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Sample records for bartus iris biometrics

  1. Bartus Iris biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, R.; Grace, W.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We won a 1994 R&D 100 Award for inventing the Bartas Iris Verification System. The system has been delivered to a sponsor and is no longer available to us. This technology can verify the identity of a person for purposes of access control, national security, law enforcement, forensics, counter-terrorism, and medical, financial, or scholastic records. The technique is non-invasive, psychologically acceptable, works in real-time, and obtains more biometric data than any other biometric except DNA analysis. This project sought to develop a new, second-generation prototype instrument.

  2. Iris and periocular biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Rathgeb, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview of scientific fundamentals and principles of iris and periocular biometric recognition. It covers: an introduction to iris and periocular recognition; a selective overview of issues and challenges; soft biometric classification; security aspects; privacy protection and forensics; and future trends.

  3. SURVEY OF BIOMETRIC SYSTEMS USING IRIS RECOGNITION

    OpenAIRE

    S.PON SANGEETHA; DR.M.KARNAN

    2014-01-01

    The security plays an important role in any type of organization in today’s life. Iris recognition is one of the leading automatic biometric systems in the area of security which is used to identify the individual person. Biometric systems include fingerprints, facial features, voice recognition, hand geometry, handwriting, the eye retina and the most secured one presented in this paper, the iris recognition. Biometric systems has become very famous in security systems because it is not possi...

  4. Iris analysis for biometric recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bodade, Rajesh M

    2014-01-01

    The book presents three most significant areas in Biometrics and Pattern Recognition. A step-by-step approach for design and implementation of Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT) plus Rotated Complex Wavelet Filters (RCWF) is discussed in detail. In addition to the above, the book provides detailed analysis of iris images and two methods of iris segmentation. It also discusses simplified study of some subspace-based methods and distance measures for iris recognition backed by empirical studies and statistical success verifications.

  5. Correlation of iris biometrics and DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2013-01-01

    The presented work concerns prediction of complex human phenotypes from genotypes. We were interested in correlating iris color and texture with DNA. Our data consist of 212 eye images along with DNA: 32 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used two types of biometrics to describe the eye...... images: One for iris color and one for iris texture. Both biometrics were high dimensional and a sparse principle component analysis (SPCA) reduced the dimensions and resulted in a representation of data with good interpretability. The correlations between the sparse principal components (SPCs......) and the 32 SNPs were found using a canonical correlation analysis (CCA). The result was a single significant canonical correlation (CC) for both biometrics. Each CC comprised two correlated canonical variables, consisting of a linear combination of SPCs and a linear combination of SNPs, respectively...

  6. Measuring Biometric Sample Quality in terms of Biometric Feature Information in Iris Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Youmaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an approach to measure the information content in a biometric feature representation of iris images. In this context, the biometric feature information is calculated using the relative entropy between the intraclass and interclass feature distributions. The collected data is regularized using a Gaussian model of the feature covariances in order to practically measure the biometric information with limited data samples. An example of this method is shown for iris templates processed using Principal-Component Analysis- (PCA- and Independent-Component Analysis- (ICA- based feature decomposition schemes. From this, the biometric feature information is calculated to be approximately 278 bits for PCA and 288 bits for ICA iris features using Masek's iris recognition scheme. This value approximately matches previous estimates of iris information content.

  7. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roizenblatt, Roberto; Schor, Paulo; Dante, Fabio; Roizenblatt, Jaime; Belfort, Rubens

    2004-01-28

    Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical) distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  8. Iris recognition as a biometric method after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roizenblatt Jaime

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biometric methods are security technologies, which use human characteristics for personal identification. Iris recognition systems use iris textures as unique identifiers. This paper presents an analysis of the verification of iris identities after intra-ocular procedures, when individuals were enrolled before the surgery. Methods Fifty-five eyes from fifty-five patients had their irises enrolled before a cataract surgery was performed. They had their irises verified three times before and three times after the procedure, and the Hamming (mathematical distance of each identification trial was determined, in a controlled ideal biometric environment. The mathematical difference between the iris code before and after the surgery was also compared to a subjective evaluation of the iris anatomy alteration by an experienced surgeon. Results A correlation between visible subjective iris texture alteration and mathematical difference was verified. We found only six cases in which the eye was no more recognizable, but these eyes were later reenrolled. The main anatomical changes that were found in the new impostor eyes are described. Conclusions Cataract surgeries change iris textures in such a way that iris recognition systems, which perform mathematical comparisons of textural biometric features, are able to detect these changes and sometimes even discard a pre-enrolled iris considering it an impostor. In our study, re-enrollment proved to be a feasible procedure.

  9. Extending the imaging volume for biometric iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Johnson, Gregory E; Silveira, Paulo E X; Wach, Hans B

    2005-02-10

    The use of the human iris as a biometric has recently attracted significant interest in the area of security applications. The need to capture an iris without active user cooperation places demands on the optical system. Unlike a traditional optical design, in which a large imaging volume is traded off for diminished imaging resolution and capacity for collecting light, Wavefront Coded imaging is a computational imaging technology capable of expanding the imaging volume while maintaining an accurate and robust iris identification capability. We apply Wavefront Coded imaging to extend the imaging volume of the iris recognition application.

  10. Toward accurate and fast iris segmentation for iris biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaofeng; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan; Qiu, Xianchao

    2009-09-01

    Iris segmentation is an essential module in iris recognition because it defines the effective image region used for subsequent processing such as feature extraction. Traditional iris segmentation methods often involve an exhaustive search of a large parameter space, which is time consuming and sensitive to noise. To address these problems, this paper presents a novel algorithm for accurate and fast iris segmentation. After efficient reflection removal, an Adaboost-cascade iris detector is first built to extract a rough position of the iris center. Edge points of iris boundaries are then detected, and an elastic model named pulling and pushing is established. Under this model, the center and radius of the circular iris boundaries are iteratively refined in a way driven by the restoring forces of Hooke's law. Furthermore, a smoothing spline-based edge fitting scheme is presented to deal with noncircular iris boundaries. After that, eyelids are localized via edge detection followed by curve fitting. The novelty here is the adoption of a rank filter for noise elimination and a histogram filter for tackling the shape irregularity of eyelids. Finally, eyelashes and shadows are detected via a learned prediction model. This model provides an adaptive threshold for eyelash and shadow detection by analyzing the intensity distributions of different iris regions. Experimental results on three challenging iris image databases demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms state-of-the-art methods in both accuracy and speed.

  11. Challenges at different stages of an iris based biometric system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition has been used for authentication for the past few years and is capable of positive/negative authenticationof an individual without any physical contact or intervention. This technique is being used mainly because of its uniqueness,stability, and reliability but still many challenges are being faced an the iris based recognition system. This paperpresents the difficulties faced in different modules, like the sensor module, preprocessing module, feature extraction module,and matching module of an iris biometric system.

  12. Cosmetic Detection Framework for Face and Iris Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.

  13. Biometric verificaton and biometric identification of a person by methods of statistical analysis of digitized iris images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machala, L.; Pospíšil, Jaroslav

    40-41, - (2001), s. 155-162 ISSN 0231-9365 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : biometric verification * biometric idntification * human eye`s iris * statistical error of type I * statistical erroer II * charasteristic iris vector Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Biometric iris image acquisition system with wavefront coding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Yang, Hsi-Wen; Huang, Shao-Hung; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2013-09-01

    Biometric signatures for identity recognition have been practiced for centuries. Basically, the personal attributes used for a biometric identification system can be classified into two areas: one is based on physiological attributes, such as DNA, facial features, retinal vasculature, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris texture and so on; the other scenario is dependent on the individual behavioral attributes, such as signature, keystroke, voice and gait style. Among these features, iris recognition is one of the most attractive approaches due to its nature of randomness, texture stability over a life time, high entropy density and non-invasive acquisition. While the performance of iris recognition on high quality image is well investigated, not too many studies addressed that how iris recognition performs subject to non-ideal image data, especially when the data is acquired in challenging conditions, such as long working distance, dynamical movement of subjects, uncontrolled illumination conditions and so on. There are three main contributions in this paper. Firstly, the optical system parameters, such as magnification and field of view, was optimally designed through the first-order optics. Secondly, the irradiance constraints was derived by optical conservation theorem. Through the relationship between the subject and the detector, we could estimate the limitation of working distance when the camera lens and CCD sensor were known. The working distance is set to 3m in our system with pupil diameter 86mm and CCD irradiance 0.3mW/cm2. Finally, We employed a hybrid scheme combining eye tracking with pan and tilt system, wavefront coding technology, filter optimization and post signal recognition to implement a robust iris recognition system in dynamic operation. The blurred image was restored to ensure recognition accuracy over 3m working distance with 400mm focal length and aperture F/6.3 optics. The simulation result as well as experiment validates the proposed code

  15. Gaze Estimation for Off-Angle Iris Recognition Based on the Biometric Eye Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph W [ORNL; Bolme, David S [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is among the highest accuracy biometrics. However, its accuracy relies on controlled high quality capture data and is negatively affected by several factors such as angle, occlusion, and dilation. Non-ideal iris recognition is a new research focus in biometrics. In this paper, we present a gaze estimation method designed for use in an off-angle iris recognition framework based on the ANONYMIZED biometric eye model. Gaze estimation is an important prerequisite step to correct an off-angle iris images. To achieve the accurate frontal reconstruction of an off-angle iris image, we first need to estimate the eye gaze direction from elliptical features of an iris image. Typically additional information such as well-controlled light sources, head mounted equipment, and multiple cameras are not available. Our approach utilizes only the iris and pupil boundary segmentation allowing it to be applicable to all iris capture hardware. We compare the boundaries with a look-up-table generated by using our biologically inspired biometric eye model and find the closest feature point in the look-up-table to estimate the gaze. Based on the results from real images, the proposed method shows effectiveness in gaze estimation accuracy for our biometric eye model with an average error of approximately 3.5 degrees over a 50 degree range.

  16. Iris Segmentation using Gradient Magnitude and Fourier Descriptor for Multimodal Biometric Authentication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Defiana Sulaeman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Perfectly segmenting the area of the iris is one of the most important steps in iris recognition. There are several problematic areas that affect the accuracy of the iris segmentation step, such as eyelids, eyelashes, glasses, pupil (due to less accurate iris segmentation, motion blur, and lighting and specular reflections. To solve these problems, gradient magnitude and Fourier descriptor are employed to do iris segmentation in the proposed Multimodal Biometric Authentication System (MBAS. This approach showed quite promising results, i.e. an accuracy rate of 97%. The result of the iris recognition system was combined with the result of an open-source fingerprint recognition system to develop a multimodal biometrics authentication system. The results of the fusion between iris and fingerprint authentication were 99% accurate. Data from Multimedia Malaysia University (MMUI and our own prepared database, the SGU-MB-1 dataset, were used to test the accuracy of the proposed system.

  17. Information analysis of iris biometrics for the needs of cryptology key extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Saša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a rigorous analysis of iris biometric information for the synthesis of an optimized system for the extraction of a high quality cryptology key. Estimations of local entropy and mutual information were identified as segments of the iris most suitable for this purpose. In order to optimize parameters, corresponding wavelets were transformed, in order to obtain the highest possible entropy and mutual information lower in the transformation domain, which set frameworks for the synthesis of systems for the extraction of truly random sequences of iris biometrics, without compromising authentication properties. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32054 i br. III44006

  18. Comparison of Fingerprint and Iris Biometric Authentication for Control of Digital Signatures

    OpenAIRE

    Zuckerman, Alan E.; Moon, Kenneth A.; Eaddy, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems can be used to control digital signature of medical documents. This pilot study evaluated the use of two different fingerprint technologies and one iris technology to control creation of digital signatures on a central server using public private key pairs stored on the server. Documents and signatures were stored in XML for portability. Key pairs and authentication certificates were generated during biometric enrollment. Usability and user acceptance were gua...

  19. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  20. Information fusion in personal biometric authentication based on the iris pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghua; Han, Jiuqiang

    2009-01-01

    Information fusion in biometrics has received considerable attention. This paper focuses on the application of information fusion techniques in iris recognition. To improve the reliability and accuracy of personal identification based on the iris pattern, this paper proposes the schemes of multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion. Multialgorithmic fusion integrates the improved phase algorithm and the DCT-based algorithm, and multiinstance fusion combines information from the left iris and the right iris of an individual. Both multialgorithmic fusion and multiinstance fusion are carried out at the matching score level and the support vector machine (SVM)-based fusion rule is utilized to generate fused scores for final decision. The experimental results on the noisy iris database UBIRIS demonstrate that the proposed fusion schemes can perform better than the single recognition systems, and further prove that information fusion techniques are feasible and effective to improve the accuracy and robustness of iris recognition especially under noisy conditions

  1. Comparison of Fingerprint and Iris Biometric Authentication for Control of Digital Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Alan E.; Moon, Kenneth A.; Eaddy, Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    Biometric authentication systems can be used to control digital signature of medical documents. This pilot study evaluated the use of two different fingerprint technologies and one iris technology to control creation of digital signatures on a central server using public private key pairs stored on the server. Documents and signatures were stored in XML for portability. Key pairs and authentication certificates were generated during biometric enrollment. Usability and user acceptance were guarded and limitations of biometric systems prevented use of the system with all test subjects. The system detected alternations in the data content and provided future signer re-authentication for non-repudiation.

  2. A field study of the accuracy and reliability of a biometric iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latman, Neal S; Herb, Emily

    2013-06-01

    The iris of the eye appears to satisfy the criteria for a good anatomical characteristic for use in a biometric system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a biometric iris recognition system: Mobile-Eyes™. The enrollment, verification, and identification applications were evaluated in a field study for accuracy and reliability using both irises of 277 subjects. Independent variables included a wide range of subject demographics, ambient light, and ambient temperature. A sub-set of 35 subjects had alcohol-induced nystagmus. There were 2710 identification and verification attempts, which resulted in 1,501,340 and 5540 iris comparisons respectively. In this study, the system successfully enrolled all subjects on the first attempt. All 277 subjects were successfully verified and identified on the first day of enrollment. None of the current or prior eye conditions prevented enrollment, verification, or identification. All 35 subjects with alcohol-induced nystagmus were successfully verified and identified. There were no false verifications or false identifications. Two conditions were identified that potentially could circumvent the use of iris recognitions systems in general. The Mobile-Eyes™ iris recognition system exhibited accurate and reliable enrollment, verification, and identification applications in this study. It may have special applications in subjects with nystagmus. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of automatic biometric iris recognition after phacoemulsification or drug-induced pupil dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyeddain, Orang; Kraker, Hannes; Redlberger, Andreas; Dexl, Alois K; Grabner, Günther; Emesz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a biometric iris recognition system for personal authentication after cataract surgery or iatrogenic pupil dilation. This was a prospective, nonrandomized, single-center, cohort study for evaluating the performance of an iris recognition system 2-24 hours after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (group 1) and before and after iatrogenic pupil dilation (group 2). Of the 173 eyes that could be enrolled before cataract surgery, 164 (94.8%) were easily recognized postoperatively, whereas in 9 (5.2%) this was not possible. However, these 9 eyes could be reenrolled and afterwards recognized successfully. In group 2, of a total of 184 eyes that were enrolled in miosis, a total of 22 (11.9%) could not be recognized in mydriasis and therefore needed reenrollment. No single case of false-positive acceptance occurred in either group. The results of this trial indicate that standard cataract surgery seems not to be a limiting factor for iris recognition in the large majority of cases. Some patients (5.2% in this study) might need "reenrollment" after cataract surgery. Iris recognition was primarily successful in eyes with medically dilated pupils in nearly 9 out of 10 eyes. No single case of false-positive acceptance occurred in either group in this trial. It seems therefore that iris recognition is a valid biometric method in the majority of cases after cataract surgery or after pupil dilation.

  4. Edge detection of iris of the eye for human biometric identification system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna O. Tryfonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Method of human biometric identification by iris of the eye is considered as one of the most accurate and reliable methods of identification. Aim of the research is to solve the problem of edge detection of digital image of the human eye iris to be able to implement human biometric identification system by means of mobile device. To achieve this aim the algorithm of edge detection by Canny is considered in work. It consists of the following steps: smoothing, finding gradients, non-maximum suppression, double thresholding with hysteresis. The software implementation of the Canny algorithm is carried out for the Android mobile platform with the use of high level programming language Java.

  5. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sébastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-02-01

    To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed sample is a significant problem in biometric authentication, which requires the development of new and efficient protection measures. In this paper, we present a novel software-based fake detection method that can be used in multiple biometric systems to detect different types of fraudulent access attempts. The objective of the proposed system is to enhance the security of biometric recognition frameworks, by adding liveness assessment in a fast, user-friendly, and non-intrusive manner, through the use of image quality assessment. The proposed approach presents a very low degree of complexity, which makes it suitable for real-time applications, using 25 general image quality features extracted from one image (i.e., the same acquired for authentication purposes) to distinguish between legitimate and impostor samples. The experimental results, obtained on publicly available data sets of fingerprint, iris, and 2D face, show that the proposed method is highly competitive compared with other state-of-the-art approaches and that the analysis of the general image quality of real biometric samples reveals highly valuable information that may be very efficiently used to discriminate them from fake traits.

  6. Comparative study of multimodal biometric recognition by fusion of iris and fingerprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  7. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Benaliouche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results.

  8. Comparative Study of Multimodal Biometric Recognition by Fusion of Iris and Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaliouche, Houda; Touahria, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates the comparative performance from three different approaches for multimodal recognition of combined iris and fingerprints: classical sum rule, weighted sum rule, and fuzzy logic method. The scores from the different biometric traits of iris and fingerprint are fused at the matching score and the decision levels. The scores combination approach is used after normalization of both scores using the min-max rule. Our experimental results suggest that the fuzzy logic method for the matching scores combinations at the decision level is the best followed by the classical weighted sum rule and the classical sum rule in order. The performance evaluation of each method is reported in terms of matching time, error rates, and accuracy after doing exhaustive tests on the public CASIA-Iris databases V1 and V2 and the FVC 2004 fingerprint database. Experimental results prior to fusion and after fusion are presented followed by their comparison with related works in the current literature. The fusion by fuzzy logic decision mimics the human reasoning in a soft and simple way and gives enhanced results. PMID:24605065

  9. Face-iris multimodal biometric scheme based on feature level fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guang; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Dong, Hongxing; He, Fei

    2015-11-01

    Unlike score level fusion, feature level fusion demands all the features extracted from unimodal traits with high distinguishability, as well as homogeneity and compatibility, which is difficult to achieve. Therefore, most multimodal biometric research focuses on score level fusion, whereas few investigate feature level fusion. We propose a face-iris recognition method based on feature level fusion. We build a special two-dimensional-Gabor filter bank to extract local texture features from face and iris images, and then transform them by histogram statistics into an energy-orientation variance histogram feature with lower dimensions and higher distinguishability. Finally, through a fusion-recognition strategy based on principal components analysis and support vector machine (FRSPS), feature level fusion and one-to-n identification are accomplished. The experimental results demonstrate that this method can not only effectively extract face and iris features but also provide higher recognition accuracy. Compared with some state-of-the-art fusion methods, the proposed method has a significant performance advantage.

  10. Score level fusion scheme based on adaptive local Gabor features for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Huang, Chun; Han, Ye; Chen, Ying

    2014-05-01

    A multimodal biometric system has been considered a promising technique to overcome the defects of unimodal biometric systems. We have introduced a fusion scheme to gain a better understanding and fusion method for a face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric system. In our case, we use particle swarm optimization to train a set of adaptive Gabor filters in order to achieve the proper Gabor basic functions for each modality. For a closer analysis of texture information, two different local Gabor features for each modality are produced by the corresponding Gabor coefficients. Next, all matching scores of the two Gabor features for each modality are projected to a single-scalar score via a trained, supported, vector regression model for a final decision. A large-scale dataset is formed to validate the proposed scheme using the Facial Recognition Technology database-fafb and CASIA-V3-Interval together with FVC2004-DB2a datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that as well as achieving further powerful local Gabor features of multimodalities and obtaining better recognition performance by their fusion strategy, our architecture also outperforms some state-of-the-art individual methods and other fusion approaches for face-iris-fingerprint multimodal biometric systems.

  11. Template characterization and correlation algorithm created from segmentation for the iris biometric authentication based on analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Among the most used biometric signals to set personal security permissions, taker increasingly importance biometric iris recognition based on their textures and images of blood vessels due to the rich in these two unique characteristics that are unique to each individual. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm characterization and correlation of templates created for biometric authentication based on iris texture analysis programmed on a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array), authentication is based on processes like characterization methods based on frequency analysis of the sample, and frequency correlation to obtain the expected results of authentication.

  12. Securing Iris Templates using Combined User and Soft Biometric based Password Hardened Fuzzy Vault

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi, V. S.; Padmavathi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Personal identification and authentication is very crucial in the current scenario. Biometrics plays an important role in this area. Biometric based authentication has proved superior compared to traditional password based authentication. Anyhow biometrics is permanent feature of a person and cannot be reissued when compromised as passwords. To over come this problem, instead of storing the original biometric templates transformed templates can be stored. Whenever the transformation function ...

  13. Distinct iris gene expression profiles of primary angle closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucoma and their interaction with ocular biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Li-Fong; Narayanaswamy, Arun; Finger, Sharon N; Htoon, Hla M; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Toh, Li Zhen; Ho, Henrietta; Perera, Shamira A; Wong, Tina T

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in iris gene expression profiles between primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and their interaction with biometric characteristics. Prospective study. Thirty-five subjects with PACG and thirty-three subjects with POAG who required trabeculectomy were enrolled at the Singapore National Eye Centre, Singapore. Iris specimens, obtained by iridectomy, were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction for expression of type I collagen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, -B and -C, as well as VEGF receptors (VEGFRs) 1 and 2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) imaging for biometric parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and lens vault (LV), was also performed pre-operatively. Relative mRNA levels between PACG and POAG irises, biometric measurements, discriminant analyses using genes and biometric parameters. COL1A1, VEGFB, VEGFC and VEGFR2 mRNA expression was higher in PACG compared to POAG irises. LV, ACD and ACV were significantly different between the two subgroups. Discriminant analyses based on gene expression, biometric parameters or a combination of both gene expression and biometrics (LV and ACV), correctly classified 94.1%, 85.3% and 94.1% of the original PACG and POAG cases, respectively. The discriminant function combining genes and biometrics demonstrated the highest accuracy in cross-validated classification of the two glaucoma subtypes. Distinct iris gene expression supports the pathophysiological differences that exist between PACG and POAG. Biometric parameters can combine with iris gene expression to more accurately define PACG from POAG. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  14. MULTIMODAL BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM WITH FINGERPRINT AND IRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muthukumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In general, the identification and verification are done by passwords, pin number, etc., which is easily cracked by others. In order to overcome this issue biometrics is a unique tool for authenticate an individual person. Nevertheless, unimodal biometric is suffered due to noise, intra class variations, spoof attacks, non-universality and some other attacks. In order to avoid these attacks, the multimodal biometrics i.e. combining of more modalities is adapted. In a biometric authentication system, the acceptance or rejection of an entity is dependent on the similarity score falling above or below the threshold. Hence this paper has focused on the security of the biometric system, because compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked or reissued and also this paper has proposed a multimodal system based on an evolutionary algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization that adapts for varying security environments. With these two concerns, this paper had developed a design incorporating adaptability, authenticity and security.

  15. Biometrics-based service marketing issues: exploring acceptability and risk factors of iris scans associated with registered travel programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alan D

    2008-01-01

    The marketability and viability of biometric technologies by companies marketing their own versions of pre-approved registered travel programmes have generated a number of controversies. Data were collected and analysed to formulate graphs, run regression and correlation analyses, and use Chi-square to formally test basic research propositions on a sample of 241 professionals in the Pittsburgh area. It was found that there was a significant relationship between the respondents' familiarity with new technology (namely web-enabled and internet sophistication) and knowledge of biometrics, in particular iris scans. Participants who frequently use the internet are more comfortable with innovative technology; although individuals with higher income levels have less trust in the government, it appeared that virtually everyone is concerned about trusting the government with their personal information. Healthcare professionals need to document the safety, CRM-related factors, and provide leadership in the international collaboration of biometric-related personal identification technologies, since they will be one of the main beneficiaries of the implementation of such technologies.

  16. Method of preliminary localization of the iris in biometric access control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minacova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a method of preliminary localization of the iris, based on the stable brightness features of the iris in images of the eye. In tests on images of eyes from publicly available databases method showed good accuracy and speed compared to existing methods preliminary localization.

  17. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  18. Design and implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for the purpose of iris biometric authentication through the analysis of textures implemented on a FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacometto, F J; Vilardy, J M; Torres, C O; Mattos, L, E-mail: franciscogiacometto@unicesar.edu.co [Laboratorio de Optica e Informatica, Universidad Popular del Cesar, Sede balneario Hurtado, Valledupar, Cesar (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Currently addressing problems related to security in access control, as a consequence, have been developed applications that work under unique characteristics in individuals, such as biometric features. In the world becomes important working with biometric images such as the liveliness of the iris which are for both the pattern of retinal images as your blood vessels. This paper presents an implementation of an algorithm for creating templates for biometric authentication with ocular features for FPGA, in which the object of study is that the texture pattern of iris is unique to each individual. The authentication will be based in processes such as edge extraction methods, segmentation principle of John Daugman and Libor Masek's, and standardization to obtain necessary templates for the search of matches in a database and then get the expected results of authentication.

  19. IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfaro, W.; Zygmont, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses development of ISOLATION RESET INFORMATION SYSTEM (IRIS), an expert system to aid nuclear plant operators during plant transients known as automatic containment isolations. IRIS is implemented using the Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell, taking advantage of the dBase III Plus interface. The design of IRIS is discussed as well as the system's current state of development. The use of expert systems for training operators is discussed. The importance of gaining regulatory acceptance of expert systems is presented. This issue will ultimately determine the extent of expert system use in nuclear applications

  20. Excimer Laser Surgery: Biometrical Iris Eye Recognition with Cyclorotational Control Eye Tracker System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajic, Bojan; Cvejic, Zeljka; Mijatovic, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Mueller, Joerg

    2017-05-25

    A prospective comparative study assessing the importance of the intra-operative dynamic rotational tracking-especially in the treatment of astigmatisms in corneal refractive Excimer laser correction-concerning clinical outcomes is presented. The cyclotorsion from upright to supine position was measured using iris image comparison. The Group 1 of patients was additionally treated with cyclorotational control and Group 2 only with X-Y control. Significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the mean postoperative cylinder refraction ( p < 0.05). The mean cyclotorsion can be calculated to 3.75° with a standard deviation of 3.1°. The total range of torsion was from -14.9° to +12.6°. Re-treatment rate was 2.2% in Group 1 and 8.2% in Group 2, which is highly significant ( p < 0.01). The investigation confirms that the dynamic rotational tracking system used for LASIK results in highly predictable refraction quality with significantly less postoperative re-treatments.

  1. Iris Recognition Using Wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaliq Masood

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems are getting more attention in the present era. Iris recognition is one of the most secure and authentic among the other biometrics and this field demands more authentic, reliable and fast algorithms to implement these biometric systems in real time. In this paper, an efficient localization technique is presented to identify pupil and iris boundaries using histogram of the iris image. Two small portions of iris have been used for polar transformation to reduce computational time and to increase the efficiency of the system. Wavelet transform is used for feature vector generation. Rotation of iris is compensated without shifts in the iris code. System is tested on Multimedia University Iris Database and results show that proposed system has encouraging performance.

  2. Biometric citizenship and alienage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    . This paper asks if and how biometric techniques are the basis of a re-structuring of management of migration and mobility: Is the suggestion of biometric identifiers reflecting the withdrawal from the principle of rights applied to human beings as an abstract of the universal individual all being equal......, to the (re)introduction the concept of rights being engraved in your body, depended first and foremost on one’s birth, kinship and geography ? The paper will discuss biometric technology in a historical context and explore the apparent biometric divide between citizens and migrants, the latter positioned......Biometric identifiers (finger prints, face scans, iris scans etc.) have increasingly become a key element in technology of EU border and migration management. SIS II, EURODAC and VIS are centralized systems that contain fingerprints of different groups of non-EU citizen, and the biometric...

  3. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research in iris biometrics has been focused on utilizing iris features as a means of identity verification and authentication. However, not enough research work has been done to explore iris textures to determine soft biometrics such as gender...

  4. Reliability of Iris Scanning as a Means of Identity Verification and Future Impact on Transportation Worker Identification Credential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLaren, Simon

    2008-01-01

    .... Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric...

  5. Using crypts as iris minutiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Flynn, Patrick J.

    2013-05-01

    Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric technologies for identity recognition and verification, but it has not been used in a forensic context because the representation and matching of iris features are not straightforward for traditional iris recognition techniques. In this paper we concentrate on the iris crypt as a visible feature used to represent the characteristics of irises in a similar way to fingerprint minutiae. The matching of crypts is based on their appearances and locations. The number of matching crypt pairs found between two irises can be used for identity verification and the convenience of manual inspection makes iris crypts a potential candidate for forensic applications.

  6. Fusion of Multimodal Biometrics using Feature and Score Level Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohana Prakash, S.; Betty, P.; Sivanarulselvan, K.

    2016-01-01

    Biometrics is used to uniquely identify a person‘s individual based on physical and behavioural characteristics. Unimodal biometric system contains various problems such as degree of freedom, spoof attacks, non-universality, noisy data and error rates. Multimodal biometrics is introduced to overcome the limitations in Unimodal biometrics. The presented methodology extracts the features of four biometric traits such as fingerprint, palm, iris and retina. Then extracted features are fused in th...

  7. Handbook of biometric anti-spoofing trusted biometrics under spoofing attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Marcel, Sébastien; Li, Stan Z

    2014-01-01

    As the plethora of approaches to biometrics and their deployment continues to grow, so too does the need to combat the techniques used to subvert the aim of such biometric systems. Presenting the first definitive study of the subject, this Handbook of Biometric Anti-Spoofing reviews the state of the art in covert attacks against biometric systems, and in deriving countermeasures to these attacks. Across a range of common biometrics, including face, iris, fingerprint, speaker and gait, the book describes spoofing methods and examines the vulnerabilities of biometric systems to these attacks.

  8. Joint Sparse Representation for Robust Multimodal Biometrics Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics with error term Finger 1 Finger 2 Finger 3 Finger ...Individual Biometrics without error term Finger 1 Finger 2 Finger 3 Finger 4 Iris 1 Iris 2 (a) (b) 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 60 65 70...75 80 85 90 95 Rank C um ul at iv e R ec og ni tio n R at e (% ) CMC Curve for Individual Biometrics using SLR Finger 1 Finger 2

  9. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION USING NONPARAMETRIC METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    S V Sheela; K R Radhika

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and behavioral trait is employed to develop biometric authentication systems. The proposed work deals with the authentication of iris and signature based on minimum variance criteria. The iris patterns are preprocessed based on area of the connected components. The segmented image used for authentication consists of the region with large variations in the gray level values. The image region is split into quadtree components. The components with minimum variance are determine...

  10. Iris Template Protection Based on Local Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics have been widely studied in recent years, and they are increasingly employed in real-world applications. Meanwhile, a number of potential threats to the privacy of biometric data arise. Iris template protection demands that the privacy of iris data should be protected when performing iris recognition. According to the international standard ISO/IEC 24745, iris template protection should satisfy the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. However, existing works about iris template protection demonstrate that it is difficult to satisfy the three privacy requirements simultaneously while supporting effective iris recognition. In this paper, we propose an iris template protection method based on local ranking. Specifically, the iris data are first XORed (Exclusive OR operation with an application-specific string; next, we divide the results into blocks and then partition the blocks into groups. The blocks in each group are ranked according to their decimal values, and original blocks are transformed to their rank values for storage. We also extend the basic method to support the shifting strategy and masking strategy, which are two important strategies for iris recognition. We demonstrate that the proposed method satisfies the irreversibility, revocability, and unlinkability. Experimental results on typical iris datasets (i.e., CASIA-IrisV3-Interval, CASIA-IrisV4-Lamp, UBIRIS-V1-S1, and MMU-V1 show that the proposed method could maintain the recognition performance while protecting the privacy of iris data.

  11. Supporting the Maritime Information Dominance: Optimizing Tactical Network for Biometric Data Sharing in Maritime Interdiction Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    biometric data collection. Capture role- player mock biometric data including finger prints, iris scans, and facial recognition photos. (MOC training...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS by Adam R. Sinsel...MARITIME INFORMATION DOMINANCE: OPTIMIZING TACTICAL NETWORK FOR BIOMETRIC DATA SHARING IN MARITIME INTERDICTION OPERATIONS 6. AUTHOR(S) Adam R

  12. Exploring the feasibility of iris recognition for visible spectrum iris images obtained using smartphone camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Bartuzi, Ewelina; Michowska, Katarzyna; Andrzejewska, Antonina; Selegrat, Monika

    2015-09-01

    In the age of modern, hyperconnected society that increasingly relies on mobile devices and solutions, implementing a reliable and accurate biometric system employing iris recognition presents new challenges. Typical biometric systems employing iris analysis require expensive and complicated hardware. We therefore explore an alternative way using visible spectrum iris imaging. This paper aims at answering several questions related to applying iris biometrics for images obtained in the visible spectrum using smartphone camera. Can irides be successfully and effortlessly imaged using a smartphone's built-in camera? Can existing iris recognition methods perform well when presented with such images? The main advantage of using near-infrared (NIR) illumination in dedicated iris recognition cameras is good performance almost independent of the iris color and pigmentation. Are the images obtained from smartphone's camera of sufficient quality even for the dark irides? We present experiments incorporating simple image preprocessing to find the best visibility of iris texture, followed by a performance study to assess whether iris recognition methods originally aimed at NIR iris images perform well with visible light images. To our best knowledge this is the first comprehensive analysis of iris recognition performance using a database of high-quality images collected in visible light using the smartphones flashlight together with the application of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) iris recognition methods.

  13. Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    modal biometrics submissions to include iris, face, palm and finger prints from biometrics collection devices, which will support the Warfighter in...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) Defense Acquisition Management...Phone: 227-3119 DSN Fax: Date Assigned: July 15, 2015 Program Information Program Name Biometrics Enabling Capability Increment 1 (BEC Inc 1) DoD

  14. Biometric Passport Validation Scheme using Radio Frequency Identification

    OpenAIRE

    V.K. Narendira Kumar; B. Srinivasan

    2013-01-01

    Biometric passports issued nowadays have an embedded RFID chip that carries digitally signed biometric information. This RIFD chip is integrated into the cover of a passport, called a biometric passport. Electronic passports as it is sometimes called, represents a bold initiative in the deployment of two new technologies: RIFD and biometrics such as face, fingerprints, palm prints and iris. The electronic passport is the privacy and security risks that arise by embedding RFID technology. The ...

  15. [Electronic Device for Retinal and Iris Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahanský, M; Kolář, R; Mňuk, T

    This paper describes design and construction of a new device for automatic capturing of eye retina and iris. This device has two possible ways of utilization - either for biometric purposes (persons recognition on the base of their eye characteristics) or for medical purposes as supporting diagnostic device. eye retina, eye iris, device, acquisition, image.

  16. Iris segmentation using an edge detector based on fuzzy sets theory and cellular learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanizadeh, Afshin; Abarghouei, Amir Atapour; Sinaie, Saman; Saad, Puteh; Shamsuddin, Siti Mariyam

    2011-07-01

    Iris-based biometric systems identify individuals based on the characteristics of their iris, since they are proven to remain unique for a long time. An iris recognition system includes four phases, the most important of which is preprocessing in which the iris segmentation is performed. The accuracy of an iris biometric system critically depends on the segmentation system. In this paper, an iris segmentation system using edge detection techniques and Hough transforms is presented. The newly proposed edge detection system enhances the performance of the segmentation in a way that it performs much more efficiently than the other conventional iris segmentation methods.

  17. Ethnicity prediction and classification from iris texture patterns: A survey on recent advances

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prediction and classification of ethnicity based on iris texture patterns using image processing, artificial intelligence and computer vision techniques is still a recent topic in iris biometrics. While the large body of knowledge and research...

  18. Iris recognition in less constrained environments: a video-based approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeo, Nitin Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on iris biometrics. Although the iris is the most accurate biometric, its adoption has been relatively slow. Conventional iris recognition systems utilize still eye images captured in ideal environments and require highly constrained subject presentation. A drop in recognition performance is observed when these constraints are removed as the quality of the data acquired is affected by heterogeneous factors. For iris recognition to be widely adopted, it can therefore ...

  19. Does Iris Change Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008–2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs. PMID:24244305

  20. Does iris change over time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Hunny; Vatsa, Mayank; Singh, Richa; Majhi, Banshidhar

    2013-01-01

    Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  1. Does iris change over time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunny Mehrotra

    Full Text Available Iris as a biometric identifier is assumed to be stable over a period of time. However, some researchers have observed that for long time lapse, the genuine match score distribution shifts towards the impostor score distribution and the performance of iris recognition reduces. The main purpose of this study is to determine if the shift in genuine scores can be attributed to aging or not. The experiments are performed on the two publicly available iris aging databases namely, ND-Iris-Template-Aging-2008-2010 and ND-TimeLapseIris-2012 using a commercial matcher, VeriEye. While existing results are correct about increase in false rejection over time, we observe that it is primarily due to the presence of other covariates such as blur, noise, occlusion, and pupil dilation. This claim is substantiated with quality score comparison of the gallery and probe pairs.

  2. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  3. A new method for generating an invariant iris private key based on the fuzzy vault system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn Joo; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sung Joo; Bae, Kwanghyuk; Kim, Jaihie

    2008-10-01

    Cryptographic systems have been widely used in many information security applications. One main challenge that these systems have faced has been how to protect private keys from attackers. Recently, biometric cryptosystems have been introduced as a reliable way of concealing private keys by using biometric data. A fuzzy vault refers to a biometric cryptosystem that can be used to effectively protect private keys and to release them only when legitimate users enter their biometric data. In biometric systems, a critical problem is storing biometric templates in a database. However, fuzzy vault systems do not need to directly store these templates since they are combined with private keys by using cryptography. Previous fuzzy vault systems were designed by using fingerprint, face, and so on. However, there has been no attempt to implement a fuzzy vault system that used an iris. In biometric applications, it is widely known that an iris can discriminate between persons better than other biometric modalities. In this paper, we propose a reliable fuzzy vault system based on local iris features. We extracted multiple iris features from multiple local regions in a given iris image, and the exact values of the unordered set were then produced using the clustering method. To align the iris templates with the new input iris data, a shift-matching technique was applied. Experimental results showed that 128-bit private keys were securely and robustly generated by using any given iris data without requiring prealignment.

