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Sample records for bartonella henselae infection

  1. Clinical and Pathologic Evaluation of Chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae Infection in Cats

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    Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Edward B Breitschwerdt

    1999-01-01

    Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...

  2. Does a Feline Leukemia Virus Infection Pave the Way for Bartonella henselae Infection in Cats? ▿

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    Buchmann, Alexandra U.; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Gruber, Achim D.

    2010-01-01

    Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection....

  3. Immunofluorescent Detection of Intraerythrocytic Bartonella henselae in Naturally Infected Cats

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    Rolain, J. M.; La Scola, B; Liang, Z.; B. Davoust; D. Raoult

    2001-01-01

    To determine the presence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in six cats, we compared isolation using blood culture with direct immunofluorescence on blood smears. Three cats that were positive by blood culture were also positive by direct immunofluorescence, and laser confocal microscopy confirmed the intraerythrocytic location of B. henselae.

  4. Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease.

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    Maritsi, Despoina N; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:23424700

  5. Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease

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    Despoina N. Maritsi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata, chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256 against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent.

  6. Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae infection and correlation with disease status in cats in Switzerland.

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    Glaus, T; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Greene, C; Glaus, B; Wolfensberger, C; Lutz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzerland. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), or feline spumavirus (FeSFV), and the l...

  7. From cat scratch disease to endocarditis, the possible natural history of Bartonella henselae infection

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    Raoult Didier; Collart Frédéric; Habib Gilbert; Lepidi Hubert; Gouriet Frédérique

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. Case presentation Here we report the case of a patient who had CSD and six months later developed IE of the mitral valve caused by B. henselae. Conclusion Based on this uniq...

  8. First report on seroepidemiological and clinical investigation of cat infection with Bartonella henselae in the area of Novi Sad, Serbia

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    Potkonjak A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infective disease of animals and humans caused with Bartonella henselae. Prevalence of infection varies between 0 and 68% depending on different population of cats and geographical region. Naturally infected cats are often clinically healthy and are inapparent germ carriers. In this investigation 40 cats from the area of Novi Sad were analyzed. After the epidemiological questionnaire was made, all cats were clinically investigated. To determine the presence of specific antibodies of class G on Bartonella henselae the method of indirect immunofluorescence was used. For the first time in Serbia, in the area of Novi Sad municipality the infection caused by Bartonella henselae in the population of cats was detected. Prevalence of specific antibodies of class IgG on Bartonella henselae antigen in the population of cats was 57%. The most common clinical manifestations in seropositive cats were gingivitis and lymphoadenopathy.

  9. Transmission of Bartonella henselae by Ixodes ricinus

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    Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid...

  10. Bartonella henselae Infection: An Uncommon Mimicker of Autoimmune Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Maritsi, Despoina N.; Diagoras Zarganis; Zoi Metaxa; Georgia Papaioannou; George Vartzelis

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was n...

  11. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult.

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    Holmes, A H; Greenough, T C; Balady, G J; Regnery, R L; Anderson, B E; O'Keane, J C; Fonger, J D; McCrone, E L

    1995-10-01

    We describe a case of aggressive Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent man who owned a cat. Aortic valve replacement was required, and his infection was diagnosed by histology, serology, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The manifestations of his disease included mediastinal lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, and a petechial rash; the unusual finding of a positive titer of c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was noted. Serological titers were markedly elevated for > 1 year despite clinical improvement. PMID:8645787

  12. Comparative microbiological features of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog with fever of unknown origin and granulomatous lymphadenitis.

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    Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc

    2014-04-01

    We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed. PMID:24310419

  13. [Infective endocarditis due to Bartonella henselae following a rupture of a cerebral aneurysm].

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    de La Blanchardière, A; Fournier, P-E; Haustraete, E; du Cheyron, D; Lepage, O; Verdon, R

    2009-06-01

    We report a case of severe aortic bicuspid valve endocarditis, revealed by global cardiac failure without fever, in a 38-year-old man who had developed cerebral mycotic aneurysms nine months earlier. PCR analysis of the excised aortic valve and serological tests (even 9 months earlier) were positive for Bartonella henselae. A combination of intravenous then oral doxycyclin at 200mg/day and intravenous gentamycin at 90mg/day was given for 6 and 2 weeks respectively. The evolution was favorable on follow-up, 12 months after completion of the therapy. Only 49 cases of B. henselae endocarditis have been reported to date, none with associated mycotic aneurysm but most often located on the bicuspid aortic valve, and usually with severe valvular damage due to late diagnosis. PMID:19097835

  14. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae in cats and dogs in Korea

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    Kim, You-seok; SEO, Kyoung-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-Woo; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Shin, Nam-Shik; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Youn, Hwa Young

    2009-01-01

    Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B....

