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Sample records for barwood cng cab

  1. 26 CFR 48.4041-21 - Compressed natural gas (CNG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Compressed natural gas (CNG). 48.4041-21 Section... natural gas (CNG). (a) Delivery of CNG into the fuel supply tank of a motor vehicle or motorboat—(1) Imposition of tax. Tax is imposed on the delivery of compressed natural gas (CNG) into the fuel supply...

  2. CNG and Fleets: Building Your Business Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    Two online resources help fleets evaluate the economic soundness of a compressed natural gas program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE 2.0) model and the accompanying report, Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications, are uniquely designed for fleet managers considering an investment in CNG and can help ensure wise investment decisions about CNG vehicles and infrastructure.

  3. Conversion of Gasoline Vehicles to CNG Hybrid Vehicles (CNG-Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Halvaei Niasar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigation of the feasibility and advantages of using the natural gas as an alternative to gasoline as a fuel for hybrid electric vehicles. Operating CNG vehicles are really beneficial in the Middle East region considering the fact that gasoline is offered at a heavily subsidized price and therefore, by converting a significant portion of the automobiles to run on CNG, the gasoline internal consumption could be reduced. This in turn will result in more oil being available for export which will be beneficial to the economy of country. Hybrid Vehicles mainly have a CNG engine along with an electric drive. The batteries of Hybrid Vehicles are charged by a CNG engine. The engine size is smaller and emissions may be considerably less in hybrid vehicles relative to typical vehicles since the CNG engine is employed only to recharge the electric batteries. Although CNG-Electric hybrid vehicles are less common than Diesel-Electric hybrids, but they have been tested in several U.S. cities such as Denver and Seattle. CNG-electric hybrids hold huge potential for the future in the fact that they are significantly cleaner sources of energy and are conveniently suited to serve the needs of the current economy and modes of transportation. The use of these alternative sources of fuels requires investment and significant studies need to be made to evaluate their efficiencies and reliability. This study would cover most of these aspects and also explores the use of these technologies with particular reference to Qatar and the Middle East.

  4. COMPARISON OF CLEAN DIESEL BUSES TO CNG BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, D.; Parsley, W.; Bush,C; Zupo, D.

    2003-08-24

    Using previously published data on regulated and unregulated emissions, this paper will compare the environmental performance of current generation transit buses operated on compressed natural gas (CNG) to current generation transit buses operated on ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD) and incorporating diesel particulate filters (DPF). Unregulated emissions evaluated include toxic compounds associated with adverse health effects (carbonyl, PAH, NPAH, benzene) as well as PM particle count and size distribution. For all regulated and unregulated emissions, both technologies are shown to be comparable. DPF equipped diesel buses and CNG buses have virtually identical levels of PM mass emissions and particle number emissions. DPF-equipped diesel buses have lower HC and CO emissions and lower emissions of toxic substances such as benzene, carbonyls and PAHs than CNG buses. CNG buses have lower NOx emissions than DPF-equipped buses, though CNG bus NOx emissions are shown to be much more variable. In addition, this paper will compare the capital and operating costs of CNG and DPF-equipped buses. The cost comparison is primarily based on the experience of MTA New York City Transit in operating CNG buses since 1995 and DPF-equipped buses fueled with ULSD since 2001. Published data on the experience of other large transit agencies in operating CNG buses is used to validate the NYCT experience. The incremental cost (compared to ''baseline'' diesel) of operating a typical 200-bus depot is shown to be six times higher for CNG buses than for ''clean diesel'' buses. The contributors to this increased cost for CNG buses are almost equally split between increased capital costs for purchase of buses and installation of fueling infrastructure, and increased operating costs for purchase of fuel, bus maintenance, and fuel station maintenance.

  5. Situation of compressed natural gas vehicles in Japan; CNG jidosha wo torimaku josei (kanreki wo sugita CNG jidosha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashino, K. [Osaka Gas Co. Ltd. Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The history of the development, the current state and future outlook, and the features of natural gas as automotive fuel are discussed, with reference made to compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles in Japan. A CNG vehicle was tentatively constructed in 1937, and there were 1000-odd CNG vehicles in service two years later. Natural gas was the energy to be substituted for oil those days. The popularization of CNG vehicles is meaningful in that they will decelerate the advancing pollution of the atmosphere due to engine exhaust gas. CNG vehicles have come to enjoy a high appreciation in terms of exhaust gas and noise level as vehicles that will replace diesel vehicles. Before CNG vehicles can replace the conventional stocks, however, they have to solve various problems. Fuel economy has to be improved before they can be substituted for the diesel stock; power performance has to be enhanced and the coverage per refuel has to be extended if to take the place of the gasoline-powered stock. CNG vehicles are capable of meeting the future demands of society through encouraging the adoption of substitute energies for oil, generating less carbon dioxide gas which is thanks to the peculiarities of the CNG fuel, elevating engine efficiency making use of the high octane value, and through producing less black smoke or particulate matters. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. CNG 加气站初步设计及安全风险评价%Preliminary Design and Safety Risk Assessment of a CNG Filling Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐倩

    2015-01-01

    CNG(压缩天然气)作为当今汽车能源的重要组成部分,凭借其污染小、经济性好、成本低等优势得到迅速推广,CNG 汽车市场占有率越来越大,CNG 加气站的需求量也日益增加。根据《汽车加油加气站设计与施工规范》,对某 CNG 加气站进行初步设计,并结合国内外 CNG 加气站安全风险评价技术,采取科学、系统、完善的方针,对该 CNG 加气站进行安全风险评价。%CNG (compressed natural gas) as an important part of today's automotive energy, has many advantages, such as low pollution, good economy, low cost and so on, so it has gained rapid promotion, and CNG vehicle market share is growing, the demand of CNG filling station is increasing. In this paper, based on the " Specification for design and construction of automobile gasoline and gas filling station" ,preliminary design of a CNG filling station was carried out, the CNG gas station security risk was assessed by safety risk assessment techniques.

  7. CNG and HCN channels: two peas, one pod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Kimberley B; Zagotta, William N

    2006-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-activated ion channels play a fundamental role in a variety of physiological processes. By opening in response to intracellular cyclic nucleotides, they translate changes in concentrations of signaling molecules to changes in membrane potential. These channels belong to two families: the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-modulated (HCN) channels. The two families exhibit high sequence similarity and belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels. Whereas HCN channels are activated by voltage and CNG channels are virtually voltage independent, both channels are activated by cyclic nucleotide binding. Furthermore, the channels are thought to have similar channel structures, leading to similar mechanisms of activation by cyclic nucleotides. However, although these channels are structurally and behaviorally similar, they have evolved to perform distinct physiological functions. This review describes the physiological roles and biophysical behavior of CNG and HCN channels. We focus on how similarities in structure and activation mechanisms result in common biophysical models, allowing CNG and HCN channels to be viewed as a single genre.

  8. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallquist, Å. M.; Jerksjö, M.; Fallgren, H.; Westerlund, J.; Sjödin, Å.

    2013-05-01

    In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz) and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz). The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO) were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.). Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III-V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs) with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR), exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF). The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN) were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel-1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs) showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70-90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel)-1 and for the CNG buses 41 ± 26 g (kg

  9. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with a non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro III–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmentally Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average a higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 4.4 ± 3.5 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF = 2.1 ± 1.0 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 ×1015 kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode, size-resolved emission factors (EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode, bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm. Emission factors for NOx expressed as NO2 equivalents for the diesel buses were on average 27 ± 7 g (kg fuel−1 and for the CNG buses 41

  10. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  11. CNG buses fire safety : learnings from recent accidents in France and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Perrette, Lionel; Wiedemann, Helmut K.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The use of CNG in bus and private vehicles is growing steadily. Recent fire accidents involving CNG buses have shown that tanks may explode though compliant with current ECE UN R110 regulation. Such a repeated scenario is certainly not acceptable having in mind the tremendous amount of energy released when a compressed tank bursts. Investigation of German and French recent cases detailed in this article highlights potential improvements in current CNG buses fire safety...

  12. Particle and gaseous emissions from individual diesel and CNG buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Å. M. Hallquist

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study size-resolved particle and gaseous emissions from 28 individual diesel-fuelled and 7 compressed natural gas (CNG-fuelled buses, selected from an in-use bus fleet, were characterised for real-world dilution scenarios. The method used was based on using CO2 as a tracer of exhaust gas dilution. The particles were sampled by using an extractive sampling method and analysed with high time resolution instrumentation EEPS (10 Hz and CO2 with non-dispersive infrared gas analyser (LI-840, LI-COR Inc. 1 Hz. The gaseous constituents (CO, HC and NO were measured by using a remote sensing device (AccuScan RSD 3000, Environmental System Products Inc.. Nitrogen oxides, NOx, were estimated from NO by using default NO2/NOx ratios from the road vehicle emission model HBEFA 3.1. The buses studied were diesel-fuelled Euro II–V and CNG-fuelled Enhanced Environmental Friendly Vehicles (EEVs with different after-treatment, including selective catalytic reduction (SCR, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR and with and without diesel particulate filter (DPF. The primary driving mode applied in this study was accelerating mode. However, regarding the particle emissions also a constant speed mode was analysed. The investigated CNG buses emitted on average higher number of particles but less mass compared to the diesel-fuelled buses. Emission factors for number of particles (EFPN were EFPN, DPF = 8.0 ± 3.1 × 1014, EFPN, no DPF =2.8 ± 1.6 × 1015 and EFPN, CNG = 7.8 ± 5.7 × 1015 (kg fuel−1. In the accelerating mode size-resolved EFs showed unimodal number size distributions with peak diameters of 70–90 nm and 10 nm for diesel and CNG buses, respectively. For the constant speed mode bimodal average number size distributions were obtained for the diesel buses with peak modes of ~10 nm and ~60 nm.

    Emission

  13. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn, turbocha

  14. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model...

  15. Green Cabs vs. Uber in New York City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm Poulsen, Lasse; Dekkers, Daan; Wagenaar, Nicolaas

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcomes of big data analytics of ride records for Green cabs and Uber in the outer boroughs of New York City (NYC), USA. Uber is a new entrant to the taxi market in NYC and is rapidly eating away market share from the NYC Taxi & Limousine Commission's (NYCTLC......) Yellow and Green cabs. The problem investigated revolves around where exactly Green cabs are losing market share to Uber outside Manhattan and what, if any, measures can be taken to preserve market share? Two datasets were included in the analysis including all rides of Green cabs and Uber respectively...... significantly, and that Uber is growing faster than Green cabs in general and especially in the areas close to Manhattan. We discuss meaningful facts from the analysis, outline actionable insights, list valuable outcomes and mention some of the study limitations....

  16. CFD MODEL OF THE CNG DIRECT INJECTION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents CFD analysis of fuel flow in the CNG injector. The issues such a pressure drop along an injector channel, mass flow through the key sections of the injector geometry, flow rates, the impact of the needle shape on the deflection of the sprayed gas cone and the impact of the wall head are analyzed in the article. The simulation was made in the transient states conditions for full injection process, including the opening and closing of the injector. An injection time of 6 ms, velocity of 0.33 mm/ms and a lift of 0.5 mm were selected for opening and closing of injector based on experimental test. The simulation shows that the volume inside the injector is a kind of fuel accumulator, and the opening process of the needle influence the flow parameters in an inlet cross-section after a certain time, depending on a channel cross section. The calculations allowed to select the ratio of an injector duct cross sectional area to the aperture area of the injection capable of the reducing pressure loss. The unusual location of the injector in the socket of a glow plug in the Andoria ADCR engine makes a stream be impaired by a part of the head. This research result would be useful in developing an injector construction which will be used for an investigation of CNG addition into diesel engine.

  17. CNG (compressed natural gas) as fuel for the transport sector in Trinidad and Tobago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So`Brien, G.C.; Persad, P.; Satcunanathan, S. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad)

    1996-08-01

    Several studies have established that Trinidad and Tobago is well positioned to consider the substitution of compressed natural gas (CNG) for gasoline or diesel in the transport sector. Consequently a programme of conversion of private motors was initiated. Despite considerable advertisement programs projecting CNG as an environmentally friendly and cheap fuel, there is not yet widespread acceptance of the technology. The reasons for this are analysed. It is recommended that the policy of CNG usage be reviewed and the emphasis be shifted to transport fleets. It is also recommended that tax credits be considered as an incentive to users. (author)

  18. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop... shall be plainly visible to member or members of the locomotive crew from their stations in the cab....

  19. CNG and Diesel Transit Bus Emissions in Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala, A. (a); Kado, N. (a,b); Okamoto, R. (a); Gebel, M. (a) Rieger, P. (a); Kobayashi, R. (b); Kuzmicky, P. (b)

    2003-08-24

    Over the past three years, the California Air Resources Board (CARB), in collaboration with the University of California and other entities, has investigated the tailpipe emissions from three different latemodel, in-use heavy-duty transit buses in five different configurations. The study has focused on the measurement of regulated emissions (NOX, HC, CO, total PM), other gaseous emissions (CO2, NO2, CH4, NMHC), a number of pollutants of toxic risk significance (aromatics, carbonyls, PAHs, elements), composition (elemental and organic carbon), and the physical characterization (size-segregated number count and mass) of the particles in the exhaust aerosol. Emission samples are also tested in a modified Ames assay. The impact of oxidation catalyst control for both diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) buses and a passive diesel particulate filter (DPF) were evaluated over multiple driving cycles (idle, 55 mph cruise, CBD, UDDS, NYBC) using a chassis dynamometer. For brevity, only CBD results are discussed in this paper and particle sizing results are omitted. The database of results is large and some findings have been reported already at various forums including last year's DEER conference. The goal of this paper is to offer an overview of the lessons learned and attempt to draw overall conclusions and interpretations based on key findings to date.

  20. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Hwan Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3',5'-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose.

  1. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis

    OpenAIRE

    Shawki, Hossam H.; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M.; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; KAWASHIMA Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS...

  2. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayfield, Stephen P. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  3. Active Noise Control of the Heavy Truck Interior Cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to control the noise of the heavy truck interior cab effectively, the active noise control methods are employed. First, an interior noise field test for the heavy truck is performed, and frequencies of interior noise of this vehicle are analyzed. According to the spectrum analysis of acquired noise signal, it is found out that the main frequencies of interior noise are less than 800Hz. Then the least squares lattice (LSL) algorithm is used as signal processing algorithm of the controller and a closed-loop control DSP system, based on TMS 320VC5416, is developed. The residual signal at driver's ear is used as feedback signal. Lastly, the developed ANC system is loaded into the heavy truck cab, and controlling the noise at driver's ear for that truck at different driving speeds is attempted. The noise control test results indicate that the cab interior noise is reduced averagely by 0.9 dBA at different driving speeds.

  4. A comparative study of emission motorcycle with gasoline and CNG fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasongko, M. N.; Wijayanti, W.; Rahardja, R. A.

    2016-03-01

    A comparison of the exhaust emissions of the engine running gasoline and Compressed Natural Gas have been performed in this study. A gasoline engine 4 stroke single-cylinder with volume of 124.8 cc and compression ratio of 9.3:1 was converted to a CNG gaseous engine. The fuel injector was replaced with a solenoid valve system for injecting CNG gas to engine. The concentrations of CO, CO2, O2 and HC in the exhaust gas of engine were measured over the range of fuel flow rate from 25.32 mg/s to 70.22 mg/s and wide range of Air Fuel Ratio. The comparative analysis of this study showed that CNG engine has a lower HC, CO2 and CO emission at the stoichiometry mixture of fuel and air combustion. The emissions increased when the Air-Fuel ratio was switched from the stoichiometry condition. Moreover, CNG engine produced a lower HC and CO emission compared to the gasoline for difference air flow rate. The average of HC and CO emissions of the CNG was 92 % and 78 % lower than that of the gasoline

  5. Modeling of diesel/CNG mixing in a pre-injection chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahhab, H. A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Al-Kayiem, H. H.; Nasif, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines performance can be improved by adding combustible gases to the liquid diesel. In this paper, the propagation of a two phase flow liquid-gas fuel mixture into a pre-mixer is investigated numerically by computational fluid dynamics simulation. CNG was injected into the diesel within a cylindrical conduit operates as pre-mixer. Four injection models of Diesel-CNG were simulated using ANSYS-FLUENT commercial software. Two CNG jet diameters were used of 1 and 2 mm and the diesel pipe diameter was 9 mm. Two configurations were considered for the gas injection. In the first the gas was injected from one side while for the second two side entries were used. The CNG to Diesel pressure ratio was varied between 1.5 and 3. The CNG to Diesel mass flow ratios were varied between 0.7 and 0.9. The results demonstrate that using double-sided injection increased the homogeneity of the mixture due to the swirl and acceleration of the mixture. Mass fraction, in both cases, was found to increase as the mixture flows towards the exit. As a result, this enhanced mixing is likely to lead to improvement in the combustion performance.

  6. Simulation Analysis of Combustion Parameters and Emission Characteristics of CNG Fueled HCCI Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The naturally aspirated compressed natural gas (CNG fueled homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine operation region is narrow between heavy knock at rich air-fuel mixture side and misfire at the lean air-fuel mixture side. However, high activation energy is needed to attain autoignition temperature of CNG fueled HCCI engine. This paper seeks to provide guidance in overcoming challenges of CNG fueled HCCI engine by using CHEMKIN. It is used to investigate the fundamental characteristics of the homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion process for different air-fuel mixture inlet temperature, relative air-fuel ratio of 2.5, and with hemispherical bowl types of combustion chambers. The variation of various properties like the peak cylinder pressure, peak cylinder temperature, CO emission, NO emission, soot emission, and HC emission are studied. It is necessary to develop new combustion models to simulate and predict all parameters with high accuracy.

  7. PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST GAS EMISSIONS ANALYSIS OF DIRECT INJECTION CNG-DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANBIR SINGH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Existing diesel engines are under stringent emission regulation particularly of smoke and particulate matter in their exhaust. Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel dual fuel operation is regarded as one of the best ways to control emissions from diesel engines and simultaneously saving petroleum based diesel fuel. Dual fuel engineis a conventional diesel engine which burn either gaseous fuel or diesel or both at the same time. In the present paper an experimental research was carried out on a laboratory single cylinder, four-stroke variable compression ratio, direct injection diesel engine converted to CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of pure diesel first and then CNG-Diesel dual fuel mode. The measurements were recorded for the compression ratio of 15 and 17.5 at CNG substitution rates of 30% and 60% and varying theload from idle to rated load of 3.5kW in steps of 1 up to 3kW and then to 3.5kW. The results reveal that brake thermal efficiency of dual fuel engine is in the range of 30%-40% at the rated load of 3.5 kW which is 11%-13% higher than pure diesel engine for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates. This trend is observed irrespective of the compression ratio of the engine. Brake specific fuel consumption of dual fuel engine is found better than pure diesel engine at all engine loads and for both CNG substitution rates. It is found that there is drastic reduction in CO, CO2, HC, NOx and smoke emissions in the exhaust of dual fuel engine at all loads and for 30% and 60% CNG substitution rates by employing some optimum operating conditions set forth for experimental investigations in this study.

  8. Transient Air-Fuel Ratio Control in a CNG Engine Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-xiu; ZHANG Xin

    2005-01-01

    The fuzzy neural networks has been used as means of precisely controlling the air-fuel ratio of a lean-burn compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. A control algorithm, without based on engine model, has been utilized to construct a feedforward/feedback control scheme to regulate the air-fuel ratio. Using fuzzy neural networks, a fuzzy neural hybrid controller is obtained based on PI controller. The new controller, which can adjust parameters online, has been tested in transient air-fuel ratio control of a CNG engine.

  9. The new three-cylinder CNG engine from Volkswagen; Der neue Dreizylinder-Erdgasmotor von Volkswagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neusser, Heinz-Jakob; Szengel, Ruediger; Kirsch, Uwe; Worm, Joerg [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Volkswagen is expanding its so-called New Small Family platform with a new model called Eco Up. Its three-cylinder MPI engine with 1.0 l displacement is designed to run on compressed natural gas (CNG). It produces 50 kW and consumes only 2.9 kg of CNG in the NEDC, which is equivalent to CO{sub 2} emissions of 79 g/km. One highlight of the application is the combination of the virtually monovalent drive with the so-called BlueMotion Technology. (orig.)

  10. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Transit Bus Experience Survey: April 2009--April 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, R.; Horne, D. B.

    2010-09-01

    This survey was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to collect and analyze experiential data and information from a cross-section of U.S. transit agencies with varying degrees of compressed natural gas (CNG) bus and station experience. This information will be used to assist DOE and NREL in determining areas of success and areas where further technical or other assistance might be required, and to assist them in focusing on areas judged by the CNG transit community as priority items.

  11. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  12. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  13. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  14. Low-cost, low-weight CNG cylinder development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Mark E.; Melford, K.; Wong, J.; Gambone, L.

    1999-09-01

    This program was established to develop and commercialize new high-strength steel-lined, composite hoop-wrapped compressed natural gas (CNG) cylinders for vehicular applications. As much as 70% of the cost of natural gas vehicles can be related to on-board natural gas storage costs. The cost and weight targets for this program represent significant savings in each characteristic when compared to comparable containers available at the initiation of the program. The program objectives were to optimize specific weight and cost goals, yielding CNG cylinders with dimensions that should, allowing for minor modifications, satisfy several vehicle market segments. The optimization process encompassed material, design, and process improvement. In optimizing the CNG cylinder design, due consideration was given to safety aspects relative to national, international, and vehicle manufacturer cylinder standards and requirements. The report details the design and development effort, encompassing plant modifications, material selection, design issues, tooling development, prototype development, and prototype testing. Extenuating circumstances prevented the immediate commercialization of the cylinder designs, though significant progress was made towards improving the cost and performance of CNG cylinders. A new low-cost fiber was successfully employed while the weight target was met and the cost target was missed by less than seven percent.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental impact of modern passenger cars on petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, P.; Vermeulen, R.J.; Rijkeboer, R.C.; Bremmers, D.A.C.M.; Smokers, R.T.M.; Winkel, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    The project reported here concerns an investigation into the environmental performance of modern passenger cars on four different fuels: petrol, diesel, automotive LPG and CNG. The objectives of the project were twofold: - To make a valid and useful comparison between modern vehicles fuelled by thes

  16. EFFECT OF INJECTION PRESSURE ON PERFORMANCE AND EMISSIONS OF CNG DIESEL DUAL FUEL ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.NAGESWARA RAO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A single-cylinder diesel engine has been converted into a dual-fuel engine to operate with natural gas together with a pilot injection of diesel fuel used to ignite the CNG–air charge. The CNG was inducted into the combustion chamber via intake manifold. The engine, operating in dual-fuel mode, has been tested on a wide range of operating conditions spanning different values of engine load at constant speed at different injector opening pressures for the pilot fuel (diesel. For all the tested operating conditions, the effect of CNG and diesel fuel injection pressure, together with the amount of fuel injected during the pilot injection, were analyzed on the engine performance, in terms of brake thermal efficiency and emission levels. An experimental investigation was carried out to find out the effect of injection pressure on performance and emissions of a diesel engine operated with CNG inducted into the engine. Behavior of the dual fuel engine at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% substitution of CNG with respect to diesel was examined and compared them at different injection pressures

  17. Assessment of air quality after the implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as fuel in public transport in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindra, Khaiwal; Wauters, Eric; Tyagi, Sushil K; Mor, Suman; Van Grieken, René

    2006-04-01

    Public transport in Delhi was amended by the Supreme Court of India to use Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) instead of diesel or petrol. After the implementation of CNG since April 2001, Delhi has the highest fraction of CNG-run public vehicles in the world and most of them were introduced within 20 months. In the present study, the concentrations of various criteria air pollutants (SPM, PM(10), CO, SO(2) and NO(x)) and organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed before and after the implementation of CNG. A decreasing trend was found for PAHs, SO(2) and CO concentrations, while the NO(x) level was increased in comparison to those before the implementation of CNG. Further, SPM, PM(10), and BTX concentrations showed no significant change after the implementation of CNG. However, the BTX concentration demonstrated a clear relation with the benzene content of gasoline. In addition to the impact of the introduction of CNG the daily variation in PAHs levels was also studied and the PAHs concentrations were observed to be relatively high between 10 pm to 6 am, which gives a proof of a relation with the limited day entry and movement of heavy vehicles in Delhi.

  18. CONVERSION OF DIESEL ENGINE INTO SPARK IGNITION ENGINE TO WORK WITH CNG AND LPG FUELS FOR MEETING NEW EMISSION NORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating fuel prices and associated pollution problems of largely exploited petroleum liquid fuel has stimulated the research on abundantly available gaseous fuels to keep the mobility industry intact. In the present work an air cooled diesel engine was modified suitably into a spark ignition engine incorporating electronic ignition and variable speed dependant spark timing to accommodate both LPG and CNG as fuels. Engine was optimized for stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer. Materials of a few intricate engine components were replaced to suit LPG and CNG application. Ignition timing was mapped to work with gaseous fuels for different speeds. Compensation was done for recovering volumetric efficiency when operated with CNG by introducing more volume of air through resonator. Ignition timing was observed to be the pertinent parameter in achieving good performance with gaseous fuels under consideration. Performance and emission tests were carried out on engine dynamometer and chassis dynamometer. Under wide open throttle and at rated speed condition, it was observed that the peak pressure with LPG was lying between diesel fuel and CNG fuel operation due to slow burning nature of gaseous fuels. As compression ratio was maintained same for LPG and CNG fuel operation, low CO emissions were observed with LPG where as HC + NOx emissions were lower with CNG fuel operation. Chassis dynamometer based emission tests yielded lower CO2 levels with CNG operation.

  19. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawki, Hossam H; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Kawashima, Akihiro

    2016-07-29

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS-PAGE gel as two bands at 75 kDa and 70 kDa in adult porcine testis, whereas one band at 70 kDa in epididymal sperm. pCABS1 immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules was detected in the elongated spermatids, and that in the epididymal sperm was found in the acrosome as well as flagellum. The immunoreactivity of pCABS1 in the acrosomai region disappeared during acrosome reaction. We also identified that pCABS1 has a transmembrane domain using computational prediction of the amino acids sequence. The treatment of porcine capacitated sperm with anti-pCABS1 antiserum significantly decreased acrosome reactions. These results suggest that pCABS1 plays an important role in controlling calcium ion signaling during the acrosome reaction.

  20. MODEL RESEARCH OF THE ACIVE VIBROIZOLATION CABS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy MARGIELEWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out computer simulations of mechatronic model bridge crane, which is intended to theoretical evaluation of the possibility of eliminating the mechanical vibrations affecting the operator's cab driven machine. The model studies used fixed value control, the controlled variable is selected as the vertical displacement of the cab. Also included in the research model rheological model of the operator's body. We examined four overhead cranes with lifting capacity of 50T, which are classified in accordance with the directive of the European Union concerning the design of cranes, the four classes of cranes HC stiffness. The use of an active vibration isolation system in which distinguishes two negative feedback loops, very well eliminate mechanical vibration to the operator.

  1. Electrical transport properties of CaB6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Sesé, Javier; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Fisk, Zachary

    2014-10-01

    We report results from a systematic electron-transport study in a broad temperature range on 12 CaB6 single crystals. None of the crystals were intentionally doped. The different carrier densities observed presumably arise from slight variations in the Ca:B stoichiometry. In these crystals, the variation of the electrical resistivity and of the Hall effect with temperature can be consistently accounted for by the model we propose, in which B-antisite defects (B atom replacing Ca atom) are "amphoteric." The magnetotransport measurements reveal that most of the samples we have studied are close to a metal-insulator transition at low temperatures. The magnetoresistance changes smoothly from negative—for weakly metallic samples—to positive values—for samples in a localized regime.

  2. Analysis of CAB/UTIL & IFE/PASS SEAT Switch%浅谈CAB/UTIL和IFE/PASS SEAT电门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭佳

    2015-01-01

    B737NG飞机P5-13电源面板存在两种构型,“CAB/UTIL”和“IFE/PASS SEAT”属于新构型中的两个电门,本文在结合手册与实际现象的基础上,分析了这两个电门的功用,避免在将来的排故过程中走弯路。%There are two configurations of B737NG aircraft P5-13 power supply panel, the"CAB/UTIL" and"IFE/PASS SEAT"belong to the two switches in the new configuration, based on the combination of manual and actual phenomena, this paper analyzes the function of these switches, to avoid detours during troubleshooting in the future.

  3. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation.

  4. Performance and Emissions of Internal Combustion Engine Fuelled With CNG - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Darade

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of alternative fuels such as natural gases has become very essential because of the continuously decrease in the petroleum reserves and also their contribution for pollutants. In this paper, a survey of research papers on the utilization of Compressed Natural Gas in the Internal Combustion engines along with its effects on the performance and emissions is done. It is revealed that the performance characteristics except thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature, various other performance parameters like brake mean effective pressure, power, torque and brake specific fuel consumption are decreased for CNG fuelled engine while the emission characteristics of unburnt hydrocarbon, Carbon monoxide and Carbon-di-oxide except nitrogen oxides are better for CNG compared to petrol and diesel engines. The improvement in performance is observed with the addition of hydrogen.

  5. Hybrid Systems Modeling in Non Standard Queue and Optimization with the Simulation Approach in CNG Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Haddadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling line in non standard way occurs when layout constraints and inappropriate placing customer is limited for taking customer service by the servant. The aim of this study is providing a mixed model for analyzing the system of non-standard line with Considering the limitations of the layout with Using the concepts and principles of queuing theory So that the main parameters of the model for this type of system can be calculated and The basis of queuing systems with non-standard parameters may be considered. In these nonstandard systems, because of special arrangement of servants, there are some delay times for giving services and exit. The use of simulation tools to demonstrate the relatively low efficiency of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas stations in Iran, To provide an optimum combination of servers (Fuel nozzle Also more efficient layout for the CNG stations has Studied. Manufacturing firms and service managers can use this model and evaluate and analysis their own system and get a better recognition of their system. One of the most widely used queuing systems in the country are CNG stations, in consideration high investment cost and land value in large cities, so we decided to studied on this area as one of the servicing activities.

  6. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  7. Assessment of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-16

    To) Jun 2012 – Jun 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In- House 5b...Lite 2: 12CL N/A C 12"x12"x1 1/2" Insulated; 1/2" STARPHIRE; .060 CLEAR PVB; 1/2" STARPHIRE Bubble Pack Sheet Stuck to Surface N/A D 12...determine if this improvement (if any) degrades over time. Participants: In- house Wright-Patterson personnel and/or FAA-provided “guest

  8. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles.

  9. CAB Furnace Atmosphere Visualisation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P F Stratton; A P Richardson

    2004-01-01

    In today's automotive industry almost all car and truck radiators, oil coolers and air conditioning heat exchangers are manufactured using Nocolok Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB). One of the most critical elements of the brazing process is the atmosphere used to protect the flux. Oxygen content is the major variable affecting the performance of the nitrogen atmosphere. Furnace design and flow rate are the major factors affecting oxygen content. Optimisation of these atmosphere parameters has a significant impact on operating cost, and on the quality and consistency of the brazed product.Computational fluid dynamics provides a tool to visualise the atmosphere conditions within the furnace and to explore the effects of changing some of the variables. Modelling the atmosphere in a typical CAB furnace has shown the importance of the integrity of the curtains in maintaining the low oxygen levels required for successful Nocolok brazing. For a given set of curtains it has shown that the only effective way of decreasing oxygen levels is to increase atmosphere gas flow.

  10. CAB Furnace Atmosphere Visualisation Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PFStratton; APRichardson

    2004-01-01

    In today's automotive industry almost all car and truck radiators, oil coolers and air conditioning heat exchangers are manufactured using Nocolok Controlled Atmosphere Brazing (CAB). One of the most critical elements of the brazing process is the atmosphere used to protect the flux. Oxygen content is the major variable affecting the performance of the nitrogen atmosphere. Furnace design and flow rate are the major factors affecting oxygen content. Optimisation of these atmosphere parameters has a significant impact on operating cost, and on the quality and consistency of the brazed product. Computational fluid dynamics provides a tool to visualise the atmosphere conditions within the furnace and to explore the effects of changing some of the variables. Modelling the atmosphere in a typical CAB furnace has shown the importance of the integrity of the curtains in maintaining the low oxygen levels required for successful Nocolok brazing. For a given set of curtains it has shown that the only effective way of decreasing oxygen levels is to increase atmosphere gas flow.

  11. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  12. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency l...

  13. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., train control or cab signal territory; equipped. 236.566 Section 236.566 Transportation Other... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes are controlled, of each train operating in automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal territory shall...

  14. Study of CNG/diesel dual fuel engine's emissions by means of RBF neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震涛; 费少梅

    2004-01-01

    Great efforts have been made to resolve the serious environmental pollution and inevitable declining of energy resources. A review of Chinese fuel reserves and engine technology showed that compressed natural gas (CNG)/diesel dual fuel engine (DFE) was one of the best solutions for the above problems at present. In order to study and improve the emission performance of CNG/diesel DFE, an emission model for DFE based on radial basis function (RBF) neural network was developed which was a black-box input-output training data model not require priori knowledge. The RBF centers and the connected weights could be selected automatically according to the distribution of the training data in input-output space and the given approximating error. Studies showed that the predicted results accorded well with the experimental data over a large range of operating conditions from low load to high load. The developed emissions model based on the RBF neural network could be used to successfully predict and optimize the emissions performance of DFE. And the effect of the DFE main performance parameters, such as rotation speed, load, pilot quantity and injection timing, were also predicted by means of this model. In resume, an emission prediction model for CNG/diesel DFE based on RBF neural network was built for analyzing the effect of the main performance parameters on the CO, NOx emissions of DFE. The predicted results agreed quite well with the traditional emissions model, which indicated that the model had certain application value, although it still has some limitations, because of its high dependence on the quantity of the experimental sample data.

  15. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchan, Toni M. [Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  16. Three-Dimensional Models for Analyzing the Cyclic Variations in a Lean Burn CNG Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-xiu; YU Yu-song; LIU Jian-ying

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional models, consisting of the flame kernel formation model, flame kernel development model and natural gas single step reaction model, are used to analyze the contribution of cyclic equivalence ratio variations to cyclic variations in the compressed natural gas (CNG) lean burn spark ignition engine. Computational results including the contributions of equivalence ratio cyclic variations to each combustion stage and effects of engine speed to the extent of combustion variations are discussed. It is concluded that the equivalence ratio variations affect mostly the main stage of combustion and hardly influence initial kernel development stage.

  17. A comparison of exhaust emissions from vehicles fuelled with petrol, LPG and CNG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielaczyc, P.; Szczotka, A.; Woodburn, J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an analysis of THC, NMHC, CO, NOx and CO2 emissions during testing of two bi-fuel vehicles, fuelled with petrol and gaseous fuels, on a chassis dynamometer in the context of the Euro 6 emissions requirements. The analyses were performed on one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/LPG) and one Euro 5 bi-fuel vehicle (petrol/CNG), both with SI engines equipped with MPI feeding systems operating in closed-loop control, typical three-way-catalysts and heated oxygen sensors. The vehicles had been adapted by their manufacturers for fuelling with LPG or CNG by using additional special equipment mounted onto the existing petrol fuelling system. The vehicles tested featured multipoint gas injection systems. The aim of this paper was an analysis of the impact of the gaseous fuels on the exhaust emission in comparison to the emission of the vehicles fuelled with petrol. The tests subject to the analyses presented here were performed in the Engine Research Department of BOSMAL Automotive Research and Development Institute Ltd in Bielsko-Biala, Poland, within a research programme investigating the influence of alternative fuels on exhaust emissions from light duty vehicle vehicles with spark-ignition and compression-ignition engines.

  18. HAZOP 技术在 CNG 储气井风险评价中的应用%Application of HAZOP technology in risk assessment of CNG wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁光川; 何慧娟; 何莎; 文雯; 左果; 侯晓犇

    2015-01-01

    HAZOP技术是一种用于辨识装置设计缺陷、工艺过程危害及可操作性问题的定性风险评价方法,主要通过偏差查找事故发生的原因、可能造成的后果,并且在已有保护措施的基础上,提出控制或降低风险的建议措施。因其分析的系统性、科学性等优点,目前已广泛应用于石油、化工等行业。针对地下储气井腐蚀、老化等问题的日益凸显,采用 HAZOP技术对CNG 地下储气井展开安全性分析,共提出了建议措施94条,采用率达到90%以上,为生产安全管理工作提供了有力依据。同时,归纳总结了HAZOP技术的优缺点,明确了今后改进的方向。%HAZOP technology is a qualitative risk assessment method used to identify the design defects ,process hazard and operability problems .It mainly finds the consequences and the cause of the accident through deviations ,and on the basis of existing protective measures ,it proposes the sug‐gestions to control or reduce risk measures .Because of its advantages of systematic and scientific , HAZOP has been widely used in petroleum ,chemical industry ,etc .In view of the underground gas storage well growing problems such as corrosion ,aging ,this article used the HAZOP technology to analyze CNG underground gas storage well safety for the first time .The article proposed 94 measures and the adoption rate could reach more than 90% ,w hich provided a strong basis for the production safety management .Meanwhile ,the advantages and disadvantages of HAZOP technology were sum‐marized ,and the direction of future improvement was clear‐cut .

  19. Experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjun Zhu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation and performance analysis of inertia properties measurement for heavy truck cab is presented. This method is specifically intended for measuring the inertia properties of irregular rigid bodies, and it has the potential to be applied to the measurement of the inertia properties of vehicle bodies, such as the cab, engine, and gearbox. This article, based on CATARC moment of inertia measurement system test rig, develops an accurate measuring method to identify inertia parameters of heavy truck cab. First, corresponding tests are carried out, and the lever principle and moments of inertia parallel theorem are employed to calculate and analyse the test results, which leads to the accurate value of inertia parameters. Second, the performance analysis of the proposed method is verified through the measurement error analysis. As a result, the proposed method shows high accuracy, which provides an experimental basis for accurate inertia parameter measurement of heavy truck cab.

  20. 49 CFR Appendix H to Part 229 - Static Noise Test Protocols-In-Cab Static

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for the in-cab static measurements of locomotives. I. Measurement Instrumentation The instrumentation... electronic form. (1) Name(s) of persons conducting the test, and the date of the test. (2) Description...

  1. CNG加气站建设设计方案分析%Feasibility analysis on CNG gas station construction plan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯宇娣; 王书

    2015-01-01

    汽车采用CNG(压缩天然气)作为燃料越来越受到人们的认同,各地纷纷筹建CNG加气站。文中分析了建设CNG加气站时,采用CNG液压撬装子站增压方式和CNG车载瓶组拖车储气手段的加气工艺流程的可行性。结果表明,该方案较传统的压缩机加固定储气瓶组的加气工艺流程,具有安全可靠、投资少、自动化程度高、操作较简单、施工期短等优点。%Using CNG(compressed natural gas)as fuel for motor vehicle is getting attention increasingly. CNG gas station construction is planed from place to place. The feasibilities of adopting hydraulic device prizing CNG station supercharging and CNG vehicle trailer gas bottle group for CNC gas station construction is analyzed. Compared with the traditional compressorplus fixed gas bomb group process,the proposed process has the advantages of safety and reliability,small investment,highly automation;ease of operation,short construction time.

  2. Nonlinear optical properties of polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with La2CaB10019

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegadlo, Krzysztof B.; El Ouazzani, Hasnaa; Cieslik, Iwona; Weglowski, Rafal; Zmija, Jozef; Klosowicz, Stanislaw; Majchrowski, Andrzej; Mysliwiec, Jaroslaw; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Karpierz, Miroslaw A.

    2012-08-01

    Second order nonlinearity in polymer dispersed liquid crystal structures containing La2CaB10O19 nanocrystals were measured with use of the Maker fringes method. The composites with different concentration of La2CaB10O19 crystallites or without them were compared. It was shown that there is a strong influence of the crystals concentration on the second harmonic generation in such structures which can be additionally modified by external electric field.

  3. California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.

  4. Quasi-Dimensional Modeling of a CNG Fueled HCCI Engine Combustion Using Detailed Chemical Kinetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bakhshan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an in-house quasi dimensional code has been developed which simulates the intake, compression, combustion, expansion and exhaust strokes of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI engine. The compressed natural gas (CNG has been used as fuel. A detailed chemical kinetic scheme constituting of 310 and 1701 elementary equations developed by Bakhshan et al. has been applied for combustion modeling and heat release calculations. The zero-dimensional k-ε turbulence model has been used for calculation of heat transfer. The output results are the performance and pollutants emission and combustion characteristics in HCCI engines. Parametric studies have been conducted to discussing the effects of various parameters on performance and pollutants emission of these engines.

  5. City and County of Denver: Technical comparison between hythane, CNG and gasoline fueled vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The City and County of Denver, in cooperation with the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force of Public Technology, Inc. has completed a unique two-year research and development project designed to test and compare the technical merits of three transportation fuels. Comparisons of the tailpipe emissions from Hythane - a new, blended, alternative motor fuel comprised of 85% compressed natural gas (CNG) and 15% hydrogen measured by volume - to the emissions from gasoline and 100% CNG were conducted. This project has been one of the first pioneering studies of a hydrogen blended fuel and, through its success, has prompted eight additional Hythane research projects to date. Phase I of the project provided results from the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) testing of a light duty pick-up truck operating on Hythane. The purpose of this testing was to quantify any decrease in tailpipe emissions and to determine whether Hythane could meet the California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle standard (ULEV) for light duty trucks. During Phase I, FTP analyses were conducted in both Colorado (high altitude testing) and California (sea level testing) on a converted Chevrolet S-10, pick-up truck by Hydrogen Consultants (HCl), the Colorado Department of Health (CDH) and the California Air Resource Board (CARB). Currently, the only other non-electric vehicle which is capable of meeting the ULEV standard is Chrysler`s natural gas vehicle. There was additional interest in the role Hythane could play as a transitional fuel in the introduction of hydrogen. Hydrogen, a renewable energy carrier, may soon be categorized as a ZEV fuel by the South Coast Air Quality Management District. This factor may encourage the use of Hythane as a transportation fuel that not only meets the ULEV standard, but may provide the bridge necessary to the eventual widespread use of hydrogen.

  6. Early flame development image comparison of low calorific value syngas and CNG in DI SI gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    >Ftwi Yohaness Hagos,

    2013-06-01

    The early flame development stage of syngas and CNG are analysed and compared from the flame images taken over 20° CA from the start of ignition. An imitated syngas with a composition of 19.2% H2, 29.6% CO, 5.3% CH4 and balance with nitrogen and carbon dioxide, which resembles the typical product of wood biomass gasification, was used in the study. A CCD camera triggered externally through the signals from the camshaft and crank angle sensors was used in capturing of the images. The engine was accessed through an endoscope access and a self-illumination inside the chamber. The results of the image analysis are further compared with the mass fraction burn curve of both syngas and CNG analysed from the pressure data. The analysis result of the flame image of syngas validates the double rapid burning stage of the mass fraction burn of syngas analysed from in-cylinder pressure data.

  7. Natural gas for ship propulsion in Denmark - Possibilities for using LNG and CNG on ferry and cargo routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuer-Lauridsen, F.; Nielsen, Jesper B. (LITEHAUZ, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Odgaard, T.; Birkeland, M. (IncentivePartners, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Winter Graugaard, C.; Blikom, L.P. (DNV, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Muro-Sun, N.; Andersen, Morten; OEvlisen, F. (Ramboell Oil and Gas, Esbjerg (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    The project's main task was to review logistical, technical and economic feasibility for using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as fuel for ship propulsion and the supply of LNG or CNG to Danish ports from existing natural gas lines, trucks or by ship. The following key findings are related to the use of natural gas as fuel for ships in Denmark: Natural gas as propulsion fuel in ships: 1) Advantages: Provide solution to present air emission challenges 2) Barriers: Capital investments large 3) Synergies: Developments in Norway and Baltic Sea area 4) Economy: Positive case for operation for large consumers 5) Future: Develop bunkering options for short sea shipping LNG: 6) Propulsion technology in ships is mature and proven 7) Distribution network not yet developed for use in ships 8) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 9) Can enter existing bunkering value chain CNG: 10) Well developed for land based transport, not yet for shipping 11) Distribution network for natural gas exists in Denmark 12) Safety concerns are demanding but manageable 13) No seaborne CNG value chains in operation An immediate focus on the ferry sector in Denmark will reap benefits on a relatively short time scale. For the short sea shipping sector away to promote the conversion to natural gas is to support the development of storage and bunkering facilities in main ports. Given the general expectations in the shipping community LNG will presumably be the de facto choice at least for the 5-10 years ahead and the demand for facilities and bunkers will be for LNG. (LN)

  8. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, ...

  9. DNA polymorphism in Cab locus of tomato induced by tissue culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, P; Chopra, V L; Mohapatra, T

    1992-03-01

    Plants were regenerated from callus induced from leaf disc explants of a tomato F1 hybrid heterozygous for three marker loci anthocyaninless (a), without anthocyanin (aw), and hairless (hl). Regenerants were studied for somaclonal variation at the phenotypic level by scoring for variation in the marker loci, and at the DNA level by probing geomic DNA blots with a chlorophyll a/b binding protein (Cab-3C) cDNA sequence. While no variation was observed at the phenotypic level in over 950 somaclones studied, DNA polymorphism for the Cab locus could be detected in two out of 17 somaclones tested. Tissue culture induced variation at the phenotypic level for specific loci is very low (less than 0.001 for a, aw or hl) but DNA sequence changes are induced at much greater frequency (approximately 0.1 for a multicopy gene family such as Cab).