  4. Practical considerations in privacy preserving biometric face recognition algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papatsimpa, Ch.; de Groot, J.; Linnartz, J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of authentication via fingerprints, iris, face or other biometric features is growing. Hence there is an increasing need to allow a wide variety of verifying parties to have access to biometric template (or reference) data. In this paper, we discuss solutions to ensure that in a

  5. Beyond Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon

    Throughout the last 40 years, the essence of automated identification of users has remained the same. In this article, a new class of biometrics is proposed that is founded on processing biosignals, as opposed to images. After a brief introduction on biometrics, biosignals are discussed, including

  6. Multispectral biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David; Gong, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Describing several new biometric technologies, such as high-resolution fingerprint, finger-knuckle-print, multi-spectral backhand, 3D fingerprint, tongueprint, 3D ear, and multi-spectral iris recognition technologies, this book analyzes a number of efficient feature extraction, matching and fusion algorithms and how potential systems have been developed. Focusing on how to develop new biometric technologies based on the requirements of applications, and how to design efficient algorithms to deliver better performance, the work is based on the author’s research with experimental results under different challenging conditions described in the text. The book offers a valuable resource for researchers, professionals and postgraduate students working in the fields of computer vision, pattern recognition, biometrics, and security applications, amongst others.

  7. Feature Set Fusion for Spoof Iris Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. L. Suvarchala

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is considered as one of the most promising noninvasive biometric systems providing automated human identification. Numerous programs, like unique ID program in India - Aadhar, include iris biometric to provide distinctive identity identification to citizens. The active area is usually captured under non ideal imaging conditions. It usually suffers from poor brightness, low contrast, blur due to camera or subject's relative movement and eyelid eyelash occlusions. Besides the technical challenges, iris recognition started facing sophisticated threats like spoof attacks. Therefore it is vital that the integrity of such large scale iris deployments must be preserved. This paper presents the development of a new spoof resistant approach which exploits the statistical dependencies of both general eye and localized iris regions in textural domain using spatial gray level dependence matrix (SGLDM, gray level run length matrix (GLRLM and contourlets in transform domain. We did experiments on publicly available fake and lens iris image databases. Correct classification rate obtained with ATVS-FIr iris database is 100% while it is 95.63% and 88.83% with IITD spoof iris databases respectively.

  8. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Shengnan; Zhao, Lindu; Yang, Shicai

    2013-01-01

    Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD). We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersectio...

  9. Iris Cryptography for Security Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Srighakollapu; Balaji Ganesh Kumar, M.; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world, the security became the major issue to every human being. A major issue is hacking as hackers are everywhere, as the technology was developed still there are many issues where the technology fails to meet the security. Engineers, scientists were discovering the new products for security purpose as biometrics sensors like face recognition, pattern recognition, gesture recognition, voice authentication etcetera. But these devices fail to reach the expected results. In this work, we are going to present an approach to generate a unique secure key using the iris template. Here the iris templates are processed using the well-defined processing techniques. Using the encryption and decryption process they are stored, traversed and utilized. As of the work, we can conclude that the iris cryptography gives us the expected results for securing the data from eavesdroppers.

  10. Iris recognition using the JAVAVis Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.Martin García

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project has been created to develop a biometric identification system through a man’s iris using a computer to perform the processing of the pictures. To develop this application, and to differentiate the project from others who have already implemented, we have used the image processing library JAVAVis and JAVA as a programming language.

  11. Secure and Robust Iris Recognition Using Random Projections and Sparse Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Patel, Vishal M; Chellappa, Rama; Ratha, Nalini K

    2011-09-01

    Noncontact biometrics such as face and iris have additional benefits over contact-based biometrics such as fingerprint and hand geometry. However, three important challenges need to be addressed in a noncontact biometrics-based authentication system: ability to handle unconstrained acquisition, robust and accurate matching, and privacy enhancement without compromising security. In this paper, we propose a unified framework based on random projections and sparse representations, that can simultaneously address all three issues mentioned above in relation to iris biometrics. Our proposed quality measure can handle segmentation errors and a wide variety of possible artifacts during iris acquisition. We demonstrate how the proposed approach can be easily extended to handle alignment variations and recognition from iris videos, resulting in a robust and accurate system. The proposed approach includes enhancements to privacy and security by providing ways to create cancelable iris templates. Results on public data sets show significant benefits of the proposed approach.

  12. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  13. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop DanielA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  14. Iris Recognition: The Consequences of Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Robert W.; Bishop, Daniel A.; Du, Yingzi; Belcher, Craig

    2010-12-01

    Iris recognition for human identification is one of the most accurate biometrics, and its employment is expanding globally. The use of portable iris systems, particularly in law enforcement applications, is growing. In many of these applications, the portable device may be required to transmit an iris image or template over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel. Typically, a full resolution image (e.g., VGA) is desired to ensure sufficient pixels across the iris to be confident of accurate recognition results. To minimize the time to transmit a large amount of data over a narrow-bandwidth communication channel, image compression can be used to reduce the file size of the iris image. In other applications, such as the Registered Traveler program, an entire iris image is stored on a smart card, but only 4 kB is allowed for the iris image. For this type of application, image compression is also the solution. This paper investigates the effects of image compression on recognition system performance using a commercial version of the Daugman iris2pi algorithm along with JPEG-2000 compression, and links these to image quality. Using the ICE 2005 iris database, we find that even in the face of significant compression, recognition performance is minimally affected.

  15. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesma Houmani

    Full Text Available Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database.

  16. On Hunting Animals of the Biometric Menagerie for Online Signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houmani, Nesma; Garcia-Salicetti, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Individuals behave differently regarding to biometric authentication systems. This fact was formalized in the literature by the concept of Biometric Menagerie, defining and labeling user groups with animal names in order to reflect their characteristics with respect to biometric systems. This concept was illustrated for face, fingerprint, iris, and speech modalities. The present study extends the Biometric Menagerie to online signatures, by proposing a novel methodology that ties specific quality measures for signatures to categories of the Biometric Menagerie. Such measures are combined for retrieving automatically writer categories of the extended version of the Biometric Menagerie. Performance analysis with different types of classifiers shows the pertinence of our approach on the well-known MCYT-100 database.

  17. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  18. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  19. Iris Recognition Using Feature Extraction of Box Counting Fractal Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotimah, C.; Juniati, D.

    2018-01-01

    Biometrics is a science that is now growing rapidly. Iris recognition is a biometric modality which captures a photo of the eye pattern. The markings of the iris are distinctive that it has been proposed to use as a means of identification, instead of fingerprints. Iris recognition was chosen for identification in this research because every human has a special feature that each individual is different and the iris is protected by the cornea so that it will have a fixed shape. This iris recognition consists of three step: pre-processing of data, feature extraction, and feature matching. Hough transformation is used in the process of pre-processing to locate the iris area and Daugman’s rubber sheet model to normalize the iris data set into rectangular blocks. To find the characteristics of the iris, it was used box counting method to get the fractal dimension value of the iris. Tests carried out by used k-fold cross method with k = 5. In each test used 10 different grade K of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The result of iris recognition was obtained with the best accuracy was 92,63 % for K = 3 value on K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method.

  20. Improved iris localization by using wide and narrow field of view cameras for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics is a method of identifying individuals by their physiological or behavioral characteristics. Among other biometric identifiers, iris recognition has been widely used for various applications that require a high level of security. When a conventional iris recognition camera is used, the size and position of the iris region in a captured image vary according to the X, Y positions of a user's eye and the Z distance between a user and the camera. Therefore, the searching area of the iris detection algorithm is increased, which can inevitably decrease both the detection speed and accuracy. To solve these problems, we propose a new method of iris localization that uses wide field of view (WFOV) and narrow field of view (NFOV) cameras. Our study is new as compared to previous studies in the following four ways. First, the device used in our research acquires three images, one each of the face and both irises, using one WFOV and two NFOV cameras simultaneously. The relation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is determined by simple geometric transformation without complex calibration. Second, the Z distance (between a user's eye and the iris camera) is estimated based on the iris size in the WFOV image and anthropometric data of the size of the human iris. Third, the accuracy of the geometric transformation between the WFOV and NFOV cameras is enhanced by using multiple matrices of the transformation according to the Z distance. Fourth, the searching region for iris localization in the NFOV image is significantly reduced based on the detected iris region in the WFOV image and the matrix of geometric transformation corresponding to the estimated Z distance. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed iris localization method is better than that of conventional methods in terms of accuracy and processing time.

  1. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing. PMID:22919273

  2. A survey and proposed framework on the soft biometrics technique for human identification in intelligent video surveillance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Gu; Moon, Hae-Min; Chung, Yongwha; Pan, Sung Bum

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  3. A Survey and Proposed Framework on the Soft Biometrics Technique for Human Identification in Intelligent Video Surveillance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Gu Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics verification can be efficiently used for intrusion detection and intruder identification in video surveillance systems. Biometrics techniques can be largely divided into traditional and the so-called soft biometrics. Whereas traditional biometrics deals with physical characteristics such as face features, eye iris, and fingerprints, soft biometrics is concerned with such information as gender, national origin, and height. Traditional biometrics is versatile and highly accurate. But it is very difficult to get traditional biometric data from a distance and without personal cooperation. Soft biometrics, although featuring less accuracy, can be used much more freely though. Recently, many researchers have been made on human identification using soft biometrics data collected from a distance. In this paper, we use both traditional and soft biometrics for human identification and propose a framework for solving such problems as lighting, occlusion, and shadowing.

  4. Trade off between variable and fixed size normalization in orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, R; Anna Poorani, G

    2016-01-01

    Iris normalization is an important stage in any iris biometric, as it has a propensity to trim down the consequences of iris distortion. To indemnify the variation in size of the iris owing to the action of stretching or enlarging the pupil in iris acquisition process and camera to eyeball distance, two normalization schemes has been proposed in this work. In the first method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris into the variable size rectangular model in order to avoid the under samples near the limbus border. In the second method, the iris region of interest is normalized by converting the iris region into a fixed size rectangular model in order to avoid the dimensional discrepancies between the eye images. The performance of the proposed normalization methods is evaluated with orthogonal polynomials based iris recognition in terms of FAR, FRR, GAR, CRR and EER.

  5. Gabor Weber Local Descriptor for Bovine Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengnan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition is a robust biometric technology. This paper proposes a novel local descriptor for bovine iris recognition, named Gabor Weber local descriptor (GWLD. We first compute the Gabor magnitude maps for the input bovine iris image, and then calculate the differential excitation and orientation for each pixel over each Gabor magnitude map. After that, we use these differential excitations and orientations to construct the GWLD histogram representation. Finally, histogram intersection is adopted to measure the similarity between different GWLD histograms. The experimental results on the SEU bovine iris database verify the representation power of our proposed local descriptor.

  6. Multispectral iris recognition based on group selection and game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Foysal; Roy, Kaushik

    2017-05-01

    A commercially available iris recognition system uses only a narrow band of the near infrared spectrum (700-900 nm) while iris images captured in the wide range of 405 nm to 1550 nm offer potential benefits to enhance recognition performance of an iris biometric system. The novelty of this research is that a group selection algorithm based on coalition game theory is explored to select the best patch subsets. In this algorithm, patches are divided into several groups based on their maximum contribution in different groups. Shapley values are used to evaluate the contribution of patches in different groups. Results show that this group selection based iris recognition

  7. Biometric identification based on feature fusion with PCA and SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkovits, László; Lefkovits, Szidónia; Emerich, Simina

    2018-04-01

    Biometric identification is gaining ground compared to traditional identification methods. Many biometric measurements may be used for secure human identification. The most reliable among them is the iris pattern because of its uniqueness, stability, unforgeability and inalterability over time. The approach presented in this paper is a fusion of different feature descriptor methods such as HOG, LIOP, LBP, used for extracting iris texture information. The classifiers obtained through the SVM and PCA methods demonstrate the effectiveness of our system applied to one and both irises. The performances measured are highly accurate and foreshadow a fusion system with a rate of identification approaching 100% on the UPOL database.

  8. Iris recognition in the presence of ocular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Tariq Mehmood; Tan, Shi Zhuan; Dhillon, Baljean

    2009-05-06

    Iris recognition systems are among the most accurate of all biometric technologies with immense potential for use in worldwide security applications. This study examined the effect of eye pathology on iris recognition and in particular whether eye disease could cause iris recognition systems to fail. The experiment involved a prospective cohort of 54 patients with anterior segment eye disease who were seen at the acute referral unit of the Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion in Edinburgh. Iris camera images were obtained from patients before treatment was commenced and again at follow-up appointments after treatment had been given. The principal outcome measure was that of mathematical difference in the iris recognition templates obtained from patients' eyes before and after treatment of the eye disease. Results showed that the performance of iris recognition was remarkably resilient to most ophthalmic disease states, including corneal oedema, iridotomies (laser puncture of iris) and conjunctivitis. Problems were, however, encountered in some patients with acute inflammation of the iris (iritis/anterior uveitis). The effects of a subject developing anterior uveitis may cause current recognition systems to fail. Those developing and deploying iris recognition should be aware of the potential problems that this could cause to this key biometric technology.

  9. Enhanced iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2013-04-01

    For the purpose of biometric person identification, iris recognition uses the unique characteristics of the patterns of the iris; that is, the eye region between the pupil and the sclera. When obtaining an iris image, the iris's image is frequently rotated because of the user's head roll toward the left or right shoulder. As the rotation of the iris image leads to circular shifting of the iris features, the accuracy of iris recognition is degraded. To solve this problem, conventional iris recognition methods use shifting of the iris feature codes to perform the matching. However, this increases the computational complexity and level of false acceptance error. To solve these problems, we propose a novel iris recognition method based on multi-unit iris images. Our method is novel in the following five ways compared with previous methods. First, to detect both eyes, we use Adaboost and a rapid eye detector (RED) based on the iris shape feature and integral imaging. Both eyes are detected using RED in the approximate candidate region that consists of the binocular region, which is determined by the Adaboost detector. Second, we classify the detected eyes into the left and right eyes, because the iris patterns in the left and right eyes in the same person are different, and they are therefore considered as different classes. We can improve the accuracy of iris recognition using this pre-classification of the left and right eyes. Third, by measuring the angle of head roll using the two center positions of the left and right pupils, detected by two circular edge detectors, we obtain the information of the iris rotation angle. Fourth, in order to reduce the error and processing time of iris recognition, adaptive bit-shifting based on the measured iris rotation angle is used in feature matching. Fifth, the recognition accuracy is enhanced by the score fusion of the left and right irises. Experimental results on the iris open database of low-resolution images showed that the

  10. A STUDY ON BIOMETRIC TEMPLATE SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Radha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of biometrics and cryptography is driven by the widespread stipulation on information security. Abundant efforts have been made in developing successful methods in these areas in order to accomplish an enhanced level of information security. There are two dominant issues in information security enhancement. One is to defend the user ownership and control the access to information by authenticating an individual’s identity. The other is to make sure the privacy and integrity of information and to secure communication. Cryptography is the science of writing in secret code. Secret-key cryptography and public-key cryptography are the two most important cryptographic architectures. The security of a cryptographic system is reliant on the secrecy of the cryptographic key. Biometric authentication or simply biometrics refers to establishing automatic personal recognition based on the physical and behavioral characteristics of an individual (e.g. face, voice, fingerprint, gait, hand geometry, iris, gene, etc.. Biometrics offers superior security and easier than traditional identity authentication systems (based on passwords and cryptographic keys.Since biometrics characteristics are naturally related with a particular individual, making them insusceptible to being stolen, forgotten, lost or attached. This paper presents a survey on various techniques proposed earlier in developing an authentication system for ensuring individual’s information security by combining biometric characteristics of that particular individual and the cryptographic techniques. In addition, it provides some fundamental idea for future research that may help in eliminating the problems associated with the present authentication systems.

  11. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Su Kim; Sung Bum Pan

    2017-01-01

    Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG), and electroencephalogram (EEG). Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-ba...

  12. Biometric Methods for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2011), s. 37-43 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : biometrics * data security * EHR ( electronic health record ) * fingerprints * hand geometry * face recognition * iris recognition * retinal scanning * keystroke dynamics * multi-factor authentification Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.eu/images/2011-1/Schlenker_en.pdf

  13. Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.; Rashidi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Developing a reliable, fast, and robust biometric recognition system is still a challenging task. This is because the inputs to these systems can be noisy, occluded, poorly illuminated, rotated, and of very low-resolutions. This paper proposes a probabilistic classifier using Haar-like features......, which mostly have been used for detection, for biometric recognition. The proposed system has been tested for three different biometrics: ear, iris, and hand vein patterns and it is shown that it is robust against most of the mentioned degradations and it outperforms state-of-the-art systems...

  14. Parallel-Bit Stream for Securing Iris Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Elsayed Mostafa; Maher Mansour; Heba Saad

    2012-01-01

    Biometrics-based authentication schemes have usability advantages over traditional password-based authentication schemes. However, biometrics raises several privacy concerns, it has disadvantages comparing to traditional password in which it is not secured and non revocable. In this paper, we propose a fast method for securing revocable iris template using parallel-bit stream watermarking to overcome these problems. Experimental results prove that the proposed method has low computation time ...

  15. Dynamic Features for Iris Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, R M; Gonzaga, A

    2012-08-01

    The human eye is sensitive to visible light. Increasing illumination on the eye causes the pupil of the eye to contract, while decreasing illumination causes the pupil to dilate. Visible light causes specular reflections inside the iris ring. On the other hand, the human retina is less sensitive to near infra-red (NIR) radiation in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1400 nm, but iris detail can still be imaged with NIR illumination. In order to measure the dynamic movement of the human pupil and iris while keeping the light-induced reflexes from affecting the quality of the digitalized image, this paper describes a device based on the consensual reflex. This biological phenomenon contracts and dilates the two pupils synchronously when illuminating one of the eyes by visible light. In this paper, we propose to capture images of the pupil of one eye using NIR illumination while illuminating the other eye using a visible-light pulse. This new approach extracts iris features called "dynamic features (DFs)." This innovative methodology proposes the extraction of information about the way the human eye reacts to light, and to use such information for biometric recognition purposes. The results demonstrate that these features are discriminating features, and, even using the Euclidean distance measure, an average accuracy of recognition of 99.1% was obtained. The proposed methodology has the potential to be "fraud-proof," because these DFs can only be extracted from living irises.

  16. Analyzing personalized policies for online biometric verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhwani, Apaar; Yang, Yan; Wein, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by India's nationwide biometric program for social inclusion, we analyze verification (i.e., one-to-one matching) in the case where we possess similarity scores for 10 fingerprints and two irises between a resident's biometric images at enrollment and his biometric images during his first verification. At subsequent verifications, we allow individualized strategies based on these 12 scores: we acquire a subset of the 12 images, get new scores for this subset that quantify the similarity to the corresponding enrollment images, and use the likelihood ratio (i.e., the likelihood of observing these scores if the resident is genuine divided by the corresponding likelihood if the resident is an imposter) to decide whether a resident is genuine or an imposter. We also consider two-stage policies, where additional images are acquired in a second stage if the first-stage results are inconclusive. Using performance data from India's program, we develop a new probabilistic model for the joint distribution of the 12 similarity scores and find near-optimal individualized strategies that minimize the false reject rate (FRR) subject to constraints on the false accept rate (FAR) and mean verification delay for each resident. Our individualized policies achieve the same FRR as a policy that acquires (and optimally fuses) 12 biometrics for each resident, which represents a five (four, respectively) log reduction in FRR relative to fingerprint (iris, respectively) policies previously proposed for India's biometric program. The mean delay is [Formula: see text] sec for our proposed policy, compared to 30 sec for a policy that acquires one fingerprint and 107 sec for a policy that acquires all 12 biometrics. This policy acquires iris scans from 32-41% of residents (depending on the FAR) and acquires an average of 1.3 fingerprints per resident.

  17. On techniques for angle compensation in nonideal iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuckers, Stephanie A C; Schmid, Natalia A; Abhyankar, Aditya; Dorairaj, Vivekanand; Boyce, Christopher K; Hornak, Lawrence A

    2007-10-01

    The popularity of the iris biometric has grown considerably over the past two to three years. Most research has been focused on the development of new iris processing and recognition algorithms for frontal view iris images. However, a few challenging directions in iris research have been identified, including processing of a nonideal iris and iris at a distance. In this paper, we describe two nonideal iris recognition systems and analyze their performance. The word "nonideal" is used in the sense of compensating for off-angle occluded iris images. The system is designed to process nonideal iris images in two steps: 1) compensation for off-angle gaze direction and 2) processing and encoding of the rotated iris image. Two approaches are presented to account for angular variations in the iris images. In the first approach, we use Daugman's integrodifferential operator as an objective function to estimate the gaze direction. After the angle is estimated, the off-angle iris image undergoes geometric transformations involving the estimated angle and is further processed as if it were a frontal view image. The encoding technique developed for a frontal image is based on the application of the global independent component analysis. The second approach uses an angular deformation calibration model. The angular deformations are modeled, and calibration parameters are calculated. The proposed method consists of a closed-form solution, followed by an iterative optimization procedure. The images are projected on the plane closest to the base calibrated plane. Biorthogonal wavelets are used for encoding to perform iris recognition. We use a special dataset of the off-angle iris images to quantify the performance of the designed systems. A series of receiver operating characteristics demonstrate various effects on the performance of the nonideal-iris-based recognition system.

  18. Modeling IrisCode and its variants as convex polyhedral cones and its security implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Adams Wai-Kin

    2013-03-01

    IrisCode, developed by Daugman, in 1993, is the most influential iris recognition algorithm. A thorough understanding of IrisCode is essential, because over 100 million persons have been enrolled by this algorithm and many biometric personal identification and template protection methods have been developed based on IrisCode. This paper indicates that a template produced by IrisCode or its variants is a convex polyhedral cone in a hyperspace. Its central ray, being a rough representation of the original biometric signal, can be computed by a simple algorithm, which can often be implemented in one Matlab command line. The central ray is an expected ray and also an optimal ray of an objective function on a group of distributions. This algorithm is derived from geometric properties of a convex polyhedral cone but does not rely on any prior knowledge (e.g., iris images). The experimental results show that biometric templates, including iris and palmprint templates, produced by different recognition methods can be matched through the central rays in their convex polyhedral cones and that templates protected by a method extended from IrisCode can be broken into. These experimental results indicate that, without a thorough security analysis, convex polyhedral cone templates cannot be assumed secure. Additionally, the simplicity of the algorithm implies that even junior hackers without knowledge of advanced image processing and biometric databases can still break into protected templates and reveal relationships among templates produced by different recognition methods.

  19. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  20. The Effect of Decomposition on the Efficacy of Biometrics for Positive Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerwein, Kelly; Saul, Tiffany B; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Boehnen, Chris B

    2017-11-01

    Biometrics, unique measurable physiological and behavioral characteristics, are used to identify individuals in a variety of scenarios, including forensic investigations. However, data on the longevity of these indicators are incomplete. This study demonstrated that iris and fingerprint biometric data can be obtained up to four days postmortem in warmer seasons and 50 + days in the winter. It has been generally believed, but never studied, that iris recognition is only obtainable within the first 24 hours after death. However, this study showed that they remain viable for longer (2-34 days) depending upon the environmental conditions. Temperature, precipitation, insects, and scavenger activity were the primary factors affecting the retention of biometrics in decomposing human remains. While this study is an initial step in determining the utility of physiological biometrics across postmortem time, biometric research has the potential to make important contributions to human identification and the law enforcement, military, and medicolegal communities. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Iris melanocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanović, Anica Bobić; Krnjaja, Bojana Dacić; Jaksić, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Iris melanocytoma (IM) is a rare benign tumor, but unavoidable in differential diagnosis of pigmented iris lesions. According to the best knowledge of the authors it is for the first time in Serbia that a well-documented case of IM is presented and that the problem of this tumor is discussed. In the left eye of a 47-year-old white female at the iris in a six o'clock position, a highly pigmented, dome shaped lesion with a crater-like cavity in the center and with feathery margins was noticed. There were no signs of infiltration of surrounding tissue or intrinsic vessels and the lens was clear. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were normal. An ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) revealed a well-defined lesion with high internal reflectivity, with a base diameter of 1.25 mm and a thickness of 0.80 mm in the periphery, and 0.53 mm in the central part.The diagnosis of IM of the left eye was established and regular checkups were performed for ten years. No changes in clinical or UBM presentation were established. Awareness of clinical presentation of IM is most important for correct diagnosis. Ultrasound biomicroscopy is a useful diagnostic procedure in the following up of IM.

  2. An Efficient Human Identification through MultiModal Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Meena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Human identification is essential for proper functioning of society. Human identification through multimodal biometrics is becoming an emerging trend, and one of the reasons is to improve recognition accuracy. Unimodal biometric systems are affected by various problemssuch as noisy sensor data,non-universality, lack of individuality, lack of invariant representation and susceptibility to circumvention.A unimodal system has limited accuracy. Hence, Multimodal biometric systems by combining more than one biometric feature in different levels are proposed in order to enhance the performance of the system. A supervisor module combines the different opinions or decisions delivered by each subsystem and then make a final decision. In this paper, a multimodal biometrics authentication is proposed by combining face, iris and finger features. Biometric features are extracted by Local Derivative Ternary Pattern (LDTP in Contourlet domain and an extensive evaluation of LDTP is done using Support Vector Machine and Nearest Neighborhood Classifier. The experimental evaluations are performed on a public dataset demonstrating the accuracy of the proposed system compared with the existing systems. It is observed that, the combination of face, fingerprint and iris gives better performance in terms of accuracy, False Acceptance Rate, False Rejection Rate with minimum computation time.

  3. Cross-sensor iris recognition through kernel learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Jaishanker K; Puertas, Maria; Chellappa, Rama

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of iris biometrics, new sensors are being developed for acquiring iris images and existing ones are being continuously upgraded. Re-enrolling users every time a new sensor is deployed is expensive and time-consuming, especially in applications with a large number of enrolled users. However, recent studies show that cross-sensor matching, where the test samples are verified using data enrolled with a different sensor, often lead to reduced performance. In this paper, we propose a machine learning technique to mitigate the cross-sensor performance degradation by adapting the iris samples from one sensor to another. We first present a novel optimization framework for learning transformations on iris biometrics. We then utilize this framework for sensor adaptation, by reducing the distance between samples of the same class, and increasing it between samples of different classes, irrespective of the sensors acquiring them. Extensive evaluations on iris data from multiple sensors demonstrate that the proposed method leads to improvement in cross-sensor recognition accuracy. Furthermore, since the proposed technique requires minimal changes to the iris recognition pipeline, it can easily be incorporated into existing iris recognition systems.

  4. Reliability of iris recognition as a means of identity verification and future impact on transportation worker identification credential

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is deploying the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) to U.S. ports to help ensure only authorized individuals having undergone background checks have access to secure areas. Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric. This thesis also argues th...

  5. Integrating Iris and Signature Traits for Personal Authentication Using User-SpecificWeighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serestina Viriri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric systems based on uni-modal traits are characterized by noisy sensor data, restricted degrees of freedom, non-universality and are susceptible to spoof attacks. Multi-modal biometric systems seek to alleviate some of these drawbacks by providing multiple evidences of the same identity. In this paper, a user-score-based weighting technique for integrating the iris and signature traits is presented. This user-specific weighting technique has proved to be an efficient and effective fusion scheme which increases the authentication accuracy rate of multi-modal biometric systems. The weights are used to indicate the importance of matching scores output by each biometrics trait. The experimental results show that our biometric system based on the integration of iris and signature traits achieve a false rejection rate (FRR of 0.08% and a false acceptance rate (FAR of 0.01%.

  6. FUSION BASED MULTIMODAL AUTHENTICATION IN BIOMETRICS USING CONTEXT-SENSITIVE EXPONENT ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY MODEL : A NOVEL APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    P. E. S. N. Krishna Prasad; Pavan Kumar K; M. V. Ramakrishna; B. D. C. N. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Biometrics is one of the primary key concepts of real application domains such as aadhar card, passport, pan card, etc. In such applications user can provide two to three biometrics patterns like face, finger, palm, signature, iris data, and so on. We considered face and finger patterns for encoding and then also for verification. Using this data we proposed a novel model for authentication in multimodal biometrics often called Context-Sensitive Exponent Associative Memory Mode...

  7. A Vein Map Biometric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Fuentes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing demand world-wide, from government agencies and the private sector for cutting-edge biometric security technology that is difficult to breach but userfriendly at the same time. Some of the older tools, such as fingerprint, retina and iris scanning, and facial recognition software have all been found to have flaws and often viewed negatively because of many cultural and hygienic issues associated with them. Comparatively, mapping veins as a human barcode, a new technology, has many advantages over older technologies. Specifically, reproducing a three-dimensional model of a human vein system is impossible to replicate. Vein map technology is distinctive because of its state-of-the-art sensors are only able to recognize vein patterns if hemoglobin is actively flowing through the person

  8. Biometric Template Security

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Nagar; Karthik Nandakumar; Anil K. Jain

    2008-01-01

    Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorizat...

  9. Cancelable Biometrics - A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Indira Chakravarthy; VVSSS. Balaram; B. Eswara Reddy

    2011-01-01

    In recent times Biometrics has emerged as a reliable, convenient and effective method of user authentication. However, with the increasing use of biometrics in several diverse applications, concerns about the privacy and security of biometric data contained in the database systems has increased. It is therefore imperative that Biometric systems instill confidence in the general public, by demonstrating that, these systems are robust, have low error rates and are tamper proof. In this context,...

  10. Demographic Analysis from Biometric Data: Achievements, Challenges, and New Frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlian; Zhang, Man; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2018-02-01

    Biometrics is the technique of automatically recognizing individuals based on their biological or behavioral characteristics. Various biometric traits have been introduced and widely investigated, including fingerprint, iris, face, voice, palmprint, gait and so forth. Apart from identity, biometric data may convey various other personal information, covering affect, age, gender, race, accent, handedness, height, weight, etc. Among these, analysis of demographics (age, gender, and race) has received tremendous attention owing to its wide real-world applications, with significant efforts devoted and great progress achieved. This survey first presents biometric demographic analysis from the standpoint of human perception, then provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art advances in automated estimation from both academia and industry. Despite these advances, a number of challenging issues continue to inhibit its full potential. We second discuss these open problems, and finally provide an outlook into the future of this very active field of research by sharing some promising opportunities.

  11. Security enhanced BioEncoding for protecting iris codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouda, Osama; Tsumura, Norimichi; Nakaguchi, Toshiya

    2011-06-01

    Improving the security of biometric template protection techniques is a key prerequisite for the widespread deployment of biometric technologies. BioEncoding is a recently proposed template protection scheme, based on the concept of cancelable biometrics, for protecting biometric templates represented as binary strings such as iris codes. The main advantage of BioEncoding over other template protection schemes is that it does not require user-specific keys and/or tokens during verification. Besides, it satisfies all the requirements of the cancelable biometrics construct without deteriorating the matching accuracy. However, although it has been shown that BioEncoding is secure enough against simple brute-force search attacks, the security of BioEncoded templates against more smart attacks, such as record multiplicity attacks, has not been sufficiently investigated. In this paper, a rigorous security analysis of BioEncoding is presented. Firstly, resistance of BioEncoded templates against brute-force attacks is revisited thoroughly. Secondly, we show that although the cancelable transformation employed in BioEncoding might be non-invertible for a single protected template, the original iris code could be inverted by correlating several templates used in different applications but created from the same iris. Accordingly, we propose an important modification to the BioEncoding transformation process in order to hinder attackers from exploiting this type of attacks. The effectiveness of adopting the suggested modification is validated and its impact on the matching accuracy is investigated empirically using CASIA-IrisV3-Interval dataset. Experimental results confirm the efficacy of the proposed approach and show that it preserves the matching accuracy of the unprotected iris recognition system.

  12. An iris recognition algorithm based on DCT and GLCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Wu, Ye-qing

    2008-04-01

    With the enlargement of mankind's activity range, the significance for person's status identity is becoming more and more important. So many different techniques for person's status identity were proposed for this practical usage. Conventional person's status identity methods like password and identification card are not always reliable. A wide variety of biometrics has been developed for this challenge. Among those biologic characteristics, iris pattern gains increasing attention for its stability, reliability, uniqueness, noninvasiveness and difficult to counterfeit. The distinct merits of the iris lead to its high reliability for personal identification. So the iris identification technique had become hot research point in the past several years. This paper presents an efficient algorithm for iris recognition using gray-level co-occurrence matrix(GLCM) and Discrete Cosine transform(DCT). To obtain more representative iris features, features from space and DCT transformation domain are extracted. Both GLCM and DCT are applied on the iris image to form the feature sequence in this paper. The combination of GLCM and DCT makes the iris feature more distinct. Upon GLCM and DCT the eigenvector of iris extracted, which reflects features of spatial transformation and frequency transformation. Experimental results show that the algorithm is effective and feasible with iris recognition.

  13. Biometrics and Identity Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    management. BIOID 2008. The papers are categorized in four classes. These classes represent the 4 working groups of the COST Action 2101. For more information, see http://www.cost2101.org/.   Biometric data quality and multimodal biometric templates, Unsupervised interactive interfaces for multimodal...... security and border control scenarios it is now apparent that the widespread availability of biometrics in everyday life will also spin out an ever increasing number of (private) applications in other domains. Crucial to this vision is the management of the user's identity, which does not only imply...... biometrics, Biometric attacks and countermeasures, Standards and privacy issues for biometrics in identity documents and smart cards. BIOID 2008 is an initiative of the COST Action 2101 on Biometrics for Identity Documents and Smart Cards. It is supported by the EU Framework 7 Programme. Other sponsors...

  14. AN APPROACH TO REDUCE THE STORAGE REQUIREMENT FOR BIOMETRIC DATA IN AADHAR PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sivakumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available AADHAR is an Indian Government Project to provide unique identification to each Citizen of India. The objective of the project is to collect all the personal details and the biometric traits from each individual. Biometric traits such as iris, face and fingerprint are being collected for authentication. All the information will be stored in a centralized data repository. Considering about the storage requirement for the biometric data of the entire population of India, approximately 20,218 TB of storage space will be required. Since 10 fingerprint data are stored, fingerprint details will take most of the space. In this paper, the storage requirement for the biometric data in the AADHAR project is analyzed and a method is proposed to reduce the storage by cropping the original biometric image before storing. This method can reduce the storage space of the biometric data drastically. All the measurements given in this paper are approximate only.

  15. Multimodal biometric digital watermarking on immigrant visas for homeland security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Sreela; Tamhane, Kirti C.; Rajappa, Mahesh B.

    2004-08-01

    Passengers with immigrant Visa's are a major concern to the International Airports due to the various fraud operations identified. To curb tampering of genuine Visa, the Visa's should contain human identification information. Biometric characteristic is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of an individual [1]. A Multimodal Biometric Human Identification System (MBHIS) that integrates iris code, DNA fingerprint, and the passport number on the Visa photograph using digital watermarking scheme is presented. Digital Watermarking technique is well suited for any system requiring high security [2]. Ophthalmologists [3], [4], [5] suggested that iris scan is an accurate and nonintrusive optical fingerprint. DNA sequence can be used as a genetic barcode [6], [7]. While issuing Visa at the US consulates, the DNA sequence isolated from saliva, the iris code and passport number shall be digitally watermarked in the Visa photograph. This information is also recorded in the 'immigrant database'. A 'forward watermarking phase' combines a 2-D DWT transformed digital photograph with the personal identification information. A 'detection phase' extracts the watermarked information from this VISA photograph at the port of entry, from which iris code can be used for identification and DNA biometric for authentication, if an anomaly arises.

  16. Enhancing the early differential diagnosis of plateau iris and pupillary block using a-scan ultrasonography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yen Chen

    Full Text Available To distinguish the frequently misdiagnosed plateau iris eyes from pupillary block group and normal group, we compared the ocular biometrical parameters of them by A-scan ultrasongraphy.In total, we retrospectively reviewed general characteristics and ocular findings including ocular biometric measurements of 71 normal, 39 plateau iris, and 83 pupillary block eyes.The normal controls, plateau iris group and pupillary block group were significantly different in age, but not in gender. The anterior chamber depth tended to decrease and the lens thickness tended to increase from normal to plateau iris to pupillary block eyes. Compared to those of plateau iris group, the pupillary block group had significantly shallower anterior chamber depth (2.90mm vs. 2.33mm; p<0.001, thicker lens (4.77mm vs. 5.11mm; p<0.001, shorter axial length (23.16mm vs. 22.63mm; p<0.001, smaller relative lens position (2.28 vs. 2.16; p<0.001 and larger lens/axial length factor (2.06 vs. 2.26; p<0.001. However, when comparing plateau iris and normal eyes, only axial length and lens/axial length factor were significantly different (23.16 vs. 23.54; p<0.05 and 2.06 vs. 1.96; p<0.05.Measured by A-scan ultrasonography, the ocular biometrics of plateau iris were significantly different from those of pupillary block eyes. However, our A-scan ultrasongraphy generally found no significant biometric differences between plateau iris and normal eyes. These findings suggest that while A-scan ultrasonography might be used as a practical tool for differentiating plateau iris and papillary block eyes, a more meticulous gonioscopy and other assessments may be necessary to distinguish plateau iris from normal eyes.

  17. A multi-approach feature extractions for iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpachai, H.; Settapong, M.

    2014-04-01

    Biometrics is a promising technique that is used to identify individual traits and characteristics. Iris recognition is one of the most reliable biometric methods. As iris texture and color is fully developed within a year of birth, it remains unchanged throughout a person's life. Contrary to fingerprint, which can be altered due to several aspects including accidental damage, dry or oily skin and dust. Although iris recognition has been studied for more than a decade, there are limited commercial products available due to its arduous requirement such as camera resolution, hardware size, expensive equipment and computational complexity. However, at the present time, technology has overcome these obstacles. Iris recognition can be done through several sequential steps which include pre-processing, features extractions, post-processing, and matching stage. In this paper, we adopted the directional high-low pass filter for feature extraction. A box-counting fractal dimension and Iris code have been proposed as feature representations. Our approach has been tested on CASIA Iris Image database and the results are considered successful.

  18. Enhanced biometric access control for mobile devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brown, Dane

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available is investigated to determine whether it is comparable to the well-established face biometric. The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section II presents related face, iris and fused systems found in the literature. Section III discusses the construction.... This diagram is referred to throughout this section, in which the different phases of the system are explained. A. Feature Detection 1) Face: An initial region of interest (ROI) is determined by detecting the face by classifying Histogram of Gaussian (HoG...

  19. Biometric Template Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Nagar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition offers a reliable solution to the problem of user authentication in identity management systems. With the widespread deployment of biometric systems in various applications, there are increasing concerns about the security and privacy of biometric technology. Public acceptance of biometrics technology will depend on the ability of system designers to demonstrate that these systems are robust, have low error rates, and are tamper proof. We present a high-level categorization of the various vulnerabilities of a biometric system and discuss countermeasures that have been proposed to address these vulnerabilities. In particular, we focus on biometric template security which is an important issue because, unlike passwords and tokens, compromised biometric templates cannot be revoked and reissued. Protecting the template is a challenging task due to intrauser variability in the acquired biometric traits. We present an overview of various biometric template protection schemes and discuss their advantages and limitations in terms of security, revocability, and impact on matching accuracy. A template protection scheme with provable security and acceptable recognition performance has thus far remained elusive. Development of such a scheme is crucial as biometric systems are beginning to proliferate into the core physical and information infrastructure of our society.

