 膜

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 栄養素 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 栄養素 名詞 一般 * * * * 栄養素 エイヨウソ エイヨーソ Thesaurus2015 200906009271842337 C LS73 名詞 栄養素

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Biot数 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Biot数 名詞 一般 * * * * Biot数 Biotスウ ビーアイオーティースー Thesaurus2015 200906093595053620 C PB01 UNKNOWN_2 Biot 数

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 紅樹 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 紅樹 名詞 一般 * * * * マングローブ マングローブ マングローブ Thesaurus2015 200906014097274042 V LS20 MULTI_WORD 紅 樹

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 跳び上 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 跳び上 名詞 一般 * * * * 跳躍現象 チョウヤクゲンショウ チョーヤクゲンショー Thesaurus2015 200906091875245378 V IA07 MULTI_WORD 跳び 上

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 跳上り [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 跳上り 名詞 一般 * * * * 跳躍現象 チョウヤクゲンショウ チョーヤクゲンショー Thesaurus2015 200906091875245378 V IA07 UNKNOWN_2 跳 上り

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 跳躍類 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 跳躍類 名詞 一般 * * * * 直翅類 チョクシルイ チョクシルイ Thesaurus2015 200906088691335683 V LS05 MULTI_WORD 跳躍 類

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 飛上り [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 飛上り 名詞 一般 * * * * 跳躍現象 チョウヤクゲンショウ チョーヤクゲンショー Thesaurus2015 200906091875245378 V IA07 名詞 飛上り

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 跳躍 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 跳躍 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 跳躍現象 チョウヤクゲンショウ チョーヤクゲンショー Thesaurus2015 200906091875245378 V IA07 名詞 跳躍

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 飛び上 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 飛び上 名詞 一般 * * * * 跳躍現象 チョウヤクゲンショウ チョーヤクゲンショー Thesaurus2015 200906091875245378 V IA07 MULTI_WORD 飛び 上

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 小球菌 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 小球菌 名詞 一般 * * * * 球菌属 キュウキンゾク キューキンゾク Thesaurus2015 200906059928121799 V LS07 MULTI_WORD 小 球菌

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 砂漠化 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 砂漠化 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 砂漠化 サバクカ サバクカ Thesaurus2015 200906056283694641 C GC11 MULTI_WORD 砂漠 化

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: HY [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term HY 名詞 一般 * * * * HYゼオライト HYゼオライト エイチワイゼオライト Thesaurus2015 200906070203646695 C CA05 MULTI_WORD H Y

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: HY [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term HY 名詞 一般 * * * * HYゼオライト HYゼオライト エイチワイゼオライト Thesaurus2015 200906070203646695 V CA05 MULTI_WORD H Y

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: NaY [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term NaY 名詞 一般 * * * * NaYゼオライト NaYゼオライト エヌエイワイゼオライト Thesaurus2015 200906083437619912 V CA05 UNKNOWN_1 NaY

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: NaY [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term NaY 名詞 一般 * * * * NaYゼオライト NaYゼオライト エヌエイワイゼオライト Thesaurus2015 200906083437619912 C CA05 UNKNOWN_1 NaY

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Cotugno病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Cotugno病 名詞 一般 * * * * 坐骨神経痛 ザコツシンケイツウ ザコツシンケイツー Thesaurus2015 200906039063653675 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 Cotugno 病

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: X線写真 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term X線写真 名詞 一般 * * * * X線写真 Xセンシャシン エックスセンシャシン Thesaurus2015 200906051331936057 C CC18 MULTI_WORD X線 写真

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 写真像 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 写真像 名詞 一般 * * * * 写真像 シャシンゾウ シャシンゾー Thesaurus2015 200906041522794494 C CC18/EB11 MULTI_WORD 写真 像

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 色写真 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 色写真 名詞 一般 * * * * カラー写真 カラーシャシン カラーシャシン Thesaurus2015 200906038124530486 V CC18/AC05 MULTI_WORD 色 写真

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接池 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接池 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶融池 ヨウユウチ ヨーユウチ Thesaurus2015 200906015968468972 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 池

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接棒 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接棒 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接棒 ヨウセツボウ ヨーセツボー Thesaurus2015 200906048304778619 C GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 棒

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接割 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接割 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接割れ ヨウセツワレ ヨーセツワレ Thesaurus2015 200906091650122633 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 割

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接線 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接線 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接線 ヨウセツセン ヨーセツセン Thesaurus2015 200906065387664123 C GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 線

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: MIG溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term MIG溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * MIG溶接 MIGヨウセツ エムアイジーヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906017938322763 C GA07 UNKNOWN_2 MIG 溶接

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GMA溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GMA溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * GMA溶接 GMAヨウセツ ジーエムエイヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906014039471555 C GA07 MULTI_WORD GM A 溶接

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: MAG溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term MAG溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * MAG溶接 MAGヨウセツ エムエイジーヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906095423043005 C GA07 UNKNOWN_2 MAG 溶接

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接剤 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接剤 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接フラックス ヨウセツフラックス ヨーセツフラックス Thesaurus2015 200906060430607196 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 剤

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接性 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接性 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接性 ヨウセツセイ ヨーセツセイ Thesaurus2015 200906057610461768 C GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 性

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 点溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 点溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 点溶接 テンヨウセツ テンヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906034095586099 C GA07 MULTI_WORD 点 溶接

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: TIG溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term TIG溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * TIG溶接 TIGヨウセツ ティーアイジーヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906088981780311 C GA07 UNKNOWN_2 TIG 溶接

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接煙 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接煙 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接ヒューム ヨウセツヒューム ヨーセツヒューム Thesaurus2015 200906054893091369 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 煙

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 溶接材 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 溶接材 名詞 一般 * * * * 溶接材料 ヨウセツザイリョウ ヨーセツザイリョー Thesaurus2015 200906033866165760 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 溶接 材

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 重溶接 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 重溶接 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 重ね溶接 カサネヨウセツ カサネヨーセツ Thesaurus2015 200906060865653530 V GA07 MULTI_WORD 重 溶接

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Aschoff-Tawara結節 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Aschoff-Tawara結節 名詞 一般 * * * * 房室...結節 ボウシツケッセツ ボーシツケッセツ Thesaurus2015 200906029568600325 C LS16 UNKNOWN_2 Aschoff - Tawara 結節

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dewar瓶 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dewar瓶 名詞 一般 * * * * Dewar瓶 Dewar...ビン ディーイーダブリューエイアールビン Thesaurus2015 200906080475304888 C MH01 UNKNOWN_2 Dewar 瓶

  4. Nikkaji Dictionary: Dewarベンゼン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dewarベンゼン 名詞 一般 * * * * Dewarベンゼン ... Nikkaji J55.588F 200906090628967488 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 Dewar ベンゼン

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 注目視 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 注目視 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 注意 チュウイ チューイ Thesaurus2015 200906082342436636 V BK01 MULTI_WORD 注目 視