  10. Prissättning av Nordic Cab AB:s multifunktionella barnvagn

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Daniel,; Severin, Erica

    2009-01-01

      Nordic Cab AB är ett företag som säljer multifunktionella barnvagnar. Dessa barnvagnar har utbytbara delar vilket gör att man kan omvandla dem till en jogging-, cykel-, skid-, hund- eller vandringsvagn. Syftet med denna uppsats är att prissätta Nordic Cab AB:s multifunktionella barnvagn. För att uppnå detta beskriver vi först hur olika faktorer påverkar Nordic Cab AB:s prissättning. Dessa faktorer är företagets mål, kostnader, efterfrågan och konkurrenter. Utifrån dessa faktorer och intervj...

  11. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  12. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1710-1 Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered... this section, all self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle...

  13. The ethanol response gene Cab45 can modulate the impairment elicited by ethanol and ultraviolet in PC12 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng Zhu; Quanli Wang; Wangru Xu; Sha Li

    2008-01-01

    High consumption of ethanolic beverages facilitates neurodegeneration,but the mechanism of this process still remained elusive.Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) is a technique for detection of rare transcripts.With SSH approach,we identified one ethanol response gene Cab45,which was down-regulated by ethanol with time-dependent manner in B104 cells.The full-length sequence of Cab45 gene was obtained by 5'-RACE (5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends) for the first time in rat.Based on the sequence of deduced amino acid of rat Cab45,the alignment was conducted with its counterparts in different species and displayed a high conservation.Using different tissues in rat and cell lines,Cab45 was characterized by a ubiquitous expression and differentiation dependent down-regulation.Given that ethanol facilitates some cell differentiation,we hypothesize that Cab45 is involved in ethanol-mediated differentiation.With transient transfection,the function of Cab45 was investigated by up-regulation and down-regulation in PC12 cells.Ethanol treatment and UV exposure were conducted subsequently and cell proliferations were detected by MTT (Methyl Thiazolyl Tetrazolium) approach.It revealed that the up-regulation of Cab45 modulated the impairment elicited by ethanol and UV in transfected cells.As a member of new calcium binding protein family,the exact role of Cab45 still remains unclear.

  14. Role of the S4-S5 linker in CNG channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Jana; Zimmer, Thomas; Holschuh, Jascha; Biskup, Christoph; Schulz, Eckhard; Nache, Vasilica; Benndorf, Klaus

    2010-10-20

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels mediate sensory signal transduction in retinal and olfactory cells. The channels are activated by the binding of cyclic nucleotides to a cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD) in the C-terminus that is located at the intracellular side. The molecular events translating the ligand binding to the pore opening are still unknown. We investigated the role of the S4-S5 linker in the activation process by quantifying its interaction with other intracellular regions. To this end, we constructed chimeric channels in which the N-terminus, the S4-S5 linker, the C-linker, and the CNBD of the retinal CNGA1 subunit were systematically replaced by the respective regions of the olfactory CNGA2 subunit. Macroscopic concentration-response relations were analyzed, yielding the apparent affinity to cGMP and the Hill coefficient. The degree of functional coupling of intracellular regions in the activation gating was determined by thermodynamic double-mutant cycle analysis. We observed that all four intracellular regions, including the relatively short S4-S5 linker, are involved in controlling the apparent affinity of the channel to cGMP and, moreover, in determining the degree of cooperativity between the subunits, as derived from the Hill coefficient. The interaction energies reveal an interaction of the S4-S5 linker with both the N-terminus and the C-linker, but no interaction with the CNBD.

  15. Effects of Natural Gas Compositions on CNG Fast Filling Process for Buffer Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh-Gord M.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of the fast-fill process occurring in Compressed Natural Gas (CNG fuelled vehicle storage cylinders is a complex process and should be thoroughly studied. Final in-cylinder conditions should meet appropriate cylinder safety standards. The composition of natural gas plays an important role on its thermodynamic properties and consequently, on the fast-fill process and the final conditions. Here, a theoretical analysis has been developed to study the effects of the natural gas composition on the filling process of an onboard Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV cylinder. The cylinder is assumed as a lumped system. The analysis is based on laws of thermodynamics and mass balance. Based on AGA8 Equation of State (EOS and thermodynamics relationships, the required properties of natural gas mixtures have been calculated. The results are presented for an adiabatic system. The results show that the compositions of natural gas have great effects on the filling process and final in-cylinder conditions. Furthermore, the gas with less methane percentage in its composition is more suitable for the filling process.

  16. An analysis of price competitiveness of CNG (compressed natural gas) versus gasoline: estimation of the elasticities of demand by CNG in a recent period in Brazil; Uma analise da competitividade de preco do GNV (Gas Natural Veicular) frente a gasolina: estimacao das elasticidades da demanda por GNV no Brasil no periodo recente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iootty, Mariana; Pinto Junior, Helder; Roppa, Bruna; Biasi, Guilherme de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Economia

    2004-07-01

    One of the main determinants to the expansion of natural gas on the Brazilian domestic market is its price. Hence, it is important to analyze the price competitiveness of natural gas vis-a-vis its competitors. The current paper focuses on the market of natural gas in vehicles (the compressed natural gas - CNG), and uses co-integration techniques to estimate the price-elasticity of CNG, the cross-elasticity of CNG and gasoline, and the income-elasticity. The results suggest that price is a relevant factor in the long-run, while in the short-run income is the most significant determinant of the demand variation. In addition, the paper also shows an imperfect substitutability between CNG and gasoline. (author)

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EXHAUST EMISSIONS FROM DIESEL- AND CNG-POWERED URBAN BUSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COROLLER, P; PLASSAT, G

    2003-08-24

    Couple years ago, ADEME engaged programs dedicated to the urban buses exhaust emissions studies. The measures associated with the reduction of atmospheric and noise pollution has particular importance in the sector of urban buses. In many cases, they illustrate the city's environmental image and contribute to reinforcing the attractiveness of public transport. France's fleet in service, presently put at about 14,000 units, consumes about 2 per cent of the total energy of city transport. It causes about 2 per cent of the HC emissions and from 4 to 6 per cent of the NOx emissions and particles. These vehicles typically have a long life span (about 15 years) and are relatively expensive to buy, about 150.000 euros per unit. Several technical solutions were evaluated to quantify, on a real condition cycle for buses, on one hand pollutants emissions, fuel consumption and on the other hand reliability, cost in real existing fleet. This paper presents main preliminary results on urban buses exhaust emission on two different cases: - existing Diesel buses, with fuel modifications (Diesel with low sulphur content), Diesel with water emulsion and bio-Diesel (30% oil ester in standard Diesel fuel); renovating CNG powered Euro II buses fleet, over representative driving cycles, set up by ADEME and partners. On these cycles, pollutants (regulated and unregulated) were measured as well as fuel consumption, at the beginning of a program and one year after to quantify reliability and increase/decrease of pollutants emissions. At the same time, some after-treatment technologies were tested under real conditions and several vehicles. Information such as fuel consumption, lubricant analysis, problem on the technology were following during a one year program. On the overall level, it is the combination of various action, pollution-reduction and renewal that will make it possible to meet the technological challenge of reducing emissions and fuel consumption by urban bus

  18. Low frequency sound reproduction in irregular rooms using CABS (Control Acoustic Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2011-01-01

    loudspeakers well positioned at the end of the room a virtual array is formed propagating plane waves along the length of the room in one direction. This will correct the sound field distribution in the room. When plane wave arrives to the end wall two more loudspeakers have to be placed connected......Early investigations on low frequency sound reproduction in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) have shown good results on simulations and measurements in real rooms. CABS takes the advantage of having a rectangular room with parallel walls. By using two low frequency...... with the same signal in counter phase and with a delay corresponding to approximately the length of the room. This is to cancel the reflection and maintain the plane wave propagating along the room. Real life rooms are not necessary rectangular and can be of different shapes. In this paper simulations...

  19. Low frequency sound field control for loudspeakers in rectangular rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Rectangular rooms are the most common shape for sound reproduction, but at low frequencies the reflections from the boundaries of the room cause large spatial variations in the sound pressure level.  Variations up to 30 dB are normal, not only at the room modes, but basically at all frequencies....... As sound propagates in time, it seems natural that the problems can best be analyzed and solved in the time domain. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustical Bass System) has been developed for sound reproduction in rectangular listening rooms. It can control the sound...... distribution in the room at low frequencies by using multiple loudspeakers together with an optimal placement of the loudspeakers.  At low frequencies CABS will create a plane wave from the front wall loudspeakers which will be absorbed by additional loudspeakers at the rear wall giving an almost homogeneous...

  20. CAB-DWTM for 5 μm trace-width deposition of solar cell metallization top-contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin Hoey; Drew Thompson; Matt Robinson; Zakaria Mahmud; Orven F. Swenson; Iskander S. Akhatov; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    This paper reviews methods for creating solar cell grid contacts and explores how cell efficiency can be increased using CAB-DW{trademark}. Specifically, the efficiency of p-i-n structure solar cells built in-house with 90 {micro}m sputtered lines and 5 {micro}m CAB-DW lines were compared. Preliminary results of the comparison show a marked improvement in solar cell efficiency using CAB-DW. In addition to this, a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dynamics of particle impaction on a substrate (i.e. whether particle stick or bounce) will be discussed including how this analysis may lead to further improvement of CAB-DW.

  1. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  2. Design of LNG/L-CNG filling station%LNG/L-CNG加气站的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玮

    2014-01-01

    介绍了LNG/L-CNG汽车加气站的主要工艺设备:LNG储罐、LNG潜液泵、卸车增压器、EAG加热器、LNG高压柱塞泵、高压气化器、CNG储气瓶、加气机和顺序控制盘等;同时还介绍了设计过程中以上工艺设备选用的计算方法以及管道设计应注意的问题,包括管路的应力补偿、管子及管件的选材、管道绝热结构及材料的选用等。%The major equipments about LNG/L-CNG filling stations were introduced ,inclu-ding LNG storage tanks ,LNG submersible pump ,unloading supercharger ,EAG heater ,LNG high-pressure piston pump ,high-pressure gasifier ,CNG gas cylinders ,dispensers ,sequence con-trol panel and so on .The calculation method of above equipments selection in the process of de-signing was also introduced .Problems like piping stress compensation ,selection of pipe and fit-tings materials ,selection of heat insulation structure and materials should be noticed in the de-sig n .

  3. Role of embCAB gene mutations in ethambutol resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadaun, G P S; Das, Ram; Upadhyay, Prashant; Chauhan, D S; Sharma, V D; Katoch, V M

    2009-05-01

    In the present study, ethambutol (EMB) resistance-associated mutations were characterised in the embCAB genes of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) collected in India. Thirty MTB isolates were tested for their susceptibility to first-line antitubercular drugs using the Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method, and EMB minimum inhibitory concentrations of MTB isolates were determined by the resazurin microtitre assay. Sequencing of various regions of the embCAB genes was performed to identify EMB resistance-associated mutations. Mutations of embB306 were detected in 15 of 23 EMB-resistant MTB isolates. Three EMB-resistant isolates had mutations at codon 270 of the embC gene, two of which also harboured embB306 mutations. No mutation was identified in the embA gene. All seven EMB-sensitive MTB isolates had the wild-type embCAB sequence. In summary, embB306 mutations were associated with EMB resistance, and mutation at codon 270 of the embC gene may contribute to high-level EMB resistance in some MTB isolates.

  4. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  5. Exposure assessment of particulates originating from diesel and CNG fuelled engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravisjaervi, K.; Pietikaeinen, M.; Keiski, R. L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: kati.oravisjarvi@oulu.fi; Voutilainen, A. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Physics (Finland)); Haataja, M. (Oulu Univ. of Applied Sciences (Finland); Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering (Finland)); Ruuskanen, J. (Univ. of Kuopio, Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Finland)); Rautio, A. (Univ. of Oulu, Thule Inst. (Finland))

    2009-07-01

    given mass, and the surface may be able to act as a catalyst for specific reactions with cells or as a carrier for co-pollutants. They also penetrate deeper into the lungs. Hydrocarbons, as lipid soluble compounds, can also penetrate the cell membranes of the lung cells, enter into the blood circulation and influence the whole organ system, even reach the brain. The aim of this study was to compare children's exposure to diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG) exhaust particulates, which have been formed and then distributed into the human lung. Particulate measurements were carried out in the Technical Research Centre of Finland for two Euro 2 diesel buses with an oxidation catalyst on one and a partial-DPF catalyst on the other vehicle (DI-OC and DI-pDPF, respectively), and one Euro 3 natural gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). For the evaluation of particulate emissions in an urban bus route the Braunschweig City Driving Cycle, a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle was used. Particulate number size distributions were measured using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) instrument (Dekati Ltd, Finland) with the size range of 7 nm to 10 mum. The ELPI measurement system yields particulate number concentrations in 12 nonoverlapping size bins covering the whole measurement size range. Estimation of deposited particles into human lung system was computed with a lung deposition model based on a ICRP 66 lung deposition model published by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model includes specific information related to the subjects (including age, ventilation rate, breathing pattern, gender). The respiratory tract is divided into five main deposition regions: the anterior nasal region (ET1), the main extra thoracic region (ET2, including the posterior nasal region, mouth, pharynx and larynx), the bronchial region (BB, consisting of the trachea and bronchi), the bronchiolar region (bb, consisting of the

  6. The cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNG-1 instructs behavioral outputs in Caenorhabditis elegans by coincidence detection of nutritional status and olfactory input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chao; Altshuler-Keylin, Svetlana; Daniel, David; L'Etoile, Noelle D; O'Halloran, Damien

    2016-10-06

    In mammals, olfactory subsystems have been shown to express seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in a one-receptor-one-neuron pattern, whereas in Caenorhabditis elegans, olfactory sensory neurons express multiple G-protein coupled odorant receptors per olfactory sensory neuron. In both mammalian and C. elegans olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), the process of olfactory adaptation begins within the OSN; this process of negative feedback within the mammalian OSN has been well described in mammals and enables activated OSNs to desensitize their response cell autonomously while attending to odors detected by separate OSNs. However, the mechanism that enables C. elegans to adapt to one odor and attend to another odor sensed by the same olfactory sensory neuron remains unclear. We found that the cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit CNG-1 is required to promote cross adaptation responses between distinct olfactory cues. This change in sensitivity to a pair of odorants after persistent stimulation by just one of these odors is modulated by the internal nutritional state of the animal, and we find that this response is maintained across a diverse range of food sources for C. elegans. We also reveal that CNG-1 integrates food related cues for exploratory motor output, revealing that CNG-1 functions in multiple capacities to link nutritional information with behavioral output. Our data describes a novel model whereby CNG channels can integrate the coincidence detection of appetitive and olfactory information to set olfactory preferences and instruct behavioral outputs.

  7. CNG/汽油两用燃料发动机ECU设计%Design of Alternative Fuel Engine ECU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伟斌; 李礼夫; 洪添胜; 罗彩茹; 王康

    2011-01-01

    针对某品牌四缸两用燃料发动机,完成了基于Motorola 16位单片机MC9S12DP256的汽油机ECu和CNG发动机ECU硬件设计.完成汽油机ECU硬件电路的开发和调试,包括PCB图双层板设计、PCB板制作与焊接,硬件调试,模拟信号测试与波形观察.测试结果表明:基于曲轴信号和凸轮轴信号的控制逻辑能很好地满足发动机工作的时序要求,实现分组同步点火、喷油等模块的控制.喷油时间控制准确度达到0.01 ms,误差小于5%;点火提前角最小分辨率为0.01°,误差小于5%.%Enormous natural gas reserves in our country and more complete CNG filling stations in urban city provided a larger space for the development of CNG vehicles.Thus, the use of natural gas and gasoline-fueled dual-fuel engine control system is of great practical significance and dedicated to improving the current dual-fuel vehicle technology in the engine management level, being the driving force to enhance engine performance, minimizing emissions reduction, and making full use of China's natural gas resources.Based on the Motorola 16-bit MCU MC9S12DP256, the gasoline engine and the CNG engine ECU hardware were design.Base on the embedded C language with CodeWarrior IDE,software was design and debugged, and the control stratagy was made according to the data acquisition and data analysis.Through the MAP, with the engine speed and intake manifold absolute pressure signal values, the basic fuel injection pulse width was founded by interpolation method.According to other working condition parameters, the closed-loop feedback control and air-fuel ratio control were modified and realized the fuel injection control.

  8. Diesel Engine Convert to Port Injection CNG Engine Using Gaseous Injector Nozzle Multi Holes Geometries Improvement: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the previous research in the development of gaseous fuel injector for port injection CNG engine converted from diesel engine. Problem statement: The regular development of internal combustion engines change direction to answer the two most important problems determining the development trends of engines technology and in particular, their combustion systems. They were environmental protection against emission and noise, shortage of hydrocarbon fuels, specific fuel consumption and other technical and economic parameters. Approach: Several alternative fuels has been recognized as having a significant potential for producing lower overall pollutant emissions compared to diesel fuel. Natural gas, which composed predominately by identified as a leading candidate for transportation applications among these fuels for availability, environmental compatibility and natural gas is that it can be used in conventional diesel engines. Results: Some advantages of CNG as a fuel are octane number is very good for SI engine fuel, engines can be operate with a high compression ratio, less engine emissions and less aldehydes. In the diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas with the port injection (sequential or trans-intake valve-injection system, a high-speed gas jet was pulsed from the intake port through the open intake valve into the combustion chamber, where it caused effects of turbulence and charge stratification particularly at engine parts load operations. The system was able to diminish the cyclic variations and to expand the limit of lean operation of the engine. The flexibility of gas pulse timing offers the potential advantage of lower emissions and fuel consumption. There are several advantages of port injection. The better possibility CNG engine is to equalize the air-fuel ratio of the cylinders, optimization of the gas injection timing and of the gas pressure for different operating

  9. 压缩天然气(CNG)加气母站的工艺设计方案%Process Design Scenario of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Automobile Parent Fuelling Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭忠明; 隆立红

    2007-01-01

    阐述了压缩天然气(CNG)汽车加气母站工艺设计方案的确定原则.以前置脱水为例,介绍了CNG加气母站的工艺流程,结合《车用压缩天然气》(GB18047-2000)标准,分析了两种深度脱水方案的优缺点以及脱水方案的确定方式.从占地面积、安全性、使用年限等六个方面对小瓶储气、大瓶储气、储气井储气三种储气方案的优缺点进行了比较.着重介绍了CNG加气母站必备的各系统的构成及其功能.

  10. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappel, J.; Vad Mathiesen, B.

    2013-04-15

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Due to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy efficiency. This screening indicates methanol, methanol-ethanol blends and CNG to be readily availability, economic feasible and with the introduction of the DISI engine not technologically challenging compared to traditional fuels. Studies across fuel types indicate a marginally better fuel utilization for methanol-ethanol fuel mixes. (Author)

  11. Expression of the succinate dehydrogenase genes (sdhCAB) from the facultatively anaerobic paenibacillus macerans during aerobic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirawski; Hankeln; Unden

    1998-10-01

    Paenibacillus (formerly Bacillus) macerans is capable of succinate oxidation under oxic conditions and fumarate reduction under anoxic conditions. The reactions are catalyzed by different enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) and fumarate reductase (Frd). The genes encoding Sdh (sdhCAB) were analyzed. The gene products of sdhA and sdhB were similar to the subunits of known Sdh and Frd enzymes. The hydrophobic subunit SdhC showed close sequence similarity to the class of Sdh/Frd enzymes containing diheme cytochrome b. From the sdhCAB gene cluster two transcripts were produced, one comprising sdhCAB, the other sdhAB. The transcripts were found only during aerobic growth, and the amount was directly proportional to Sdh activity, but inversely proportional to Frd activity.

  12. Design of User Interface for Tractor Cab Real-time Information Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiwei ZHOU; Yang LU; Chunxia JIANG; Zhixiong LU; Wenxin JIN

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the user interface of tractor cab real-time information management system was designed. Based on the principle of "user friendly",it reasonably arranged spatial position of information management system according to spatial distribution of tractor cab. Then,it analyzed operation habits and thinking ways of drivers,and formulated design principle meeting demands of drivers. Besides,it used LabView software to design user interface,including interface layout and interface design. User interface includes basic information interface,job information interface,camera monitoring interface,and fault diagnosis interface. Finally,it made evaluation of the user interface from color,indicator lamp,dial,and pointer. Results indicate that the designed user interface layout conforms to cognition mentality and operation habits and easy to get familiar and grasp; graphical interface is vivid and easy to stimulate pleasure of drivers in operation; interface color matching is coordinated; the layout of controls is hierarchical and logic,and operating mode is consistent with Windows system.

  13. Ab initio structure determination of new compound Li 4CaB 2O 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L.; Wang, C.; Chen, X. L.; Li, X. Z.; Xu, Y. P.; Cao, Y. G.

    2004-06-01

    A new compound, Li 4CaB 2O 6, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction and its structure has been determined from powder X-ray diffraction data by direct methods. The refinement was carried out using the Rietveld methods and the final refinement converged with Rp=10.4%, Rwp=14.2%, Rexp=4.97%. This compound belongs to the orthorhombic space group Pnnm, with lattice parameters a=9.24036(9) Å, b=8.09482(7) Å, and c=3.48162(4) Å. Fundamental building units are isolated [BO 3] 3- anionic groups, which are all parallel to the a- b plane stacked along the c-axis. The Ca atoms are six-coordinated by the O atoms to form octahedral coordination polyhedra, which are joined together through edges along the c-axis, forming infinitely long three-dimensional chains. The Li atoms have a four-fold and a five-fold coordination with O atoms that lead to complex Li-O-Li chains that also extend along the c-axis. The infrared spectrum of Li 4CaB 2O 6 was also studied, which is consistent with the crystallographic study.

  14. 75 FR 1179 - Passenger Equipment Safety Standards; Front End Strength of Cab Cars and Multiple-Unit Locomotives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    .... Front End Frame Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives C. Accident History D. FRA and Industry... effects of collisions involving higher impact speeds. Nevertheless, CEM will also require proper end frame... views on the preemptive effect of this part. DATES: Effective Date: This final rule is effective March...

  15. Analysis of embCAB mutations associated with ethambutol resistance in multidrug-resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Li; Sun, Qing; Liu, Hai-Can; Wu, Xiao-Cui; Xiao, Tong-Yang; Zhao, Xiu-Qin; Li, Gui-Lian; Jiang, Yi; Zeng, Chun-Yan; Wan, Kang-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Ethambutol (EMB) plays a pivotal role in the chemotherapy of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Resistance to EMB is considered to be caused by mutations in the embCAB operon (embC, embA, and embB). In this study, we analyzed the embCAB mutations among 139 MDR-TB isolates from China and found a possible association between embCAB operon mutation and EMB resistance. Our data indicate that 56.8% of MDR-TB isolates are resistant to EMB, and 82.2% of EMB-resistant isolates belong to the Beijing family. Overall, 110 (79.1%) MDR-TB isolates had at least one mutation in the embCAB operon. The majority of mutations were present in the embB gene and the embA upstream region, which also displayed significant correlations with EMB resistance. The most common mutations occurred at codon 306 in embB (embB306), followed by embB406, embA(-16), and embB497. Mutations at embB306 were associated with EMB resistance. DNA sequencing of embB306-497 was the best strategy for detecting EMB resistance, with 89.9% sensitivity, 58.3% specificity, and 76.3% accuracy. Additionally, embB306 had limited value as a candidate predictor for EMB resistance among MDR-TB infections in China.

  16. 独立摇滚乐队Death Cab For Cutie 3人同行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    美国独立摇滚乐队Death Cab For Cutie(简称DCFC)3月份首度访香港,笔者早前就与鼓手Jason McGerr(左)隔空对谈,大谈他对主脑兼吉他手Chris Walla离队的感觉及乐队往后的方向。今年3月,DCFC还发展了睽违4年的新作《Kintsugi(金缮)》,见证了乐队持续累积的成长,歌曲架构更加精练,他们依然是备受期待的独立摇滚乐队之一。

  17. CAB-Align: A Flexible Protein Structure Alignment Method Based on the Residue-Residue Contact Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashi, Genki; Takeda-Shitaka, Mayuko

    2015-01-01

    Proteins are flexible, and this flexibility has an essential functional role. Flexibility can be observed in loop regions, rearrangements between secondary structure elements, and conformational changes between entire domains. However, most protein structure alignment methods treat protein structures as rigid bodies. Thus, these methods fail to identify the equivalences of residue pairs in regions with flexibility. In this study, we considered that the evolutionary relationship between proteins corresponds directly to the residue-residue physical contacts rather than the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of proteins. Thus, we developed a new protein structure alignment method, contact area-based alignment (CAB-align), which uses the residue-residue contact area to identify regions of similarity. The main purpose of CAB-align is to identify homologous relationships at the residue level between related protein structures. The CAB-align procedure comprises two main steps: First, a rigid-body alignment method based on local and global 3D structure superposition is employed to generate a sufficient number of initial alignments. Then, iterative dynamic programming is executed to find the optimal alignment. We evaluated the performance and advantages of CAB-align based on four main points: (1) agreement with the gold standard alignment, (2) alignment quality based on an evolutionary relationship without 3D coordinate superposition, (3) consistency of the multiple alignments, and (4) classification agreement with the gold standard classification. Comparisons of CAB-align with other state-of-the-art protein structure alignment methods (TM-align, FATCAT, and DaliLite) using our benchmark dataset showed that CAB-align performed robustly in obtaining high-quality alignments and generating consistent multiple alignments with high coverage and accuracy rates, and it performed extremely well when discriminating between homologous and nonhomologous pairs of proteins in both

  18. Physiological and genetic description of dissimilatory perchlorate reduction by the novel marine bacterium Arcobacter sp. strain CAB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlström, Charlotte I; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D

    2013-05-21

    A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4(-)) or chlorate (ClO3(-)) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl(-)), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. IMPORTANCE The study of dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB) has largely focused on freshwater, mesophilic, neutral-pH environments. This study identifies a novel marine DPRB in the genus Arcobacter that represents the first description of a DPRB associated with the Campylobacteraceae. Strain CAB is currently the only epsilonproteobacterial DPRB in pure culture. The genome of strain CAB lacks the pcrC gene found in all

  19. CAB Contribution to HARMONI: The first light spectrograph of the E-ELT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueras López, J.; Arribas, S.; Calcines, A.

    2017-03-01

    HARMONI (High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical and Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph) is a visible and near-infrared (0.47 to 2.45 μm) integral field spectrograph selected as a first-light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). With four spatial scales (60, 20, 10 and 4 mas) and a wide range of spectral resolving powers (R=3500, 7500, 20000), HARMONI will allow scientists to address many of the E-ELT science cases. The HARMONI Consortium is led by the University of Oxford, and is also formed by the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC, Edinburgh, UK), Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL), Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC, Spain) and the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB INTA-CSIC, Spain). We summarize here the current status of the project, and describe the participation of CAB to design and manufacture two of the instrument sub-systems: the calibration unit and the secondary guiding module. The calibration unit will simulate the optical output of the telescope, and provide the functionality needed to illuminate the focal plane in such a way that the following type of data can be obtained: data aimed at removing the instrumental signature from the raw data and to convert the data into a data product that uses physical units, data required for monitoring the status of the instrument, and data required for calibrating the secondary guiding subsystem. The secondary guiding subsystem basic requirement is to provide knowledge (relative or absolute) of the location of the science focal plane on timescales of a few seconds and longer (up to months), with an accuracy of 2mas or 0.1x the input FWHM (at H/K bands), whichever is greater. The subsystem should achieve this level performance for different observation modes, e.g. no- AO, GLAO and LTAO modes.

  20. A specific member of the Cab multigene family can be efficiently targeted and disrupted in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A H; Codón, A C; Ivascu, C; Russo, V E; Knight, C; Cove, D; Schaefer, D G; Chakhparonian, M; Zrÿd, J P

    1999-02-01

    The analysis of phenotypic change resulting from gene disruption following homologous recombination provides a powerful technique for the study of gene function. This technique has so far been difficult to apply to plants because the frequency of gene disruption following transformation with constructs containing DNA homologous to genomic sequences is low (0.01 to 0.1%). It has recently been shown that high rates of gene disruption (up to 90%) can be achieved in the moss Physcomitrella patens using genomic sequences of unknown function. We have used this system to examine the specificity of gene disruption in Physcomitrella using a member of the Cab multigene family. We have employed the previously characterised Cab gene ZLAB1 and have isolated segments of 13 other closely related members of the Cab gene family. In the 199-bp stretch sequenced, the 13 new members of the Cab family show an average of 8.5% divergence from the DNA sequence of ZLAB1. We observed 304 silent substitutions and 16 substitutions that lead to a change in the amino acid sequence of the protein. We cloned 1029 bp of the coding region of ZLAB1 (including 177 of the 199 bp with high homology to the 13 new Cab genes) into a vector containing a selectable hygromycin resistance marker, and used this construct to transform P. patens. In three of nine stable transformants tested, the construct had inserted in, and disrupted, the ZLAB1 gene. There was no discernible phenotype associated with the disruption. We have therefore shown that gene disruption is reproducible in P. patens and that the requirement for sequence homology appears to be stringent, therefore allowing the role of individual members of a gene family to be analysed in land plants for the first time.

  1. Light intensity regulation of cab gene transcription is signaled by the redox state of the plastoquinone pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escoubas, J.M.; Lomas, M.; LaRoche, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-24

    The eukaryotic green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta acclimates to decreased growth irradiance by increasing cellular levels of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complex apoproteins associated with photosystem II (LHCIIs), whereas increased growth irradiance elicits the opposite response. Nuclear run-on transcription assays and measurements of cab mRNA stability established that light intensity-dependent changes in LHCII are controlled at the level of transcription. cab gene transcription in high-intensity light was partially enhanced by reducing plastoquinone with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU), whereas it was repressed in low-intensity light by partially inhibiting the oxidation of plastoquinol with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). Uncouplers of photosynthetic electron transport and inhibition of water splitting had no effect on LHCII levels. These results strongly implicate the redox state of the plastoquinone pool in the chloroplast as a photon-sensing system that is coupled to the light-intensity regulation of nuclear-encoded cab gene transcription. The accumulation of cellular chlorophyll at low-intensity light can be blocked by cytoplasmically directed phosphatase inhibitors, such as okadaic acid, microcystin L-R, and tautomycin. Gel mobility-shift assays revealed that cells grown in high-intensity light contained proteins that bind to the promoter region of a cab gene carrying sequences homologous to higher plant light-responsive elements. On the basis of these experimental results, we propose a model for a light intensity signaling system where cab gene expression is reversibly repressed by a phosphorylated factor coupled to the redox status of plastoquinone through a chloroplast protein kinase. 54 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Challenges of establishing a Community Advisory Board (CAB in a low-income, low-resource setting: experiences from Bagamoyo, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubis Kafuruki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Community Advisory Boards are now seen as standard practice for clinical vaccine and drug trials worldwide. In the past, most Community Advisory Boards (CABs were established by activists and lobbyists to monitor HIV/AIDS vaccine and drug trials in developed countries. In Africa the first CAB was established in Uganda in 1990 in conjunction with an HIV vaccine project and has since been followed by others in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Kenya. In 2007, the Bagamoyo branch of the Ifakara Health Institute initiated the formation of a CAB. The aim was to properly educate and empower elected CAB members to become full partners in all research activities concerning the public within the Bagamoyo area. Methods and Results Beginning in 2007, staff visited each of the 24 villages within the study area to inform the communities about the proposed CAB and asked them to elect two individuals to represent their village on the CAB. The first attempt was hampered by community leaders selecting themselves, which led to inconsistent attendance, gender imbalance, and political infighting. New criteria for the selection of representatives were implemented to exclude governmental leaders, illiterate representatives and to promote a one-to-one gender balance. The newly appointed representatives underwent training and have participated in CAB meetings largely devoid of the negative issues previously encountered. Conclusion The successfully established CAB has led to improved relations with the community and facilitated the recruitment of study subjects. Our experiences show that, it is possible to establish a non-specific CAB in a low-income setting.

  3. Formation and Optical Properties of Ag Nanoparticles in CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7–Gd2O3–Ag2O Tetraborate Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Adamiv

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Formation of Ag nanoparticles (NPs in the near-surface layer of CaB4O7–Ag2O and CaB4O7 –Gd2O3–Ag2O glasses by annealing in vacuum or in air is reported. It is concluded that annealing in vacuum does not necessary require the presence of reducing ions. Intensive plasmon absorption bands peaked at 403, 406 and 413.3 nm were observed in the absorption spectra of glasses with Ag NPs. Average radius of nanoparticles was calculated from the plasmon band half width and falls within 1.3-3.3 nm. It is concluded that calculated from normalized transmission spectra and absorption spectra the non-linear refractive index n2 increases due to the plasmon resonance in Ag NPs.

  4. Gaseous and particulate composition of fresh and aged emissions of diesel, RME and CNG buses using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psichoudaki, Magda; Le Breton, Michael; Hallquist, Mattias; Watne, Ågot; Hallquist, Asa

    2016-04-01

    Urban air pollution is becoming a significant global problem, especially for large cities around the world. Traffic emissions contribute significantly to both elevated particle concentrations and to gaseous pollutants in cities. The latter also have the potential of forming more particulate mass via their photochemical oxidation in the atmosphere. The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the US EPA have characterised diesel exhausts as a likely human carcinogen that can also contribute to other health problems. In order to meet the challenges with increased transportation and enhanced greenhouse gas emissions, the European Union have decided on a 10% substitution of traditional fuels in the road transport sector by alternative fuels (e.g. biodiesel, CNG) before the year 2020. However, it is also important to study the influence of fuel switches on other primary pollutants as well as the potential to form secondary aerosol mass. This work focuses on the characterisation of the chemical composition of the gas and the condensed phase of fresh bus emissions during acceleration, in order to mimic the exhaust plume that humans would inhale under realistic conditions. In addition, photochemical aging of the exhaust emissions was achieved by employing a Potential Aerosol Mass (PAM) flow reactor, allowing the characterization of the composition of the corresponding aged emissions. The PAM reactor uses UV lamps and high concentrations of oxidants (OH radicals and O3) to oxidize the organic species present in the chamber. The oxidation that takes place within the reactor can be equivalent to up to one week of atmospheric oxidation. Preliminary tests showed that the oxidation employed in these measurements corresponded to a range from 4 to 8 days in the atmosphere. During June and July 2015, a total of 29 buses, 5 diesel, 13 CNG and 11 RME (rapeseed methyl ester), were tested in two different locations with limited influence from other types of emissions and traffic

  5. STUDY OF TRANSMISSION LINES EFFECT ON THE SYSTEM OPERATIONON OF CONTINUOUS AUTOMATIC CAB SIGNALLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Hololobova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To conduct an effect research of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (HVTL (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuits and continuous automatic cab signalling (CACS with a signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission lines and to propose possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS. Methodology. The measurements were performed both by means of car-laboratory and directly on rail lines. During the study the electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at the distance from it to the railway lines was measured, as well as the time dependence of CACS codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and its passing. Findings. The root causes analysis of CACS faults and failures was carried out. The effect of the electromagnetic field of high-voltage transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz on the track circuit and CACS with signal current of 50 Hz in the areas of convergence and intersection with the transmission line was investigated. Possible methods to improve noise immunity of CACS were considered. Originality. The effect research of transmission lines (750 kV on the operation of the automatic cab signalling on spans Prishib-Burchatsk and Privolnoye-Yelizarovo, Pridneprovsk railway in places of oblique railroads crossing and transmission lines (750 kV, 50 Hz was conducted. Electric field strength in the range of industrial frequency directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it to the railway line, as well as the time dependences of ALSN codes with signal current frequency of 50 Hz directly under the transmission lines and at a distance from it in the absence of the train and as its passing were measured. It was found that CACS codes in track circuits under transmission lines are strongly distorted, as strength

  6. CNG Engine Turbo Boost Pressure Control Based on Lean Burn%基于稀薄燃烧的CNG发动机涡轮增压控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖兵; 范冰; 黄列威

    2011-01-01

    为了降低汽车废气对大气的污染,更好地开发与使用污染较少、经济便宜的汽车代用燃料,提出了一种基于稀薄燃烧的压缩天然气(CNG)涡轮增压发动机控制方法;该方法采用中冷涡轮增压,提高了燃气发动机的输出扭矩与功率;又采用基于λ型氧传感器和转矩预估的稀薄燃烧控制策略,燃料消耗量明显降低;用这种控制方法改进中冷增压机型的4D125柴油机,抑制改造后增压发动机高转速时过大扭矩,匹配出CNG燃料发动机;实验证明,这种控制方法实现了涡轮增压燃气发动机的理想外特性,具有较高的可靠性和实用性.%A compressed natural gas (CNG) turbocharged engine controlling method based on lean burn is presented. This method uses intercooled turbocharged to improve the output torque and power of gas engine. Fuel consumption is significantly decreased by lean burn control using λ oxygen sensor and torque estimation algorithm. With this method, the 4D125 diesel engine with intercooled turbocharged is modified to reduce the excessive torque at high speed and meet the requirements of CNG gas engine. Results show that this modified engine achieves the ideal external characteristics of turbocharged gas engine. This method has high reliability and practicality.

  7. OBD System Design of Stage Ⅴ CNG Engine%国Ⅴ阶段天然气发动机车载诊断系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华玉; 蔡永祥; 金华标; 武其斗

    2011-01-01

    Based on HJ 437-2008 legislation, the main function requirement of atage V for CNG engine OBD system were analyzed, The diagnosis strategies of catalyst performance, oxygen sensor and in-cylinder misfire in key diagnosis strategies of CNG engine OBD system were researched. For the diagnosis strategy and demand signal of CNG engine, the hardware modification and software design were carried out based on the Adblue controller. Based on ELM 327 diagnosis equipment, the verification experiments of OBD function were carried out. The result shows that the design of system can meet the requirement of OBD function.%基于法规HJ 437-2008,总结了国Ⅴ阶段对CNG发动机车载诊断(OBD)系统的主要功能要求;对CNG发动机OBD系统关键诊断策略中关于催化器效率降低、氧传感器、缸内失火诊断策略进行了研究;同时,在添蓝控制器的基础上,针对CNG发动机的诊断策略和需求信号,对OBD系统进行硬件改进和软件设计;基于通用标准诊断仪ELM-327,进行了相关OBD功能验证试验.试验表明,系统设计基本满足OBD系统功能要求.

  8. 配气相位和压缩比对CNG发动机性能影响的模拟研究%A Simulation Study on Influence of Valve Timing and Compression Ratio on CNG Engine Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    斯海林; 姜在先; 王志洪; 何义团

    2013-01-01

    The authors analyze the regulation of valve timing and compression ratio on the CNG engine performance by establishing a CNG engine simulation model based on BOOST. It is found that the CNG engine can achieve the same power of the original engine and can effectively prevent backfire when the compression ratio is 12:1 and the valve overlap is 0°.%  利用BOOST建立CNG发动机仿真模型,研究配气相位和压缩比对发动机性能影响规律。研究表明,压缩比等于12:1、气门重叠角等于0°时,CNG发动机能够达到原发动机的功率水平,且能有效防止回火现象的发生。

  9. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  10. Research on CAB Grafted Hydroxyl Acrylic Resin Synthesis Plated Silver Paint%CAB 接枝改性羟基丙烯酸树脂合成电镀银涂料的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康思琦; 方岸; 余爱民; 袁荣华; 杨俊峰

    2015-01-01

    用不同类型的醋酸丁酸纤维素(CAB)接枝改性羟基丙烯酸树脂,制备了银粉定向排列、附着力好的电镀银涂料用羟基丙烯酸树脂.讨论了 CAB 的接入方式、类型与用量对树脂性能的影响,研究了反应温度、引发剂品种与用量对接枝率的影响,以及单体选择对漆膜性能的影响.结果表明:选择 CAB381-0.5,自由基接枝改性的方法,引发剂 BPO 用量2.5%(单体总量),羟值2.0%,用长链并且不易结晶的丙烯酸酯类单体 LMA,加入量6%~8%,反应温度120~130℃能合成出接枝率高、电镀银定向排列,且其他物理机械性能优异的羟基丙烯酸树脂型电镀银涂料.%In this paper, highly adhesive plated silver coating silver hydroxyl acrylic resin was prepared by grafting different types of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). The CAB's access method and effect of the type and amount on resin properties were discussed, the effect of reaction temperature and the amount of initiator on the grafting yield varieties, and the impact of the choice of monomer film properties were studied. The results show that: by using CAB381-0.5 and adopting the radical graft modification method, with BPO initiator (total amount of monomers) dosage at 2.5%, hydroxyl value at 2.0%, and by adding 6%~8% long chain and not easily crystallized acrylate monomer LMA, with reaction temperature at 120~130 ℃, superior hydroxyl acrylic resin based paint silver plating can be derived with high synthesized graft rate, silver plating arrangement and other physical and mechanical properties.

  11. Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from CNG transit buses equipped with three-way catalysts compared to lean-burn engines and oxidation catalyst technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seungju; Hu, Shaohua; Kado, Norman Y.; Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Collins, John F.; Gautam, Mridul; Herner, Jorn D.; Ayala, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    Chemical and toxicological properties of emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) fueled transit buses with stoichiometric combustion engines and three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust control systems were measured using a chassis dynamometer testing facility and compared to the data from earlier CNG engine and exhaust control technologies. Gaseous and particulate matter emissions from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were lower by more than 99% compared to buses with lean-burn engines. Elemental and organic carbons (EC and OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and trace elements from buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC were effectively controlled and significantly lower than the emissions from buses with lean-burn engines. Potential mutagenicity measured using a microsuspension modification of the Salmonella/microsome assay was lower by more than 99% for buses with stoichiometric engines and TWC, compared to buses with lean-burn engines and OxC.

  12. Surface acoustic wave sensors/gas chromatography; and Low quality natural gas sulfur removal and recovery CNG Claus sulfur recovery process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klint, B.W.; Dale, P.R.; Stephenson, C.

    1997-12-01

    This topical report consists of the two titled projects. Surface Acoustic Wave/Gas Chromatography (SAW/GC) provides a cost-effective system for collecting real-time field screening data for characterization of vapor streams contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The Model 4100 can be used in a field screening mode to produce chromatograms in 10 seconds. This capability will allow a project manager to make immediate decisions and to avoid the long delays and high costs associated with analysis by off-site analytical laboratories. The Model 4100 is currently under evaluation by the California Environmental Protection Agency Technology Certification Program. Initial certification focuses upon the following organics: cis-dichloroethylene, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichlorethylene, tetrachloroethylene, tetrachloroethane, benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and o-xylene. In the second study the CNG Claus process is being evaluated for conversion and recovery of elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide, especially found in low quality natural gas. This report describes the design, construction and operation of a pilot scale plant built to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the integrated CNG Claus process.

  13. Complete genome sequence of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas protegens Cab57 discovered in Japan reveals strain-specific diversity of this species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasumi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. Cab57 was isolated from the rhizosphere of shepherd's purse growing in a field in Hokkaido by screening the antibiotic producers. The whole genome sequence of this strain was obtained by paired-end and whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and the gaps between the contigs were closed using gap-spanning PCR products. The P. sp. Cab57 genome is organized into a single circular chromosome with 6,827,892 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,186 predicted protein-coding sequences. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome analysis, strain Cab57 was identified as P. protegens. As reported in P. protegens CHA0 and Pf-5, four gene clusters (phl, prn, plt, and hcn encoding the typical antibiotic metabolites and the reported genes associated with Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway of these strains are fully conserved in the Cab57 genome. Actually strain Cab57 exhibited typical Gac/Rsm activities and antibiotic production, and these activities were enhanced by knocking out the retS gene (for a sensor kinase acting as an antagonist of GacS. Two large segments (79 and 115 kb lacking in the Cab57 genome, as compared with the Pf-5 genome, accounted for the majority of the difference (247 kb between these genomes. One of these segments was the complete rhizoxin analog biosynthesis gene cluster (ca. 79 kb and another one was the 115-kb mobile genomic island. A whole genome comparison of those relative strains revealed that each strain has unique gene clusters involved in metabolism such as nitrite/nitrate assimilation, which was identified in the Cab57 genome. These findings suggest that P. protegens is a ubiquitous bacterium that controls its biocontrol traits while building up strain-specific genomic repertoires for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and niche adaptation.

  14. Serum immunoglobulin levels in Cabécar and Guaymí Indians in Southeastern Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Lomonte, Bruno; Bonilla, César; Gené, José A.; Mata, Eugenia; Alvarado, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    En un grupo de treinta y cuatro indígenas de varias localidades de los grupos Cabécar y Guaymí, en el sureste de Costa Rica, se determinó los niveles de IgG, IgA e IgM en suero, mediante inmunodifusión radial. Se comparó los resultados con los descritos en un grupo de adultos sanos costarricenses de zonas urbanas. Los niveles de inmunoglobulinas en el grupo de indígenas fueron mayores que los del grupo control.