  20. User-Centric Key Entropy: Study of Biometric Key Derivation Subject to Spoofing Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Mihaela Dinca

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric data can be used as input for PKI key pair generation. The concept of not saving the private key is very appealing, but the implementation of such a system shouldn’t be rushed because it might prove less secure then current PKI infrastructure. One biometric characteristic can be easily spoofed, so it was believed that multi-modal biometrics would offer more security, because spoofing two or more biometrics would be very hard. This notion, of increased security of multi-modal biometric systems, was disproved for authentication and matching, studies showing that not only multi-modal biometric systems are not more secure, but they introduce additional vulnerabilities. This paper is a study on the implications of spoofing biometric data for retrieving the derived key. We demonstrate that spoofed biometrics can yield the same key, which in turn will lead an attacker to obtain the private key. A practical implementation is proposed using fingerprint and iris as biometrics and the fuzzy extractor for biometric key extraction. Our experiments show what happens when the biometric data is spoofed for both uni-modal systems and multi-modal. In case of multi-modal system tests were performed when spoofing one biometric or both. We provide detailed analysis of every scenario in regard to successful tests and overall key entropy. Our paper defines a biometric PKI scenario and an in depth security analysis for it. The analysis can be viewed as a blueprint for implementations of future similar systems, because it highlights the main security vulnerabilities for bioPKI. The analysis is not constrained to the biometric part of the system, but covers CA security, sensor security, communication interception, RSA encryption vulnerabilities regarding key entropy, and much more.

  1. Biometrics Technology : Attitudes & influencing factors when trying to adopt this technology in Blekinge healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Irfan; Qadir, Bilal

    2012-01-01

    Context. Biometric technology is a secure and convenient identification method and it does not need to remember complex passwords, nor smart cards, keys, and the like. Biometrics is the measurable characteristics of individuals based on their behavioral patterns or physiological features that can be used to verify or recognize their identity. Physical characteristics include fingerprints, palm or hand geometry, iris, retina, and facial characteristics. Behavioral characteristics include signat...

  2. A novel iris patterns matching algorithm of weighted polar frequency correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weijie; Jiang, Linhua

    2014-11-01

    Iris recognition is recognized as one of the most accurate techniques for biometric authentication. In this paper, we present a novel correlation method - Weighted Polar Frequency Correlation(WPFC) - to match and evaluate two iris images, actually it can also be used for evaluating the similarity of any two images. The WPFC method is a novel matching and evaluating method for iris image matching, which is complete different from the conventional methods. For instance, the classical John Daugman's method of iris recognition uses 2D Gabor wavelets to extract features of iris image into a compact bit stream, and then matching two bit streams with hamming distance. Our new method is based on the correlation in the polar coordinate system in frequency domain with regulated weights. The new method is motivated by the observation that the pattern of iris that contains far more information for recognition is fine structure at high frequency other than the gross shapes of iris images. Therefore, we transform iris images into frequency domain and set different weights to frequencies. Then calculate the correlation of two iris images in frequency domain. We evaluate the iris images by summing the discrete correlation values with regulated weights, comparing the value with preset threshold to tell whether these two iris images are captured from the same person or not. Experiments are carried out on both CASIA database and self-obtained images. The results show that our method is functional and reliable. Our method provides a new prospect for iris recognition system.

  3. Touchless fingerprint biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Labati, Ruggero Donida; Scotti, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Offering the first comprehensive analysis of touchless fingerprint-recognition technologies, Touchless Fingerprint Biometrics gives an overview of the state of the art and describes relevant industrial applications. It also presents new techniques to efficiently and effectively implement advanced solutions based on touchless fingerprinting.The most accurate current biometric technologies in touch-based fingerprint-recognition systems require a relatively high level of user cooperation to acquire samples of the concerned biometric trait. With the potential for reduced constraints, reduced hardw

  4. Biometric template revocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Craig M.

    2004-08-01

    Biometric are a powerful technology for identifying humans both locally and at a distance. In order to perform identification or verification biometric systems capture an image of some biometric of a user or subject. The image is then converted mathematical to representation of the person call a template. Since we know that every human in the world is different each human will have different biometric images (different fingerprints, or faces, etc.). This is what makes biometrics useful for identification. However unlike a credit card number or a password to can be given to a person and later revoked if it is compromised and biometric is with the person for life. The problem then is to develop biometric templates witch can be easily revoked and reissued which are also unique to the user and can be easily used for identification and verification. In this paper we develop and present a method to generate a set of templates which are fully unique to the individual and also revocable. By using bases set compression algorithms in an n-dimensional orthogonal space we can represent a give biometric image in an infinite number of equally valued and unique ways. The verification and biometric matching system would be presented with a given template and revocation code. The code will then representing where in the sequence of n-dimensional vectors to start the recognition.

  5. Multimodal Biometric System Based on the Recognition of Face and Both Irises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Gon Kim

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of unimodal biometric systems (based on a single modality such as face or fingerprint has to contend with various problems, such as illumination variation, skin condition and environmental conditions, and device variations. Therefore, multimodal biometric systems have been used to overcome the limitations of unimodal biometrics and provide high accuracy recognition. In this paper, we propose a new multimodal biometric system based on score level fusion of face and both irises' recognition. Our study has the following novel features. First, the device proposed acquires images of the face and both irises simultaneously. The proposed device consists of a face camera, two iris cameras, near-infrared illuminators and cold mirrors. Second, fast and accurate iris detection is based on two circular edge detections, which are accomplished in the iris image on the basis of the size of the iris detected in the face image. Third, the combined accuracy is enhanced by combining each score for the face and both irises using a support vector machine. The experimental results show that the equal error rate for the proposed method is 0.131%, which is lower than that of face or iris recognition and other fusion methods.

  6. Cataract influence on iris recognition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Czajka, Adam; Maciejewicz, Piotr

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experimental study revealing weaker performance of the automatic iris recognition methods for cataract-affected eyes when compared to healthy eyes. There is little research on the topic, mostly incorporating scarce databases that are often deficient in images representing more than one illness. We built our own database, acquiring 1288 eye images of 37 patients of the Medical University of Warsaw. Those images represent several common ocular diseases, such as cataract, along with less ordinary conditions, such as iris pattern alterations derived from illness or eye trauma. Images were captured in near-infrared light (used in biometrics) and for selected cases also in visible light (used in ophthalmological diagnosis). Since cataract is a disorder that is most populated by samples in the database, in this paper we focus solely on this illness. To assess the extent of the performance deterioration we use three iris recognition methodologies (commercial and academic solutions) to calculate genuine match scores for healthy eyes and those influenced by cataract. Results show a significant degradation in iris recognition reliability manifesting by worsening the genuine scores in all three matchers used in this study (12% of genuine score increase for an academic matcher, up to 175% of genuine score increase obtained for an example commercial matcher). This increase in genuine scores affected the final false non-match rate in two matchers. To our best knowledge this is the only study of such kind that employs more than one iris matcher, and analyzes the iris image segmentation as a potential source of decreased reliability

  7. Biometrics and privacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Biometrics offers many alternatives for protecting our privacy and preventing us from falling victim to crime. Biometrics can even serve as a solid basis for safe anonymous and semi-anonymous legal transactions. In this article Jan Grijpink clarifies which concepts and practical applications this

  8. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...

  9. The IRIS user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.; Howells, W.; Telling, M.

    2001-01-01

    The principles of operation of the IRIS instrument based on inelastic neutron scattering and diffraction are described. The procedure of an experiment performance on IRIS consists of selecting sample cans, loading the sample into the neutron beam. Instructions for using the beam line shutter interlock system, IRIS computing procedure, suitable instrument settings and chopper control are included

  10. Modeling and prototyping of biometric systems using dataflow programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakova, N.; Petrov, I.

    2018-01-01

    The development of biometric systems is one of the labor-intensive processes. Therefore, the creation and analysis of approaches and techniques is an urgent task at present. This article presents a technique of modeling and prototyping biometric systems based on dataflow programming. The technique includes three main stages: the development of functional blocks, the creation of a dataflow graph and the generation of a prototype. A specially developed software modeling environment that implements this technique is described. As an example of the use of this technique, an example of the implementation of the iris localization subsystem is demonstrated. A variant of modification of dataflow programming is suggested to solve the problem related to the undefined order of block activation. The main advantage of the presented technique is the ability to visually display and design the model of the biometric system, the rapid creation of a working prototype and the reuse of the previously developed functional blocks.

  11. Comparison of DCT, SVD and BFOA based multimodal biometric watermarking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is a major domain for hiding the biometric information, in which the watermark data are made to be concealed inside a host image imposing imperceptible change in the picture. Due to the advance in digital image watermarking, the majority of research aims to make a reliable improvement in robustness to prevent the attack. The reversible invisible watermarking scheme is used for fingerprint and iris multimodal biometric system. A novel approach is used for fusing different biometric modalities. Individual unique modalities of fingerprint and iris biometric are extracted and fused using different fusion techniques. The performance of different fusion techniques is evaluated and the Discrete Wavelet Transform fusion method is identified as the best. Then the best fused biometric template is watermarked into a cover image. The various watermarking techniques such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA are implemented to the fused biometric feature image. Performance of watermarking systems is compared using different metrics. It is found that the watermarked images are found robust over different attacks and they are able to reverse the biometric template for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA watermarking technique.

  12. Spectroscopically Enhanced Method and System for Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishva, Davar

    This paper proposes a spectroscopic method and system for preventing spoofing of biometric authentication. One of its focus is to enhance biometrics authentication with a spectroscopic method in a multifactor manner such that a person's unique ‘spectral signatures’ or ‘spectral factors’ are recorded and compared in addition to a non-spectroscopic biometric signature to reduce the likelihood of imposter getting authenticated. By using the ‘spectral factors’ extracted from reflectance spectra of real fingers and employing cluster analysis, it shows how the authentic fingerprint image presented by a real finger can be distinguished from an authentic fingerprint image embossed on an artificial finger, or molded on a fingertip cover worn by an imposter. This paper also shows how to augment two widely used biometrics systems (fingerprint and iris recognition devices) with spectral biometrics capabilities in a practical manner and without creating much overhead or inconveniencing their users.

  13. Enhancement of Iris Recognition System Based on Phase Only Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriza Pramita

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition system is one of biometric based recognition/identification systems. Numerous techniques have been implemented to achieve a good recognition rate, including the ones based on Phase Only Correlation (POC. Significant and higher correlation peaks suggest that the system recognizes iris images of the same subject (person, while lower and unsignificant peaks correspond to recognition of those of difference subjects. Current POC methods have not investigated minimum iris point that can be used to achieve higher correlation peaks. This paper proposed a method that used only one-fourth of full normalized iris size to achieve higher (or at least the same recognition rate. Simulation on CASIA version 1.0 iris image database showed that averaged recognition rate of the proposed method achieved 67%, higher than that of using one-half (56% and full (53% iris point. Furthermore, all (100% POC peak values of the proposed method was higher than that of the method with full iris points.

  14. Real-time image restoration for iris recognition systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2007-12-01

    In the field of biometrics, it has been reported that iris recognition techniques have shown high levels of accuracy because unique patterns of the human iris, which has very many degrees of freedom, are used. However, because conventional iris cameras have small depth-of-field (DOF) areas, input iris images can easily be blurred, which can lead to lower recognition performance, since iris patterns are transformed by the blurring caused by optical defocusing. To overcome these problems, an autofocusing camera can be used. However, this inevitably increases the cost, size, and complexity of the system. Therefore, we propose a new real-time iris image-restoration method, which can increase the camera's DOF without requiring any additional hardware. This paper presents five novelties as compared to previous works: 1) by excluding eyelash and eyelid regions, it is possible to obtain more accurate focus scores from input iris images; 2) the parameter of the point spread function (PSF) can be estimated in terms of camera optics and measured focus scores; therefore, parameter estimation is more accurate than it has been in previous research; 3) because the PSF parameter can be obtained by using a predetermined equation, iris image restoration can be done in real-time; 4) by using a constrained least square (CLS) restoration filter that considers noise, performance can be greatly enhanced; and 5) restoration accuracy can also be enhanced by estimating the weight value of the noise-regularization term of the CLS filter according to the amount of image blurring. Experimental results showed that iris recognition errors when using the proposed restoration method were greatly reduced as compared to those results achieved without restoration or those achieved using previous iris-restoration methods.

  15. BIOMETRIC CRYPTOGRAPHY AND NETWORK AUTHENTICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonimir Kišasondi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present some schemes for strengthening network authentification over insecure channels with biometric concepts or how to securely transfer or use biometric characteristics as cryptographic keys. We will show why some current authentification schemes are insufficient and we will present our concepts of biometric hashes and authentification that rely on unimodal and multimodal biometrics. Our concept can be applied on any biometric authentification scheme and is universal for all systems.

  16. Biometric systems - possibilities and dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Petržilka, Jakub

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on biometric methods, particularly on fingerprint recognition. First part of thesis places biometric into other methods of people's identification. Identification by token and by knowledge. It also describes the beginning and evolution of biometric. The theoretical part also closely clarify working with data and different view on the biometric systems. The following part of the thesis defines the basic principles of using biometric systems, counting FAR and FRR...

  17. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  18. Simplified Multimodal Biometric Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Shete

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Multibiometric systems are expected to be more reliable than unimodal biometric systems for personal identification due to the presence of multiple, fairly independent pieces of evidence e.g. Unique Identification Project "Aadhaar" of Government of India. In this paper, we present a novel wavelet based technique to perform fusion at the feature level and score level by considering two biometric modalities, face and fingerprint. The results indicate that the proposed technique can lead to substantial improvement in multimodal matching performance. The proposed technique is simple because of no preprocessing of raw biometric traits as well as no feature and score normalization.

  19. DTIC Review: Biometric Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...: Biometrics, the study of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits, is a critical tool used in law enforcement, computer security and homeland defense...

  20. Issues in Biometric Security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ogechukwu Iloanusi

    Human recognition is required for certain ... automated systems is that some can be stolen, passwords and PIN ... WORKS. A biometric system can be viewed as a simple diagram in figure 1. ... Feature extraction is done with the help of some.

  1. Biometrics Technology Review 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackburn, T

    2003-01-01

    .... The report characterizes the main categories of biometric techniques, with a focus on face recognition, which is the least intrusive but most effective means of applying filters at access points to the country...

  2. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-01-01

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies. PMID:29695113

  3. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dat Tien Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD method for an iris recognition system (iPAD using a near infrared light (NIR camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED. Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM. Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  4. Presentation Attack Detection for Iris Recognition System Using NIR Camera Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Baek, Na Rae; Pham, Tuyen Danh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-04-24

    Among biometric recognition systems such as fingerprint, finger-vein, or face, the iris recognition system has proven to be effective for achieving a high recognition accuracy and security level. However, several recent studies have indicated that an iris recognition system can be fooled by using presentation attack images that are recaptured using high-quality printed images or by contact lenses with printed iris patterns. As a result, this potential threat can reduce the security level of an iris recognition system. In this study, we propose a new presentation attack detection (PAD) method for an iris recognition system (iPAD) using a near infrared light (NIR) camera image. To detect presentation attack images, we first localized the iris region of the input iris image using circular edge detection (CED). Based on the result of iris localization, we extracted the image features using deep learning-based and handcrafted-based methods. The input iris images were then classified into real and presentation attack categories using support vector machines (SVM). Through extensive experiments with two public datasets, we show that our proposed method effectively solves the iris recognition presentation attack detection problem and produces detection accuracy superior to previous studies.

  5. Evaluation of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed , Mohamad; Charrier , Christophe

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics is considered as a promising solution among traditional methods based on "what we own" (such as a key) or "what we know" (such as a password). It is based on "what we are" and "how we behave". Few people know that biometrics have been used for ages for identification or signature purposes. In 1928 for example, fingerprints were used for women clerical employees of Los Angeles police department as depicted in Figure 1. Fingerprints were also already used as a...

  6. Gait biometrics under spoofing attacks: an experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadid, Abdenour; Ghahramani, Mohammad; Kellokumpu, Vili; Feng, Xiaoyi; Bustard, John; Nixon, Mark

    2015-11-01

    Gait is a relatively biometric modality which has a precious advantage over other modalities, such as iris and voice, in that it can be easily captured from a distance. Although it has recently become a topic of great interest in biometric research, there has been little investigation into gait spoofing attacks where a person tries to imitate the clothing or walking style of someone else. We recently analyzed for the first time the effects of spoofing attacks on silhouette-based gait biometric systems and showed that it was indeed possible to spoof gait biometric systems by clothing impersonation and the deliberate selection of a target that has a similar build to the attacker. To gain deeper insight into the performance of current gait biometric systems under spoofing attacks, we provide a thorough investigation on how clothing can be used to spoof a target and evaluate the performance of two state-of-the-art recognition methods on a gait spoofing database recorded at the University of Southampton. Furthermore, we describe and evaluate an initial solution coping with gait spoofing attacks. The obtained results are very promising and point out interesting findings which can be used for future investigations.

  7. IDENTIFIKASI IRIS MATA MENGGUNAKAN TAPIS GABOR WAVELET DAN JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN LEARNING VECTOR QUANTIZATION (LVQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiyono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biometric represents the human identification method development using natural characteristic of humanbeing as its bases. Every iris has the detail and unique texture, even differ between right and left eye.Theeye iris identification process in this research are data acquisition, early processing, feature exctractionand classification. Algorithm used for classification of texture slice the eye is Gabor wavelet filtering, andclassification process of slice the eye texture will be used by a Artificial Neural Network LVQ. Recognitionthe value of feature vektor in each iris obtained from to the number of right recognition value or thepercentage of right one. The best recognition percentage is 87,5 %.

  8. SINGLE FRAME SUPER RESOLUTION OF NONCOOPERATIVE IRIS IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Image super-resolution, a process to enhance image resolution, has important applications in biometrics, satellite imaging, high definition television, medical imaging, etc. The long range captured iris identification systems often suffer from low resolution and meager focus of the captured iris images. These degrade the iris recognition performance. This paper proposes enhanced iterated back projection (EIBP method to super resolute the long range captured iris polar images. The performance of proposed method is tested and analyzed on CASIA long range iris database by comparing peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR and structural similarity index (SSIM with state-of-the-art super resolution (SR algorithms. It is further analyzed by increasing the up-sampling factor. Performance analysis shows that the proposed method is superior to state-of-the-art algorithms, the peak signal-to-noise ratio improved about 0.1-1.5 dB. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is well suited to super resolve the iris polar images captured at a long distance

  9. Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vacca, John R

    2007-01-01

    Biometric Technologies and Verification Systems is organized into nine parts composed of 30 chapters, including an extensive glossary of biometric terms and acronyms. It discusses the current state-of-the-art in biometric verification/authentication, identification and system design principles. It also provides a step-by-step discussion of how biometrics works; how biometric data in human beings can be collected and analyzed in a number of ways; how biometrics are currently being used as a method of personal identification in which people are recognized by their own unique corporal or behavior

  10. Biometrics Theory, Methods, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Boulgouris, N V; Micheli-Tzanakou, Evangelia

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth examination of the cutting edge of biometrics. This book fills a gap in the literature by detailing the recent advances and emerging theories, methods, and applications of biometric systems in a variety of infrastructures. Edited by a panel of experts, it provides comprehensive coverage of:. Multilinear discriminant analysis for biometric signal recognition;. Biometric identity authentication techniques based on neural networks;. Multimodal biometrics and design of classifiers for biometric fusion;. Feature selection and facial aging modeling for face recognition;. Geometrical and

  11. Iridium Interfacial Stack (IRIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spry, David James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An iridium interfacial stack ("IrIS") and a method for producing the same are provided. The IrIS may include ordered layers of TaSi.sub.2, platinum, iridium, and platinum, and may be placed on top of a titanium layer and a silicon carbide layer. The IrIS may prevent, reduce, or mitigate against diffusion of elements such as oxygen, platinum, and gold through at least some of its layers.

  12. Iris recognition using image moments and k-means algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yaser Daanial; Khan, Sher Afzal; Ahmad, Farooq; Islam, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a biometric technique for identification of a person using the iris image. The iris is first segmented from the acquired image of an eye using an edge detection algorithm. The disk shaped area of the iris is transformed into a rectangular form. Described moments are extracted from the grayscale image which yields a feature vector containing scale, rotation, and translation invariant moments. Images are clustered using the k-means algorithm and centroids for each cluster are computed. An arbitrary image is assumed to belong to the cluster whose centroid is the nearest to the feature vector in terms of Euclidean distance computed. The described model exhibits an accuracy of 98.5%.

  13. TAPIOCA MELANOMA OF THE IRIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEKEIZER, RJW; OOSTERHUIS, JA; HOUTMAN, WA; DEWOLFFROUENDAAL, D

    Clinical identification of tapioca melanoma of the iris is important because its medical treatment may differ from that of other malignant iris melanomas. The characteristic iris nodules must be differentiated from granulomatous uveitis, metastases, and Lisch nodules (neurofibromatosis). We will

  14. Optimal Face-Iris Multimodal Fusion Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Sharifi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal biometric systems are considered a way to minimize the limitations raised by single traits. This paper proposes new schemes based on score level, feature level and decision level fusion to efficiently fuse face and iris modalities. Log-Gabor transformation is applied as the feature extraction method on face and iris modalities. At each level of fusion, different schemes are proposed to improve the recognition performance and, finally, a combination of schemes at different fusion levels constructs an optimized and robust scheme. In this study, CASIA Iris Distance database is used to examine the robustness of all unimodal and multimodal schemes. In addition, Backtracking Search Algorithm (BSA, a novel population-based iterative evolutionary algorithm, is applied to improve the recognition accuracy of schemes by reducing the number of features and selecting the optimized weights for feature level and score level fusion, respectively. Experimental results on verification rates demonstrate a significant improvement of proposed fusion schemes over unimodal and multimodal fusion methods.

  15. Biometrics: libraries have begun to see the value of biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Panneerselvam, Selvi, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    It explains the Biometric Technologies which are becoming the foundation of an extensive array of highly secure identification and personal verification solution. Biometric devices with special reference to finger print recognition is dealt in detail. The benefits of Biometrics in Libraries, its employees and members are highlighted.

  16. IRIS Licensing Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Charles L.; Carelli, Mario D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) nuclear power plant is well into the pre-application review process with the US NRC and has accomplished its first near term goal of obtaining US NRC feedback on the long term testing program. To date, the IRIS team has submitted to the US NRC a number of documents patterned after the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) outlined in Regulatory Guide 1,203. They have covered a detailed description of IRIS, initial safety analysis results, PIRT development for limiting transients, scaling analysis and a description of the test program. The IRIS Safety-by-Desing TM intrinsically eliminates and/or significantly reduces the consequences of traditional LWR accidents. In addition, the fewer passive safety systems are similar in principle to those of the US NRC approved AP1000 design. For these reasons, the IRIS testing program only needs to include those features unique to the IRIS design. NRC feedback was that the planned test program appeared to be complete and could generate sufficient information to support a Design Certification (DC) submittal. The US NRC has also stated that a DC application must include complete information regarding the test program. On this basis the IRIS team has initiated an aggressive program to conduct IRIS testing to support a DC submittal by the end of 2008. Subsequent US NRC review should be expeditious because of the AP1000 precedent, allowing IRIS to obtain its Final Design Approval (FDA) in 2012; thereby, maintaining its goal of deployment in the 2015-2017 time frame. The next steps in the pre-application review process will be to provide the US NRC with a road map of the anticipated IRIS licensing process, a review of current licensing requirements showing that IRIS meets or exceeds all current criteria and information to support the long term goal of redefining the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ)

  17. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  18. Improved Iris Recognition through Fusion of Hamming Distance and Fragile Bit Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Karen P; Bowyer, Kevin W; Flynn, Patrick J

    2011-12-01

    The most common iris biometric algorithm represents the texture of an iris using a binary iris code. Not all bits in an iris code are equally consistent. A bit is deemed fragile if its value changes across iris codes created from different images of the same iris. Previous research has shown that iris recognition performance can be improved by masking these fragile bits. Rather than ignoring fragile bits completely, we consider what beneficial information can be obtained from the fragile bits. We find that the locations of fragile bits tend to be consistent across different iris codes of the same eye. We present a metric, called the fragile bit distance, which quantitatively measures the coincidence of the fragile bit patterns in two iris codes. We find that score fusion of fragile bit distance and Hamming distance works better for recognition than Hamming distance alone. To our knowledge, this is the first and only work to use the coincidence of fragile bit locations to improve the accuracy of matches.

  19. Human body as a set of biometric features identified by means of optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Halina; Bauer, Joanna

    2005-09-01

    Human body posses many unique, singular features that are impossible to copy or forge. Nowadays, to establish and to ensure the public security requires specially designed devices and systems. Biometrics is a field of science and technology, exploiting human body characteristics for people recognition. It identifies the most characteristic and unique ones in order to design and construct systems capable to recognize people. In this paper some overview is given, presenting the achievements in biometrics. The verification and identification process is explained, along with the way of evaluation of biometric recognition systems. The most frequently human biometrics used in practice are shortly presented, including fingerprints, facial imaging (including thermal characteristic), hand geometry and iris patterns.

  20. A review of data acquisition and difficulties in sensor module of biometric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics refers to the recognition of individuals based on their physiological and/or behavioral characteristics. Thebiometric traits which may be considered for the authentication of a person are face, hand geometry, finger print, vein, iris,etc. A competent selection of a sensor, its mechanism and adaptability is required, as the absence of these will leave thebiometric sensor deceptive to information sensing. Selecting a sensor for a biometric application from the large number ofavailable sensors with different technologies always brought the issue of performance and accuracy. Therefore, various errorrates and sensibility contention differentiate the available biometric sensors. This paper presents the difficulties faced in thesensor module of the biometric system and the incomparable alternatives on the basis of availability of information at sensormodule of the various systems.

  1. Physiological Biometric Authentication Systems Advantages Disadvantages And Future Development A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa M. Alsaadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the fast increasing of the electronic crimes and their related issues deploying a reliable user authentication system became a significant task for both of access control and securing users private data. Human biometric characteristics such as face finger iris scanning voice signature and other features provide a dependable security level for both of the personal and the public use. Many biometric authentication systems have been approached for long time. Due to the uniqueness of human biometrics witch played a master role in degrading imposters attacks. Such authentication models have overcome other traditional security methods like passwords and PIN. This paper aims to briefly address the psychological biometric authentication techniques. Also a brief summary to the advantages disadvantages and future developments of each method is provided in this paper.

  2. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Malčík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification technology and biometrics, especially (but not only in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation; moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted.

  3. Anatomy of Biometric Passports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted). PMID:22969272

  4. Anatomy of biometric passports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malčík, Dominik; Drahanský, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Travelling is becoming available for more and more people. Millions of people are on a way every day. That is why a better control over global human transfer and a more reliable identity check is desired. A recent trend in a field of personal identification documents is to use RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology and biometrics, especially (but not only) in passports. This paper provides an insight into the electronic passports (also called e-passport or ePassport) implementation chosen in the Czech Republic. Such a summary is needed for further studies of biometric passports implementation security and biometric passports analysis. A separate description of the Czech solution is a prerequisite for a planned analysis, because of the uniqueness of each implementation. (Each country can choose the implementation details within a range specified by the ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organisation); moreover, specific security mechanisms are optional and can be omitted).

  5. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  6. Body, biometrics and identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordini, Emilio; Massari, Sonia

    2008-11-01

    According to a popular aphorism, biometrics are turning the human body into a passport or a password. As usual, aphorisms say more than they intend. Taking the dictum seriously, we would be two: ourself and our body. Who are we, if we are not our body? And what is our body without us? The endless history of identification systems teaches that identification is not a trivial fact but always involves a web of economic interests, political relations, symbolic networks, narratives and meanings. Certainly there are reasons for the ethical and political concerns surrounding biometrics but these reasons are probably quite different from those usually alleged.

  7. The UBIRIS.v2: a database of visible wavelength iris images captured on-the-move and at-a-distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Filipe, Sílvio; Santos, Ricardo; Oliveira, João; Alexandre, Luís A

    2010-08-01

    The iris is regarded as one of the most useful traits for biometric recognition and the dissemination of nationwide iris-based recognition systems is imminent. However, currently deployed systems rely on heavy imaging constraints to capture near infrared images with enough quality. Also, all of the publicly available iris image databases contain data correspondent to such imaging constraints and therefore are exclusively suitable to evaluate methods thought to operate on these type of environments. The main purpose of this paper is to announce the availability of the UBIRIS.v2 database, a multisession iris images database which singularly contains data captured in the visible wavelength, at-a-distance (between four and eight meters) and on on-the-move. This database is freely available for researchers concerned about visible wavelength iris recognition and will be useful in accessing the feasibility and specifying the constraints of this type of biometric recognition.

  8. A Study on EMG-based Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Su Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is a technology that recognizes user's information by using unique physical features of his or her body such as face, fingerprint, and iris. It also uses behavioral features such as signature, electrocardiogram (ECG, electromyogram (EMG, and electroencephalogram (EEG. Among them, the EMG signal is a sign generated when the muscles move, which can be used in various fields such as motion recognition, personal identification, and disease diagnosis. In this paper, we analyze EMG-based biometrics and implement a motion recognition and personal identification system. The system extracted features using non-uniform filter bank and Waveform Length (WL, and reduces the dimension using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA. Afterward, it classified the features using Euclidean Distance (ED, Support Vector Machine (SVM and K Nearest Neighbors (KNN. As a result of the motion recognition experiment, 95% of acquired EMG data and 84.66% of UCI data were obtained and as a result of the personal recognition experiment, 85% of acquired EMG data and 88.66% of UCI data were obtained.

  9. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Naqvi, Rizwan Ali; Kim, Dong Seop; Nguyen, Phong Ha; Owais, Muhammad; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2018-05-10

    The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR) light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN) has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet), which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database) and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I) datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA) v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  10. IrisDenseNet: Robust Iris Segmentation Using Densely Connected Fully Convolutional Networks in the Images by Visible Light and Near-Infrared Light Camera Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent advancements in computer vision have opened new horizons for deploying biometric recognition algorithms in mobile and handheld devices. Similarly, iris recognition is now much needed in unconstraint scenarios with accuracy. These environments make the acquired iris image exhibit occlusion, low resolution, blur, unusual glint, ghost effect, and off-angles. The prevailing segmentation algorithms cannot cope with these constraints. In addition, owing to the unavailability of near-infrared (NIR light, iris recognition in visible light environment makes the iris segmentation challenging with the noise of visible light. Deep learning with convolutional neural networks (CNN has brought a considerable breakthrough in various applications. To address the iris segmentation issues in challenging situations by visible light and near-infrared light camera sensors, this paper proposes a densely connected fully convolutional network (IrisDenseNet, which can determine the true iris boundary even with inferior-quality images by using better information gradient flow between the dense blocks. In the experiments conducted, five datasets of visible light and NIR environments were used. For visible light environment, noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II selected from UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE-I datasets were used. For NIR environment, the institute of automation, Chinese academy of sciences (CASIA v4.0 interval, CASIA v4.0 distance, and IIT Delhi v1.0 iris datasets were used. Experimental results showed the optimal segmentation of the proposed IrisDenseNet and its excellent performance over existing algorithms for all five datasets.

  11. Efficient iris texture analysis method based on Gabor ordinal measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajouri, Imen; Aydi, Walid; Ghorbel, Ahmed; Masmoudi, Nouri

    2017-07-01

    With the remarkably increasing interest directed to the security dimension, the iris recognition process is considered to stand as one of the most versatile technique critically useful for the biometric identification and authentication process. This is mainly due to every individual's unique iris texture. A modestly conceived efficient approach relevant to the feature extraction process is proposed. In the first place, iris zigzag "collarette" is extracted from the rest of the image by means of the circular Hough transform, as it includes the most significant regions lying in the iris texture. In the second place, the linear Hough transform is used for the eyelids' detection purpose while the median filter is applied for the eyelashes' removal. Then, a special technique combining the richness of Gabor features and the compactness of ordinal measures is implemented for the feature extraction process, so that a discriminative feature representation for every individual can be achieved. Subsequently, the modified Hamming distance is used for the matching process. Indeed, the advanced procedure turns out to be reliable, as compared to some of the state-of-the-art approaches, with a recognition rate of 99.98%, 98.12%, and 95.02% on CASIAV1.0, CASIAV3.0, and IIT Delhi V1 iris databases, respectively.

  12. Efficient iris recognition by characterizing key local variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Tan, Tieniu; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Dexin

    2004-06-01

    Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints and face, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. This leads to its high reliability for personal identification, and at the same time, the difficulty in effectively representing such details in an image. This paper describes an efficient algorithm for iris recognition by characterizing key local variations. The basic idea is that local sharp variation points, denoting the appearing or vanishing of an important image structure, are utilized to represent the characteristics of the iris. The whole procedure of feature extraction includes two steps: 1) a set of one-dimensional intensity signals is constructed to effectively characterize the most important information of the original two-dimensional image; 2) using a particular class of wavelets, a position sequence of local sharp variation points in such signals is recorded as features. We also present a fast matching scheme based on exclusive OR operation to compute the similarity between a pair of position sequences. Experimental results on 2255 iris images show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and comparable to the best iris recognition algorithm found in the current literature.

  13. The research and application of multi-biometric acquisition embedded system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shichao; Liu, Tiegen; Guo, Jingjing; Li, Xiuyan

    2009-11-01

    The identification technology based on multi-biometric can greatly improve the applicability, reliability and antifalsification. This paper presents a multi-biometric system bases on embedded system, which includes: three capture daughter boards are applied to obtain different biometric: one each for fingerprint, iris and vein of the back of hand; FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) is designed as coprocessor, which uses to configure three daughter boards on request and provides data path between DSP (digital signal processor) and daughter boards; DSP is the master processor and its functions include: control the biometric information acquisition, extracts feature as required and responsible for compare the results with the local database or data server through network communication. The advantages of this system were it can acquire three different biometric in real time, extracts complexity feature flexibly in different biometrics' raw data according to different purposes and arithmetic and network interface on the core-board will be the solution of big data scale. Because this embedded system has high stability, reliability, flexibility and fit for different data scale, it can satisfy the demand of multi-biometric recognition.

  14. Biometrics Foundation Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    adjudication ( legal ) process. Forensics usually requires days of processing (versus seconds for biometrics) and are held to much higher accuracy...Living Body,” Medicina Philosophica, 11:620-629, 1992. 2 K. Shimizu and K. Yamomoto,“Imaging of Physiological Functions By Laser Transillumination

  15. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    licenses, credit cards, online retailers , and even military installations all rely on various methods to identify and authenticate individuals in... Malaysia ..................................................................................92 2. 2004—Pakistan and Belgium...first state to establish a national biometric screening program was Malaysia in 1998 with several others that followed suit in 2004–2006, many of which

  16. Printable, scannable biometric templates for secure documents and materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, James L.; Musgrave, Clyde

    2000-04-01

    Biometric technology has been widely acknowledged as an effective means for enhancing private and public security through applications in physical access control, computer and computer network access control, medical records protection, banking security, public identification programs, and others. Nearly all of these applications involve use of a biometric token to control access to a physical entity or private information. There are also unique benefits to be derived from attaching a biometric template to a physical entity such as a document, package, laboratory sample, etc. Such an association allows fast, reliable, and highly accurate association of an individual person's identity to the physical entity, and can be used to enhance security, convenience, and privacy in many types of transactions. Examples include authentication of documents, tracking of laboratory samples in a testing environment, monitoring the movement of physical evidence within the criminal justice system, and authenticating the identity of both sending and receiving parties in shipment of high value parcels. A system is described which combines a biometric technology based on iris recognition with a printing and scanning technology for high-density bar codes.

  17. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, T; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S

    2016-01-01

    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  18. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  19. [Intraoperative floppy iris syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Z

    2007-04-01

    In the year 2005, Chang and Cambell described unusual reaction of the iris during the cataract surgery in patients treated with tamsulosine. This was named as IFIS, an acronym for the Intraoperative Floppy Iris Syndrome. In its advanced stage, the syndrome is characterized by insufficient mydfiasis before the surgery, narrowing of the pupil during the surgery, its impossible dilatation during the surgery by means of stretching, unusual elasticity of the pupilar margin, surging and fluttering iris with tendency to prolapse. The same manifestations we observed in our patients and we confirm the direct connection with tamsulosine hydrochloride treatment. Tamsulosine is the antagonist of alpha 1A adrenergic receptors whose are present, except in the smooth musculature of the prostate gland and the urinary bladder, in the iris dilator as well. At the same time we observed this syndrome rarely in some patients not using tamsulosine. In most cases, these patients were treated with antipsychotic drugs.

  20. IS (Iris Security)

    OpenAIRE

    Iovane, G.; Tortoriello, F. S.

    2003-01-01

    In the paper will be presented a safety system based on iridology. The results suggest a new scenario where the security problem in supervised and unsupervised areas can be treat with the present system and the iris image recognition.

  1. A statistical investigation into the stability of iris recognition in diverse population sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John J.; Etter, Delores M.

    2014-05-01

    Iris recognition is increasingly being deployed on population wide scales for important applications such as border security, social service administration, criminal identification and general population management. The error rates for this incredibly accurate form of biometric identification are established using well known, laboratory quality datasets. However, it is has long been acknowledged in biometric theory that not all individuals have the same likelihood of being correctly serviced by a biometric system. Typically, techniques for identifying clients that are likely to experience a false non-match or a false match error are carried out on a per-subject basis. This research makes the novel hypothesis that certain ethnical denominations are more or less likely to experience a biometric error. Through established statistical techniques, we demonstrate this hypothesis to be true and document the notable effect that the ethnicity of the client has on iris similarity scores. Understanding the expected impact of ethnical diversity on iris recognition accuracy is crucial to the future success of this technology as it is deployed in areas where the target population consists of clientele from a range of geographic backgrounds, such as border crossings and immigration check points.

  2. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  3. [Personal identification with biometric and genetic methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Le Gall, Jean-Yves; Ardaillou, Raymond

    2007-11-01

    The need for personal identification is growing in many avenues of society. To "identify" a person is to establish a link between his or her observed characteristics and those previously stored in a database. To "authenticate" is to decide whether or not someone is the person he or she claims to be. These two objectives can now be achieved by analysing biometric data and genetic prints. All biometric techniques proceed in several stages: acquisition of an image or physical parameters, encoding them with a mathematical model, comparing the results of this model with those contained in the database, and calculating the error risk. These techniques must be usable worldwide and must examine specific and permanent personal data. The most widely used are facial recognition, digital prints (flexion folds and dermatoglyphs, that offer the advantage of leaving marks), and the surface and texture of the iris. Other biometric techniques analyse behaviours such as walking, signing, typing, or speaking. Implanted radio-transmitters are another means of identification. All these systems are evaluated on the basis of the same parameters, namely the false rejection rate, the false acceptance rate, and the failure-to-enrol rate. The uses of biometrics are increasing and diversifying, and now include national and international identification systems, control of access to protected sites, criminal and victim identification, and transaction security. Genetic methods can identify individuals almost infallibly, based on short tandem repeats of 2-5 nucleotides, or microsatellites. The most recent kits analyze 11-16 independent autosomal markers. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome DNA can also be analyzed. These genetic tests are currently used to identify suspected criminals or their victims from biological samples, and to establish paternity. Personal identification raises many ethical questions, however, such as when to create and how to use a database while preserving personal freedom

  4. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  5. Environmental Testing Methodology in Biometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, Belén; Sánchez Reíllo, Raúl; Alonso Moreno, Raúl; Miguel Hurtado, Óscar

    2010-01-01

    8 pages document + 5-slide presentation.-- Contributed to: 1st International Biometric Performance Conference (IBPC 2010, NIST, Gaithersburg, MD, US, Mar 1-5, 2010). Recently, biometrics is used in many security systems and these systems can be located in different environments. As many experts claim and previous works have demonstrated, environmental conditions influence biometric performance. Nevertheless, there is not a specific methodology for testing this influence at the moment...