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 高周波 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 高周波 名詞 一般 * * * * HF【周波数】 HF エイチエフ Thesaurus2015 200906043777239608 V PA04 名詞 高周波

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 核形成 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 核形成 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 核形成 カクケイセイ カクケイセイ Thesaurus2015 200906085182078745 C PA08 MULTI_WORD 核 形成

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Cancer属 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Cancer属 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * Cancer Ca...ncer シーエイエヌシーイーアール Thesaurus2015 200906084373314582 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Cancer 属

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Cancer [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Cancer 名詞 一般 * * * * Cancer Cancer シーエイエヌシーイーアール Thesaurus2015 200906084373314582 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Cancer

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 水ゾル [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 水ゾル 名詞 一般 * * * * ヒドロゾル ヒドロゾル ヒドロゾル Thesaurus2015 200906059522009173 V CA24 UNKNOWN_2 水 ゾル

  11. Nikkaji Dictionary: レゾルフィン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term レゾルフィン 名詞 一般 * * * * レゾルフィン ... Nikkaji J12.479F 200906009509874410 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 レゾルフィン

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 包含物 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 包含物 名詞 一般 * * * * 包有物 ホウユウブツ ホーユウブツ Thesaurus2015 200906055603751162 V GC08 MULTI_WORD 包含 物

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 通路 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 通路 名詞 一般 * * * * 連絡通路 レンラクツウロ レンラクツーロ Thesaurus2015 200906027949805699 V AC17 名詞 通路

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Md [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Md 名詞 一般 * * * * メンデレビウム メンデレビウム メンデレビューム Thesaurus2015 200906022783221535 C CA03 UNKNOWN_1 Md

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Md [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Md 名詞 一般 * * * * メンデレビウム メンデレビウム メンデレビューム Thesaurus2015 200906022783221535 V CA03 UNKNOWN_1 Md

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 生物学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 生物学 名詞 一般 * * * * 生物学 セイブツガク セイブツガク Thesaurus2015 200906002567921394 C LS01 MULTI_WORD 生物 学

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 像強調 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 像強調 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 画像強調 ガゾウキョウチョウ ガゾーキョーチョー Thesaurus2015 200906005087564000 V EA17/EB11 MULTI_WORD 像 強調

  18. Nikkaji Dictionary: アンピシリン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term アンピシリン 名詞 一般 * * * * アンピシリン ... Nikkaji J4.515B 200906025478678478 C CA06/LS44 UNKNOWN_1 アンピシリン

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Pholiota nameko [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Pholiota nameko 名詞 一般 * * * * ナメコ... ナメコ ナメコ Thesaurus2015 200906024797628029 C LS07/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Pholiota nameko

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Pholiota [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Pholiota 名詞 一般 * * * * スギタケ属 スギタケゾク スギタケゾク Thesaurus2015 200906066403251140 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Pholiota

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 小児科 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 小児科 名詞 一般 * * * * 小児科学 ショウニカガク ショーニカガク Thesaurus2015 200906053021703845 V LS52 名詞 小児科

  2. Nikkaji Dictionary: トリグライム [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term トリグライム 名詞 一般 * * * * トリグライム ... Nikkaji J5.127F 200906054801518744 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 トリグライム

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: ライ麦 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ライ麦 名詞 一般 * * * * ライムギ ライムギ ライムギ Thesaurus2015 200906053582807216 V LS06/LS72 名詞 ライ麦

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: γ’相 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term γ’相 名詞 一般 * * * * γプライム相 ガンマプライムソウ ガンマプライムソー Thesaurus2015 200906069124566343 V GA15 MULTI_WORD γ ’ 相

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 人間学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 人間学 名詞 一般 * * * * 人類学 ジンルイガク ジンルイガク Thesaurus2015 200906015889425150 V LS01 MULTI_WORD 人間 学

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 人類学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 人類学 名詞 一般 * * * * 人類学 ジンルイガク ジンルイガク Thesaurus2015 200906015889425150 C LS01 MULTI_WORD 人類 学

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Lyme病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Lyme病 名詞 一般 * * * * ライム病 ライムビョウ ライムビョー Thesaurus2015 200906092018596316 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 Lyme 病

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Secale [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Secale 名詞 一般 * * * * ライムギ属 ライムギゾク ライムギゾク Thesaurus2015 200906053529242894 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Secale

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Ammodytes personatus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Ammodytes personatus 名詞 一般 * * * ...* イカナゴ イカナゴ イカナゴ Thesaurus2015 200906078742806753 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Ammodytes personatus

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 中国語 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 中国語 名詞 一般 * * * * 中国語 チュウゴクゴ チューゴクゴ Thesaurus2015 200906069279434575 C BA01 MULTI_WORD 中国 語

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: National Television System Committee [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term National Television System Commit...tee 名詞 一般 * * * * NTSC NTSC エヌティーエスシー Thesaurus2015 200906068914886147 C EF11 UNKNOWN_2 National Television System Committee

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 竜巻き [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 竜巻き 名詞 一般 * * * * トルネード トルネード トルネード Thesaurus2015 200906061029359976 V GC19 MULTI_WORD 竜 巻き

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 竜巻 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 竜巻 名詞 一般 * * * * トルネード トルネード トルネード Thesaurus2015 200906061029359976 V GC19 名詞 竜巻

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副成 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副成 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 副 成

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副生物 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副生物 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 副 生物

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副産物 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副産物 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 C IA09 名詞 副産物

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副製品 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副製品 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 副 製品

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副成物 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副成物 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 副 成 物

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 派生物 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 派生物 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 派生 物

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 副産 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 副産 名詞 一般 * * * * 副産物 フクサンブツ フクサンブツ Thesaurus2015 200906003406272686 V IA09 MULTI_WORD 副 産

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: バラ属 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term バラ属 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * バラ属 バラゾク バラゾク Thesaurus2015 200906011523300642 C LS06 MULTI_WORD バラ 属

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Catharanthus roseus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Catharanthus roseus 名詞 一般 * * * *... ニチニチソウ ニチニチソウ ニチニチソー Thesaurus2015 200906051153800910 C LS06/LS63 UNKNOWN_2 Catharanthus roseus

  3. Nikkaji Dictionary: バラノホニン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term バラノホニン 名詞 一般 * * * * バラノホニン ... Nikkaji J871.722B 200906052052052277 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 バラノホニン

  4. Nikkaji Dictionary: バルバララン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term バルバララン 名詞 一般 * * * * バルバララン ... Nikkaji J656.120I 200906008564572362 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 バルバララン

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Petroselinum [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Petroselinum 名詞 一般 * * * * オランダゼリ...属 オランダゼリゾク オランダゼリゾク Thesaurus2015 200906003841666785 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Petroselinum

  6. Nikkaji Dictionary: (+)-バラノール [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term (+)-バラノール 名詞 一般 * * * * (+)-バラノール ... Nikkaji J757.689G 201206032178329023 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 ( + )- バラノール