  15. Bartonella henselae infection presenting with a picture of adult-onset Still's disease.

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    Durey, Areum; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, JiHyeon; Han, Seung Baik; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2016-05-01

    We report a patient with a clinical picture of suggestive for adult-onset Still's Disease (ASOD) due to Bartonella infection. A 42-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted with fever, rash, arthralgia and sore throat. As his clinical picture suggested ASOD except unusual skin manifestation, we treated him on steroid and ibuprofen. His fever and constitutional symptoms responded immediately within 24hrs of commencing therapy, yet rash and leukocytosis remained. Meanwhile, Bartonella infection was proved by culture of bone marrow. Minocyclin treatment started combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and the patient discharged with overall improvement. PMID:27000538

  16. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in Laos - 'the unsought will go undetected'.

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    Sayaphet Rattanavong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos, probably because people have neglected to look.We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012, and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013, at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis.We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for

  17. Bartonella henselae Invasion of Feline Erythrocytes In Vitro

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    Mehock, Jane R.; Greene, Craig E.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Krause, Duncan C.

    1998-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of less than 1% of the RBC. Invasion was a slow process, requiring >8 h before significant ...

  18. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

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    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  19. The BatR/BatS two-component regulatory system controls the adaptive response of Bartonella henselae during human endothelial cell infection

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    Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS co...

  20. Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and HLA-B27

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    Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rothova, A

    2000-01-01

    AIM—To investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with presumed Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and to describe the clinical characteristics of HLA-B27 positive patients with uveitis and presumed ocular bartonellosis (POB).
METHODS—The diagnosis of POB was considered in 19 patients with unexplained uveitis (except for the HLA-B27 association) and high positive IgG (titre ⩾1:900) and/or IgM (titre ⩾1:250) antibodies against B henselae. In addition to B henselae serology and HLA-B2...

  1. Constitutive and Inducible Green Fluorescent Protein Expression in Bartonella henselae

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    Lee, Anthea K.; Falkow, Stanley

    1998-01-01

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was expressed on a plasmid in B. henselae, and GFP-expressing bacteria were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. HEp-2 cells infected with GFP-expressing bacteria were separated from uninfected cells with a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Promoter fusions of B. henselae chromosomal DNA to gfp were examined by flow cytometry, and a B. henselae groEL promoter fusion which induced expression at 37°C was isolated.

  2. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by l-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells

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    Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro

    2008-01-01

    The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and t...

  3. [Prevalence IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae in children with lymphadenopathy].

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    Zarzycka, Beata; Pieczara, Anna; Skowron-Kobos, Jolanta; Krzemiński, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a cat scratch disease's etiological agent which is usually manifestated as regional lymphadenopathy. In differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy infections about etiology B. henselae are rarely taken into consideration. Enlargement of lymph nodes observed in children more often than in adults are caused by bacterial, virus or parasitic factors. In this study immunoglobulines G class antibodies to B. henselae were determined among children with limphadenopathy. At 53 children with recognized lymphadenopathy IgG antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluoroscence method specific for B. henselae. Of the 53 subjects examined, positive results were got at 29 (55%) children. Of the 23 children with negative results of IgG antibodies in 9 children study was repeated. In 5 (56%) cases the increase of IgG antibodies were shown with relation to the first research. The cat scratch disease should be considered as a cause of lymphadenopathy at children because the frequency of occurance of antibodies IgG specific for B. henselae is high. In case of getting negative results, participation of B. henselae should not be out of question in limphadenopathy etiology at children and second determination should be repeted after 10-21 days since the first one. PMID:19209738

  4. Detección serológica de Bartonella henselae en gatos en la ciudad de Valdivia, Chile Serologic detection of Bartonella henselae in cats in the city of Valdivia, Chile