  6. Biometrics Go Mainstream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Doug

    2006-01-01

    Authentication is based on something one knows (e.g., a password), something one has (e.g., a driver's license), or something one is (e.g., a fingerprint). The last of these refers to the use of biometrics for authentication. With the blink of an eye, the touch of a finger, or the uttering of a pass-phrase, colleges and schools can now get deadly…

  7. Analysis and comparison of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Zatloukal, Filip

    2011-01-01

    The thesis deals with biometrics and biometric systems and the possibility to use these systems in the enterprise. Aim of this study is an analysis and description of selected types of biometric identification methods and their advantages and shortcomings. The work is divided into two parts. The first part is theoretical, describes the basic concepts of biometrics, biometric identification criteria, currently used identification systems, the ways of biometric systems use, performance measurem...

  8. Applying intelligent statistical methods on biometric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Betschart, Willie

    2005-01-01

    This master’s thesis work was performed at Optimum Biometric Labs, OBL, located in Karlskrona, Sweden. Optimum Biometric Labs perform independent scenario evaluations to companies who develop biometric devices. The company has a product Optimum preConTM which is surveillance and diagnosis tool for biometric systems. This thesis work’s objective was to develop a conceptual model and implement it as an additional layer above the biometric layer with intelligence about the biometric users. The l...

  9. Age factors in biometric processing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairhurst, Michael

    2013-01-01

    As biometrics-based identification and identity authentication become increasingly widespread in their deployment, it becomes correspondingly important to consider more carefully issues relating to reliability, usability and inclusion. One factor which is particularly important in this context is that of the relationship between the nature of the measurements extracted from a particular biometric modality and the age of the sample donor, and the effect which age has on physiological and behavioural characteristics invoked in a biometric transaction. In Age Factors in Biometric Processing an in

  10. Biometrics: Multi-Service Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures for Tactical Employment of Biometrics in Support of Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Biometrics in Support of Operations Biometrics -at-Sea: Business Rules for South Florida United States...Intelligence Activities Biometrics -Enabled Intelligence USCG Biometrics -at-Sea: Business Rules for...Defense Biometrics United States Intelligence Activities Active Army,

  11. Primary iris leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaney, Gabrielle A; Platt, Sean; Singh, Arun D

    Intraocular leiomyomas are uncommon and usually occur in the ciliary body. Primary leiomyoma of the iris is both rare and a difficult diagnosis to make, given melanocytic tumors are more common and may be amelanotic. The somewhat controversial diagnosis of iris leiomyoma requires further confirmation by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Herein, we describe a 58-year-old man with a 2-mm round translucent pink lesion of the iris. The tumor was excised by sector iridectomy. Immunohistochemistry showed positivity for both smooth muscle actin and desmin and negativity for S-100, HMB45, SOX10, MelanA, CD31, CD34, and h-caldesmon. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumor was excluded by chromogenic in situ hybridization-Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA. Ultrastructural analysis showed cytoplasmic myofilaments with focal fusiform densities and micropinocytotic vesicles. Our review of previous literature confirmed the unusual nature of this tumor. Primary iris leiomyoma should be considered in the differential of an amelanotic S-100-immunonegative iris tumor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Locating An IRIS From Image Using Canny And Hough Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorvi Bhatt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition a relatively new biometric technology has great advantages such as variability stability and security thus it is the most promising for high security environments. The proposed system here is a simple system design and implemented to find the iris from the image using Hough Transform Algorithm. Canny Edge detector has been used to get edge image to use it as an input to the Hough Transform. To get the general idea of Hough Transform the Hough Transform for circle is also implemented. RGB value of 3-D accumulator array of peaks of inner circle and outer circle has been performed. And at the end some suggestions are made to improve the system and performance gets discussed.

  13. VASIR: An Open-Source Research Platform for Advanced Iris Recognition Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yooyoung; Micheals, Ross J; Filliben, James J; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    The performance of iris recognition systems is frequently affected by input image quality, which in turn is vulnerable to less-than-optimal conditions due to illuminations, environments, and subject characteristics (e.g., distance, movement, face/body visibility, blinking, etc.). VASIR (Video-based Automatic System for Iris Recognition) is a state-of-the-art NIST-developed iris recognition software platform designed to systematically address these vulnerabilities. We developed VASIR as a research tool that will not only provide a reference (to assess the relative performance of alternative algorithms) for the biometrics community, but will also advance (via this new emerging iris recognition paradigm) NIST's measurement mission. VASIR is designed to accommodate both ideal (e.g., classical still images) and less-than-ideal images (e.g., face-visible videos). VASIR has three primary modules: 1) Image Acquisition 2) Video Processing, and 3) Iris Recognition. Each module consists of several sub-components that have been optimized by use of rigorous orthogonal experiment design and analysis techniques. We evaluated VASIR performance using the MBGC (Multiple Biometric Grand Challenge) NIR (Near-Infrared) face-visible video dataset and the ICE (Iris Challenge Evaluation) 2005 still-based dataset. The results showed that even though VASIR was primarily developed and optimized for the less-constrained video case, it still achieved high verification rates for the traditional still-image case. For this reason, VASIR may be used as an effective baseline for the biometrics community to evaluate their algorithm performance, and thus serves as a valuable research platform.

  14. Iris - nimi marmortahvlilt / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2003-01-01

    Briti kirjanikust Iris Murdochist pajatava inglise-ameerika mängufilmist "Iris" eesti videolevisse jõudmise puhul. Võrreldakse inglise teatrilavastaja Richard Eyre filmidebüüti Elmo Nüganeni debüütfilmiga "Nimed marmortahvlil"

  15. Iris reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramonov, D.V.; Carelli, M.D.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.V.; Ricotti, M.E.; Todreas, N.E.; Greenspan, E.; Yamamoto, K.; Nagano, A.; Ninokata, H.; Robertson, J.; Oriolo, F.

    2001-01-01

    The development progress of the IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) nuclear power system is presented. IRIS is currently being developed by an international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse. It is aimed at achieving the four major objectives of the Generation IV nuclear systems, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, economic competitiveness and reduced waste. The project first year activities, which are summarized here, were focused on core neutronics, in-vessel configuration, steam generator and containment design, safety approach and economic performance. Details of these studies are provided in parallel papers in these proceedings. (author)

  16. Biometrics — Developments and Potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use of biometric technology in forensic science, for the development of new methods and tools, improving the current forensic biometric applications, and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with a definition and a summary of the development of this

  17. Logistic Map for Cancellable Biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, V. G., Dr; Manjunatha, Ramachandra, Dr

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents design and implementation of secured biometric template protection system by transforming the biometric template using binary chaotic signals and 3 different key streams to obtain another form of template and demonstrating its efficiency by the results and investigating on its security through analysis including, key space analysis, information entropy and key sensitivity analysis.

  18. Biometric Communication Research for Television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, M. F.

    Biometric communication research is defined as research dealing with the information impact of a film or television show, photographic picture, painting, exhibition, display, or any literary or functional texts or verbal stimuli on human beings, both as individuals and in groups (mass audiences). Biometric communication research consists of a…

  19. Appropriate Objective Functions for Quantifying Iris Mechanical Properties Using Inverse Finite Element Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Anup D; Dorairaj, Syril K; Amini, Rouzbeh

    2018-07-01

    Quantifying the mechanical properties of the iris is important, as it provides insight into the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Recent ex vivo studies have shown that the mechanical properties of the iris are different in glaucomatous eyes as compared to normal ones. Notwithstanding the importance of the ex vivo studies, such measurements are severely limited for diagnosis and preclude development of treatment strategies. With the advent of detailed imaging modalities, it is possible to determine the in vivo mechanical properties using inverse finite element (FE) modeling. An inverse modeling approach requires an appropriate objective function for reliable estimation of parameters. In the case of the iris, numerous measurements such as iris chord length (CL) and iris concavity (CV) are made routinely in clinical practice. In this study, we have evaluated five different objective functions chosen based on the iris biometrics (in the presence and absence of clinical measurement errors) to determine the appropriate criterion for inverse modeling. Our results showed that in the absence of experimental measurement error, a combination of iris CL and CV can be used as the objective function. However, with the addition of measurement errors, the objective functions that employ a large number of local displacement values provide more reliable outcomes.

  20. Combining Cryptography with EEG Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis; Kazanavičius, Egidijus; Woźniak, Marcin

    2018-01-01

    Cryptographic frameworks depend on key sharing for ensuring security of data. While the keys in cryptographic frameworks must be correctly reproducible and not unequivocally connected to the identity of a user, in biometric frameworks this is different. Joining cryptography techniques with biometrics can solve these issues. We present a biometric authentication method based on the discrete logarithm problem and Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem (BCH) codes, perform its security analysis, and demonstrate its security characteristics. We evaluate a biometric cryptosystem using our own dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) data collected from 42 subjects. The experimental results show that the described biometric user authentication system is effective, achieving an Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 0.024.

  1. A bimodal biometric identification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghari, Mohammad S.; Khuwaja, Gulzar A.

    2013-03-01

    Biometrics consists of methods for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more intrinsic physical or behavioral traits. Physicals are related to the shape of the body. Behavioral are related to the behavior of a person. However, biometric authentication systems suffer from imprecision and difficulty in person recognition due to a number of reasons and no single biometrics is expected to effectively satisfy the requirements of all verification and/or identification applications. Bimodal biometric systems are expected to be more reliable due to the presence of two pieces of evidence and also be able to meet the severe performance requirements imposed by various applications. This paper presents a neural network based bimodal biometric identification system by using human face and handwritten signature features.

  2. ECG based biometrics verification system using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based authentication systems provide solutions to the problems in high security which remain with conventionalsecurity systems. In a biometric verification system, human’s biological parameters (such as voice, finger print,palm print or hand geometry, face, iris etc. are used to verify the authenticity of a person. These parameters are good to beused as biometric parameters but do not provide the guarantee that the person is present and alive. As voice can be copied,finger print can be picked from glass on synthetic skin and in face recognition system due to genetic factors identical twinsor father-son may have the same facial appearance. ECG does not have these problems. It can not be recorded without theknowledge of the person and ECG of every person is unique even identical twins have different ECG. In this paper an ECGbasedbiometrics verification system which was developed using Laboratory Virtual Instruments Engineering Workbench(LabVIEW version 7.1 is discussed. Experiments were conducted on the database stored in the laboratory of 20 individualshaving 10 samples each and the results revealed a false rejection rate (FRR of 3% and false acceptance rate (FAR of 3.21%.

  3. Biometric Quantization through Detection Rate Optimized Bit Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in many biometric template protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Previous work has been focusing on the design of optimal quantization and coding for each single feature component, yet the binary string—concatenation of all coded feature components—is not optimal. In this paper, we present a detection rate optimized bit allocation (DROBA principle, which assigns more bits to discriminative features and fewer bits to nondiscriminative features. We further propose a dynamic programming (DP approach and a greedy search (GS approach to achieve DROBA. Experiments of DROBA on the FVC2000 fingerprint database and the FRGC face database show good performances. As a universal method, DROBA is applicable to arbitrary biometric modalities, such as fingerprint texture, iris, signature, and face. DROBA will bring significant benefits not only to the template protection systems but also to the systems with fast matching requirements or constrained storage capability.

  4. IRIS Simplified LERF Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maioli, A.; Finnicum, D.J.; Kumagai, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is its safety-by-designTM philosophy and within this framework the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. The most ambitious risk-related goal for IRIS is to reduce the Emergency Planning Zone (EPZ) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. As a first step, a model has been developed to provide a first order approximation of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) as a surrogate predictor of the off-site doses. A key-aspect of the LERF model development is the characterization of the possible paths of release. Four main categories have been historically pointed out: (1) Core Damage (CD ) sequences with containment bypass, (2) CD sequences with containment isolation failure, (3) CD sequences with containment failure at low pressure and (4) CD sequences with containment failure at high pressure. They have been reevaluated to account for the IRIS design features

  5. Evolutionary Algorithms Application Analysis in Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    N. Goranin; A. Cenys

    2010-01-01

    Wide usage of biometric information for person identity verification purposes, terrorist acts prevention measures and authenticationprocess simplification in computer systems has raised significant attention to reliability and efficiency of biometricsystems. Modern biometric systems still face many reliability and efficiency related issues such as reference databasesearch speed, errors while recognizing of biometric information or automating biometric feature extraction. Current scientificinv...

  6. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  7. Biometric micromixer design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.T.; Hu, Z.Y. [National I-Lan Univ., Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical and Electromechanical Engineering; Shaw, C.K. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Fluid mixing in microchannels has many applications, and is particularly important in microfluidic systems for biochemistry and biomedical analysis, or for the production or organic compounds in microreactors. Micromixer development should take into consideration a simple system design with a high mixing efficiency and effective techniques for examining mixing efficiency. Mechanical stirring methods are not suitable for fluid mixing in microchannels because the flow inside microchannels is predominantly laminar and the Reynolds numbers are usually lower than 10. Improving the flexibility and performance of microfluidic systems by incorporating different processes such as fluid handling and fluid motion that cause rapid mixing on micro scale can be challenging. To achieve optimal mixing, an efficient micromixer usually involves complex 3-dimensional geometries which are used to enhance the fluid lamination, stretching and folding. In this study, a biometric concept imitated from distribution of human blood vessel was applied to passive micromixers to promote mixing efficiency. Microchannels of different widths were used to construct the biometric structure. The main advantages of the new design were a high mixing performance and lower pressure drop. Mixing performance was evaluated using a mixing index. The mixing efficiencies in the micromixer under different Reynolds numbers ranging from 1 to 10 were evaluated with a 370 {mu}m device. The main mixing mechanics in this type of passive micromixer was the convection effect. The 2D numerical results revealed that the mixing efficiency of the mixer was 0.876 at Reynolds ratio of 0.85. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  8. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gonzalo, Ramon; Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael

    2018-01-01

    Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.

  9. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunerti, Chiara; Sanchez-Reillo, Raul; Guest, Richard Michael

    2018-01-01

    Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number) or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine) scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction) and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products. PMID:29565989

  10. Biometrics: Accessibility challenge or opportunity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Blanco-Gonzalo

    Full Text Available Biometric recognition is currently implemented in several authentication contexts, most recently in mobile devices where it is expected to complement or even replace traditional authentication modalities such as PIN (Personal Identification Number or passwords. The assumed convenience characteristics of biometrics are transparency, reliability and ease-of-use, however, the question of whether biometric recognition is as intuitive and straightforward to use is open to debate. Can biometric systems make some tasks easier for people with accessibility concerns? To investigate this question, an accessibility evaluation of a mobile app was conducted where test subjects withdraw money from a fictitious ATM (Automated Teller Machine scenario. The biometric authentication mechanisms used include face, voice, and fingerprint. Furthermore, we employed traditional modalities of PIN and pattern in order to check if biometric recognition is indeed a real improvement. The trial test subjects within this work were people with real-life accessibility concerns. A group of people without accessibility concerns also participated, providing a baseline performance. Experimental results are presented concerning performance, HCI (Human-Computer Interaction and accessibility, grouped according to category of accessibility concern. Our results reveal links between individual modalities and user category establishing guidelines for future accessible biometric products.

  11. Comparative and Analysis of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Manivannan,; Padma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric as the science of recognizing an individual based on his or her physical or behavioral traits, it is beginning to gain acceptance as a legitimate method for determining an individual identity.Biometric have now been deployed in various commercial, civilian, and national security applications. Biometric described overview of various biometric techniques and the need to be addressed form making biometric technology an effective tool for providing information security.

  12. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens implantation for the management of iris-lens injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shufang; Wang, Mingling; Xiao, Tianlin; Zhao, Zhenquan

    2016-03-01

    To study the efficiency and safety of iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the patients with iris-lens injuries. Retrospective, noncomparable consecutive case series study. Eleven patients (11 eyes) following iris-lens injuries underwent iris reconstructions combined with iris-claw IOL implantations. Clinical data, such as cause and time of injury, visual acuity (VA), iris and lens injuries, surgical intervention, follow-up period, corneal endothelial cell count, and optical coherence tomography, were collected. Uncorrected VA (UCVA) in all injured eyes before combined surgery was equal to or iris returned to its natural round shape or smaller pupil, and the iris-claw IOLs in the 11 eyes were well-positioned on the anterior surface of reconstructed iris. No complications occurred in those patients. Iris reconstruction combined with iris-claw IOL implantation is a safe and efficient procedure for an eye with iris-lens injury in the absence of capsular support.

  13. Human Iris Recognition System using Wavelet Transform and LVQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwan Yong; Lim, Shin Young [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (Korea); Cho, Seong Won [Hongik University (Korea)

    2000-07-01

    The popular methods to check the identity of individuals include passwords and ID cards. These conventional methods for user identification and authentication are not altogether reliable because they can be stolen and forgotten. As an alternative of the existing methods, biometric technology has been paid much attention for the last few decades. In this paper, we propose an efficient system for recognizing the identity of a living person by analyzing iris patterns which have a high level of stability and distinctiveness than other biometric measurements. The proposed system is based on wavelet transform and a competitive neural network with the improved mechanisms. After preprocessing the iris data acquired through a CCD camera, feature vectors are extracted by using Haar wavelet transform. LVQ(Learning Vector Quantization) is exploited to classify these feature vectors. We improve the overall performance of the proposed system by optimizing the size of feature vectors and by introducing an efficient initialization of the weight vectors and a new method for determining the winner in order to increase the recognition accuracy of LVQ. From the experiments, we confirmed that the proposed system has a great potential of being applied to real applications in an efficient and effective way. (author). 14 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Performance Evaluation of the IrisScan2200 Against Four Respirator Masks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WRIGHT, LARRY J.; TERRY, PRESTON L.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biometrics for the identification of individuals is becoming more prevalent in society and in the general government community. As the demand for these devices increases, it becomes necessary for the user community to have the facts needed to determine which device is the most appropriate for any given application. One such application is the use of biometric devices in areas where an individual may not be able to present a biometric feature that requires contact with the identifier (e.g., when dressed in anti-contamination suits or when wearing a respirator). This paper discusses a performance evaluation conducted on the IrisScan2200 from Iridian Technologies to determine if it could be used in such a role

  15. Multimodal Biometric System- Fusion Of Face And Fingerprint Biometrics At Match Score Fusion Level

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Wangari Mwaura; Prof. Waweru Mwangi; Dr. Calvins Otieno

    2017-01-01

    Biometrics has developed to be one of the most relevant technologies used in Information Technology IT security. Unimodal biometric systems have a variety of problems which decreases the performance and accuracy of these system. One way to overcome the limitations of the unimodal biometric systems is through fusion to form a multimodal biometric system. Generally biometric fusion is defined as the use of multiple types of biometric data or ways of processing the data to improve the performanc...

  16. Improving energy efficiency in handheld biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, David C.; Gale, John W.; Schultz, Robert C.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    With improved smartphone and tablet technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible to implement powerful biometric recognition algorithms on portable devices. Typical iris recognition algorithms, such as Ridge Energy Direction (RED), utilize two-dimensional convolution in their implementation. This paper explores the energy consumption implications of 12 different methods of implementing two-dimensional convolution on a portable device. Typically, convolution is implemented using floating point operations. If a given algorithm implemented integer convolution vice floating point convolution, it could drastically reduce the energy consumed by the processor. The 12 methods compared include 4 major categories: Integer C, Integer Java, Floating Point C, and Floating Point Java. Each major category is further divided into 3 implementations: variable size looped convolution, static size looped convolution, and unrolled looped convolution. All testing was performed using the HTC Thunderbolt with energy measured directly using a Tektronix TDS5104B Digital Phosphor oscilloscope. Results indicate that energy savings as high as 75% are possible by using Integer C versus Floating Point C. Considering the relative proportion of processing time that convolution is responsible for in a typical algorithm, the savings in energy would likely result in significantly greater time between battery charges.

  17. Spotting and tracking good biometrics with the human visual system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szu, Harold; Jenkins, Jeffrey; Hsu, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We mathematically model the mammalian Visual System's (VS) capability of spotting objects. How can a hawk see a tiny running rabbit from miles above ground? How could that rabbit see the approaching hawk? This predatorprey interaction draws parallels with spotting a familiar person in a crowd. We assume that mammal eyes use peripheral vision to perceive unexpected changes from our memory, and then use our central vision (fovea) to pay attention. The difference between an image and our memory of that image is usually small, mathematically known as a 'sparse representation'. The VS communicates with the brain using a finite reservoir of neurotransmittents, which produces an on-center and thus off-surround Hubel/Wiesel Mexican hat receptive field. This is the basis of our model. This change detection mechanism could drive our attention, allowing us to hit a curveball. If we are about to hit a baseball, what information extracted by our HVS tells us where to swing? Physical human features such as faces, irises, and fingerprints have been successfully used for identification (Biometrics) for decades, recently including voice and walking style for identification from further away. Biologically, humans must use a change detection strategy to achieve an ordered sparseness and use a sigmoid threshold for noisy measurements in our Hetero-Associative Memory [HAM] classifier for fault tolerant recall. Human biometrics is dynamic, and therefore involves more than just the surface, requiring a 3 dimensional measurement (i.e. Daugman/Gabor iris features). Such a measurement can be achieved using the partial coherence of a laser's reflection from a 3-D biometric surface, creating more degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) to meet the Army's challenge of distant Biometrics. Thus, one might be able to increase the standoff loss of less distinguished degrees of freedom (DOF).

  18. Iris reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.; Conway, L.E.; Petrovic, B.; Paramonov, D.V.; Galvin, M.; Todreas, N.E.; Lombardi, C.V.; Maldari, F.; Ricotti, M.E.; Cinotti, L.

    2001-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., proliferation resistance, enhanced safety, improved economics and fuel cycle sustainability. It relies on the proven technology of light water reactors and features innovative engineering, but it does not require new technology development. This paper discusses the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and five-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. (author)

  19. Biometrics Research and Engineering Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As the Department of Defense moves forward in its pursuit of integrating biometrics technology into facility access control, the Global War on Terrorism and weapon...

  20. NIST biometric evaluations and developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, Michael D.; Wilson, Charles L.

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents an R&D framework used by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for biometric technology testing and evaluation. The focus of this paper is on fingerprint-based verification and identification. Since 9-11 the NIST Image Group has been mandated by Congress to run a program for biometric technology assessment and biometric systems certification. Four essential areas of activity are discussed: 1) developing test datasets, 2) conducting performance assessment; 3) technology development; and 4) standards participation. A description of activities and accomplishments are provided for each of these areas. In the process, methods of performance testing are described and results from specific biometric technology evaluations are presented. This framework is anticipated to have broad applicability to other technology and application domains.

  1. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009 IEEE.

  2. Transforming Security Screening With Biometrics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hearnsberger, Brian J

    2003-01-01

    ... and identity theft to dramatically improve physical security. Today, biometric technology could be implemented to transform physical security by enhancing screening procedures currently in use at U.S...

  3. Biometrics for home networks security

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique; Ahmad, Qutbuddin S.

    2009-01-01

    Hacking crimes committed to the home networks are increasing. Advanced network protection is not always possible for the home networks. In this paper we will study the ability of using biometric systems for authentication in home networks. ©2009

  4. IRiS: construction of ARG networks at genomic scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Asif; Pybus, Marc; Melé, Marta; Utro, Filippo; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Calafell, Francesc; Parida, Laxmi

    2011-09-01

    Given a set of extant haplotypes IRiS first detects high confidence recombination events in their shared genealogy. Next using the local sequence topology defined by each detected event, it integrates these recombinations into an ancestral recombination graph. While the current system has been calibrated for human population data, it is easily extendible to other species as well. IRiS (Identification of Recombinations in Sequences) binary files are available for non-commercial use in both Linux and Microsoft Windows, 32 and 64 bit environments from https://researcher.ibm.com/researcher/view_project.php?id = 2303 parida@us.ibm.com.

  5. Signal and image processing for biometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Proença, Hugo; Du, Eliza

    2014-01-01

    This volume offers a guide to the state of the art in the fast evolving field of biometric recognition to newcomers and experienced practitioners. It is focused on the emerging strategies to perform biometric recognition under uncontrolled data acquisition conditions. The mainstream research work in this field is presented in an organized manner, so the reader can easily follow the trends that best suits her/his interests in this growing field. The book chapters cover the recent advances in less controlled / covert data acquisition frameworks, segmentation of poor quality biometric data, biometric data quality assessment, normalization of poor quality biometric data. contactless biometric recognition strategies, biometric recognition robustness, data resolution, illumination, distance, pose, motion, occlusions, multispectral biometric recognition, multimodal biometrics, fusion at different levels, high confidence automatic surveillance.

  6. BIOMETRIC AUTHENTICATION SYSTEM USING RPI

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema A. Shaikh*; Prof.S.O.Rajankar

    2016-01-01

    A biometric authentication system acquires biometric sample such as fingerprint. The fingerprint signifies physiological features of an individual.This is a system which maintains the attendance records of students automatically. In this designing of an efficient module that comprises of a fingerprint sensor to manage the attendance records of students. This module enrolls the student’s as well as staff’s fingerprints. This enrolling is a onetime process and their fingerprints will be stored...

  7. Integrated risk information system (IRIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuxen, L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is an electronic information system developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) containing information related to health risk assessment. IRIS is the Agency`s primary vehicle for communication of chronic health hazard information that represents Agency consensus following comprehensive review by intra-Agency work groups. The original purpose for developing IRIS was to provide guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This original purpose for developing IRIS was to guidance to EPA personnel in making risk management decisions. This role has expanded and evolved with wider access and use of the system. IRIS contains chemical-specific information in summary format for approximately 500 chemicals. IRIS is available to the general public on the National Library of Medicine`s Toxicology Data Network (TOXNET) and on diskettes through the National Technical Information Service (NTIS).

  8. Longitudinal study of iris concavity, corneal biomechanics, and correlations to ocular biometry in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old UK schoolboys: 2-year follow-up data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet; Lascaratos, Gerassimos; Garway-Heath, David F; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2014-06-10

    To explore changes in iris curvature over a 2-year period. To investigate associations between iris curvature and ocular biometric parameters. To explore relationships between a number of nonocular measurements and ocular biometric parameters. Schoolboys enrolled 2 years previously were invited to return for anterior segment optical coherence tomography, corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), and axial biometric measurements. Refractive error was assessed and measures of height, weight, waist circumference, digit ratio, and percentage body fat taken. Mean spherical equivalent refraction reduced by 0.76 diopters and mean iris concavity, defined as a measurement of less than or equal to -0.1 mm, increased by 0.018 mm at distance fixation and 0.04 mm on accommodation. Compared with 2 years previously, the prevalence of iris concavity increased from 24% to 32% on distance fixation and from 65% to 84% on accommodation. Variables significantly associated with nonaccommodating iris curvature were anterior chamber depth (ACD, P = 0.029) and mean scleral spur angle (P = 0.0001). Variables significantly associated with accommodating iris curvature were ACD (P = 0.02), lens vault (P = 0.047), and scleral spur angle (P Iris concavity was more prevalent in this cohort of schoolboys than 2 years earlier. The degree of concavity remains related to ACD and lens vault. The association between spur-to-spur distance and CH was similar at baseline and after 2 years. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  9. IRIS-economics review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    IRIS is a medium sized advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international Group led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is aimed at a broad spectrum of Utilities looking to install nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at emerging Nations with specific financial constraints looking to strategically optimise their debit levels. The IRIS building block is a multiple module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Modules can be installed individually or in parks. In the latter case, deployment can be in single modules or in pairs (twin-unit); both will be built in staggered fashion at time intervals as dictated by economic and market considerations. One of the unique features of IRIS is its ability to offer reduction in costs through increased experience 'Learning' at a single site: In construction, the principal benefit is derived for subsequent modules, and is dependent on maintaining the 'core' team throughout. This is particularly important if there is any significant period between the completion of say module 1 and the start of module 2. This time frame will be driven by the overall market size, projected growth in demand and the level of financial risk the utility is prepared to accept. Learning benefits in construction are derived from skills and experience retention impacting on reducing the number of inputs and construction time. Learning in operation may benefit from a certain delay between modules as this allows operators to build up their 'cumulative experience'. Reactor operations on day 1 would be significantly different from those of say 3 years later. These benefits would be passed on to modules 2 and 3, which would realise them from day 1. Learning in operation is dependent on the ability to retain within the organisation knowledge and records of key events. The benefits from Learning in operation may also be applicable to different sites, in different countries. It

  10. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  11. Ordinal measures for iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2009-12-01

    Images of a human iris contain rich texture information useful for identity authentication. A key and still open issue in iris recognition is how best to represent such textural information using a compact set of features (iris features). In this paper, we propose using ordinal measures for iris feature representation with the objective of characterizing qualitative relationships between iris regions rather than precise measurements of iris image structures. Such a representation may lose some image-specific information, but it achieves a good trade-off between distinctiveness and robustness. We show that ordinal measures are intrinsic features of iris patterns and largely invariant to illumination changes. Moreover, compactness and low computational complexity of ordinal measures enable highly efficient iris recognition. Ordinal measures are a general concept useful for image analysis and many variants can be derived for ordinal feature extraction. In this paper, we develop multilobe differential filters to compute ordinal measures with flexible intralobe and interlobe parameters such as location, scale, orientation, and distance. Experimental results on three public iris image databases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ordinal feature models.

  12. The IRIS user-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.A.

    1997-10-01

    This is the first version of the IRIS User-Guide. IRIS is continually evolving and improving and so some of the information contained within this manual will become out of date quite quickly. The basics behind the operation of IRIS, however, should remain essentially constant for the foreseeable future. Updated manuals will be produced when appropriate although it should always be remembered that the most up-to-date sources of information concerning IRIS are the instrument scientist and the local contacts for the experiments. It would be appreciated, however, if this user-guide were to be the first point of call. (author)

  13. Two barriers to realizing the benefits of biometrics: a chain perspective on biometrics and identity fraud as biometrics' real challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2004-06-01

    Along at least twelve dimensions biometric systems might vary. We need to exploit this variety to manoeuvre biometrics into place to be able to realise its social potential. Subsequently, two perspectives on biometrics are proposed revealing that biometrics will probably be ineffective in combating identity fraud, organised crime and terrorism: (1) the value chain perspective explains the first barrier: our strong preference for large scale biometric systems for general compulsory use. These biometric systems cause successful infringements to spread unnoticed. A biometric system will only function adequately if biometrics is indispensable for solving the dominant chain problem. Multi-chain use of biometrics takes it beyond the boundaries of good manageability. (2) the identity fraud perspective exposes the second barrier: our traditional approach to identity verification. We focus on identity documents, neglecting the person and the situation involved. Moreover, western legal cultures have made identity verification procedures known, transparent, uniform and predictable. Thus, we have developed a blind spot to identity fraud. Biometrics provides good potential to better checking persons, but will probably be used to enhance identity documents. Biometrics will only pay off if it confronts the identity fraudster with less predictable verification processes and more risks of his identity fraud being spotted. Standardised large scale applications of biometrics for general compulsory use without countervailing measures will probably produce the reverse. This contribution tentatively presents a few headlines for an overall biometrics strategy that could better resist identity fraud.

  14. Evolutionary Algorithms Application Analysis in Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Goranin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide usage of biometric information for person identity verification purposes, terrorist acts prevention measures and authenticationprocess simplification in computer systems has raised significant attention to reliability and efficiency of biometricsystems. Modern biometric systems still face many reliability and efficiency related issues such as reference databasesearch speed, errors while recognizing of biometric information or automating biometric feature extraction. Current scientificinvestigations show that application of evolutionary algorithms may significantly improve biometric systems. In thisarticle we provide a comprehensive review of main scientific research done in sphere of evolutionary algorithm applicationfor biometric system parameter improvement.

  15. Design and Implementation of a Multi-Modal Biometric System for Company Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Stefani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the design, implementation, and deployment of a multi-modal biometric system to grant access to a company structure and to internal zones in the company itself. Face and iris have been chosen as biometric traits. Face is feasible for non-intrusive checking with a minimum cooperation from the subject, while iris supports very accurate recognition procedure at a higher grade of invasivity. The recognition of the face trait is based on the Local Binary Patterns histograms, and the Daughman’s method is implemented for the analysis of the iris data. The recognition process may require either the acquisition of the user’s face only or the serial acquisition of both the user’s face and iris, depending on the confidence level of the decision with respect to the set of security levels and requirements, stated in a formal way in the Service Level Agreement at a negotiation phase. The quality of the decision depends on the setting of proper different thresholds in the decision modules for the two biometric traits. Any time the quality of the decision is not good enough, the system activates proper rules, which ask for new acquisitions (and decisions, possibly with different threshold values, resulting in a system not with a fixed and predefined behaviour, but one which complies with the actual acquisition context. Rules are formalized as deduction rules and grouped together to represent “response behaviors” according to the previous analysis. Therefore, there are different possible working flows, since the actual response of the recognition process depends on the output of the decision making modules that compose the system. Finally, the deployment phase is described, together with the results from the testing, based on the AT&T Face Database and the UBIRIS database.

  16. LDPC and SHA based iris recognition for image authentication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Seetharaman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel way to authenticate an image using Low Density Parity Check (LDPC and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA based iris recognition method with reversible watermarking scheme, which is based on Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT and threshold embedding technique. The parity checks and parity matrix of LDPC encoding and cancellable biometrics i.e., hash string of unique iris code from SHA-512 are embedded into an image for authentication purpose using reversible watermarking scheme based on IWT and threshold embedding technique. Simply by reversing the embedding process, the original image, parity checks, parity matrix and SHA-512 hash are extracted back from watermarked-image. For authentication, the new hash string produced by employing SHA-512 on error corrected iris code from live person is compared with hash string extracted from watermarked-image. The LDPC code reduces the hamming distance for genuine comparisons by a larger amount than for the impostor comparisons. This results in better separation between genuine and impostor users which improves the authentication performance. Security of this scheme is very high due to the security complexity of SHA-512, which is 2256 under birthday attack. Experimental results show that this approach can assure more accurate authentication with a low false rejection or false acceptance rate and outperforms the prior arts in terms of PSNR.

  17. The Economics of IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.; Paramonov, D.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals a single module sized at 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years and a 60-year plant life. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as and when the circumstances are right

  18. Gaze as a biometric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun; Carmichael, Tandy R.; Tourassi, Georgia

    2014-03-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual "dotpattern" tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer's capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users' average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  19. Gaze as a biometric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Carmichael, Tandy [Tennessee Technological University; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Two people may analyze a visual scene in two completely different ways. Our study sought to determine whether human gaze may be used to establish the identity of an individual. To accomplish this objective we investigated the gaze pattern of twelve individuals viewing different still images with different spatial relationships. Specifically, we created 5 visual dot-pattern tests to be shown on a standard computer monitor. These tests challenged the viewer s capacity to distinguish proximity, alignment, and perceptual organization. Each test included 50 images of varying difficulty (total of 250 images). Eye-tracking data were collected from each individual while taking the tests. The eye-tracking data were converted into gaze velocities and analyzed with Hidden Markov Models to develop personalized gaze profiles. Using leave-one-out cross-validation, we observed that these personalized profiles could differentiate among the 12 users with classification accuracy ranging between 53% and 76%, depending on the test. This was statistically significantly better than random guessing (i.e., 8.3% or 1 out of 12). Classification accuracy was higher for the tests where the users average gaze velocity per case was lower. The study findings support the feasibility of using gaze as a biometric or personalized biomarker. These findings could have implications in Radiology training and the development of personalized e-learning environments.

  20. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, George

    2002-01-01

    .... The ultimate goal of voice biometrics is to enable the use of voice as a password. Voice biometrics are "man-in-the-loop" systems in which system performance is significantly dependent on human performance...

  1. Biometric National Identification Number Generation for Secure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biometric National Identification Number Generation for Secure Network Authentication Based Fingerprint. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... In this paper an authentication based finger print biometric system is proposed ...

  2. Biometric Authorization and Registration Systems and Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caulfield, H

    2002-01-01

    Biometric authorization and registration systems and methods are disclosed. In one embodiment, the system preferably comprises a firearm that includes a biometric authorization system, a plurality of training computers, and a server...

  3. A framework for biometric playtesting of games

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Dirk; Calvi, Licia; Gualeni, Stefano; Foundation of Digital Games Conference

    2013-01-01

    The described framework is meant to assist game developers in using biometric (psychophysiological) methods while playtesting. Biometric methods can give developers a valuable additional window on the playtester's experience.

  4. Biometric analysis of pigment dispersion syndrome using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Beccat, Sylvain; Fortoul, Vincent; Denis, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    To compare anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, and iridolenticular contact (ILC) area before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) and image processing software. Cross-sectional study. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with PDS; 30 eyes of 30 controls matched for age, gender, and refraction. Anterior segment OCT imaging was performed in all eyes before LPI and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after LPI. At each visit, 12 cross-sectional images of the AS were taken: 4 in bright conditions with accommodation (accommodation), 4 in bright conditions without accommodation (physiological miosis), and 4 under dark conditions (physiologic mydriasis). Biometric parameters were estimated using AS OCT radial sections and customized image-processing software. Anterior chamber volume, iris volume-to-length ratio, ILC area, AS OCT anterior chamber depth, and A-scan ultrasonography axial length. Before LPI, PDS eyes had a significantly greater ACV and ILC area than control eyes (PPigment dispersion syndrome eyes do not have an iris that is abnormally large, relative to the AS size, but have a weakly resistant iris that is stretched and pushed against the lens when there is a pressure difference across the iris. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biometrics for electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Zuniga, Alejandro Enrique; Win, Khin Than; Susilo, Willy

    2010-10-01

    Securing electronic health records, in scenarios in which the provision of care services is share among multiple actors, could become a complex and costly activity. Correct identification of patients and physician, protection of privacy and confidentiality, assignment of access permissions for healthcare providers and resolutions of conflicts rise as main points of concern in the development of interconnected health information networks. Biometric technologies have been proposed as a possible technological solution for these issues due to its ability to provide a mechanism for unique verification of an individual identity. This paper presents an analysis of the benefit as well as disadvantages offered by biometric technology. A comparison between this technology and more traditional identification methods is used to determine the key benefits and flaws of the use biometric in health information systems. The comparison as been made considering the viability of the technologies for medical environments, global security needs, the contemplation of a share care environment and the costs involved in the implementation and maintenance of such technologies. This paper also discusses alternative uses for biometrics technologies in health care environments. The outcome of this analysis lays in the fact that even when biometric technologies offer several advantages over traditional method of identification, they are still in the early stages of providing a suitable solution for a health care environment.