  15. Controlled Acoustic Bass System (CABS) A Method to Achieve Uniform Sound Field Distribution at Low Frequencies in Rectangular Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    The sound field produced by loudspeakers at low frequencies in small- and medium-size rectangular listening rooms is highly nonuniform due to the multiple reflections and diffractions of sound on the walls and different objects in the room. A new method, called controlled acoustic bass system (CABS......), is introduced. The system utilizes front loudspeakers and extra loudspeakers on the opposite wall of the room processed to cancel out the rear-wall reflections, which effectively conveys a more uniform sound field. The system works in the time domain and presents good performance over the loudspeaker low...

  16. First investigation on the applicability of an active noise control system on a tracked tractor without cab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pochi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In last years, several research teams pointed their attention on the application of active noise control systems (ANC inside the cabs of agricultural tractor, with the purpose of reducing the driver exposition to noise, that is only partially controlled by the frame of the cab. This paper reports the results of a first experience that aimed at verifying the applicability of an ANC on a medium-high power, tracked tractor without cab. The tested tractor was a Fiat Allis 150 A, equipped with rear power take off, used in the execution of deep primary tillage in compact soils. It is a tracked tractor without cab, with maximum power of 108.8 kW at 1840 min–1 of the engine. The ANC consists of a control unit box based on a digital signal processor (DPS, two microphones, two speakers and a power amplifier. The instrumentation used in noise data collecting and processing consisted of a multichannel signal analyzer (Sinus - Soundbook, a ½” microphone capsule and an acoustic calibrator, both Bruel & Kjaer. The study aimed at evaluating the behaviour of the ANC by means of tests carried out under repeatable conditions, characterized by pre-defined engine speed values. Three replications have been made for each engine speed. The sampling time was 30 s. Two series of tests were performed in order to compare the results observed with the ANC on and off. The engine speed adopted in the study ranged from 600 min– 1, up to 2000 min–1 (maximum speed with steps of 100 min–1. The ANC proved to be effective in the interval of speed between 1400 and 1700 min–1, where the samplings have been intensified, adopting steps of 50 min–1. In such an interval, the attenuation observed with the ANC system on appeared evident both as weighed A sound pressure level (from 1.29 up to 2.46 dB(A and linear (from 4.54 up to 8.53 dB. The best performance has been observed at the engine speed of 1550 min–1, with attenuations, respectively of 2.46 dB(A and 7.67 d

  17. 高毒力苏云金杆菌CAB109菌株的蛋白质特性及其田间防效%Protein characteristics and field control effect of Bacillus thuringiensis CAB109 with high insecticidal activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金大勇; 柳镛万

    2011-01-01

    对甜菜夜蛾等害虫具有高毒力的苏云金杆菌CAB109菌株进行生物学特性调查结果表明,CAB109菌株的伴孢晶体具有典型的菱形结构;其原毒素蛋白的分子量为133kDa,经胰蛋白酶处理后水解为66kDa的活性毒素蛋白.DNA凝胶电泳显示:CAB19菌株的质粒DNA与同样H,血清型的已知HD-133菌株不同.CAB109菌株对葱田甜菜夜蛾的平均防效达75.3%,高于常用化学农药和微生物农药的防效;平均挽回损失率也达26.0%表现出优良的开发潜力.%Bacillus thuringiensis isolate CAB109 was bipyramidal shape by microscopic examination which had high insecticidal activity to Spodoptera exigua. The molecular weight of this isolate was 133 kDa, and the molecular weight of active protein toxin was 66 kDa after treated with trypsin. DNA analysis showed that plasmid DNA of CAB109 was different from B. thuringiensis subsp, aizawai HD--133 which has same H7 serotype. Mortality and damaged reduce of S. exigua treated by CAB109 could reached 75.3% and 26.0%,respectively. The effect were better than ordinary chemical and microbe pesticides treatments. This study showed excellent development potential of B. thuringiensis isolate CAB109.

  18. ESTRUCTURACIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA EN LA BASE CAB DE AUTORES VINCULADOS A INSTITUCIONES COLOMBIANAS, 1997 A 2002 Structuring Bibliographic Information of Authors Linked with Colombian Institutions Indexed in CAB Database, 1997-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA USGAME

    Full Text Available La utilización de la bibliometría para construir representaciones de las dinámicas de la producción científica y tecnológica se apoya en el tratamiento de las diferentes informaciones contenidas en las publicaciones científicas, sobre todo en los artículos, las patentes y los informes de investigación. La información recogida en la base bibliográfica CAB de los documentos integrados de 1997 a 2002, con autores vinculados a instituciones u organizaciones colombianas, ha sido estructurada para hacer emerger los temas de investigación presentes y para establecer los contextos en que se ubican los temas identificados, así como sus evoluciones. Se señalan diversas utilizaciones de la información estructurada.The utilization of bibliometry in order to build representations of the scientific and technological production dynamics is supported on the treatment of the different information contained in scientific publications, above all in the articles, patents and investigation reports. The information gathered in the bibliographic base CAB of the documents integrated from 1997 to 2002, having authors linked with Colombian institutions or organizations, has been structured to make the present investigation themes emerge and in order to establish the contexts in which the themes identified as well as its evolutions are placed. Diverse utilizations of the structured information are noted.

  19. Exposure of smoke solutions from CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws induces distressed embryonic movements, embryonic hemorrhaging and ectopia cordis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaz, Sohail; Ejaz, Ahmed; Sohail, Amara; Ahmed, Mukthar; Nasir, Amar; Lim, Chae Woong

    2009-07-01

    In south Asian countries, a campaign has launched to promote CNG-powered four-stroke auto-rickshaws (CNFAR) to decrease emission load in the environment. Even though, CNFAR are considered environmentally safe, emissions of some other toxic chemicals would amplify, which may effect the development of growing fetus and may result in different growth defects. By utilizing the in vivo chicken embryo model, this report analyzes the toxic potential of CNFAR smoke solutions (CNFARSS) on embryonic movements (EM) and cardiovascular development. Application of CNFARSS to embryos caused profound decline (pectopia cordis were prominently observed among all CNFARSS treated embryos, namely; incomplete ectopia cordis, complete ectopia cordis, cervico-thoracic ectopia cordis and thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis.

  20. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  1. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...... from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle...... and the understanding of why and how it works will also be discussed. CABS is controlled by a developed DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system....

  2. PKA and cAMP/CNG Channels Independently Regulate the Cholinergic Ca2+-Response of Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavot, Pierre; Carbognin, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mushroom bodies (MBs), one of the main structures in the adult insect brain, play a critical role in olfactory learning and memory. Though historical genes such as dunce and rutabaga, which regulate the level of cAMP, were identified more than 30 years ago, their in vivo effects on cellular and physiological mechanisms and particularly on the Ca2+-responses still remain largely unknown. In this work, performed in Drosophila, we took advantage of in vivo bioluminescence imaging, which allowed real-time monitoring of the entire MBs (both the calyx/cell-bodies and the lobes) simultaneously. We imaged neuronal Ca2+-activity continuously, over a long time period, and characterized the nicotine-evoked Ca2+-response. Using both genetics and pharmacological approaches to interfere with different components of the cAMP signaling pathway, we first show that the Ca2+-response is proportional to the levels of cAMP. Second, we reveal that an acute change in cAMP levels is sufficient to trigger a Ca2+-response. Third, genetic manipulation of protein kinase A (PKA), a direct effector of cAMP, suggests that cAMP also has PKA-independent effects through the cyclic nucleotide-gated Ca2+-channel (CNG). Finally, the disruption of calmodulin, one of the main regulators of the rutabaga adenylate cyclase (AC), yields different effects in the calyx/cell-bodies and in the lobes, suggesting a differential and regionalized regulation of AC. Our results provide insights into the complex Ca2+-response in the MBs, leading to the conclusion that cAMP modulates the Ca2+-responses through both PKA-dependent and -independent mechanisms, the latter through CNG-channels. PMID:26464971

  3. Measuring the Performance of Attention Networks with the Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB): Methodology and Reliability in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie A H; Butler, Beverly C; Kintzel, Franziska; Johnson, Anne; Klein, Raymond M; Eskes, Gail A

    2016-01-01

    Attention is an important, multifaceted cognitive domain that has been linked to three distinct, yet interacting, networks: alerting, orienting, and executive control. The measurement of attention and deficits of attention within these networks is critical to the assessment of many neurological and psychiatric conditions in both research and clinical settings. The Dalhousie Computerized Attention Battery (DalCAB) was created to assess attentional functions related to the three attention networks using a range of tasks including: simple reaction time, go/no-go, choice reaction time, dual task, flanker, item and location working memory, and visual search. The current study provides preliminary normative data, test-retest reliability (intraclass correlations) and practice effects in DalCAB performance 24-h after baseline for healthy young adults (n = 96, 18-31 years). Performance on the DalCAB tasks demonstrated Good to Very Good test-retest reliability for mean reaction time, while accuracy and difference measures (e.g., switch costs, interference effects, and working memory load effects) were most reliable for tasks that require more extensive cognitive processing (e.g., choice reaction time, flanker, dual task, and conjunction search). Practice effects were common and pronounced at the 24-h interval. In addition, performance related to specific within-task parameters of the DalCAB sub-tests provides preliminary support for future formal assessment of the convergent validity of our interpretation of the DalCAB as a potential clinical and research assessment tool for measuring aspects of attention related to the alerting, orienting, and executive control networks.

  4. Allocation of CNG Stations in Urban Street Networks Based on GIS Approach and Prioritization with AHP and Topsis Methods (Case Study: Rasht City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s finding a proper location of transport services widely contributes to the organization of city street networks. Fuel refueling station networks include urban services acted as urban transport supply and it accounts in terms of traffic considerations, urbanization, security and environment. In this study, with respect to CNG refuel stations and criteria for proposed guidelines some variables are the following: Land¬ uses, Traffic networks, population, traffic volume, infrastructure facilities, acces¬ses. Then using a Arc Map software, resources map and limiting factors to Rasht city have been overlapped and locations have been proposed. In the next stage questionnaires have been arranged in the form of pair comparisons and bipolar scales besides variables were given relative weights by experts. Afterwards, for choosing the best place, an approach called AHP in the form of Expert Choice to determine the ultimate weight of variables and spaces. Traffic volume with 34.3% and infrastructure facilities 33.4% ranked first and second respectively. Place No.8 ranked first with 19.2%. Besides to grade, criterions are scored in the form of TOPSIS using bipolar their weight determine¬d by entropy. The most weight is with the infrastructure facilities variables at the rate of 30.9%. Then proposed places have been ranked. Place No.7 ranked first with 0.766. In the end priority order are compared and AHP is selected for ranking.

  5. 基于PLC的CNG加气站数据处理与联动控制%PLC-based CNG filling stations data processing and linkage control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋海瑞; 刘立山

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of CNG filling stations operation parameters collection and linkage control based on the alarm set value.This scheme uses S7-1200 1214C programmable controller togeth-er with two RS485 Communication module.This system realizes the communication with other programmable con-trollers and intelligent devices with MODBUS RTU protocol by RS485 half duplex mode.%本文介绍了CNG加气站现场的运行参数的收集以及基于设定报警值进行联动控制的设计。本方案使用S7-12001214C可编程控制器,配以两个RS485通讯模块,采用MODBUS RTU 通讯协议,RS485半双工模式与现场其它PLC和智能设备进行通讯。

  6. Active low frequency sound field control in a listening room using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce the sound transmitted to neighbour rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    Sound in rooms and transmission of sound between rooms gives the biggest problems at low frequencies. Rooms with rectangular boundaries have strong resonance frequencies and will give big spatial variations in sound pressure level (SPL) in the source room, and an increase in SPL of 20 dB at a wal...... shown a reduction in sound transmission of up to 10 dB at resonance frequencies and a reduction at broadband noise of 3 – 5 dB at frequencies up to 100 Hz. The ideas and understanding of the CABS system will also be given....... is possible at modal frequencies. For that reason the modal frequencies in the source room will also have big impact on the transmission to neighbour rooms. These low frequency resonance frequencies are very audible in the source room but also in neighbour rooms as a booming bass. CABS (Controlled Acoustic...

  7. 基于能量的商用车驾驶室隔声试验技术%Power based noise reduction technology for commercial vehicle cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 龙伟; 夏铁权

    2015-01-01

    商用车驾驶室的隔声性能对其乘坐舒适性具有重要影响。介绍了基于能量的隔声测试原理,基于该理论对某商用车驾驶室进行了声传递函数测试并计算了隔声量。通过对试验结果的分析提出了影响驾驶室隔声性能的原因,并通过气密性试验验证了分析的准确性,同时提出了改进该驾驶室隔声性能的措施。实践证明,基于能量的隔声测试方法具有较高的测量精度,对整车及子系统的舒适性(Noise,Vibration,Harshness,NVH)正向开发具有重要的应用价值。%Sound insulation performance of the commercial vehicle cab is expressed in the context of vehicle riding comfort .Intro-duced the principle of Power Based Noise Reduction ( PBNR) technology ,the acoustic transfer function of a commercial vehicle cab is tested and the sound insulation is calculated based on the PBNR theory ,the results showed the reasons affecting the sound insulation performance of the cab and an air leakage test is performed to verified the accuracy of the results analysis ,some propos-als to improve the sound insulation performance of the cab are proposed .Practice is proved that PBNR technology has a high pre-cision and plays an important role in guiding the process of vehicle and subsystem NVH positive development .

  8. Ash Scraping Improvement Analysis of Construction Machinery Cab%工程机械驾驶室的刮灰改善分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡博

    2012-01-01

    工程机械驾驶室刮灰的区域主要为:焊缝、焊点、表面缺陷、面差。国外标杆驾驶室在满足精细化的前提下,尽可能减少刮灰量。通过PVC焊缝胶替代刮腻子、更改焊接方式、提高表面的平整度等方式,减少驾驶室的刮灰,提升驾驶室的品质,提高生产节拍。%Construction machinery cab scraping region mainly include weld, solder joints, surface defect and surface difference. At the premise of meet the fine requirement of overseas sightcing cab, as far as possible to reduce the amount of ash scraping. Cab quality and the production rhythm were improved by substitute putty with the PVC weld line adhesives, change of welding manner, improve the surface smoothness and reduce the ash scraping.

  9. Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

    1996-06-01

    The paper provides a review of two projects supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident probability in existing free steered vehicle (FSV) and locomotive operations. The paper opens by identifying a range of ergonomic limitations associated with the design of the two classes of equipment, many of which can be implicated in serious accidents and incidents. The development of a retrofit index is described. The index was central to both projects in that it provided a working framework within which both ergonomic and engineering considerations were combined into a rational cost sensitive approach to the selection and assessment of retrofit changes. A representative sample of machines was examined from which three FSVs and two locomotives were selected as test beds on which to evaluate and demonstrate the practicality of a wide range of retrofit ideas. The ideas ranged from very simple, relatively inexpensive solutions to more fundamental changes. The paper describes and illustrates a number of the more significant improvements. The two projects described clearly demonstrated that significant improvements to the safety and performance standards of existing FSV and locomotive cab design can be achieved by low cost and easily implemented retrofit changes. The paper concludes with a summary of the various uses and fields of application of the index. In particular, it is considered in the context of its wider potential in design and purchasing decisions and for dealing with safety risks associated with operations involving other types of equipment. 12 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. 往复式变频压缩机在CNG子站系统中的应用%Application of Reciprocating Piston Type CNG Variable Frequency Compressor in Daughter Station System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴军

    2013-01-01

    对定频、变频与液压3种往复活塞式压缩机在CNG子站系统中应用进行了对比分析。模拟了压缩机排气量、轴功率随吸排气压力的变化关系,得到了性能变化的曲线图。数值模拟结果与压缩机的实际运行特性表明,CNG子站用变频往复活塞式压缩机在排气量、能耗、运行时间和智能化等性能指标方面更具竞争性。%The applications of fixed-frequency reciprocating compressor,variable frequency reciprocating compressor and hy-draulic reciprocating piston compressor in CNG daughter station was comparatively analyzed.Through simulating the relation of how the capacity and shaft power change along with the variation of suction pressure and discharge pressure,the graph of perform-ance change is worked out.The numerical simulation results and actual operating characteristics of compressors indicate that the variable frequency reciprocating compressor used in CNG daughter station is more competitive in capacity,energy saving,running time and intelligence than other type compressors.

  11. THE OPTIMIZATION OF AUTO-FROTTAGE PRESSURE WITH THE CNG COMPOSITE WOUND CYLINDERS%CNG复合材料缠绕气瓶自紧压力的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭亚芳

    2013-01-01

    面对日益恶化的环境和石油资源的枯竭,使得作为清洁能源应用典型的CNG气瓶的使用逐年增加,CNG汽车在国内逐渐推广使用.CNG-2气瓶由于其质量轻、强度高和安全可靠等优点得到了广泛的应用.使用过程中,CNG气瓶也出现了一些故障和爆炸事故,从而导致气瓶的安全分析和研究越来越受到关注.而自紧则是对气瓶安全的第一道防线,如何选择合适的自紧压力成为重中之重.本文以CNG-2气瓶为研究对象,以ANSYS为分析工具,详细说明了自紧压力的优化过程.

  12. Mismatch Compensation and Application in CAB of Micro Current Switched Current Mirror%微电流条件下的开关电流镜失配补偿及其在 CAB 中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭杰荣; 何怡刚; 刘长青

    2016-01-01

    A high precision switched current mirror circuit working in very weak current was presented.A meth-od,which can automatically adjust the gate source voltage for mismatch compensation of the image MOSFET’was a-dopted,and the compensation for the output error caused by the physical parameter mismatch could be realized.Ac-cording to the design of the reconfigurable analog unit,the dual phase multiple output current mirror and mismatch compensation circuit were put forward,and an integrated design of timing and the programmable switch was also dis-cussed.The produced error of the proposed design is less than 1% for the 20% mismatch,and the current range is 1 nA~1 μA.This circuit can be used in CMOS single poly process.Simulation results were presented to verify the the-oretical design.%提出了一个高精确、可工作在非常微弱电流的开关电流镜电路,采用一种可以自动调整镜像 MOS 管栅源电压的方法进行失配补偿,可实现因物理参数失配造成输出误差的补偿.根据可重构模拟单元 CAB 的设计需要,提出了双相位多输出电流镜及其失配补偿电路,讨论了工作时序与可编程开关的一体化设计.所提出的设计对于20%的失配只产生小于1%的误差,电流范围1 nA~1μA.该电路可以使用 CMOS 单晶工艺实现.给出的仿真结果验证了理论设计.

  13. Modeling and simulation of vehicle active cab air suspension%汽车驾驶室主动空气悬置的建模仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘公宇; 张树

    2014-01-01

    为改善车辆平顺性,在考虑汽车驾驶室的实际位置、半浮式和全浮式驾驶室悬置的特点后,选取了全浮式空气悬置作为研究对象,并通过弹簧特性试验研究了空气弹簧静、动特性曲线;运用Matlab/Simulink建立了八自由度驾驶室空气悬置模型,以滤波白噪声生成路面输入,仿真分析了汽车在B级路面下车速20 m/s、25 m/s及路面有凸块的三种行驶状况的振动;进而设计了模糊控制器,对驾驶室前后空气悬置采取主动控制后的状况进行了仿真分析;以驾驶员、驾驶室的振动响应及悬置动挠度为指标,评价车辆平顺性的变化程度,以此来研究主动空气悬置在改善车辆平顺性方面的效果。三种行驶状况的仿真结果表明,对驾驶室前后空气悬置采取主动控制后,驾驶员加速度均方根值分别减小了8.39%、9.32%、8.55%,驾驶室质心加速度均方根值分别减小了9.64%、11.85%、9.78%,驾驶室俯仰角加速度均方根值分别减小了20.15%、10.14%、20.11%,提高了乘坐的舒适性。%In order to improve the ride comfort of a vehicle, the full floating air suspension was a-dopted by considering the actual location of cab in commercial vehicle and the characteristics of semi and full floating suspension.The stiffness characteristic test was done to study the static and dynamic characteristic curve of air spring.A cab air suspension with 8 freedoms is established in Matlab/Simulink.And filter white noise is taken as road excitation to simulate the vibration of commercial vehicle driving in B grade road.Two fuzzy controllers to control the front and rear cab suspension was designed to simulate passive and active suspension.The vibration response of driver and cab and the suspension dynamic deflection were chosen as targets to evaluate the ride comfort of vehicle in active system has been improved or not when compared to passive system

  14. Desorption Kinetics of H2O from Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 Silica Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, L.; Balooch, M.; LeMay, J.D.

    2000-01-26

    Temperature programmed desorption (TPD) was performed at temperatures up to 850K on Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and Hi-Sil-233 silica particles. Physisorbed water molecules on both types of silica had activation energies in the range of 9-14.5 kcal/mol. However, the activation energies of desorption for chemisorbed water varied from {approx} 19 kcal/mol to > 59 kcal/mol for Cab-O-Sil-M-7D, and {approx} 23-37 kcal/mol for Hi-Sil-233. Our results suggest that physisorbed water can be effectively pumped away at room temperature (or preferably at 320 K) in a matter of hours. Chemisorbed water with high activation energies of desorption (>30 kcal/mol) will not escape the silica surfaces in 100 years even at 320 K, while a significant amount of the chemisorbed water with medium activation energies (19-26 kcal/mol) will leave the silica surfaces in that time span. Most of the chemisorbed water with activation energies < 30 kcal/mol can be pumped away in a matter of days in a good vacuum environment at 500 K. We had previously measured about 0.1-0.4 wt. % of water in M9787 polysiloxane formulations containing {approx} 21% Cab-O-Sil-M-7D and {approx} 4% Hi-Sil-233. Comparing present results with these formulations, we conclude that absorbed H{sub 2}O and Si-OH bonds on the silica surfaces are the major contributors to water outgassing from M97 series silicones.

  15. Molecular Analysis of the embCAB Locus and embR Gene Involved in Ethambutol Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, Florence; Sougakoff, Wladimir; Bernard, Christine; Petrou, Matthieu; Adeyema, Karine; Pham, Anne; Amy de la Breteque, Diane; Vallet, Marine; Jarlier, Vincent; Sola, Christophe; Veziris, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    Modification of codon 306 in embB is regarded as the main mechanism leading to ethambutol (ETB) resistance in clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, numerous mutations elsewhere in the embCAB locus and in embR, a putative transcriptional activator of this locus, have been reported to be involved in ETB resistance. Here, we investigated the diversity of nucleotide variations observed in embCAB and embR in M. tuberculosis complex isolates from France. These regions were sequenced in 71 ETB-resistant (ETB-R) and 60 ETB-susceptible (ETB-S) clinical isolates of known phylogenetic lineages. The 131 isolates had 12 mutations corresponding to phylogenetic markers. Among the 60 ETB-S isolates, only 3 (5%) had nonsynonymous mutations that were not phylogenetic markers. Among the 71 ETB-R isolates, 98% had mutations in embCAB that likely contribute to ETB resistance: 70% had mutations located in embB codon 306, 406, or 497; 13% had mutations located outside these three positions between codons 296 and 426; and 15% had mutations corresponding to mutations in the embC-embA intergenic region. We found a strong association between resistance to ETB and the presence of mutations in embB and the embC-embA intergenic region (P embA were not involved in ETB resistance, and no mutation was detected in embR. These results strongly suggest that the sensitivity of diagnostic assays for detecting ETB resistance based on testing of embB codon 306 can be increased by testing of the embB region between codons 296 and 497 and by including the embC-embA intergenic region between positions -8 and -21.

  16. In-vivo identification of direct electron transfer from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 to electrodes via outer-membrane OmcA-MtrCAB protein complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Akihiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Nakamura, Ryuhei, E-mail: nakamura@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hashimoto, Kazuhito, E-mail: hashimoto@light.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); ERATO/JST, HASHIMOTO Light Energy Conversion Project (Japan)

    2011-06-30

    Graphical abstract: . Display Omitted Highlights: > Monolayer biofilm of Shewanella cells was prepared on an ITO electrode. > Extracellular electron transfer (EET) process was examined with series of mutants. > Direct ET was confirmed with outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB complex. > The EET process was not prominently influenced by capsular polysaccharide. - Abstract: The direct electron-transfer (DET) property of Shewanella bacteria has not been resolved in detail due to the complexity of in vivo electrochemistry in whole-cell systems. Here, we report the in vivo assignment of the redox signal indicative of the DET property in biofilms of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 by cyclic voltammetry (CV) with a series of mutants and a chemical marking technique. The CV measurements of monolayer biofilms formed by deletion mutants of c-type cytochromes ({Delta}mtrA, {Delta}mtrB, {Delta}mtrC/{Delta}omcA, and {Delta}cymA), and pilin ({Delta}pilD), capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) and menaquinone ({Delta}menD) biosynthetic proteins demonstrated that the electrochemical redox signal with a midpoint potential at 50 mV (vs. SHE) was due to an outer-membrane-bound OmcA-MtrCAB protein complex of decaheme cytochromes, and did not involve either inner-membrane-bound CymA protein or secreted menaquinone. Using the specific binding affinity of nitric monoxide for the heme groups of c-type cytochromes, we further confirmed this conclusion. The heterogeneous standard rate constant for the DET process was estimated to be 300 {+-} 10 s{sup -1}, which was two orders of magnitude higher than that previously reported for the electron shuttling process via riboflavin. Experiments using a mutant unable to produce capsular polysaccharide ({Delta}SO3177) revealed that the DET property of the OmcA-MtrCAB complex was not influenced by insulating and hydrophilic extracellular polysaccharide. Accordingly, under physiological conditions, S. oneidensis MR-1 utilizes a high density of outer

  17. Acercamiento al proceso de socialización de la población infantil cabécar de chirripó

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Soto, Hannia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es producto de la investigación “Acercamiento al proceso de socialización de la población infantil cabécar de Chirripó”, que se desarrolló desde el Instituto de Investigación en Educación (INIE. La Universidad de Costa Rica como institución pública de educación superior, ha venido asumiendo la responsabilidad de contribuir a través de sus diferentes ámbitos de trabajo, en la resolución de necesidades de la comunidad nacional para la búsqueda de mejores condiciones de vida de todas las personas que la habitan, es así como en los últimos años ha generado reflexiones sobre la urgencia de generar procesos educativos con pertinencia cultural en las comunidades cabécares de Chirripó, este trabajo pretende aportar en este sentido. Para ello se recurre al estudio de los procesos de socialización de este grupo étnico para identificar las prácticas de crianza propias que les permiten construir y resignificar su identidad cultural, las cuales se concluye deben ser consideradas en la educación inicial formal para generar procesos educativos pertinentes y significativos.

  18. Low frequency sound field control in rectangular listening rooms using CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) will also reduce sound transmission to neighbor rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    from the rear wall, and thereby leaving only the plane wave in the room. With a room size of (7.8 x 4.1 x 2.8) m. it is possible to prevent modal frequencies up to 100 Hz. An investigation has shown that the sound transmitted to a neighbour room also will be reduced if CABS is used. The principle......Sound reproduction is often taking place in small and medium sized rectangular rooms. As rectangular rooms have 3 pairs of parallel walls the reflections at especially low frequencies will cause up to 30 dB spatial variations of the sound pressure level in the room. This will take place not only...... at resonance frequencies, but more or less at all frequencies. A time based room correction system named CABS (Controlled Acoustic Bass System) has been developed and is able to create a homogeneous sound field in the whole room at low frequencies by proper placement of multiple loudspeakers. A normal setup...

  19. 矿车驾驶室悬置刚度匹配计算%Matching Calculation of Mine Car’s Cab Suspension Stiffness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琢; 李晓雷; 吕晓鹏; 杨猛; 辛鹏

    2014-01-01

    以某矿车为研究对象,建立了整车6自由度模型,通过在频域内路面功率谱对车轮激振,模拟矿车驾驶室的振动。并改变驾驶室前、后悬置的刚度以及阻尼比,3变量同时作用,根据平顺性评价指标,对前、后悬置刚度进行了合理匹配,为驾驶室悬置刚度值选取提供了依据。%A six degrees of freedom model for finished automobile is established,in which a mine car is involved as the research object.The vibration of mine car’s cab is simulated through the vibration excited by the power spectrum of frequency domain pavement.Meanwhile,the stiffness and the damping ratio of the cab’s front and rear suspensions are altered,these three variables work at the same time,finally the stiffness of the cab’s front and rear suspensions can be reasonably matched by the ride comfort evalua-tion,which provides basis for stiffness choice of cab suspension.

  20. CNG储气井检测中的水位自适应控制系统%A Self-adaptive Control System of Water Level in Inspection of CNG Storage Wells' Corrosion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘小平; 苏真伟; 王珩

    2011-01-01

    根据CNG储气井超声波检测的需要,设计了基于水位检测的传感器自适应控制系统;系统主要由计算机、PLC、步进电机和超声波水位检测探头构成;通过井口加水的方式使井内水位逐渐上升,采用数字PID作为控制算法,超声波检测信号反馈的水位为输入变量,通过计算机和PLC调节步进电机转速来控制装置的上升速度,使传感器相对于水面的位置恒定,从而保证了检测有效安全的进行;数字PID算法采用C++语言编程,MATLAB仿真实验证明采用该算法进行控制是正确有效的.%According to the needs of ultrasonic inspection of CNG storage wells, a self - adaptive control system based on water level monitor was designed. The system consists of a probe for monitor of ultrasonic water level, a computer, PLC and a stepper motor. The system used a digital PID as the controller and the water level as the system's input. With the water level changed, the computer and PLC controled the speed of the stepper motor so that the sensors' location relative to the water surface keeped at a certain value. Thus, the system guaranteed safety and effection of the inspection of CNG storage wells. The PID algorithm was programed by C++ language, the MATLAB Simulation proved that the algorithm was correct and effective.

  1. Steady-state Matching Test and Valve Timing Optimization for CNG Engines%CNG发动机稳态匹配试验与配气相位优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    对CA6SF2-23NE3和CY4102-N3C两款CNG发动机进行稳态匹配试验,在完成了点火提前角和喷气时间标定后,该两种发动机性能指标均达到使用要求,证实了控制策略和元件选配对于类似CNG机型的通用性。针对CA6SF2-23NE3机型,对供气、冷却、点火正时部分提出了部件替换方案,降低了整机成本,并根据使用要求将最大转矩转速调整至期望位置。对CY4102-N3C机型,根据试验数据建立并校验了数值计算模型,进而对配气相位进行了优化。%The steady state matching test on both CA6SF2-23NE3 and CY4102-N3C CNG engines are con-ducted. After the calibration of their ignition timing and gas injection duration,the performance indicators of two en-gines meet the requirements, verifying the commonality of control strategy and component selection for similar CNG engines. For CA6SF2-23NE3, some replacement schemes for fuel supply,cooling and ignition timing are put forward to reduce engine costs, with the peak torque speed adjusted to desired point. For CY4102-N3C, a numerical simu-lation model is set up and verified according to test data, with its valve timing optimized.

  2. 商用车驾驶室碰撞安全性的研究与改进%A Study on the Impact Safety of Commercial Vehicle Cab and Its Improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王登峰; 刘丽亚; 董学锋; 唐洪斌; 张新; 李红建

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the problems surfacing in roof strength test and front impact test as per ECE R29 - 02 in export certification of commercial vehicle cab, CAE analysis and structural improvement of cab rear-wall and floor side rail are carried out. Simulation and real vehicle test for roof strength and front impact safety performed on improved cab verify the feasibihty of improvement scheme for cab structure. This provides references for passive safety design and relevant regulation formulation for commercial vehicles with autonomous brand in China.%针对某商用车驾驶室在出口认证中按ECE R29-02顶盖准静压试验和正面摆锤动态撞击试验中暴露出的问题,对驾驶室后围和地板纵梁结构进行了CAE分析和结构改进.通过对改进驾驶室的顶盖准静压和正面摆锤动态撞击仿真分析和实车试验,验证了驾驶室结构改进方案的可行性,为我国自主品牌商用车的被动安全性设计和标准制定提供参考.

  3. Preparation, characterization and luminescence properties of a new hydrous red phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H S; Tang, A J; Yang, C; Jin, H F

    2017-03-01

    A new borate phosphor CaB3 O5 (OH):Eu(3)(+) with different morphologies was synthesized using a hydrothermal method and its luminescence properties were studied. The effects of surfactants on the crystal structures, morphologies and luminescence properties of the samples were studied. The results showed that the surfactants play an important role in controlling the morphology and improving the luminescence properties of phosphors. The luminescence intensity and R/O(I615/I592) value were enhanced for the prepared sample by adding PEG4000. The prepared sample exhibited a higher R/O than some anhydrous calcium borate phosphors, indicating that this product could serve as a new potential red phosphor.

  4. Color evaluation of seventeen European unifloral honey types by means of spectrophotometrically determined CIE L*Cab*h(ab)° chromaticity coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Jerković, Igor; Sarais, Giorgia; Congiu, Francesca; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr Marek

    2014-02-15

    CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) L(*)Cab(*)h(ab)° color coordinates for 305 samples of 17 unifloral honeys types (asphodel, buckwheat, black locust, sweet chestnut, citrus, eucalyptus, Garland thorn, honeydew, heather, lime, mint, rapeseed, sage, strawberry tree, sulla flower, savory and thistle) from different geographic locations in Europe were spectrophotometrically assessed and statistically evaluated. Preliminary separation of unifloral honeys was obtained by means of L(*)-C(ab)(*) color coordination correlation. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed an expected segregation of the honeys types according to their chromatic characteristics. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) allowed to obtain a more defined distinction of the 17 unifloral honey types, particularly when using 3D graphics. CIE L(*)C(ab)(*)hab(*) color coordinates were useful for the identification of several honey types. The proposed method represents a simple and efficient procedure that can be used as a basis for the authentication of unifloral honeys worldwide.

  5. A 7.81 W 355 nm ultraviolet picosecond laser using La2CaB10O19 as a nonlinear optical crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Li, Kai; Xu, Degang; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Guochun; Wang, Yuye; Wang, Lirong; Shan, Faxian; Yan, Chao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Baohua; Wang, Nan; Lin, Xuechun; Wu, Yicheng; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-07-14

    We demonstrate high-power 355 nm ultraviolet (UV) picosecond (ps) laser using a type I phase-matching nonlinear optical crystal of La(2)CaB(10)O(19) (LCB), which possesses the characteristic of non-hygroscopicity. The high-power third harmonic generation was successfully achieved from two types of 1064 nm ps fundamental lasers. The maximum output power of 7.81 W of 355 nm UV laser was obtained with a pump of 35.2 W 1064 nm ps laser (80 MHz repetition rate, 10 ps pulse width) with optical conversion efficiency of 22.2%. The experimental results show that the LCB crystal is a promising candidate for generating high-power UV laser.

  6. ESTRUCTURACIÓN DE LA INFORMACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA EN LA BASE CAB DE AUTORES VINCULADOS A INSTITUCIONES COLOMBIANAS, 1997 A 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE CHARUM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de la bibliometría para construir representaciones de las dinámicas de la producción científica y tecnológica se apoya en el tratamiento de las diferentes informaciones contenidas en las publicaciones científicas, sobre todo en los artículos, las patentes y los informes de investigación. La información recogida en la base biblio- gráfica CAB de los documentos integrados de 1997 a 2002, con autores vinculados a instituciones u organizaciones colombianas, ha sido estructurada para hacer emer- ger los temas de investigación presentes y para establecer los contextos en que se ubi- can los temas identificados, así como sus evoluciones. Se señalan diversas utilizacio- nes de la información estructurada.

  7. 重型商用车驾驶室悬置试验与优化%Test and Optimization of Cab Suspension of Heavy Commercial Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文令强; 杨辉

    2015-01-01

    针对某公司研制的重型商用车驾驶室振动舒适性不理想的状况, 进行试验样车与对标车主观舒适度评价与减振器温度变化对比试验, 并对相关参数进行理论分析, 诊断得出试验样车驾驶室前悬置存在隔振效果不明显的问题, 在分析对比试验样车与对标车悬置参数选取及考虑改进成本的基础上, 提出优化试验样车驾驶室前悬置参数的建议, 并对优化后的样车进行主观舒适度评价与实车道路试验验证, 得出参数优化后的样车舒适度改善明显.%According to company developed a heavy commercial vehicle cab vibration comfort is not an ideal situation, test-ing and benchmarking sample car subjective comfort evaluation and shock absorber temperature change contrast test, then an-alyzes the relevant parameters, it is find that the test vehicle cab suspension of vibration isolation effect is not obvious prob-lems, based on the analysis of contrast test vehicle and benchmarking vehicle suspension parameter selection and considera-tion of cost improvement, the author suggest optimist suspension parameters, and then evaluate the comfort prototype and the real vehicle road test, after parameter optimization of vehicle comfort is improved obviously.

  8. Test and Optimization of Dump Truck Cab Suspension System%自卸车驾驶室悬置系统试验与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨辉; 张瑞亮; 王铁; 陈峙; 陈澔利; 刘宝乾

    2015-01-01

    In this research, road test is conducted for a dump truck and the vibration signals under different speed and road conditions are acquired and analyzed, and a multi-body dynamics simulation model is established for the cab suspension in ADAMS. For the three typical conditions, ADAMS optimization module is applied for parameters optimization of the cab suspension system with stiffness of the front and rear suspension spring and the damping as test factors, to obtain three groups of parameter matching values suitable for this model. And on this basis, orthogonal test technology is used for re-optimization of these three groups of values. Finally the paper determines a group of optimal matching values suitable for three different conditions of the truck.%对某自卸车进行道路试验,采集不同速度及路况下的振动信号并进行分析,建立了驾驶室悬置系统多体动力学仿真模型。针对3种典型工况,以前、后悬置弹簧刚度与减振器阻尼为因子,运用ADAMS优化模块对驾驶室悬置参数进行优化,得出3组适合该车型的参数匹配值,并在此基础上应用正交试验技术对这3组值进行再优化,最终确定1组适合3种典型工况的驾驶室悬置最佳匹配值。

  9. Mutational and gene expression analysis of mtrDEF, omcA and mtrCAB during arsenate and iron reduction in Shewanella sp. ANA-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Carolina; Murphy, Julie N; Saltikov, Chad W

    2010-07-01

    Arsenate respiration and Fe(III) reduction are important processes that influence the fate and transport of arsenic in the environment. The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of arsenate on Fe(III) reduction using arsenate and Fe(III) reduction deficient mutants of Shewanella sp. strain ANA-3. Ferrihydrite reduction in the absence of arsenate was similar for an arsenate reduction mutant (arrA and arsC deletion strain of ANA-3) compared with wild-type ANA-3. However, the presence of arsenate adsorbed onto ferrihydrite impeded Fe(III) reduction for the arsenate reduction mutant but not in the wild-type. In an Fe(III) reduction mutant (mtrDEF, omcA, mtrCAB null mutant of ANA-3), arsenate was reduced similarly to wild-type ANA-3 indicating the Fe(III) reduction pathway is not required for ferrihydrite-associated arsenate reduction. Expression analysis of the mtr/omc gene cluster of ANA-3 showed that omcA and mtrCAB were expressed under soluble Fe(III), ferrihydrite and arsenate growth conditions and not in aerobically grown cells. Expression of arrA was greater with ferrihydrite pre-adsorbed with arsenate relative to ferrihydrite only. Lastly, arrA and mtrA were simultaneously induced in cells shifted to anaerobic conditions and exposed to soluble Fe(III) and arsenate. These observations suggest that, unlike Fe(III), arsenate can co-induce operons (arr and mtr) implicated in arsenic mobilization.

  10. Comfort Design and Simulation Study of Driving Cab Based on Ergonomics%基于人机工程的驾驶室舒适性设计与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一甲; 王余锐; 金立生

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the security and comfort of driving cab , a kind of domestic combine harvester control cab was selected as research carrier , the ergonomics theory was studied , and the comfort of cab was analyzed based on Chi-nese human dimensions system .The comfortable driving across point , deriving seat and driving control device was de-signed , and the space-matching relationship of several devices was optimized .And then the driver posture , control panel ability analysis and vision of driver were simulated based on the man machine engineering design module of CATIA soft -ware and the rationality of cab designing was tested .The subjective comparative experiment was carried out .Test results showed that with the increase of continuous driving time , the subjective comfort of before and after improvement cabs all had decreasing trends;In the first 20 min driving time , the comfort evaluations for these cabs were consistent .In the ( 20~60 ) min driving time , the comfort evaluation for before improvement cab had an apparent decline .This paper could prove that using human-machine simulation system to analyze the comfort level of cab was feasible .It also provided the guidance and direction for the research of driving cab .%为提高驾驶室舒适性及安全性,以国产某种收获机械驾驶室为研究载体,对人机工程学理论进行研究,结合中国人体尺寸数据,对驾驶室进行舒适性分析,改进其驾驶舒适跨点、驾驶座椅及驾驶操纵装置,优化各器件间布局配置关系。基于CATIA软件人机工程设计模块,对驾驶员驾驶姿态、操作可达性和视野范围进行模拟仿真,检验驾驶室设计合理性。对改进前后驾驶室舒适性进行主观对比试验,结果表明:随驾驶时间增加,驾驶员对两种驾驶室主观舒适性皆呈下降趋势;在0~20 min 驾驶时间内,对于两种驾驶室平均舒适性评价一致,在20~60 min驾驶时间内,改

  11. Preliminary technical and economic viability for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) for barges in Amazon Region; Avaliacao preliminar de viabilidade tecnico-economica para implantacao de transporte fluvial de GNC (Gas Natual Comprimido) por barcacas na Regiao Amazonica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Marcos C.C. de; Porto, Paulo L. Lemgruber [Interocean Engenharia e Ship Management, Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cunha, Rafael H. da [Metro Rio, RJ (Brazil); Garcia, Rafael M. [Pic Brasil (Brazil); Almeida, Marco A.R. de [Universidade Gama Filho (UGF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The isolated regions of the Amazon present difficulties for integration with the electrical system which is creating some economic problems due to the consequent costs of electric generation of subsidies as a function of the fossil fuel use as oils diesel and fuel. A viable option is the use of Natural Gas - NG that is Also available in the region. Its modal of transport possible in the Region North they are for gas-lines or barges. The Compressed Natural Gas transport is distinguished that - CNG for barges was still not tested operationally in Brazil. Soon, to develop a Preliminary Study of Viability Technician - Economic - SVTE for the implantation of fluvial transport of CNG between the cities of Coari and Manaus is basic, therefore it is created strategical alternative for the electric generation in this region. The electric sector, the characteristics of the NG and the transport in this region had been analyzed to support to the work. The gas line and the fluvial transport of CNG for barges in this region are not conflicting, and they in a complementary form can act. The SVTE presented a Liquid Present Value and Internal Tax of very attractive Return justifying its implantation. (author)

  12. 商用车驾驶室内饰色彩搭配浅析%Analysis of commercial vehicle cab interior color matching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏攀; 张江辉; 樊敏锋

    2014-01-01

    Cab interior design the most important thing is comfort, comfort is determined by the use of functional and aesthetic features, functionality for interior design reflects the principles and ergonomic engineering machinery, can bring comfort operational occupants, while aesthetic function focuses on appearance and color, can bring visual comfort of occupants, so as to achieve a sense of spiritual pleasure, shows the importance of color matching. The most important commercial transport function, the driver drove trek process prone to fatigue, and good interior design by shape and color with a direct impact on the driver to relieve visual fatigue. And this paper introduces the basic knowledge on colors and color matching, and to describe how to design a good cab interior color matching by Mercedes-Benz Actors as a classic case.%驾驶室内饰设计最重要的是舒适性,舒适性由使用功能与审美功能决定,使用功能为内饰设计体现工程机械原理及人机学,能带给驾乘人员操作上的舒适感,而审美功能则着重于外观造型与色彩搭配,能带给驾乘人员视觉上的舒适感,从而达到精神上的愉悦感,由此可见色彩搭配的重要性。商用车最重要的是运输功能,司机长途跋涉的开车过程易产生疲劳感,而良好的内饰设计可通过造型和色彩搭配直接冲击司机视觉从而缓解疲劳。而此论文就主要介绍色彩及色彩搭配的基本知识,并通过奔驰Actors作为经典案例来介绍如何设计好驾驶室内饰色彩搭配。

  13. 添加硼化钙对镁钙碳耐火材料抗氧化性能的影响%Oxidation Protection from MgO-CaO-C Refractories by Addition of CaB6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉龙; 陈敏

    2011-01-01

    以CaB6作为抗氧化添加剂,采用TGA、XRD、显气孔率测定等方法,研究了CaB6对MgO-CaO-C耐火材料抗氧化性能和其他性能的影响规律,研究结果表明:添加CaB 6能显著提高MgO-CaO-C耐火材料的抗氧化性能和结构致密性;CaB6与O2开始反应温度约为700℃;并确定CaB6的合理添加量为4%左右;1 500 ℃烧后试样的氧化区域和未氧化区域之间有一个致密氧化层存在,阻止了耐火材料中碳的氧化,其成分主要是含钙硼酸盐.%Calcium hexaboride (CaB6) was added to MgO-CaO-C refractories as anti-oxidant and its behaviors on improving the oxidation resistance and other properties was investigated with thermal gravimetric (TG) furnace, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and apparent porosity as well as other properties. The results showed that the oxidation resistance of MgO-CaO-C refractories was effectively improved by addition of CaB6 and the compactness of the refractories was improved. The added CaB6 began to react with oxygen at ~ 700 "C. The suitable adding amount of CaB6 was about 4%. In addition, after heating at 1500℃, an obvious oxide layer consisted of vitreous calcium bearing borates were formed between the unoxidized zone and the oxidized zone.