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    L. ZAROR

    2002-01-01

    reported to be infested with fleas had B. henselae antibodies. Human sera were obtained from 22 asymptomatic adults owning Bartonella henselae seropositives cats. Four persons (18% showed serological evidence of infection

  5. Detrimental effects of Bartonella henselae are counteracted by L-arginine and nitric oxide in human endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio

    2008-07-01

    The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1-30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis. PMID:18595894

  6. Detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA in hepatic specimens from two dogs with hepatic disease.

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    Gillespie, Tracey N; Washabau, Robert J; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Cullen, John M; Rogala, Allison R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2003-01-01

    A 4-year-old Basset Hound and a 6-year-old Doberman Pinscher were referred for diagnostic evaluation following documentation of persistently increased hepatic enzyme activities and hepatic dysfunction. Histologic evaluation of hepatic biopsy specimens from the 2 dogs revealed granulomatous hepatitis in the Basset Hound and lymphocytic hepatitis with fibrosis and copper accumulation in the Doberman Pinscher. No etiologic agents were identified histologically. Bartonella henselae DNA was subsequently amplified from hepatic tissue from the Basset Hound and Bartonella clarridgeiae was amplified from hepatic tissue from the Doberman Pinscher. Amplification was performed with a polymerase chain reaction assay incorporating primers that target a portion of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Both dogs were treated with azithromycin, in combination with a variety of other medications and herbal treatments, and improved clinically. Identification of Bartonella DNA in these dogs indicates the need for future prospective studies to determine the clinical relevance of Bartonella spp infection in dogs with hepatic disease. PMID:12523479

  7. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana seroprevalence in HIV-positive, HIV-negative and clinically healthy volunteers in Gauteng, South Africa

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    Anastasia N. Trataris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella is a genus of opportunistic, Gram-negative bacilli transmitted from animals to human hosts. Bartonellae are newly emerging pathogens that can cause a variety of clinical manifestations in both immunocompromised and healthy persons.The aims were to determine the IgG and IgM seroprevalences of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA.A total of 382 HIV-positive outpatients of the Chris Hani Baragwanth HIV-clinic, 382 retrospective residual samples from HIV-negative antenatal patients, and 42 clinically healthy volunteers were tested using a commercially available IFA kit to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana.The IgM and IgG seroprevalences for the HIV-positive patients were 14% (53/382 and 32% (121/382, respectively, compared to 18% for both IgM (62/342 and IgG (63/342 in the HIV- negative antenatal patients. Similarly, the prevalence for IgM was 17% (7/42 and IgG was 19% (8/42 for the clinically healthy volunteers.HIV-positivity appears to be a significant risk factor for Bartonella infection, compared with healthy subjects. Although IFAs have a high sensitivity for Bartonella antibody detection, they have various limitations including cross-reactivity with other closely-related human pathogens.

  8. Antibodies reactive with Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis in dogs from the communal lands of Zimbabwe

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    P.J. Kelly

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I and E. canis (Oklahoma as antigens. We found reactive antibodies (>1:80 against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42, Omay (13 %; 6/48, Chinamora (5 %; 2/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52. Antibodies reactive with E. canis (>1:80 were found in 34%of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42, Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52, Omay (17 %; 8/48, Chinamora (26 %; 10/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.

  9. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

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    Woods Christopher W; Hegarty Barbara C; Lantos Paul M; Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B; Bradley Julie M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods ...

  10. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to Bartonella henselae in Patients with Cat Scratch Disease and in Healthy Controls: Evaluation and Comparison of Two Commercial Serological Tests

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    Sander, Anna; Posselt, Miriam; Oberle, Karin; Bredt, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Serologic testing for the presence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae is a widely accepted diagnostic procedure for laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD). In this study a commercially available indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) based on B. henselae-infected human larynx carcinoma cells (test A) was evaluated. Sera from 42 patients with CSD (20 confirmed by PCR) and 270 sera from healthy controls (consisting of 63 cat owners, 65 individuals whose last cl...

  11. Heme degrading protein HemS is involved in oxidative stress response of Bartonella henselae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MaFeng Liu

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.