  6. Iris concavity, corneal biomechanics, and their correlations with ocular biometry in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old UK school boys: baseline data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ameet; Low, Sancy; Garway-Heath, David F; Foster, Paul J; Barton, Keith

    2014-04-17

    Pigment dispersion syndrome is associated with iris concavity. This study investigated the prevalence of iris concavity, defined as a measurement of ≤-0.1 mm, in a cohort of 10- to 12-year-old boys, and explored the relationship between iris curvature and anterior segment biometry. Associations with corneal biomechanical parameters also were explored. A cohort of school boys (n = 96) was recruited from a local school. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was performed under accommodative and nonaccommodative conditions, and iris curvature quantified. Corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were measured with the ocular response analyzer (ORA). Noncontact axial biometry was performed using laser interferometry. The prevalence of iris concavity was 24% on distance fixation, increasing to 65% on accommodation. Variables significantly associated with nonaccommodating iris curvature were lens vault (P = 0.02) and mean keratometry (P = 0.02). For both variables acting jointly, R(2) = 0.30. Variables associated significantly with accommodating iris curvature were anterior chamber depth (P = 0.009), lens vault (P = 0.049), and mean scleral spur angle (P Iris concavity was a common finding in this cohort and related to anterior segment biometric parameters. Further work is required to clarify whether anatomical differences exist between iris concavity seen in the adolescent eye and that found in adults with pigment dispersion syndrome. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  7. The use of biometrics in IT

    OpenAIRE

    Bílý, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Biometrics is increasingly applied in IT (biometric methods today generally use computer technology), mostly used to authenticate users. The aim of this thesis is to describe and compare two selected biometric methods. These methods are fingerprints and scanning of human face. The contribution of this work is to provide information on biometric identification methods, their advantages and disadvantages, and deployment options. If an organization decides to strengthen their security systems wi...

  8. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.; Jacob, Ann Jisma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible ...

  9. Performance Evaluation Of Behavioral Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cherifi , Fouad; Hemery , Baptiste; Giot , Romain; Pasquet , Marc; Rosenberger , Christophe

    2009-01-01

    We present in this chapter an overview of techniques for the performance evaluation of behavioral biometric systems. The BioAPI standard that defines the architecture of a biometric system is presented in the first part of the chapter... The general methodology for the evaluation of biometric systems is given including statistical metrics, definition of benchmark databases and subjective evaluation. These considerations rely with the ISO/IEC19795-1 standard describing the biometric performanc...

  10. New methods in iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugman, John

    2007-10-01

    This paper presents the following four advances in iris recognition: 1) more disciplined methods for detecting and faithfully modeling the iris inner and outer boundaries with active contours, leading to more flexible embedded coordinate systems; 2) Fourier-based methods for solving problems in iris trigonometry and projective geometry, allowing off-axis gaze to be handled by detecting it and "rotating" the eye into orthographic perspective; 3) statistical inference methods for detecting and excluding eyelashes; and 4) exploration of score normalizations, depending on the amount of iris data that is available in images and the required scale of database search. Statistical results are presented based on 200 billion iris cross-comparisons that were generated from 632500 irises in the United Arab Emirates database to analyze the normalization issues raised in different regions of receiver operating characteristic curves.

  11. 3D biometrics systems and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, David

    2013-01-01

    Includes discussions on popular 3D imaging technologies, combines them with biometric applications, and then presents real 3D biometric systems Introduces many efficient 3D feature extraction, matching, and fusion algorithms Techniques presented have been supported by experimental results using various 3D biometric classifications

  12. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  13. Biometric Score Calibration for Forensic Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef

    2014-01-01

    When two biometric specimens are compared using an automatic biometric recognition system, a similarity metric called “score‿ can be computed. In forensics, one of the biometric specimens is from an unknown source, for example, from a CCTV footage or a fingermark found at a crime scene and the other

  14. Ocular Biometrics of Myopic Eyes With Narrow Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel T; Wen, Joanne C; Su, Daniel Hsien-Wen; Stinnett, Sandra; Asrani, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ocular biometrics between myopic patients with and without narrow angles. Patients with a stable myopic refraction (myopia worse than -1.00 D spherical equivalent) were prospectively recruited. Angle status was assessed using gonioscopy and biometric measurements were performed using an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and an IOLMaster. A total of 29 patients (58 eyes) were enrolled with 13 patients (26 eyes) classified as having narrow angles and 16 patients (32 eyes) classified as having open angles. Baseline demographics of age, sex, and ethnicity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The patients with narrow angles were on average older than those with open angles but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.12). The central anterior chamber depth was significantly less in the eyes with narrow angles (P=0.05). However, the average lens thickness, although greater in the eyes with narrow angles, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). Refractive error, axial lengths, and iris thicknesses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P=0.32, 0.47, 0.15). Narrow angles can occur in myopic eyes. Routine gonioscopy is therefore recommended for all patients regardless of refractive error.

  15. Iris Matching Based on Personalized Weight Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenbo; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2011-09-01

    Iris recognition typically involves three steps, namely, iris image preprocessing, feature extraction, and feature matching. The first two steps of iris recognition have been well studied, but the last step is less addressed. Each human iris has its unique visual pattern and local image features also vary from region to region, which leads to significant differences in robustness and distinctiveness among the feature codes derived from different iris regions. However, most state-of-the-art iris recognition methods use a uniform matching strategy, where features extracted from different regions of the same person or the same region for different individuals are considered to be equally important. This paper proposes a personalized iris matching strategy using a class-specific weight map learned from the training images of the same iris class. The weight map can be updated online during the iris recognition procedure when the successfully recognized iris images are regarded as the new training data. The weight map reflects the robustness of an encoding algorithm on different iris regions by assigning an appropriate weight to each feature code for iris matching. Such a weight map trained by sufficient iris templates is convergent and robust against various noise. Extensive and comprehensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed personalized iris matching strategy achieves much better iris recognition performance than uniform strategies, especially for poor quality iris images.

  16. Secure authentication system that generates seed from biometric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeojin; Ahn, Jung-Ho; Byun, Hyeran

    2005-02-10

    As biometric recognition techniques are gradually improved, the stability of biometric authentication systems are enhanced. Although bioinformation has properties that make it resistant to fraud, biometric authentication systems are not immune to hacking. We show a secure biometric authentication system (1) to guarantee the integrity of biometric information by mixing data by use of a biometric key and (2) to raise recognition rates by use of bimodal biometrics.

  17. Biometric Features in Person Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Ivanovas

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lately a lot of research effort is devoted for recognition of a human being using his biometric characteristics. Biometric recognition systems are used in various applications, e. g., identification for state border crossing or firearm, which allows only enrolled persons to use it. In this paper biometric characteristics and their properties are reviewed. Development of high accuracy system requires distinctive and permanent characteristics, whereas development of user friendly system requires collectable and acceptable characteristics. It is showed that properties of biometric characteristics do not influence research effort significantly. Properties of biometric characteristic features and their influence are discussed.Article in Lithuanian

  18. Modelling of Biometric Identification System with Given Parameters Using Colored Petri Nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, G.; Ter-Vardanyan, L.; Gaboutchian, A.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric identification systems use given parameters and function on the basis of Colored Petri Nets as a modelling language developed for systems in which communication, synchronization and distributed resources play an important role. Colored Petri Nets combine the strengths of Classical Petri Nets with the power of a high-level programming language. Coloured Petri Nets have both, formal intuitive and graphical presentations. Graphical CPN model consists of a set of interacting modules which include a network of places, transitions and arcs. Mathematical representation has a well-defined syntax and semantics, as well as defines system behavioural properties. One of the best known features used in biometric is the human finger print pattern. During the last decade other human features have become of interest, such as iris-based or face recognition. The objective of this paper is to introduce the fundamental concepts of Petri Nets in relation to tooth shape analysis. Biometric identification systems functioning has two phases: data enrollment phase and identification phase. During the data enrollment phase images of teeth are added to database. This record contains enrollment data as a noisy version of the biometrical data corresponding to the individual. During the identification phase an unknown individual is observed again and is compared to the enrollment data in the database and then system estimates the individual. The purpose of modeling biometric identification system by means of Petri Nets is to reveal the following aspects of the functioning model: the efficiency of the model, behavior of the model, mistakes and accidents in the model, feasibility of the model simplification or substitution of its separate components for more effective components without interfering system functioning. The results of biometric identification system modeling and evaluating are presented and discussed.

  19. Iris recognition via plenoptic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J.; Boehnen, Chris Bensing; Bolme, David S.

    2017-11-07

    Iris recognition can be accomplished for a wide variety of eye images by using plenoptic imaging. Using plenoptic technology, it is possible to correct focus after image acquisition. One example technology reconstructs images having different focus depths and stitches them together, resulting in a fully focused image, even in an off-angle gaze scenario. Another example technology determines three-dimensional data for an eye and incorporates it into an eye model used for iris recognition processing. Another example technology detects contact lenses. Application of the technologies can result in improved iris recognition under a wide variety of scenarios.

  20. Micropropagation of Iris sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevremović, Slađana; Jeknić, Zoran; Subotić, Angelina

    2013-01-01

    Irises are perennial plants widely used as ornamental garden plants or cut flowers. Some species accumulate secondary metabolites, making them highly valuable to the pharmaceutical and perfume industries. Micropropagation of irises has successfully been accomplished by culturing zygotic embryos, different flower parts, and leaf base tissues as starting explants. Plantlets are regenerated via somatic embryogenesis, organogenesis, or both processes at the same time depending on media composition and plant species. A large number of uniform plants are produced by somatic embryogenesis, however, some species have decreased morphogenetic potential overtime. Shoot cultures obtained by organogenesis can be multiplied for many years. Somatic embryogenic tissue can be reestablished from leaf bases of in vitro-grown shoots. The highest number of plants can be obtained by cell suspension cultures. This chapter describes effective in vitro plant regeneration protocols for Iris species from different types of explants by somatic embryogenesis and/or organogenesis suitable for the mass propagation of ornamental and pharmaceutical irises.

  1. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  2. A proposed simple method for measurement in the anterior chamber angle: biometric gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; Spaeth, G L; Augsburger, J; Klancnik, J; Patel, K; Hunter, D G

    1999-11-01

    To design a system of gonioscopy that will allow greater interobserver reliability and more clearly defined screening cutoffs for angle closure than current systems while being simple to teach and technologically appropriate for use in rural Asia, where the prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma is highest. Clinic-based validation and interobserver reliability trial. Study 1: 21 patients 18 years of age and older recruited from a university-based specialty glaucoma clinic; study 2: 32 patients 18 years of age and older recruited from the same clinic. In study 1, all participants underwent conventional gonioscopy by an experienced observer (GLS) using the Spaeth system and in the same eye also underwent Scheimpflug photography, ultrasonographic measurement of anterior chamber depth and axial length, automatic refraction, and biometric gonioscopy with measurement of the distance from iris insertion to Schwalbe's line using a reticule based in the slit-lamp ocular. In study 2, all participants underwent both conventional gonioscopy and biometric gonioscopy by an experienced gonioscopist (NGC) and a medical student with no previous training in gonioscopy (JK). Study 1: The association between biometric gonioscopy and conventional gonioscopy, Scheimpflug photography, and other factors known to correlate with the configuration of the angle. Study 2: Interobserver agreement using biometric gonioscopy compared to that obtained with conventional gonioscopy. In study 1, there was an independent, monotonic, statistically significant relationship between biometric gonioscopy and both Spaeth angle (P = 0.001, t test) and Spaeth insertion (P = 0.008, t test) grades. Biometric gonioscopy correctly identified six of six patients with occludable angles according to Spaeth criteria. Biometric gonioscopic grade was also significantly associated with the anterior chamber angle as measured by Scheimpflug photography (P = 0.005, t test). In study 2, the intraclass correlation coefficient

  3. Biometric security based on ECG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, L.; Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Recently the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been proposed as a novel biometric. This paper aims to construct a reliable ECG verification system, in terms of privacy protection. To this end, an improved expression to estimate the capacity in the autocorrelation (AC) of the ECG is derived, which not only

  4. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Program (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  5. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  6. No age discrimination for biometrics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, MM

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available . The research considers biometric advancements in the areas of travel and immigration, healthcare, law enforcement and banking. For the purpose of this study, adults are considered the individuals and groups in a working environment. Many of these applications...

  7. Shape adaptive, robust iris feature extraction from noisy iris images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah

    2013-10-01

    In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate.

  8. Eye safety related to near infrared radiation exposure to biometric devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2011-03-01

    Biometrics has become an emerging field of technology due to its intrinsic security features concerning the identification of individuals by means of measurable biological characteristics. Two of the most promising biometric modalities are iris and retina recognition, which primarily use nonionizing radiation in the infrared region. Illumination of the eye is achieved by infrared light emitting diodes (LEDs). Even if few LED sources are capable of causing direct eye damage as they emit incoherent light, there is a growing concern about the possible use of LED arrays that might pose a potential threat. Exposure to intense coherent infrared radiation has been proven to have significant effects on living tissues. The purpose of this study is to explore the biological effects arising from exposing the eye to near infrared radiation with reference to international legislation.

  9. Academy Distance Learning Tools (IRIS) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — IRIS is a suite of front-end web applications utilizing a centralized back-end Oracle database. The system fully supports the FAA Academy's Distance Learning Program...

  10. Iris Murdoch armastusest / Udo uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2010-01-01

    Londoni Kingstoni ülikool omandas 50 000 naesterlingi eest 164 Iris Murdochi kirja prantsuse kirjanikule, keeleeksperimentaatorile Raymond Quenaule, millest selgub Murdochi ühepoolne ning vastamata jäänud tunne Quenau suhtes.

  11. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA?s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) is a compilation of electronic reports on specific substances found in the environment and their potential to cause...

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF IRIS HUNGARICA AND IRIS SIBIRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalev V. M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Referring to the latest data, infectious diseases command a large part of among the total number of pathologies in the world and are an important problem in medicine. The leading role in prevention and treatment of diseases of microbial origin belongs to antibacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Advantages of antibiotics of synthetic origin are the high activity compared to phytogenic drugs. But it is known that microorganisms can release the resistance to synthetic antibiotics, so the use of drugs based on the plant materials is appropriate: phytogenic drugs more rarely induce the formation of resistance of the strains of microorganisms, they have a gentle action, can be used for a long-term, have the low cost. Therefore, it is appropriate to examine the drug plants with the aim of determination their antibacterial activity.Iris hungarica Waldst et Kit. and Iris sibirica L. are the representatives of the family Iridaceae, genus Iris and they have a wide spectrum of the pharmacological activity. Biologically active substances that were recovered from plants of the genus Iris (tectoridin, iristectorigenin B, nigracin, kaempferol, quercetin, etc. exhibited an antitumor, antimicrobial, estrogenic, insecticidal, antiplasmatic, anticholinesterase action, they were the inhibitors of enzymes and exhibited the immunomodulatory properties, which made these plants perspective for the research study. Raw materials Irises are constituent components of more than 9 medicines. Materials and Methods. The objects of the study were the leaves and rhizomes of Iris hungarica and Iris sibirica that were prepared during the growing season in 2014 in the M.M. Gryshko National botanical garden (Kiev, Ukraine. The dry and lipophilic extracts from the leaves and rhizomes of Irises were used to establish the antimicrobial activity. For the study of extracts antimicrobial activity was used agar well diffusion method. According to the WHO recommendations the

  13. Can we recognize horses by their ocular biometric traits using deep convolutional neural networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokielewicz, Mateusz; Szadkowski, Mateusz

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims at determining the viability of horse recognition by the means of ocular biometrics and deep convolutional neural networks (deep CNNs). Fast and accurate identification of race horses before racing is crucial for ensuring that exactly the horses that were declared are participating, using methods that are non-invasive and friendly to these delicate animals. As typical iris recognition methods require lot of fine-tuning of the method parameters and high-quality data, CNNs seem like a natural candidate to be applied for recognition thanks to their potentially excellent abilities in describing texture, combined with ease of implementation in an end-to-end manner. Also, with such approach we can easily utilize both iris and periocular features without constructing complicated algorithms for each. We thus present a simple CNN classifier, able to correctly identify almost 80% of the samples in an identification scenario, and give equal error rate (EER) of less than 10% in a verification scenario.

  14. A new objective criterion for IRIS localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basit, A.

    2010-01-01

    Iris localization is the most important step in iris recognition systems. For commonly used databases, exact data is not given which describe the true results of localization. To cope with this problem a new objective criterion for iris localization is proposed in this paper based on our visual system. A specific number of points are selected on pupil boundary, iris boundary, upper eyelid and lower eyelid using the original image and then distance from these points to the result of complete iris localization has been calculated. If the determined distance is below a certain threshold then iris localization is considered correct. Experimental results show that proposed criterion is very effective. (author)

  15. A concatenated coding scheme for biometric template protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, X.; Xu, H.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Cryptography may mitigate the privacy problem in biometric recognition systems. However, cryptography technologies lack error-tolerance and biometric samples cannot be reproduced exactly, rising the robustness problem. The biometric template protection system needs a good feature extraction

  16. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.

  17. Transfer Function Control for Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular apparatus for acquiring biometric data may include circuitry operative to receive an input signal indicative of a biometric condition, the circuitry being configured to process the input signal according to a transfer function thereof and to provide a corresponding processed input signal. A controller is configured to provide at least one control signal to the circuitry to programmatically modify the transfer function of the modular system to facilitate acquisition of the biometric data.

  18. Recognition Errors Control in Biometric Identification Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivanovich Vasilyev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of biometric cryptosystem designed on the basis of fuzzy extractor, in which main disadvantages of biometric and cryptographic systems are absent, is considered. The main idea of this work is a control of identity recognition errors with use of fuzzy extractor which operates with Reed – Solomon correcting code. The fingerprint features vector is considered as a biometric user identifier.

  19. Towards a General Definition of Biometric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mirko Cubrilo; Miroslav Baca; Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    A foundation for closing the gap between biometrics in the narrower and the broader perspective is presented trough a conceptualization of biometric systems in both perspectives. A clear distinction between verification, identification and classification systems is made as well as shown that there are additional classes of biometric systems. In the end a Unified Modeling Language model is developed showing the connections between the two perspectives.

  20. Mobile biometric device (MBD) technology :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2013-06-01

    Mobile biometric devices (MBDs) capable of both enrolling individuals in databases and performing identification checks of subjects in the field are seen as an important capability for military, law enforcement, and homeland security operations. The technology is advancing rapidly. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate through an Interagency Agreement with Sandia sponsored a series of pilot projects to obtain information for the first responder law enforcement community on further identification of requirements for mobile biometric device technology. Working with 62 different jurisdictions, including components of the Department of Homeland Security, Sandia delivered a series of reports on user operation of state-of-the-art mobile biometric devices. These reports included feedback information on MBD usage in both operational and exercise scenarios. The findings and conclusions of the project address both the limitations and possibilities of MBD technology to improve operations. Evidence of these possibilities can be found in the adoption of this technology by many agencies today and the cooperation of several law enforcement agencies in both participating in the pilot efforts and sharing of information about their own experiences in efforts undertaken separately.

  1. Emerging Biometric Modalities: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, Davrondzhon

    Recent advances in sensor technology and wide spread use of various electronics (computers, PDA, mobile phones etc.) provide new opportunities for capturing and analyses of novel physiological and behavioural traits of human beings for biometric authentication. This paper presents an overview of several such types of human characteristics that have been proposed as alternatives to traditional types of biometrics. We refer to these characteristics as emerging biometrics. We survey various types of emerging modalities and techniques, and discuss their pros and cons. Emerging biometrics faces several limitations and challenges which include subject population coverage (focusing mostly on adults); unavailability of benchmark databases; little research with respect to vulnerability/robustness against attacks; and some privacy concerns they may arise. In addition, recognition performance of emerging modalities are generally less accurate compared to the traditional biometrics. Despite all of these emerging biometrics posses their own benefits and advantages compared to traditional biometrics which makes them still attractive for research. First of all, emerging biometrics can always serve as a complementary source for identity information; they can be suitable in applications where traditional biometrics are difficult or impossible to adapt such as continuous or periodic re-verification of the user's identity etc.

  2. Encryption Technology based on Human Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research progress of encryption technologies based on human biometrics is reviewed in this paper.The technologies that utilize human biometrics to make information encryption and identity authentication,and the technologies which combine biometrics encryption with optical encryption methods are introduced in detail.The advantages and disadvantages of these encryption systems are discussed,and the obstacles in practical applications are pointed out.Finally,the prospect of the new encryption technologies that are based on human biometrics are predicted.

  3. A lightweight approach for biometric template protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Assam, Hisham; Sellahewa, Harin; Jassim, Sabah

    2009-05-01

    Privacy and security are vital concerns for practical biometric systems. The concept of cancelable or revocable biometrics has been proposed as a solution for biometric template security. Revocable biometric means that biometric templates are no longer fixed over time and could be revoked in the same way as lost or stolen credit cards are. In this paper, we describe a novel and an efficient approach to biometric template protection that meets the revocability property. This scheme can be incorporated into any biometric verification scheme while maintaining, if not improving, the accuracy of the original biometric system. However, we shall demonstrate the result of applying such transforms on face biometric templates and compare the efficiency of our approach with that of the well-known random projection techniques. We shall also present the results of experimental work on recognition accuracy before and after applying the proposed transform on feature vectors that are generated by wavelet transforms. These results are based on experiments conducted on a number of well-known face image databases, e.g. Yale and ORL databases.

  4. Identification and authentication. Common biometric methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, A.

    2012-01-01

    Major biometric methods used for identification and authentication purposes in modern computing systems are considered in the article. Basic classification, application areas and key differences are given.

  5. IRIS pre-application licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.; Kling, Charles L.; Ritterbusch, Stanley E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the approach to pre-application licensing by the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS), and advanced, integral reactor design with a thermal power of 1000 MW. The rationale for the pre-application licensing is discussed. Since IRIS technology is based on proven LWR experience, the project will rely on AP600/AP1000 precedent and will focus during the pre-application on long lead and novel items. A discussion of the evolution of the project to significantly reduce licensing issues is provided, followed by a summary of the IRIS safety-by-design which provides a formidable first step in the Defense in Depth approach. The effects of the safety-by-design, as well as of passive systems, on the IRIS safety will be investigated in a proposed testing program that will be reviewed by NRC during the pre-application. Documentation to be provided to NRC is discussed. Early design analyses indicate that the benefits of the IRIS safety-by-design approach are so significant that the basic premise of current emergency planning regulations (i.e., likelihood of core damage) will be reduced to the extent that special emergency response planning beyond the exclusion area boundary may not be needed. How this very significant outcome can be effected through a highly risk-informed licensing is discussed. (author)

  6. Biometric Collection, Transmission and Storage Standards. Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    This document provides a comprehensive technical reference that lists published biometric standards and describes their applicability to the biometric functions described in the Capstone Concept of Operations (CONOPS...

  7. 77 FR 31869 - Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ...-FF03E00000] Iris Lacustris (Dwarf Lake Iris); Draft Recovery Plan for Review and Comment AGENCY: Fish and... Service (Service) announces availability for public review of the draft recovery plan for the Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris), a species that is federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species...

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of Acrolein (2003 Final)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying toxicological review have been added to the IRIS Database.

  9. IRIS Toxicological Review of Chloroform (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Chloroform: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Chloroform and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  10. PLATEAU IRIS SYNDROME--CASE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feraru, Crenguta Ioana; Pantalon, Anca Delia; Chiselita, Dorin; Branisteanu, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Plateau iris is characterized by closing the anterior chamber angle due to a large ciliary body or due to its anterior insertion that alters the position of iris periphery in respect to the trabecular meshwork. There are two aspects that need to be differentiated: plateau iris configuration and plateau iris syndrome. The first describes a situation when the iris root is flat and the anterior chamber is not shallow, the latter refers to a post laser iridotomy condition in which a patent iridotomy has removed the relative pupillary block, but goniscopically confirmed angle closure recurs without central shallowing of the anterior chamber. Isolated plateau iris syndrome is rare compared to plateau iris configuration. We hereby present two case reports of plateau iris syndrome in young patients who came to an ophthalmologic consult by chance.

  11. IRIS and the National Research Council (NRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 2011 National Academies’ National Research Council (NRC) review of the IRIS Program's assessment of Formaldehyde, EPA and NRC have had an ongoing relationship into the improvements of developing the IRIS Assessments.

  12. Quality assessment for online iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris recognition systems have attracted much attention for their uniqueness, stability and reliability. However, performance of this system depends on quality of iris image. Therefore there is a need to select good quality images before features can...

  13. Eyelid Localization for Iris Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new eyelid localization algorithm based on a parabolic curve fitting. To deal with eyelashes, low contrast or false detection due to iris texture, we propose a two steps algorithm. First, possible edge candidates are selected by applying edge detection on a restricted area inside the iris. Then, a gradient maximization is applied along every parabola, on a larger area, to refine parameters and select the best one. Experiments have been conducted on a database of 151 iris that have been manually segmented. The performance evaluation is carried out by comparing the segmented images obtained by the proposed method with the manual segmentation. The results are satisfactory in more than 90% of the cases.

  14. Iris colour in relation to myopia among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen-Wei; Qiu, Qin-Xiao; Qian, Deng-Juan; Hu, Dan-Ning; Li, Jun; Saw, Seang-Mei; Zhong, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the association of iris colour and myopia may provide further insights into the role of the wavelength of lights in the pathophysiology of myopia. We aim to assess the association of iris colour and myopia in a school-based sample of Chinese students. Two thousand three hundred and forty-six Year 7 students from 10 middle schools (93.5% response rate) aged 13-14 years in Mojiang, a small county located in Southwestern China, participated in the study. We obtained standardised slit lamp photographs and developed a grading system assessing iris colour (higher grade denoting a darker iris). Refractive error was measured after cycloplegia using an autorefractor by optometrists or trained technicians. An IOLMaster (www.zeiss.com) was used to measure ocular biometric parameters including axial length (AL). Of all the study participants, 693 (29.5%) were affected by myopia with the prevalence estimates being higher in girls (36.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 34.0, 39.6) than in boys (22.8%; 95% CI: 20.4, 25.1) (p iris colour tended to have a higher prevalence of myopia, a more myopic refraction and a longer AL. Dose-response relationships were observed in all regression models (p for trend iris colour was associated with more myopic refractive errors and longer ALs among Chinese school-aged children and this association was independent of other known myopia-related risk factors. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sheng-Hsun; Li, Yung-Hui; Tien, Chung-Hao

    2016-11-25

    For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF) is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known "extended DoF" (EDoF) technique, or "wavefront coding," by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  16. Test of the Practicality and Feasibility of EDoF-Empowered Image Sensors for Long-Range Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Hsun Hsieh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For many practical applications of image sensors, how to extend the depth-of-field (DoF is an important research topic; if successfully implemented, it could be beneficial in various applications, from photography to biometrics. In this work, we want to examine the feasibility and practicability of a well-known “extended DoF” (EDoF technique, or “wavefront coding,” by building real-time long-range iris recognition and performing large-scale iris recognition. The key to the success of long-range iris recognition includes long DoF and image quality invariance toward various object distance, which is strict and harsh enough to test the practicality and feasibility of EDoF-empowered image sensors. Besides image sensor modification, we also explored the possibility of varying enrollment/testing pairs. With 512 iris images from 32 Asian people as the database, 400-mm focal length and F/6.3 optics over 3 m working distance, our results prove that a sophisticated coding design scheme plus homogeneous enrollment/testing setups can effectively overcome the blurring caused by phase modulation and omit Wiener-based restoration. In our experiments, which are based on 3328 iris images in total, the EDoF factor can achieve a result 3.71 times better than the original system without a loss of recognition accuracy.

  17. Automatic quantification of iris color

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, S.; Harder, Stine; Andersen, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    regions. The result is a blue-brown ratio for each eye. Furthermore, an image clustering approach has been used with promising results. The approach is based on using a sparse dictionary of feature vectors learned from a training set of iris regions. The feature vectors contain both local structural...... information and colour information. For each iris an explanatory histogram is build, containing information about the weighted occurrence of each visual word. A hierarchical agglomerative clustering of the entire set of photos is performed using the distance between the explanatory histograms. The approach...

  18. Ekspert i undervisning - IRIS Connect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wullum, Annemette Heine; Eriksen, Frits Hedegaard

    Ekspert i undervisning – IRIS Connect Credoet bag de seneste års mange læreruddannelsesreformer har været, at flere og dybere kundskaber vil styrke de studerendes forudsætninger for at løse opgaverne i pædagogisk praksis. Et forhold, som bliver overset i forbindelse med uddannelsesreformerne, er...... praksis, og hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er. Hovedantagelserne bag projektet er, at de studerendes personbundne kundskaber kan synliggøres, at deres lægmandsopfattelser af, hvad ”effektiv” undervisning er, kan udfordres gennem analyser og drøftelser, og at brugen af IRIS Connects dataindsamlings- og...

  19. Report printer (COBOL IRIS 50)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Daniele

    1973-10-01

    The research thesis reports a detailed study of the Report Writer of the COBOL language in order to integrate it into the IRIS 50 COBOL compiler. In order to use existing compiler processing, the author developed a simulation of the Report Writer by using Cobol statements generated in the declarative part of the Division procedure. After a brief presentation of the IRIS 50 computer, the author presents the general plan of the compiler with modifications and adjunctions exclusively due to the Report Writer. The next part addresses the practical implementation and the problems met and solved during this implementation

  20. What Genes Tell about Iris Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Stine; Christoffersen, Susanne R.; Johansen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Predicting phenotypes based on genotypes is generally hard, but has shown good results for prediction of iris color. We propose to correlate the appearance of iris with DNA. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have previously been shown to correlate with human iris color, and we demonstrat...

  1. Realization of a universal patient identifier for electronic medical records through biometric technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, D C; Pons, Alexander P; Asfour, Shihab S

    2009-07-01

    The technology exists for the migration of healthcare data from its archaic paper-based system to an electronic one, and, once in digital form, to be transported anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds. The advent of universally accessible healthcare data has benefited all participants, but one of the outstanding problems that must be addressed is how the creation of a standardized nationwide electronic healthcare record system in the United States would uniquely identify and match a composite of an individual's recorded healthcare information to an identified individual patients out of approximately 300 million people to a 1:1 match. To date, a few solutions to this problem have been proposed that are limited in their effectiveness. We propose the use of biometric technology within our fingerprint, iris, retina scan, and DNA (FIRD) framework, which is a multiphase system whose primary phase is a multilayer consisting of these four types of biometric identifiers: 1) fingerprint; 2) iris; 3) retina scan; and 4) DNA. In addition, it also consists of additional phases of integration, consolidation, and data discrepancy functions to solve the unique association of a patient to their medical data distinctively. This would allow a patient to have real-time access to all of their recorded healthcare information electronically whenever it is necessary, securely with minimal effort, greater effectiveness, and ease.

  2. Biometrics can help protect and safeguard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Shaun

    2017-06-01

    Shaun Oakes, managing director at ievo, a north-east England-based manufacturer of biometric fingerprint readers, argues that growing use of biometrics technology can improve security and afford better protection to premises, valuable items, and people, across an ever-busier NHS.

  3. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    affect the visual quality of the original art. On the contrary, removable visible watermarking .... Significant motivation for using biometric features such as face, voice and signature as a watermark is that face and ... These are the major reasons which motivated us to propose multimodal biometric watermarking. When the ...

  4. Controlling Leakage of Biometric Information using Dithering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Buhan, I.R.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    Fuzzy extractors allow cryptographic keys to be generated from noisy, non-uniform biometric data. Fuzzy extractors can be used to authenticate a user to a server without storing her biometric data directly. However, in the Information Theoretic sense fuzzy extractors will leak information about the

  5. Semiparametric Copula Models for Biometric Score Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caselli, M.

    2016-01-01

    In biometric recognition systems, biometric samples (images of faces, finger- prints, voices, gaits, etc.) of people are compared and classifiers (matchers) indicate the level of similarity between any pair of samples by a score. If two samples of the same person are compared, a genuine score is

  6. Behavioural Biometrics for Application in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2013), s. 56-56 ISSN 1805-8698. [EFMI 2013 Special Topic Conference. 17.04.2013-19.04.2013, Prague] Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometrics * behavioural biometrics * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  7. Biometric and structural ocular manifestations of Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehle, Petra; Goergen, Barbara; Pilger, Daniel; Ruokonen, Peter; Robinson, Peter N.

    2017-01-01

    Background To study biometric and structural ocular manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS). Methods Observational, retrospective, comparative cohort study in a tertiary referral center on 285 MFS patients and 267 controls. Structural and biometric ocular characteristic were compared. Results MFS eyes were longer (axial length 24.25 ± 1.74 mm versus 23.89 ± 1.31 mm, p < 0.001) and had a flatter cornea than control eyes (mean keratometry 41.78 ± 1.80 diopters (D) versus 43.05 ± 1.51 D, p < 0.001). Corneal astigmatism was greater and the central cornea was thinner in MFS eyes (530.14 ± 41.31 μm versus 547.02 ± 39.18 μm, p < 0.001). MFS eyes were more myopic than control eyes (spherical equivalent -2.16 ± 3.75 D versus -1.17 ± 2.58 D, p < 0.001). Visual acuity was reduced (0.13 ± 0.25 logMAR versus 0.05 ± 0.18 logMAR, p < 0.001) and intraocular pressure was lower in MFS eyes (14.6 ± 3.4 mmHg versus 15.1 ± 3.2 mmHg, p = 0.01). Iris transillumination defects (ITD) were significantly more common in MFS eyes (odds ratio for MFS in the presence of ITD, 3.7). Ectopia lentis (EL) was only present in MFS eyes (33.4%). History of retinal detachment was significantly more common in MFS eyes. Glaucoma was equally common in both groups. Conclusions ITD and EL are most characteristic findings in MFS. ITD and corneal curvature should be studied as diagnostic criteria for MFS. Visual acuity is reduced in MFS. MFS patients need regular eye exams to identify serious ocular complications. PMID:28931008

  8. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vielhauer, Claus; Steinmetz, Ralf

    2004-12-01

    In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation), the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  9. Mobile networks for biometric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madrid, Natividad; Seepold, Ralf; Orcioni, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This book showcases new and innovative approaches to biometric data capture and analysis, focusing especially on those that are characterized by non-intrusiveness, reliable prediction algorithms, and high user acceptance. It comprises the peer-reviewed papers from the international workshop on the subject that was held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2014 and featured sessions on ICT for health care, biometric data in automotive and home applications, embedded systems for biometric data analysis, biometric data analysis: EMG and ECG, and ICT for gait analysis. The background to the book is the challenge posed by the prevention and treatment of common, widespread chronic diseases in modern, aging societies. Capture of biometric data is a cornerstone for any analysis and treatment strategy. The latest advances in sensor technology allow accurate data measurement in a non-intrusive way, and in many cases it is necessary to provide online monitoring and real-time data capturing to support a patient’s prevention pl...

  10. Handwriting: Feature Correlation Analysis for Biometric Hashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Steinmetz

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the application domain of electronic commerce, biometric authentication can provide one possible solution for the key management problem. Besides server-based approaches, methods of deriving digital keys directly from biometric measures appear to be advantageous. In this paper, we analyze one of our recently published specific algorithms of this category based on behavioral biometrics of handwriting, the biometric hash. Our interest is to investigate to which degree each of the underlying feature parameters contributes to the overall intrapersonal stability and interpersonal value space. We will briefly discuss related work in feature evaluation and introduce a new methodology based on three components: the intrapersonal scatter (deviation, the interpersonal entropy, and the correlation between both measures. Evaluation of the technique is presented based on two data sets of different size. The method presented will allow determination of effects of parameterization of the biometric system, estimation of value space boundaries, and comparison with other feature selection approaches.

  11. Biometric and intelligent decision making support

    CERN Document Server

    Kaklauskas, Arturas

    2015-01-01

    This book presents different methods for analyzing the body language (movement, position, use of personal space, silences, pauses and tone, the eyes, pupil dilation or constriction, smiles, body temperature and the like) for better understanding people’s needs and actions, including biometric data gathering and reading. Different studies described in this book indicate that sufficiently much data, information and knowledge can be gained by utilizing biometric technologies. This is the first, wide-ranging book that is devoted completely to the area of intelligent decision support systems, biometrics technologies and their integrations. This book is designated for scholars, practitioners and doctoral and master’s degree students in various areas and those who are interested in the latest biometric and intelligent decision making support problems and means for their resolutions, biometric and intelligent decision making support systems and the theory and practice of their integration and the opportunities fo...

  12. Recommendation on the Use of Biometric Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    Biometric technology is based on the use of information linked to individuals. Hence, privacy and security in biometric applications becomes a concern and the need to assess such applications thoroughly becomes equally important. Guidelines for application of biometric technology must ensure...... a positive impact on both security and privacy. Based on two cases of biometric application, which have been assessed by the Danish Data Protecting Agency, this chapter present a set of recommendations to legislators, regulators, corporations and individuals on the appropriate use of biometric technologies...... put forward by the Danish Board of Technology. The recommendations are discussed and compared to the similar proposal put forward by the European Article 29 Data Protection Working Party....

  13. A giant traumatic iris cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lott Pooi Wah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year-old construction worker presented with progressive painful blurring of vision in the left eye associated with redness for past 1 month. There was a history of penetrating injury in the same eye 10 years ago and he underwent primary wound toilet and suturing, lens removal with intraocular lens implantation. Slit lamp examination revealed a corneal scar at 9’oclock, a large transilluminant iris cyst superotemporally and adherent to corneal endothelium. It was extended from angle of the pupil and obstructing the visual axis. The patient underwent excision of an iris cyst through superior limbal incision. Viscodissection was done to separate the cyst from the corneal endothelium and underlying iris stroma. Trypan blue ophthalmic solution was injected into the cyst to stain the cyst capsule. Post operatively 7 days, vision improved to 6/7.5 without complication. There was no recurrence up to 1 year postoperation. Histopathological finding revealed a benign cyst mass lined by simple cuboidal to nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. We had achieved a good surgical outcome with no complication to date for our case study. We advocate this modified surgical method to completely remove iris cyst.