  14. A Novel Two Domain-Fusion Protein in Cyanobacteria with Similarity to the CAB/ELIP/HLIP Superfamily: Evolutionary Implications and Regulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Kilian; Anne Soisig Steunou; Arthur R.Grossman; Devaki Bhaya

    2008-01-01

    Vascular plants contain abundant, light-harvesting complexes in the thylakoid membrane that are non-covalently associated with chlorophylls and carotenoids. These light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding (LHC) proteins are members of an extended CAB/ELIP/HLIP superfamily of distantly related polypeptides, which have between one and four transmembrane helices (TMH). This superfamily includes the single TMH, high-light-inducible proteins (Hlips), found in cyanobacteria that are induced by various stress conditions, including high light, and are considered ancestral to the LHC proteins. The roles of, and evolutionary relationships between, these superfamily members are of particular interest,since they function in both light harvesting and photoprotection and may have evolved through tandem gene duplication and fusion events. We have investigated the Hlips (hli gene family) in the thermophilic unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus OS-B'. The five hli genes present on the genome of Synechococcus OS-B' are relatively similar, but transcript analyses indicate that there are different patterns of transcript accumulation when the cells are exposed to various growth conditions, suggesting that different Hlips may have specific functions. Hlip5 has an additional TMH at the N-terminus as a result of a novel fusion event. This additional TMH is very similar to a conserved hypothetical, single membrane-spanning polypeptide present in most cyanobacteria. The evolutionary significance of these results is discussed.

  15. Study on Spectra of La2CaB10O19∶Eu3+ in VUV-VIS Range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赫泓; 于英宁; 梁宏斌; 王淑彬; 苏锵; 陶冶

    2004-01-01

    Excitation and emission spectra of new borate La2CaB10O19 doped Eu3+ in VUV-VIS range, high resolution emission spectra at room temperature and lifetime of Eu3+ were investigated. The emission line at about 616 nm attributed to the 5D0-7F2 transition of Eu3+ is the most intense emission of Eu3+. The broad band at about 244 nm is originated from charge transition band (CTB) of O2-→Eu3+. According to the numbers of spectral lines 5D0-7F0 and 5D0-7F1 in high-resolution spectrum, Eu3+ ions occupy two crystallographic sites. The lifetimes of 5D0-7F0 transition of Eu3+ of two kinds of lattice sites are individually 2.1 and 2.6 ms, and both are exponential decay. In the VUV excitation spectrum, complicated band between 130 and 170 nm consists of host absorption and f-d transition of Eu3+.

  16. THE RESEARCH ABOUT PRAIRIE ROAD CAB NOISE ENVIRONMENT AND SENSITIVITY OF DRIVER HEART RATE VARIABILITY%草原公路驾驶室噪声与驾驶员心率变异指标敏感性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 朱守林; 戚春华; 秦艳

    2011-01-01

    草原公路驾驶室噪声是1个受发动机噪声、排气和进气噪声、传动系噪声、轮胎噪声以及气流噪声等影响的复杂的系统环境,驾驶室噪声易使驾驶员产生焦虑,烦躁及驾驶疲劳.本文运用单因素评价方法分析了驾驶员生理指标SDNN和RMSDD对驾驶室噪声的敏感性,结果表明驾驶员的SDNN对驾驶室噪声的敏感性高于RMSDD.%Prairie Road cab noise is a complex system environment which is affected by engine noise, exhaust and intake noise, train noise, tire noise and air noise. It can make the driver to feel anxious, irritable and tired. This paper analyzes the sensitivity of driver physiological Indicators SDNN and RMSDD to cab noise, using single factor evaluation analysis methods. The results show that the SDNN is more sensitive than RMSDD of drivers to cab noise.

  17. Air Spring Simulation of Commercial Truck Cab Suspension System%商用车驾驶室悬置系统空气弹簧仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫鑫; 姜迪; 王忠校

    2014-01-01

    采用试验数据与仿真分析相结合的方法,通过试验曲线反求空气弹簧的内部特性,同时结合高度调节阀的流量压力控制,可形成系统的实时闭环反馈;将空气弹簧平面模型与某商用车驾驶室悬置系统的3D多体模型进行联合仿真,结果表明,随机路面载荷下的试验与仿真曲线在时域及频域内吻合度较高,可以实时模拟空气弹簧的外输出特性。%By the combination of test data and simulation analysis, the internal characteristic of air spring can be reversed by test curve. And by adapting height control valve to regulate the flow pressure, the real-time closed-loop feedback system is formed. Air spring planar model and 3D cab suspension system MBS model of a commercial vehicle are used for the co-simulation, the results show that comparison curves between test and simulation under random road load in the time and frequency domain achieve a high fitting degree. And real-time simulation on the output characteristics of the air spring can be made.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Oxygen-rich CNG Engine Based on 1D/3D Coupled Model%基于一维/三维模型耦合的富氧燃烧天然气发动机数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜伟; 张玉银; 李世琰; 张勇; 张伟

    2015-01-01

    以某1.0 L3缸汽油机为基础,利用 GT-Power与Converge建立了天然气发动机耦合仿真模型,并利用原机试验数据对模型进行了验证,研究了进气富氧与 EGR 对天然气发动机性能的影响特性,对利用进气富氧与EGR 改善天然气发动机的性能进行了探讨。结果表明,随进气氧气体积分数提高,天然气发动机平均有效压力显著提高,最大可提高22.8%(氧体积分数为28%时);同时缸内温度和 NOx 排放升高,排气与传热的能量损失增加,燃气消耗率略有升高。加入 EGR 可以降低富氧燃烧下天然气发动机燃气消耗率,随着 EGR 率增加,燃气消耗率主要呈先减小后增加趋势;且随进气氧浓度提高,各浓度下最低燃气消耗率对应的 EGR 率逐渐提高;NOx 排放随EGR 率增加而逐渐降低,在进气氧体积分数为23%,25%,27%,29%时,EGR 率分别为10%,15%,20%,25%即可将 NOx 排放降到原机水平;利用进气富氧与 EGR 可以有效地改善天然气发动机动力不足与 NOx 排放高的状况。%The coupled simulation model of CNG engine was built with GT-Power and Converge software based on a 1.0 L gasoline engine and was calibrated with test data of original engine.Then the influences of oxygen-rich intake and EGR on CNG engine perform-ance were researched and the performance improvements thereof were discussed.The results show that BMEP for CNG engine increases obviously with the increase of oxygen volume fraction and increases by 22.8% at most in 28% oxygen content.Moreover,the in-cylin-der temperature,NOx emission,the energy loss of exhaust and heat transfer all increase and BSFC slightly increases.The specific CNG consumption under the conditions of rich oxygen decreases by introducing EGR and shows the trend of first decrease and following in-crease with the increase of EGR rate.The corresponding EGR rate of the lowest CNG consumption

  19. 新型工程机械驾驶室悬置系统建模与参数优化%Modeling and parameters optimization of a new type cab suspension system for construction machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晨; 孙晓强

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve vibration isolation performance of cab suspension system and ride comfort of construction machinery, a new type cab suspension system with inerter is presented, which mainly consists of main spring, auxiliary spring, damper and a new vibration isolation compo-nent named as inerter. In order to determine the optimal parameters of the new type suspension sys-tem, a three-DOF full floating cab dynamics mathematical model is established based on Newton's laws of motion and the suspension parameters optimal objective and constraints are defined. The par-ticle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm is applied for optimization of the cab suspension parame-ters and the simulation comparison results indicate that the weighted root mean square value of the cab floor vertical acceleration is reduced from 0. 42 to 0. 33 , which has a decline by 21%, thus the vehicle ride comfort of construction machinery is effectively improved. The research of this paper can provide theoretical foundation and technical support for analyzing and improving performance of new type cab suspension system for construction machinery based on inerter.%为进一步提高工程机械驾驶室悬置系统的隔振性能,改善工程机械的乘坐舒适性,提出一种包含惯容器的新型工程机械驾驶室悬置系统,该系统由主弹簧、副弹簧、减振器以及新型隔振元件———惯容器等四个基本元件构成。为确定该新型悬置的最优结构参数,基于牛顿运动定律建立了工程机械全浮式驾驶室悬置三自由度动力学数学模型,确定了驾驶室悬置参数的优化目标及约束条件,并采用粒子群优化算法对工程机械驾驶室悬置参数进行了优化。仿真对比结果表明,基于最优参数的新型悬置系统可使驾驶室地板垂向振动加权加速度均方根值由0.42降低到0.33,降幅达21%,工程机械的乘坐舒适性得到了明显提高,研究将为基于惯容器的新型工程机械驾

  20. 高速列车驾驶台多功能显示器虚拟仿真%Simulation of multi-function displays in high-speed train cab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晴; 何润; 江永全; 李柯

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied on the virtual simulation technology of high-speed train cab based on XNA platform,especially the implementation of the multi-function displays (MFD) of the virtual cab in the virtual three-dimensional scene.It was mainly involved the creation,driving and interaction of the virtual monitor.The off-screen rendering technology was used which was based on XNA platform,dynamic parameter-driven MFD and model picking up algorithm.These methods could vividly implement the real-time display of the highspeed train cab operation information and the man-machine interactive control,make the virtual scene much more lifelike and immersive.%本文研究了基于XNA平台的高速列车驾驶台虚拟仿真技术,着重介绍了虚拟驾驶台中多功能显示器在虚拟三维场景中的实现方法.主要涉及虚拟显示器的创建、驱动及交互等功能的实现方法,采用基于XNA平台的离屏渲染技术、动态参数驱动MFD显示和模型拾取算法,逼真地实现了实时显示高速列车驾驶台运行信息和人机交互,提高了虚拟场景的真实感、沉浸感.

  1. Space and Identity:On A Cab Called Reliable by Korean-American%空间与身份--论美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的《“可靠的”的士》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪雪花

    2015-01-01

    In Korean -American writer Patti Kim’s novel A Cab Called Reliable,the heroine,who is from a Korean immigrant family,narrates a tongue -tied story of identity dilemma confronted by new -generation Korean immigrants.The novel highlights the heroine’s perception of space and paradox in identity.After wit-nessing her mother leaving home,the heroine begins to pursue her self -identity through the seeking of the re-liable cab.This paper analyses Patti Kim’s A Cab Called Reliable by integrating space theory with identity theory and then probes into the connection between space and identity.%美籍韩裔作家佩蒂·金的小说《“可靠的”的士》中以移民美国的一个韩国家庭的故事展现了新一代美籍韩裔所面临的身份的尴尬处境。这部作品的主要特征在于主人公对空间的感知与矛盾的身份。作品讲述的是主人公在亲眼目睹了母亲出走后,借由对“可靠的”的士的寻找而开始的对自我身份的探求的心路历程。将空间理论和身份认同理论结合起来解读美籍韩裔作品《“可靠的”的士》,可以较好地探讨空间与身份的关系。

  2. 依据历史轨迹构建城市出租车移动概率模型%The moving probability model of urban cabs based on history trajectory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马武彬; 刘明星; 黄宏斌; 邓苏

    2014-01-01

    The model of urban cabs moving is one of the key issues for model building.The model needs reflecting moving state information of cabs.More importantly,users can quickly query the moving cabs.Under the condition of real time information of cabs which is hard to obtain,we should model the moving points and forecast the state information according to the moving history.A method which applies Hidden Markov theory to model of the moving trajectory is proposed.Through an analysis of real trajectory data of San Francisco,the caps moving model which is used to query the caps by users was constructed.Experiment with real datasets shows that the method proposed can simulate the moving state of caps.Users can also quickly obtain the useful location information from the model.%针对无法在线实时获取移动出租车实时状态信息的条件下,根据对历史轨迹信息的处理分析,提出将隐马尔科夫理论应用到城市出租车移动轨迹模型中,通过实际数据的分析建立出租车运动模型,通过对模型的计算来预测节点的位置分布概率,并在此模型上针对不同的用户需求进行查询处理,为用户提供搭车路线决策支持。通过利用真实数据集的实验证明,模型能够较好的模拟出出租车节点的运动状态,用户也能够从模型中获取较高精度的位置状态信息。

  3. Applications of wavelet packet theory on cab FSK signals%小波包方法在车载FSK信号中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙艳朋; 贾利民; 范明

    2001-01-01

    FSK信号作为保障铁路安全运行的主要信号制式,在国内铁路上现在有两种,是法国引进的UT信号和国内自主开发的YP信号。小波变换是继傅里叶变换之后的重大突破,而小波包则是小波变换的进一步发展,克服了小波变换的一些不足。本文首先研究了车载FSK信号的特征,再利用小波包对车载FSK信号进行滤波处理。文中,给出了如何确定给定频率的信号在小波包分解树各个分解层中对应节点的算法,在滤波处理过程中,为了处理带内的噪声,也给出了采用阈值的方法来减少带内白噪声,阈值的选取充分应用到FSK信号的小波包分解的特点。最后,我们给出了计算机产生的仿真FSK信号和现场采集的FSK信号的两种仿真,仿真结果表明,根据车载FSK信号的特性,小波包方法是处理车载FSK信号的有效方法。%As the key signal system guaranteeing the safety for the railway, there are two types of FSK system used now by China railway: UT signal imported from France and the homemade YP signal. Wavelet transform is a big breakthrough after Fourier transforms, and the wavelet packet theory is the further development for wavelet transform, for it overcomes some shortcomings of wavelet transform. In this article, we study first the main characters of cab FSK signal, then the wavelet packets method is applied to the FSK signal filtering. We give an algorithm that determines the corresponding decomposition node for a signal with a pre-specified frequency in the decomposition tree. In order to reduce the in-band white noise in the denoising process, we give an algorithm based on threshold technology, and we also give a method to calculate the threshold that takes full advantage of the character of the wavelet packet decomposition of the FSK signal. In the last part of the article,a simulations on both computer simulation data and field data are given, and the simulation

  4. Performance Analysis of Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery System with Organic Rankine Cycle for Stationary CNG Engine%基于有机朗肯循环的固定式天然气发动机排气余热回收系统性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄宗勇; 张红光; 宋松松

    2015-01-01

    An organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with an internal heat exchanger (IHE) is designed to recover exhaust energy from a stationary compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. According to the ifrst and second laws of thermodynamics, the performances of the ORC system are analyzed. Thereafter, the stationary CNG engine-ORC with IHE combined system is presented. The electric efifciency and the brake speciifc fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the combined system. The results show that, when the evaporation pressure is 3.5 MPa and the engine is operating at the rated condition, the net power output and the thermal efifciency of ORC system with IHE can reach up to 62.7kW and 12.5%, respectively. Compared with the stationary CNG engine, the electric efifciency of the combined system can be increased by 6.0%, while the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 5.0%.%针对一台固定式天然气发动机的排气能量变化规律,设计了带回热器的有机朗肯循环排气余热回收系统。基于热力学第一定律和第二定律,对固定式天然气发动机排气余热回收系统性能指标进行了理论计算和分析,进而构建了固定式天然气发动机-带回热器有机朗肯循环联合系统,并采用发电效率和有效燃料消耗率评价联合系统的性能。研究结果表明:当蒸发压力为3.5 MPa,发动机运行在额定工况点时,带回热器有机朗肯循环系统最大净输出功率和热效率分别为62.7 kW和12.5%;与固定式天然气发动机相比,联合系统发电效率最大可提高6.0%,有效燃料消耗率最大可降低5%。

  5. Noise Sources Identification and Noise Control of the Cab of an Off-highway Machine%某工程机械驾驶室噪声源识别与噪声控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵威; 臧献国

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic performance has become a key competitive factor for off-highway machinery due to the increasing focus on operator’s comfort and noise pollution as well as continuing regulatory pressure. In order to improve the operator’s comfort of an off-highway machine, a number of methods including transfer path analysis, spectrum analysis and separate-step running, are used to analyze the measurement data of the near-field noise of the machine and interior/exterior noise of its cab. The main noise sources and noise transfer paths are identified. Based on the analysis results, some noise reduction measures are provided and implemented. The results show that the interior noise of the cab is greatly reduced and the operator’s comfort is improved.%随着对驾驶员舒适度的日益关注,以及噪声辐射法规持续趋于严格,工程机械的噪声控制水平已经成为其产品核心竞争力之一。为了提高某工程机械驾驶室的舒适性,针对驾驶室内部噪声、外部近场噪声和噪声源近场噪声,运用数种方法对测试数据进行分析,包括传递路径法、频谱分析法和分别运转法;识别出驾驶室内部噪声的主要噪声源和传播途径。根据测量数据和分析结果针对性提出降噪措施,降低了此型机械驾驶室的内部噪声,提升了舒适性。

  6. Performance Analysis of Non-azeotropic Mixture Based on CNG Engine Waste Heat Recovery System%基于天然气发动机排气余热回收系统的非共沸混合工质性能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄宗勇; 郭珍; 宋松松; 张红光

    2015-01-01

    针对一台车用天然气发动机排气能量的变化规律,建立了带回热器有机朗肯循环系统,对比分析了采用纯工质R245fa和非共沸混合工质R416A时,带回热器有机朗肯循环系统的净输出功率、热效率、效率和单位工质能量输出密度。结果表明,采用非共沸混合工质R416A时上述各项性能指标均优于采用纯工质R245fa。最后,构建了天然气发动机‐带回热器有机朗肯循环联合系统,采用非共沸混合工质 R416A ,分析了联合系统的热效率。结果表明,加装带回热器有机朗肯循环系统后,发动机热效率最大可提高7%。%A set of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system with internal heat exchanger (IHE) was designed to recover exhaust energy of a compressed natural gas (CNG) engine .The net output power ,heat release efficiency ,exergy efficiency and energy output density of ORC system for R245fa and R416A organic working fluids were compared and analyzed .The results show that the performance of R416A zeotropic mixture surpasses that of R245fa .Finally ,the CNG engine and ORC combined system with IHE is built and the thermal efficiency of R416A non‐azeotropic mixture is analyzed .It is found that the thermal efficiency of engine can increase by 7% at most .

  7. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA.

  8. Análisis bibliométrico de la producción científica de México en ciencias agricolas a través de las bases de datos internacionales, "Agricola", "Agris", "Cab Abstracts", "Science Citation Index", "Social Science Citation Index" y "Tropag & Rural", en el periodo 1983-2002

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel BRAVO VINAJA

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo de investigación se caracteriza la producción científica mexicana en el área de las Ciencias Agrícolas, utilizando para ello indicadores bibliométricos unidimensionales y multidimensionales de actividad científica, mediante los cuales se analiza por un lado la producción obtenida en las bases de datos: Agricola, Agris, Cab Abstracts, Tropag & Rural, Science Citation Index (SCI) y Social Science Citation Index (SSCI), y por el otro, la producción indexada solamente en las bases...

  9. Astrobiology with Robotic Telescopes at CAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cuesta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The key objectives of RTRCAB are the identification of new exoplanets and especially the characterization of the known exoplanets by observing photometric and systematic monitoring of their transits. These telescopes, equipped with advanced technology, optimized control programs, and optical and technical characteristics adequate for this purpose, are ideal to make the observations that are required to carry out these programs. The achievement of these goals is ensured by the existence of three separated geographical stations. In this sense, there are several planned missions that have the same objectives among their scientific goals, like Kepler, CoRoT, GAIA, and PLATO.

  10. Evaluación de la calidad del recurso hídrico del río Cabí a través de la formulación de un índice de contaminación asociado a la actividad minera aurífera

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Valencia, Iván Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Tesis de grado (Maestría en Desarrollo Sostenible y Medio Ambiente). Universidad de Manizales. Facultad de Ciencias Contables Económicas y Administrativas, 2015 El presente trabajo guiará al lector en el análisis de la contaminación realizada por la actividad minera aluvial de oro y platino en el río Cabí, esto se realiza a través de la formulación de un índice de contaminación que permita evidenciar la afectación de esta actividad sobre la calidad del recurso hídrico; para la formulación...

  11. Projeto de cabine de unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (unimac cana com base na ergonomia Cab design for a sugar cane harvesting machine based on ergonomics principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Antonio Barreto

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A mecanização da colheita da cana-de-açúcar parece ser o caminho para solução dos problemas decorrentes dos impactos ambientais das queimadas e do trabalho extremamente fatigante na colheita manual. Por outro lado, a mecanização total da colheita levaria milhares de trabalhadores ao desemprego. Para minimizar os impactos ambientais e manter parte desses empregos, a Agricef e a Unicamp estão desenvolvendo o projeto da unidade mecânica de auxílio à colheita da cana-de-açúcar (UNIMAC CANA, baseado em um conceito alternativo representado pela mecanização parcial da colheita, que está em fase de prototipagem. Particularmente, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo o dimensionamento da cabine desse dispositivo e o posicionamento de seus comandos e painéis, com base nas características antropométricas do operador brasileiro. Utilizou-se a metodologia projetual orientada pela preocupação com aspectos ergonômicos. As alternativas de projeto geradas através de quadros morfológicos culminaram no dimensionamento da cabine da máquina com sua disposição de comandos, painel e assento, de modo a acomodar o operador de forma segura e confortável. Através de simulação do campo visual do operador, concluiu-se que a cabine, adotando posição móvel em relação à maquina, seria uma opção viável de projeto nos atributos conforto e dirigibilidade.Sugar cane harvesting mechanization seems to be the solution for the problems related to the environment impact of sugar cane burning and to facilitate manual harvesting, which also is a extremely hard task. By the other way, full harvest mechanization would lead to a massive unemployment. To minimize environment impact and keep some of the harvesting jobs, Unicamp and Agricef are designing and building a harvesting machine that represents an alternative concept due to it partial harvesting mechanization. The main objective of this research is the design of the cab for this machine and the

  12. Research on a bandwidth-limited active control system for commercial vehicle cab suspension based on the fuzzy theory%基于模糊控制的商用车驾驶室悬置有限带宽主动控制系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷飞; 杨红波

    2014-01-01

    建立了含驾驶室的商用车十自由度整车数学模型,对安装了驾驶室有限带宽主动悬置的商用车进行模糊控制系统设计,该控制系统全面考虑了驾驶室质心处垂直、俯仰、侧倾方向振动,并采用遗传算法对模糊控制器增益因子进行优化。以积分白噪声随机路面输入作为激励进行振动仿真,仿真结果表明采用本文设计的驾驶室有限带宽主动悬置模糊控制系统相对全浮式悬置系统有效降低了驾驶室质心垂直、俯仰和侧倾加速度,一定程度上提高了商用车行驶平顺性和乘坐舒适性。%A ten-degree-of-freedom mathematical model of a commercial vehicle including the cab was established .Based on fuzzy control theory ,a bandwidth-limited active control system for the commercial vehicle's cab suspension was designed .The vibrations of center of mass were investi-gated in directions of heave ,pith and roll . The gain factor of fuzzy controller was optimized through genetic algorithm and the vibration was simulated using integral white noise random road as input .The results show that by employing the bandwidth-limited active control system pro-posed ,the heave angular acceleration ,pith angular acceleration and roll angular acceleration are distinctly reduced when compared with that adopted full floating suspension system .Meantime , the ride performance and comfortability of the commercial vehicle are improved .

  13. Numerical Simulation of the Response of Vehicle Cab Bottom Shell Structure under Explosive Blast Wave Based on Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics%基于SPH算法的驾驶室底部结构对爆炸冲击波响应数值仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秉良; 周孔亢; 张云; 祁涛

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore the response of vehicle cab bottom under the non-contact blast wave of improvised explosive device, mine, etc. smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) algorithm is employed. The energy, stress contours and destruction form of a square plate restricted by four sides under blast wave with SPH algorithm are analyzed, and the results is highly comparable with empirical formula and the classical method arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE), the SPH algorithm is available for the transient dynamic response analysis of structure under blast wave. The SPH algorithm is employed to analyze the response of vehicle bottom under explosive blast wave, and the response of fuel tank, battery support, cabin floor and chassis, etc. are validated with physical test. A conclusion can be made that SPH needs simpler model and lower cost, and the result is more accurate. So SPH can be used to predict the vehicle cab bottom shell structure’s response under the blast wave, and provide a reference to the anti-explosion design of vehicle bottom structure.%针对地雷等简易爆炸装置在车辆驾驶室底部非接触爆炸问题,引入无网格光滑粒子流体动力学(Smoothed particle hydrodynamics, SPH)算法模拟爆炸冲击波作用下车辆底部结构的响应。以四边约束靶板为研究对象,分析靶板在爆炸冲击下的能量、应力变化和破坏形态,通过与传统的任意拉格朗日欧拉(Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian, ALE)固流耦合分析法和经验公式计算结果对比,验证SPH算法应用于处理此类问题的可行性;利用SPH算法对爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部结构进行数值仿真,分析车辆底部的油箱、电瓶支架、驾驶室地板、车架等关键结构的冲击响应,并与试验做出对比验证。仿真结果表明,基于 SPH 算法的爆炸仿真分析具有精度较高、建模简单、耗费计算资源少等优势,能够应用于爆炸冲击波作用下驾驶室底部板

  14. Slow Thinking and Deep Learning: Tversky and Kahneman's Taxi Cabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedwell, Mike

    2015-01-01

    This article is based on classroom application of a problem story constructed by Amos Tversky in the 1970s. His intention was to evaluate human beings' intuitions about statistical inference. The problem was revisited by his colleague, the Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman. The aim of this article is to show how popular science textbooks can…

  15. Evaluation of Proposed Cab Glass Coating for FAA Control Towers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 88 ABW Cleared 01/17/2014; 88ABW-2014-0142. Report contains color . 14. ABSTRACT AFRL assessed the...wear vision correction? None Contacts Glasses Both If required, which correction do you use: Monofocal Bifocal Trifocal Color perception results...Date: __________________ Local Time: ___________AM/PM Sunrise local: _______________ Sunset local

  16. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  17. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  18. 21 CFR 26.36 - Listing of CAB's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... activities once confirmed by the importing party. Nonconfirmation would have to be justified based...

  19. A novel start algorithm for CNG engines using ion sense technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bie, T. de; Ericsson, M.; Rask, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a start algorithm that is able to control the air/fuel ratio (AFR) during the cranking phase and immediately hereafter, where the ordinary ?-control is not yet enabled. The control is based on the ion sense principle, which means that a current through the spark plug is measured

  20. Current state and emission performance of CNG/LNG heavy-duty vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.; Patuleia, A.F.; Koornneef, G.P.

    2013-01-01

    The use of natural gas and biogas for heavy-duty road transport is gaining popularity. Apart from economic benefits and supply security, the environmental advantages are often cited. This report, with an extended Dutch summary, gives an overview of the current situation in Europe, with a focus on Th

  1. CNG as a Feasible Replacement for the U.S. Transportation Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Bibliography “2017–2025 Model Year Light-Duty Vehicle GHG Emissions and CAFE Standards: Supplemental Notice of Intent” (2011). Environmental Protection...Compressed Natural Gas Engine, Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University, Pahang, Malaysia . “Alternative Fuels & Advanced

  2. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  3. Sensors for online determination of CNG gas quality; Sensorer foer onlinebestaemnning av fordonsgaskvalitet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenlaaaas, Ola; Roedjegaard, Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Swedish automotive gas has until now been a very uniform, high quality automotive fuel. Elsewhere in Europe the quality of automotive gas varies significantly. Gas from different sources with different flammability require engine settings adjusted to the chosen gas' unique composition. The prospects for a vehicle-mounted sensor based on infrared technology for gas quality measurement has been studied and solutions are presented with questions that must be answered in a possible future work. The proposed vehicle mounted sensor is based on two channels, one of which measures the partial pressure of methane and the other measures the partial pressure of heavier hydrocarbons in 'equivalents of butane'. Ethane produces a signal of about 0.6 equivalents of butane and propane about 0.8 equivalents. The sensor can be accommodated in a cube with 5 cm side and should be equipped with nipple connections to the existing system. The sensor is expected to work throughout their entire lifetime without manual calibration, through continuous automatic calibration, so-called ABC (Automatic Baseline Compensation). The sensor will have to meet tough quality and environmental standards in which primarily contact ring, vibration and prevention of leakage are identified as extra difficult. Working temperatures and the electrical conditions of power supply and communication interface is considered less challenging. In one million volumes, the cost per sensor could be 200 to 300 SEK.

  4. Mechatronic development of an active spring-/tilt engineering for the railcar RailCab; Mechatronische Entwicklung der aktiven Feder-/Neigetechnik fuer das Schienenfahrzeug RailCab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu-Henke, X.

    2005-07-01

    A mechatronic development process with computer-supported design up to real time implementation of a prototype was applied throughout, with particular emphasis on mechatronic composition. After establishing a nonlinear mechatronic model and model identification, nonlinear compensation was designed and implemented in a HiL test stand. Simulations and test stand measurements verified high driving comfort and high safety as a result of the implemented active spring/tilt technology.

  5. Can the 2014 Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB) Succeed in Mindanao Where Previous Agreements Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    inside and outside of the classroom has made me a better person and professional. Most of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my...decentralization provides the Moros with “greater autonomy over cultural, economic, and social policies,” and the GOP with the satisfaction of...and assessments analyzed by this thesis combine scholarly research, think-tank assessments, and news- media articles. Information is analyzed to ask

  6. Analytical study to minimize the engine exhaust emissions and safe knock limit of CNG powered four-stroke SI engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeewan V. Tirkey, H.N. Gupta, S.K. Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, theoretical analysis has been done to minimise engine emissions and safe knock limit by changing some operational and design parameters such as equivalence ratio, spark plug location, compression ratio, and cylinder diameter by using computer simulation model. For this purpose a zero dimensional knock model, two zone combustion model(one in front and one behind the flame front, and gas dynamic model have been incorporated. Subsequently, the Nitric Oxide exhaust emission concentrations have been predicted by using the rate kinetic model in the power cycle and along the exhaust pipes. Furthermore, Carbon Monoxide is computed under chemical equilibrium condition and then empirical adjustment is made for kinetic behaviours based upon experimental results. It is inferred that the value of cylinder pressure data, BMEP, BSFC obtained by using computer simulation model based on theoretical analysis are in closer agreement with those which are obtained by previous studies.

  7. Screening of tank-to-wheel efficiencies for CNG, DME and methanol-ethanol fuel blends in road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Jannik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the fuel efficiency of selected alternative fuels based on vehicle performance in a standardised drive cycle test. All studies reviewed are either based on computer modelling of current or future vehicles or tests of just one alternative fuel, under...... different conditions and concentrations against either petrol or diesel. No studies were found testing more than one type of alternative fuel in the same setup. Do to this one should be careful when comparing results on several alternative fuels. Only few studies have been focused on vehicle energy...

  8. Model curriculum outline for Alternatively Fueled Vehicle (AFV) automotive technician training in light and medium duty CNG and LPG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This model curriculum outline was developed using a turbo-DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) process which utilizes practicing experts to undertake a comprehensive job and task analysis. The job and task analysis serves to establish current baseline data accurately and to improve both the process and the product of the job through constant and continuous improvement of training. The DACUM process is based on the following assumptions: (1) Expert workers are the best source for task analysis. (2) Any occupation can be described effectively in terms of tasks. (3) All tasks imply knowledge, skills, and attitudes/values. A DACUM panel, comprised of six experienced and knowledgeable technicians who are presently working in the field, was given an orientation to the DACUM process. The panel then identified, verified, and sequenced all the necessary job duty areas and tasks. The broad duty categories were rated according to relative importance and assigned percentage ratings in priority order. The panel then rated every task for each of the duties on a scale of 1 to 3. A rating of 3 indicates an {open_quotes}essential{close_quotes} task, a rating of 2 indicates an {open_quotes}important{close_quotes} task, and a rating of 1 indicates a {open_quotes}desirable{close_quotes} task.

  9. Evaluation of Orion/BAE Hybrid Buses and Orion CNG Buses at New York City Transit: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Barnitt, R.; Chandler, K.

    2005-05-01

    This paper prepared for the 2005 American Public Transportation Association Bus & Paratransit Conference discusses the NREL/DOE evaluation of hybrid electric transit buses operated by New York City Transit.

  10. Diálogo sobre a poesia oral na Cabília: entrevista de Mouloud Mammeri a Pierre Bourdieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Bourdieu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Neste diálogo, Pierre Bourdieu e o etnólogo, escritor e poeta argelino Mouloud Mammeri (1917-1989 exploram e explicam as bases sociais, os usos e o sentido da poesia oral na sociedade e história cabilas. Como filho do penúltimo amusnaw (sábio; bardo de sua tribo, Mammeri estava posicionado de maneira única para situar esse mestre das palavras que atuou na função tradicional de mediador e transportador do conhecimento e manteve-se como a encarnação viva da tamusni (a filosofia prática da excelência berbere, em relação com o marabuto (depositário das sagradas escrituras do Corão e com os camponeses (que compõem seu público principal. Torná-se amusnaw graças a uma eleição e isso requer um duplo aprendizado: primeiro, por osmose em um meio saturado de comércio e disputas verbais (no treinamento de guerra, na assembléia da vila, nos mercados e nas peregrinações e, depois, por meio de um treinamento explícito com um poeta-mestre que orienta uma série de exercícios e provas. Esse processo requer não apenas o domínio de uma variedade de técnicas verbais e de um cânone oratório, mas também implica absorver e encarnar a sabedoria. Jogando com a multidimensionalidade da linguagem, adaptando-a com flexibilidade diante das especificidades de cada situação e público, o bardo cabila era continuamente testado e suas habilidades culturais infinitamente refinadas, até o ponto em que ele não apenas dominasse as regras do ofício, mas também jogasse com elas, trangredindo-as no espírito da tradição a fim de inventar novas figuras retóricas e extrair o máximo de "rendimento" da linguagem. A tamusni emerge assim não apenas como um corpo de conhecimento inerte, desligado da vida e transmitido por si mesmo, mas como uma "ciência prática", constantemente revivida pela e para a prática. O poeta é o porta-voz do grupo que, por meio de seu discernimento cultural e uso técnico da linguagem, aperfeiçoa os valores específicos do grupo, separa coisas que são confusas e, ao iluminar o que é obscuro, mobiliza seu povo.

  11. 78 FR 13754 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2004 Ford F-150 Crew Cab Trucks...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... high-mounted stop lamp. Standard No. 111 Rearview Mirrors: Installation of a U.S.-model passenger side rearview mirror, or inscription of the required warning statement on the face of the existing...

  12. FAA Air Traffic Control Tower Cab Glass Evaluation, Specification and Assessment with Respect to Optical-Visual Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    glass laminated together with clear polyvinyl butyral (PVB). The outer surfaces of the two layers of glass are coated/treated with Pilkington’s... Polyvinyl Butyral QA – Quality Assurance SOW – Statement of Work US – United States USAF – United States Air Force ZGI – Zamil Glass Industries

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK288592 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288592 J090051B06 Q28718|CNGA2_RABIT Cyclic nucleotide-gated olfactory channel (C...yclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 2) (CNG channel 2) (CNG-2) (CNG2) (Aorta CNG channel) (RACNG) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 4.00E-13 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK100808 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100808 J023121M17 (Q28718) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated olfactory channel (Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation chann...el 2) (CNG channel 2) (CNG-2) (CNG2) (Aorta CNG channel) (RACNG) CNGA2_RABIT 1e-25 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK120308 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK120308 J013054N15 (Q28718) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated olfactory channel (Cyclic-nucl...eotide-gated cation channel 2) (CNG channel 2) (CNG-2) (CNG2) (Aorta CNG channel) (RACNG) CNGA2_RABIT 4e-20 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK100312 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100312 J023078M02 (Q28718) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated olfactory channel (Cyclic-nucl...eotide-gated cation channel 2) (CNG channel 2) (CNG-2) (CNG2) (Aorta CNG channel) (RACNG) CNGA2_RABIT 7e-18 ...

  17. Effect of Injection Location and Multi-Hole Nozzle on Mixing Performance in a CNG-Fuelled Engine with Port Gas Injection, Using CFD Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tianbo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressed natural gas injection device with moving-coil electromagnetic linear actuator and mushroom type poppet valve was designed to supply a large-bore intake port injection type engine with sufficient fuel timely. The transient engine CFD model combined with the poppet valve's motion was established to research the effect of injection conditions on the mixing homogeneity in the intake port and cylinder. Computed penetration distances of impinging jet with different k-ε models and different wall functions are compared with measured results in the literature to validate the model. It was observed that the gas injection location and number of nozzle holes have a significant effect on mixing performance both in the intake port and cylinder.

  18. EQ1092F汽油/CNG两用燃料汽车研究%A Gasoline/CNG Bi-fuel Vehicle Based on EQ1092F Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚勇; 邸敏艳; 赵二维

    2005-01-01

    利用国产设备对EQ1092F汽车进行燃气化改造,改燃天然气后功率下降10%左右,污染物排放下降20%~60%.在化油器汽油机基础上改造的EQ1092F汽车,发动机的基本参数没有改变,改燃天然气的优越性不能充分的体现出来.因此应尽可能缩短汽油/CNG两用燃料汽车的过渡时间,加快CNG加气站的建设,将两用燃料汽车改为纯CNG汽车.

  19. CNG Stations Fire Fatalness Analysis and Preventive Measures Discussed%CNG加气站的火灾危险性分析及预防措施探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩中华

    2008-01-01

    以晋城煤业集团CNG加气站为例,通过对静电、明火、安全培训不到位等火灾危险因素进行分析,针对性的提出了只有通过静电预防、控制和消除引火源、设置完善的安全保护装置、提高员工专业素质才是预防火灾的有效措施.

  20. 我国车用压缩天然气站场安全管理对策%Vehicle Used CNG Station Safety Management Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩世川; 周丽娜

    2014-01-01

    Natural gas as a cleaner, better quality, more economical new energy and chemical raw materials, has been widely recognized in international society, so vigorously developing natural gas industry accords with the development trend of world energy. This paper analyzes the production, safety management of automobile used compressed natural gas station.%天然气作为一种更清洁、更优质、更经济的新型能源和化工原料,已被国际社会广泛认同,大力发展天然气工业符合世界能源发展的趋势。本文对车用压缩天然气站场生产、安全管理进行分析研究。

  1. Main: LRENPCABE [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available element in tobacco (N.p.) CAB (cab-E) gene; Located at -241; CAB; cab; cab-E; CABE; light; leaf; shoot; tobacco (Nicotiana plumbaginifolia) ACGTGGCA ... ...LRENPCABE S000231 17-May-1998 (last modified) kehi LRE; A positive light regulatory

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFH526 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 099.1 CAB20005_Ia_Ra_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20005_Ia_Ra_A07... 0.15 2 CB348691 |CB348691.1 CAB2SG0005_IIaR_C02 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB2SG Vitis vinifera cDNA clone

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSH725 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 5...', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-12 2 CF211161 |CF211161.1 CAB20007_IIa_Ra_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFG575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10004_I....1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F03 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F03

  5. Combustion Temperature Effect of Diesel Engine Convert to Compressed Natural Gas Engine

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    Effect of combustion temperature in the engine cylinder of diesel engine convert to Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine was presents in this study. The objective of this study was to investigate the engine cylinder combustion temperature effect of diesel engine convert to CNG engine on variation engine speed. Problem statement: The hypothesis was that the lower performance of CNG engine was caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder temperature. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder temp...

  6. Effect of Diesel Engine Converted to Sequential Port Injection Compressed Natural Gas Engine on the Cylinder Pressure vs Crank Angle in Variation Engine Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2009-01-01

    The diesel engine converted to compressed natural gas (CNG) engine effect is lower in performance. Problem statement: The hypothesis is that the lower performance of CNG engine is caused by the effect of lower in engine cylinder pressure. Are the CNG engine is lower cylinder pressure than diesel engine? This research is conducted to investigate the cylinder pressure of CNG engine as a new engine compared to diesel engine as a baseline engine. Approach: The research approach in this study is b...

  7. Pencantuman Klausula Baku Dalam Akad Pembiayaan Syariah Dikaitkan Dengan Undang-Undang Perlindungan Konsumen Studi Pada PT.Bank Muamalat CAB.Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi, Rizky

    2013-01-01

    Fenomena yang berkembang saat ini menunjukkan makin berkembangnya pertumbuhan sistem keuangan dan perbankan syariah di tanah air secara khusus dan di dunia secara umum. Hal ini disebabkan karena sistem keuangan syariah salah satu diantara yang mampu bertahan dalam krisis ekonomi dan keuangan global yang terjadi saat ini. Timbulnya perjanjian baku di dalam lalu lintas Hukum Perjanjian Nasional dan Internasional dilandasi oleh kebutuhan akan pelayanan yang efektif dan efisien terhadap kegiatan ...

  8. The design of the cab fare register system based on FPGA%MATLAB在电力电子技术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娟

    2015-01-01

    Combined with the power electronic technology in the teaching of circuit waveform analysis on existing problems,this article introduces the use of matlab simulating software of SimPowerSystem power system libraries to complete simulation of single-phase bridge rectifier circuit,deepening students understand the theoretical knowledge,this course effectively stimulate students'interest in learning.%结合电力电子技术教学中对电路波形分析上存在的问题,本文介绍了利用MATLA仿真软件中的SimPowerSystem电力系统库完成对单相桥式可控整流电路的仿真,加深同学生对本课程理论知识的理解,有效的激发学生的学习兴趣.

  9. Ergonomic driver`s cab analysis at MAN, Munich: A comparative study with real and virtual persons; Ergonomische Fahrerplatzanalyse bei MAN: eine Vergleichsstudie mit realen und virtuellen Menschen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, W. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); Koos, H. [MAN Nutzfahrzeuge AG, Muenchen (Germany); Lippmann, R. [IST GmbH, Kandern (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    At present, rational planning and development technologies are just as much in demand as rational production processes. In the continuous search for efficient development methods, ergonomy must also be taken into account. However, the extent to which ergonomic principles are applied depends to a high degree on persons who are called upon to contribute their expertise in this field creatively in product development in addition to their normal jobs. If the constructors and designers succeed in using tools with which ergonomic design principles can be implemented more quickly and reliably as the basis of their design process, this is then an important contribution to minimising development times and costs. After extensive research, the designer team decided to test the efficiency of an ergonomy tool in routine use on a project with limited time for which values for comparison are available from previous tests. A specific urgent task was a welcome opportunity for MAN AG to test a certain combined computer-aided ergonomy method in order to determine from the experience gained with it whether and how it may be applied in future and what the output of the application actually has to offer to the developers and the product. (orig.) [Deutsch] Rationelle Planungs- und Entwicklungstechnologien - die Ergonomie eingeschlossen - sind heute genauso gefragt wie rationelle Produktionsverfahren. Wenn es den Konstrukteuren und Designern gelingt, Werkzeuge einzusetzen, mit denen ergonomische Gestaltungsprinzpien als Grundlage ihres Entwurfsprozesses schneller und sicherer erarbeitet werden koennen, dann ist auch dies ein wichtiger Beitrag zur Minimierung der Entwicklungszeiten und -kosten. Deshalb entschied sich das Designerteam, die Effizienz eines Ergonomiewerkzeuges im Betriebsalltag an einem zeitlich begrenzten Projekt, fuer das Vergleichswerte aus zurueckliegenden Pruefungen mit anderen Methoden vorliegen, zu testen. Dabei sollte festgestellt werden, ob und wie es vielleicht zukuenftig eingesetzt werden kann und welchen Wert das Anwendungsergebnis ingesamt fuer die Entwickler und fuer das Produkt darstellt. (orig.)

  10. Reducing accident potential by improving the ergonomics and safety of locomotive and safety of locomotive and FSV driver cabs by retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rushworth, A.M.; Simpson, G.C. [International Mining Consultants Limited (United Kingdom). Ergonomics and Safety Management Unit

    1994-12-01

    In order to reduce accident potential in existing underground haulage and transport operations two research projects were commissioned. The projects were supported jointly by British Coal and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) Ergonomics Action Programme. The aims of the two projects were to identify and prove practical retrofit improvements that would reduce human error potential and, thereby, accident potential in existing FSV and locomotive operations. More specifically, the plan was to take six long-life locomotives and FSVs from the existing BCC fleet and examine them against the existing recommendations for `ideal` ergonomics. For each unit, a series of viable retrofits would be defined and suitable modifications implemented and tested in operational conditions. The work is fully documented in Rushworth`s reports. This article outlines the major findings and the method used to produce and implement solutions. The method is also considered in the context of its wider potential for dealing with the safety risks associated with mining operations involving other types of equipment. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Selection of the Next Generation of Air Traffic Control Specialists: Aptitude Requirements for the Air Traffic Control Tower Cab in 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    radio to aircraft that do not subscribe to electronic delivery via Terminal Data Link Services (TDLS; FAA, 2008b). An IFR departure clearance...strips (from FAA Academy Initial Terminal Training: Stripmarking (TLP-11) (March, 2007) Table 1: Example simple departure clearance IFR Clearance...with filed Instrument Flight Rule ( IFR ) flight plans. For example, 99% of over 614,000 operations at DEN in 2009 were conducted under Parts 121 and

  12. Ecosystem monitoring information collected in Hanna Shoal in the Chukchi Sea for the COMIDA CAB project from August 2012 to August 2013 (NODC Accession 0123220)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Hanna Shoal Ecosystem Study. The study occurred at 138...