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Psidium guajava [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Psidium guajava 名詞 一般 * * * * グアバ... グアバ グアバ Thesaurus2015 200906092188751413 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Psidium guajava

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 高架橋 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 高架橋 名詞 一般 * * * * 高架橋 コウカキョウ コーカキョー Thesaurus2015 200906039162079948 C AC12 MULTI_WORD 高架 橋

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 架橋剤 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 架橋剤 名詞 一般 * * * * 架橋剤 カキョウザイ カキョーザイ Thesaurus2015 200906012874446992 C CC21 MULTI_WORD 架橋 剤

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 架橋度 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 架橋度 名詞 一般 * * * * 架橋度 カキョウド カキョード Thesaurus2015 200906003032828634 C CC20 MULTI_WORD 架橋 度

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 光架橋 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 光架橋 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 光架橋 ヒカリカキョウ ヒカリカキョー Thesaurus2015 200906000039426982 C CC20 MULTI_WORD 光 架橋

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 架橋 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 架橋 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 架橋【高分子】 カキョウ カキョー Thesaurus2015 200906022368496286 C CC20 名詞 架橋

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 飲食店 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 飲食店 名詞 一般 * * * * レストラン レストラン レストラン Thesaurus2015 200906061597290301 V AB04 MULTI_WORD 飲食 店

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 料理店 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 料理店 名詞 一般 * * * * レストラン レストラン レストラン Thesaurus2015 200906061597290301 V AB04 MULTI_WORD 料理 店

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 料理屋 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 料理屋 名詞 一般 * * * * レストラン レストラン レストラン Thesaurus2015 200906061597290301 V AB04 MULTI_WORD 料理 屋

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 分離流 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 分離流 名詞 一般 * * * * 剥離流 ハクリリュウ ハクリリュー Thesaurus2015 200906012807851890 V MF03 MULTI_WORD 分離 流

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 群分離 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 群分離 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 群分離 グンブンリ グンブンリ Thesaurus2015 200906084295071422 C NA07 MULTI_WORD 群 分離

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 膜分離 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 膜分離 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 膜分離 マクブンリ マクブンリ Thesaurus2015 200906054518340068 C CA24/CC03 MULTI_WORD 膜 分離

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 相分離 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 相分離 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 相分離 ソウブンリ ソーブンリ Thesaurus2015 200906034715684738 C PA02 MULTI_WORD 相 分離

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 分離機 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 分離機 名詞 一般 * * * * 分離装置 ブンリソウチ ブンリソーチ Thesaurus2015 200906005564059135 V IA11 MULTI_WORD 分離 機

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 分離腫 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 分離腫 名詞 一般 * * * * 分離腫 ブンリシュ ブンリシュ Thesaurus2015 200906096342986637 C LS51 MULTI_WORD 分離 腫

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 油分離 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 油分離 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 油分離 アブラブンリ アブラブンリ Thesaurus2015 200906061598623592 C IA11 MULTI_WORD 油 分離

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 分離器 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 分離器 名詞 一般 * * * * 分離装置 ブンリソウチ ブンリソーチ Thesaurus2015 200906005564059135 V IA11 MULTI_WORD 分離 器

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea 名詞 一般 * * * * ヤマノイモ属 ヤマノイモゾク ヤマノイモゾク Thesaurus2015 200906086875099262 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Dioscorea

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica Thunb. [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica Thunb. 名詞 一般 *... * * * ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica Thunb .

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Dioscorea japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Dioscorea japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ...ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ ヤマノイモ Thesaurus2015 200906042151087664 C LS06/LS63/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Dioscorea japonica

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 後衝突 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 後衝突 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 後衝突 アトショウトツ アトショートツ Thesaurus2015 200906061873848591 C PA11 MULTI_WORD 後 衝突

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: CID [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term CID 名詞 一般 * * * * 衝突誘起解離 ショウトツユウキカイリ ショートツユーキカイリ Thesaurus2015 200906094037514412 C PA07 UNKNOWN_1 CID

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 電話局 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 電話局 名詞 一般 * * * * 電話局 デンワキョク デンワキョク Thesaurus2015 200906027066937412 C AB04 MULTI_WORD 電話 局

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 塩基性 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 塩基性 名詞 一般 * * * * 塩基性 エンキセイ エンキセイ Thesaurus2015 200906030103035875 C CA01 MULTI_WORD 塩基 性

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Evidence Based Medicine [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Evidence Based Medicine 名詞 一般 * *... * * EBM【医学】 EBM イービーエム Thesaurus2015 200906096535663959 C LS52 UNKNOWN_2 Evidence Based Medicine

  12. Nikkaji Dictionary: Troeger's塩基 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Troeger's塩基 名詞 一般 * * * * Troeger's塩基 ... Nikkaji J821.202C 200906088694501851 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 Troeger ' s 塩基

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Schiff塩基 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Schiff塩基 名詞 一般 * * * * アゾメチン アゾメチン アゾメチン Thesaurus2015 200906022367859075 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 Schiff 塩基

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 塩基対 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 塩基対 名詞 一般 * * * * 塩基対 エンキツイ エンキツイ Thesaurus2015 200906063142488432 C LS31 MULTI_WORD 塩基 対

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Crassostrea virginica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Crassostrea virginica 名詞 一般 * * *... * アメリカガキ アメリカガキ アメリカガキ Thesaurus2015 200906044164726189 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Crassostrea virginica

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Crassostrea gigas [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Crassostrea gigas 名詞 一般 * * * * マ...ガキ マガキ マガキ Thesaurus2015 200906057106354047 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Crassostrea gigas

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: potato virus Y [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term potato virus Y 名詞 一般 * * * * ポチウイ...ルス ポチウイルス ポチウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906013467309480 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 potato virus Y

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Nepovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Nepovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ネポウイルス ネポウイルス ネポーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906006576794570 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Nepovirus

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Luteovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Luteovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ルテオウイルス ...ルテオウイルス ルテオーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906020714605876 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Luteovirus

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Potyvirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Potyvirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ポチウイルス ポチウイルス ポチウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906013467309480 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Potyvirus

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: rubella virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term rubella virus 名詞 一般 * * * * 風疹ウイル...ス フウシンウイルス フーシンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906068435750800 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 rubella virus

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: simian virus 40 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term simian virus 40 名詞 一般 * * * * SV4...0ウイルス SV40ウイルス エスブイヨンゼロウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906022865540531 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 simian virus 4 0

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tospovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tospovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * トスポウイルス ...トスポウイルス トスポーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906016489276984 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Tospovirus

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: vaccinia virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term vaccinia virus 名詞 一般 * * * * ワクシニ...アウイルス ワクシニアウイルス ワクシニアウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906001583798830 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 vaccinia virus