  14. IRIS Nuclear Power Plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.; Cobian, J.

    2002-01-01

    IRIS(International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a novel light water reactor with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept, initially developed in response to the first NERI solicitation, is now being pursued by an international consortium of 20 participants from seven countries. IRIS is designed to satisfy the four key requirements for Generation IV systems: enhanced safety, improved economics, proliferation resistance and waste minimization. Its main features are: small-to-medium power (100-335 MWe/module); long life core 5 to 10 years) without shuffling or refueling; optimized maintenance with repair shutdown intervals of a least four years; simplified compact design with the primary vessel housing steam generators, pressurizer and pumps; safety by design where accidents are positively eliminated by design rather than engineering to cope with their consequences; loss of coolant accidents of any size and loss of low accidents are eliminated as major safety concerns; estimated power generation total cost is projected to be competitive with other power options. IRIS is one of four new reactor designs currently under NRC review. Projected schedule calls for design certification by 2008 and being ready for deployment by 2001 or later. This rather short schedule is made possible by the fact that IRIS is based on proven light water technology and new technology development is not required. (Author)

  15. Bridging the gap: from biometrics to forensics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Ross, Arun

    2015-08-05

    Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, refers to automated recognition of individuals based on their behavioural and biological characteristics. The success of fingerprints in forensic science and law enforcement applications, coupled with growing concerns related to border control, financial fraud and cyber security, has generated a huge interest in using fingerprints, as well as other biological traits, for automated person recognition. It is, therefore, not surprising to see biometrics permeating various segments of our society. Applications include smartphone security, mobile payment, border crossing, national civil registry and access to restricted facilities. Despite these successful deployments in various fields, there are several existing challenges and new opportunities for person recognition using biometrics. In particular, when biometric data is acquired in an unconstrained environment or if the subject is uncooperative, the quality of the ensuing biometric data may not be amenable for automated person recognition. This is particularly true in crime-scene investigations, where the biological evidence gleaned from a scene may be of poor quality. In this article, we first discuss how biometrics evolved from forensic science and how its focus is shifting back to its origin in order to address some challenging problems. Next, we enumerate the similarities and differences between biometrics and forensics. We then present some applications where the principles of biometrics are being successfully leveraged into forensics in order to solve critical problems in the law enforcement domain. Finally, we discuss new collaborative opportunities for researchers in biometrics and forensics, in order to address hitherto unsolved problems that can benefit society at large. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. IRIS Final Technical Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Carelli

    2003-11-03

    OAK-B135 This NERI project, originally started as the Secure Transportable Autonomous Light Water Reactor (STAR-LW) and currently known as the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) project, had the objective of investigating a novel type of water-cooled reactor to satisfy the Generation IV goals: fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. The research objectives over the three-year (1999-2002) program were as follows: First year: Assess various design alternatives and establish main characteristics of a point design; Second year: Perform feasibility and engineering assessment of the selected design solutions; Third year: Complete reactor design and performance evaluation, including cost assessment These objectives were fully attained and actually they served to launch IRIS as a full fledged project for eventual commercial deployment. The program did not terminate in 2002 at the end of the NERI program, and has just entered in its fifth year. This has been made possible by the IRIS project participants which have grown from the original four member, two-countries team to the current twenty members, nine countries consortium. All the consortium members work under their own funding and it is estimated that the value of their in-kind contributions over the life of the project has been of the order of $30M. Currently, approximately 100 people worldwide are involved in the project. A very important constituency of the IRIS project is the academia: 7 universities from four countries are members of the consortium and five more US universities are associated via parallel NERI programs. To date, 97 students have worked or are working on IRIS; 59 IRIS-related graduate theses have been prepared or are in preparation, and 41 of these students have already graduated with M.S. (33) or Ph.D. (8) degrees. This ''final'' report (final only as far as the NERI program is concerned) summarizes the work performed

  17. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage.

  18. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database.

  19. Nonintrusive iris image acquisition system based on a pan-tilt-zoom camera and light stripe projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Soweon; Jung, Ho Gi; Park, Kang Ryoung; Kim, Jaihie

    2009-03-01

    Although iris recognition is one of the most accurate biometric technologies, it has not yet been widely used in practical applications. This is mainly due to user inconvenience during the image acquisition phase. Specifically, users try to adjust their eye position within small capture volume at a close distance from the system. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel iris image acquisition system that provides users with unconstrained environments: a large operating range, enabling movement from standing posture, and capturing good-quality iris images in an acceptable time. The proposed system has the following three contributions compared with previous works: (1) the capture volume is significantly increased by using a pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) camera guided by a light stripe projection, (2) the iris location in the large capture volume is found fast due to 1-D vertical face searching from the user's horizontal position obtained by the light stripe projection, and (3) zooming and focusing on the user's irises at a distance are accurate and fast using the estimated 3-D position of a face by the light stripe projection and the PTZ camera. Experimental results show that the proposed system can capture good-quality iris images in 2.479 s on average at a distance of 1.5 to 3 m, while allowing a limited amount of movement by the user.

  20. Biometric features and privacy : condemned, based upon your finger print

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullee, Jan-Willem; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    What information is available in biometric features besides that needed for the biometric recognition process? What if a biometric feature contains Personally Identifiable Information? Will the whole biometric system become a threat to privacy? This paper is an attempt to quantifiy the link between

  1. Privacy-leakage codes for biometric authentication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    In biometric privacy-preserving authentication systems that are based on key-binding, two terminals observe two correlated biometric sequences. The first terminal selects a secret key, which is independent of the biometric data, binds this secret key to the observed biometric sequence and

  2. A novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, E. S.

    2010-02-01

    Unlike user created password, number of biometrics is limited for creating account in different organizations. Transformed biometrics attempts to solve the problem by transforming the biometric into another form, which is unique to the particular organization. This makes the availability of different transformed biometrics in different organizations transformed from the same biometrics and helps in foolproof transactions. In this article a novel approach to transformed biometrics using successive projection technique is suggested .In the proposed technique, the user can register up to 5*4n-1 organizations if the length of the biometric password is 'n'.

  3. Novel continuous authentication using biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Prakash; Patidar, Rinku; Mishra, Vikas; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    We explore whether a classifier can consistent1y verify c1ients and interact with the computer using camera and behavior of users. In this paper we propose a new way of authentication of user which wi1l capture many images of user in random time and ana1ysis of its touch biometric behavior. In this system experiment the touch conduct of a c1ient/user between an en1istment stage is stored in the database and it is checked its mean time behavior during equa1 partition of time. This touch behavior wi1l ab1e to accept or reject the user. This wi1l modify the use of biometric more accurate to use. In this system the work p1an going to perform is the user wi1l ask single time to a1low to take it picture before 1ogin. Then it wi1l take images of user without permission of user automatica1ly and store in the database. This images and existing image of user wi1l be compare and reject or accept wi1l depend on its comparison. The user touch behavior wi1l keep storing with number of touch make in equa1 amount of time of the user. This touch behavior and image wi1l fina1ly perform authentication of the user automatically.

  4. Soft Biometrics; Human Identification Using Comparative Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Daniel A; Nixon, Mark S; Stevenage, Sarah V

    2014-06-01

    Soft biometrics are a new form of biometric identification which use physical or behavioral traits that can be naturally described by humans. Unlike other biometric approaches, this allows identification based solely on verbal descriptions, bridging the semantic gap between biometrics and human description. To permit soft biometric identification the description must be accurate, yet conventional human descriptions comprising of absolute labels and estimations are often unreliable. A novel method of obtaining human descriptions will be introduced which utilizes comparative categorical labels to describe differences between subjects. This innovative approach has been shown to address many problems associated with absolute categorical labels-most critically, the descriptions contain more objective information and have increased discriminatory capabilities. Relative measurements of the subjects' traits can be inferred from comparative human descriptions using the Elo rating system. The resulting soft biometric signatures have been demonstrated to be robust and allow accurate recognition of subjects. Relative measurements can also be obtained from other forms of human representation. This is demonstrated using a support vector machine to determine relative measurements from gait biometric signatures-allowing retrieval of subjects from video footage by using human comparisons, bridging the semantic gap.

  5. Using Biometric Characteristics to Increase ITS Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bača

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, Districtof Columbia on the morning of September 11, 2001 havechanged our lives. The secwity problem became very importantregarding all spheres of human activities. Tracking persons(employees, customers etc. in ITS (Intelligent Transport Systemis a huge problem. Biometrics offers a very good solutionfor this problem and is today maybe one of the most promisingtechniques for person's secure verification and authentication;biometric system also features some advantages when comparedto other security systems. When using a biometric systemone has to be careful because the functionality of a biometricapplication can be dramatically aggravated if inappropriatebiometric features are selected. Classification of biometric featureson contact and contactless, or distinction between"strong" and "soft" biometric features gives a framework for usingbiometric features, but it does not ensure that biometric featŁtres are implemented at a satisfactory level. The usage ofmultimodal or unimodal biometric system can significantly increasethe system security but it also opens plenty of questionslike privacy etc. This paper describes the implementation ofbiometric features which can be used in ITS, and delineates anew model of usage.

  6. Comparative analysis of the quality of biometric methods

    OpenAIRE

    Filipčík, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The main objective is to describe and analyze the types of biometric identification and selected biometric methods and identify their strengths and weaknesses compared to the current document type of identification and verification of persons and compared to other biometric methods and then focus on the relationships and support of biometric methods in terms of IS / ICT services. The work will consist of 5 types of biometric methods namely dactyloscopy, hand geometry scanning, facial scanning...

  7. Iris reconstruction using artificial iris prosthesis for management of aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Yehia S; Osman, Amr A; Hassanein, Dina H; Zeid, Ashraf M; Sherif, Ahmed M

    2018-01-01

    To discuss the limitations and benefits of the BrightOcular prosthetic artificial iris device in management of aniridia associated with aphakia or cataract. This is a retrospective study including 5 eyes of 4 patients who underwent implantation of the BrightOcular iris prosthesis (Stellar Devices) for total or partial aniridia. The cases included 2 eyes of 1 patient with congenital aniridia associated with congenital cataract and 3 eyes with traumatic aniridia: 1 with subluxated cataractous lens and 2 with aphakia. In all cases, the iris prosthesis was implanted after a 3-piece acrylic intraocular lens was implanted. We evaluated the clinical course with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, the intraoperative and postoperative complications, and the cosmetic satisfaction of patients. All patients had improved uncorrected distance visual acuity and best-corrected distance visual acuity. All patients had a transient corneal edema that resolved within the first postoperative week. Only the patient with congenital aniridia had a permanent increase in intraocular pressure and developed a band keratopathy throughout a 2-year follow-up period. The prosthesis was well-centered in all eyes except for one case that required scleral suture fixation after 3 months. All patients had a satisfactory cosmetic appearance. BrightOcular iris prosthesis is a safe and useful tool to correct aniridia associated with pseudophakia or aphakia. Being foldable, it is easy to be implanted through a small incision and placed in the ciliary sulcus without sutures when properly sized. Cosmetic results are satisfactory. Sizing methods should be improved.

  8. Data Acquisition for Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor); Grodsinsky, Carlos M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to collect data asynchronously, via the bus, from the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules according to a relative fullness of the memory of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  9. Biometric Systems Private by Design: Reasoning about privacy properties of biometric system architectures

    OpenAIRE

    Bringer, Julien; Chabanne, Herve; Metayer, Daniel Le; Lescuyer, Roch

    2017-01-01

    This work aims to show the applicability, and how, of privacy by design approach to biometric systems and the benefit of using formal methods to this end. Starting from a general framework that has been introduced at STM in 2014, that enables to define privacy architectures and to formally reason about their properties, we explain how it can be adapted to biometrics. The choice of particular techniques and the role of the components (central server, secure module, biometric terminal, smart ca...

  10. Multi-image encryption based on synchronization of chaotic lasers and iris authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Santo; Mukhopadhyay, Sumona; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2012-07-01

    A new technique of transmitting encrypted combinations of gray scaled and chromatic images using chaotic lasers derived from Maxwell-Bloch's equations has been proposed. This novel scheme utilizes the general method of solution of a set of linear equations to transmit similar sized heterogeneous images which are a combination of monochrome and chromatic images. The chaos encrypted gray scaled images are concatenated along the three color planes resulting in color images. These are then transmitted over a secure channel along with a cover image which is an iris scan. The entire cryptology is augmented with an iris-based authentication scheme. The secret messages are retrieved once the authentication is successful. The objective of our work is briefly outlined as (a) the biometric information is the iris which is encrypted before transmission, (b) the iris is used for personal identification and verifying for message integrity, (c) the information is transmitted securely which are colored images resulting from a combination of gray images, (d) each of the images transmitted are encrypted through chaos based cryptography, (e) these encrypted multiple images are then coupled with the iris through linear combination of images before being communicated over the network. The several layers of encryption together with the ergodicity and randomness of chaos render enough confusion and diffusion properties which guarantee a fool-proof approach in achieving secure communication as demonstrated by exhaustive statistical methods. The result is vital from the perspective of opening a fundamental new dimension in multiplexing and simultaneous transmission of several monochromatic and chromatic images along with biometry based authentication and cryptography.

  11. Lentes plegables suturadas a iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunia Cruz Izquierdo

    Full Text Available Para la corrección quirúrgica de la afaquia existen en la actualidad varias técnicas quirúrgicas que permiten fijar los lentes intraoculares plegables o rígidos en cámara posterior suturados al iris o al sulcus ciliar. En estas circunstancias el cirujano determinará cuándo, dónde y el tipo de lente mejor a implantar. Se presenta un paciente con una afaquia traumática del ojo izquierdo, con agudeza visual sin corrección de movimiento de mano a 1 m. Se le realizó implante secundario de lente intraocular plegable de cámara posterior suturada al iris. En el examen biomicroscópico en lámpara de hendidura del ojo izquierdo se observó midriasis media paralítica, refracción dinámica de +11,00 (0,6 y tensión ocular normal. Se le realizó examen por bimicroscopía indirecta sin alteración. Al mes de operado la agudeza visual mejor corregida alcanzó la unidad de visión. Las complicaciones presentadas fueron ovalización de la pupila y depósitos de pigmentos de iris en el lente intraocular.

  12. DCT-based iris recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monro, Donald M; Rakshit, Soumyadip; Zhang, Dexin

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a novel iris coding method based on differences of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of overlapped angular patches from normalized iris images. The feature extraction capabilities of the DCT are optimized on the two largest publicly available iris image data sets, 2,156 images of 308 eyes from the CASIA database and 2,955 images of 150 eyes from the Bath database. On this data, we achieve 100 percent Correct Recognition Rate (CRR) and perfect Receiver-Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curves with no registered false accepts or rejects. Individual feature bit and patch position parameters are optimized for matching through a product-of-sum approach to Hamming distance calculation. For verification, a variable threshold is applied to the distance metric and the False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR) are recorded. A new worst-case metric is proposed for predicting practical system performance in the absence of matching failures, and the worst case theoretical Equal Error Rate (EER) is predicted to be as low as 2.59 x 10(-4) on the available data sets.

  13. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Böckerman

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905 and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980 are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001. Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986 on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  14. The biometric antecedents to happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckerman, Petri; Bryson, Alex; Viinikainen, Jutta; Hakulinen, Christian; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pehkonen, Jaakko; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that biological markers are associated with human happiness. We contribute to the empirical literature by examining the independent association between various aspects of biometric wellbeing measured in childhood and happiness in adulthood. Using Young Finns Study data (n = 1905) and nationally representative linked data we examine whether eight biomarkers measured in childhood (1980) are associated with happiness in adulthood (2001). Using linked data we account for a very rich set of confounders including age, sex, body size, family background, nutritional intake, physical activity, income, education and labour market experiences. We find that there is a negative relationship between triglycerides and subjective well-being but it is both gender- and age-specific and the relationship does not prevail using the later measurements (1983/1986) on triglycerides. In summary, we conclude that none of the eight biomarkers measured in childhood predict happiness robustly in adulthood.

  15. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  16. PLATEAU IRIS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Systematic review methodology: Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Conclusions: Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty PMID:27373109

  17. PLATEAU IRIS--DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Cornel; Iliescu, Daniela Adriana; Batras, Mehdi; Timaru, Cristina Mihaela; De Simone, Algerino

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to review the current knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment options of plateau iris configuration and syndrome. Relevant publications on plateau iris that were published until 2014. Plateau iris syndrome is a form of primary angle closure glaucoma caused by a large or anteriorly positioned ciliary body that leads to mechanical obstruction of trabecular meshwork. This condition is most often found in younger patients. Plateau iris has been considered an abnormal anatomic variant of the iris that can be diagnosed on ultrasound biomicroscopy or optical coherence tomography of anterior segment. Patients with plateau iris syndrome can be recognized by the lack of response in angle opening after iridotomy. The treatment of choice in these cases is argon laser peripheral iridoplasty.

  18. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  19. Genetic Background of Iris Melanomas and Iris Melanocytic Tumors of Uncertain Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Poppelen, Natasha M; Vaarwater, Jolanda; Mudhar, Hardeep S; Sisley, Karen; Rennie, Ian G; Rundle, Paul; Brands, Tom; van den Bosch, Quincy C C; Mensink, Hanneke W; de Klein, Annelies; Kiliç, Emine; Verdijk, Robert M

    2018-01-19

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Iris melanoma comprises 4% to 10% of all UMs and has a lower mortality rate. The genetic changes in iris melanoma are not as well characterized as ciliary body or choroidal melanoma. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the genetic background of iris melanoma and iris nevi. Multicenter, retrospective case series. Patients diagnosed with iris melanoma or iris nevi who underwent surgical intervention as primary or secondary treatment. Next-generation sequencing of GNAQ, GNA11, EIF1AX, SF3B1, BAP1, NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-Kit, TP53, and TERT was performed on 30 iris melanomas and 7 iris nevi. Copy number status was detected using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel, SNP array, or fluorescent in situ hybridization. BAP1 immunohistochemistry was performed on all samples. Mutation and copy number status were analyzed. Results of BAP1 immunohistochemistry were used for survival analysis. In 26 of the 30 iris melanoma and all iris nevi, at least 1 mutation was identified. Multiple mutations were detected in 23 iris melanoma and 5 nevi, as well as mutations in GNAQ and GNA11. Furthermore, 13 of 30 BAP1, 5 of 30 EIF1AX, and 2 of 30 SF3B1 mutations were identified in iris melanoma. No correlation between BAP1 status and disease-free survival was found. The iris nevi showed 1 EIF1AX and 3 BAP1 mutations. Two of the nevi, with a BAP1 mutation, were histologically borderline malignant. Mutations in NRAS, BRAF, PTEN, c-KIT, and TP53 were detected in 6 iris melanomas and 4 iris nevi. Mutations that are often found in uveal and cutaneous melanoma were identified in this cohort of iris melanomas and iris nevi. Therefore, iris melanomas harbor a molecular profile comparable to both choroidal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma. These findings may offer adjuvant targeted therapies for iris melanoma. There was no prognostic significance of

  20. Update on the US Government's Biometric Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    .... The goals of the consortium remain largely the same under this new leadership. The current emphasis is on the formal approval of our charter and on the establishment of a national biometric test and evaluation laboratory.

  1. Autopoietic Theory as a Framework for Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schatten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Autopoietic theory which represents a framework for describing complex non-linear and especially living systems is described in a context of biometric characteristics. It is argued that any living system by performing an internal process of reproducing its structural components yields physical biometric characteristics. Likewise any living system when structurally coupling to another (eventually allopoietic system yields a behavioral or psychological characteristic of the living system. It is shown that any system that can be considered as autopoietic can potentially be measured, authenticated and/or identified using adequate biometric methods, and thus biometrics is applicable to any autopoietic system: living beings, groups of living beings, social systems, organizations as well as information systems. In the end implications of such a conceptualization are discussed as well as possible applications.

  2. Voice Biometrics for Information Assurance Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kang, George

    2002-01-01

    In 2002, the President of the United States established an organization within the DOD to develop and promulgate biometrics technologies to achieve security in information, information systems, weapons, and facilities...

  3. Biometric recognition via fixation density maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, Ioannis; Komogortsev, Oleg V.

    2014-05-01

    This work introduces and evaluates a novel eye movement-driven biometric approach that employs eye fixation density maps for person identification. The proposed feature offers a dynamic representation of the biometric identity, storing rich information regarding the behavioral and physical eye movement characteristics of the individuals. The innate ability of fixation density maps to capture the spatial layout of the eye movements in conjunction with their probabilistic nature makes them a particularly suitable option as an eye movement biometrical trait in cases when free-viewing stimuli is presented. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, the method is evaluated on three different datasets containing a wide gamut of stimuli types, such as static images, video and text segments. The obtained results indicate a minimum EER (Equal Error Rate) of 18.3 %, revealing the perspectives on the utilization of fixation density maps as an enhancing biometrical cue during identification scenarios in dynamic visual environments.

  4. Ear biometrics for patient identification in global health: a cross-sectional study to test the feasibility of a simplified algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan, Elizabeth J; Johnson, Courtney; Milton, Jacqueline N; Gill, Christopher J

    2016-11-02

    One of the greatest public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is identifying people over time and space. Recent years have seen an explosion of interest in developing electronic approaches to addressing this problem, with mobile technology at the forefront of these efforts. We investigate the possibility of biometrics as a simple, cost-efficient, and portable solution. Common biometrics approaches include fingerprinting, iris scanning and facial recognition, but all are less than ideal due to complexity, infringement on privacy, cost, or portability. Ear biometrics, however, proved to be a unique and viable solution. We developed an identification algorithm then conducted a cross sectional study in which we photographed left and right ears from 25 consenting adults. We then conducted re-identification and statistical analyses to identify the accuracy and replicability of our approach. Through principal component analysis, we found the curve of the ear helix to be the most reliable anatomical structure and the basis for re-identification. Although an individual ear allowed for high re-identification rate (88.3%), when both left and right ears were paired together, our rate of re-identification amidst the pool of potential matches was 100%. The results of this study have implications on future efforts towards building a biometrics solution for patient identification in LMICs. We provide a conceptual platform for further investigation into the development of an ear biometrics identification mobile application.

  5. Biometrics IRB best practices and data protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnen, Christopher; Bolme, David; Flynn, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    The collection of data from human subjects for biometrics research in the United States requires the development of a data collection protocol that is reviewed by a Human Subjects Institutional Review Board (IRB). The IRB reviews the protocol for risks and approves it if it meets the criteria for approval specified in the relevant Federal regulations (45 CFR 46). Many other countries operate similar mechanisms for the protection of human subjects. IRBs review protocols for safety, confidentiality, and for minimization of risk associated with identity disclosure. Since biometric measurements are potentially identifying, IRB scrutiny of biometrics data collection protocols can be expected to be thorough. This paper discusses the intricacies of IRB best practices within the worldwide biometrics community. This is important because research decisions involving human subjects are made at a local level and do not set a precedent for decisions made by another IRB board. In many cases, what one board approves is not approved by another board, resulting in significant inconsistencies that prove detrimental to both researchers and human subjects. Furthermore, the level of biometrics expertise may be low on IRBs, which can contribute to the unevenness of reviews. This publication will suggest possible best practices for designing and seeking IRB approval for human subjects research involving biometrics measurements. The views expressed are the opinions of the authors.

  6. Crop Biometric Maps: The Key to Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rovira-Más

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular “identity.” This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  7. Transfer learning for bimodal biometrics recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Zhiping; Sun, Shuifa; Chen, Yanfei; Gan, Haitao

    2013-10-01

    Biometrics recognition aims to identify and predict new personal identities based on their existing knowledge. As the use of multiple biometric traits of the individual may enables more information to be used for recognition, it has been proved that multi-biometrics can produce higher accuracy than single biometrics. However, a common problem with traditional machine learning is that the training and test data should be in the same feature space, and have the same underlying distribution. If the distributions and features are different between training and future data, the model performance often drops. In this paper, we propose a transfer learning method for face recognition on bimodal biometrics. The training and test samples of bimodal biometric images are composed of the visible light face images and the infrared face images. Our algorithm transfers the knowledge across feature spaces, relaxing the assumption of same feature space as well as same underlying distribution by automatically learning a mapping between two different but somewhat similar face images. According to the experiments in the face images, the results show that the accuracy of face recognition has been greatly improved by the proposed method compared with the other previous methods. It demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our method.

  8. Crop biometric maps: the key to prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira-Más, Francisco; Sáiz-Rubio, Verónica

    2013-09-23

    The sustainability of agricultural production in the twenty-first century, both in industrialized and developing countries, benefits from the integration of farm management with information technology such that individual plants, rows, or subfields may be endowed with a singular "identity." This approach approximates the nature of agricultural processes to the engineering of industrial processes. In order to cope with the vast variability of nature and the uncertainties of agricultural production, the concept of crop biometrics is defined as the scientific analysis of agricultural observations confined to spaces of reduced dimensions and known position with the purpose of building prediction models. This article develops the idea of crop biometrics by setting its principles, discussing the selection and quantization of biometric traits, and analyzing the mathematical relationships among measured and predicted traits. Crop biometric maps were applied to the case of a wine-production vineyard, in which vegetation amount, relative altitude in the field, soil compaction, berry size, grape yield, juice pH, and grape sugar content were selected as biometric traits. The enological potential of grapes was assessed with a quality-index map defined as a combination of titratable acidity, sugar content, and must pH. Prediction models for yield and quality were developed for high and low resolution maps, showing the great potential of crop biometric maps as a strategic tool for vineyard growers as well as for crop managers in general, due to the wide versatility of the methodology proposed.

  9. Wavelet Types Comparison for Extracting Iris Feature Based on Energy Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal Isnanto, R.

    2015-06-01

    Human iris has a very unique pattern which is possible to be used as a biometric recognition. To identify texture in an image, texture analysis method can be used. One of method is wavelet that extract the image feature based on energy. Wavelet transforms used are Haar, Daubechies, Coiflets, Symlets, and Biorthogonal. In the research, iris recognition based on five mentioned wavelets was done and then comparison analysis was conducted for which some conclusions taken. Some steps have to be done in the research. First, the iris image is segmented from eye image then enhanced with histogram equalization. The features obtained is energy value. The next step is recognition using normalized Euclidean distance. Comparison analysis is done based on recognition rate percentage with two samples stored in database for reference images. After finding the recognition rate, some tests are conducted using Energy Compaction for all five types of wavelets above. As the result, the highest recognition rate is achieved using Haar, whereas for coefficients cutting for C(i) < 0.1, Haar wavelet has a highest percentage, therefore the retention rate or significan coefficient retained for Haaris lower than other wavelet types (db5, coif3, sym4, and bior2.4)

  10. Multimodal Biometric System- Fusion Of Face And Fingerprint Biometrics At Match Score Fusion Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Wangari Mwaura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics has developed to be one of the most relevant technologies used in Information Technology IT security. Unimodal biometric systems have a variety of problems which decreases the performance and accuracy of these system. One way to overcome the limitations of the unimodal biometric systems is through fusion to form a multimodal biometric system. Generally biometric fusion is defined as the use of multiple types of biometric data or ways of processing the data to improve the performance of biometric systems. This paper proposes to develop a model for fusion of the face and fingerprint biometric at the match score fusion level. The face and fingerprint unimodal in the proposed model are built using scale invariant feature transform SIFT algorithm and the hamming distance to measure the distance between key points. To evaluate the performance of the multimodal system the FAR and FRR of the multimodal are compared along those of the individual unimodal systems. It has been established that the multimodal has a higher accuracy of 92.5 compared to the face unimodal system at 90 while the fingerprint unimodal system is at 82.5.

  11. The relation between the secrecy rate of biometric template protection and biometric recognition performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical result relating the maximum achievable security of the family of biometric template protection systems known as key-binding systems to the recognition performance of a biometric recognition system that is optimal in Neyman-Pearson sense is derived. The relation allows for the

  12. Engineering a Light-Attenuating Artificial Iris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shareef, Farah J.; Sun, Shan; Kotecha, Mrignayani; Kassem, Iris; Azar, Dimitri; Cho, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Discomfort from light exposure leads to photophobia, glare, and poor vision in patients with congenital or trauma-induced iris damage. Commercial artificial iris lenses are static in nature to provide aesthetics without restoring the natural iris's dynamic response to light. A new photo-responsive artificial iris was therefore developed using a photochromic material with self-adaptive light transmission properties and encased in a transparent biocompatible polymer matrix. Methods The implantable artificial iris was designed and engineered using Photopia, a class of photo-responsive materials (termed naphthopyrans) embedded in polyethylene. Photopia was reshaped into annular disks that were spin-coated with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form our artificial iris lens of controlled thickness. Results Activated by UV and blue light in approximately 5 seconds with complete reversal in less than 1 minute, the artificial iris demonstrates graded attenuation of up to 40% of visible and 60% of UV light. There optical characteristics are suitable to reversibly regulate the incident light intensity. In vitro cell culture experiments showed up to 60% cell death within 10 days of exposure to Photopia, but no significant cell death observed when cultured with the artificial iris with protective encapsulation. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed these results as there was no apparent leakage of potentially toxic photochromic material from the ophthalmic device. Conclusions Our artificial iris lens mimics the functionality of the natural iris by attenuating light intensity entering the eye with its rapid reversible change in opacity and thus potentially providing an improved treatment option for patients with iris damage. PMID:27116547

  13. Image Quality Assessment for Fake Biometric Detection: Application to Iris, Fingerprint, and Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Galbally, Javier; Marcel, Sebastien; Fierrez, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. To ensure the actual presence of a real legitimate trait in contrast to a fake self-manufactured synthetic or reconstructed...

  14. Iris Image Classification Based on Hierarchical Visual Codebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenan Sun; Hui Zhang; Tieniu Tan; Jianyu Wang

    2014-06-01

    Iris recognition as a reliable method for personal identification has been well-studied with the objective to assign the class label of each iris image to a unique subject. In contrast, iris image classification aims to classify an iris image to an application specific category, e.g., iris liveness detection (classification of genuine and fake iris images), race classification (e.g., classification of iris images of Asian and non-Asian subjects), coarse-to-fine iris identification (classification of all iris images in the central database into multiple categories). This paper proposes a general framework for iris image classification based on texture analysis. A novel texture pattern representation method called Hierarchical Visual Codebook (HVC) is proposed to encode the texture primitives of iris images. The proposed HVC method is an integration of two existing Bag-of-Words models, namely Vocabulary Tree (VT), and Locality-constrained Linear Coding (LLC). The HVC adopts a coarse-to-fine visual coding strategy and takes advantages of both VT and LLC for accurate and sparse representation of iris texture. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed iris image classification method achieves state-of-the-art performance for iris liveness detection, race classification, and coarse-to-fine iris identification. A comprehensive fake iris image database simulating four types of iris spoof attacks is developed as the benchmark for research of iris liveness detection.

  15. [Surgical treatment with an artificial iris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, C S; Hoffmann, A E

    2015-10-01

    Iris defects with their disturbed pupillary function, visual impairment and glare constitute a therapeutic challenge in surgical reconstruction. A new therapeutic option for distinctive defects consists in the implantation of a custom-made silicone iris. This new and challenging therapy provides the opportunity to achieve an individual, aesthetically appealing and good functional result for the patient.

  16. Feature Vector Construction Method for IRIS Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odinokikh, G.; Fartukov, A.; Korobkin, M.; Yoo, J.

    2017-05-01

    One of the basic stages of iris recognition pipeline is iris feature vector construction procedure. The procedure represents the extraction of iris texture information relevant to its subsequent comparison. Thorough investigation of feature vectors obtained from iris showed that not all the vector elements are equally relevant. There are two characteristics which determine the vector element utility: fragility and discriminability. Conventional iris feature extraction methods consider the concept of fragility as the feature vector instability without respect to the nature of such instability appearance. This work separates sources of the instability into natural and encodinginduced which helps deeply investigate each source of instability independently. According to the separation concept, a novel approach of iris feature vector construction is proposed. The approach consists of two steps: iris feature extraction using Gabor filtering with optimal parameters and quantization with separated preliminary optimized fragility thresholds. The proposed method has been tested on two different datasets of iris images captured under changing environmental conditions. The testing results show that the proposed method surpasses all the methods considered as a prior art by recognition accuracy on both datasets.

  17. Efficient Iris Localization via Optimization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Iris localization is one of the most important processes in iris recognition. Because of different kinds of noises in iris image, the localization result may be wrong. Besides this, localization process is time-consuming. To solve these problems, this paper develops an efficient iris localization algorithm via optimization model. Firstly, the localization problem is modeled by an optimization model. Then SIFT feature is selected to represent the characteristic information of iris outer boundary and eyelid for localization. And SDM (Supervised Descent Method algorithm is employed to solve the final points of outer boundary and eyelids. Finally, IRLS (Iterative Reweighted Least-Square is used to obtain the parameters of outer boundary and upper and lower eyelids. Experimental result indicates that the proposed algorithm is efficient and effective.

  18. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Development Process. Comments received from other Federal agencies and White House Offices are provided below with external peer review panel comments. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for tetrahydrofuran. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effects that may result from chronic (or lifetime) exposure to chemicals in the environment. IRIS contains chemical-specific summaries of qualitative and quantitative health information in support of two steps of the risk assessment paradigm, i.e., hazard identification and dose-response evaluation. IRIS assessments are used in combination with specific situational exposure assessment information to evaluate potential public health risk associated with environmental contaminants.

  19. Biometrics in support of special forces medical operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershner, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Recommendations on ways in which the ODA can leverage biometrics in medical operations to improve their security, improve relations with indigenous personnel, and contribute to the larger theater biometrics program. 2012.

  20. Review of modern biometric user authentication and their development prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z. V.; Sokolov, S. S.; Nyrkov, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    This article discusses the possibility of using biometric information technologies in management. Made a brief overview of access control and time attendance. Analyzed biometrics and identification system user. Recommendations on the use of various systems depending on the specific tasks.

  1. Application of Some Biometric Indices in the Assessment of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Some Biometric Indices in the Assessment of the Water Quality of the Benin River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... Username, Password, Remember me, or Register ... Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP) using some biometric indices ...

  2. IRI STORM validation over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralambous, Haris; Vryonides, Photos; Demetrescu, Crişan; Dobrică, Venera; Maris, Georgeta; Ionescu, Diana

    2014-05-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model includes an empirical Storm-Time Ionospheric Correction Model (STORM) extension to account for storm-time changes of the F layer peak electron density (NmF2) during increased geomagnetic activity. This model extension is driven by past history values of the geomagnetic index ap (The magnetic index applied is the integral of ap over the previous 33 hours with a weighting function deduced from physically based modeling) and it adjusts the quiet-time F layer peak electron density (NmF2) to account for storm-time changes in the ionosphere. In this investigation manually scaled hourly values of NmF2 measured during the main and recovery phases of selected storms for the maximum solar activity period of the current solar cycle are compared with the predicted IRI-2012 NmF2 over European ionospheric stations using the STORM model option. Based on the comparison a subsequent performance evaluation of the STORM option during this period is quantified.

  3. Securing information using optically generated biometric keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Sinha, Aloka

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we present a new technique to obtain biometric keys by using the fingerprint of a person for an optical image encryption system. The key generation scheme uses the fingerprint biometric information in terms of the amplitude mask (AM) and the phase mask (PM) of the reconstructed fingerprint image that is implemented using the digital holographic technique. Statistical tests have been conducted to check the randomness of the fingerprint PM key that enables its usage as an image encryption key. To explore the utility of the generated biometric keys, an optical image encryption system has been further demonstrated based on the phase retrieval algorithm and the double random phase encoding scheme in which keys for the encryption are used as the AM and the PM key. The advantage associated with the proposed scheme is that the biometric keys’ retrieval requires the simultaneous presence of the fingerprint hologram and the correct knowledge of the reconstruction parameters at the decryption stage, which not only verifies the authenticity of the person but also protects the valuable fingerprint biometric features of the keys. Numerical results are carried out to prove the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed encryption system.

  4. The ocular biometric differences of diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocatürk, Tolga; Zengin, Mehmet Özgür; Cakmak, Harun; Evliçoglu, Gökhan Evren; Dündar, Sema Oruç; Omürlü, Imran Kurt; Unübol, Mustafa; Güney, Engin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the differences in ocular biometric and keratometric characteristics in comparison with biometric measurements using the noncontact optical low coherence reflectometer (OLCR) (Lenstar LS 900, Haag-Streit) on diabetic patients. The eyes of 170 patients were included in this study, including 81 diabetic and 89 nondiabetic subjects. Optical biometric measurements of diabetic and nondiabetic patients (between the ages of 25 and 85 years) who applied to the ophthalmology clinic were noted from March to June 2013. Detailed ophthalmologic examinations were done for every subject. Biometric measurements were done using the noncontact OLCR device. Patient age ranged from 29 to 83 years. Subgroup analyses were done in diabetic patients according to their Hba1C levels. The minimum Hba1C value was 5.3, maximum was 12.4, and mean was 7.56 ± 1.48. The median duration of diabetes was 5 years (25th-75th percentile 3.00-11.75). Diabetic patients were found to have thicker lens and shallower anterior chamber in both eyes compared to nondiabetic control subjects. There were no statistical differences between the groups according to central corneal thickness, axial length, or keratometric values in both eyes. However, lens thicknesses were found to be thicker and anterior chamber depth values were found to be shallower in the diabetic group in both eyes. It may useful to determine eyeglasses prescription, refractive surgery calculation, lens selection, and previous cataract surgery according to biometric measurements after the regulation of blood glucose.

  5. Entropy Measurement for Biometric Verification Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Meng-Hui; Yuen, Pong C

    2016-05-01

    Biometric verification systems are designed to accept multiple similar biometric measurements per user due to inherent intrauser variations in the biometric data. This is important to preserve reasonable acceptance rate of genuine queries and the overall feasibility of the recognition system. However, such acceptance of multiple similar measurements decreases the imposter's difficulty of obtaining a system-acceptable measurement, thus resulting in a degraded security level. This deteriorated security needs to be measurable to provide truthful security assurance to the users. Entropy is a standard measure of security. However, the entropy formula is applicable only when there is a single acceptable possibility. In this paper, we develop an entropy-measuring model for biometric systems that accepts multiple similar measurements per user. Based on the idea of guessing entropy, the proposed model quantifies biometric system security in terms of adversarial guessing effort for two practical attacks. Excellent agreement between analytic and experimental simulation-based measurement results on a synthetic and a benchmark face dataset justify the correctness of our model and thus the feasibility of the proposed entropy-measuring approach.

  6. Multi-biometrics based cryptographic key regeneration scheme

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade , Sanjay Ganesh; Petrovska-Delacrétaz , Dijana; Dorizzi , Bernadette

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Biometrics lack revocability and privacy while cryptography cannot detect the user's identity. By obtaining cryptographic keys using biometrics, one can achieve the properties such as revocability, assurance about user's identity, and privacy. In this paper, we propose a multi-biometric based cryptographic key regeneration scheme. Since left and right irises of a person are uncorrelated, we treat them as two independent biometrics and combine in our system. We propose ...

  7. On the Quantification of Aging Effects on Biometric Features

    OpenAIRE

    Lanitis , Andreas; Tsapatsoulis , Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Biometric templates are often used in intelligent human computer interaction systems that include automated access control and personalization of user interaction. The effectiveness of biometric systems is directly linked with aging that causes modifications on biometric features. For example the long term performance of person identification systems decreases as biometric templates derived from aged subjects may display substantial differences when compared to referen...