  13. Mutations Found in embCAB, embR, and ubiA Genes of Ethambutol-Sensitive and -Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuhui; Jia, Hongyan; Huang, Hairong; Sun, Zhaogang; Zhang, Zongde

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the molecular mechanisms of Ethambutol (EMB) resistance, the mutant hot spot region of five genes (embB, embA, embC, embR, and ubiA) was amplified and sequenced in 109 EMB-resistant and 153 EMB-susceptible clinical isolates from China. Twenty-seven EMB-susceptible isolates were found to have nonsynonym mutations, 23 of which were in embB. The mutations occurred most frequently in embB (85.3%, 93) and were seldom in embC (2.8%, 3), embA (3.7%, 4), embR (3.7%, 4), and ubiA (8.3%, 9) in EMB-resistant isolates. For the embB gene, 63 isolates showed mutations at embB306, 20 at embB406, nine at embB497, and five at embB354 in EMB-resistant isolates. In addition, the particular mutants at embB406 and embB497 indicated both high levels of EMB resistance (MICs > 5 μg/mL) and broad anti-TB drug resistance spectrums. Our data supported the facts that embB306 could be used as a marker for EMB resistance with a sensitivity of 57.8% and a specificity of 78.8%.

  14. Mutations Found in embCAB, embR, and ubiA Genes of Ethambutol-Sensitive and -Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the molecular mechanisms of Ethambutol (EMB resistance, the mutant hot spot region of five genes (embB, embA, embC, embR, and ubiA was amplified and sequenced in 109 EMB-resistant and 153 EMB-susceptible clinical isolates from China. Twenty-seven EMB-susceptible isolates were found to have nonsynonym mutations, 23 of which were in embB. The mutations occurred most frequently in embB (85.3%, 93 and were seldom in embC (2.8%, 3, embA (3.7%, 4, embR (3.7%, 4, and ubiA (8.3%, 9 in EMB-resistant isolates. For the embB gene, 63 isolates showed mutations at embB306, 20 at embB406, nine at embB497, and five at embB354 in EMB-resistant isolates. In addition, the particular mutants at embB406 and embB497 indicated both high levels of EMB resistance (MICs>5 μg/mL and broad anti-TB drug resistance spectrums. Our data supported the facts that embB306 could be used as a marker for EMB resistance with a sensitivity of 57.8% and a specificity of 78.8%.

  15. A Research on the Ride Comfort of Truck Cab%载货汽车驾驶室乘坐舒适性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴碧磊; 秦民; 李幼德; 程超; 王新宇

    2006-01-01

    通过计算机仿真模拟了在路面随机输入下驾驶室底板的振动响应;利用Nastran软件对车身的有限元模型进行模态抽取,建立了刚弹耦合模型;对多刚体模型、刚弹耦合振动模型的计算结果与试验进行了对比,验证了模型的正确性;以驾驶室悬置的弹簧刚度、减振器阻尼为影响因素,通过虚拟DOE正交试验分析,显著改善了驾驶室的乘坐舒适性.

  16. SwissProt search result: AK060339 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK060339 001-008-C12 (Q29441) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_BOVIN 2e-18 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK059452 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059452 001-028-B08 (Q9JJZ8) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_MOUSE 3e-11 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK112041 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK112041 001-044-H11 (Q9JJZ8) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_MOUSE 6e-19 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK100312 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100312 J023078M02 (Q16281) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_HUMAN 4e-18 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK100739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100739 J023118D04 (Q9JJZ8) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_MOUSE 7e-15 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK100808 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100808 J023121M17 (Q29441) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_BOVIN 3e-21 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK100739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100739 J023118D04 (Q29441) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel alpha 3 (CNG channel... alpha 3) (CNG-3) (CNG3) (Cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel alpha subunit) CNGA3_BOVIN 5e-14 ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHR409 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1 CF207923 |CF207923.1 CAB20002_IVa_Fa_G06 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone ...gnificant alignments: (bits) Value N CF208003 |CF208003.1 CAB20002_IVa_Ra_G06 Cab...ernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitisvinifera cDNA clone CAB20002_IVa_Ra_G06 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.53

  4. Molecular characterization of the heteromeric coenzyme A-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olzhausen, Judith; Moritz, Tom; Neetz, Tim; Schüller, Hans-Joachim

    2013-09-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) as an essential cofactor for acyl and acetyl transfer reactions is synthesized in five enzymatic steps from pantothenate, cysteine, and ATP. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, products of five essential genes CAB1-CAB5 (coenzyme A biosynthesis) are required to catalyze CoA biosynthesis. In addition, nonessential genes SIS2 and VHS3 similar to CAB3 are also involved. Using epitope-tagged variants of Cab3 and Cab5, we show that both proteins cofractionate upon chromatographic separation, forming a complex of about 330 kDa. We thus systematically investigated interactions among Cab proteins. Our results show that Cab2, Cab3, Cab4, and Cab5 indeed bind to each other, with Cab3 as the sole protein, which can interact with itself and other Cab proteins. Cab3 also binds to Sis2 and Vhs3 that were previously characterized as subunits of phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase. Pantothenate kinase encoded by CAB1 as the rate-limiting enzyme of CoA biosynthesis did not interact with other Cab proteins. Mapping studies revealed that the nonconserved N-terminus of Cab3 is required for dimerization and for binding of Cab2 and Cab5. Our interaction studies confirm early reports on the existence of a CoA-synthesizing protein complex (CoA-SPC) in yeast and provide precise data on protein domains involved in complex formation.

  5. 甩挂运输模式在 CNG 运输行业的效益优势分析%The advantage analysis of the drop and pull transportation mode in the field of the Compressed Natural Gas transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武怀宁

    2016-01-01

    文章主要对比分析了压缩天然气(CNG)运输行业应用甩挂运输模式较传统运输模式的效益优势。甩挂运输作为一种效率型、绿色型、节约型的先进道路物流组织方式,将成为我国道路运输发展的必然趋势。%This paper mainly analyzes the advantages of the application of drop and pull transportation mode in the field of compressed natural gas transportation in comparison with the traditional transportation mode. As an efficient, environmental and economical advanced road logistics organization mode, the drop and pull transportation will become an inevitable trend of the development of Chinese road transportation.

  6. Methane from wood: phase 1 - Production of synthetic natural gas from wood for use as a biofuel; Methan-aus-Holz: Phase 1. Erzeugung von synthetischem Erdgas aus Holz zur Nutzung als Biotreibstoff (CNG/CMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biollaz, S.; Seemann, M.; Schildhauer, T. J.; Stucki, S.

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises work done during 2003 and 2004 on methods for the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) from wood. The proof of the methanisation concept on a laboratory scale is described and the step-wise development to a full-size, 20 MW industrial plant is discussed. The results of tests made using an existing 8 MW gasifier in Guessing, Austria, are presented and discussed, as are the results from a 10 kW, mini-pilot installation that was used for unmanned tests over several hundred hours of operation. Sulphur-poisoning of the catalyst used and possible solutions are reviewed. The results of the 2003 and 2004 campaigns are to provide the technical basis for a proposed EU-project to be started in 2006.

  7. Remote Measure and Control System of CNG Flow Based on Modbus RTU Communication Protocol%基于Modbus RTU通信协议的CNG流量远程测控系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金凤; 曹顺; 王贵成

    2014-01-01

    提出了一种基于Modbus RTU协议及非接触式IC卡的CNG流量测控、远传及管理系统;系统以STC89C516微处理器为主控芯片,实现CNG流量采集、数据远传、历史记录查询、系统参数设置、实时显示、声光报警等;科氏力质量流量计及上位机均采用RS485接口、基于Modbus RTU协议与微控制器进行串行通信;利用非接触式IC卡及键盘输入密码修改系统参数、结算;使用严密的密码保护系统,保障1C卡的数据安全;系统测试结果表明:该系统运行平稳,能准确地实现数据采集、远传及显示;具有操作简单、检测精度高、抗干扰能力强、电路成本低等优点,具有广阔的应用前景.

  8. Dicty_cDB: SSM208 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ore E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N CF211492 |CF211492.1 CAB20007_Ia_Ra_H10 Cab...ernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20007_Ia_Ra_H10 3', mRNA sequence. 64 1e-15

  9. Costs Associated With Compressed Natural Gas Vehicle Fueling Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.; Gonzales, J.

    2014-09-01

    This document is designed to help fleets understand the cost factors associated with fueling infrastructure for compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles. It provides estimated cost ranges for various sizes and types of CNG fueling stations and an overview of factors that contribute to the total cost of an installed station. The information presented is based on input from professionals in the natural gas industry who design, sell equipment for, and/or own and operate CNG stations.

  10. UniProt search blastx result: AK288592 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288592 J090051B06 Q00194|CNGA1_BOVIN cGMP-gated cation channel alpha 1 (CNG channel... alpha 1) (CNG-1) (CNG1) (Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel alpha 1) (Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, photo...receptor) (Cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel 1) (Rod photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel subunit alpha) - Bos taurus (Bovine) 1.00E-13 ...

  11. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Abdul R. Ismail; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine pe...

  12. Building a Business Case for Compressed Natural Gas in Fleet Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-03-19

    Natural gas is a clean-burning, abundant, and domestically produced source of energy. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has recently garnered interest as a transportation fuel because of these attributes and because of its cost savings and price stability compared to conventional petroleum fuels. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Vehicle Infrastructure and Cash-Flow Evaluation (VICE) model to help businesses and fleets evaluate the financial soundness of CNG vehicle and CNG fueling infrastructure projects.

  13. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  14. Comparative Performance of Direct Injection Diesel Engines Fueled Using Compressed Natural Gas and Diesel Fuel Based on GT-POWER Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is investigated the application of compressed natural gas (CNG as an alternative fuel and its performance effect in the diesel engines using GT-POWER computational simulation. The CNG as an alternative fuel for four stroke diesel engine modeling was developed from the real diesel engine using GT-POWER computational model with measure all of engine components size. The computational model will be running on mono CNG fuel and mono diesel fuel to simulate and investigate the engine performance effect on the difference fuel. Output of the model simulation shown the effect of diesel engine fueled by CNG performance effect were simulated in any engine speeds parameters.

  15. Chemical and benthos data collected from CTD, bottle, and other instruments in the Chukchi Sea in 2009-2010 as part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA-CAB) project (NODC Accession 0095566)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains physical, chemical, and biological data collected during research cruises for the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area (Chemical...

  16. Ergonomics application research on industrial handling vehicles cab%人机工程学在工业搬运车辆驾驶室设计中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘牛

    2013-01-01

    自工业革命以来,伴随着工业产品在人们日常工作生活中的广泛使用,人机工程学这门学科在工业产品中的应用也变得越来越重要.本文根据人机工程学的学科理论体系,针对其在工业搬运车辆驾驶室内部设计中的实际应用,并结合工业搬运车辆驾驶室的人机工程设计要求,研究了工业搬运车辆驾驶室内部的人性化设计原则,同时提出了相关的设计理念和方法.

  17. Process Simulation on Truck-cab Panels%轻型载货汽车驾驶室顶部覆盖件成形过程的计算机仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦学健; 柴山; 孔祥贵

    2008-01-01

    以轻型载货车驾驶室顶部覆盖件为倒,应用板成形分析软件Dynaform对覆盖件成形进行了仿真,并对仿真结果进行分析,找出模具设计中的缺陷,从而提出优化和改进方案.

  18. Control system design for welding jig of the truck cab bottom%卡车驾驶室底部焊接夹具的控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王善刚; 战佩艳; 张爽; 付胡代; 高金刚

    2015-01-01

    根据企业要求对卡车驾驶室底部焊接夹具的机械结构和电气控制系统进行了设计,以实现自动化为目的;主要介绍夹具自动翻转的控制系统,以西门子S7-200小型PLC为主控设备,以FRN5.5G1S-4C变频器来控制电动机转速,德国SEW公司生产的DV112M4/BMG/HF的380V交流电动机作为驱动设备,而用欧姆龙有限公司生产的E2E-X5E1-Z金属感应器来作为检测设备等来完成控制,经实际应用,该控制系统满足卡车驾驶室底部焊接夹具自动翻转的控制目的,体现出焊接夹具的高效性、安全性和可靠性.

  19. Dicty_cDB: VHD613 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vi...tis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 3.4 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Caberne...4 3.4 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHA757 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB7...0001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 5.0 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Caberne... 5.0 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera c

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHK804 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 3', mRNA sequence. 44 4.1 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - ...848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA...us vulpecula cDNA clone 1061024540571, mRNA sequence. 44 4.1 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFF631 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 52 2e-09 3 CB970649 |CB970649.1 CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 V...102 |CB975102.1 CAB30006_IIc_Ra_B01 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Stage I - CAB3 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB300...06_IIc_Ra_B01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 1e-08 3 CB978202 |CB978202.1 CAB40005_IIa_Ra_F12 Cabernet Sauvignon Berr

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHR710 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNA 5, mRNA sequence. 62 2e-05 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraiso...n - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.015 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne...one CAB70001_IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.018 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSJ366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 007 1 CB970932 |CB970932.1 CAB10004_IVa_Fa_D03 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDN...A clone CAB10004_IVa_Fa_D03 5', mRNA sequence. 52 0.007 1 CB971834 |CB971834.1 CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-blo...om - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02

  5. Binding Mode of an α-Amino Acid-Linked Quinoxaline-2,3-dione Analogue at Glutamate Receptor Subtype GluK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demmer, Charles S; Møller, Charlotte; Brown, Patricia M G E;

    2015-01-01

    Two α-amino acid-functionalized quinoxalines, 1a (CNG-10301) and 1b (CNG-10300), of a quinoxaline moiety coupled to an amino acid moiety were designed, synthesized, and characterized pharmacologically. While 1a displayed low affinity at native AMPA, KA, and NMDA receptors, and at homomeric GluK1,...

  6. Compressed Natural Gas Installation. A Video-Based Training Program for Vehicle Conversion. Instructor's Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials required to teach four competency-based course units of instruction in installing compressed natural gas (CNG) systems in motor vehicles. It is designed to accompany an instructional videotape (not included) on CNG installation. The following competencies are covered in the four instructional units:…

  7. 49 CFR 571.303 - Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed natural gas vehicles. 571.303 Section 571.303 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles. S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for the integrity of motor vehicle fuel systems using compressed natural gas (CNG), including the CNG...

  8. Case Study: Natural Gas Regional Transport Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, M.; Burnham, A.

    2016-08-01

    Learn about Ryder System, Inc.'s experience in deploying nearly 200 CNG and LNG heavy-duty trucks and construction and operation of L/CNG stations using ARRA funds. Using natural gas in its fleet, Ryder mitigated the effects of volatile fuel pricing and reduced lifecycle GHGs by 20% and petroleum by 99%.

  9. An Interview with the Executive Editor-in-Chief of China National Geographic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangFeng

    2004-01-01

    China Mational Geographic(CNG) is one of my favorite maazines.Not only I but also my friends and relatives are loyal readers of the magazine,When I finish reading each issue,it is usually borrowed by and circulated among my friends and relatives.According to official statistice,the circulation rate of CNG

  10. An evaluation of criteria for selecting vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hesterberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed selection criteria for diesel and compressed natural gas (CNG fueled vehicles, comparing engine emissions, fire and safety, toxicity, economics, and operations. Diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles with the latest emission-control technology, including engine-exhaust aftertreatment, have very similar emissions of regulated and unregulated compounds, particles through all size ranges, and greenhouse gases. Although toxicity data are limited, no significant toxicity differences of engine emissions were reported. Operating and maintenance costs are variable, with no consistent difference between diesel- and CNG-fueled vehicles. The main operating concern with CNG vehicles is that they are less fuel efficient. Higher infrastructure costs are involved with implementing a CNG-fueled vehicle fleet, giving diesel vehicles a distinct cost advantage over CNG vehicles. For a given budget, greater emissions reductions can thus be achieved with diesel+filter vehicles. Finally, diesel vehicles have a significant fire-and-safety advantage over CNG vehicles. In summary, infrastructure costs and fire-and-safety concerns are much greater for CNG-fueled vehicles. These considerations should be part of the decision-making process when selecting a fuel for a transportation system.

  11. Driving on Natural Gas, Greening the Gasunie Fleet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Driving on CNG is preferable to conventional fuels because of diversification of the energy mix, local availability of natural gas, the financial benefit and the transition function towards (sustain-able) biogas and emission reduction. Furthermore, the CNG technology is expected to be safer than con

  12. Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for Light-Duty Natural-Gas-Fueled Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.; Thomas, J.F.

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and make recommendations concerning technologies that promise to improve the efilciency of compressed natural gas (CNG) light-duty vehicles. Technical targets for CNG automotive technology given in the March 1998 OffIce of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan were used as guidance for this effort. The technical target that necessitates this current study is to validate technologies that enable CNG light vehicles to have at least 10% greater - fuel economy (on a miles per gallon equivalent basis) than equivalent gasoline vehicles by 2006. Other tar- gets important to natural gas (NG) automotive technology and this study are to: (1) increase CNG vehicle range to 380 miles, (2) reduce the incremental vehicle cost (CNG vs gasoline) to $1500, and (3) meet the California ultra low-emission vehicle (ULEV) and Federal Tier 2 emission standards expected to be in effect in 2004.

  13. 49 CFR 236.528 - Restrictive condition resulting from open hand-operated switch; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and... automatic cab signal device on an approaching locomotive shall be maintained to within 300 feet of...

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1017 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 50 2e-04 2 CF207340 |CF207340.1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower blo...sequence. 50 2e-04 2 CB980647 |CB980647.1 CAB70003_IIIaF_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 V...om - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001_IIa_Ra_F10 3', mRNA sequence. 50 2e-04 2 CB976850 |CB976850.1 CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 5', mRNA

  15. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  16. A Computational fluid dynamics model of viscous coupling of sensory hairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Gregory C.; Hallam, John

    2010-01-01

    Abstracts in Anthropology, Academic OneFile, AGRICOLA, Biological Abstracts, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB International, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), CSA, Current Abstracts, Current Contents/ Life Sciences, EBSCO, Elsevier Biobase, EMBASE, Gale, Global Health, Google Scholar, Health Reference...

  17. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  18. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  19. Özel Sayı: Geleceğin Mühendislik Eğitiminde Endüstri ile İşbirliği Sempozyumu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  20. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  1. Özel Sayı: Biyomekanik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak ve İçindekiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  2. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak İçindekiler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  3. Kapak ve İçindekiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapak ve İçindekiler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract ve EBSCO Host indeksleri tarafından taranmaktadır. Indexed in Zentralblatt MATH, Chemical Abstract, CAB Abstract and EBSCO Host indexes

  4. Dicty_cDB: VFH459 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available t US 6562958. 52 6e-06 2 CB971300 |CB971300.1 CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 Cabernet Sauvi...975981 |CB975981.1 CAB40001_IIa_Fa_F09 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB40001_II...a_Fa_F09 5', mRNA sequence. 48 1e-05 4 CF511327 |CF511327.1 CAbud0002_IIF_B12 Vitis vinifera cv. caberne

  5. Dicty_cDB: VFE113 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available , mRNA sequence. 62 2e-09 2 CB970649 |CB970649.1 CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - ...CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 5', mRNA sequence. 54 4e-09 3 CB975102 |CB975102.1 CAB30006_IIc_Ra_B01 Caberne

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHH101 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available producing significant alignments: (bits) Value N CB981489 |CB981489.1 CAB70004_IaR_A12 Caberne...5.1 Homo sapiens chromosome 8 clone CTC-361C3 map 8, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 32 3.3 2 CB981550 |CB981550.1 CAB70004_IbF_A12 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70004_IbF_A12

  7. Dicty_cDB: AFH152 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 80 4e-19 2 CF211274 |CF211274.1 CAB20007_IVa_Ra_C07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera c...DNA clone CAB20007_IVa_Ra_C07 3', mRNA sequence. 78 4e-18 3 CF211191 |CF211191.1 CAB20007_IVa_Fa_C07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom

  8. Dicty_cDB: AFJ603 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e. 48 1e-04 2 CF208808 |CF208808.1 CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera ...cDNA clone CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 3', mRNA sequence. 48 2e-04 2 CF208719 |CF208719.1 CAB20003_Ia_Fa_A08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-14-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-14-0006 emb|CAB42602.1| hyperpolarization-activated cation channel HCN2 [...Homo sapiens] emb|CAB42630.1| hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel hHCN2 [Homo sapiens] CAB42602.1 6e-05 34% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-05-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-05-0021 emb|CAB10225.1| retrovirus-related like polyprotein [Arabidopsis ...thaliana] emb|CAB78488.1| retrovirus-related like polyprotein [Arabidopsis thaliana] CAB10225.1 1e-156 48% ...

  11. Time based room correction system for low frequencies using multiple loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal; Celestinos, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    -domain by the construction of a finite-difference time-domain approximation program (FDTD) has lead to a novel and simple solution also working in the time-domain called Controlled Acoustically Bass System (CABS). Working in the time-domain CABS includes additional cancelling loudspeakers at the back wall in order to remove...... from scratch for further development of CABS....

  12. Dicty_cDB: CFI104 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 07 5, mRNA sequence. 50 2e-05 2 CB971834 |CB971834.1 CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02 Caberne...t Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02 5', mRNA sequence. 50 3e-

  13. Dicty_cDB: SSM503 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cTOE7E7 5' sequence, mRNA sequence. 76 2e-28 3 CF211085 |CF211085.1 CAB20007_IIa_Fa_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom...11161.1 CAB20007_IIa_Ra_H10 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHP305 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 3', mRNA sequence. 48 7e-0...VVB047G11 5, mRNA sequence. 48 6e-05 2 CF208808 |CF208808.1 CAB20003_Ia_Ra_A08 Ca

  15. Dicty_cDB: AFG603 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ent(1004496-821614) strain AX4, complete sequence. 36 7e-06 11 CF207924 |CF207924.1 CAB20002_IVa_Fa_G07 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower blo...om - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20002_IVa_Fa_G07

  16. Low-quality natural gas sulfur removal/recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damon, D.A. [CNG Research Co., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Siwajek, L.A. [Acrion Technologies, Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Klint, B.W. [BOVAR Inc., AB (Canada). Western Research

    1993-12-31

    Low quality natural gas processing with the integrated CFZ/CNG Claus process is feasible for low quality natural gas containing 10% or more of CO{sub 2}, and any amount of H{sub 2}S. The CNG Claus process requires a minimum CO{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas of about 100 psia (15% CO{sub 2} for a 700 psia feed gas) and also can handle any amount of H{sub 2}S. The process is well suited for handling a variety of trace contaminants usually associated with low quality natural gas and Claus sulfur recovery. The integrated process can produce high pressure carbon dioxide at purities required by end use markets, including food grade CO{sub 2}. The ability to economically co-produce high pressure CO{sub 2} as a commodity with significant revenue potential frees process economic viability from total reliance on pipeline gas, and extends the range of process applicability to low quality gases with relatively low methane content. Gases with high acid gas content and high CO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S ratios can be economically processed by the CFZ/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes. The large energy requirements for regeneration make chemical solvent processing prohibitive. The cost of Selexol physical solvent processing of the LaBarge gas is significantly greater than the CNG/CNG Claus and CNG Claus processes.

  17. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. For compression ignition engines converted to run on natural gas, there are two main options discussed, there are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can operate at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. In this paper, the CNG engines research and development fueled using CNG are highlighted to keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. The high activities for future CNG engines research and development to meet future CNG engines is recorded in the paper.

  18. Auslander-Reiten sequences and $t$-structures on the homotopy category of an abelian category

    CERN Document Server

    Backelin, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Let $\\Cab$ be an abelian category and let $\\KC$ be the bounded homotopy category of cochain complexes in $\\Cab$. We consider a $t$-structure on $\\KC$ that maps to the standard $t$-structure on the derived category $\\DC$ under the localization functor. Let $\\A$ be the heart of the $t$-structure. In the case when $\\Cab$ has finite length we show that objects of $\\Cab$ correspond to projective objects of $\\A$ and that simple objects of $\\A$ (if they exist) are given by Auslander's and Reiten's almost split sequences in $\\Cab$.

  19. Dicty_cDB: CHL243 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 98286 |X98286.1 D.discoideum mRNA for P-type ATPase. 1489 0.0 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Caberne...3 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.009 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraiso...n - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.011 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Caberne

  20. Dicty_cDB: VHP635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ments: (bits) Value N X98286 |X98286.1 D.discoideum mRNA for P-type ATPase. 702 0.0 2 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Caberne... CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - C...AB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 2.2 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne

  1. Dicty_cDB: SHF406 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ibrary Phaseolus vulgaris cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 32 1.5 3 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sa...980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7... Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 3.7 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne

  2. Dicty_cDB: VHI867 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available for P-type ATPase. 1233 0.0 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison ...B979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA clon...e CAB70001_IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.006 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon B

  3. Dicty_cDB: CHE822 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ATPase. 1378 0.0 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Viti...s vinifera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.007 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne...IIcF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 0.009 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-V

  4. Dicty_cDB: CHI751 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 86 0.0 2 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera ...cDNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.021 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Caberne..., mRNA sequence. 44 0.025 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - C

  5. Dicty_cDB: CHR373 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omosome 3 BAC OSJNBa0091P11 genomic sequence, complete sequence. 46 0.92 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Caberne...nce. 44 3.6 1 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vini...fera cDNA clone CAB70001_IaF_H03 5', mRNA sequence. 44 3.6 1 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabern

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHR538 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2e-05 1 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera c...DNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.015 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sau... mRNA sequence. 44 0.018 2 CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CA

  7. Dicty_cDB: CHB660 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 971300 |CB971300.1 CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone... CAB10005_IIIa_Fa_H08 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.010 2 CB975981 |CB975981.1 CAB40001_IIa_Fa_F09 Cabernet Sauvig... 48 0.012 2 CF511327 |CF511327.1 CAbud0002_IIF_B12 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon (Clone 8) Bud - CAB

  8. [Subpopulation of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mice spinal cord].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porseva, V V; Shilkin, V V; Strelkov, A A; Masliukov, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the plates I-IV on the thoracic and lumbar levels different subpopulations of interneurons immunoreactive for calbindin 28 kDa (CAB IR), which are specific to each plate. In the area of the medial edge of the dorsal horn, we have found a special subpopulation of CAB IR interneurons whose morphometric characteristics differ from CAB IR interneurons subpopulations of said plates. The number of CAB IR interneurons was maximal in the plate II at all levels of the spinal cord. Leveled differences are more CAB IR interneurons and larger area of the cross sections at the lumbar level.

  9. Climate and health relevant emissions from in-use Indian three-wheelers fueled by natural gas and gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Conor C O; Grieshop, Andrew P; Kandlikar, Milind

    2011-03-15

    Auto-rickshaws in India use different fuels and engine technologies, with varying emissions and implications for air quality and climate change. Chassis dynamometer emission testing was conducted on 30 in-use auto-rickshaws to quantify the impact of switching from gasoline to compressed natural gas (CNG) in spark-ignition engines. Thirteen test vehicles had two-stroke CNG engines (CNG-2S) and 17 had four-stroke CNG engines (CNG-4S), of which 11 were dual-fuel and operable on a back-up gasoline (petrol) system (PET-4S). Fuel-based emission factors were determined for gaseous pollutants (CO(2), CH(4), NO(X), THC, and CO) and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)). Intervehicle variability was high, and for most pollutants there was no significant difference (95% confidence level) between "old" (1998-2001) and "new" (2007-2009) age-groups within a given fuel-technology class. Mean fuel-based PM(2.5) emission factor (mean (95% confidence interval)) for CNG-2S (14.2 g kg(-1) (6.2-26.7)) was almost 30 times higher than for CNG-4S (0.5 g kg(-1) (0.3-0.9)) and 12 times higher than for PET-4S (1.2 g kg(-1) (0.8-1.7)). Global warming commitment associated with emissions from CNG-2S was more than twice that from CNG-4S or PET-4S, due mostly to CH(4) emissions. Comprehensive measurements and data should drive policy interventions rather than assumptions about the impacts of clean fuels.

  10. Dicty_cDB: VFG846 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 26 |CF207326.1 CAB20001_IIa_Ra_E08 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower bloom - CAB2 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB20001..._IIa_Ra_E08 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 CB980647 |CB980647.1 CAB70003_IIIaF_A07 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry P...iplex2 Library Vitis vinifera cDNA clone B3CS00RL001F06 3', mRNA sequence. 50 0.015 1 CB976850 |CB976850.1 CAB40003_IIIa_Fa_D08 Caber...net Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAB

  11. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  12. Examining the Optimal Fuel Type for Urban Bus Operations

    OpenAIRE

    CAULFIELD, BRIAN

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Washington D.C. Public service fleets offer an attractive option for introducing renewable fuels and alternative technologies on a large scale, which allow for the reduction of both greenhouse gas emissions and exhaust air pollutants. This paper ex amines the use of biomethane (bio-CNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) for part of the bus fleet in Dublin. Dublin is typical of many international urban centres with a large bus fleet; therefore the results...

  13. A Technical Review of Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Semin; Rosli A. Bakar

    2008-01-01

    Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed natural gas (CNG) has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Engine conversion technology is well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For spark ignition engines there are two op...

  14. Main: CGF1ATCAB2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CGF1ATCAB2 S000213 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi CGF-1 binding site in the Arabidopsis (A.t.) ca...pilation of related GT elements and factors, see Villain et al. (1996); CGF; cab; cab2; CGF-1; GT; leaf; shoot; Arabidopsis thaliana; GATAAAGATTACTTCAGATATAACAAACGTTAC ... ...b2 gene promoter; CGF-1=CAB GATA Factor 1; Found at -74 to -42; Contains a highly conserved,

  15. Novel CCII-based Field Programmable Analog Array and its Application to a Sixth-Order Butterworth LPF

    OpenAIRE

    S. A. Mahmoud; Soliman, E. A.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a field programmable analog array (FPAA) is proposed. The proposed FPAA consists of seven configurable analog blocks (CABs) arranged in a hexagonal lattice such that the CABs are directly connected to each other. This structure improves the overall frequency response of the chip by decreasing the parasitic capacitances in the signal path. The CABS of the FPAA is based on a novel fully differential digitally programmable current conveyor (DPCCII). The programmability of the DPCC...

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSD390 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ', mRNA sequence. 36 0.057 2 CB980143 |CB980143.1 CAB70002_IIIaF_C08 Cabernet Sau... CB980214 |CB980214.1 CAB70002_IIIaR_C08 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CAB7 Vitis vinifera cDNA c...0636_A06 Vitis vinifera cv. cabernet sauvignon Stem - CAST Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CAST0003_IVR_A06 3', mR

  17. Dicty_cDB: SSC786 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 20C12 Gm-r1083 Glycine max cDNA clone Gm-r1083-2448 3', mRNA sequence. 58 5e-08 2 CB970649 |CB970649.1 CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 Caberne...one CAB10004_IIIa_Fa_G05 5', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-07 3 CB975029 |CB975029.1 CAB30006_IIc_Fa_B01 Cabernet Sau

  18. Genetic diversity of ATP synthase cab subunits amplified from Streptococcus mutans clinical isolates from Uyghur children with different caries susceptibility%维吾尔族不同龋敏感儿童变形链球菌临床分离株质子转运ATP合酶亚基cab基因遗传多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘震华; 连冰洁; 赵今

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the aciduricity and genetic diversity of ATP synthase subunit gene uncEBF derived from Uyghur children Streptococcus mutans (Sm) clinical isolates and the relationship between the genetic diversity of ATP synthase and Sm aciduric ability and cavies susceptibility.Methods Forty-one Sm strains derived from 24 caries-active individuals and 17 caries-free individuals,including 16 strains displaying high acid tolerance and 17 strains displaying low acid tolerance.Solutions of all isolated Sm with same density were made and cultured at pH 4.0 to 7.0 brain heart infusion(BHI) liquid.Terminal growth situation was compared.Gene uncEBF of these isolates were amplified with specific primers from Sm genomic DNA,and the polymerase chain reaction(PCR) products were analyzed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequenced. Results Aciduric ability of Sm isolated from the high caries-susceptible children were higher than that isolated from caries-free group(P =0.023).Alu Ⅰ digested fragments of uncEBF displayed two different patterns A and B.The distributions of A and B genotype strains with different acidurance were different ( P =0.039 ). A genotype included 7 strains displaying high acid tolerance and 2 strains displaying low acid tolerance; B genotype included 9 strains displaying highacid tolerance and 15 strains displaying low acid tolerance.The distributions of A and B genotype strains in different caries-sensitivity groups were different( P =0.009 ).A genotype included 7 high caries-susceptible strains and 12 caries-free strains;B genotype included 17 high caries-susceptible strains and 5 caries-free strain.Some of these amplified uncEBF genes from different genotype were sequenced and testified that there existed variation of Alu Ⅰ recognized sites.Conclusions The high cariogenecity of Sm strains isolated from caries-active children shows a close relationship with the high aciduric ability of the isolated Sm strains.uncEBF gene of Sm F-ATPase obviously exhibits genetic diversity.%目的 探讨新疆维吾尔族不同龋敏感儿童变形链球菌临床分离株耐酸性及耐酸因子质子转运ATP合酶亚基cab基因多态性与耐酸力和龋敏感性的相关性,以期为新疆维吾尔族儿童龋病防治提供依据.方法 选取新疆维吾尔族自治区乌鲁木齐市3~5岁维吾尔族高龋(龋失补牙数≥5)和无龋(龋失补牙数=0)儿童口腔中分离的变形链球菌24和17株,采用紫外分光光度计测定540 nm处吸光度值,比较不同pH条件下细菌的生长情况并筛选出16株高耐酸、17株低耐酸菌株,以特异引物从细菌组DNA扩增uncEBF,采用聚合酶链反应-限制性片段长度多态性分析技术对酶切图谱行基因分型,结合核酸测序技术比较导致基因型突变的位点.结果 pH值为5.0时,高龋者变形链球菌生长能力[A值为(0.702 ±0.157)]较无龋者[A值为(0.372±0.123)]强,差异有统计学意义(P =0.023);不同限制性片段长度多态性分析产生不同的基因型,测序结果证实了导致多态性出现的基因变异位点;其中内切酶Alu Ⅰ产生的A基因型在高、低耐酸力菌株中的分布分别为7和2株,B基因型在高、低耐酸力菌株中的分布分别为9和15株,基因型分布在不同耐酸力菌株中差异有统计学意义(P=0.039);A基因型在无龋、高龋儿童菌株中的分布分别为12和7株,B基因型在无龋、高龋儿童菌株中的分布分别为5和17株,基因型分布在不同龋敏感菌株中差异有统计学意义(P=0.009).结论 维吾尔族高龋儿童口腔中变形链球菌临床分离株具有高致龋性,且耐酸因子质子转运ATP合酶亚基联合基因uncEBF具有明显的基因多态性,不同基因型uncEBF分布与耐酸力及龋敏感性具有相关性.

  19. The Analysis of the Problem of Urban Transportation from the Perspective of Game Theory:A Case Study of the Improvement and Rectification of the Gypsy Cab Drivers%“钓鱼执法”的利益博弈与机制分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈元志

    2013-01-01

    在城市基础设施和公共交通发展仍然面临瓶颈的特定时期,容纳黑车有可能会成为政府的无奈之举.执法部门为了提高打击黑车的积极性,允许将罚款收入按照一定比例用于奖励执法人员.这样的机制设计,有可能使得执法部门的诉求由公共福利水平最大化偏离到部门利益最大化.

  20. Natural gas application in light- and heavy-duty vehicles in Brazil: panorama, technological routes and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Guilherme Bastos, Cordeiro de Melo, Tadeu Cavalcante; Leao, Raphael Riemke de Campos Cesar; Iaccarino, Fernando Aniello; Figueiredo Moreira, Marcia

    2007-07-01

    The Brazilian CNG light-duty vehicle fleet has currently reached more than 1,300,000 units. This growth increased in the late 1990's, when CNG was approved for use in passenger cars. In 2001, the IBAMA (Brazilian Institute for Environment and Natural Renewable Resources), concerned with this uncontrolled growth, published CONAMA (National Environmental Council, controlled by IBAMA) resolution 291, which establishes rules for CNG conversion kit environmental certification.This paper discusses the technological challenges for CNG-converted vehicles to comply with PROCONVE (Brazilian Program for Automotive Air Pollution Control) emission limits. In the 1980's, because of the oil crisis, Natural Gas (NG) emerged as a fuel with great potential to replace Diesel in heavy-duty vehicles. Some experiences were conducted for partial conversions from Diesel to NG (Diesel-gas). Other experiences using NG Otto Cycle buses were conducted in some cities, but have not expanded. Another technological route called 'Ottolization' (Diesel to Otto cycle convertion) appeared recently. Population increase and the great growth in vehicle fleet promote a constant concern with automotive emissions. More restrictive emission limits, high international oil prices, and the strategic interest in replacing Diesel imports, altogether form an interesting scenario for CNG propagation to public transportation in the main Brazilian metropolises.

  1. A comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterberg, Thomas W; Lapin, Charles A; Bunn, William B

    2008-09-01

    A comprehensive comparison of emissions from vehicles fueled with diesel or compressed natural gas (CNG) was developed from 25 reports on transit buses, school buses, refuse trucks, and passenger cars. Emissions for most compounds were highest for untreated exhaust emissions and lowest for treated exhaust CNG buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), volatile organic compounds (VOCs; e.g., benzene, butadiene, ethylene, etc.), and carbonyl compounds (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein). Diesel buses without after-treatment had the highest emissions of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Exhaust after-treatments reduced most emissions to similar levels in diesel and CNG buses. Nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were similar for most vehicle types, fuels, and exhaust after-treatments with some exceptions. Diesel school buses had higher CO2 emissions than the CNG bus. CNG transit buses and passenger cars equipped with three-way catalysts had lower NO(x) emissions. Diesel buses equipped with traps had higher nitrogen dioxide emissions. Fuel economy was best in the diesel buses not equipped with exhaust after-treatment.

  2. Role of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in the modulation of mouse hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vittoria Podda

    Full Text Available Neural stem cells generate neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in mammals, including humans, throughout adulthood. Adult hippocampal neurogenesis has been the focus of many studies due to its relevance in processes such as learning and memory and its documented impairment in some neurodegenerative diseases. However, we are still far from having a complete picture of the mechanism regulating this process. Our study focused on the possible role of cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG channels. These voltage-independent channels activated by cyclic nucleotides, first described in retinal and olfactory receptors, have been receiving increasing attention for their involvement in several brain functions. Here we show that the rod-type, CNGA1, and olfactory-type, CNGA2, subunits are expressed in hippocampal neural stem cells in culture and in situ in the hippocampal neurogenic niche of adult mice. Pharmacological blockade of CNG channels did not affect cultured neural stem cell proliferation but reduced their differentiation towards the neuronal phenotype. The membrane permeant cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, enhanced neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and this effect was prevented by CNG channel blockade. In addition, patch-clamp recording from neuron-like differentiating neural stem cells revealed cGMP-activated currents attributable to ion flow through CNG channels. The current work provides novel insights into the role of CNG channels in promoting hippocampal neurogenesis, which may prove to be relevant for stem cell-based treatment of cognitive impairment and brain damage.

  3. Life cycle air emissions impacts and ownership costs of light-duty vehicles using natural gas as a primary energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M; Saville, Bradley A; MacLean, Heather L

    2015-04-21

    This paper aims to comprehensively distinguish among the merits of different vehicles using a common primary energy source. In this study, we consider compressed natural gas (CNG) use directly in conventional vehicles (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), and natural gas-derived electricity (NG-e) use in plug-in battery electric vehicles (BEV). This study evaluates the incremental life cycle air emissions (climate change and human health) impacts and life cycle ownership costs of non-plug-in (CV and HEV) and plug-in light-duty vehicles. Replacing a gasoline CV with a CNG CV, or a CNG CV with a CNG HEV, can provide life cycle air emissions impact benefits without increasing ownership costs; however, the NG-e BEV will likely increase costs (90% confidence interval: $1000 to $31 000 incremental cost per vehicle lifetime). Furthermore, eliminating HEV tailpipe emissions via plug-in vehicles has an insignificant incremental benefit, due to high uncertainties, with emissions cost benefits between -$1000 and $2000. Vehicle criteria air contaminants are a relatively minor contributor to life cycle air emissions impacts because of strict vehicle emissions standards. Therefore, policies should focus on adoption of plug-in vehicles in nonattainment regions, because CNG vehicles are likely more cost-effective at providing overall life cycle air emissions impact benefits.

  4. Development of Dual Fuel Single Cylinder Natural Gas Engine an Analysis and Experimental Investigation for Performance and Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kaleemuddin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the experimental investigations carried and upgradation of 395 cc air cooled engine to dual fuel (CNG/Gasoline application. The original 395 cc direct injection naturally aspirated, air cooled diesel engine was first converted to run on Gasoline by addition of electronic ignition system and reduction in compression ratio to suit both gasoline and CNG application. CFX software has been employed to calculate and improve the cooling capacity of engine with the use of CNG. Materials of major engine components were reviewed to suit CNG application. The engine was subsequently tuned with dual multi-mapped ignition timing for bi-fuel stoichiometric operation on engine dynamometer and then fitted on a 3-Wheeler vehicle. The vehicle was optimized on a chassis dynamometer to meet the proposed Bharat Stage-III norms. The engine has passed current BS-II emission norms with 48% margin in CO emission and 76% margin in NMHC (Non-Methane Hydrocarbons and Extensive trials were conducted on engine and vehicle to optimize with CNG kit and minimum loaded three way cat-con to finally to met proposed BS-III norms.

  5. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...

  6. 49 CFR 236.552 - Insulation resistance; requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... between periodic tests shall be not less than 250,000 ohms for a continuous inductive automatic cab signal... Insulation resistance; requirement. When periodic test prescribed in § 236.588 is performed, insulation resistance between wiring and ground of continuous inductive automatic cab signal system, automatic...

  7. Understanding Disproportionate Representation in Special Education by Examining Group Differences in Behavior Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Christina D.; Kranzler, John H.; Algina, James; Smith, Stephen W.; Daunic, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mean-group differences on behavior rating scales and variables that may predict such differences. Sixty-five teachers completed the Clinical Assessment of Behavior-Teacher Form (CAB-T) for a sample of 982 students. Four outcome variables from the CAB-T were assessed. Hierarchical linear modeling was used…

  8. Applications of a plane wave based room correction system for low frequencies using multiple loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celestinos, Adrian; Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

    2008-01-01

    System (CABS) produces uniform sound field at low frequencies. This is performed by utilizing loudspeakers at the front wall and extra loudspeakers at the opposite wall, processed to remove the rear-wall reflection of a rectangular room. Effectiveness of CABS on different room scenarios has been...

  9. 49 CFR 236.586 - Daily or after trip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.586 Daily or after trip test..., each locomotive equipped with an automatic cab signal or train stop or train control device...

  10. Early Identification of High-Ability Students: Clinical Assessment of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Brown, Elissa F.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of teachers to accurately rate the cognitive and academic functioning of 1,375 students in kindergarten through the third grade on the Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), as compared to two objective cognitive ability tests. CAB teacher ratings were compared for high-ability students who were currently…

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-04-0005 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-04-0005 ref|NP_192574.1| Ulp1 protease family protein [Arabidopsis thaliana...] emb|CAB52556.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB77959.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_192574.1 1e-118 99% ...

  12. Country analysis briefs: 1994. Profiles of major world energy producers, consumers, and transport centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    Country Analysis Briefs: 1994 is a compilation of country profiles prepared by the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (EMCID) of the Office of Energy Markets and End Use. EMCID maintains Country Analysis Briefs (CABs) for specific countries or geographical areas that are important to world energy markets. As a general rule, CABs are prepared for all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), major non-OPEC oil producers (i.e., the North Sea, Russia), major energy transit areas (i.e., Ukraine), and other areas of current interest to energy analysts and policy makers. As of January 1995, EMCID maintained over 40 CABs, updated on an annual schedule and subject to revision as events warrant. This report includes 25 CABs updated during 1994. All CABs contain a profile section, a map showing the country`s location, and a narrative section. The profile section includes outlines of the country`s economy, energy sector, and environment. The narrative provides further information and discussion of these topics. Some CABs also include a detailed map displaying locations of major oil and gas fields, pipelines, ports, etc. These maps were created as a result of special individual requests and so are not typically a standard feature of the CABs. They are presented here wherever available as a supplement to the information contained in the CABs.

  13. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... power unit behind the cab and on an over-cab rack. No State shall impose an overall length limitation of... may carry boats on the power unit so long as the length and width restrictions of the vehicles and...) in 23 CFR 658.19. (6) Munitions carriers using dromedary equipment. A truck tractor equipped with...

  14. 49 CFR 236.516 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 236.516 Section 236.516..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.516 Power supply. Automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device hereafter installed shall operate from a separate or isolated power...

  15. Bayesian object-based estimation of LAI and chlorophyll from a simulated Sentinel-2 top-of-atmosphere radiance image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laurent, V.C.E.; Schaepman, M.E.; Verhoef, W.; Weyermann, J.; Chavez Oyanadel, R.O.