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Closterovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Closterovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * クロステロ...ウイルス クロステロウイルス クロステローイルス Thesaurus2015 200906029085194784 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Closterovirus

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Alfamovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Alfamovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * アルファモウイ...ルス アルファモウイルス アルファモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906075481134460 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Alfamovirus

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Carmovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Carmovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * カーモウイルス ...カーモウイルス カーモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906036474005080 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Carmovirus

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Potexviruss [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Potexviruss 名詞 一般 * * * * ポテックスウイ...ルス ポテックスウイルス ポテックスーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906089730248870 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Potexviruss

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: human immunodeficiency virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term human immunodeficiency virus 名詞 一...般 * * * * HIV【ウイルス】 HIV エイチアイブイ Thesaurus2015 200906008048023239 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 human immunodeficiency virus

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: rabies virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term rabies virus 名詞 一般 * * * * 狂犬病ウイル...ス キョウケンビョウウイルス キョーケンビョーウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906050189230870 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 rabies virus

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sindbis virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sindbis virus 名詞 一般 * * * * シンドビス...ウイルス シンドビスウイルス シンドビスーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906013653564547 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sindbis virus

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Potexvirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Potexvirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ポテックスウイル...ス ポテックスウイルス ポテックスーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906089730248870 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Potexvirus

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sendai virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sendai virus 名詞 一般 * * * * センダイウイ...ルス センダイウイルス センダイウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906033667666130 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Sendai virus

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: mumps virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term mumps virus 名詞 一般 * * * * ムンプスウイル...ス ムンプスウイルス ムンプスーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906033436284499 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 mumps virus

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Bromovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Bromovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ブロモウイルス ...ブロモウイルス ブロモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906099702977994 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Bromovirus

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tombusvirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tombusvirus 名詞 一般 * * * * トンブスウイル...ス トンブスウイルス トンブスーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906070637893909 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Tombusvirus

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Comovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Comovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * コモウイルス コモウイルス コモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906083294414125 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Comovirus

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Caulimovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Caulimovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * カリモウイル...ス カリモウイルス カリモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906019849883398 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Caulimovirus

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Tobamovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Tobamovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * タバモウイルス... タバモウイルス タバモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906022988447595 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Tobamovirus

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Cucumovirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Cucumovirus 名詞 一般 * * * * ククモウイルス... ククモウイルス ククモーイルス Thesaurus2015 200906087317830275 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Cucumovirus

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: measles virus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term measles virus 名詞 一般 * * * * 麻疹ウイル...ス マシンウイルス マシンウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906067469554060 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 measles virus

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Morbillivirus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Morbillivirus 名詞 一般 * * * * モルビリウ...イルス モルビリウイルス モルビリウイルス Thesaurus2015 200906067225723382 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Morbillivirus

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Hibiscus cannabinus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Hibiscus cannabinus 名詞 一般 * * * *... ケナフ ケナフ ケナフ Thesaurus2015 200906017528823668 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Hibiscus cannabinus

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Hibiscus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Hibiscus 名詞 一般 * * * * フヨウ属 フヨウゾク フヨーゾク Thesaurus2015 200906098519206796 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Hibiscus

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: TOCSY [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term TOCSY 名詞 一般 * * * * TOCSY TOCSY ティーオーシーエスワイ Thesaurus2015 200906069465460250 C PA09 UNKNOWN_1 TOCSY

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: TOC [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term TOC 名詞 一般 * * * * TOC【炭素】 TOC ティーオーシー Thesaurus2015 200906028998811684 C AC29 UNKNOWN_1 TOC

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 脳浮腫 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 脳浮腫 名詞 一般 * * * * 脳浮腫 ノウフシュ ノーフシュ Thesaurus2015 200906005196410234 C LS51 MULTI_WORD 脳 浮腫

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 肺浮腫 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 肺浮腫 名詞 一般 * * * * 肺水腫 ハイスイシュ ハイスイシュ Thesaurus2015 200906058052684360 V LS51 MULTI_WORD 肺 浮腫

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調査票 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調査票 名詞 一般 * * * * アンケート アンケート アンケート Thesaurus2015 200906039727808671 V IA06 MULTI_WORD 調査 票

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調査船 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調査船 名詞 一般 * * * * 調査船 チョウサセン チョーサセン Thesaurus2015 200906018769073399 C MR01 MULTI_WORD 調査 船

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Delphi調査 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Delphi調査 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * デルファイ法 デルファイホウ デルファイホー Thesaurus2015 200906092559181801 C BC01 UNKNOWN_2 Delphi 調査

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: T1DM [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term T1DM 名詞 一般 * * * * 1型糖尿病 1ガタトウニョウビョウ イチガタトーニョービョー Thesaurus2015 200906052809193540 C LS51 UNKNOWN_2 T 1 DM

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 糖尿病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 糖尿病 名詞 一般 * * * * 糖尿病 トウニョウビョウ トーニョービョー Thesaurus2015 200906011121161182 C LS51 MULTI_WORD 糖尿 病

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 家禽肉 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 家禽肉 名詞 一般 * * * * 家禽肉 カキンニク カキンニク Thesaurus2015 200906093176555216 C LS72 MULTI_WORD 家禽 肉

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 家禽舎 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 家禽舎 名詞 一般 * * * * 家禽舎 カキンシャ カキンシャ Thesaurus2015 200906095124720599 C LS66 MULTI_WORD 家禽 舎

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 撫子科 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 撫子科 名詞 一般 * * * * ナデシコ科 ナデシコカ ナデシコカ Thesaurus2015 200906023282500031 V LS06 MULTI_WORD 撫子 科

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 石竹科 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 石竹科 名詞 一般 * * * * ナデシコ科 ナデシコカ ナデシコカ Thesaurus2015 200906023282500031 V LS06 MULTI_WORD 石竹 科

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Glossina [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Glossina 名詞 一般 * * * * ツェツェバエ ツェツェバエ ツェツェバエ Thesaurus2015 200906046393952985 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Glossina

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sinapis alba [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sinapis alba 名詞 一般 * * * * シロガラシ シロガラシ シロガラシ Thesaurus2015 200906047820832585 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Sinapis alba

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Enterobacteriaceae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Enterobacteriaceae 名詞 一般 * * * * 腸内細菌...科 チョウナイサイキンカ チョーナイサイキンカ Thesaurus2015 200906069155759786 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Enterobacteriaceae

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Thiobacteriaceae [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Thiobacteriaceae 名詞 一般 * * * * 硫黄代謝細菌...科 イオウタイシャサイキンカ イオータイシャサイキンカ Thesaurus2015 200906069278884127 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Thiobacteriaceae

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 日本猿 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 日本猿 名詞 一般 * * * * ニホンザル ニホンザル ニホンザル Thesaurus2015 200906080195796211 V LS05 名詞 日本猿