  12. Molecular identification and phylogenic analysis of Bartonella henselae isolated from Iranian cats based on gltA gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Vahedi, Seyed Milad; Ashrafi, Iraj; Alipour, Faranak; Sharafi, Golnaz; Akbarein, Hesam; Aldavood, Seyed Javid

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important species of the Bartonella genus is B. henselae that causes a zoonotic infection, cat scratch disease (CSD). The main source of the bacteria is cat and the carrier is Ctenocephalides felis flea. One hundred and forty nail and saliva samples were collected from 70 domestic cats. Positive samples for B. henselae were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Sequences of gltA gene were trimmed using BioEdit software and then compared with the sequences of the same gene from B. henselae isolated from cats and humans in GenBank database. Phylogenic tree was constructed using CLC Sequence Viewer software and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method. Molecular assessments showed that five samples out of 70 nail samples (7.14%) and one sample out of 70 saliva samples (1.42%) were genetically positive for B. henselae. At least an 87.00% similarity was seen between the gene sequences from the current study and the reference sequences from the GenBank database. Phylogenic analysis has shown that strains isolated in this study were grouped in a different haplo group, compared to other strains. Among the Asian countries, the prevalence of the bacteria in Iran was close to that in Japan and Turkey. In conclusion, findings of this study showed the prevalence of B. henselae in Iranian cats which is important due to its public health issues, especially for the immunocompromised pet owners.

  13. Detection and characterization of feline Bartonella henselae in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melter, O.; Hercík, Kamil; Weyant, R. S.; Janeček, Jiří; Němec, A.; Mecera, J.; Gonzorová, L.; Branny, Pavel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 93, - (2003), s. 261-273. ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0417; GA ČR GP204/02/D121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bartonella henselae * cat * molecular typing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.571, year: 2003

  14. Isolation of Bartonella henselae from a serologically negative cat in Bloemfontein, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A-M Pretorius

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31 presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > 1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1 was isolated from 1 cat.

  15. Encephalitis with convulsive status in an immunocompetent pediatric patient caused by Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerpa Polar, Rosario; Orellana, Gabriela; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Sánchez Carbonel, José; Santisteban, Javier; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Santisteban, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Cat scratch's disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is known to be a self-limited benign process in immunocompetent children. The association with neurologic manifestations is very uncommon especially in patient with no immunologic defects and in cases without specific treatment. A 7 years old male patient, without any immunocompromised defect, presented an atypic presentation of the cat scratch disease. The patient came to the hospital in two opportunities in a status epilepticus, in both cases the diagnosis was encephalitis by Bartonella henselae and the evolution with treatment was monitored with PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, as well as IFI (IgM, IgG) serology (indirect immunofluorescence). The patient had a favorable clinical and laboratory evolution for 6 months showing no recurrence of the disease. PMID:27262077

  16. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in clinical samples including peripheral blood of immune competent and immune compromised patients by three nested amplifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Hatamoto Kawasato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are emerging pathogens detected in lymph node biopsies and aspirates probably caused by increased concentration of bacteria. Twenty-three samples of 18 patients with clinical, laboratory and/or epidemiological data suggesting bartonellosis were subjected to three nested amplifications targeting a fragment of the 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP, the internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA (ITS and the cell division (FtsZ of Bartonella henselae, in order to improve detection in clinical samples. In the first amplification 01, 04 and 05 samples, were positive by HSP (4.3%, FtsZ (17.4% and ITS (21.7%, respectively. After the second round six positive samples were identified by nested-HSP (26%, eight by nested-ITS (34.8% and 18 by nested-FtsZ (78.2%, corresponding to 10 peripheral blood samples, five lymph node biopsies, two skin biopsies and one lymph node aspirate. The nested-FtsZ was more sensitive than nested-HSP and nested-ITS (p < 0.0001, enabling the detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in 15 of 18 patients (83.3%. In this study, three nested-PCR that should be specific for Bartonella henselae amplification were developed, but only the nested-FtsZ did not amplify DNA from Bartonella quintana. We conclude that nested amplifications increased detection of B. henselae DNA, and that the nested-FtsZ was the most sensitive and the only specific to B. henselae in different biological samples. As all samples detected by nested-HSP and nested-ITS, were also by nested-FtsZ, we infer that in our series infections were caused by Bartonella henselae. The high number of positive blood samples draws attention to the use of this biological material in the investigation of bartonellosis, regardless of the immune status of patients. This fact is important in the case of critically ill patients and young children to avoid more invasive procedures such as lymph nodes biopsies and aspirates.