    2014-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) and chlorophyll content (Cab) are important vegetation variables which can be monitored using remote sensing (RS). Physically-based approaches have higher transferability and are therefore better suited than empirically-based approaches for estimating LAI and Cab at global scal

  16. 49 CFR 230.86 - Required illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Required illumination. 230.86 Section 230.86... Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.86 Required illumination. (a) General provisions... provides illumination sufficient for a steam locomotive engineer in the cab to see, in a clear...

  17. De invloed van kortere remtijden op de verkeersveiligheid : beschouwingen over een gecombineerd gas- en rempedaal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Schoon, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    A combined accelerator-brake pedal in passenger cars is a device that combines the accelerating and braking functions in one pedal. This device is known as the CAB system. The aim of the CAB system is to save the time that is normally spent in moving the foot from the accelerator to the brake pedal.

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-0069 ref|NP_496808.1| F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB02490.2|... Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB60425.1| Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] NP_496808.1 0.0 34% ...

  19. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1 General Asian Journal ofAndrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica,Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems,including BIOSIS,CAB Abstracts,CAB Health,Chemical Abstracts,Current Contents/

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-0958 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-0958 ref|NP_496808.1| F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB02490.2|... Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB60425.1| Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] NP_496808.1 0.0 38% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-1025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-1025 ref|NP_496808.1| F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB02490.2|... Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB60425.1| Hypothetical protein F15D4.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] NP_496808.1 0.0 33% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0524 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0524 ref|NP_506256.2| F15B9.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB01449.2|... Hypothetical protein F15B9.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] emb|CAB01427.2| Hypothetical protein F15B9.7 [Caenorhabditis elegans] NP_506256.2 0.0 95% ...

  3. AcEST: BP918424 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ITVI Putative uncharacterized protein OS=Vitis... 82 1e-14 tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing of CAB expression 1...YQSRKRLAEQRPRVKGQFVRQVQTDTPTA 744 >tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing of CAB expressio

  4. 49 CFR 236.588 - Periodic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic test. 236.588 Section 236.588..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.588 Periodic test. Except as provided in § 236.586, periodic test of the automatic train stop, train control, or cab signal...

  5. Quantifying the foodscape: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the validity of commercially available business data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Alexandre; Daepp, Madeleine I. G.; Block, Jason P.; Walker, Renée; Lalonde, Benoît; Kestens, Yan; Subramanian, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews studies of the validity of commercially available business (CAB) data on food establishments (“the foodscape”), offering a meta-analysis of characteristics associated with CAB quality and a case study evaluating the performance of commonly-used validity indicators describing the foodscape. Existing validation studies report a broad range in CAB data quality, although most studies conclude that CAB quality is “moderate” to “substantial”. We conclude that current studies may underestimate the quality of CAB data. We recommend that future validation studies use density-adjusted and exposure measures to offer a more meaningful characterization of the relationship of data error with spatial exposure. PMID:28358819

  6. Dicty_cDB: CFI278 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 489345.1 Sequence 6645 from Patent WO02053728. 52 9e-05 2 CB348865 |CB348865.1 CAB2SG0005_IVbF_D11 Cabernet ...4 |CB971834.1 CAB10006_IIIa_Fa_E02 Cabernet Sauvignon Flower Pre-bloom - CAB1 Vit...mbda Zap II library Beta vulgaris cDNA clone A-14-10, mRNA sequence. 52 0.013 1 CB982722 |CB982722.1 CAB70007_IIIb_Fb_H09 Caberne...', mRNA sequence. 52 0.013 1 CB981893 |CB981893.1 CAB70005_IVaF_D05 Cabernet Sauv

  7. Second attempt of Cabergoline withdrawal in patients with prolactinomas after a failed first attempt : is it worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio eVilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Successful discontinuation of cabergoline (CAB treatment has been reported in 31 to 74% of prolactinomas patients treated for at least two years. In contrast, it is not well established whether CAB therapy can be successfully withdrawn after a failed first attempt. This prospective open trial was designed to address this topic and to try to identify possible predictor factors.Among 180 patients with prolactinomas on CAB therapy, the authors selected those who fulfilled very strict criteria, particularly additional CAB therapy for at least 2 years, normalization of serum prolactin (PRL levels following CAB restart, no tumor remnant > 10 mm, no previous pituitary radiotherapy or surgery; and current CAB dose ≤1.0 mg/week. Recurrence was defined as an increase of PRL levels above the upper limit of normal.A total of 34 patients (70.6% female treated with CAB for 24-30 months were recruited. Ten patients (29.4 % remained without evidence of recurrence after 24–26 months of follow-up. Twenty-four patients (70.6% recurred within 15 months (75% within 12 months after drug withdrawal and ~80% were restarted CAB. Median time to recurrence was 10.5 months (range, 3–15. Despite overlapping values, non-recurring patients had significantly lower mean PRL levels before withdrawal. Moreover, the recurrence rate was lower in subjects without visible tumor on pituitary MRI than in those with small remnant tumor (60 vs. 79%, though the difference was not statistically significant (P= 0.20. No other characteristic could be identified as a predictor of successful CAB discontinuation.In conclusion, a second attempt of CAB withdrawal after 2 additional years of therapy may be successful, particularly in patients with lower PRL levels and no visible tumor on pituitary MRI. Close monitoring of PRL level is mandatory, especially within the first year after withdrawal, where most recurrences are detected.

  8. On Supply Mode of Compressed Natural Gas Used as City Gas%压缩天然气供应工艺及规模的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申粤; 乔珩; 徐正康

    2001-01-01

    The article introduces production procedures and process ofCNG(compressed natural gas). By analyzing and comparing between compressing and long distance transportation pipeline under conditions of different gas consumption scale and transportation distance, the article proposes the scope of application and applicable prospect of CNG used as city gas.%介绍了压缩天然气(CNG)供应城镇的工艺流程,通过对压缩天然气及长输管道两种输送方式的分析和比较,提出在不同供气规模、不同运距条件下两种方式的适用范围以及CNG技术在城镇供气中的应用前景。

  9. Development of natural gas vehicles in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zongmin, Cheng

    1996-12-31

    Past decade and current status of development of natural gas vehicles (NGVs) in China is described. By the end of 1995, 35 CNG refueling stations and 9 LPG refueling stations had been constructed in 12 regions, and 33,100 vehicles had been converted to run on CNG or LPG. China`s automobile industry, a mainstay of the national economy, is slated for accelerated development over next few years. NGVs will help to solve the problems of environment protection, GHGs mitigation, and shortage of oil supply. The Chinese government has started to promote the development of NGVs. Projects, investment demand, GHG mitigation potential, and development barriers are discussed. China needs to import advanced foreign technologies of CNGs. China`s companies expect to cooperate with foreign partners for import of CNG vehicle refueling compressors, conversions, and light cylinders, etc.

  10. Utilization of compressed natural gas for the production of carbon nanotubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim-Yang Lee; Wei-Ming Yeoh; Siang-Piao Chai; Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    The present work aims at utilizing compressed natural gas (CNG) as carbon source for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) over CoO-MoO/Al2O3 catalyst via catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) method.The as-produced carbonaceous product was characterized by thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy.The experimental finding shows that CNTs were successfully produced from CNG while carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were formed as the side products.In addition,the catalytic activity and lifetime were found sustained and prolonged,as compared with using high purity methane as carbon source.The present study suggests an alternative route which can effectively produce CNTs and CNFs using low cost CNG.

  11. The use of compressed natural gas as a strategy of development of natural gas industry; Utilizacao do GNC (Gas Natural Comprimido) como estrategia de desenvolvimento da industria do gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Jucemara [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Coordenacao de Segmento Veicular; Rickmann, Cristiano [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Novos Negocios; Maestri, Juares [Companhia de Gas do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (Sulgas), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Gerencia de Mercado de Grandes Consumidores

    2008-07-01

    This work emphasizes the Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as modal of transport, used by the Company of Gas of the State of Rio Grande do Sul - Sulgas, through experience in pioneering project in Brazil: the introduction of the technology of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) to assist areas where there is not the infrastructure of pipeline for the transport. The article offers a display of the project of expansion of the Natural gas in Rio Grande do Sul, through the supply of CNG to the company Tramontina in Carlos Barbosa's city in the year of 2002. The last aspect focused by this article demonstrates as the use of this transport technology impelled the development of the transport market in the State and it has been used as an important strategy for the development of the market of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) in the state. (author)

  12. Potentiality of the Usage of Compressed Natural Gas for Competitiveness in Service Delivery Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Mohammad Hasan Jamil

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. With the rising costs of gasoline, many vehicle owners are looking for alternatives of it. Compressed natural gas (CNG has been tested for this very purpose in some countries and found as a better alternative so far. CNG comes from country’s natural resources and it is clean and less costly to use. This paper is mainly an analysis of the potential benefits of using natural gas as a transportation fuel by the service delivery industries. It will examine CNG’s potential contribution in reducing delivery and vehicle maintenance cost, saving money in the long run projects, improving fuel efficiency, enhancing physical safety and assuring environment friendly emissions of carbon monoxide or reactive gases for the service delivery industries.Keywords: Compressed natural gas (CNG, Service Delivery, Fossil fuel, Global warming, Competitiveness

  13. Report of the results of the fiscal 1997 survey. R and D of high efficiency clean energy vehicles; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Kokoritsu clean energy jidosha no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    For the purpose of developing an automobile which keeps low pollution using petroleum substituting clean energy, decreases the running energy consumption to a half at least, and reduces the CO2 emission to less than a half of the conventional one at the same time, the R and D started in fiscal 1997. As to the study of a high efficiency hybrid power system, conducted were the prediction of fuel consumption performance of the system proposed, evaluation of element technology using hybrid simulator, evaluation experiment on a new hybrid vehicle, and grasp of overseas trends. In relation to the development of hybrid vehicles, the following were studied: methanol fuel cell loading hybrid vehicle, CNG engine loading hybrid vehicle, CNG ceramic engine loading hybrid truck, CNG lean burn engine loading hybrid truck, LNG engine loading hybrid bus, and DME engine loading hybrid bus. Besides, a survey on synthetic fuel and the related survey were carried out. 17 refs., 185 figs., 101 tabs.

  14. Cyclic nucleotide-gated channel block by hydrolysis-resistant tetracaine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Adriana L; Melich, Kenneth; Whatley, G Gregory; Kirk, Sarah R; Karpen, Jeffrey W

    2011-07-14

    To meet a pressing need for better cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel antagonists, we have increased the biological stability of tetracaine-based blockers by synthesizing amide and thioamide linkage substitutions of tetracaine (1) and a higher affinity octyl tail derivative (5). We report the apparent K(D) values, the mechanism of block, and the in vitro hydrolysis rates for these compounds. The ester linkage substitutions did not adversely affect CNG channel block; unexpectedly, thioamide substitution in 1 (compound 8) improved block significantly. Furthermore, the ester linkage substitutions did not appear to affect the mechanism of block in terms of the strong state preference for closed channels. All ester substituted compounds, especially the thioamide substitutions, were more resistant to hydrolysis by serum cholinesterase than their ester counterparts. These findings have implications for dissecting the physiological roles of CNG channels, treating certain forms of retinal degeneration, and possibly the current clinical uses of compound 1.

  15. Green Engines Development Using Compressed Natural Gas as an Alternative Fuel: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is a gaseous form of natural gas, it have been recognized as one of the promising alternative fuel due to its substantial benefits compared to gasoline and diesel. Natural gas is produced from gas wells or tied in with crude oil production. Approach: Natural gas is promising alternative fuel to meet strict engine emission regulations in many countries. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG has long been used in stationary engines, but the application of CNG as a transport engines fuel has been considerably advanced over the last decade by the development of lightweight high-pressure storage cylinders. Results: The technology of engine conversion was well established and suitable conversion equipment is readily available. For petrol engines or spark ignition engines there are two options, a bi-fuel conversion and use a dedicated to CNG engine. The diesel engines converted or designed to run on natural gas, there were two main options discussed. There are dual-fuel engines and normal ignition can be initiated. Natural gas engines can be operated at lean burn and stoichiometric conditions with different combustion and emission characteristics. Conclusions: In this study, the low exhaust gas emissions of CNG engines research and development were highlighted. Stoichiometric natural gas engines were briefly reviewed. To keep the output power, torque and emissions of natural gas engines comparable to their gasoline or diesel counterparts. High activity for future green CNG engines research and development to meet future stringent emissions standards was recorded in the study.

  16. Gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas buses in urban road and highway tests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tingting; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jingnan; Jia, Ming; Bao, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhenhua; He, Liqang; Zu, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The natural gas vehicle market is rapidly developing throughout the world, and the majority of such vehicles operate on compressed natural gas (CNG). However, most studies on the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles rely on laboratory chassis dynamometer measurements, which do not accurately represent actual road driving conditions. To further investigate the emission characteristics of CNG vehicles, two CNG city buses and two CNG coaches were tested on public urban roads and highway sections. Our results show that when speeds of 0-10km/hr were increased to 10-20km/hr, the CO2, CO, nitrogen oxide (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) emission factors decreased by (71.6±4.3)%, (65.6±9.5)%, (64.9±9.2)% and (67.8±0.3)%, respectively. In this study, The Beijing city buses with stricter emission standards (Euro IV) did not have lower emission factors than the Chongqing coaches with Euro II emission standards. Both the higher emission factors at 0-10km/hr speeds and the higher percentage of driving in the low-speed regime during the entire road cycle may have contributed to the higher CO2 and CO emission factors of these city buses. Additionally, compared with the emission factors produced in the urban road tests, the CO emission factors of the CNG buses in highway tests decreased the most (by 83.2%), followed by the THC emission factors, which decreased by 67.1%.

  17. Particle and gaseous emissions from compressed natural gas and ultralow sulphur diesel-fuelled buses at four steady engine loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, E R; Ristovski, Z D; Meyer, N; Morawska, L

    2009-04-01

    Exhaust emissions from thirteen compressed natural gas (CNG) and nine ultralow sulphur diesel in-service transport buses were monitored on a chassis dynamometer. Measurements were carried out at idle and at three steady engine loads of 25%, 50% and 100% of maximum power at a fixed speed of 60 km h(-1). Emission factors were estimated for particle mass and number, carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen for two types of CNG buses (Scania and MAN, compatible with Euro 2 and 3 emission standards, respectively) and two types of diesel buses (Volvo Pre-Euro/Euro1 and Mercedez OC500 Euro3). All emission factors increased with load. The median particle mass emission factor for the CNG buses was less than 1% of that from the diesel buses at all loads. However, the particle number emission factors did not show a statistically significant difference between buses operating on the two types of fuel. In this paper, for the very first time, particle number emission factors are presented at four steady state engine loads for CNG buses. Median values ranged from the order of 10(12) particles min(-)(1) at idle to 10(15) particles km(-)(1) at full power. Most of the particles observed in the CNG emissions were in the nanoparticle size range and likely to be composed of volatile organic compounds The CO2 emission factors were about 20% to 30% greater for the diesel buses over the CNG buses, while the oxides of nitrogen emission factors did not show any difference due to the large variation between buses.

  18. Compressed natural gas bus safety: a quantitative risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel; Modarres, Mohammad

    2005-04-01

    This study assesses the fire safety risks associated with compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicle systems, comprising primarily a typical school bus and supporting fuel infrastructure. The study determines the sensitivity of the results to variations in component failure rates and consequences of fire events. The components and subsystems that contribute most to fire safety risk are determined. Finally, the results are compared to fire risks of the present generation of diesel-fueled school buses. Direct computation of the safety risks associated with diesel-powered vehicles is possible because these are mature technologies for which historical performance data are available. Because of limited experience, fatal accident data for CNG bus fleets are minimal. Therefore, this study uses the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) approach to model and predict fire safety risk of CNG buses. Generic failure data, engineering judgments, and assumptions are used in this study. This study predicts the mean fire fatality risk for typical CNG buses as approximately 0.23 fatalities per 100-million miles for all people involved, including bus passengers. The study estimates mean values of 0.16 fatalities per 100-million miles for bus passengers only. Based on historical data, diesel school bus mean fire fatality risk is 0.091 and 0.0007 per 100-million miles for all people and bus passengers, respectively. One can therefore conclude that CNG buses are more prone to fire fatality risk by 2.5 times that of diesel buses, with the bus passengers being more at risk by over two orders of magnitude. The study estimates a mean fire risk frequency of 2.2 x 10(-5) fatalities/bus per year. The 5% and 95% uncertainty bounds are 9.1 x 10(-6) and 4.0 x 10(-5), respectively. The risk result was found to be affected most by failure rates of pressure relief valves, CNG cylinders, and fuel piping.

  19. An Investigation of Compressed Natural Gas Engine for Nitrogen Oxides Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Diaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study describes the use of Reformer Gas (RG to alter NOx emission in a CNG-fueled HCCI engine. Comparison with diesel, natural gas has a very high octane number (≈120 and high auto-ignition temperature (≈600°C. Composed mostly of methane, natural gas is the only common fuel to manifest relatively pure, single-stage combustion. Other fuels have stronger low-temperature reaction and the required entropy for main stage combustion can be obtained from the low temperature heat release as a result of compression to moderate pressure and temperature. In deviation, the methane molecule resists destruction by free radicals and produces negligible heat release at low temperature. In consequences, in CNG-fueled HCCI engines the activation energy required for auto-ignition must be obtained by extreme levels of charge heating and compression. This causes inherently to a high rate of heat release. HCCI operation with pure CNG fuel was attained but not really practical due to very high NOx production. While HCCI operation is usually described as a low NOx technique, the knocking behavior when running with pure CNG raised the peak combustion temperature to a value well above normal combustion and the critical Zeldovich NOx production threshold, giving very high indicated NOx emissions. Approach: One approach to improving these properties is to convert part of the base CNG fuel to Reformer Gas (RG. In this study, modified COMET engine was operated in HCCI mode using a mixture of CNG fuel and simulated RG (75% H2 and 25% CO can be produced on-board from CNG using low current and non-thermal plasma boosted fuel converter. Results: This study shows that despite of having various RG mass fractions, λ was the dominant factor in reducing NOx production and increasing RG mass fraction had only a small effect on increasing NOx. This disconnect between the overall equivalence ratio and RG fraction shows that the real benefit of the

  20. A Review of the Utilisation of Natural Gas with High Carbon Dioxide Content as Automotive Fuel in an Indirect Injection Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opatola Rasheed Adewale

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The persistent consumption of fossil fuels by modern transportation tends toward feared depletion in crude oil and infliction of health risks on human beings and the environment due to the noxious emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. This work examines the prospects of fuel modification in improving engine performance by utilising compressed natural gas (CNG mixed with varying proportions of carbon dioxide (CO2 as fuel in Diesel engines. The extent to which the addition of CO2 to CNG could help simulate the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR as employed in modern engine technology will be established.

  1. Optimal design considering structural efficiency of compressed natural gas fuel storage vessels for automobiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myung-Chang KANG; Hyung Woo LEE; Chul KIM

    2011-01-01

    The shape and thickness of the dome were investigated with the aim of optimizing the type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels by using a finite element analysis technique. The thickness of the liners and reinforcing materials was optimized based on the requirement of the cylinder and dome parts. In addition, the shape of the dome, which is most suitable for type Ⅱ CNG storage vessels, was proposed by a process of review and analysis of various existing shapes, and the minimum thickness was established in this sequence: metal liners, composite materials and dome parts. Therefore, the new proposed shape products give a mass reduction of 4.8 kg(5. 1%)

  2. Protonated form: the potent form of potassium-competitive acid blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Jun Luo

    Full Text Available Potassium-competitive acid blockers (P-CABs are highly safe and active drugs targeting H+,K+-ATPase to cure acid-related gastric diseases. In this study, we for the first time investigate the interaction mechanism between the protonated form of P-CABs and human H+,K+-ATPase using homology modeling, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and binding free energy calculation methods. The results explain why P-CABs have higher activities with higher pKa values or at lower pH. With positive charge, the protonated forms of P-CABs have more competitive advantage to block potassium ion into luminal channel and to bind with H+,K+-ATPase via electrostatic interactions. The binding affinity of the protonated form is more favorable than that of the neutral P-CABs. In particular, Asp139 should be a very important binding site for the protonated form of P-CABs through hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. These findings could promote the rational design of novel P-CABs.

  3. Trends in the treatment of coronary disease today. Selective use of PTCA and bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E L; Craver, J M; Guyton, R A; Bone, D K; Hatcher, C R

    1983-01-01

    Selection and treatment of patients with ischemic heart disease is presently undergoing an evolutionary trend. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) has been recommended as the initial procedure for many patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), thus possibly redefining candidates for coronary bypass surgery (CABS). Between October 1980 and June 1982, 777 patients having PTCA and 2068 patients having CABS were analyzed for differences in clinical presentation, complications, and early outcome. Patients having CABS were significantly older, had a higher incidence of hypertension (46% vs. 32%), more multivessel disease (80% vs. 12%), and poorer left ventricular function (nl. wall motion = 88% vs. 52%). The incidence of myocardial infarction in patients after PTCA was 1.0% (8/777). Emergency CAB was required in 5.3% of patients following PTCA. There were no deaths following the angioplasty procedure and 25 deaths in 2068 patients having CABS (hospital mortality rate = 1.2%). Since 1973, there has been a progressive decline in hospital mortality rate (now, less than 1%), postoperative infarction (now, 3%), requirement for inotropic drugs (now, 5%) and frequency of IABP (less than 1%). Increasing ability to achieve complete revascularization now means improved survival and freedom from angina with CAB surgery. PTCA and CAB are both procedures that may be used effectively for selected patients, depending on clinical presentation, extent of CAD, and left ventricular function (LVF). Careful patient selection affords the opportunity for use of PTCA in patients with single-vessel disease (SVD) and good LVF and CABS in patients with multivessel disease, regardless of LVF. Symptomatic patients with SVD and total vessel occlusion are not candidates for PTCA. Our data demonstrate that both PTCA and CABS may be accomplished with very low perioperative complications and hospital mortality. PMID:6222708

  4. AcEST: BP917265 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sponse regulator-like PRR... 53 1e-09 tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing of CAB expression 1-like protein (... 51...XT9_VITVI Chromosome chr15 scaffold_37, whole genom... 47 1e-08 tr|Q56TL2|Q56TL2_CASSA Timing of CAB express...omologue OS... 47 1e-07 tr|Q6UEI7|Q6UEI7_MESCR Timing of CAB expression 1 OS=Mese...AEQRPRIKGQFVRRE 131 LAEQRPR+KGQFVR++ Sbjct: 609 LAEQRPRVKGQFVRQD 624 >tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing

  5. SwissProt search result: AK105506 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK105506 001-127-D12 (Q9JJZ9) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel beta 3 (CNG channel beta 3) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel beta 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel beta subunit) (Cyclic... nucleotide-gated cation channel modulatory subunit) (Cyclic nucl CNGB3_MOUSE 4e-14 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK100739 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK100739 J023118D04 (Q9JJZ9) Cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel beta 3 (CNG channel beta 3) (Cyclic... nucleotide gated channel beta 3) (Cone photoreceptor cGMP-gated channel beta subunit) (Cyclic... nucleotide-gated cation channel modulatory subunit) (Cyclic nucl CNGB3_MOUSE 4e-18 ...

  7. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fifth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2009-08-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fifth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from October 2008 through June 2009. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous four evaluation reports.

  8. SunLine Transit Agency Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Fourth Evaluation Report (Report and Appendices)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes operations at SunLine Transit Agency for a prototype fuel cell bus and five new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses. This is the fourth evaluation report for this site, and it describes results and experiences from April 2008 through October 2008. These results are an addition to those provided in the previous three evaluation reports.

  9. Analysis of cranial nerve growthine improving quality of life in cerebral infarction%脑神经生长素治疗脑梗死患者生存质量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建农; 刘建新

    2002-01-01

    Background: Cranial nerve growthine (CNG) is a kind of new biochemical drug containing many special neuroactive substances which have a good therapeutic effect in cerebrovascular diseases, and can distinctly improve quality of life for patients with cerebral infarction. The quality of life is an improtant factor for rehabilitation,it is life satisfaction, psychological well being,happiness,adaptation and mental health.

  10. 49 CFR 571.304 - Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... means the internal pressure of a CNG fuel container attained at the time of filling. Fill pressure... constructed under normal conditions. S5Container and material requirements. S5.1Container designations. Container designations are as follows: S5.1.1Type 1—Non-composite metallic container means a metal...

  11. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: KB Home — Double ZeroHouse, Lancaster, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-01

    The home that won a Production Builder award in the 2014 Housing Innovation Awards serves as a model for this builder, showcasing high-tech features including an electric car charging station; a compressed natural gas (CNG) car fueling station; a greywater recycling system that filters shower, sink, and clothes washer water for yard irrigation; smart appliances; and an electronic energy management system.

  12. Strategies for elimination of cyanogens from cassava for reducing toxicity and improving food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambisan, Bala

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity of cassava arises due to the presence of the cyanoglucosides linamarin and lotaustralin which are hydrolysed by endogenous enzyme linamarase to acetonecyanohydrin (ACN) and cyanide (CN) which are toxic. Major research efforts to eliminate/reduce cyanoglucosides have focused on (i) development of acyanogenic cassava varieties by breeding; (ii) controlling its metabolism; and (iii) processing to remove cyanogens. The cyanoglucoside (CNG) content in cassava is genetically controlled and cultivars may be classified as low (100 μg CN eq./g) varieties. Molecular techniques for reducing tuber CNG have focused on development of transgenic plants with reduced expression of cyt P 450 in leaves, or increased expression of hydroxynitrilelyase in tuber. For immediate solution, CNG content can be reduced using several processing methods. Traditional methods used for processing include boiling, drying, parboiling and drying, baking, steaming, frying and preparation of flour. These processes result in CN losses ranging from 25% to 98%. The cyanogen level in the final product is influenced both by the tuber CNG and the method of processing. In order to achieve safe levels of 10 μg/g in cassava products, new methods of processing, especially for cassava containing more than 250 μg CN eq./g, remains a challenging problem.

  13. 75 FR 8099 - Public Workshop on Marine Technology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Composite Pressure Vessels Coating Selection Risk/Hazard Mitigation Transporting CNG as Cargo Shipboard Fire..., electrical & mechanical systems, lifesaving and fire safety equipment, and related equipment approval and..., including: Green Ship Technology Hydrogen Fuel Cell Propulsion Standards for H 2 Storage and...

  14. Future view on Norwegian natural gas distribution, 2015 - 2025; Framtidsbilde for norsk naturgassdistribusjon, 2015 - 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einang, P M; Hennie, E; Jetlund, A S; Bertelsen, T; Skjelvik, J M

    2005-05-15

    The report shows how the available market for natural gas can realised as LNG and CNG. The necessary investments in infrastructure and cost for the different solutions are also included. The expected price development natural gas and the connection prices for natural gas versus crude oil are shown. The report also shows the environmental benefits possible by choosing natural gas

  15. Solid-state NMR [13C,15N] resonance assignments of the nucleotide-Binding Domain of a bacterial Cyclic Nucleotide-Gated Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cukkemane, A.A.; Nand, D.; Gradmann, S.H.E.; Weingarth, M.H.; Kaupp, U.B.; Baldus, M.

    2012-01-01

    Channels regulated by cyclic nucleotides are key signalling proteins in several biological pathways. The regulatory aspect is conferred by a C-terminal cyclic nucleotide-binding domain (CNBD). We report resonance assignments of the CNBD of a bacterial mlCNG channel obtained using 2D and 3D solid-sta

  16. Exploration of cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channel-interacting proteins using affinity purification and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xi-Qin; Matveev, Alexander; Singh, Anil; Komori, Naoka; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Photopic (cone) vision essential for color sensation, central vision, and visual acuity is mediated by the activation of photoreceptor cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. Naturally occurring mutations in the cone channel subunits CNGA3 and CNGB3 are associated with achromatopsia and cone dystrophies. This work investigated the functional modulation of cone CNG channel by exploring the channel-interacting proteins. Retinal protein extracts prepared from cone-dominant Nrl (- / -) mice were used in CNGA3 antibody affinity purification, followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis. The peptide mass fingerprinting of the tryptic digests and database search identified a number of proteins including spectrin alpha-2, ATPase (Na(+)/K(+) transporting) alpha-3, alpha and beta subunits of ATP synthase (H(+) transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex), and alpha-2 subunit of the guanine nucleotide-binding protein. In addition, the affinity-binding assays demonstrated an interaction between cone CNG channel and calmodulin but not cone Na(+)/Ca(2+)-K(+) exchanger in the mouse retina. Results of this study provide insight into our understanding of cone CNG channel-interacting proteins and the functional modulations.

  17. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.

    2015-11-03

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  18. Developing a Natural Gas-Powered Bus Rapid Transit Service. A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, George [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Roaring Fork Transit Authority (RFTA) and its VelociRFTA Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) program are unique in many ways. For example, VelociRFTA was the first rural BRT system in the United States and the operational environment of the VelociRFTA BRT is one of the most severe in the country, with extreme winter temperatures and altitudes close to 8,000 feet. RFTA viewed high altitude operation as the most challenging characteristic when it began considering the use of natural gas. RFTA is the second-largest public transit system in Colorado behind Denver's Regional Transportation District (RTD), and it is one of the largest rural public transit systems in the country. In 2013, RFTA accepted delivery of 22 new compressed natural gas (CNG) buses that went into service after completion of maintenance and refueling facilities earlier that year. This paper examines the lessons learned from RFTA's experience of investigating--and ultimately choosing--CNG for their new BRT program and focuses on the unique environment of RFTA's BRT application; the decision process to include CNG fueling in the project; unforeseen difficulties encountered in the operation of CNG buses; public perception; cost comparison to competing fuels; and considerations for indoor fueling facilities and project funding.

  19. Energy Research and Development Administration Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group: experimental program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, I.

    1975-03-19

    The Ad Hoc Computer Networking Group was established to investigate the potential advantages and costs of newer forms of remote resource sharing and computer networking. The areas of research and investigation that are within the scope of the ERDA CNG are described. (GHT)

  20. Effect of dietary nickel deprivation on vision, olfaction, and taste in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsuhiko; Uthus, Eric O; Penland, James G; Nielsen, Forrest H

    2014-10-01

    Early studies on dietary nickel deprivation found decreased reproduction rate in pigs and decreased insemination and conception rates in goats. Studies from our laboratory demonstrated that nickel deprivation impaired male reproductive function of rats. A physiological amount of nickel modulates the function of cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channels (CNG channels) in vitro. Thus, because CNG channels have important roles in spermatozoa function, it was speculated that the impairment of reproduction by nickel deprivation was through an effect on CNG channels. Because CNG channels are found in retinal photoreceptor, olfactory receptor, and taste receptor cells, we hypothesized that nickel deprivation would also alter light/dark preference, odor preference to female rat urine, and taste preference/aversion in rats. In the light/dark Y-maze, nickel deprivation significantly decreased time spent in the dark arm by rats. The number of sniffs to estrous female urine was significantly increased only in nickel-supplemented rats. The number of licks at the saccharin bottle was significantly decreased by dietary nickel deprivation. These findings suggest that nickel has a biological role in the special senses: vision, olfaction and taste.

  1. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  2. Geography of Existing and Potential Alternative Fuel Markets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, C.; Hettinger, D.

    2014-11-01

    When deploying alternative fuels, it is paramount to match the right fuel with the right location, in accordance with local market conditions. We used six market indicators to evaluate the existing and potential regional market health for each of the five most commonly deployed alternative fuels: electricity (used by plug-in electric vehicles), biodiesel (blends of B20 and higher), E85 ethanol, compressed natural gas (CNG), and propane. Each market indicator was mapped, combined, and evaluated by industry experts. This process revealed the weight the market indicators should be given, with the proximity of fueling stations being the most important indicator, followed by alternative fuel vehicle density, gasoline prices, state incentives, nearby resources, and finally, environmental benefit. Though markets vary among states, no state received 'weak' potential for all five fuels, indicating that all states have an opportunity to use at least one alternative fuel. California, Illinois, Indiana, Pennsylvania, and Washington appear to have the best potential markets for alternative fuels in general, with each sporting strong markets for four of the fuels. Wyoming showed the least potential, with weak markets for all alternative fuels except for CNG, for which it has a patchy market. Of all the fuels, CNG is promising in the greatest number of states--largely because freight traffic provides potential demand for many far-reaching corridor markets and because the sources of CNG are so widespread geographically.

  3. Natural Gas Vehicle Cylinder Safety, Training and Inspection Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hank Seiff

    2008-12-31

    Under the auspices of the National Energy Technology Laboratory and the US Department of Energy, the Clean Vehicle Education Foundation conducted a three-year program to increase the understanding of the safe and proper use and maintenance of vehicular compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel systems. High-pressure fuel systems require periodic inspection and maintenance to insure safe and proper operation. The project addressed the needs of CNG fuel containers (cylinders) and associated high-pressure fuel system components related to existing law, codes and standards (C&S), available training and inspection programs, and assured coordination among vehicle users, public safety officials, fueling station operators and training providers. The program included a public and industry awareness campaign, establishment and administration of a cylinder inspector certification training scholarship program, evaluation of current safety training and testing practices, monitoring and investigation of CNG vehicle incidents, evaluation of a cylinder recertification program and the migration of CNG vehicle safety knowledge to the nascent hydrogen vehicle community.

  4. 30 CFR 77.1605 - Loading and haulage equipment; installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Loading and Haulage § 77.1605 Loading and haulage equipment; installations. (a) Cab... equipped with parking brakes. (c) Positive-action type brakes shall be provided on aerial tramways....

  5. 49 CFR 236.556 - Adjustment of relay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.556 Adjustment of...

  6. 49 CFR 236.558-236.559 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives §§ 236.558-236.559...

  7. 49 CFR 236.560 - Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.560 Contact element, mechanical trip type; location with respect to...

  8. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24018 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  9. 15 CFR 770.2 - Item interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., (e.g., fuel tanks or vehicle cabs); and (iv) Special reinforcements for mountings for weapons. (3... Chloroethanol 2-Chloroethyl alcohol Ethene chlorohydrin Ethylchlorohydrin Ethylene chlorhydrin Ethylene...-Diethyl-2-hydroxyethylamine Diethylaminoethanol 2-(Diethylamino) ethanol 2-(Diethylamino)ethyl alcohol...

  10. InterProScan Result: FS826625 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS826625 FS826625_6_ORF1 ECC063214CAB06EE PANTHER PTHR10513 DEOXYNUCLEOSIDE KINASE ...FAMILY PROTEIN 4.3e-49 T IPR002624 Deoxynucleoside kinase Molecular Function: ATP binding (GO:0005524) ...

  11. 75 FR 17590 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Roof Crush Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... passenger car or sport utility vehicle. Instead, one manufacturer produces an ``incomplete vehicle'' which... therefore subject to FMVSS No. 216. This chassis-cab is based on the Chevrolet Colorado/GMC Canyon....

  12. Geological, biological, and chemical data for Benthic Sediment Baseline Study of Mobile Bay from 3 Apr 1980 to 26 Aug 1981 (NODC Accession 0117430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Abstract: Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could...

  13. Biological Data for Biological Baseline Studies of Mobile Bay: Benthic Fauna 1980-1981 (NODC Accession 0116100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in late 1979, the Alabama Coastal Area Board (CAB) funded a series of baseline surveys on the coastal resources of Alabama, from which they could develop a...

  14. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  15. Dicty_cDB: CFF367 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available esculentum cDNA clone cLED28D14, mRNA sequence. 48 0.14 1 CB978867 |CB978867.1 CAB40006_IVa_Ra_B06 Cabernet ...CB978798.1 CAB40006_IVa_Fa_B06 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry - CAB4 Vitis vinifera cDN...A clone CAB40006_IVa_Fa_B06 5', mRNA sequence. 48 0.14 1 CB342417 |CB342417.1 CA32EN0003_IIaF_B08 Cabernet S...CB342483.1 CA32EN0003_IIaR_B08 Cabernet Sauvignon Leaf - CA32EN Vitis vinifera cDNA clone CA32EN0003_IIaR_B0

  16. Dicty_cDB: VHA711 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available IASMA L1 HindIII BAC library Vitis vinifera genomic, genomic survey sequence. 44 0.010 2 CB980117 |CB980117.1 CAB70001_IaR_H03 Cabern...DNA clone CAB70001_IaR_H03 3', mRNA sequence. 44 0.011 2 CB979848 |CB979848.1 CAB70001_IIcF_H03 Cabernet Sau...CB980047 |CB980047.1 CAB70001_IaF_H03 Cabernet Sauvignon Berry Post-Veraison - CA...lone ENTAV 115. 38 0.014 2 CT502850 |CT502850.1 A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar Cabernet Sa

  17. Cluster (Cyanobacteria): 35823:821 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 35823:821 putative CAB/ELIP/HLIP-related protein (Chlorophyll a-b binding / Early Light Inducible... Protein / High Light Inducible Protein) 1150:5216 118562:1393|376219:1101|129910:1086|129910:1085|376219:1100 ...

  18. Muscle oxygenation, EMG, and cardiovascular responses for cabin attendants vs. controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandfeld, Jesper; Larsen, Lisbeth Højkjær; Crenshaw, Albert Guy;

    2013-01-01

    The goal was to investigate the effect of acute moderate hypobaric exposure on the physiological responses to sustained contractions (local) and light to moderate dynamic exercise (systemic) for cabin attendants (CAB) and a matched control group (CON)....

  19. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno;

    2014-01-01

    ; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  20. 76 FR 2107 - Human Studies Review Board; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ...) or the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Since other entities may also be... closed cab airblast equipment is commonly used in production agriculture. EPA seeks the advice of...

  1. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  2. AcEST: DK952039 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available romosome chr17 scaffold_12, whole genom... 86 2e-15 tr|Q56TL2|Q56TL2_CASSA Timing of CAB expression 1 protei...ld_3, whole genome ... 80 1e-13 tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing of CAB expression 1...-like protein (... 79 3e-13 tr|Q2PEF2|Q2PEF2_LEMGI Pseudo-response regulator 95 homologue OS... 79 3e-13 tr|Q6UEI7|Q6UEI7_MESCR Timin...PRVRGQFVRK 488 >tr|Q56TL2|Q56TL2_CASSA Timing of CAB expression 1 protein OS=Castanea sativa GN=TOC1 PE=2 SV...QNVY 714 >tr|Q84XQ7|Q84XQ7_BRARP Timing of CAB expression 1-like protein (Fragmen

  3. Estimating the health benefits from natural gas use in transport and heating in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Carrasco, Marcelo; Oliva, Estefania; Saide, Pablo; Spak, Scott N; de la Maza, Cristóbal; Osses, Mauricio; Tolvett, Sebastián; Campbell, J Elliott; Tsao, Tsao Es Chi-Chung; Molina, Luisa T

    2012-07-01

    Chilean law requires the assessment of air pollution control strategies for their costs and benefits. Here we employ an online weather and chemical transport model, WRF-Chem, and a gridded population density map, LANDSCAN, to estimate changes in fine particle pollution exposure, health benefits, and economic valuation for two emission reduction strategies based on increasing the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Santiago, Chile. The first scenario, switching to a CNG public transportation system, would reduce urban PM2.5 emissions by 229 t/year. The second scenario would reduce wood burning emissions by 671 t/year, with unique hourly emission reductions distributed from daily heating demand. The CNG bus scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 0.33 μg/m³ and up to 2 μg/m³ during winter months, while the residential heating scenario reduces annual PM2.5 by 2.07 μg/m³, with peaks exceeding 8 μg/m³ during strong air pollution episodes in winter months. These ambient pollution reductions lead to 36 avoided premature mortalities for the CNG bus scenario, and 229 for the CNG heating scenario. Both policies are shown to be cost-effective ways of reducing air pollution, as they target high-emitting area pollution sources and reduce concentrations over densely populated urban areas as well as less dense areas outside the city limits. Unlike the concentration rollback methods commonly used in public policy analyses, which assume homogeneous reductions across a whole city (including homogeneous population densities), and without accounting for the seasonality of certain emissions, this approach accounts for both seasonality and diurnal emission profiles for both the transportation and residential heating sectors.

  4. COMBUSTION AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A SMALL SPARK IGNITION ENGINE FUELLED WITH HCNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SONTHALIA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to environmental concerns and fossil fuel depletion, large scale researches were carried out involving the use of natural gas in internal combustion engines. Natural gas is a clean burning fuel that is available from large domestic natural reserve. When it is used as a fuel in SI engines, it reduces emissions to meet EURO-III norms with carburettors and EURO-IV norms with manifold injection. Countries like India with fewer natural fossil fuel reserves depend heavily on oil imported from Middle East Asian countries and on the other hand combustion of fossil fuel has negative impact on air quality in urban areas. Use of CNG as a fuel in internal combustion engines can reduce the intensiveness of these pervasive problems. The performance of CNG can further be improved by addition of small percentages of hydrogen to it to overcome the drawbacks like lower energy density of the fuel, drop in engine power and engine out exhaust emissions. When hydrogen is added to CNG it is called as Hythane or Hydrogen enriched Compressed Natural Gas (HCNG. This can be considered as a first step towards promotion of hydrogen in automobiles. In this study, the effects of mixing hydrogen with CNG on a small air cooled four stroke SI engine’s performance, emissions and heat release rate was analyzed. A comparison of performance and emission by running engine separately on gasoline, hydrogen, CNG and HCNG was done. The results show a significant decrease in HC, CO and NOx emissions and marginal increase in specific energy consumption when fuelled with HCNG.

  5. Alternative fuels for vehicles fleet demonstration program final report. Volume 1: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Alternative Fuels for Vehicles Fleet Demonstration Program (AFV-FDP) was a multiyear effort to collect technical data for use in determining the costs and benefits of alternative-fuel vehicles in typical applications in New York State. During 3 years of collecting data, 7.3 million miles of driving were accumulated, 1,003 chassis-dynamometer emissions tests were performed, 862,000 gallons of conventional fuel were saved, and unique information was developed about garage safety recommendations, vehicle performance, and other topics. Findings are organized by vehicle and fuel type. For light-duty compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles, technology has evolved rapidly and closed-loop, electronically-controlled fuel systems provide performance and emissions advantages over open-loop, mechanical systems. The best CNG technology produces consistently low tailpipe emissions versus gasoline, and can eliminate evaporative emissions. Reduced driving range remains the largest physical drawback. Fuel cost is low ($/Btu) but capital costs are high, indicating that economics are best with vehicles that are used intensively. Propane produces impacts similar to CNG and is less expensive to implement, but fuel cost is higher than gasoline and safety codes limit use in urban areas. Light-duty methanol/ethanol vehicles provide performance and emissions benefits over gasoline with little impact on capital costs, but fuel costs are high. Heavy-duty CNG engines are evolving rapidly and provide large reductions in emissions versus diesel. Capital costs are high for CNG buses and fuel efficiency is reduced, but the fuel is less expensive and overall operating costs are about equal to those of diesel buses. Methanol buses provide performance and emissions benefits versus diesel, but fuel costs are high. Other emerging technologies were also evaluated, including electric vehicles, hybrid-electric vehicles, and fuel cells.

  6. Natural Gas Container Transportation: the Alternative Way to Solve the World’s Energy Transportation Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Shendrik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The container gas transportation for low and medium level consumers as an alternative to pipelines is considered. The options for gas supply schemes, based on road and rail transport are given. The advantages and disadvantages of both types of gas transporting are described, the areas of their effective using are separated in the article. Promising implementations of technology in environment of economic crisis and also considering world trends of energy development are presented. The most advanced organization of compressed gas condensate transportation of unprepared gas fields in large diameter universal cylindrical balloons (up to 1000 mm are reasoned. The problem of compressed gas sea transportation are well disclosed, but the alternative ways of gas transportation by land are not investigated enough. Compressed Natural Gas (CNG Technology - is new promising technology for natural gas transportation by specially designed vessels – CNG-vessels. The feature of this technology is that natural gas can be downloaded directly near gas deposits and unloaded - directly into the customer's network. This eliminates significant capital investments in underwater pipelining or gas liquefaction plants. The main objects of investment are CNG-vessels themselves. The most attractive places for implementation of CNG-technology are sea (offshore natural gas deposits. Numerous international experts estimate the natural gas transportation by CNG-vessels in 1.5-2.0 times more cost-beneficial in comparison with offshore pipelines transportation, or in comparison with LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shipping with natural gas transportation volume between 0.5 and 4.0 billion cubic meters per year on the route from 250 to 2,500 sea miles. This technology makes possible to provide gas supplement to the mountain and abounding in water areas, remote and weakly gasified regions. Described technology deserves special attention in the case of depleted and low-power oil and

  7. Structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin, two snake-venom cysteine-rich secretory proteins that target cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels: implications for movement of the C-terminal cysteine-rich domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Yamazaki, Yasuo [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Brown, R. Lane [Neurological Science Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon 97006 (United States); Fujimoto, Zui [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); Morita, Takashi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Kiyose, Tokyo 204-8588 (Japan); Mizuno, Hiroshi, E-mail: tmorita@my-pharm.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8602 (Japan); VALWAY Technology Center, NEC Soft Ltd, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-8627 (Japan); Institute for Biological Resources and Functions, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 6, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8566 (Japan); Department of Applied Biochemistry, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8572 (Japan)

    2008-10-01

    The structures of pseudechetoxin and pseudecin suggest that both proteins bind to cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels in a manner in which the concave surface occludes the pore entrance. Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) ion channels play pivotal roles in sensory transduction by retinal photoreceptors and olfactory neurons. The elapid snake toxins pseudechetoxin (PsTx) and pseudecin (Pdc) are the only known protein blockers of CNG channels. These toxins belong to a cysteine-rich secretory protein (CRISP) family containing an N-terminal pathogenesis-related proteins of group 1 (PR-1) domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain (CRD). PsTx and Pdc are highly homologous proteins, but their blocking affinities on CNG channels are different: PsTx blocks both the olfactory and retinal channels with ∼15–30-fold higher affinity than Pdc. To gain further insights into their structure and function, the crystal structures of PsTx, Pdc and Zn{sup 2+}-bound Pdc were determined. The structures revealed that most of the amino-acid-residue differences between PsTx and Pdc are located around the concave surface formed between the PR-1 domain and the CRD, suggesting that the concave surface is functionally important for CNG-channel binding and inhibition. A structural comparison in the presence and absence of Zn{sup 2+} ion demonstrated that the concave surface can open and close owing to movement of the CRD upon Zn{sup 2+} binding. The data suggest that PsTx and Pdc occlude the pore entrance and that the dynamic motion of the concave surface facilitates interaction with the CNG channels.