  8. Biometrics and their use in e-passports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, B.A.M.; Jacobs, B.P.F.

    2009-01-01

    A successful design, deployment and operation of biometric systems depends highly on the results for existing biometrical technologies and components. These existing technologies as well as new solutions need to be evaluated on their performance. However it is often forgotten that the biometric

  9. Biometrics and their use in e-passports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Bart Jacobs; B.A.M. Ben Schouten

    2007-01-01

    A succesful design, deployment and operation of biometric systems depends highly on the results for existing biometrical technologies and components. These existing technologies as well as new solutions need to be evaluated on their performance. However it is often forgotten that the biometric

  10. Biometrics in Forensic Science: Challenges, Lessons and New Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tistarelli, Massimo; Grosso, Enrico; Meuwly, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics has historically found its natural mate in Forensics. The first applications found in the literature and over cited so many times, are related to biometric measurements for the identification of multiple offenders from some of their biometric and anthropometric characteristics (tenprint

  11. 75 FR 39323 - Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7047] Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice of Amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. This public notice announces an amendment to the Biometric Visa Program. Section 303 of the Enhanced Border Security and Visa...

  12. Secret-key rates and privacy leakage in biometric systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis both the generation of secret keys from biometric data and the binding of secret keys to biometric data are investigated. These secret keys can be used to regulate access to sensitive data, services, and environments. In a biometric secrecy system a secret key is generated or chosen

  13. Biometric security from an information-theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ignatenko, T.; Willems, F.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, biometric systems are studied from an information theoretical point of view. In the first part biometric authentication systems are studied. The objective of these systems is, observing correlated enrollment and authentication biometric sequences, to generate or convey as large as

  14. Relationship of the Van Herick Grading System with Peripheral Iris Configuration and Level of Iris Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faisal Aziz; Niazi, Shafaq Pervez Khan; Khan, Assad Zaman

    2017-09-01

    To determine the relationship of the van Herick angle grading system with the level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Observational study. Eye department, Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt., Karachi, from May to October 2015. Sixty-five eyes of 65 patients were recruited. Anterior chamber depth at the temporal limbus was measured as a fraction of corneal section thickness using van Herick technique and graded on the standard 4-point scale of the van Herick grading system. Gonioscopy of the temporal quadrant was performed with a Posner 4 mirror goniolens and both the true level of iris insertion and peripheral iris configuration were recorded on a 4-point scale so as to equate with the van Herick 4-point grading system. Spearman's rho test was applied to determine the relationship of the van Herick grading system with level of iris root insertion and peripheral iris configuration. Amoderate positive correlation between van Herick grade and peripheral iris configuration was found which was statistically significant (rs=0.42, p < 0.001). Astatistically significant and moderate positive correlation was also detected between van Herick grade and the level of iris insertion (rs=0.45, p < 0.001). The van Herick grade has a moderately positive relationship with the peripheral iris configuration and true level of iris insertion.

  15. Biometric identification using local iterated function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saidi, N. M. G.; Said, M. R. M.

    2014-06-01

    Biometric identification protocol has been received an increasing interest recently. It is a process that determines person identity by making use of their biometric features. A new biometric identification method is presented in this paper based on partial self-similarity that used to identify features within fingerprint images. This approach is already used in Fractal Image Compression (FIC) due to their ability to represent the images by a limited number of affine transformations, and its variation of scale, translation or rotation. These features give the recognition process high impact and good performance. To process data in a fingerprint image, it first converted into digital format using Optical Fingerprint Reader (OFR). The verification process is done by comparing these data with the server data. The system analysis shows that the proposed method is efficient in terms of memory and time complexity.

  16. A survey of keystroke dynamics biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Pin Shen; Teoh, Andrew Beng Jin; Yue, Shigang

    2013-01-01

    Research on keystroke dynamics biometrics has been increasing, especially in the last decade. The main motivation behind this effort is due to the fact that keystroke dynamics biometrics is economical and can be easily integrated into the existing computer security systems with minimal alteration and user intervention. Numerous studies have been conducted in terms of data acquisition devices, feature representations, classification methods, experimental protocols, and evaluations. However, an up-to-date extensive survey and evaluation is not yet available. The objective of this paper is to provide an insightful survey and comparison on keystroke dynamics biometrics research performed throughout the last three decades, as well as offering suggestions and possible future research directions.

  17. Animal biometrics: quantifying and detecting phenotypic appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühl, Hjalmar S; Burghardt, Tilo

    2013-07-01

    Animal biometrics is an emerging field that develops quantified approaches for representing and detecting the phenotypic appearance of species, individuals, behaviors, and morphological traits. It operates at the intersection between pattern recognition, ecology, and information sciences, producing computerized systems for phenotypic measurement and interpretation. Animal biometrics can benefit a wide range of disciplines, including biogeography, population ecology, and behavioral research. Currently, real-world applications are gaining momentum, augmenting the quantity and quality of ecological data collection and processing. However, to advance animal biometrics will require integration of methodologies among the scientific disciplines involved. Such efforts will be worthwhile because the great potential of this approach rests with the formal abstraction of phenomics, to create tractable interfaces between different organizational levels of life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing Privacy for Biometric Identification Cards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developed countries have started the implementation of biometric electronic identification cards, especially passports. The European Union and the United States of America struggle to introduce and standardize these electronic documents. Due to the personal nature of the biometric elements used for the generation of these cards, privacy issues were raised on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, leading to civilian protests and concerns. The lack of transparency from the public authorities responsible with the implementation of such identification systems, and the poor technological approaches chosen by these authorities, are the main reasons for the negative popularity of the new identification methods. The following article shows an approach that provides all the benefits of modern technological advances in the fields of biometrics and cryptography, without sacrificing the privacy of those that will be the beneficiaries of the new system

  19. 3D face analysis for demographic biometrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokola, Ryan A [ORNL; Mikkilineni, Aravind K [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Despite being increasingly easy to acquire, 3D data is rarely used for face-based biometrics applications beyond identification. Recent work in image-based demographic biometrics has enjoyed much success, but these approaches suffer from the well-known limitations of 2D representations, particularly variations in illumination, texture, and pose, as well as a fundamental inability to describe 3D shape. This paper shows that simple 3D shape features in a face-based coordinate system are capable of representing many biometric attributes without problem-specific models or specialized domain knowledge. The same feature vector achieves impressive results for problems as diverse as age estimation, gender classification, and race classification.

  20. IRIS economics. A sensitivity review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Keith

    2003-01-01

    IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is a small to medium advanced light water cooled modular reactor being developed by an international consortium led by Westinghouse/BNFL. This reactor design is specifically aimed at utilities looking to install new (or replacement) nuclear capacity to match market demands, or at developing countries for their distributed power needs. To determine the optimal configuration for IRIS, analysis was undertaken to establish Generation Costs ($/MWh) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR %) to the Utility at alternative power ratings. This was then combined with global market projections for electricity demand out to 2030, segmented into key geographical regions. Finally this information is brought together to form insights, conclusions and recommendations regarding the optimal design. The resultant analysis reveals an optimum power rating for a single module of 335 MWe, with a construction period of 3 years or less and a minimum plant life of 60 years. Individual modules can be installed in a staggered fashion (3 equivalent to 1005 MWe) or built in pairs (2 sets of twin units' equivalent to 1340 MWe). Uncertainty in Market Clearing Price for electricity, Annual Operating Costs and Construction Costs primarily influence lifetime Net Present Values (NPV) and hence IRR % for Utilities. Generation Costs in addition are also influenced by Fuel Costs, Plant Output, Plant Availability and Plant Capacity Factor. Therefore for a site based on 3 single modules, located in North America, Generations Costs of 28.5 $/MWh are required to achieve an IRR of 20%, a level which enables IRIS to compete with all other forms of electricity production. Plant size is critical to commercial success. Sustained (lifetime) high factors for Plant Output, Availability and Capacity Factor are required to achieve a competitive advantage. Modularity offers Utilities the option to match their investments with market conditions, adding additional capacity as

  1. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  2. IRIS Toxicological Review of Thallium and Compounds ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium compounds are used in the semiconductor industry, the manufacture of optic lenses and low-melting glass, low-temperature thermometers, alloys, electronic devices, mercury lamps, fireworks, and imitation germs, and clinically as an imaging agent in the diagnosis of certain tumors. EPA's assessment of noncancer health effects and carcinogenic potential of thallium compounds was last prepared and added to the IRIS database between 1988 and 1990. The IRIS program is preparing an assessment that will incorporate current health effects information available for thallium and compounds, and current risk assessment methods. The IRIS assessment for thallium compounds will consist of a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary. The Toxicological Review is a critical review of the physiochemical and toxicokinetic properties of a chemical, and its toxicity in humans and experimental systems. The assessment will present reference values for the noncancer effects of thallium compounds (RfD and Rfc), and a cancer assessment. The Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary have been subject to Agency review, Interagency review, and external scientific peer review. The final product will reflect the Agency opinion on the overall toxicity of thallium and compounds. EPA is undertaking an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for thallium and compounds. IRIS is an EPA database containing Agency scientific positions on potential adverse human health effec

  3. Role of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Iris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficiency using the amphibious plant iris to restore polluted water, the promoting effect of different arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi(AMFon iris was investigated, by monitoring the plant growth index, the physicochemical properties of the soil and the plant photosynthesis indexes. The result showed that the promoting effects of the AMF on the aboveground part and the underground part of the iris were based on different mechanism. For the underground part of the iris, the AMF stimulated its growth through the nutrient enrichment which was performed by the enormous hypha network. The nitrogen absorbing rate of the G. mosseae and the G. intraradices infected iris increased about 71.75% and 42.55%, and the phosphorous absorbing rate increased 8.36% and 9.5% separately. For the aboveground part of the iris, the AMF strengthened the conductance of the leaves’ stomas to control the balance between the net photosynthesis rate and the transpiration rate, so that the utilization rate of water resources was optimized, the metabolic rate was accelerated and the growth of the plant was promoted eventually. In this study, the promoting effect of the G. mosseae on the photosynthesis rate of the iris was significantly better than that of the G. intraradices(P<0.05.

  4. Improvement of security techniques and protection of biometric data in biometric systems: Presentation of International Standard ISO 24745

    OpenAIRE

    Milinković, Milorad

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the International Standard ISO 24745 as a potential security tool for biometric information protection, more precisely as a tool for privacy protection in biometric systems. This is one of the latest internationally accepted standards that address the security issues of biometric systems.

  5. Privacy Enhancements for Inexact Biometric Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratha, Nalini; Chikkerur, Sharat; Connell, Jonathan; Bolle, Ruud

    Traditional authentication schemes utilize tokens or depend on some secret knowledge possessed by the user for verifying his or her identity. Although these techniques are widely used, they have several limitations. Both tokenand knowledge-based approaches cannot differentiate between an authorized user and an impersonator having access to the tokens or passwords. Biometrics-based authentication schemes overcome these limitations while offering usability advantages in the area of password management. However, despite its obvious advantages, the use of biometrics raises several security and privacy concerns.

  6. Practical biometrics from aspiration to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Ashbourn, Julian

    2015-01-01

    This practically-focused text presents a hands-on guide to making biometric technology work in real-life scenarios. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition takes a fresh look at what it takes to integrate biometrics into wider applications. An emphasis is placed on the importance of a complete understanding of the broader scenario, covering technical, human and implementation factors. This understanding may then be exercised through interactive chapters dealing with educational software utilities and the BANTAM Program Manager. Topics and features: provides a concise introduction t

  7. Mathematical and information maintenance of biometric systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriev, Z.; Sokolov, S.; Nyrkov, A.; Nekrasova, A.

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the different mathematical methods for processing biometric data. A brief overview of methods for personality recognition by means of a signature is conducted. Mathematical solutions of a dynamic authentication method are considered. Recommendations on use of certain mathematical methods, depending on specific tasks, are provided. Based on the conducted analysis of software and the choice made in favor of the wavelet analysis, a brief basis for its use in the course of software development for biometric personal identification is given for the purpose of its practical application.

  8. The concave iris in pigment dispersion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lance; Ong, Ee Lin; Crowston, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    To visualize the changes of the iris contour in patients with pigment dispersion syndrome after blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Observational case series. A total of 33 eyes of 20 patients with pigment dispersion syndrome. Each eye was imaged along the horizontal 0- to 180-degree meridian using the Visante Anterior Segment Imaging System (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA). Scans were performed at baseline and after focusing on an internal fixation target for 5 minutes, forced blinking, accommodation, and pharmacologic miosis with pilocarpine 2%. Quantitative analysis of the changes in the iris configuration. After 5 minutes of continual fixation, the iris became planar with the mean ± standard deviation curvature decreasing from 214 ± 74 μm to 67 ± 76 μm (P pigment dispersion syndrome after forced blinking, but the iris concavity recovered to 227 ± 113 μm (P = 0.34) and 238 ± 119 μm (P = 0.19) with the -3.0 and -6.0 diopter lenses, respectively. Pilocarpine-induced miosis caused the iris to assume a planar configuration in all subjects. This study shows that the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome assumes a planar configuration when fixating and that the concavity of the iris surface is not restored by blinking. Accommodation restored the iris concavity, suggesting that the posterior curvature of the iris in pigment dispersion syndrome is induced and probably maintained, at least in part, by accommodation. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. LOCA analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Grgic, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2003-01-01

    The IRIS reactor (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is an integral, light water cooled, medium power reactor. IRIS has been selected as an International Near Term Deployable (INTD) reactor, within the Generation IV International Forum activities. The IRIS concept addresses the key-requirements defined by the US DOE for next generation reactors, i.e. enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. It features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). An innovative safety approach has been developed to mitigate the IRIS response to small-to-medium Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). This strategy is based on the interaction of IRIS compact containment with the reactor vessel to limit initial blowdown, and on depressurization through the use of a passive Emergency Heat Removal System (EHRS). A small Automatic Depressurization System (ADS) provides supplementary depressurization capability. A pressure suppression system is provided to limit the pressure peak following the initial blowdown to well below the containment design limit. The ultimate result is that during a small-to-medium LOCA, the core remains covered for an extended period of time, without credit for emergency water injection or external core makeup. The IRIS LOCA response is based on 'maintaining water inventory' rather than on the principle of safety injection. This novel safety approach poses significant issues for computational and analysis methods since the IRIS vessel and containment are strongly coupled, and the system response is based on the interaction between the two. The small break LOCA was calculated using RELAP5/mod3.3 and GOTHIC codes. Break of the largest line connected to the IRIS Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) was analyzed. The results of the calculations confirmed good performance of the IRIS system during LOCA. (author)

  10. SEGMENTATION AND QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LONG RANGE CAPTURED IRIS IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Deshpande

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The iris segmentation plays a major role in an iris recognition system to increase the performance of the system. This paper proposes a novel method for segmentation of iris images to extract the iris part of long range captured eye image and an approach to select best iris frame from the iris polar image sequences by analyzing the quality of iris polar images. The quality of iris image is determined by the frequency components present in the iris polar images. The experiments are carried out on CASIA-long range captured iris image sequences. The proposed segmentation method is compared with Hough transform based segmentation and it has been determined that the proposed method gives higher accuracy for segmentation than Hough transform.

  11. Edge detection techniques for iris recognition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tania, U T; Motakabber, S M A; Ibrahimy, M I

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays security and authentication are the major parts of our daily life. Iris is one of the most reliable organ or part of human body which can be used for identification and authentication purpose. To develop an iris authentication algorithm for personal identification, this paper examines two edge detection techniques for iris recognition system. Between the Sobel and the Canny edge detection techniques, the experimental result shows that the Canny's technique has better ability to detect points in a digital image where image gray level changes even at slow rate

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This document presents background information and justification for the Intergrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Summary of the hazard and dose-response assessment of dichloromethane. IRIS Summaries may include oral reference dose (RfD) and inhalation reference concentration (RfC) values for chronic and other exposure durations, and a carcinogencity assessment. Internet/NCEA web site

  13. A novel iris localization algorithm using correlation filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohit, Mausumi; Sharma, Jitu

    2015-06-01

    Fast and efficient segmentation of iris from the eye images is a primary requirement for robust database independent iris recognition. In this paper we have presented a new algorithm for computing the inner and outer boundaries of the iris and locating the pupil centre. Pupil-iris boundary computation is based on correlation filtering approach, whereas iris-sclera boundary is determined through one dimensional intensity mapping. The proposed approach is computationally less extensive when compared with the existing algorithms like Hough transform.

  14. Association of biometric factors with anterior chamber angle widening and intraocular pressure reduction after uneventful phacoemulsification for cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guofu; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Lee, Roland; Chen, Yi-Chun; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate anterior chamber biometric factors associated with the degree of angle widening and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after phacoemulsification. University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. Case series. Anterior chamber parameters obtained by anterior segment coherence tomography were compared preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Measurements included the angle opening distance 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular-iris space area 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500), iris curvature (I-Curv), anterior chamber angle (ACA), trabecular-iris space area, anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber width, and lens vault (LV). The study enrolled 73 eyes. The mean patient age was 77.45 years ± 7.84 (SD); 65.75% of patients were women. From preoperatively to 3 months postoperatively, the mean AOD500 increased significantly (0.254 ± 0.105 to 0.433 ± 0.108 mm) and the mean IOP decreased significantly (14.97 ± 3.35 to 12.62 ± 3.37 mm Hg) (P<.001). The reduction in IOP was correlated with the increase in AOD500 (r = 0.240, P=.041) and preoperative LV (r = 0.235, P=.045). After adjusting for related factors, AOD500 widening was positively correlated with LV (β = 0.458, P=.044) and I-Curv (β = 0.235, P=.043) and negatively correlated with preoperative TISA500 (β = -0.269, P=.025) and ACA (β = -0.919, P=.027). Surgically induced AOD widening was significantly correlated with anterior chamber biometric factors. Preoperative LV appears to be a significant factor in angle widening and IOP reduction after phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. BIOMETRIC IDENTITY VERIFICATION IN HEALTH SERVICES: A BIOMETRIC SURVEILLANCE PRACTICE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    İlker ŞİRİN

    2014-01-01

    Determination or verification of identity with biometric methods has a widespread use especially at borders for security reasons. Social Security Institution transferred the biometric identity verification practice to health sercives that are provided by private and university hospitals. The risks of the new system considering the privacy of personal data are under debate. Although there are announcements or manuals of Social Security Institution regarding the implementation...

  16. Porcine cadaver iris model for iris heating during corneal surgery with a femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Fan, Zhongwei; Wang, Jiang; Yan, Ying; Juhasz, Tibor; Kurtz, Ron

    2015-03-01

    Multiple femtosecond lasers have now been cleared for use for ophthalmic surgery, including for creation of corneal flaps in LASIK surgery. Preliminary study indicated that during typical surgical use, laser energy may pass beyond the cornea with potential effects on the iris. As a model for laser exposure of the iris during femtosecond corneal surgery, we simulated the temperature rise in porcine cadaver iris during direct illumination by the femtosecond laser. Additionally, ex-vivo iris heating due to femtosecond laser irradiation was measured with an infrared thermal camera (Fluke corp. Everett, WA) as a validation of the simulation.

  17. Deep Learning-Based Iris Segmentation for Iris Recognition in Visible Light Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arsalan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing iris recognition systems are heavily dependent on specific conditions, such as the distance of image acquisition and the stop-and-stare environment, which require significant user cooperation. In environments where user cooperation is not guaranteed, prevailing segmentation schemes of the iris region are confronted with many problems, such as heavy occlusion of eyelashes, invalid off-axis rotations, motion blurs, and non-regular reflections in the eye area. In addition, iris recognition based on visible light environment has been investigated to avoid the use of additional near-infrared (NIR light camera and NIR illuminator, which increased the difficulty of segmenting the iris region accurately owing to the environmental noise of visible light. To address these issues; this study proposes a two-stage iris segmentation scheme based on convolutional neural network (CNN; which is capable of accurate iris segmentation in severely noisy environments of iris recognition by visible light camera sensor. In the experiment; the noisy iris challenge evaluation part-II (NICE-II training database (selected from the UBIRIS.v2 database and mobile iris challenge evaluation (MICHE dataset were used. Experimental results showed that our method outperformed the existing segmentation methods.

  18. Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for privacy protected multimodal biometric security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Debesh

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Fourier domain asymmetric cryptosystem for multimodal biometric security. One modality of biometrics (such as face) is used as the plaintext, which is encrypted by another modality of biometrics (such as fingerprint). A private key is synthesized from the encrypted biometric signature by complex spatial Fourier processing. The encrypted biometric signature is further encrypted by other biometric modalities, and the corresponding private keys are synthesized. The resulting biometric signature is privacy protected since the encryption keys are provided by the human, and hence those are private keys. Moreover, the decryption keys are synthesized using those private encryption keys. The encrypted signatures are decrypted using the synthesized private keys and inverse complex spatial Fourier processing. Computer simulations demonstrate the feasibility of the technique proposed.

  19. A Systems Approach to Biometrics in the Military Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lauren; Gahan, Michelle; Lennard, Chris; Robertson, James

    2018-02-21

    Forensic biometrics is the application of forensic science principles to physical and behavioral characteristics. Forensic biometrics is a secondary sub-system in the forensic science "system of systems," which describes forensic science as a sub-system in the larger criminal justice, law enforcement, intelligence, and military system. The purpose of this paper is to discuss biometrics in the military domain and integration into the wider forensic science system of systems. The holistic system thinking methodology was applied to the U.S. biometric system to map it to the system of systems framework. The U.S. biometric system is used as a case study to help guide other countries to develop military biometric systems that are integrated and interoperable at the whole-of-government level. The aim is to provide the system of systems framework for agencies to consider for proactive design of biometric systems. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  20. Privacy-Preserving Biometric Authentication: Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pagnin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An emerging direction for authenticating people is the adoption of biometric authentication systems. Biometric credentials are becoming increasingly popular as a means of authenticating people due to the wide range of advantages that they provide with respect to classical authentication methods (e.g., password-based authentication. The most characteristic feature of this authentication method is the naturally strong bond between a user and her biometric credentials. This very same advantageous property, however, raises serious security and privacy concerns in case the biometric trait gets compromised. In this article, we present the most challenging issues that need to be taken into consideration when designing secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols. More precisely, we describe the main threats against privacy-preserving biometric authentication systems and give directions on possible countermeasures in order to design secure and privacy-preserving biometric authentication protocols.

  1. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Oct 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The meeting was held to obtain input from the scientific community and the public on studies and data that will be used in the assessments of Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP) and Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) that are under IRIS development.

  2. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Apr 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments for Diethyl Phthalate (DEP) and Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD).

  3. An Application for Descriptive Nearness: Iris Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polat Kadirhan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Near Set Theory has various applications in the literature. In this paper, using the concept descriptive nearness, we show how to perform iris recognition. This process has a few algorithms given via Mathematica Script Language.

  4. Trace Attack against Biometric Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Ghouzali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in the dependence on mobile devices in everyday life, there is a growing concern related to privacy and security issues in the Gulf countries; therefore, it is imperative that security threats should be analyzed in detail. Mobile devices store enormous amounts of personal and financial information, unfortunately without any security. In order to secure mobile devices against different threats, biometrics has been applied and shown to be effective. However, biometric mobile applications are also vulnerable to several types of attacks that can decrease their security. Biometric information itself is considered sensitive data; for example, fingerprints can leave traces in touched objects and facial images can be captured everywhere or accessed by the attacker if the facial image is stored in the mobile device (lost or stolen. Hence, an attacker can easily forge the identity of a legitimate user and access data on a device. In this paper, the effects of a trace attack on the sensitivity of biometric mobile applications are investigated in terms of security and user privacy. Experimental results carried out on facial and fingerprint mobile authentication applications using different databases have shown that these mobile applications are vulnerable to the proposed attack, which poses a serious threat to the overall system security and user privacy.

  5. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  6. Quantum Biometrics with Retinal Photon Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakis, M.; Blatsios, G.; Vrettou, C. S.; Kominis, I. K.

    2017-10-01

    It is known that the eye's scotopic photodetectors, rhodopsin molecules, and their associated phototransduction mechanism leading to light perception, are efficient single-photon counters. We here use the photon-counting principles of human rod vision to propose a secure quantum biometric identification based on the quantum-statistical properties of retinal photon detection. The photon path along the human eye until its detection by rod cells is modeled as a filter having a specific transmission coefficient. Precisely determining its value from the photodetection statistics registered by the conscious observer is a quantum parameter estimation problem that leads to a quantum secure identification method. The probabilities for false-positive and false-negative identification of this biometric technique can readily approach 10-10 and 10-4, respectively. The security of the biometric method can be further quantified by the physics of quantum measurements. An impostor must be able to perform quantum thermometry and quantum magnetometry with energy resolution better than 10-9ℏ , in order to foil the device by noninvasively monitoring the biometric activity of a user.

  7. Towards Biometric Assessment of Audience Affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng Wieland, Jakob; Larsen, Lars Bo; Laursen, Jeanette Kølbæk

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates how reliable affective responses can be obtained using objective biometric measures for media audience research. We use Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) to detect sixteen respondents’ arousal levels and as an objective measure to show how self- reporting disrupts the experience...

  8. Analysis of eigenvalue correction applied to biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrikse, A.J.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Bazen, A.M.

    Eigenvalue estimation plays an important role in biometrics. However, if the number of samples is limited, estimates are significantly biased. In this article we analyse the influence of this bias on the error rates of PCA/LDA based verification systems, using both synthetic data with realistic

  9. Biometric authentication for a mobile personal device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Secure access is prerequisite for a mobile personal device (MPD) in a personal network (PN). An authentication method using biometrics, specifically face, is proposed in this paper. A fast face detection and registration method based on a Viola-Jones detector is implemented, and a

  10. Biometric Authentication System on Mobile Personal Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    We propose a secure, robust, and low-cost biometric authentication system on the mobile personal device for the personal network. The system consists of the following five key modules: 1) face detection; 2) face registration; 3) illumination normalization; 4) face verification; and 5) information

  11. Extracting forensic evidence from biometric devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geradts, Zeno J.; Ruifrok, Arnout C.

    2003-08-01

    Over the past few years, both large multinationals and governments have begun to contribute to even larger projects on biometric devices. Terrorist attacks in America and in other countries have highlighted the need for better identification systems for people as well as improved systems for controlling access to buildings. Another reason for investment in Research and Development in Biometric Devices, is the massive growth in internet-based systems -- whether for e-commerce, e-government or internal processes within organizations. The interface between the system and the user is routinely abused, as people have to remember many complex passwords and handle tokens of various types. In this paper an overview is given of the information that is important to know before an examination of such is systems can be done in a forensic proper way. In forensic evidence with biometric devices the forensic examiner should consider the possibilities of tampering with the biometric systems or the possibilities of unauthorized access before drawing conclusions.

  12. Likelihood-ratio-based biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that for single-user verification the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  13. Zero leakage quantization scheme for biometric verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de J.A.; Linnartz, J.P.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Biometrics gain increasing interest as a solution for many security issues, but privacy risks exist in case we do not protect the stored templates well. This paper presents a new verification scheme, which protects the secrets of the enrolled users. We will show that zero leakage is achieved if

  14. Likelihood Ratio-Based Biometric Verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazen, A.M.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    The paper presents results on optimal similarity measures for biometric verification based on fixed-length feature vectors. First, we show that the verification of a single user is equivalent to the detection problem, which implies that, for single-user verification, the likelihood ratio is optimal.

  15. Transient analysis of the IRIS reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajs, T.; Oriani, L.; Ricotti, M.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    An international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse, is developing a modular, integral, light water cooled, small to medium power reactor, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). IRIS features innovative, advanced engineering, but it is firmly based on the proven technology of pressurized water reactors (PWR). Given the large number of organizations involved in the IRIS design, the RELAP5/MOD 3.3 code has been selected as the main system code. A nodalization of the reference IRIS design has been developed with a basic set of protective functions and controls. Engineered Safety Features of the concept are being also implemented, and in particular the Emergency Heat Removal System that is used for safety grade decay heat removal and in the small break LOCA response of IRIS (Large break LOCAs are eliminated in IRIS by the adoption of the Integral layout) This paper discusses developed model and transient behavior of the system for representative transient sequences.(author)

  16. BIOMETRIC SECURITY: ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN DALAM SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI TERKOMPUTERISASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josua Tarigan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges will face when develop biometric technology as control in accounting information system are standardization, hybrid technology uses, life cycle management. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Adanya keinginan setiap organisasi untuk mencari metode pengamanan authentication yang lebih untuk akses user, dijawab dengan adanya teknologi biometric security yang mendapat perhatian yang cukup besar bagi organisasi. Implementasi teknologi biometric security cukup luas dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yaitu sebagai pengendalian pada physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications dan covert surveillance. Dalam mengimplementasikan teknologi biometric, ada tiga tahapan yang harus dilakukan organisasi, yakni strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan dan documentation. Tantangan yang akan dihadapi dalam mengembangkan teknologi biometric sebagai pengendalian dalam sistem informasi akuntansi yakni standarisasi, aplikasi teknologi hybrid dan manajemen siklus hidup pada biometric security. Kata kunci: authentication, akses user dan biometric security.

  17. Iris autofluorescence in Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Jia, Yading; Zhang, Suhua; Xie, Juan; Chang, Xin; Hou, Jia; Li, Gaiyun; Koch, Douglas D; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    To explore the characteristic autofluorescence patterns of iris depigmentation in eyes diagnosed with Fuchs' heterochromic uveitis (FHU). Near-infrared autofluorescence images and colour images of iris were taken in 21 eyes of 21 patients with FHU, 30 eyes of 15 normal subjects, 30 eyes of 15 normal age-related iris atrophy and 33 eyes of 20 patients with uveitis other than FHU. The confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (Heidelberg Retina Angiograph 2, HRA2) was used for melanin-related autofluorescence imaging. The indocyanine green angiography mode of HRA2 was applied for near-infrared laser imaging, and the wavelength of the excitation laser was 795 nm. Iris colour images were also taken with the slit lamp. In normal iris, moderately intense autofluorescence was noted for the pigment ruff at the pupillary border, the crests in the pupillary zone and the collarette; and there was mild autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. In eyes with age-related iris atrophy and uveitis, much less autofluorescence was seen than the healthy normal irides. In eyes with FHU, there was moderate but discontinuous autofluorescence in the pigment ruff, a petaloid pattern of autofluorescence in the pupillary zone, moderate autofluorescence in the collarette and reticular pattern of autofluorescence in the ciliary zone. Characteristic autofluorescence patterns appeared in eyes diagnosed with FHU. Near-infrared autofluorescence is a promising objective technique to document the iris changes in FHU. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. 75 FR 25239 - Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    ... Information System (IRIS); Announcement of Availability of Literature Searches for IRIS Assessments AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice; Announcement of availability of literature searches for IRIS... the availability of literature searches for four IRIS assessments and requesting scientific...

  19. Four Machine Learning Algorithms for Biometrics Fusion: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Damousis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine the efficiency of four machine learning algorithms for the fusion of several biometrics modalities to create a multimodal biometrics security system. The algorithms examined are Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, Fuzzy Expert Systems (FESs, and Support Vector Machines (SVMs. The fusion of biometrics leads to security systems that exhibit higher recognition rates and lower false alarms compared to unimodal biometric security systems. Supervised learning was carried out using a number of patterns from a well-known benchmark biometrics database, and the validation/testing took place with patterns from the same database which were not included in the training dataset. The comparison of the algorithms reveals that the biometrics fusion system is superior to the original unimodal systems and also other fusion schemes found in the literature.

  20. A robust probabilistic collaborative representation based classification for multimodal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Huanxi; Ding, Derui; Xiao, Jianli

    2018-04-01

    Most of the traditional biometric recognition systems perform recognition with a single biometric indicator. These systems have suffered noisy data, interclass variations, unacceptable error rates, forged identity, and so on. Due to these inherent problems, it is not valid that many researchers attempt to enhance the performance of unimodal biometric systems with single features. Thus, multimodal biometrics is investigated to reduce some of these defects. This paper proposes a new multimodal biometric recognition approach by fused faces and fingerprints. For more recognizable features, the proposed method extracts block local binary pattern features for all modalities, and then combines them into a single framework. For better classification, it employs the robust probabilistic collaborative representation based classifier to recognize individuals. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method has improved the recognition accuracy compared to the unimodal biometrics.

  1. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Frankel, Y. [CertCo LLC, New York, NY (United States); Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  2. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user's biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user's private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user's biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms

  3. International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, Mario D.

    2001-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) reactor is described in the first part of the presentation. IRIS is a light water cooled reactor with an integral configuration, where steam generators, pumps and pressurizer are inside the reactor vessel. Partially funded by the DOE NERI program, IRIS is being developed by an international consortium of 16 organizations from seven countries. A key IRIS characteristic is its 'safety by design' approach which strives to eliminate, by design, as many accidents as possible rather than coping with their consequences. Initial returns are very positive; out of the eight Class IV accidents considered in the AP600 only one remains as a Class IV in IRIS, and at much reduced probability. Small-to-medium LOCAs have minimal consequences as the core remains safely under water for days, without the need for safety injection or water makeup. In spite of its novelty IRIS is firmly grounded on proven LWR technology and therefore a prototype is not needed to assure design certification. Rather, very extensive scaled tests will be performed to investigate the performance of in-vessel components such as steam generators and pumps, both individually and as interactive systems. Accident sequences will also be simulated and tested to prove IRIS safety by design claims. The first core fuel is less than 5% enriched and the fuel assembly is very similar to existing PWR assemblies, so there is no licensing challenge regarding the fuel. Because of the safety by design approach, yielding simplifications In design and accident management (e.g., IRIS does not have an emergency core cooling system), some accident scenarios are eliminated and others have lesser consequences. Thus, simplification and streamlining of the regulatory process might be possible. Risk informed regulation will be coupled with safety by design to show lower accident and damage probabilities. This could lead to a relaxation of siting regulatory requirements. It is

  4. A biometric method to secure telemedicine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G H; Poon, Carmen C Y; Li, Ye; Zhang, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Security and privacy are among the most crucial issues for data transmission in telemedicine systems. This paper proposes a solution for securing wireless data transmission in telemedicine systems, i.e. within a body sensor network (BSN), between the BSN and server as well as between the server and professionals who have assess to the server. A unique feature of this solution is the generation of random keys by physiological data (i.e. a biometric approach) for securing communication at all 3 levels. In the performance analysis, inter-pulse interval of photoplethysmogram is used as an example to generate these biometric keys to protect wireless data transmission. The results of statistical analysis and computational complexity suggest that this type of key is random enough to make telemedicine systems resistant to attacks.

  5. Unconstrained and contactless hand geometry biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Santos-Sierra, Alberto; Sánchez-Ávila, Carmen; Del Pozo, Gonzalo Bailador; Guerra-Casanova, Javier

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely support vector machines (SVM) and k-nearest neighbour (k-NN). Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  6. Remote Biometrics for Robust Persistent Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwar, Mads Ingerslew; Jensen, Christian D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the problem of providing a robust non-invasive authentication service for mobile users in a smart environment. We base our work on the persistent authentication model (PAISE), which relies on available sensors to track principals from the location where they authenticate, e.......g., through a smart card based access control system, to the location where the authentication is required by a location-based service. The PAISE model is extended with remote biometrics to prevent the decay of authentication confidence when authenticated users encounter and interact with other users...... in the environment. The result is a calm approach to authentication, where mobile users are transparently authenticated towards the system, which allows the provision of location-based services. The output of the remote biometrics are fused using error-rate-based fusion to solve a common problem that occurs in score...

  7. Carbon Nanotube Embedded Nanostructure for Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Juhyuk; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

    2017-12-27

    Low electric energy loss is a very important problem to minimize the decay of transferred energy intensity due to impedance mismatch. This issue has been dealt with by adding an impedance matching layer at the interface between two media. A strategy was proposed to improve the charge transfer from the human body to a biometric device by using an impedance matching nanostructure. Nanocomposite pattern arrays were fabricated with shape memory polymer and carbon nanotubes. The shape recovery ability of the nanopatterns enhanced durability and sustainability of the structure. It was found that the composite nanopatterns improved the current transfer by two times compared with the nonpatterned composite sample. The underlying mechanism of the enhanced charge transport was understood by carrying out a numerical simulation. We anticipate that this study can provide a new pathway for developing advanced biometric devices with high sensitivity to biological information.

  8. Unconstrained and Contactless Hand Geometry Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sánchez-Ávila

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hand biometric system for contact-less, platform-free scenarios, proposing innovative methods in feature extraction, template creation and template matching. The evaluation of the proposed method considers both the use of three contact-less publicly available hand databases, and the comparison of the performance to two competitive pattern recognition techniques existing in literature: namely Support Vector Machines (SVM and k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN. Results highlight the fact that the proposed method outcomes existing approaches in literature in terms of computational cost, accuracy in human identification, number of extracted features and number of samples for template creation. The proposed method is a suitable solution for human identification in contact-less scenarios based on hand biometrics, providing a feasible solution to devices with limited hardware requirements like mobile devices.

  9. Sensor-fusion-based biometric identity verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.J.; Bouchard, A.M.; Osbourn, G.C.; Martinez, R.F.; Bartholomew, J.W.; Jordan, J.B.; Flachs, G.M.; Bao, Z.; Zhu, L.

    1998-02-01

    Future generation automated human biometric identification and verification will require multiple features/sensors together with internal and external information sources to achieve high performance, accuracy, and reliability in uncontrolled environments. The primary objective of the proposed research is to develop a theoretical and practical basis for identifying and verifying people using standoff biometric features that can be obtained with minimal inconvenience during the verification process. The basic problem involves selecting sensors and discovering features that provide sufficient information to reliably verify a person's identity under the uncertainties caused by measurement errors and tactics of uncooperative subjects. A system was developed for discovering hand, face, ear, and voice features and fusing them to verify the identity of people. The system obtains its robustness and reliability by fusing many coarse and easily measured features into a near minimal probability of error decision algorithm

  10. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Chopra, Mona; Sheen, Martin A.; Campbell, Ian R.; Errington, R. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  11. Safety design features of the IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled reactor of medium generating capacity (335 MW(e)), that features an integral reactor vessel containing all the reactor primary system components, including steam generators, coolant pumps, pressurizer and heaters, and control rod drive mechanisms; in addition to the typical core, internals, control rods and neutron reflector. This integral configuration allows for the use of a small, high design pressure, spherical steel containment which results in a significant reduction in the size of the nuclear island. Other IRIS innovations include a simplified passive safety system concept and equipment features that derive from the 'safety-by-design' philosophy. This design approach allows for elimination of certain accident initiators at the design stage, or when outright elimination is not possible, decreases accident consequences and/or their probability of occurrence. Major design characteristics of the IRIS are given. As part of the IRIS pre-application licensing review by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the IRIS design team has developed a test plan that will provide the necessary data for safety analysis computer model verification, as well as for verifying the manufacturing feasibility, operability, and durability of new component designs

  12. Balloon cell nevus of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morcos, Mohib W; Odashiro, Alexandre; Bazin, Richard; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; O'Meara, Aisling; Burnier, Miguel N

    2014-12-01

    Balloon cell nevus is a rare histopathological lesion characterized by a predominance of large, vesicular and clear cells, called balloon cells. There is only 1 case of balloon cell nevus of the iris reported in the literature. A 55 year-old man presented a pigmented elevated lesion in the right iris since the age of 12 years old. The lesion had been growing for the past 2 years and excision was performed. Histopathological examination showed a balloon cell nevus composed of clear and vacuolated cells without atypia. A typical spindle cell nevus of the iris was also observed. The differential diagnosis included xanthomatous lesions, brown adipocyte or other adipocytic lesions, clear cell hidradenoma, metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney and clear cell sarcoma. The tumor was positive for Melan A, S100 protein and HMB45. Balloon cell nevus of the iris is rare but should be considered in the differential diagnosis of melanocytic lesions of the iris. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation methodologies for security testing biometric systems beyond technological evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Saavedra, María Belén

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this PhD Thesis is the specification of formal evaluation methodologies for testing the security level achieved by biometric systems when these are working under specific contour conditions. This analysis is conducted through the calculation of the basic technical biometric system performance and its possible variations. To that end, the next two relevant contributions have been developed. The first contribution is the definition of two independent biometric performance ...