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 西日本 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 西日本 名詞 一般 * * * * 西日本 ニシニホン ニシニホン Thesaurus2015 200906035320560580 C IA01 名詞 西日本

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 日本海 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 日本海 名詞 一般 * * * * 日本海 ニホンカイ ニホンカイ Thesaurus2015 200906067241353862 C IA13 名詞 日本海

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 東日本 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 東日本 名詞 一般 * * * * 東日本 ヒガシニホン ヒガシニホン Thesaurus2015 200906050811345400 C IA01 名詞 東日本

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 色知覚 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 色知覚 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 色彩知覚 シキサイチカク シキサイチカク Thesaurus2015 200906036008805823 V IC01 MULTI_WORD 色 知覚

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 知覚路 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 知覚路 名詞 一般 * * * * 感覚器 カンカクキ カンカクキ Thesaurus2015 200906030002343048 V LS16 MULTI_WORD 知覚 路

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 知覚器 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 知覚器 名詞 一般 * * * * 感覚器 カンカクキ カンカクキ Thesaurus2015 200906030002343048 V LS16 MULTI_WORD 知覚 器

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 聴知覚 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 聴知覚 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 聴知覚 チョウチカク チョーチカク Thesaurus2015 200906078009041910 C IC01 UNKNOWN_2 聴 知覚

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 視知覚 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 視知覚 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 視知覚 シチカク シチカク Thesaurus2015 200906017550520040 C IC01 MULTI_WORD 視 知覚

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: PT [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term PT 名詞 一般 * * * * 理学療法士 リガクリョウホウシ リガクリョーホウシ Thesaurus2015 200906076711637381 C LS52 UNKNOWN_1 PT

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: PT [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term PT 名詞 一般 * * * * 理学療法士 リガクリョウホウシ リガクリョーホウシ Thesaurus2015 200906076711637381 V LS52 UNKNOWN_1 PT

  13. Nikkaji Dictionary: バルサルタン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term バルサルタン 名詞 一般 * * * * バルサルタン ... Nikkaji J550.722G 200906040213256090 C CA06/LS44 MULTI_WORD バル サルタン

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 経済性 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 経済性 名詞 一般 * * * * 経済性 ケイザイセイ ケイザイセイ Thesaurus2015 200906034560116797 C BH01 MULTI_WORD 経済 性

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 経済圏 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 経済圏 名詞 一般 * * * * 経済圏 ケイザイケン ケイザイケン Thesaurus2015 200906081551884445 C AA40 MULTI_WORD 経済 圏

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 熱経済 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 熱経済 名詞 一般 * * * * 熱効率 ネツコウリツ ネツコーリツ Thesaurus2015 200906046275738766 V MF05 MULTI_WORD 熱 経済

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 経済学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 経済学 名詞 一般 * * * * 経済学 ケイザイガク ケイザイガク Thesaurus2015 200906030606309832 C IB01 MULTI_WORD 経済 学

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 商業圏 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 商業圏 名詞 一般 * * * * 経済圏 ケイザイケン ケイザイケン Thesaurus2015 200906081551884445 V AA40 MULTI_WORD 商業 圏

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 湖水 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 湖水 名詞 一般 * * * * 湖沼水 コショウスイ コショースイ Thesaurus2015 200906044508138486 V IA09 名詞 湖水

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 湖成層 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 湖成層 名詞 一般 * * * * 湖沼堆積物 コショウタイセキブツ コショータイセキブツ Thesaurus2015 200906060867962009 V GC04 MULTI_WORD 湖 成層

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 故障率 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 故障率 名詞 一般 * * * * 故障率 コショウリツ コショーリツ Thesaurus2015 200906060633893860 C BI01 MULTI_WORD 故障 率

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Piper [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Piper 名詞 一般 * * * * コショウ属 コショウゾク コショーゾク Thesaurus2015 200906052994671517 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Piper

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 胡椒科 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 胡椒科 名詞 一般 * * * * コショウ科 コショウカ コショーカ Thesaurus2015 200906093175990369 V LS06 MULTI_WORD 胡椒 科

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 湖沼水 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 湖沼水 名詞 一般 * * * * 湖沼水 コショウスイ コショースイ Thesaurus2015 200906044508138486 C IA09 MULTI_WORD 湖沼 水

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 冬小麦 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 冬小麦 名詞 一般 * * * * 秋播コムギ アキマキコムギ アキマキコムギ Thesaurus2015 200906000886494102 V LS06 MULTI_WORD 冬 小麦

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 春小麦 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 春小麦 名詞 一般 * * * * 春播コムギ ハルマキコムギ ハルマキコムギ Thesaurus2015 200906048906124156 V LS06 MULTI_WORD 春 小麦

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Triticum [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Triticum 名詞 一般 * * * * コムギ属 コムギゾク コムギゾク Thesaurus2015 200906055861156856 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Triticum

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: XRD分析 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term XRD分析 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * X線回折 Xセンカイセツ エックスセンカイセツ Thesaurus2015 200906089250080619 C PA11/PA08 UNKNOWN_2 XRD 分析

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: XRD [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term XRD 名詞 一般 * * * * X線回折 Xセンカイセツ エックスセンカイセツ Thesaurus2015 200906089250080619 C PA11/PA08 UNKNOWN_1 XRD

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 内閉症 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 内閉症 名詞 一般 * * * * 自閉症 ジヘイショウ ジヘイショー Thesaurus2015 200906044868102156 V LS51 UNKNOWN_2 内 閉症

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 自閉 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 自閉 名詞 一般 * * * * 自閉症 ジヘイショウ ジヘイショー Thesaurus2015 200906044868102156 V LS51 UNKNOWN_2 自 閉

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 自閉症 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 自閉症 名詞 一般 * * * * 自閉症 ジヘイショウ ジヘイショー Thesaurus2015 200906044868102156 C LS51 名詞 自閉症

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GA [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GA 名詞 一般 * * * * 遺伝的アルゴリズム イデンテキアルゴリズム イデンテキアルゴリズム Thesaurus2015 200906071793204400 C BE01 MULTI_WORD G A

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 算法 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 算法 名詞 一般 * * * * アルゴリズム アルゴリズム アルゴリズム Thesaurus2015 200906048949676101 V BE01 名詞 算法

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 演算法 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 演算法 名詞 一般 * * * * アルゴリズム アルゴリズム アルゴリズム Thesaurus2015 200906048949676101 V BE01 MULTI_WORD 演算 法

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Carica papaya [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Carica papaya 名詞 一般 * * * * パパイヤ ...パパイヤ パパイヤ Thesaurus2015 200906054153056489 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Carica papaya

  17. Nikkaji Dictionary: イミペネム [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term イミペネム 名詞 一般 * * * * イミペネム ... Nikkaji J32.525B 200906055426857435 C CA06/LS44 UNKNOWN_1 イミペネム

  18. Nikkaji Dictionary: (E)-アゾメタン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term (E)-アゾメタン 名詞 一般 * * * * (E)-アゾメタン ... Nikkaji J655.932H 200906009905695308 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 ( E ) - アゾメタン