  8. The role of abdominal compliance, the neglected parameter in critically ill patients - a consensus review of 16. Part 2: measurement techniques and management recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; De Laet, Inneke; De Waele, Jan J; Sugrue, Michael; Schachtrupp, Alexander; Duchesne, Juan; Van Ramshorst, Gabrielle; De Keulenaer, Bart; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Mulier, Jan; Pelosi, Paolo; Ivatury, Rao; Pracca, Francisco; David, Marcelo; Roberts, Derek J

    2014-01-01

    The recent definitions on intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), intra-abdominal volume (IAV) and abdominal compliance (Cab) are a step forward in understanding these important concepts. They help our understanding of the pathophysiology, aetiology, prognosis, and treatment of patients with low Cab. However, there is still a relatively poor understanding of the different methods used to measure IAP, IAV and Cab and how certain conditions may affect the results. This review will give a concise overview of the different methods to assess and estimate Cab; it will list important conditions that may affect baseline values and suggest some therapeutic options. Abdominal compliance (Cab), defined as a measure of the ease of abdominal expansion, is measured differently than IAP. The compliance of the abdominal wall is only a part of the total abdominal pressure-volume (PV) relationship. Measurement or estimation of Cab is difficult at the bedside and can only be done in a case of change (removal or addition) in IAV. The different measurement techniques will be discussed in relation to decreases (ascites drainage, haematoma evacuation, gastric suctioning) or increases in IAV (gastric insufflation, laparoscopy with CO₂ pneumoperitoneum, peritoneal dialysis). More specific techniques using the interactions between the thoracic and abdominal compartment during positive pressure ventilation will also be discussed (low flow PV loop, respiratory IAP variations, respiratory abdominal variation test, mean IAP and abdominal pressure variation), together with the concept of the polycompartment model. The relation between IAV and IAP is linear at low IAV and becomes curvilinear and exponential at higher volumes. Specific conditions in relation to increased (previous pregnancy or laparoscopy, gynoid fat distribution, ellipse-shaped internal abdominal perimeter) or decreased Cab (obesity, fluid overload, android fat distribution, sphere-shaped internal abdominal perimeter) will be discussed

  9. 基于粒子法的侧气帘静爆的模型仿真%Model simulation of curtain airbag deployment based on corpuscular method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宇飞; 蒋斌庆; 鞠春贤; 岳国辉; 陈现岭

    2015-01-01

    Curtain airbag (CAB) is an important equipment to improve vehicle safety. This paper investigated the deployment process of a CAB by using control volume method (CV) and corpuscular method (CPM) in software Primer. A CAB deployment simulation model was established based on the selected trim meshing, the CAB folding, and the CAB deployment. This model was used to simulate and compare the CAB deployment process from both the CV and the CPM method and to analyze the effect of the two methods on oriented brackets in two working conditions with or without having oriented brackets. The results show that the CAB deployment process by using CPM method is more close to the real test conditions than the deployment process by CV method. Therefore, by adding oriented brackets on B pilar and C pilar, can guide the direction of CAB deployment and avoid moveing CAB into the gap between trim and car body, this leads CAB deploy normaly and smoothly.%侧气帘(CAB)是提升车辆安全性的重要配置。该文使用Primer软件中的均压法(CV)与粒子法(CPM)两种方法,研究了侧气帘静爆展开过程。根据选择的内饰网格划分﹑侧气帘折叠﹑气囊起爆等方式,搭建了侧气帘静爆仿真模型。用该模型仿真对比了均压法和粒子法的气帘展开过程,分析了这两种方法对导向支架的影响,并对有导向支架和无导向支架两种工况进行了分析。结果表明:粒子法搭建的侧气帘模型的展开过程,比均压法的更加接近于试验真实状态;通过增加侧气帘B柱﹑C柱导向支架,可引导气帘起爆的方向,避免气帘挤入内饰与车身的缝隙中,使侧气帘能够正常顺利地展开。

  10. Epidemiology, microbiology and mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Kanoksil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: National statistics in developing countries are likely to underestimate deaths due to bacterial infections. Here, we calculated mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia (CAB in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Information was obtained from the microbiology and hospital database of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, and compared with the national death registry from the Ministry of Interior, Thailand for the period between 2004 and 2010. CAB was defined in patients who had pathogenic organisms isolated from blood taken within 2 days of hospital admission without a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. A total of 15,251 CAB patients identified, of which 5,722 (37.5% died within 30 days of admission. The incidence rate of CAB between 2004 and 2010 increased from 16.7 to 38.1 per 100,000 people per year, and the mortality rate associated with CAB increased from 6.9 to 13.7 per 100,000 people per year. In 2010, the mortality rate associated with CAB was lower than that from respiratory tract infection, but higher than HIV disease or tuberculosis. The most common causes of CAB were Escherichia coli (23.1%, Burkholderia pseudomallei (19.3%, and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%. There was an increase in the proportion of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that national statistics on causes of death in developing countries could be improved by integrating information from readily available databases. CAB is neglected as an important cause of death, and specific prevention and intervention is urgently required to reduce its incidence and mortality.

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-04-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-04-0028 ref|NP_195401.1| GNS1/SUR4 membrane family protein [Arabidopsis thaliana...] emb|CAB16818.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB80349.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana...] gb|AAT06420.1| At4g36830 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gb|AAV85691.1| At4g36830 [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_195401.1 1e-166 100% ...

  12. Equilibrium partitioning of macromolecules in confining geometries: Improved universality with a new molecular size parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanwei; Peters, Günther H.J.; Hansen, Flemming Yssing;

    2008-01-01

    structures (CABS), allows the computation of equilibrium partition coefficients as a function of confinement size solely based on a single sampling of the configuration space of a macromolecule in bulk. Superior in computational speed to previous computational methods, CABS is capable of handling slits...... parameter for characterization of spatial confinement effects on macromolecules. Results for the equilibrium partition coefficient in the weak confinement regime depend only on the ratio ofR-s to the confinement size regardless of molecular details....

  13. Warfighter Information Network-Tactical Increment 2 (WIN-T Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    seconds (92% of completed messages). Force Protection Armor required for protection of passengers inside the vehicle cab from small arms fire, mines ...small arms fire, mines , and other anti-vehicle/ personnel kits for protection of passengers inside the vehicle cab from small arms fire, mines ...BY 2010 $M): Total costs for disposal of all Node are 32.7 Disposal costs increased by $13.9M from $18.8M to $32.7M due to revised lithium ion

  14. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    General Asian Journal ofAndrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Joumal has been included in 11 intemational indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 1.064 and ranks third among the intemational andrology ioumals.

  15. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    1 General Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 0.827 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  16. Information for Authors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    General Asian Journal ofAndrology (AJA) is the official publication of the Asian Society of Andrology sponsored by the Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Journal has been included in 11 international indexing systems, including BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CAB Health, Chemical Abstracts, Current Contents/Clinical Medicine, EMBASE, Index Medicus, MEDLINE, PASCAL, Research Alert, and SCI Expanded. The Impact Factor is 1.064 and ranks third among the international andrology journals.

  17. A Light-Responsive Self-Assembly Formed by a Cationic Azobenzene Derivative and SDS as a Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shengyong; Wang, Yuzhu; Wang, Liping; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Wada, Satoshi; Wang, Jin-Ye

    2017-01-01

    The structure of a self-assembly formed from a cationic azobenzene derivative, 4-cholesterocarbonyl-4‧-(N,N,N-triethylamine butyloxyl bromide) azobenzene (CAB) and surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution was studied by cryo-TEM and synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles could be observed. CAB in vesicles were capable to undergo reversible trans-to-cis isomerization upon UV or visible light irradiation. The structural change upon UV light irradiation could be catched by SAXS, which demonstrated that the interlamellar spacing of the cis-multilamellar vesicles increased by 0.2-0.3 nm. Based on this microstructural change, the release of rhodamine B (RhB) and doxorubicin (DOX) could be triggered by UV irradiation. When incubated NIH 3T3 cells and Bel 7402 cells with DOX-loaded CAB/SDS vesicles, UV irradiation induced DOX release decreased the viability of both cell lines significantly compared with the non-irradiated cells. The in vitro experiment indicated that CAB/SDS vesicles had high efficiency to deliver loaded molecules into cells. The in vivo experiment showed that CAB/SDS vesicles not only have high drug delivery efficiency into rat retinas, but also could maintain high drug concentration for a longer time. CAB/SDS catanionic vesicles may find potential applications as a smart drug delivery system for controlled release by light.

  18. A Light-Responsive Self-Assembly Formed by a Cationic Azobenzene Derivative and SDS as a Drug Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shengyong; Wang, Yuzhu; Wang, Liping; Kouyama, Tsutomu; Gotoh, Toshiaki; Wada, Satoshi; Wang, Jin-Ye

    2017-01-01

    The structure of a self-assembly formed from a cationic azobenzene derivative, 4-cholesterocarbonyl-4′-(N,N,N-triethylamine butyloxyl bromide) azobenzene (CAB) and surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution was studied by cryo-TEM and synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Both unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles could be observed. CAB in vesicles were capable to undergo reversible trans-to-cis isomerization upon UV or visible light irradiation. The structural change upon UV light irradiation could be catched by SAXS, which demonstrated that the interlamellar spacing of the cis-multilamellar vesicles increased by 0.2–0.3 nm. Based on this microstructural change, the release of rhodamine B (RhB) and doxorubicin (DOX) could be triggered by UV irradiation. When incubated NIH 3T3 cells and Bel 7402 cells with DOX-loaded CAB/SDS vesicles, UV irradiation induced DOX release decreased the viability of both cell lines significantly compared with the non-irradiated cells. The in vitro experiment indicated that CAB/SDS vesicles had high efficiency to deliver loaded molecules into cells. The in vivo experiment showed that CAB/SDS vesicles not only have high drug delivery efficiency into rat retinas, but also could maintain high drug concentration for a longer time. CAB/SDS catanionic vesicles may find potential applications as a smart drug delivery system for controlled release by light. PMID:28051069

  19. Outcomes associated with conventional versus lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B in propensity-matched groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell RS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca S Campbell,1 Paresh Chaudhari,2 Harlen D Hays,1 Robert J Taylor,1 Brian H Nathanson,3 Samuel A Bozzette,1 David Horn4 1Cerner Research, Culver City, CA, USA; 2Astellas Scientific and Medical Affairs, Inc., Northbrook, IL, USA; 3OptiStatim, LLC, Longmeadow, MA, USA; 4David Horn LLC, Doylestown, PA, USA Background: Lipid-based formulations of amphotericin B (LF-AMB are indicated for treatment of invasive fungal infections in patients intolerant to conventional amphotericin B (CAB or with refractory infections. Physicians still may choose to administer CAB to such patients. We described the use of CAB and LF-AMB in this population and quantified differences in post-amphotericin B length of stay (LOS among survivors and hospital mortality in matched patients. Methods: Data were extracted from Health Facts (Cerner Corporation, Kansas City, MO, USA for a retrospective cohort analysis. Inpatients aged ≥18 years with evidence of fungal infection and with orders for LF-AMB or CAB on  ≥2 days from January 2001 to June 2010 were identified. Patients were required to have renal insufficiency or other relative contraindications to use of CAB, exposure to nephrotoxic agents, or evidence of a CAB-refractory infection. Multilevel (hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with initial exposure to LF-AMB versus CAB. Multivariate adjustment of outcomes was done using propensity score matching. Results: 655 patients were identified: 322 patients initiated therapy with CAB and 333 initiated treatment with LF-AMB. Compared to those initiating CAB, patients initiating LF-AMB had greater acuity and underlying disease severity. In unadjusted analyses, hospital mortality was significantly higher in the LF-AMB group (32.2% versus 23.7%; P = 0.02. After propensity score matching and covariate adjustment, mortality equalized and observed differences in LOS after amphotericin B initiation decreased. Conclusion

  20. Le Gaz Naturel Véhicule Natural Gas for Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Chauveron S.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Cet article présente le GNV (Gaz Naturel Véhicule. Le GNV a en effet de sérieux atouts, à la fois comme carburant de substitution et comme carburant propre. Ces atouts sont aussi bien économiques que techniques. La première partie est consacrée aux enjeux du développement du GNV. Les premiers pays utilisateurs ont été ceux qui disposent sur leur sol de ressources de gaz naturel. Aujourd'hui, alors que de nombreux pays doivent faire face à l'inquiétude croissante relative à l'augmentation de la pollution urbaine, le gaz naturel apparaît également comme un carburant propre, permettant de réduire rapidement les émissions de polluants des véhicules. Dans une deuxième partie, nous donnons une description technique sommaire des stations GNV et des véhicules GNV. Il s'agit de familiariser le lecteur avec les quelques spécificités techniques du GNV, par rapport à l'essence et au gazole. On constatera d'ailleurs que les technologies GNV sont très proches des technologies classiques. Enfin, la dernière partie est consacrée aux actions en cours, qui permettront le développement du GNV en France et en Europe : programmes de recherche, réduction des coûts de la filière, actions réglementaires, communication, etc. This article presents compressed natural gas for vehicles (CNG, which can provide considerable advantages both as an alternative fuel and as a clean fuel. These assets are not only economic but also technical. The first part deals with what is at stake in developing natural gas as a motor fuel. The first countries to use CNG were those with natural gas resources in their subsoil. Today, with a large number of countries having to cope with growing concern about increasing urban pollution, natural gas is also seen as a clean fuel that can help cut vehicle pollutant emissions dramatically. In the second part a brief technical description is given of CNG stations and vehicles, with the aim of acquainting the reader with

  1. 钙结合蛋白在前列腺癌中的下调表达及其临床意义%The clinical significance of decreased expression of calcium binding protein 39 in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建国; 陈卫红; 徐述雄; 王元林; 孙兆林; 何慧婵; 钟惟德

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨钙结合蛋白(CAB39)在前列腺癌中的作用及其临床意义.方法 应用蛋白组学二维荧光差异凝胶电泳(2D-DIGE)技术筛选出在局限性前列腺癌与癌旁组织差异性表达的CAB39蛋白,质谱分析(MS)鉴定、免疫组织化学技术检测CAB39蛋白在24例前列腺癌与癌旁组织中的表达,结合CAB39免疫组织化学评分和前列腺癌患者的临床病理参数进行分析.结果 CAB39蛋白在癌旁组织中的免疫组织化学染色阳性率高于前列腺癌组织(70.8%比33.3%,P<0.01),CAB39蛋白表达在前列腺癌患者年龄、血清前列腺特异抗原(PSA)水平、Gleason评分和肿瘤TNM分期各不同分组中的差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 CAB39蛋白在前列腺癌患者中下调表达,它可能是前列腺癌抑制因子.%Objective To explore the role and clinical significance of calcium binding protein 39 (CAB39) protein in prostate cancer (PCa).Methods Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) to screen CAB39 protein in PCa and adjacent tissues,and mass spectrometry analysis verification,to analyze the differentially expressed degree of CAB39 protein in 24 cases of PCa and adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical (IHC) technology,the combination of CAB39 IHC score and clinicopathological parameters of PCa patients were analyzed.Results Using the method of IHC,we found that the expression of CAB39 protein in adjacent tissues was significantly higher than that in PCa tissues (70.8% vs 33.3%,P <0.01).The expression of CAB39 protein in different age stages of PCa patients,serum PSA levels,Gleason score and TNM stage in tumor group had no significant difference(P >0.05).Conclusion CAB39 protein is down-regulated expression in PCa,it may be prostate tumor suppressor.

  2. Citizen advisory boards: An empirical model for choosing goals and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunsberg, P.

    1994-12-01

    This is a study of Citizen Advisory Boards (CABS) undertaken for the Department of Energy (DOE) to draw practical insights from the accumulated experience of CAB members and agency officials who have worked with these boards over many years. Hence the main research tool is in-depth interviews of these individuals. In addition, the study relies on field observations of CABs at work, historical documentation of individual boards, and a large body of academic, professional, and government literature. The DOE is in the process of establishing Site Specific Advisory Boards (SSABs) at most of its major facilities in order to provide for community involvement in the DOE environmental restoration and environmental management programs, but these boards initiated by DOE do not yet have enough of a track-record for a study of this type. Consequently, the study focused on CABs at six other federal agencies which have had substantial experience with boards that are similar in composition and purpose to the SSABs. The study examined common problem that confront virtually every CAB in its organization and its decision-making process. For example, each board faces difficult issues in defining its goals and representational responsibilities, selection of members, selection of issues, reaching agreement on recommendations to the parent agency, getting responsive action from the parent agency, and evaluating the board`s success over time. An effort was made to identify solutions or best approaches to these fundamental problems such that the recommended approach has broad application to citizen advisory boards concerned with environmental issues. The conclusions of the study are summarized in a model which incorporates the optimal approaches discovered with respect to each of the critical issues. While acknowledging that the particular circumstances of a CAB may call for individual variations, the model provides a fairly comprehensive description of recommended features of a CAB.

  3. Caffeinated and non-caffeinated alcohol use and indirect aggression: The impact of self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Brynn E; Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2016-07-01

    Research shows that heavier alcohol use is associated with physical aggression. Scant research has examined the way in which alcohol relates to other forms of aggression, such as indirect aggression (e.g., malicious humor, social exclusion). Given the possible negative consequences of indirect aggression and the limited evidence suggesting alcohol use can elicit indirectly aggressive responses, research is needed to further investigate the association between drinking behavior and indirect aggression. Additionally, specific alcoholic beverages, such as caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs; e.g., Red Bull and vodka), may potentiate aggression above the influence of typical use, and thus warrant examination with regard to indirect aggression. One factor that may impact the strength of the alcohol-indirect aggression and CAB-indirect aggression relationships is one's level of self-regulation. Consequently, our study examined the relationships between (1) alcohol use and indirect aggression, (2) CAB use and indirect aggression, and (3) self-regulation as a moderator. Participants were 733 (67.6% female) undergraduate students who reported their CAB and alcohol use, self-regulation, and aggressive behaviors. Results revealed that heavier alcohol use was associated with more frequent indirect aggression after controlling for dispositional aggression. Heavier CAB use was related to more frequent indirect aggression after accounting for typical use and dispositional aggression. Self-regulation moderated these associations such that for those with lower self-regulation, greater alcohol and CAB consumption was associated with greater indirect aggression. Our findings suggest that heavier alcohol and CAB consumption may be risk factors for engaging in indirect aggression and this risk is impacted by one's regulatory control.

  4. Natural gas in transport. An assessment of different routes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampman, B.; Croezen, H.; Aarnink, S. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Verbeek, R.; Ligterink, N.; Meulenbrugge, J.; Koornneef, G. [TNO, Delft (Netherlands); Kroon, P.; De Wilde, H. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Compressed or liquid natural gas (CNG, LNG) along with energy carriers produced from natural gas like electricity, hydrogen and Gas to Liquid (GTL) can limit emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants in the transport sector. This is particularly the case if electricity, hydrogen or CNG are used to power cars and buses, with LNG being used for trucks and ships. To reduce the overall greenhouse gas emissions of shipping, however, methane emissions also need to be limited. To ensure the safety of LNG, effective control of the distribution infrastructure is also required, moreover. This study compares various types of natural gas with diesel and petrol as primary energy sources in the transport sector. The analysis covers the environment, costs and safety. Taking 2025 as a horizon, the entire fuel chain is considered, from production at source to combustion in the engine.

  5. Compressed natural gas as a vehicle to promote development of consumer market in Campina Grande - PB (Brazil); O gas natural comprimido como fomentador do desenvolvimento do mercado consumidor de gas natural na regiao de Campina Grande - PB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Marcelo dos Santos; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia (PIPGE)

    2004-07-01

    Investments required for natural gas distribution networks are high. The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) is seen as a way to prepare and develop consuming markets to receive those networks. This paper outlines the socio-economic context and the reasons that motivated the creation of a CNG project in Campina Grande, in the state of Paraiba. Technical aspects of project implementation are described, including difficulties encountered and courses of action undertaken as a result. Other aspects considered include the social and economic impact and local consumer's expectations with the arrival of new fuel. The study also considers factors relevant to the project such as the distance from the pressure measurement and regulation station, transported volumes, technology used, infrastructure and road conditions. (author)

  6. Performance, Efficiency, and Emissions Characterization of Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines Fueled with Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby S. Chapman; Amar Patil

    2007-06-30

    Hydrogen is an attractive fuel source not only because it is abundant and renewable but also because it produces almost zero regulated emissions. Internal combustion engines fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) are operated throughout a variety of industries in a number of mobile and stationary applications. While CNG engines offer many advantages over conventional gasoline and diesel combustion engines, CNG engine performance can be substantially improved in the lean operating region. Lean operation has a number of benefits, the most notable of which is reduced emissions. However, the extremely low flame propagation velocities of CNG greatly restrict the lean operating limits of CNG engines. Hydrogen, however, has a high flame speed and a wide operating limit that extends into the lean region. The addition of hydrogen to a CNG engine makes it a viable and economical method to significantly extend the lean operating limit and thereby improve performance and reduce emissions. Drawbacks of hydrogen as a fuel source, however, include lower power density due to a lower heating value per unit volume as compared to CNG, and susceptibility to pre-ignition and engine knock due to wide flammability limits and low minimum ignition energy. Combining hydrogen with CNG, however, overcomes the drawbacks inherent in each fuel type. Objectives of the current study were to evaluate the feasibility of using blends of hydrogen and natural gas as a fuel for conventional natural gas engines. The experiment and data analysis included evaluation of engine performance, efficiency, and emissions along with detailed in-cylinder measurements of key physical parameters. This provided a detailed knowledge base of the impact of using hydrogen/natural gas blends. A four-stroke, 4.2 L, V-6 naturally aspirated natural gas engine coupled to an eddy current dynamometer was used to measure the impact of hydrogen/natural gas blends on performance, thermodynamic efficiency and exhaust gas emissions

  7. Avaliação da desadaptação marginal de estruturas metálicas obtidas com variações quanto aos tipos de cera e às técnicas de inclusão e fundição

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, André Vinícius

    2004-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi observar o comportamento de ceras para fundições, utilizando a técnica de fundição convencional, comparando-a a técnica de fundição rápida; utilizando em ambas a expansão higroscópica de um revestimento fosfatado (All Therm, CNG Soluções Protéticas). Utilizamos duas ceras: Cera para imersão GALILEO Dip Pot Wax (Talladium Inc.) e Cera Azul para fresagem (CNG Soluções Protéticas), que foram submetidas às duas técnicas de fundição propostas. Cada grupo experimental ...

  8. Polymer Masks for nanostructuring of graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shvets, Violetta

    This PhD project is a part of Center for Nanostructured Graphene (CNG) activities. The aim of the project is to develop a new lithography method for creation of highly ordered nanostructures with as small as possible feature and period sizes. The method should be applicable for graphene...... polymer masks is developed. Mask fabrication is realized by microtoming of 30-60 nm thin sections from pre-aligned polymer monoliths with different morphologies. The resulting polymer masks are then transferred to both silicon and graphene substrates. Hexagonally packed hole patterns with 10 nm hole...... diameter and 20 nm periodicity are successfully transferred to both substrates. The method allowed to realize the first ever transfer of moiré patterns to silicon. Furthermore, in collaboration with CNG, device with nanostructured graphene are fabricated and electrical measurements made on these devices...

  9. A minimal peach type II chlorophyll a/b-binding protein promoter retains tissue-specificity and light regulation in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorza Ralph

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Promoters with tissue-specificity are desirable to drive expression of transgenes in crops to avoid accumulation of foreign proteins in edible tissues/organs. Several photosynthetic promoters have been shown to be strong regulators of expression of transgenes in light-responsive tissues and would be good candidates for leaf and immature fruit tissue-specificity, if expression in the mature fruit were minimized. Results A minimal peach chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb2*Pp1 promoter (Cab19 was isolated and fused to an uidA (β-glucuronidase [GUS] gene containing the PIV2 intron. A control vector carrying an enhanced mas35S CaMV promoter fused to uidA was also constructed. Two different orientations of the Cab19::GUS fusion relative to the left T-DNA border of the binary vector were transformed into tomato. Ten independent regenerants of each construct and an untransformed control line were assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively for GUS expression in leaves, fruit and flowers, and quantitatively in roots. Conclusion The minimal CAB19 promoter conferred GUS activity primarily in leaves and green fruit, as well as in response to light. GUS activity in the leaves of both Cab19 constructs averaged about 2/3 that observed with mas35S::GUS controls. Surprisingly, GUS activity in transgenic green fruit was considerably higher than leaves for all promoter constructs; however, in red, ripe fruit activities were much lower for the Cab19 promoter constructs than the mas35S::GUS. Although GUS activity was readily detectable in flowers and roots of mas35S::GUStransgenic plants, little activity was observed in plants carrying the Cab19 promoter constructs. In addition, the light-inducibility of the Cab19::GUS constructs indicated that all the requisite cis-elements for light responsiveness were contained on the Cab19 fragment. The minimal Cab19 promoter retains both tissue-specificity and light regulation and can be used to

  10. In-Hospital and Long-Term Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; 19-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag M. Mitrovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To present a 19-year experience of the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and prior coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS, 748 patients with AMI after prior CABS (postbypass group and a control group of 1080 patients with AMI, but without prior CABS, were analyzed. All indexes of infarct size were lower in the postbypass group. There was more ventricular fibrillation in the postbypass group. In-hospital mortality was similar (p = 0.3675. In the follow-up period, postbypass patients had more heart failure, recurrent CABS, reinfarction, and unstable angina than did control patients. Cumulative survival was better in the control group than in the postbypass group (p = 0.0403. Multiple logistic regression model showed that previous angina (p = 0.0005, diabetes (p = 0.0058, and age (p = 0.0102 were independent predictor factors for survival. Use of digitalis and diuretics, together with previous angina, also influenced survival (p = 0.0092, as well as male gender, older patients, and diabetes together (p = 0.0420. Patients with AMI after prior CABS had smaller infarct, but more reinfarction, reoperation, heart failure, and angina. Previous angina, diabetes, and age, independently, as well as use of digitalis and diuretics together with angina, and male gender, older patients, and diabetes together, influenced a worse survival rate in these patients.

  11. Predictors of ertapenem therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in hospitalized adults: the importance of renal insufficiency and urinary pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, B A; Giuga, J; Gerson, S

    2016-04-01

    In hospitalized adults acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and catheter associated bacteriuria (CAB) may be treated with oral antibiotics. With AUC or CAB due to extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) + Gram negative bacilli (GNB) physicians often use intravenous therapy, e.g., ertapenem. We reviewed our recent experience in hospitalized adults with AUC and CAB treated with ertapenem. Therapeutic efficacy of ertapenem was assessed by decreased pyuria/bacteriuria, and elimination of the uropathogen. The effectiveness of ertapenem in the presence of renal insufficiency (CrCl 3 days) in patients with decreased renal function and alkaline urinary pH. We reviewed 45 hospitalized adults with AUC or CAB to determine if renal insufficiency and or alkaline urinary pH affected ertapenem efficacy. In the 33 adult hospitalized patients with AUC and 12 with CAB, we found that ertapenem was consistently effective in eliminating the GNB bacteriuria. In hospitalized adults, the presence of renal insufficiency and acid urine, bacteriuria was eliminated in  3 days which has not been previously reported.

  12. Cine Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Cine Club

    2015-01-01

    Thursday 19 February 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Mystery Train     Directed by Jim Jarmusch - USA, 1989, 110 minutes A Japanese couple obsessed with 1950s America goes to Memphis because the male half of the couple emulates Carl Perkins. Chance encounters link three different stories in the city, with the common thread being the seedy hotel where they are all staying. Original version English; French subtitles   Thursday 26 February 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber Night on Earth     Directed by Jim Jarmusch - USA, 1991, 129 minutes A collection of five stories involving cab drivers in five different cities. Los Angeles - A talent agent for the movies discovers her cab driver would be perfect to cast, but the cabbie is reluctant to give up her solid cab driver's career. New York - An immigrant cab driver is continually lost in a city and culture he doesn't understand. Paris - A blind girl takes a ride with a cab driv...

  13. Study on the hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The hydration and hardening mechanism of cement asphalt binder(CAB) was studied.The early hydration process,hydration products and paste microstructure of CAB made by Portland cement and anionic asphalt emulsion were investigated by calorimetry,X-ray diffraction,and environmental scanning electron microscopy.The early hydration process of CAB can be characterized as 5 stages similar to those of Portland cement.There is no chemical reaction detected between cement and asphalt,hence no new hydration products other than those of Portland cement are produced.The hardening of CAB begins with the hydration of cement.When the hydration of cement comes into the acceleration period and its exothermic rate comes to the maximum,the coalescence of asphalt particles in asphalt emulsion is triggered.In the hardened system of CAB,it was found that the hydration products of cement form the skeleton and are covered by the continuous asphalt film.They formed an interpenetrating network system.The emulsifiers in the asphalt emulsion may retard the hydration process of cement.

  14. Evaluation of bacteremias in a Turkish university hospital: 3-year outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirdal, Tuna; Demirturk, Nese; Cetinkaya, Zafer; Tufan, Gulnihal

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the investigators examined blood cultures from patients that had been diagnosed with bacteremias over a 3-y period. The study was conduced at Kocatepe University Hospital (Middle Anatolia, Turkey). Blood samples that arrived at the university's microbiology laboratory between 2002 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. These samples were classified as contamination, false positivity, community-acquired bacteremia (CAB), or hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB). Patient age and sex, foci of bacteremia, present comorbidities, predisposing factors, pathogens, and mortality rates were evaluated. A total of 1783 blood cultures that had been drawn from 1441 patients during this 3-y period were examined retrospectively. Of 354 positive isolates, 61 (17.2%) were CABs and 293 (82.8%) were HABs. In HABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (29.7%), and Escherichia coli (10.2%); in CABs, the most commonly isolated microorganisms were S aureus (29.5%), Brucella spp (26.2%), and E coli (24.6%). Crude mortality rates were determined to be 15.2% for HABs and 12.7% for CABs. This study yielded data on the most common foci of bacteremia, microbiologic factors, and the epidemiology associated with HABs and CABs. It is hoped that these data will enhance empirical antibiotic therapeutic approaches, thereby preventing delays in treatment and decreasing mortality rates associated with bacteremias.

  15. Transparent Blend of Poly(Methylmethacrylate/Cellulose Acetate Butyrate for the Protection from Ultraviolet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouf Mahmood Raouf

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of transparent polymers as an alternative to glass has become widespread. However, the direct exposure of these materials to climatic conditions of sunlight and heat decrease the lifetime cost of these products. The aim of this study was to minimize the harm caused by ultraviolet (UV radiation exposure to transparent poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA, which usually leads to changes in the physical and chemical properties of these materials and reduced performance. This was achieved using environmentally friendly cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB. The optical, morphological, and thermal properties of CAB blended with transparent PMMA was studied using UV-VIS spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic mechanical analysis, and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results show that CAB was able to reduce the effects of UV radiation by making PMMA more transparent to UV light, thereby preventing the negative effects of trapped radiation within the compositional structure, while maintaining the amorphous structure of the blend. The results also show that CAB blended with PMMA led to some properties commensurate with the requirements of research in terms of a slight increase in the value of the modulus and the glass transition temperature for the PMMA/CAB blend.

  16. Phosphodiesterase 3 and 5 and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel expression in rat trigeminovascular system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Lars S; Sandholdt, Nicolai T H; Gammeltoft, Steen;

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the trigeminovascular pain signalling system appears involved in migraine pathophysiology. However, the molecular mechanisms are only partially known. Stimulation of cAMP and cGMP production as well as inhibition of their breakdown induce migraine-like headache. Additionally, migraine...... of cAMP and cGMP levels by PDE and activation of CNG may play a role in trigeminovascular pain signalling leading to migraine headache....

  17. Cloning and first functional characterization of a plant cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leng, Q.; Mercier, R.W.; Yao, W.; Berkowitz, G.A.

    1999-11-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (cng) non-selective cation channels have been cloned from a number of animal systems. These channels are characterized by direct gating upon cAMO or cGMO binding to the intracellular portion of the channel protein, which leads to an increase in channel conductance. Animal cng channels are involved in signal transduction systems; they translate stimulus-induced changes in cytosolic cyclic nucleotide into altered cell membrane potential and/or cation flux as part of a signal cascade pathway. Putative plant homologs of animal cng channels have been identified. However, functional characterization (i.e., demonstration of cyclic-nucleotide-dependent ion currents) of a plant cng channel has not yet been accomplished. The authors report the cloning and first functional characterization of a plant member of this family of ion channels. The Arabidopsis cDNA AtCNGC2 encodes a polypeptide with deduced homology to the {alpha}-subunit of animal channels, and facilitates cyclic nucleotide-dependent cation currents upon expression in a number of heterologous systems. AtCNGC2 expression in a yeast mutant lacking a low-affinity K{sup +} uptake system complements growth inhibition only when lipophilic nucleotides are present in the culture medium. Voltage clamp analysis indicates that Xenopus lawvis oocytes injected with AtCNGC2 cRNA demonstrate cyclic-nucleotide-dependent, inward-rectifying K{sup +} currents. Human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) transfected with AtCNGC2 cDNA demonstrate increased permeability to Ca{sup 2+} only in the presence of lipophilic cyclic nucleotides. The evidence presented here supports the functional classification of AtCNGC2 as a cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channel, and presents the first direct evidence identifying a plant member of this ion channel family.

  18. Almacenamiento de gas natural

    OpenAIRE

    Tomás Correa; Elkin Castrillón

    2008-01-01

    The largest reserves of natural gas worldwide are found in regions far of main cities, being necessary different alternatives to transport the fluid to the consumption cities, such as pipelines, CNG or ships, LNG, depending on distances between producing regions and demanding regions and the producing volumes. Consumption regions have three different markets to naturalgas; residential and commercial, industrial and power generation sector. The residential and commercial is highly seasonal and...

  19. Effects of gas types and models on optimized gas fuelling station reservoir's pressure

    OpenAIRE

    M. Farzaneh-Gord; M. Deymi-Dashtebayaz; Rahbari,H. R.

    2013-01-01

    There are similar algorithms and infrastructure for storing gas fuels at CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) and CHG (Compressed Hydrogen Gas) fuelling stations. In these stations, the fuels are usually stored in the cascade storage system to utilize the stations more efficiently. The cascade storage system generally divides into three reservoirs, commonly termed low, medium and high-pressure reservoirs. The pressures within these reservoirs have huge effects on performance of the stations. In the c...

  20. 2009 ESTCP UXO Classification Study, San Luis Obispo, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    139 xii Acronyms 11X Depth corresponding to 11 times an object’s diameter CNG California National Guard DGM Digital Geophysical Mapping EE/CA...the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of... tectonic interaction of the North American and Pacific crustal plates, the area is seismically active. A large portion of the site consists of hills

  1. Simulation and experimental research on a dual-coil ignition system%双线圈点火系统特性仿真与试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马修真; 靖海国; 杨立平; 宋恩哲

    2014-01-01

    为了降低稀燃CNG发动机燃烧循环变动,设计了一种双线圈点火系统。利用Multisim软件仿真研究了新点火系统次级电压的变化规律,并在发动机台架上研究了此点火系统对CNG发动机燃烧稳定性的影响。次级电压的仿真结果表明,在不同放电间隔的条件下,新点火系统分别能够有效提高次级电压,增加火花持续期并能实现多次放电。台架试验表明,在合适的放电模式下新点火系统能够降低发动机的循环变动系数,提高稀燃CNG发动机燃烧稳定性。%In order to reduce cyclic variation, a dual-coil ignition system for a CNG engine was proposed in this pa-per. Using Multisim software, the change rule of secondary voltage of the new ignition system was studied. The im-pact of this ignition system on combustion stability of the CNG engine was studied on the engine test bench. Experi-mental results of secondary voltage show that compared with single-coil ignition, the new ignition system can effec-tively increase secondary voltage, extend spark duration and achieve multiple discharges under different discharge interval conditions. Bench test shows that, in a suitable discharging mode, this system can reduce the probability of misfire and the cyclic variation coefficient of CNG engine, consequently it improves the combustion stability of lean burn CNG engine.

  2. In-vitro assessment and pharmacodynamics of nimesulide incorporated Aloe vera transemulgel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, K R; Yalavarthi, Prasanna R; Sundaresan, C R; Sriramaneni, Raghava N; Vadlamudi, Harini C

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the investigation was to prepare nimesulide emulsion for incorporation in Aloe vera gel base to formulate 'nimesulide - Aloe vera transemulgel' (NAE) and to carryout in-vitro assessment and in-vivo anti-inflammatory studies of the product. Although the use of nimesulide is banned for oral administration, due to its potential for inducing hepatotoxicity and thrombocytopenia, the use of nimesulide for topical delivery is prominent in the treatment of many inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. The drug loading capacity of transdermal gels is low for hydrophobic drugs such as nimesulide. Nimesulide can be effectively incorporated into emulgels (a combination of emulsion and gel). Aloe vera has a mild anti-inflammatory effect and in the present study Aloe vera gel was formulated and used as a gel base to prepare NAE. The emulgels thus prepared were evaluated for viscosity, pH, in-vitro permeation, stability and skin irritation test. In-vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed using carrageenan induced hind paw edema method in Wistar rats. The results were compared with that of commercial nimesulide gel (CNG). From the in-vitro studies, effective permeation of nimesulide from NAE (53.04 %) was observed compared to CNG (44.72 %) at 30 min indicating better drug release from NAE. Topical application of the emulgel found no skin irritation. Stability studies proved the integrity of the formulation. The percentage of inhibition of edema was highest for the prepared NAE (67.4 % inhibition after 240 min) compared to CNG (59.6 %). From our results, it was concluded that the Aloe vera gel acts as an effective gel base to prepare nimesulide emulgel with high drug loading capacity (86.4 % drug content) compared to CNG (70.5 % drug content) with significant anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Abundance and Utility: For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    and combat support vehicles, ships, and aircraft, the adoption of natural gas —whether as compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquefied natural gas (LNG...tacticaldefensemedia.com16 | DoD Power & Energy Fall 2014 For Military Operations, Liquid Fuels Remain a Solid Choice over Natural Gas By Bret...Strogen and Patrick Lobner Abundance and Utility Fueling the Force Natural Gas M ilitary energy strategists often recount the British Royal Navy’s decision

  4. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    nitrile rubber , natural rubber ) that are commonly used for hoses, seals and gaskets, and may degrade them to the point where they fail. Failure can...cloud point (33.5°F for the test fuel). Gelling can be prevented through fuel management (e.g., fuel additives, shifting to a diesel/biodiesel blend ...Engineering CG Coast Guard CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon monoxide CO2 Carbon dioxide COG Course over ground CRADA Cooperative Research and

  5. Air Emissions Guide for Air Force Mobile Sources: Methods for Estimating Emissions of Air Pollutants for Mobile Sources at U.S. Air Force Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    CFRM Continuous Flow Rate Monitor CH4 Methane CI Compression Ignition CNG Compressed Natural Gas CO Carbon Monoxide Co Cobalt CONUS...Certification Program ºF Degrees Fahrenheit FAA Federal Aviation Administration FBC Fluidized Bed Combustor FCAW Flux-Cored Arc Welding FESOP Federally...sources like power plants and industrial boilers burn fuels such as gasoline, coal , or oil. Nitrogen Oxides produce a reddish-brown tint to smog

  6. DoD’s Compressed Natural Gas Filling Station in Afghanistan: An Ill-conceived $43 Million Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    reserves of natural gas, along with deposits of oil and natural gas liquids .3 The TFBSO Downstream Gas Utilization Project was intended to take...market for CNG vehicles. According to the World Bank , “[t]he cost of distribution of natural gas to a large number of small consumers can be...appendix I). 12 John Homer, The World Bank , Natural Gas in Developing Countries, Evaluating the Benefits to the Environment, January 1993, p. 19

  7. Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is evaluating the in-service performance of fast-charge battery electric buses compared to compressed natural gas (CNG) buses operated by Foothill Transit in West Covina, California. Launched in 2015 in collaboration with the California Air Resources Board, this study aims to improve understanding of the overall use and effectiveness of fast-charge electric buses and associated charging infrastructure in transit operation.

  8. Impact of non-petroleum vehicle fuel economy on GHG mitigation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jason M.; Saville, Bradley A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2016-04-01

    The fuel economy of gasoline vehicles will increase to meet 2025 corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFE). However, dedicated compressed natural gas (CNG) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) already exceed future CAFE fuel economy targets because only 15% of non-petroleum energy use is accounted for when determining compliance. This study aims to inform stakeholders about the potential impact of CAFE on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, should non-petroleum fuel vehicles displace increasingly fuel efficient petroleum vehicles. The well-to-wheel GHG emissions of a set of hypothetical model year 2025 light-duty vehicles are estimated. A reference gasoline vehicle is designed to meet the 2025 fuel economy target within CAFE, and is compared to a set of dedicated CNG vehicles and BEVs with different fuel economy ratings, but all vehicles meet or exceed the fuel economy target due to the policy’s dedicated non-petroleum fuel vehicle incentives. Ownership costs and BEV driving ranges are estimated to provide context, as these can influence automaker and consumer decisions. The results show that CNG vehicles that have lower ownership costs than gasoline vehicles and BEVs with long distance driving ranges can exceed the 2025 CAFE fuel economy target. However, this could lead to lower efficiency CNG vehicles and heavier BEVs that have higher well-to-wheel GHG emissions than gasoline vehicles on a per km basis, even if the non-petroleum energy source is less carbon intensive on an energy equivalent basis. These changes could influence the effectiveness of low carbon fuel standards and are not precluded by the light-duty vehicle GHG emissions standards, which regulate tailpipe but not fuel production emissions.

  9. 间断与持续鼻饲喂养对极低出生体重儿喂养耐受性和胃泌素水平的影响%Effects of intermittent bolus gavage and continuous nasogastric gavage on the feeding tolerance and gastrin level in very low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of intermittent bolus gavage (IBG)and continuous nasogastric gavage(CNG) on the feeding tolerance and gastrin level in very low birth weight infants ( VLBWI) . Methods: Seventy cases of VLBWI who were fed on partial parenteral nutrition were randomly divided into IBG feeding group and CNG feeding group. The time of reaching full enteral feeding ( FEF) of both groups was observed. The gastrin level of two groups was compared on the first day and the tenth day: and the effects of the two feeding patterns on the intolerance of VLBWI was analyzed. Results: Compared with the CNG group, the incidence rate of intolerance in IBG group was lower(P 0. 05) ,but on the tenth day, the gastrin level of IBG group increased significantly (P0.05),喂养第10天IBG组较CNG组血液中胃泌素水平显著增高(P<0.01).结论 IBG喂养方式对VLBWI喂养耐受性好,且能提高胃泌素分泌水平.

  10. Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, K.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.

  11. Gram-scale, high-yield synthesis of a robust metal-organic framework for storing methane and other gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmer, CE; Farha, OK; Yildirim, T; Eryazici, I; Krungleviciute, V; Sarjeant, AA; Snurr, RQ; Hupp, JT

    2013-04-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a new metal-organic framework (MOF) material, NU-125, that, in the single-crystal limit, achieves a methane storage density at 58 bar (840 psi) and 298 K corresponding to 86% of that obtained with compressed natural gas tanks (CNG) used in vehicles today, when the latter are pressurized to 248 bar (3600 psi). More importantly, the deliverable capacity (58 bar to 5.8 bar) for NU-125 is 67% of the deliverable capacity of a CNG tank that starts at 248 bar. (For crystalline granules or powders, particle packing inefficiencies will yield densities and deliverable capacities lower than 86% and 67% of high-pressure CNG.) This material was synthesized in high yield on a gram-scale in a single-batch synthesis. Methane adsorption isotherms were measured over a wide pressure range (0.1-58 bar) and repeated over twelve cycles on the same sample, which showed no detectable degradation. Adsorption of CO2 and H-2 over a broad range of pressures and temperatures are also reported and agree with our computational findings.