  17. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...

  18. Broadening the Morphologic Spectrum of Bartonella henselae Lymphadenitis: Analysis of 100 Molecularly Characterized Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabcuga, Christine E; Jin, Long; Macon, William R; Howard, Matthew T; Oliveira, Andre M; King, Rebecca L

    2016-03-01

    Bartonella henselae lymphadenitis, or cat-scratch lymphadenitis (CSL), is classically associated with stellate microabscesses, occasional giant cells, and extension of the inflammatory infiltrate into perinodal soft tissue. Availability of B. henselae molecular testing on tissue specimens has broadened our understanding of the morphologic variation in this disease. Here we sought to describe the histopathologic features of the largest series to date of molecularly proven CSL. B. henselae polymerase chain reaction-positive tissue specimens from 2010 to 2012 were identified, and hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed. A single-step 16S-23S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction testing was used to identify B. henselae on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A total of 100 B. henselae-positive cases were identified. The median age of the patients was 26.5 years (range, 1 to 69 y). Ninety-two percent of cases presented in lymph nodes, with 66% of these occurring above the diaphragm, most commonly in the cervical chain. Of 100 cases, 57 had classical CSL features of necrotizing granulomas with microabscesses, with or without surrounding palisading histiocytes. In contrast, 43/100 cases lacked the prototypical microabscesses of CSL including: 23 cases (53.5%) with features of fungal/mycobacterial lymphadenitis, 6 (14%) cases with features of Kikuchi lymphadenitis, and 4 cases (9.3%) with the classic histologic triad of toxoplasma lymphadenitis. In summary, B. henselae lymphadenitis may lack the typical microabscesses in almost half of cases and may closely mimic other reactive, especially infectious, lymphadenopathies. Given the lack of specificity of many of these features, a low threshold for B. henselae molecular testing on tissue is warranted in the appropriate clinical context. PMID:26551620

  19. Intracellular location of Bartonella henselae cocultivated with Vero cells and used for an indirect fluorescent-antibody test.

    OpenAIRE

    Zbinden, R.; Höchli, M; Nadal, D

    1995-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the major causative agent of cat scratch disease, was cocultivated with Vero cells on chamber slides and visualized by indirect immunofluorescence by using a patient serum containing specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy localized the granular B. henselae-specific fluorescence mainly around the nuclei of Vero cells. By transmission electron microscopy, these granules were identified as clusters of multiple intracellular organisms. Fixed slides with the monolayers of Ve...

  20. Diagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease with Detection of Bartonella henselae by PCR: a Study of Patients with Lymph Node Enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    Hansmann, Yves; Demartino, Sylvie; Piémont, Yves; Meyer, Nicolas; Mariet, Philippe; Heller, Rémy; Christmann, Daniel; Jaulhac, Benoît

    2005-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy ...

  1. Cat scratch disease: detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in archival biopsies from patients with clinically, serologically, and histologically defined disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, M. A.; McCurley, T. L.; Vnencak-Jones, C L; Hager, C; McCoy, J. A.; Anderson, B; Collins, R. D.; K.M. Edwards

    1996-01-01

    Serological and epidemiological studies suggest that Bartonella henselae is the etiological agent of cat scratch disease. We designed a study to detect B. henselae in archival biopsies by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization. Forty-two histologically defined cat scratch disease biopsies and eighteen controls were selected for blinded analysis. After testing, charts were reviewed for clinical, immunological, and microbial evidence...

  2. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kempf Volkhard AJ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA, the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail.

  3. Adhesion and host cell modulation: critical pathogenicity determinants of Bartonella henselae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Bettina; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243

  4. Einfluss immunsuppressiver Virusinfektionen auf eine natürlich erworbene Infektion mit Bartonella henselae bei Katzen

    OpenAIRE

    Buchmann, Alexandra U.