  19. Nikkaji Dictionary: キノジメタン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term キノジメタン 名詞 一般 * * * * キノジメタン ... Nikkaji J247.762I 200906009839104069 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 キノジメタン

  20. Nikkaji Dictionary: ジアゾメタン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ジアゾメタン 名詞 一般 * * * * ジアゾメタン ... Nikkaji J2.576C 200906027134304776 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 ジアゾメタン

  1. Nikkaji Dictionary: メタンイミン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term メタンイミン 名詞 一般 * * * * メタンイミン ... Nikkaji J260.357H 200906004407959940 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 メタンイミン

  2. Nikkaji Dictionary: ニトロメタン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ニトロメタン 名詞 一般 * * * * ニトロメタン ... Nikkaji J2.393K 200906055908504262 C CA06 MULTI_WORD ニトロ メタン

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 地質学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 地質学 名詞 一般 * * * * 地質学 チシツガク チシツガク Thesaurus2015 200906053612759521 C GC02 MULTI_WORD 地質 学

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 歯要素 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 歯要素 名詞 一般 * * * * 歯の要素 ハノヨウソ ハノヨーソ Thesaurus2015 200906008273684180 V MF07 MULTI_WORD 歯 要素

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 歯移動 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 歯移動 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 歯の小移動 ハノショウイドウ ハノショーイドー Thesaurus2015 200906094609311313 V LS52 MULTI_WORD 歯 移動

  6. Nikkaji Dictionary: 硫酸エチレン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 硫酸エチレン 名詞 一般 * * * * 硫酸エチレン ... Nikkaji J1.190.180H 200906045481045681 C CA06 MULTI_WORD 硫酸 エチレン

  7. Nikkaji Dictionary: コカエチレン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term コカエチレン 名詞 一般 * * * * コカエチレン ... Nikkaji J21.586D 200906045461391427 C CA06 UNKNOWN_1 コカエチレン

  8. Nikkaji Dictionary: 炭酸エチレン [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 炭酸エチレン 名詞 一般 * * * * 炭酸エチレン ... Nikkaji J360C 200906043632968938 C CA06 MULTI_WORD 炭酸 エチレン

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽光 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽光 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽光 タイヨウコウ タイヨーコー Thesaurus2015 200906030941904702 C PA14 名詞 太陽光

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽炉 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽炉 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽炉 タイヨウロ タイヨーロ Thesaurus2015 200906005472145744 C GA14/MF05 MULTI_WORD 太陽 炉

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽圏 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽圏 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽圏 タイヨウケン タイヨーケン Thesaurus2015 200906032269222803 C PA14 MULTI_WORD 太陽 圏

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽風 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽風 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽風 タイヨウフウ タイヨーフー Thesaurus2015 200906010065504725 C PA14 MULTI_WORD 太陽 風

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽X線 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽X線 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽X線 タイヨウXセン タイヨーエックスセン Thesaurus2015 200906043053396132 C PA14 MULTI_WORD 太陽 X線

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 太陽系 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 太陽系 名詞 一般 * * * * 太陽系 タイヨウケイ タイヨーケイ Thesaurus2015 200906047268842856 C PA14 名詞 太陽系

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 宇宙論 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 宇宙論 名詞 一般 * * * * 宇宙論 ウチュウロン ウチューロン Thesaurus2015 200906027342811738 C PA14 MULTI_WORD 宇宙 論

  16. Nikkaji Dictionary: スガマデクス [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term スガマデクス 名詞 一般 * * * * スガマデクス ... Nikkaji J1.679.530E 200906076903021759 C CA06/LS44 UNKNOWN_1 スガマデクス

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 心筋炎 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 心筋炎 名詞 一般 * * * * 心筋炎 シンキンエン シンキンエン Thesaurus2015 200906097623366308 C LS51 MULTI_WORD 心筋 炎

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: ASTM標準 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ASTM標準 名詞 一般 * * * * ASTM規格 ASTMキカク エイエスティーエムキカク Thesaurus2015 200906032985838459 C BC01 UNKNOWN_2 ASTM 標準

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: ASTM規格 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term ASTM規格 名詞 一般 * * * * ASTM規格 ASTMキカク エイエスティーエムキカク Thesaurus2015 200906032985838459 C BC01 UNKNOWN_2 ASTM 規格

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 外骨格 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 外骨格 名詞 一般 * * * * 外骨格 ガイコッカク ガイコッカク Thesaurus2015 200906019471846987 C LS16 MULTI_WORD 外 骨格

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 相成分 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 相成分 名詞 一般 * * * * 相組成 ソウソセイ ソーソセイ Thesaurus2015 200906000647588588 V GA15/PA02 MULTI_WORD 相 成分

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 糖組成 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 糖組成 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 糖組成 トウソセイ トーソセイ Thesaurus2015 200906025190090859 C CA01/LS31 MULTI_WORD 糖 組成

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 相組成 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 相組成 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 相組成 ソウソセイ ソーソセイ Thesaurus2015 200906000647588588 C GA15/PA02 MULTI_WORD 相 組成

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Clavisipitales [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Clavisipitales 名詞 一般 * * * * バッカク...キン目 バッカクキンモク バッカクキンモク Thesaurus2015 200906076428519933 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Clavisipitales

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Endomycetales [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Endomycetales 名詞 一般 * * * * エンドミケ...ス目 エンドミケスモク エンドミケスモク Thesaurus2015 200906069133337497 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Endomycetales

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Actinomycetales [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Actinomycetales 名詞 一般 * * * * 放線菌...目 ホウセンキンモク ホーセンキンモク Thesaurus2015 200906062452009368 C LS07 UNKNOWN_1 Actinomycetales

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Wasabia japonica [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Wasabia japonica 名詞 一般 * * * * ワサ...ビ ワサビ ワサビ Thesaurus2015 200906097830728309 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Wasabia japonica

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 心理学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 心理学 名詞 一般 * * * * 心理学 シンリガク シンリガク Thesaurus2015 200906023574332148 C IC01/ID01 MULTI_WORD 心理 学

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 投影法 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 投影法 名詞 一般 * * * * 投影法【心理学】 トウエイホウ トーエイホー Thesaurus2015 200906086756992994 C LS52/IC01 MULTI_WORD 投影 法

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 薬味 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 薬味 名詞 一般 * * * * 香辛料 コウシンリョウ コーシンリョー Thesaurus2015 200906038818853584 V LS72 名詞 薬味

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: SPICE [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term SPICE 名詞 一般 * * * * 香辛料 コウシンリョウ コーシンリョー Thesaurus2015 200906038818853584 C LS72 UNKNOWN_1 SPICE

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 香辛料 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 香辛料 名詞 一般 * * * * 香辛料 コウシンリョウ コーシンリョー Thesaurus2015 200906038818853584 C LS72 名詞 香辛料