  12. Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene for Supercapacitors with High Gravimetric and Volumetric Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ding, Bing; Xu, Yunling; Shen, Laifa; Dou, Hui; Zhang, Xiaogang

    2015-10-14

    Graphene is considered a promising electrochemical capacitors electrode material due to its high surface area and high electrical conductivity. However, restacking interactions between graphene nanosheets significantly decrease the ion-accessible surface area and impede electronic and ionic transfer. This would, in turn, severely hinder the realization of high energy density. Herein, we report a strategy for preparation of few-layer graphene material with abundant crumples and high-level nitrogen doping. The two-dimensional graphene nanosheets (CNG) feature high ion-available surface area, excellent electronic and ion transfer properties, and high packing density, permitting the CNG electrode to exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. In ionic liquid electrolyte, the CNG electrode exhibits gravimetric and volumetric capacitances of 128 F g(-1) and 98 F cm(-3), respectively, achieving gravimetric and volumetric energy densities of 56 Wh kg(-1) and 43 Wh L(-1). The preparation strategy described here provides a new approach for developing a graphene-based supercapacitor with high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities.

  13. Transduction for pheromones in the main olfactory epithelium is mediated by the Ca2+ -activated channel TRPM5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Fabián; Delgado, Ricardo; López, Roberto; Bacigalupo, Juan; Restrepo, Diego

    2014-02-26

    Growing evidence suggests that the main olfactory epithelium contains a subset of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) responding to pheromones. One candidate subpopulation expresses the calcium activated cation channel TRPM5 (transient receptor potential channel M5). Using GFP driven by the TRPM5 promoter in mice, we show that this subpopulation responds to putative pheromones, urine, and major histocompatibility complex peptides, but not to regular odors or a pheromone detected by other species. In addition, this subpopulation of TRPM5-GFP+ OSNs uses novel transduction. In regular OSNs, odorants elicit activation of the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel, leading to Ca2+ gating of Cl- channels; in TRPM5-GFP+ OSNs, the Ca2+ -activated Cl- ANO2 (anoctamin 2) channel is not expressed, and pheromones elicit activation of the CNG channel leading to Ca2+ gating of TRPM5. In conclusion, we show that OSNs expressing TRPM5 respond to pheromones, but not to regular odors through the opening of CNG channels leading to Ca2+ gating of TRPM5.

  14. Metrological and operational performance of measuring systems used in vehicle compressed natural gas filling stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velosa, Jhonn F.; Abril, Henry; Garcia, Luis E. [CDT de GAS (Venezuela). Gas Technological Development Center Corporation

    2008-07-01

    Corporation CDT GAS financially supported by the Colombian government through COLCIENCIAS, carried out a study aimed at designing, developing and implementing in Colombia a calibration and metrological verification 'specialized service' for gas meters installed at dispensers of filling stations using compressed natural gas. The results permitted the identification of improving opportunities (in measuring systems, equipment and devices used to deliver natural gas) which are focused on achieving the highest security and reliability of trading processes of CNG for vehicles. In the development of the first stage of the project, metrological type variables were initially considered, but given the importance of the measuring system and its interaction with the various elements involving gas supply to the filling station, the scope of the work done included aspects related to the operational performance, that is, those influencing the security of the users and the metrological performance of the measuring system. The development of the second stage counted on the collaboration of national companies from the sector of CNG for vehicles, which permitted the carrying out of multiple calibrations to the measuring systems installed in the CNG dispensers, thus achieving, in a concrete way, valid and reliable technological information of the implemented procedures. (author)

  15. Trends of Syngas as a Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ftwi Yohaness Hagos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Syngas from biomass and solid waste is a carbon-neutral fuel believed to be a promising fuel for future engines. It was widely used for spark-ignition engines in the WWII era before being replaced with gasoline. In this paper, the technological development, success, and challenges for application of syngas in power generating plants, the trends of engine technologies, and the potential of this fuel in the current engine technology are highlighted. Products of gasification vary with the variation of input parameters. Therefore, three different syngases selected from the two major gasification product categories are used as case studies. Their fuel properties are compared to those of CNG and hydrogen and the effects on the performance and emissions are studied. Syngases have very low stoichiometric air-fuel ratio; as a result they are not suitable for stoichiometric application. Besides, syngases have higher laminar flame speed as compared to CNG. Therefore, stratification under lean operation should be used in order to keep their performance and emissions of NOx comparable to CNG counterpart. However, late injection stratification leads to injection duration limitation leading to restriction of output power and torque. Therefore, proper optimization of major engine variables should be done in the current engine technology.

  16. What is a clean bus? Object conflicts in the greening of urban transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hess

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Object conflicts—struggles over the design, definition, and diffusion of technologies—are analyzed to understand the changing history of the greening of bus technologies in the United States from the late 1980s to 2006. Conflicts are examined over the controversy between compressed natural gas (CNG and emissions-controlled diesel (ECD buses in four fields: regulations, research on emissions differences, fleet-purchase decisions, and political mobilizations from bus users and environmental justice groups. Given rapidly changing scientific research on emissions and health effects and rapidly changing bus technology, controversies tend not to stabilize or close for long. In general, the trend has been for some of the largest city bus fleets to reverse pro-CNG decisions in favor of ECD. A framework for the analysis of “object conflicts” is developed to elucidate the factors behind the choices between ECD and CNG and to provide a general model for thinking about technology politics and sustainability.

  17. Fuel effects on the stability of turbulent flames with compositionally inhomogeneous inlets

    KAUST Repository

    Guiberti, T. F.

    2016-10-11

    This paper reports an analysis of the influence of fuels on the stabilization of turbulent piloted jet flames with inhomogeneous inlets. The burner is identical to that used earlier by the Sydney Group and employs two concentric tubes within the pilot stream. The inner tube, carrying fuel, can be recessed, leading to a varying degree of inhomogeneity in mixing with the outer air stream. Three fuels are tested: dimethyl ether (DME), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and compressed natural gas (CNG). It is found that improvement in flame stability at the optimal compositional inhomogeneity is highest for CNG and lowest for DME. Three possible reasons for this different enhancement in stability are investigated: mixing patterns, pilot effects, and fuel chemistry. Numerical simulations realized in the injection tube highlight similarities and differences in the mixing patterns for all three fuels and demonstrate that mixing cannot explain the different stability gains. Changing the heat release rates from the pilot affects the three fuels in similar ways and this also implies that the pilot stream is unlikely to be responsible for the observed differences. Fuel reactivity is identified as a key factor in enhancing stability at some optimal compositional inhomogeneity. This is confirmed by inference from joint images of PLIF-OH and PLIF-CHO, collected at a repetition rate of 10kHz in turbulent flames of DME, and from one-dimensional calculations of laminar flames using detailed chemistry for DME, CNG, and LPG.

  18. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ijaz [Department of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Guelen, Guercan [Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, 1801 Allen Pkwy, Houston, TX 77019 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  19. Energy-related application of composite material. Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP); Enerugi kanren yoto to CFRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, T. [Toray Industries, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-01-15

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with advantages such as high strength, high relative elastic modulus, high chemical stability, and excellent thermal/electric properties, is widely used in aviation/space, sports, and industries. This paper takes up CNG tank, flywheel, and windmill blade, as examples of energy-related application development. For the purpose of weight reduction of CNG car, big three car manufacturers of the U.S. and Honda adopted CNG tank. Flywheel with CFRP rotor can store 3.8 times energy compared with that of steel. Windmill blade used in windmill power generation is mostly made of 3 blades and presently GFRP is used, but CFRP will become a main stream when the windmill is scaled up. In the future, it is necessary to reduce the cost of carbon fiber and its treatment process, as well as to solve the targets such as standardization of design, recognition by users, and verification in environmental use, and to develop further applications. (NEDO)

  20. Application of Polymeric Nanocomposites and Carbon Fiber Composites in the Production of Natural Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto João Pavani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research work is about the experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of reservoirs for storage of compressed natural gas (CNG consisting of a nanopolymeric liner coated with carbon fiber preimpregnated with epoxy resin applied by filament winding (FW. It addresses technical solutions adopted to optimize the reservoir as reinforcement with fiber, the process of healing and thermal analysis, as well as the hydrostatic testing to verify its resistance to the pressure required for CNG storage. Different nanoclays were incorporated to the polymer aiming to increase the strength of the liner and to reduce the thickness of its wall and the final weight of the reservoir as well as decreasing gas permeability. The obtained results were the basis for proposing an adaptation of the equation traditionally used for the dimensioning of the wall thickness of metallic pressure vessels to determine the number of layers needed to endure any internal pressure to which the reservoir is subjected. They indicate that the used methodology enables the production of pressure vessels for the storage of CNG, according to the ISO 11439:2013 Standard.

  1. Community Advisory Boards in Community-Based Participatory Research: A Synthesis of Best Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan D. Newman, PhD, RN, CRRN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Community-based participatory research (CBPR is a paradigm to study and reduce disparities in health outcomes related to chronic disease. Community advisory boards (CABs commonly formalize the academic–community partnerships that guide CBPR by providing a mechanism for community members to have representation in research activities. Researchers and funding agencies increasingly recognize the value of the community’s contribution to research and acknowledge that community advisory boards are a key component of successful CBPR projects. In this article, we describe the best processes for forming, operating, and maintaining CABs for CBPR. We synthesize the literature and offer our professional experiences to guide formation, operation, and maintenance of CABs.

  2. Design and Analysis of a Novel Centrifugal Braking Device for a Mechanical Antilock Braking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Ping; Yang, Ming-Shien; Liu, Tyng

    2015-06-01

    A new concept for a mechanical antilock braking system (ABS) with a centrifugal braking device (CBD), termed a centrifugal ABS (C-ABS), is presented and developed in this paper. This new CBD functions as a brake in which the output braking torque adjusts itself depending on the speed of the output rotation. First, the structure and mechanical models of the entire braking system are introduced and established. Second, a numerical computer program for simulating the operation of the system is developed. The characteristics of the system can be easily identified and can be designed with better performance by using this program to studying the effects of different design parameters. Finally, the difference in the braking performance between the C-ABS and the braking system with or without a traditional ABS is discussed. The simulation results indicate that the C-ABS can prevent the wheel from locking even if excessive operating force is provided while still maintaining acceptable braking performance.

  3. Associations between performance on an abbreviated CogState battery, other measures of cognitive function, and biomarkers in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Annie M.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Berman, Sara E.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Mueller, Kimberly D.; Norton, Derek; Nicholas, Christopher R.; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Jedynak, Bruno; Bilgel, Murat; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Christian, Bradley T.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2016-01-01

    It is not known whether computerized cognitive assessments, like the CogState battery, are sensitive to preclinical cognitive changes or pathology in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In 469 late middle-aged participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (mean age 63.8±7 years at testing; 67% female; 39% APOE4+), we examined relationships between a CogState abbreviated battery (CAB) of seven tests and demographic characteristics, traditional paper-based neuropsychological tests as well as a composite cognitive impairment index, cognitive impairment status (determined by consensus review); and biomarkers for amyloid and tau (CSF phosphorylated-tau/Aβ42 and global PET-PiB burden) and neural injury (CSF neurofilament light protein). CSF and PET-PiB were collected in n=71 and n=91 participants, respectively, approximately four years prior to CAB testing. For comparison, we examined three traditional tests of delayed memory in parallel. Similar to studies in older samples, the CAB was less influenced by demographic factors than traditional tests. CAB tests were generally correlated with most paper-based cognitive tests examined and mapped onto the same cognitive domains. Greater composite cognitive impairment index was associated with worse performance on all CAB tests. Cognitively impaired participants performed significantly worse compared to normal controls on all but one CAB test. Poorer One Card Learning test performance was associated with higher levels of CSF phosphorylated-tau/Aβ42. These results support the use of the CogState battery as measures of early cognitive impairment in studies of people at risk for AD. PMID:27589532

  4. Effect of cation-anion balance in feed on urine pH in rabbits in comparison with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, F; Dobenecker, B; Kienzle, E

    2017-03-16

    In the present investigation, the impact of diet composition on urine pH in rabbits was compared with previous studies on rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs and horses. A total of 13 dwarf rabbits were fed six different diets with a cation-anion balance (CAB) between -39 and +320 mmol/kg dry matter (DM) using ammonium chloride (NH4 Cl) as an acidifier. CAB was calculated as follows: CAB (mmol/kg DM) = 49.9*Ca + 82.3*Mg +43.5*Na + 25.6*K - 59*P - 62.4*S - 28.2*Cl; minerals in g/kg DM. Urine, faeces and blood were collected. Urine pH ranged from 5.26 ± 0.22 at a CAB of -39 mmol/kg DM to 8.56 ± 0.24 at a CAB of +320 mmol/kg DM. A low CAB in the feed reduced blood pH and blood base excess significantly. Renal excretion of Ca, P, Na and Mg and water was significantly higher in rabbits eating acidifying diets. In comparison with other species, rabbits reacted to acidifying diets in a similar way as cats, dogs and pigs. Rabbits on a mildly alkalizing diet, however, had a trend to higher urine pH than other monogastric species on such diets (cats, dogs, pigs, horses).

  5. Insights into tRNA-Dependent Amidotransferase Evolution and Catalysis from the Structure of the Aquifex aeolicus Enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jing; Bu, Weishu; Sheppard, Kelly; Kitabatake, Makoto; Kwon, Suk-Tae; Söll, Dieter; Smith, Janet L.; (Yale); (Michigan); (Kyoto)

    2010-08-17

    Many bacteria form Gln-tRNA{sup Gln} and Asn-tRNA{sup ASN} by conversion of the misacylated Glu-tRNA{sup Gln} and Asp-tRNA{sup ASN} species catalyzed by the GatCAB amidotransferase in the presence of ATP and an amide donor (glutamine or asparagine). Here, we report the crystal structures of GatCAB from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus, complexed with glutamine, asparagine, aspartate, ADP, or ATP. In contrast to the Staphylococcus aureus GatCAB, the A. aeolicus enzyme formed acyl-enzyme intermediates with either glutamine or asparagine, in line with the equally facile use by the amidotransferase of these amino acids as amide donors in the transamidation reaction. A water-filled ammonia channel is open throughout the length of the A. aeolicus GatCAB from the GatA active site to the synthetase catalytic pocket in the B-subunit. A non-catalytic Zn{sup 2+} site in the A. aeolicus GatB stabilizes subunit contacts and the ammonia channel. Judged from sequence conservation in the known GatCAB sequences, the Zn{sup 2+} binding motif was likely present in the primordial GatB/E, but became lost in certain lineages (e.g., S. aureus GatB). Two divalent metal binding sites, one permanent and the other transient, are present in the catalytic pocket of the A. aeolicus GatB. The two sites enable GatCAB to first phosphorylate the misacylated tRNA substrate and then amidate the activated intermediate to form the cognate products, Gln-tRNA{sup Gln} or Asn-tRNA{sup ASN}.

  6. Clinical and microbiological features of community-acquired and nosocomial bloodstream infections in the surgical department of a tertiary-care hospital in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) You; GUO Peng; YE Ying-jiang; WANG Hui; SHEN Zhan-long; WANG Qi; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSls) remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing surgery.This study aimed at elucidating the clinical characteristics of community-acquired BSls (CABs) and nosocomial BSls (nBSls) in patients admitted to the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Beijing,China.Methods This cross-sectional study compared 191 episodes of BSls in 4074 patients admitted to the surgical wards between January 2008 and December 2011.Cases of BSls were classified as CABs or nBSls,and the characteristics,relevant treatments,and outcomes of CABs and nBSls were compared.Results Of the 191 BSls,52 (27.2%) and 139 (72.8%) were CABs and nBSls,respectively.Eschedchia coli,coagulasenegative staphylococci,and Klebsiella spp,were the most frequently isolated microorganisms.There were significant differences between CABs and nBSls with respect to the use of hormonal drugs,ventilation,acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores,and prevalence of cancer (P <0.05).Empirical antibacterial therapy did not decrease the crude mortality,but multivariate analysis showed that high APACHE Ⅱ was independently associated with a risk of mortality (odds ratio =0.97,95% confidence interval:0.93-1.02 for APACHE Ⅱ).Conclusions We found significant differences in the clinical characteristics of surgical patients with CABs and nBSls.The outcome of patients seems to be related to high APACHE Ⅱ scores.

  7. Abdominal compliance, parasternal activation, and chest wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, S J; Edyvean, J; Engel, L A

    1993-03-01

    We measured abdominal compliance (Cab) and rib cage displacement (delta Vrc) relative to abdominal displacement (delta Vab) during relaxation and tidal breathing in upright (U) and supine (S) postures in five normal subjects. In S, an abdominal binder was used to decrease Cab in two to five increments. We also measured the electrical activity of the parasternal muscle (EMGps) with the use of fine-wire intramuscular electrodes during CO2 rebreathing in U and in supine unbound (SU) and supine bound (SB) postures. During maximum binding (SB2), Cab decreased to 39 +/- 7% of the SU value (P = 0.01), matching Cab in U (P = 0.16). In the SB condition, the ratio of tidal delta Vrc/delta Vab to relaxation delta Vrc/delta Vab increased as Cab decreased, matching the data in U. For the group, this ratio decreased during SU to 47 +/- 10% (P = 0.02) but increased during SB2 to 86 +/- 7% (P = 0.18) of the value in U. During CO2 rebreathing, EMGps increased linearly with tidal volume (r > 0.727, P < 0.01). However, at any given tidal volume, the SU and SB2 EMGps were not significantly different (P = 0.12), and both were less than that in U (P < 0.02). The results suggest that the differences in chest wall motion between U and S may be due to the difference in Cab and not to different patterns of respiratory muscle recruitment. The mechanism may relate to changes in mechanical coupling between the diaphragm and the rib cage.

  8. Development of theophylline floating microballoons using cellulose acetate butyrate and/or Eudragit RL 100 polymers with different permeability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgari, M; Maghsoodi, M; Nemati, H

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to design a sustained release floating microcapsules of theophylline using two polymers of different permeability characteristics; Eudragit RL 100 (Eu RL) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) using the oil-in-oil emulsion solvent evaporation method. Polymers were used separately and in combination to prepare different microcapsules. The effect of drug-polymer interaction was studied for each of the polymers and for their combination. Encapsulation efficiency, the yield, particle size, floating capability, morphology of microspheres, powder X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were evaluated. The in vitro release studies were performed in PH 1.2 and 7.4. The optimized drug to polymer ratios was found to be 4:1 (F(2)) and 0.75:1 (F'(2)) with Eu RL and CAB, respectively. The best drug to polymer ratio in mix formulation was 4:1:1 (theophylline: Eu RL: CAB ratio). Production yield, loading efficiencies, and particle size of F(2) and F'(2) were found to be 59.14% and 45.39%, 73.93% and 95.87%, 372 and 273 micron, respectively. Microsphere prepared with CAB showed the best floating ability (80.3 ± 4.02% buoyancy) in 0.1 M HCl for over 12 h. The XRD and DSC showed that theophylline in the drug loaded microspheres was stable and in crystaline form. Microparticles prepared using blend of Eu RL and CAB polymers indicated more sustained pattern than the commercial tablet (PRL and CAB with 1:1 ratio were found to be a suitable delivery system for sustained release delivery of theophylline which contained lower amount of polymer contents in the microspheres.

  9. Lanthanide Catalysts for Conversion of Exhaust Gas from Compressed Natural Gas Automobiles%压缩天然气汽车稀土型尾气转化催化剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚如杰; 董新彬

    2004-01-01

    Aiming at improving the air quality, more and more automobiles with compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel are being used in some big cities now. The three way catalysts (TWC) for gasoline cars are not suitable for CNG cars. In the exhaust gases from CNG cars, the hydrocarbon is mainly methane, which is converted into carbon dioxide quite difficultly compared with other hydrocarbons. In this paper, a specially designed catalyst dosage was developed, which contained lanthanide oxides, transition element oxides and a minor part of noble metal oxides. The catalysts can reach a high conversion ratio for the exhaust pollutants above 700℃. More than 98.0 per cent of CH4 and CO in CNG engine exhaust gases can be converted into CO2 and H2O. At 1 000℃, the catalyst maintains a 99.0 per cent conversion ratio for CH4 and CO in 1.5 h, showing a high thermal stability. A resistance to sulfur oxides was also behaved.%压缩天然气(CNG)汽车因其良好的排放特性,正被越来越多的大型城市公交系统使用,但是汽油车辆用尾气净化催化剂对天然气汽车的主要烃类排放物甲烷转化效率低.针对天然气车辆排放物特点,设计了天然气汽车尾气净化催化剂,其成分包括稀土金属和过渡金属化合物、少量贵金属氧化物、结构稳定剂等.试验结果表明,在700℃以上,CO和CH4转化率达到98%以上,催化剂耐高温性能好,在1 000℃,1.5 h试验时间内HC和CO转化率达到99%,此外该催化剂具有一定的抗硫化物中毒能力.

  10. Captopril nephrography and diagnosis of hypertension; Captopril-Nephrographie und Diagnostik der Hypertonie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheubeck, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Rendl, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Seybold, S. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1996-12-01

    Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is caused by renal artery stenosis (NAST) and is potentially curable by surgical treatment or percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTRA). For the evaluation of these hypertensive patients many tests with different advantages and disadvantages are available. Currently most patients are screened with angiography, which is regarded as gold standard in diagnosis of renal artery stenosis. But angiography only describes morphologic alterations without knowledge of the hemodynamic significance of the stenosis and is both invasive and expensive. In times of decreasing budgets in health systems all over the world non-invasive, cost-effective screening test for identifying patients with potentially correctable hypertension or renal impairment due to renovascular disease are desirable. In case of appropriate clinical preselection of high-risk patients captopril renal scintigraphy (CNG) with a sensitivity and specifity of each about 90% is a sufficient accurate technique in diagnosing renal artery stenosis. In addition, CNG permits accurate selection of patients with renal artery stenosis who will benefit from renal artery repair. However, captopril renal scintigraphy may have limitations in certain clinical situations such as poorly preserved function of the affected kidney. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die renovaskulaere Hypertonie (RVH) ist durch eine Nierenarterienstenose (NAST) verursacht und ist potentiell durch Operation oder perkutane transluminale renale Angioplastie (PTRA) heilbar. Fuer die Diagnostik dieser Erkrankung steht eine Reihe von bildgebenden Verfahren mit unterschiedlichen Vor- und Nachteilen zur Verfuegung. Gegenwaertig wird die Indikation zur Revaskularisation zumeist angiographisch gestellt, was nach wie vor als Goldstandard angesehen wird. Allerdings kann die Angiographie lediglich morphologische Veraenderungen erkennen, ohne dass sie deren haemodynamische Auswirkungen erfasst; sie ist zudem teuer und invasiv. In Zeiten

  11. Vector Construction of Shoot-specific Promoter Driven Prosystemin and the Acquisition of Transgenic Plants%地上部特异性启动子驱动番茄原系统素表达的载体构建及转基因植株的获得

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雪芹; 刘维仲; 蒋红玲; 张海燕

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clone a shoot-specific promoter, it is the promoter of cab2 (chlorophyll a/b binding protein 2, cab2) gene. The promoter can drive the expression of prosystemin (PS) and GFP fusion vector, then get the transgenic plants. The plasmids were transformed into Arabidopsis by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated method. The semi-quantitative RT-PCR method and laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM) were used to observe the expression and subcellular localization of promoter-driven PS-GFP.Using Arabidopsis genomic DNA as a template, the sequence of promoter cab2 was amplified by high fidelity PCR enzyme, then connected it with the PS and GFP fusion vector (SlPS). The LSCM observation showed that the gene driven by this promoter was normally expressed and located in the cytoplasm. The cab2 promoter was cloned, which can drive the expression and localization of the PS and GFP fusion protein.%克隆地上部特异表达的启动子--cab2(chlorophyll a/b binding protein 2,cab2)基因的启动子,构建该启动子驱动下的番茄原系统素(Prosystemin;PS)与GFP融合的植物表达载体并获得转基因植株.利用农杆菌介导法转化拟南芥,通过RT-PCR的方法及激光共聚焦显微镜观察启动子驱动PS-GFP的表达及其亚细胞定位.以拟南芥基因组为模板,利用高保真聚合酶获得了cab2启动子的目的片段,并将其与接GFP的番茄原系统素载体(SlPS)融合,激光共聚焦显微镜观察表明,该启动子驱动的基因正常表达和并定位于细胞质中.克隆获得到了cab2基因的启动子,该启动子能够驱动番茄原系统素和GFP的融合蛋白正常表达和定位.

  12. Estudio retrospectivo sobre las posibles complicaciones maternofetales de la exposición a cabergolina Retrospective Study of any potencial Adverse Effects of Cabergoline on Pregnancy and Embryofetal Development

    OpenAIRE

    G. Stalldecker; M.S. Mallea Gil; M. Guitelman; A Alfieri; M.C. Ballarino; L. Boero; M.A. Carabelli; D. Cornaló; A. Chervin; K. Danilowicz; P. Fainstein Day; N. García Basavilbaso; M. Glerean; V. Goyan; Katz, D

    2010-01-01

    Objetivos: Estimar la frecuencia de complicaciones maternofetales en mujeres que se embarazaron durante el tratamiento con cabergolina (CAB). Estimar la frecuencia de patología detectada posnacimiento en los niños producto de dichos embarazos. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo y multicéntrico de 86 embarazos en 78 mujeres con hiperprolactinemia idiopática (7) o tumoral (44 micro y 27 macro), en tratamiento con CAB en el momento de la concepción. Edad: 20 a 45 años; PRL inicial: 30 a 1...

  13. A center open to the public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, L.; Vaquerizo, A.; García-Villadangos, M.

    2015-05-01

    The view to the public of a research center depends, of course, on the quality of its scientific activity but also, to a large extent, on the communication of results and spreading from the center itself. The Center for Astrobiology (CAB, CSIC-INTA) has maintained for some years a place among the leading Spanish scientific centers and the proof is his continued appearance in the media. In this communication we will give an overview of the activities of the Unit for Scientific Culture of CAB to achieve that goal.

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0610 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0610 ref|NP_195588.1| PRP4 (PROLINE-RICH PROTEIN 4) [Arabidopsis thaliana...] emb|CAB38611.1| extensin-like protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB80540.1| extensin-like protein [Arabidopsis thaliana...] gb|AAL06873.1| AT4g38770/T9A14_50 [Arabidopsis thaliana] gb|AAM12991.1| extensin-like protein [Arabidopsis thalian...a] gb|AAN41344.1| putative extensin protein [Arabidopsis thaliana...] gb|AAN65091.1| extensin-like protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_195588.1 4e-08 25% ...

  15. Advances of evolutionary computation methods and operators

    CERN Document Server

    Cuevas, Erik; Oliva Navarro, Diego Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this book is to present advances that discuss alternative Evolutionary Computation (EC) developments and non-conventional operators which have proved to be effective in the solution of several complex problems. The book has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently from the others. The book contains nine chapters with the following themes: 1) Introduction, 2) the Social Spider Optimization (SSO), 3) the States of Matter Search (SMS), 4) the collective animal behavior (CAB) algorithm, 5) the Allostatic Optimization (AO) method, 6) the Locust Search (LS) algorithm, 7) the Adaptive Population with Reduced Evaluations (APRE) method, 8) the multimodal CAB, 9) the constrained SSO method.

  16. Analysis of Two Putative Candida albicans Phosphopantothenoylcysteine Decarboxylase / Protein Phosphatase Z Regulatory Subunits Reveals an Unexpected Distribution of Functional Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrényi, Katalin; Molero, Cristina; Kónya, Zoltán; Erdődi, Ferenc; Ariño, Joaquin; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphatase Z (Ppz) is a fungus specific enzyme that regulates cell wall integrity, cation homeostasis and oxidative stress response. Work on Saccharomyces cerevisiae has shown that the enzyme is inhibited by Hal3/Vhs3 moonlighting proteins that together with Cab3 constitute the essential phosphopantothenoylcysteine decarboxylase (PPCDC) enzyme. In Candida albicans CaPpz1 is also involved in the morphological changes and infectiveness of this opportunistic human pathogen. To reveal the CaPpz1 regulatory context we searched the C. albicans database and identified two genes that, based on the structure of their S. cerevisiae counterparts, were termed CaHal3 and CaCab3. By pull down analysis and phosphatase assays we demonstrated that both of the bacterially expressed recombinant proteins were able to bind and inhibit CaPpz1 as well as its C-terminal catalytic domain (CaPpz1-Cter) with comparable efficiency. The binding and inhibition were always more pronounced with CaPpz1-Cter, indicating a protective effect against inhibition by the N-terminal domain in the full length protein. The functions of the C. albicans proteins were tested by their overexpression in S. cerevisiae. Contrary to expectations we found that only CaCab3 and not CaHal3 rescued the phenotypic traits that are related to phosphatase inhibition by ScHal3, such as tolerance to LiCl or hygromycin B, requirement for external K+ concentrations, or growth in a MAP kinase deficient slt2 background. On the other hand, both of the Candida proteins turned out to be essential PPCDC components and behaved as their S. cerevisiae counterparts: expression of CaCab3 and CaHal3 rescued the cab3 and hal3 vhs3 S. cerevisiae mutations, respectively. Thus, both CaHal3 and CaCab3 retained the PPCDC related functions and have the potential for CaPpz1 inhibition in vitro. The fact that only CaCab3 exhibits its phosphatase regulatory potential in vivo suggests that in C. albicans CaCab3, but not CaHal3, acts as a

  17. Report on Self-Regulation by the Broadcasting and Advertising Industries for the Elimination of Sex-Role Stereotyping in the Broadcast Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Task Force on Sex-Role Stereotyping was established in 1979 by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC). Comprised of members of the broadcasting industry, the task force included the Canadian Association of Broadcasters (CAB), the advertising industry, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), public members,…

  18. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Homolova, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukes, P.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea

  19. 49 CFR 236.564 - Acknowledging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acknowledging time. 236.564 Section 236.564..., Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.564 Acknowledging time. Acknowledging time of intermittent automatic train-stop device shall be not more than 30 seconds....

  20. 49 CFR 236.589 - Relays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.589 Relays. (a) Each relay shall be removed from service, subjected to thorough test, necessary repairs and adjustments made, and shall not be... spring tension to return contacts to deenergized position in noncoded continuous inductive...

  1. 49 CFR 236.557 - Receiver; location with respect to rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; location with respect to rail. (a) Receiver of intermittent inductive automatic train stop device of the... nearest rail, in accordance with specifications of the carrier. (b) Receiver of continuous inductive automatic cab signal, train stop, or train control device of locomotive equipped with onboard test...

  2. 29 CFR 1910.180 - Crawler locomotive and truck cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... kept readily available. (e) Testing—(1) Operational tests. (i) In addition to prototype tests and... or operation. (ii) Tools, oil cans, waste, extra fuses, and other necessary articles shall be stored in the tool box, and shall not be permitted to lie loose in or about the cab. (4) Refueling....

  3. A common sequence motif determines the Cajal body-specific localization of box H/ACA scaRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Patricia; Darzacq, Xavier; Bertrand, Edouard; Jády, Beáta E; Verheggen, Céline; Kiss, Tamás

    2003-08-15

    Post-transcriptional synthesis of 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and pseudouridines in Sm spliceosomal small nuclear RNAs takes place in the nucleoplasmic Cajal bodies and it is directed by guide RNAs (scaRNAs) that are structurally and functionally indistinguishable from small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) directing rRNA modification in the nucleolus. The scaRNAs are synthesized in the nucleoplasm and specifically targeted to Cajal bodies. Here, mutational analysis of the human U85 box C/D-H/ACA scaRNA, followed by in situ localization, demonstrates that box H/ACA scaRNAs share a common Cajal body-specific localization signal, the CAB box. Two copies of the evolutionarily conserved CAB consensus (UGAG) are located in the terminal loops of the 5' and 3' hairpins of the box H/ACA domains of mammalian, Drosophila and plant scaRNAs. Upon alteration of the CAB boxes, mutant scaRNAs accumulate in the nucleolus. In turn, authentic snoRNAs can be targeted into Cajal bodies by addition of exogenous CAB box motifs. Our results indicate that scaRNAs represent an ancient group of small nuclear RNAs which are localized to Cajal bodies by an evolutionarily conserved mechanism.

  4. Complete androgen blockade safely allows for delay of cytotoxic chemotherapy in castration refractory prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Kaliks

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Complete androgen blockade (CAB does not prolong overall survival (OS in patients with castration refractory prostate cancer (CRPC. Although there is variable clinical benefit with second-line hormone manipulation, we do not know which patients might benefit the most. OBJECTIVES: To identify clinical predictors of benefit of complete androgen blockade. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records for 54 patients who received treatment with CAB in the setting of disease progression despite castration. We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS and OS according to PSA at diagnosis, Gleason scores, age, testosterone level, and duration of prior disease control during castration in first line treatment. RESULTS: Among 54 patients who received CAB, the median PFS was 9 months (CI 4.3-13.7 and OS was 36 months (CI 24-48. We did not find an effect of PSA at diagnosis (p = 0.32, Gleason score (p = 0.91, age (p = 0.69 or disease control during castration (p = 0.87 on PFS or OS. Thirty-four patients subsequently received chemotherapy, with a mean OS of 21 months (CI 16.4-25.5, median not reached. CONCLUSION: Age, Gleason score, PSA at diagnosis and length of disease control with castration did not affect PFS or OS. In the absence of predictors of benefit, CAB should still be considered in CRPC.

  5. ANÁLISIS BIBLIOMÉTRICO DE LA PRODUCCIÓN SISTEMÁTICA EN AMÉRICA LATINA Bibliometric Analysis of Systematics Production in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAYLA MICHÁN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Presento la investigación sobre las bases de datos bibliográficas Biosis, CAB, Periódica, SCI, Scopus y Zoological Record. Se estudian características para identificar cuáles y cuántas es necesario utilizar para tener la información más representativa. De 1.363 revistas analizadas, el 36,5% se encuentra en más de una base de datos y el 63,46% se registra solo en una. Zoological Record contiene 63.421 documentos, Biosis 19.079, CAB 14.363, Periódica 11.185, SCI 3.257 y Scopus 916. CAB y ZR son las más antiguas, el promedio de artículos publicados por año para Biosis fue de 6.417, ZR 433, Periódica 361, CAB 145, SCI 91 y Scopus 30. El análisis de redes muestra mayor relación entre Biosis y SCI, que comparten 16% de títulos, CAB y Biosis comparten 15%, Biosis y ZR 14%, y CAB y ZR 11%. Un análisis de parsimonia muestra que Biosis y SCI comparten más revistas y Periódica tiene más revistas exclusivas (285. Periódica publicó el 24,6% de artículos con descripciones de nuevos taxones y un promedio de 90 al año, CAB 54,6% con promedio de 82 y ZR 72,9% con 322. Ninguna de las bases de datos cumple con las características suficientes empleadas como fuente de información única, es conveniente utilizar distintas combinaciones de acuerdo con las necesidades informativas. Biosis tiene la información más exhaustiva sobre cualquier taxón actual, Zoological Record y CAB tienen una cobertura temporal amplia e incluyen principalmente animales o plantas, respectivamente. SCI tiene el mayor número de documentos en revistas de corriente principal, con referencias, citas e indicadores bibliométricos. Periódica cuenta con mayor cantidad de documentos y cobertura temporal más amplia sobre lo publicado en América Latina. El cladograma obtenido por el análisis de parsimonia resultó ser una herramienta de visualización ideal para representar las características principales de las bases de datos.I compare six bibliographic databases

  6. 49 CFR 229.5 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... adopted by an industry or voluntary consensus standards body, which addresses the design of a locomotive... cab communications or that is a concern with respect to hearing conservation. Electronic air brake... reasonable person would believe that the condition might constitute a health hazard; or of strong,...

  7. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... National Association of Home Builders, National Housing Center, located at 1201 15th Street NW., Washington..., focusing on low location emergency exit path marking, emergency lighting, and emergency signage. The task... of 49 CFR Part 229 and was unable to reach consensus regarding locomotive cab temperature...

  8. 77 FR 34129 - Heavy-Duty Highway Program: Revisions for Emergency Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ..., the filter unit is removed from the vehicle and professionally cleaned with a special machine... following approaches: On-board electrical heaters upstream of the filter. Air-intake throttling in one or... technology to power on-board hydraulic systems and cab heating and cooling systems. In conventional...

  9. Department of the Army Cost Analysis Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    SECTION I - AUTOMATED COST ESTIMATING INTEGRATED TOOLS ( ACEIT ) ................................................................179 SECTION II - AUTOMATED...Management & Comptroller) endorsed the Automated Cost Estimating Integrated Tools ( ACEIT ) model and since it is widely used to prepare POEs, CCAs and...CRB IPT (in ACEIT ) will be the basis for information contained in the CAB. Any remaining unresolved issues from the IPT process will be raised at the

  10. 49 CFR 399.207 - Truck and truck-tractor access requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. 399... Vehicles § 399.207 Truck and truck-tractor access requirements. (a) General rule. Any person entering or exiting the cab or accessing the rear portion of a high profile COE truck or truck-tractor shall...

  11. 78 FR 36013 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... Installation, Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Signal and Train Control Systems, Devices, and Appliances... CFR 236.566, Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory...'s complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR...

  12. 49 CFR 236.505 - Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roadway and parts on locomotive. 236.505 Section 236.505 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.505 Proper operative relation between parts along roadway and parts on locomotive....

  13. 78 FR 37657 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Installation, Inspection, Maintenance, and Repair of Signal and Train Control Systems, Devices, and Appliances... 49 CFR 236.566, Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal... (65 FR 19477). Issued in Washington, DC, on June 17, 2013. Robert C. Lauby, Deputy...

  14. 49 CFR 236.590 - Pneumatic apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Inspection and Tests; Locomotive § 236.590 Pneumatic apparatus... results of such inspection recorded as provided by § 229.29(a). When a locomotive with automatic...

  15. 49 CFR 236.562 - Minimum rail current required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.562 Minimum rail current required. The minimum rail current required to restore the locomotive equipment...

  16. 49 CFR 236.834 - Trip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.834 Trip. A movement of a locomotive over all or any portion of automatic train stop, train control or cab signal territory between the terminals for that locomotive; a movement in one direction. Cross Reference:...

  17. 49 CFR 236.509 - Two or more locomotives coupled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Two or more locomotives coupled. 236.509 Section..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.509 Two or more locomotives...

  18. 77 FR 20478 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... Appliances). Section 233.5 provides that each railroad must report to FRA within 24 hours after learning of an accident or incident arising from the failure of a signal appliance, device, method, or ] system... departure test test of cab signal, train stop, or train control devices on locomotives before...

  19. 76 FR 47638 - Petition for Waiver of Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... Appendix D-- Requirements for External Fuel Tanks on Tier I Locomotives); part 229, Railroad Locomotive... Certification of Crashworthy Event Recorder Memory Module); part 231, Railroad Safety Appliance Standards (Sec... and car body; Sec. 238.209--Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-02-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-02-0014 ref|NP_194965.1| phosphate translocator-related [Arabidopsis thaliana...] emb|CAA22566.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB79956.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_194965.1 0.0 93% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OSAT-06-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OSAT-06-0007 ref|NP_194252.1| transporter, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb...|CAA23063.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB79431.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_194252.1 2e-79 52% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-02-0004 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-02-0004 ref|NP_194252.1| transporter, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb...|CAA23063.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB79431.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_194252.1 3e-91 53% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-04-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-04-0021 ref|NP_194252.1| transporter, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb...|CAA23063.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB79431.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_194252.1 0.0 98% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-05-0030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-05-0030 ref|NP_193644.1| unknown protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAA16...766.1| hypothetical protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB78911.1| hypothetical protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_193644.1 1e-119 44% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-06-0094 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-06-0094 ref|NP_196843.1| NEF1 (NO EXINE FORMATION 1) [Arabidopsis thaliana...] emb|CAB87146.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] dbj|BAD26730.1| no exine formation-1 [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_196843.1 7e-07 17% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-10-0016 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-10-0016 ref|NP_194375.1| unknown protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAA18...225.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB79500.1| putative protein [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_194375.1 3.0 23% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ATHA-03-0023 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ATHA-03-0023 ref|NP_567234.1| lectin protein kinase, putative [Arabidopsis thaliana...] gb|AAC19274.1| T14P8.4 [Arabidopsis thaliana] emb|CAB80735.1| AT4g02420 [Arabidopsis thaliana] NP_567234.1 0.0 68% ...

  8. Reference: CGF1ATCAB2 [PLACE

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CGF1ATCAB2 Anderson SL, Teakle GR, Martino-Catt SJ, Kay SA Circadian clock- and phy...tochrome-regulated transcription is conferred by a 78 bp cis-acting domain of the Arabidopsis CAB2 promoter Plant J 6:457-470 (1994) PubMed: 7987408; ...

  9. [Simulation of vegetation indices optimizing under retrieval of vegetation biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Zhou, Bo-Tian; Liu, Chuan-Hao; Li, Lu-Feng

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the sensitivities of three vegetation biochemical parameters [chlorophyll content (Cab), leaf water content (Cw), and leaf area index (LAI)] to the changes of canopy reflectance, with the effects of each parameter on the wavelength regions of canopy reflectance considered, and selected three vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function. Then, the Cab, Cw, and LAI were estimated, based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm and PROSPECT + SAIL model. The results showed that retrieval efficiency with vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function was better than that with all spectral reflectance. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the measured and estimated values of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 90.8%, 95.7%, and 99.7%, and the root mean square errors of Cab, Cw, and LAI were 4.73 microg x cm(-2), 0.001 g x cm(-2), and 0.08, respectively. It was suggested that to adopt vegetation indices as the optimization comparison targets of cost function could effectively improve the efficiency and precision of the retrieval of biochemical parameters based on PROSPECT + SAIL model.

  10. 21 CFR 26.67 - Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies... EUROPEAN COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.67 Suspension of listed conformity assessment bodies. The following procedures shall apply with regard to the suspension of a conformity assessment body (CAB)...

  11. 21 CFR 26.69 - Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. 26.69... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.69 Monitoring of conformity assessment bodies. The following shall apply with regard to the monitoring of conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) listed in subpart B of...

  12. EST Table: FS752223 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /09/08 75 %/224 aa FBpp0232921|DvirPros28.1-PA 10/08/28 58 %/205 aa C36B1.4#CE05371#WBGene00003925#locus:pas-4#proteasome A-type subm...it#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q95005#protein_id:CAB022 69.

  13. EST Table: FS920155 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available /09/13 78 %/233 aa FBpp0232921|DvirPros28.1-PA 10/08/29 62 %/212 aa C36B1.4#CE05371#WBGene00003925#locus:pas-4#proteasome A-type subm...it#status:Confirmed#UniProt:Q95005#protein_id:CAB022 69.

  14. 78 FR 11728 - Pilot Project on NAFTA Trucking Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... inspection report (DVIR) form that listed the bumper; engine; cabin floor; fuel tank; cab; tires; drive shaft; muffler; chassis; rear door; air tanks; trailer; 5th wheel; and seal/tiedowns, but did not list service... not provide adequate documentation of required alcohol testing. Grupo Behr addressed this issue in...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0353 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0353 ref|NP_389046.1| hypothetical protein BSU11640 [Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis... str. 168] emb|CAB13021.1| yjbQ [Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis str. 168] NP_389046.1 0.17 20% ...

  16. Trends in literature on new oilseed crops and related species: Seeking evidence of increasing or waning interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibliographic records on eight new crop species Camelina, Crambe, Cuphea, Physaria, Limnanthes, Stokesia, Thlaspi, and Vernonia from Agricola, CAB Abstracts, Scopus, and Web of Science were analyzed for historical and recent trends in the areas of research, author distribution, and quantity and impa...

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14283-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9012 ) WIN058.C21_F10 Cab Sauv flower, leaf and root nor... 46 1.1 1 ( CU419946 ) Pleurobrachia pileus 5-PRI...ME EST from clone SQ0AA... 46 1.1 1 ( CU417258 ) Pleurobrachia pileus 5-PRIME EST

  18. 49 CFR 393.207 - Suspension systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Suspension systems. 393.207 Section 393.207... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.207 Suspension systems. (a) Axles. No axle positioning part shall be cracked, broken, loose or...

  19. Cosmic axion background propagation in galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Day, Francesca V

    2015-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model include axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). Here we study ALP to photon conversion in the magnetic field of the Milky Way and starburst galaxies. By modelling the effects of the coherent and random magnetic fields, the warm ionized medium and the warm neutral medium on the conversion process, we simulate maps of the conversion probability across the sky for a range of ALP energies. In particular, we consider a diffuse cosmic ALP background (CAB) analogous to the CMB, whose existence is suggested by string models of inflation. ALP-photon conversion of a CAB in the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters has been proposed as an explanation of the cluster soft X-ray excess. We therefore study the phenomenology and expected photon signal of CAB propagation in the Milky Way. We find that, for the CAB parameters required to explain the cluster soft X-ray excess, the photon flux from ALP-photon conversion in the Milky Way would be unobservably small. The ALP-photon conversion prob...

  20. 49 CFR 571.7 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... trailer manufacture. When new materials are used in the assembly of a trailer, the trailer will be...) Military vehicles. No standard applies to a vehicle or item of equipment manufactured for, and sold... 108(b)(5) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1397 (b)(5)). (e) Combining new and used components. When a new cab...