  14. Towards the Security Evaluation of Biometric Authentication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    El-Abed , Mohamad; Giot , Romain; Hemery , Baptiste; Rosenberger , Christophe; Schwartzmann , Jean-Jacques

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Despite the obvious advantages of biometric authentication systems over traditional security ones (based on tokens or passwords), they are vulnerable to attacks which may considerably decrease their security. In order to contribute in resolving such problematic, we propose a modality-independent evaluation methodology for the security evaluation of biometric systems. It is based on the use of a database of common threats and vulnerabilities of biometric systems, and th...

  15. Multi-modal Behavioural Biometric Authentication for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Saevanee , Hataichanok; Clarke , Nathan ,; Furnell , Steven ,

    2012-01-01

    Part 12: Authentication and Delegation; International audience; The potential advantages of behavioural biometrics are that they can be utilised in a transparent (non-intrusive) and continuous authentication system. However, individual biometric techniques are not suited to all users and scenarios. One way to increase the reliability of transparent and continuous authentication systems is create a multi-modal behavioural biometric authentication system. This research investigated three behavi...

  16. Biometric Authentication System using Non-Linear Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.N.Krishnan; A.Senthil Arumugam,

    2010-01-01

    A major concern nowadays for any Biometric Credential Management System is its potential vulnerability to protect its information sources; i.e. protecting a genuine user’s template from both internal and external threats. These days’ biometric authentication systems face various risks. One of the most serious threats is the ulnerability of the template's database. An attacker with access to a reference template could try to impersonate a legitimate user by reconstructing the biometric sample...

  17. Behavioural Biometrics for Multi-factor Authentication in Biomedicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlenker, Anna; Šárek, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 5 (2012), s. 19-24 ISSN 1801-5603 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; GA UK(CZ) SVV-2012-264513 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : biometric s * anatomical-physiological biometric s * behavioural biometric s * multi-factor authentication * keystroke dynamics * mouse dynamics Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://www.ejbi.org/img/ejbi/2012/5/Schlenker_en.pdf

  18. Biometric Security: Alternatif Pengendalian Dalam Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Terkomputerisasi

    OpenAIRE

    Tarigan, Josua

    2004-01-01

    As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges w...

  19. BIOMETRIC SECURITY: ALTERNATIF PENGENDALIAN DALAM SISTEM INFORMASI AKUNTANSI TERKOMPUTERISASI

    OpenAIRE

    Josua Tarigan

    2004-01-01

    As organization search more secure authentication method for user access, biometric security technology is gaining more and more attention. The implementation of biometric security technology in accounting information systems was physical access, virtual access, e-commerce applications and covert suveillance. There are three phase when an organization implementation biometric technology: strategic planning and budgeting, developing a system reliability plan and documentation. The challenges w...

  20. Prospects of Biometrics at-a-Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    face or fingerprint. For instance, light levels affect the ability of the sensor to collect accurate imagery (Pato & Millet , 2010). When conducting...accurate data on a subject given environmental or hardware restraints (Pato & Millet , 2010). These issues degrade biometric system capabilities when...where the arch pattern looks more like a hill with ridges entering from one side, moving across the finger while rising, then falling and exiting the

  1. A biometric approach to laboratory rodent identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jens; Jacobson, Christina; Nilsson, Kenneth; Rögnvaldsson, Thorsteinn

    2007-03-01

    Individual identification of laboratory rodents typically involves invasive methods, such as tattoos, ear clips, and implanted transponders. Beyond the ethical dilemmas they may present, these methods may cause pain or distress that confounds research results. The authors describe a prototype device for biometric identification of laboratory rodents that would allow researchers to identify rodents without the complications of other methods. The device, which uses the rodent's ear blood vessel pattern as the identifier, is fast, automatic, noninvasive, and painless.

  2. Device for biometric verification of maternity

    OpenAIRE

    Lalović Komlen; Milosavljević Milan; Tot Ivan; Maček Nemanja

    2015-01-01

    Biometry is the scientific discipline and technology that measures and analyzes physiological or behavioral characteristics of people and is widely deployed in modern society security systems. Device for biometric identification of maternity is a dual fingerprint scanner that acquires fingerprint templates of the mother and the child at the very moment of birth, generates unique ID reference, and further guarantees mother-child relationship with that refere...

  3. Heart Electrical Actions as Biometric Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor); Dusan, Sorin V. (Inventor); Jorgensen, Charles C. (Inventor); Belousof, Eugene (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method and associated system for use of statistical parameters based on peak amplitudes and/or time interval lengths and/or depolarization-repolarization vector angles and/or depolarization-repolarization vector lengths for PQRST electrical signals associated with heart waves, to identify a person. The statistical parameters, estimated to be at least 192, serve as biometric indicia, to authenticate, or to decline to authenticate, an asserted identity of a candidate person.

  4. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit M Thanki; Ved Vyas Dwivedi; Komal Borisagar

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to sec...

  5. Optical coherence tomography used for internal biometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Sherif, Sherif; Mao, Youxin; Flueraru, Costel

    2007-06-01

    Traditional biometric technologies used for security and person identification essentially deal with fingerprints, hand geometry and face images. However, because all these technologies use external features of human body, they can be easily fooled and tampered with by distorting, modifying or counterfeiting these features. Nowadays, internal biometrics which detects the internal ID features of an object is becoming increasingly important. Being capable of exploring under-skin structure, optical coherence tomography (OCT) system can be used as a powerful tool for internal biometrics. We have applied fiber-optic and full-field OCT systems to detect the multiple-layer 2D images and 3D profile of the fingerprints, which eventually result in a higher discrimination than the traditional 2D recognition methods. More importantly, the OCT based fingerprint recognition has the ability to easily distinguish artificial fingerprint dummies by analyzing the extracted layered surfaces. Experiments show that our OCT systems successfully detected the dummy, which was made of plasticene and was used to bypass the commercially available fingerprint scanning system with a false accept rate (FAR) of 100%.

  6. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel eMazaira-Fernández

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g. YouTube to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such fingerprints or face recognition have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. Through the present paper, a new methodology to characterize speakers will be shown. This methodology is benefiting from the advances achieved during the last years in understanding and modelling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a new set of biometric parameters extracted from the components resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract gender-dependent extended biometric parameters are given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions.

  7. Biometric technology authentication, biocryptography, and cloud-based architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Most biometric books are either extraordinarily technical for technophiles or extremely elementary for the lay person. Striking a balance between the two, Biometric Technology: Authentication, Biocryptography, and Cloud-Based Architecture is ideal for business, IT, or security managers that are faced with the task of making purchasing, migration, or adoption decisions. It brings biometrics down to an understandable level, so that you can immediately begin to implement the concepts discussed.Exploring the technological and social implications of widespread biometric use, the book considers the

  8. Biometric templates selection and update using quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Ali J.; Jassim, Sabah A.

    2012-06-01

    To deal with severe variation in recording conditions, most biometric systems acquire multiple biometric samples, at the enrolment stage, for the same person and then extract their individual biometric feature vectors and store them in the gallery in the form of biometric template(s), labelled with the person's identity. The number of samples/templates and the choice of the most appropriate templates influence the performance of the system. The desired biometric template(s) selection technique must aim to control the run time and storage requirements while improving the recognition accuracy of the biometric system. This paper is devoted to elaborating on and discussing a new two stages approach for biometric templates selection and update. This approach uses a quality-based clustering, followed by a special criterion for the selection of an ultimate set of biometric templates from the various clusters. This approach is developed to select adaptively a specific number of templates for each individual. The number of biometric templates depends mainly on the performance of each individual (i.e. gallery size should be optimised to meet the needs of each target individual). These experiments have been conducted on two face image databases and their results will demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed quality-guided approach.

  9. AHMCT Intelligent Roadway Information System (IRIS) technical support and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    This report documents the research project AHMCT IRIS Technical Support and Testing, : performed under contract 65A0275, Task ID 1777. It presents an overview of the Intelligent : Roadway Information System (IRIS), and its design and function. ...

  10. Comparison of features response in texture-based iris segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available the Fisher linear discriminant and the iris region of interest is extracted. Four texture description methods are compared for segmenting iris texture using a region based pattern classification approach: Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Discrete...

  11. Changes of the eye optics after iris constriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Montés-Micó

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: Iris constriction slightly modifies the optics of the eye. The small hyperopic shift of the best image plane after iris constriction may be explained by a change in the lens shape and/or position.

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran (THF) (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of Tetrahydrofuran, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the iris/process.htm">IRIS Assessment Development Proc...

  13. IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2018, EPA released the IRIS Assessment Plan for Uranium (Oral Reference Dose) (Scoping and Problem Formulation Materials). An IRIS Assessment Plan (IAP) communicates to the public the plan for assessing each individual chemical and includes summary informatio...

  14. IRIS Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride (Final Report, 2000)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Vinyl Chloride: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Vinyl Chloride and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  15. A fourier transform quality measure for iris images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makinana, S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available to ensure that good quality images are selected for feature extraction, in order to improve iris recognition system. In addition, this research proposes a measure of iris image quality using a Fourier Transform. The experimental results demonstrate...

  16. Bilateral acute iris transillumination: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cumali Degirmenci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral acute iris transillumination (BAIT is a recently defined disease characterized with bilateral acute, severe pigment dispersion of iris and pupil sphincter paralysis. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is unknown, but antibiotics such as moxifloxacin, clarithromycin, viral infections, and fumigation therapies were considered as probable etiologic factors. A 33-year-old female was referred to our clinic for acute iridocyclitis refractory to azathioprine, colchicum and corticosteroid treatments. Ophthalmic examination revealed bilateral pigment dispersion, significant iris transillumination, heavy pigment deposition in iridocorneal angle, and elevated intraocular pressure. Upon systemic evaluation she was found to have bacterial urinary tract infection. BAIT is an important cause of pigment dispersion and clinicians must be vigilant for this condition to avoid unnecessary diagnostic tests and treatment.

  17. Internet Renewable energy Information System (IRIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bäurle, Britta; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Ménard, Lionel

    1999-01-01

    Even though the Internet is now a widely accessible data source, the unorganised flood of information makes a specific request e.g. for renewable energy products inefficient. In addition, existing databases on renewable energies are often old and incomplete. The objective of IRIS has been...... to organise and retrieve renewable energy product information on the Internet instead of collecting it manually. Updating coincides with the self interestself-interest of manufacturers to present their latest renewable energy products on their own HTML documents. IRIS is based on a set of powerful tools...... and intends to find, extract, collect and index HTML documents with standardised META tags that are widely spread across web servers on the Internet. This paper presents the structure of IRIS, the software tools, and gives one example of how to categorise and prepare web-sites with product information...

  18. Image compression with Iris-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gains, David

    2009-05-01

    Iris-C is an image codec designed for streaming video applications that demand low bit rate, low latency, lossless image compression. To achieve compression and low latency the codec features the discrete wavelet transform, Exp-Golomb coding, and online processes that construct dynamic models of the input video. Like H.264 and Dirac, the Iris-C codec accepts input video from both the YUV and YCOCG colour spaces, but the system can also operate on Bayer RAW data read directly from an image sensor. Testing shows that the Iris-C codec is competitive with the Dirac low delay syntax codec which is typically regarded as the state-of-the-art low latency, lossless video compressor.

  19. BIOMETRIC IDENTITY VERIFICATION IN HEALTH SERVICES: A BIOMETRIC SURVEILLANCE PRACTICE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker ŞİRİN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Determination or verification of identity with biometric methods has a widespread use especially at borders for security reasons. Social Security Institution transferred the biometric identity verification practice to health sercives that are provided by private and university hospitals. The risks of the new system considering the privacy of personal data are under debate. Although there are announcements or manuals of Social Security Institution regarding the implementation and legislation for data sharing and security exists, lack of a national data protection law brings with it security gaps.

  20. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Trichloroethylene (TCE) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Trichloroethylene (TCE) that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. The purpose of this Toxicological Review is to provide scientific support and rationale for the hazard and dose-response assessment in IRIS pertaining to chronic exposure to trichloroethylene. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trichloroethylene.

  2. Plateau iris secondary to iridociliary cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Arteaga, J; Díaz-Céspedes, R A; Suriano, M M

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of plateau iris and glaucoma due to multiple unilateral iridociliary cysts. The patient was treated with iridotomy Nd: YAG laser and 360° iridoplasty, without achieving pressure control. Phacoemulsification improved the hypertension. Dynamic gonioscopy and OCT of the anterior chamber was also performed before and after treatment. Iridociliary cysts are a benign condition that can cause iris plateau configuration, and can produce a difficult to treat ocular hypertension. Cystotomy, peripheral iridoplasty, and other treatments have been proposed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. IRIS Toxicological Review of Inorganic Arsenic (Cancer) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Science Advisory Board (SAB) conducted a review of the scientific basis supporting the human health cancer hazard and dose-response assessment of inorganic arsenic that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA revised the assessment and is now returning the assessment to the SAB and releasing the document to the public for a focused review of EPA's responses to the SAB recommendations. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses only cancer human health effects that may result from chronic exposure to this chemical.

  4. A patient with multiple iris | Asselman | Southern African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IRIS results from a pathological inflammatory response to pre-existing infective, host or other antigens, alive or dead, causing clinical deterioration in HIV-infected patients after initiating ART.1 A case definition for IRIS is shown in Table I. The most common forms of IRIS described occur in association with mycobacterial and ...

  5. IRIS: A global approach to nuclear power renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Improved international reactor IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) is discussed. IRIS is defined as a modular reactor with integral arrangement and water coolant. Industrial companies, research, scientific groups and electric power producers of different countries (USA, Great Britain, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Russia, Mexico, Japan, Croatia) take part in the realization of IRIS. Basic parameters of the reactor, construction characteristics, arrangement are presented [ru

  6. IRIS: Supporting & Managing the Research Life-Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollini, Andrea; Mennielli, Michele; Mornati, Susanna; Palmer, David T.

    2016-01-01

    IRIS is a new Current Research Information System (CRIS) developed by Cineca to upgrade and replace two previous solutions that have been used by Italian universities in the last 10 years. At the end of 2015, sixty-three Italian institutions are using IRIS. One of the main components of IRIS is DSpace-CRIS, an open source solution that can also be…

  7. On the Design of Forgiving Biometric Security Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Raphael C.-W.; Whitley, John N.; Parish, David J.

    This work aims to highlight the fundamental issue surrounding biometric security systems: it’s all very nice until a biometric is forged, but what do we do after that? Granted, biometric systems are by physical nature supposedly much harder to forge than other factors of authentication since biometrics on a human body are by right unique to the particular human person. Yet it is also due to this physical nature that makes it much more catastrophic when a forgery does occur, because it implies that this uniqueness has been forged as well, threatening the human individuality; and since crime has by convention relied on identifying suspects by biometric characteristics, loss of this biometric uniqueness has devastating consequences on the freedom and basic human rights of the victimized individual. This uniqueness forgery implication also raises the motivation on the adversary to forge since a successful forgery leads to much more impersonation situations when biometric systems are used i.e. physical presence at crime scenes, identification and access to security systems and premises, access to financial accounts and hence the ability to use the victim’s finances. Depending on the gains, a desperate highly motivated adversary may even resort to directly obtaining the victim’s biometric parts by force e.g. severing the parts from the victim’s body; this poses a risk and threat not just to the individual’s uniqueness claim but also to personal safety and well being. One may then wonder if it is worth putting one’s assets, property and safety into the hands of biometrics based systems when the consequences of biometric forgery far outweigh the consequences of system compromises when no biometrics are used.

  8. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit M Thanki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to secure vulnerable point like protection of biometric templates at the communication channel of biometric authentication systems. A compressive sensing theory procedure is used for generation of sparse information on watermark biometric data using detail wavelet coefficients. Then sparse information of watermark biometric data is embedded into DCT coefficients of host biometric data. This proposed scheme is robust to common signal processing and geometric attacks like JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, and cropping, histogram equalization. This proposed scheme has more advantages and high quality measures compared to existing schemes in the literature.

  9. Distribution and multiplication of iris severe mosaic potyvirus in bulbous Iris in relation to metabolic activity : implications for ISMV detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der C.I.M.

    1994-01-01

    During cultivation of iris, several viruses may cause severe damage like yield reduction and discoloration of the plant. In commercial stocks in the Netherlands virtually all plants are infected with iris mild mosaic virus (IMMV) while iris severe mosaic virus (ISMV) and narcissus latent

  10. Iris unwrapping using the Bresenham circle algorithm for real-time iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, Matthew T.; Ngo, Hau T.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Broussard, Randy P.

    2015-02-01

    An efficient parallel architecture design for the iris unwrapping process in a real-time iris recognition system using the Bresenham Circle Algorithm is presented in this paper. Based on the characteristics of the model parameters this algorithm was chosen over the widely used polar conversion technique as the iris unwrapping model. The architecture design is parallelized to increase the throughput of the system and is suitable for processing an inputted image size of 320 × 240 pixels in real-time using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. Quartus software is used to implement, verify, and analyze the design's performance using the VHSIC Hardware Description Language. The system's predicted processing time is faster than the modern iris unwrapping technique used today∗.

  11. Multi-biometric Liveness Detection – A New Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-01

    Dec 1, 2016 ... Basic Multi-biometric Authentication System was thought to have sealed the vulnerabilities ..... action of a real physical human being and not from a pattern ... of authentication is referred to as multi-biometric fusion, and such a ...

  12. Efficient and privacy-preserving biometric identification in cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Hahn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth in the development of smart devices equipped with biometric sensors, client identification system using biometric traits are widely adopted across various applications. Among many biometric traits, fingerprint-based identification systems have been extensively studied and deployed. However, to adopt biometric identification systems in practical applications, two main obstacles in terms of efficiency and client privacy must be resolved simultaneously. That is, identification should be performed at an acceptable time, and only a client should have access to his/her biometric traits, which are not revocable if leaked. Until now, multiple studies have demonstrated successful protection of client biometric data; however, such systems lack efficiency that leads to excessive time utilization for identification. The most recently researched scheme shows efficiency improvements but reveals client biometric traits to other entities such as biometric database server. This violates client privacy. In this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy-preserving fingerprint identification scheme by using cloud systems. The proposed scheme extensively exploits the computation power of a cloud so that most of the laborious computations are performed by the cloud service provider. According to our experimental results on an Amazon EC2 cloud, the proposed scheme is faster than the existing schemes and guarantees client privacy by exploiting symmetric homomorphic encryption. Our security analysis shows that during identification, the client fingerprint data is not disclosed to the cloud service provider or fingerprint database server.

  13. Forensic biometrics: From two communities to one discipline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwly, Didier; Meuwly, Didier; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the fields of biometrics and forensic science can contribute and benefit from each other. The aim is to foster the development of new methods and tools improving the current forensic biometric applications and allowing for the creation of new ones. The article begins with

  14. 21 CFR 1311.116 - Additional requirements for biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional requirements for biometrics. 1311.116 Section 1311.116 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REQUIREMENTS FOR... for biometrics. (a) If one of the factors used to authenticate to the electronic prescription...

  15. Biometrical analysis in radiobiological works of N.V. Luchnik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotov, N.V.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of the famous Russian geneticist and biophysics N.V. Luchnik into biometrical analysis of radiobiological data is discussed. His works on radiation mortality of mice (2) and the process of post-radiation repair of chromosome aberrations (10) are thoroughly observed. The conclusion of necessity to develop biometrical analysis as separate part of biometry is made

  16. Security analysis for biometric data in ID documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimke, S.; Kiltz, S.; Vielhauer, C.; Kalker, A.A.C.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze chances and challenges with respect to the security of using biometrics in ID documents. We identify goals for ID documents, set by national and international authorities, and discuss the degree of security, which is obtainable with the inclusion of biometric into documents

  17. A study of dorsal vein pattern for biometric security

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    ensure more reliable security, many biometric verification techniques have been developed .... 3.0 HA D DORSAL VEI PATTER AS A BIOMETRIC ... image for the back of the hand, and converted by a computer into a digital image that can be.

  18. Semiparametric copula models for biometric score level fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.

    2016-01-01

    In biometric recognition, biometric samples (images of faces, fingerprints, voices, gaits, etc.) of people are compared and matchers (classifiers) indicate the level of similarity between any pair of samples by a score. If we model the joint distribution of all scores by a (semiparametric) Gaussian

  19. Iris recognition based on key image feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Tian, Q; Zhang, J; Wu, S; Zeng, Y

    2008-01-01

    In iris recognition, feature extraction can be influenced by factors such as illumination and contrast, and thus the features extracted may be unreliable, which can cause a high rate of false results in iris pattern recognition. In order to obtain stable features, an algorithm was proposed in this paper to extract key features of a pattern from multiple images. The proposed algorithm built an iris feature template by extracting key features and performed iris identity enrolment. Simulation results showed that the selected key features have high recognition accuracy on the CASIA Iris Set, where both contrast and illumination variance exist.

  20. IRIS Bimonthly Public Meeting (Jun 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 25-27, 2014, EPA hosted a public meeting/webinar, to provide an opportunity for the public to give input and participate in an open discussion regarding several IRIS chemical assessments of Hexavalent Chromium (Cr(VI)) and Inorganic Arsenic (iAs).

  1. IRIS Public Science Meeting (June 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This June 2016 public meeting is made available to solicit comments on the public comment draft of the IRIS Assessment of tert-Butanol. The draft document was re-opened in the docket for a 60-day public comment period closing on July 16, 2016.

  2. Iris Murdoch, Liberal Education and Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2009-01-01

    Articulating the good of liberal education--what we should teach and why we should teach it--is necessary to resist the subversion of liberal education to economic or political ends and the mania for measurable skills. I argue that Iris Murdoch's philosophical writings enrich the work of contemporary Aristotelians, such as Joseph Dunne and…

  3. IRI profile parameters at equatorial latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinisch, B.W.; Huang Xueqin; Conway, J.

    2002-01-01

    The IRI bottom-side electron density profile is specified as a function of three parameters B0, B1, and D1 describing the F2 layer thickness and shape, and the shape of the F1 layer, respectively. Together with the URSI or CCIR coefficients for the F2 layer peak density and height, they completely specify the profiles as function of time, season and solar activity. In support of the international effort of determining the best set of parameters we have analyzed the diurnal variations of B0, B1, and D1 for Jicamarca for high solar activity during 1999 and 2000 for different seasons and magnetic activity. The B0 values vary from a minimum of ∼95 km at 0300 LT to ∼250 km at local noon (1700 UT). The diurnal variation is similar to the IRI2000 prediction. B1 varies from ∼1.9 at daytime to ∼2.2 at night. The value of D1 is ∼0.5. The parameters show little Kp dependence. Standard deviations are shown. We calculated the ionospheric total electron contents for March and April 1998 from the ionogram profiles at Jicamarca and compared them with IRI predictions using the IRI 2000 parameters. While there is fair agreement, a significant time shift of 1 to 2 hours occurs in the transition from night to daytime values. (author)

  4. Correlation between intraocular pressure and the biometric structure of the anterior chamber in patients of chronic renal failure with hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ying Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation between intraocular pressure(IOPchanges pre- and post-hemodialysis(HDand the biometric structure of the anterior chamber in patients of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Fifty-two patients(take right eye as study onewith hemodialysis that were diagnosed with chronic renal failure by nephrology in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were collected. Fifty-two eyes were divided into four groups based on Shaffer classification combined with ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBMand gonioscopy manifestations: wide angle group, narrow angle group, extremely narrow group and close angle group. Venous blood was collected to get plasma colloid osmotic pressure before HD and within 60s after HD. IOP was measured with rebound intraocular pressure gauge in a supine positon approximately 30min before starting HD, 2h after HD begin and approximately 30min after HD ending. Approximately 30min before and after HD, central corneal thickness was measured with corneal endothelial cell counter, central anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were taken by A scan, angle opening distance, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness and ciliary body thickness were measured by UBM. RESULTS: Plasma osmotic pressure reduced after HD, the difference was statistically significant(t=3.04, PF=41.69, PPPF=6.44, PPt=2.61, PCONCLUSION: The influence of hemodialysis on IOP is related to the biometric structure of the anterior chamber. And extremely narrow angle is risk factor of elevated IOP during hemodialysis, narrow angle may be a risk factor. While patients with wide angle is relatively safe. We suggest to take ocular examination as early as possible for patients with hemodialysis, and focus on patients with narrow angle.

  5. IRIS PRA preliminary results and future direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finnicum, D.J.; Kling, C.L.; Carelli, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Westinghouse is currently conducting the pre-application licensing of the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) on behalf of the IRIS Consortium. One of the key aspects of the IRIS design is the concept of safety-by-design. The PRA (Probabilistic Risk Analysis) is being used as an integral part of the design process. As part of this effort, a PRA of the initial design was generated to address 2 key areas. First, the IRIS PRA supported the evaluation of IRIS design issues by providing a solid risk basis for design and analyses required for the pre-licensing evaluation of the IRIS design. The PRA provides the tool for quantifying the benefit of the safety-by-design approach. Second, the current PRA task is beginning the preparation of the more complete PRA analyses and documentation eventually required for Design Certification. One of the key risk-related goals for IRIS is to reduce the EPZ (Emergency Protection Zone) to within the exclusion area by demonstrating that the off-site doses are consistent with the US Protective Action Guidelines (PAGs) for initiation of emergency response so that the required protective actions would be limited to the exclusion area. The results of the preliminary PRA indicated a core damage frequency of 1.2 E-08 for internal initiators. This is a very good result but much work is needed to meet the ambitious goal of no emergency response. The next phase of the PRA analyses will involve a two-fold expansion of the PRA. First, as the design and analyses approach a greater level of detail, the assumptions used for the initial PRA will be reviewed and the models will be revised as needed to reflect the improved knowledge of the system design and performance. Furthermore, as the full plant design advances, the PRA will be expanded to incorporate risk associated with external challenges such as seismic and fire, and to address low power and shutdowns modes of operation. As with the initial work, the PRA will serve as a tool to

  6. Unobtrusive Multimodal Biometric Authentication: The HUMABIO Project Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Monitoring and Authentication using Biodynamic Indicators and Behavioural Analysis (HUMABIO (2007 is an EU Specific Targeted Research Project (STREP where new types of biometrics are combined with state of the art sensorial technologies in order to enhance security in a wide spectrum of applications. The project aims to develop a modular, robust, multimodal biometrics security authentication and monitoring system which utilizes a biodynamic physiological profile, unique for each individual, and advancements of the state-of-the art in behavioural and other biometrics, such as face, speech, gait recognition, and seat-based anthropometrics. Several shortcomings in biometric authentication will be addressed in the course of HUMABIO which will provide the basis for improving existing sensors, develop new algorithms, and design applications, towards creating new, unobtrusive biometric authentication procedures in security sensitive, controlled environments. This paper presents the concept of this project, describes its unobtrusive authentication demonstrator, and reports some preliminary results.

  7. Can visual evoked potentials be used in biometric identification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Alan J; Lalor, Edmund C; Reilly, Richard B

    2006-01-01

    Due to known differences in the anatomical structure of the visual pathways and generators in different individuals, the use of visual evoked potentials offers the possibility of an alternative to existing biometrics methods. A study based on visual evoked potentials from 13 individuals was carried out to assess the best combination of temporal, spectral and AR modeling features to realize a robust biometric. From the results it can be concluded that visual evoked potentials show considerable biometric qualities, with classification accuracies reaching a high of 86.54% and that a specific temporal and spectral combination was found to be optimal. Based on these results the visual evoked potential may be a useful tool in biometric identification when used in conjunction with more established biometric methods.

  8. Advances in biometrics for secure human authentication and recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Sing, Jamuna Kanta

    2013-01-01

    GENERAL BIOMETRICSSecurity and Reliability Assessment for Biometric Systems; Gayatri MirajkarReview of Human Recognition Based on Retinal Images; Amin DehghaniADVANCED TOPICS IN BIOMETRICSVisual Speech as Behavioral Biometric; Preety Singh, Vijay Laxmi, and Manoj Singh GaurHuman Gait Signature for Biometric Authentication; Vijay JohnHand-Based Biometric for Personal Identification Using Correlation Filter Classifier; Mohammed Saigaa , Abdallah Meraoumia , Salim Chitroub, and Ahmed BouridaneOn Deciding the Dynamic Periocular Boundary for Human Recognition; Sambit Bakshi , Pankaj Kumar Sa, and Banshidhar MajhiRetention of Electrocardiogram Features Insignificantly Devalorized as an Effect of Watermarking for a Multimodal Biometric Authentication System; Nilanjan Dey, Bijurika Nandi, Poulami Das, Achintya Das, and Sheli Sinha ChaudhuriFacial Feature Point Extraction for Object Identification Using Discrete Contourlet Transform and Principal Component Analysis; N. G. Chitaliya and A. I. TrivediCASE STUDIES AND LA...

  9. On humanitarian refugee biometrics and new forms of intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov

    2017-01-01

    This article traces a development from UNHCR's initial use of biometrics in a few pilot projects (early/mid-2000s), to the emergence of a UNHCR policy where biometric registration is considered a "strategic decision". Next it engages key insights from current debates about 'materiality' and agentic...... capacity in combination with current debates about new forms of intervention. Finally, these insights are combined into a framework through which the last part of the article engages critically with this development of humanitarian refugee biometrics by posing the following question: how does an approach...... biometric refugee data, has affected the relationship between UNHCR, donor states, host states and refugees, the article shows how UNHCR's trialling of new biometric technologies, combined with actual and potential data-sharing practices, has advanced the technology's performance as well as its...

  10. Are Haar-like Rectangular Features for Biometric Recognition Reducible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2013-01-01

    Biometric recognition is still a very difficult task in real-world scenarios wherein unforeseen changes in degradations factors like noise, occlusion, blurriness and illumination can drastically affect the extracted features from the biometric signals. Very recently Haar-like rectangular features...... which have usually been used for object detection were introduced for biometric recognition resulting in systems that are robust against most of the mentioned degradations [9]. The problem with these features is that one can define many different such features for a given biometric signal...... and it is not clear whether all of these features are required for the actual recognition or not. This is exactly what we are dealing with in this paper: How can an initial set of Haar-like rectangular features, that have been used for biometric recognition, be reduced to a set of most influential features...

  11. Checking the new IRI model: The bottomside B parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosert, M.; Buresova, D.; Miro, G.; Lazo, B.; Ezquer, R.

    2003-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000. (author)

  12. IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene (Interagency ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January 2017, EPA finalized the IRIS assessment of Benzo[a]pyrene. The Toxicological Review was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Benzo[a]pyrene are posted on this site. EPA is undertaking an update of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The outcome of this project is an updated Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for BaP that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  13. Toward noncooperative iris recognition: a classification approach using multiple signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Hugo; Alexandre, Luís A

    2007-04-01

    This paper focuses on noncooperative iris recognition, i.e., the capture of iris images at large distances, under less controlled lighting conditions, and without active participation of the subjects. This increases the probability of capturing very heterogeneous images (regarding focus, contrast, or brightness) and with several noise factors (iris obstructions and reflections). Current iris recognition systems are unable to deal with noisy data and substantially increase their error rates, especially the false rejections, in these conditions. We propose an iris classification method that divides the segmented and normalized iris image into six regions, makes an independent feature extraction and comparison for each region, and combines each of the dissimilarity values through a classification rule. Experiments show a substantial decrease, higher than 40 percent, of the false rejection rates in the recognition of noisy iris images.

  14. Checking the new IRI model The bottomside B parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Mosert, M; Ezquer, R; Lazo, B; Miro, G

    2002-01-01

    Electron density profiles obtained at Pruhonice (50.0, 15.0), El Arenosillo (37.1, 353.2) and Havana (23, 278) were used to check the bottom-side B parameters BO (thickness parameter) and B1 (shape parameter) predicted by the new IRI - 2000 version. The electron density profiles were derived from ionograms using the ARP technique. The data base includes daytime and nighttime ionograms recorded under different seasonal and solar activity conditions. Comparisons with IRI predictions were also done. The analysis shows that: a) The parameter B1 given by IRI 2000 reproduces better the observed ARP values than the IRI-90 version and b) The observed BO values are in general well reproduced by both IRI versions: IRI-90 and IRI-2000.

  15. IRIS: Proceeding Towards the Preliminary Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M.; Miller, K.; Lombardi, C.; Todreas, N.; Greenspan, E.; Ninokata, H.; Lopez, F.; Cinotti, L.; Collado, J.; Oriolo, F.; Alonso, G.; Morales, M.; Boroughs, R.; Barroso, A.; Ingersoll, D.; Cavlina, N.

    2002-01-01

    The IRIS (International Reactor Innovative and Secure) project has completed the conceptual design phase and is moving towards completion of the preliminary design, scheduled for the end of 2002. Several other papers presented in this conference provide details on major aspects of the IRIS design. The three most innovative features which uniquely characterize IRIS are, in descending order of impact: 1. Safety-by-design, which takes maximum advantage of the integral configuration to eliminate from consideration some accidents, greatly lessen the consequence of other accident scenarios and decrease their probability of occurring; 2. Optimized maintenance, where the interval between maintenance shutdowns is extended to 48 months; and 3. Long core life, of at least four years without shuffling or partial refueling. Regarding feature 1, design and analyses will be supplemented by an extensive testing campaign to verify and demonstrate the performance of the integral components, individually as well as interactive systems. Test planning is being initiated. Test results will be factored into PRA analyses under an overall risk informed regulation approach, which is planned to be used in the IRIS licensing. Pre-application activities with NRC are also scheduled to start in mid 2002. Regarding feature 2, effort is being focused on advanced online diagnostics for the integral components, first of all the steam generators, which are the most critical component; several techniques are being investigated. Finally, a four year long life core design is well underway and some of the IRIS team members are examining higher enrichment, eight to ten year life cores which could be considered for reloads. (authors)

  16. IRIS. Progress in licensing and toward deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovic, B.; Carelli, M.D.; Kling, C.L.; Cavlina, N.; Grgic, D.

    2006-01-01

    The International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) is an advanced, integral, light water cooled, pressurized reactor of smaller generating capacity (1000 MWt, or 335 MWe). It is being developed through a strong international partnership by a team lead by Westinghouse and including organizations from 10 countries. The main objective of the project is to offer a simple nuclear power plant with outstanding safety, attractive economics and enhanced proliferation resistance characteristics ready for deployment within the next decade. IRIS embodies the requirements set forth by the recently announced US DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program for worldwide deployment of a smaller-scale reactors and provides a viable bridge to Generation IV reactors. IRIS is designed to address the needs of both developed and emerging markets. Its smaller power level provides deployment flexibility in larger developed markets, and makes it in particular well suited for markets with limited grids or where the annual energy demand growth is moderate. Due to its short construction time and the staggered build option, IRIS significantly reduces the required financing, improves cash flow, and provides a viable solution for economies with limited resources. While based on proven and worldwide accepted LWR technology, IRIS introduces a number of innovative solutions to simplify its design and improve safety and operational characteristics, including the integral primary system and its components, as well as the safety-by-design approach. These features will be tested and demonstrated in a testing program that has been initiated. As its centerpiece, the program will include the integral test facility. Results of this program will support licensing with the US NRC. A multinational licensing is considered to facilitate worldwide deployment. (author)

  17. Combining GPS measurements and IRI model predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Juan, J.M.; Sanz, J.; Bilitza, D.

    2002-01-01

    The free electrons distributed in the ionosphere (between one hundred and thousands of km in height) produce a frequency-dependent effect on Global Positioning System (GPS) signals: a delay in the pseudo-orange and an advance in the carrier phase. These effects are proportional to the columnar electron density between the satellite and receiver, i.e. the integrated electron density along the ray path. Global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) maps can be obtained with GPS data from a network of ground IGS (international GPS service) reference stations with an accuracy of few TEC units. The comparison with the TOPEX TEC, mainly measured over the oceans far from the IGS stations, shows a mean bias and standard deviation of about 2 and 5 TECUs respectively. The discrepancies between the STEC predictions and the observed values show an RMS typically below 5 TECUs (which also includes the alignment code noise). he existence of a growing database 2-hourly global TEC maps and with resolution of 5x2.5 degrees in longitude and latitude can be used to improve the IRI prediction capability of the TEC. When the IRI predictions and the GPS estimations are compared for a three month period around the Solar Maximum, they are in good agreement for middle latitudes. An over-determination of IRI TEC has been found at the extreme latitudes, the IRI predictions being, typically two times higher than the GPS estimations. Finally, local fits of the IRI model can be done by tuning the SSN from STEC GPS observations

  18. Audiovisual Speech Synchrony Measure: Application to Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Chollet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Speech is a means of communication which is intrinsically bimodal: the audio signal originates from the dynamics of the articulators. This paper reviews recent works in the field of audiovisual speech, and more specifically techniques developed to measure the level of correspondence between audio and visual speech. It overviews the most common audio and visual speech front-end processing, transformations performed on audio, visual, or joint audiovisual feature spaces, and the actual measure of correspondence between audio and visual speech. Finally, the use of synchrony measure for biometric identity verification based on talking faces is experimented on the BANCA database.

  19. Biometry, biometrics, biostatistics, bioinformatics,..., bio-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenberghs, Geert

    2005-03-01

    Recent scientific evolutions force us to rethink our profession's position on the scientific map, in relation to our neighboring professions, the ones with which we traditionally have strong collaborative links as well as the newly emerging fields, but also within our own, diverse professional group. We will show that great inspiration can be drawn from our own history, in fact from the early days of the Society. A recent inspiring example has been set by the late Rob Kempton, who died suddenly just months before he was to become President of the International Biometric Society.

  20. Biometrics and Psychometrics: Origins, Commonalities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gower

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the common origins of biometrics and psychometrics at the beginning of the twentieth century, the paper compares and contrasts subsequent developments, informed by the author's 35 years at Rothamsted Experimental Station followed by a period with the data theory group in Leiden and thereafter. Although the methods used by biometricians and psychometricians have much in common, there are important differences arising from the different fields of study. Similar differences arise wherever data are generated and may be regarded as a major driving force in the development of statistical ideas.