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 香味料 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 香味料 名詞 一般 * * * * 香辛料 コウシンリョウ コーシンリョー Thesaurus2015 200906038818853584 V LS72 名詞 香味料

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: NDVI [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term NDVI 名詞 一般 * * * * 正規化植生指数 セイキカショクセイシスウ セイキカショクセイシスー Thesaurus2015 200906004799738475 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 NDVI

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 膜冷却 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 膜冷却 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * フィルム冷却 フィルムレイキャク フィルムレイキャク Thesaurus2015 200906032201429922 V MF05 MULTI_WORD 膜 冷却

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 恐水症 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 恐水症 名詞 一般 * * * * 狂犬病 キョウケンビョウ キョーケンビョー Thesaurus2015 200906024212679634 V LS51 MULTI_WORD 恐 水 症

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 恐水病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 恐水病 名詞 一般 * * * * 狂犬病 キョウケンビョウ キョーケンビョー Thesaurus2015 200906024212679634 V LS51 名詞 恐水病

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 狂犬病 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 狂犬病 名詞 一般 * * * * 狂犬病 キョウケンビョウ キョーケンビョー Thesaurus2015 200906024212679634 C LS51 名詞 狂犬病

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: World‐Wide‐Web [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term World‐Wide‐Web 名詞 一般 * * * * Web【...情報システム】 Web ダブリューイービー Thesaurus2015 200906048320188600 C EG01 UNKNOWN_2 World ‐ Wide ‐ Web

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 世界線 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 世界線 名詞 一般 * * * * 世界線 セカイセン セカイセン Thesaurus2015 200906079674058316 C PA15 MULTI_WORD 世界 線

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 柱状図 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 柱状図 名詞 一般 * * * * ヒストグラム ヒストグラム ヒストグラム Thesaurus2015 200906011662644330 V IA11 MULTI_WORD 柱状 図

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sorghum vulgare [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sorghum vulgare 名詞 一般 * * * * モロコ...シ モロコシ モロコシ Thesaurus2015 200906063836088318 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Sorghum vulgare

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sorghum halepense [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sorghum halepense 名詞 一般 * * * * ジ...ョンソングラス ジョンソングラス ジョンソングラス Thesaurus2015 200906009777167255 C LS06/LS66 UNKNOWN_2 Sorghum halepense

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sorghum bicolor [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sorghum bicolor 名詞 一般 * * * * モロコ...シ モロコシ モロコシ Thesaurus2015 200906063836088318 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Sorghum bicolor

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Sorghum [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Sorghum 名詞 一般 * * * * モロコシ属 モロコシゾク モロコシゾク Thesaurus2015 200906021863132103 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Sorghum

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 人間工学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 人間工学 名詞 一般 * * * * 人間工学 ニンゲンコウガク ニンゲンコーガク Thesaurus2015 200906037422999830 C BK01 MULTI_WORD 人間 工学

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 医工学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 医工学 名詞 一般 * * * * 医用工学 イヨウコウガク イヨーコウガク Thesaurus2015 200906026585377142 V MB02 MULTI_WORD 医 工学

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 核工学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 核工学 名詞 一般 * * * * 原子力工学 ゲンシリョクコウガク ゲンシリョクコーガク Thesaurus2015 200906059503228352 V NA07 MULTI_WORD 核 工学

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 天文学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 天文学 名詞 一般 * * * * 天文学 テンモンガク テンモンガク Thesaurus2015 200906027270127462 C PA14 名詞 天文学

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 準粒子 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 準粒子 名詞 一般 * * * * 準粒子 ジュンリュウシ ジュンリューシ Thesaurus2015 200906057616221114 C PA02 MULTI_WORD 準 粒子

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 聴診法 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 聴診法 名詞 一般 * * * * 聴診 チョウシン チョーシン Thesaurus2015 200906058699600215 V LS52 MULTI_WORD 聴診 法

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Mycobacterium tuberculosis 名詞 一般 * * * * 結核...菌 ケッカクキン ケッカクキン Thesaurus2015 200906007893342100 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Yersinia pseudotuberculosis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Yersinia pseudotuberculosis 名詞 一般...シーユーエルオーエスアイエス Thesaurus2015 200906011755952514 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 倫理学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 倫理学 名詞 一般 * * * * 倫理学 リンリガク リンリガク Thesaurus2015 200906017729203129 C ID01 MULTI_WORD 倫理 学

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 教育者 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 教育者 名詞 一般 * * * * 教育者 キョウイクシャ キョーイクシャ Thesaurus2015 200906063606794175 C BJ01 MULTI_WORD 教育 者

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 性教育 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 性教育 名詞 一般 * * * * 性教育 セイキョウイク セイキョーイク Thesaurus2015 200906055734154950 C BJ01 名詞 性教育

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 変異型 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 変異型 名詞 一般 * * * * 突然変異体 トツゼンヘンイタイ トツゼンヘンイタイ Thesaurus2015 200906071654073520 V LS18 MULTI_WORD 変異 型

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 変異体 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 変異体 名詞 一般 * * * * 突然変異体 トツゼンヘンイタイ トツゼンヘンイタイ Thesaurus2015 200906071654073520 V LS18 MULTI_WORD 変異 体

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 点変異 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 点変異 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 点突然変異 テントツゼンヘンイ テントツゼンヘンイ Thesaurus2015 200906046637774723 V LS18 MULTI_WORD 点 変異

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 予算組 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 予算組 名詞 一般 * * * * 予算編成 ヨサンヘンセイ ヨサンヘンセイ Thesaurus2015 200906026455425790 V BH01 MULTI_WORD 予算 組

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 対人関係 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 対人関係 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 人間関係 ニンゲンカンケイ ニンゲンカンケイ Thesaurus2015 200906053305188568 V BJ01/BD01 MULTI_WORD 対人 関係

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 人間関係 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 人間関係 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 人間関係 ニンゲンカンケイ ニンゲンカンケイ Thesaurus2015 200906053305188568 C BJ01/BD01 MULTI_WORD 人間 関係

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: RDB [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term RDB 名詞 一般 * * * * 関係データベース カンケイデータベース カンケイデータベース Thesaurus2015 200906013682150000 C EG01 UNKNOWN_1 RDB

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 反転層 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 反転層 名詞 一般 * * * * 反転層 ハンテンソウ ハンテンソー Thesaurus2015 200906052481731395 C PA10 MULTI_WORD 反転 層

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 利尿剤 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 利尿剤 名詞 一般 * * * * 利尿薬 リニョウヤク リニョーヤク Thesaurus2015 200906044503726819 V LS44 MULTI_WORD 利尿 剤

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 利尿薬 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 利尿薬 名詞 一般 * * * * 利尿薬 リニョウヤク リニョーヤク Thesaurus2015 200906044503726819 C LS44 MULTI_WORD 利尿 薬

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GHG [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GHG 名詞 一般 * * * * 温室効果ガス オンシツコウカガス オンシツコーカガス Thesaurus2015 200906034745287750 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 GHG

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: GHG [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term GHG 名詞 一般 * * * * 温室効果ガス オンシツコウカガス オンシツコーカガス Thesaurus2015 200906034745287750 C KA01 UNKNOWN_1 GHG

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Meloidogyne [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Meloidogyne 名詞 一般 * * * * ネコブセンチュ...ウ ネコブセンチュウ ネコブセンチュー Thesaurus2015 200906002822195970 C LS05 UNKNOWN_1 Meloidogyne

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 獣医学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 獣医学 名詞 一般 * * * * 獣医学 ジュウイガク ジューイガク Thesaurus2015 200906027799655359 C LS56 MULTI_WORD 獣医 学

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 老人医学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 老人医学 名詞 一般 * * * * 老人医学 ロウジンイガク ロージンイガク Thesaurus2015 200906084470033555 C LS52 MULTI_WORD 老人 医学

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 法医学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 法医学 名詞 一般 * * * * 法医学 ホウイガク ホーイガク Thesaurus2015 200906010850338495 C LS52 名詞 法医学

  13. Nikkaji Dictionary: デアミノNADH [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term デアミノNADH 名詞 一般 * * * * デアミノNADH ... Nikkaji J707.348H 200906099845094600 C CA06 UNKNOWN_2 デアミノ N AD H

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 代数学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 代数学 名詞 一般 * * * * 代数学 ダイスウガク ダイスーガク Thesaurus2015 200906069290355962 C PB01 MULTI_WORD 代数 学

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 代数 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 代数 名詞 一般 * * * * 代数学 ダイスウガク ダイスーガク Thesaurus2015 200906069290355962 V PB01 名詞 代数

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 気候学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 気候学 名詞 一般 * * * * 気候学 キコウガク キコーガク Thesaurus2015 200906099471263446 C GC19 MULTI_WORD 気候 学

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 気候帯 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 気候帯 名詞 一般 * * * * 気候帯 キコウタイ キコータイ Thesaurus2015 200906017995978101 C GC19 MULTI_WORD 気候 帯

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 炊事場 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 炊事場 名詞 一般 * * * * 調理場 チョウリバ チョーリバ Thesaurus2015 200906079271446685 V LS71 MULTI_WORD 炊事 場

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調理器 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調理器 名詞 一般 * * * * 調理器具 チョウリキグ チョーリキグ Thesaurus2015 200906049540184718 V LS71 MULTI_WORD 調理 器

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 料理器 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 料理器 名詞 一般 * * * * 調理器具 チョウリキグ チョーリキグ Thesaurus2015 200906049540184718 V LS71 MULTI_WORD 料理 器

  1. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調理室 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調理室 名詞 一般 * * * * 厨房 チュウボウ チューボー Thesaurus2015 200906042389586847 V AB04 MULTI_WORD 調理 室

  2. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調理場 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調理場 名詞 一般 * * * * 調理場 チョウリバ チョーリバ Thesaurus2015 200906079271446685 C LS71 名詞 調理場

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 油調理 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 油調理 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * 油調理 アブラチョウリ アブラチョーリ Thesaurus2015 200906065689014454 C LS71 MULTI_WORD 油 調理

  4. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 調理具 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 調理具 名詞 一般 * * * * 調理器具 チョウリキグ チョーリキグ Thesaurus2015 200906049540184718 V LS71 MULTI_WORD 調理 具

  5. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Lamb波 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Lamb波 名詞 一般 * * * * Lamb波 Lambハ エルエイエムビーハ Thesaurus2015 200906066191602592 C PA04 UNKNOWN_2 Lamb 波

  6. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: PAC学習 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term PAC学習 名詞 サ変接続 * * * * PAC学習 PACガクシュウ ピーエイシーガクシュー Thesaurus2015 200906013587335728 C EG01 MULTI_WORD PAC 学習

  7. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: e‐learning [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term e‐learning 名詞 一般 * * * * eラーニング e...ラーニング イーラーニング Thesaurus2015 200906043727726486 C EG01 UNKNOWN_2 e ‐ learning

  8. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 比重瓶 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 比重瓶 名詞 一般 * * * * 比重計 ヒジュウケイ ヒジューケイ Thesaurus2015 200906048215457981 V PA01 MULTI_WORD 比重 瓶

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 比重計 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 比重計 名詞 一般 * * * * 比重計 ヒジュウケイ ヒジューケイ Thesaurus2015 200906048215457981 C PA01 MULTI_WORD 比重 計

  10. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 浮き秤 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 浮き秤 名詞 一般 * * * * 比重計 ヒジュウケイ ヒジューケイ Thesaurus2015 200906048215457981 V PA01 MULTI_WORD 浮き 秤

  11. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 浮秤 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 浮秤 名詞 一般 * * * * 比重計 ヒジュウケイ ヒジューケイ Thesaurus2015 200906048215457981 V PA01 UNKNOWN_1 浮秤

  12. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 脳科学 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 脳科学 名詞 一般 * * * * 神経科学 シンケイカガク シンケイカガク Thesaurus2015 200906053291351622 V LS52 MULTI_WORD 脳 科学

  13. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 時間順 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 時間順 名詞 一般 * * * * 時系列 ジケイレツ ジケイレツ Thesaurus2015 200906043247466956 V IA10 MULTI_WORD 時間 順

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 死時間 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 死時間 名詞 一般 * * * * 不感時間 フカンジカン フカンジカン Thesaurus2015 200906025877241741 V IA10 MULTI_WORD 死 時間

  15. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: CPU時間 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term CPU時間 名詞 一般 * * * * CPU時間 CPUジカン シーピーユージカン Thesaurus2015 200906036343682884 C EG01 MULTI_WORD CPU 時間

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: 監査廊 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term 監査廊 名詞 一般 * * * * 監査廊 カンサロウ カンサロー Thesaurus2015 200906062523684185 C AC26 MULTI_WORD 監査 廊

  17. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brucella melitensis biovar abortus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brucella melitensis biovar abortu...s 名詞 一般 * * * * ウシ流産菌 ウシリュウザンキン ウシリューザンキン Thesaurus2015 200906011165481664 C LS07 UNKNOWN_2 Brucella melitensis biovar abortus

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Pinctada fucata martensii [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Pinctada fucata martensii 名詞 一般 *... * * * アコヤガイ アコヤガイ アコヤガイ Thesaurus2015 200906090725891437 C LS05 UNKNOWN_2 Pinctada fucata martensii

  19. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Spirulina platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Spirulina platensis 名詞 一般 * * * *... スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Spirulina platensis

  20. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Arthrospira platensis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Arthrospira platensis 名詞 一般 * * *... * スピルリナ スピルリナ スピルリナ Thesaurus2015 200906003891090957 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Arthrospira platensis