    2010-01-01

    From October 2006 to November 2008, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for Bartonella (B.) henselae, Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). 11 cats (7.7%) tested positive for B. henselae by nested PCR from blood and/or bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, tonsils, liver or spleen. Of these, three also tested positive for B. henselae by immunohistochemistry. FeLV provirus was detected by semi-nested PCR in b...

  5. Prävalenz und molekulare Epidemiologie der Bartonella henselae-Infektion bei Katzen in Berlin

    OpenAIRE

    Klose, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Bartonella henselae is a world-wide distributed bacterial pathogen, which was first described in the 1990s. Its best known manifestations are Cat Scratch disease and Bacillary angiomatosis. In this study we determined a prevalence of 9,8% in Berlin composed of two populations prevalences: 1% in the group of cats which lived mainly indoors and 18,7% in the group of stray cats. Riskfactors for Bacteremia in cats are flee-infestation and age. We could confirm the flee-infestation as a riskfactor...

  6. MULTIPLEX SYBR® GREEN-REAL TIME PCR (qPCR ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF Bartonella henselae AND Bartonella clarridgeiae IN CATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Staggemeier

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species.

  7. Structure of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from Bartonella henselae bound to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While other aldolases crystallize readily in the apo form, diffraction-quality crystals of B. henselae aldolase could only be obtained in the presence of the native substrate. The quaternary structure is tetrameric, as is typical of aldolases. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.39, b = 127.71, c = 157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site

  8. Isolation of Bartonella henselae DNA from the Peripheral Blood of a Patient with Cat Scratch Disease up to 4 Months after the Cat Scratch Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Arvand, Mardjan; Schäd, Susanne G.

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a girl with cervical lymphadenitis and a persistent primary lesion of cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae DNA was isolated from plasma samples collected 3 and 4 months after the cat scratch, indicating that recurrent and long-term shedding of Bartonella DNA into peripheral blood may occur in typical CSD.

  9. Uncovering the transcriptional control of "Bartonella henselae" host adaptation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Québatte, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    A recurrent theme in bacterial pathogenicity is the understanding of the regulatory events necessary for a given pathogen to progress through its infection cycle while resisting the host defense mechanisms. This progression typically requires the coordinated expression of defined sub-portions of the virulence repertoire at the same time as others need to be tightly repressed or degraded. This so-called adaptive response is ultimately linked to the ability of the pathogen to sense its direct e...

  10. Optimization of Bartonella henselae multilocus sequence typing scheme using single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of SOLiD sequence data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fan; Gemma Chaloner; Alistair Darby; SONG Xiu-ping; LI Dong-mei; Richard Birtles; LIU Qi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is widely used to explore the population structure of numerous bacterial pathogens.However,for genotypically-restricted pathogens,the sensitivity of MLST is limited by a paucity of variation within selected loci.For Bartonella henselae (B.henselae),although the MLST scheme currently used has been proven useful in defining the overall population structure of the species,its reliability for the accurate delineation of closely-related sequence types,between which allelic variation is usually limited to,at most,one or two nucleotide polymorphisms.Exploitation of high-throughput sequencing data allows a more informed selection of MLST loci and thus,potentially,a means of enhancing the sensitivity of the schemes they comprise.Methods We carried out SOLiD resequencing on 12 representative B.henselae isolates and explored these data using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis.We determined the number and distribution of SNPs in the genes targeted by the established MLST scheme and modified the position of loci within these genes to capture as much genetic variation as possible.Results Using genome-wide SNP data,we found the distribution of SNPs within each open reading frame (ORF) of MLST loci,which were not represented by the established B.henselae MLST scheme.We then modified the position of loci in the MLST scheme to better reflect the polymorphism in the ORF as a whole.The use of amended loci in this scheme allowed previously indistinguishable ST1 strains to be differentiated.However,the diversity of B.henselae was still rare in China.Conclusions Our study demonstrates the use of SNP analysis to facilitate the selection of MLST loci to augment the currently-described scheme for B.henselae.And the diversity among B.henselae strains in China is markedly less than that observed in B.henselae populations elsewhere in the world.

  11. Structure of a Nudix hydrolase (MutT) in the Mg2+-bound state from Bartonella henselae, the bacterium responsible for cat scratch fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B. henselae is the etiological agent responsible for cat scratch fever (bartonellosis). The crystal structure of the smaller of the two Nudix hydrolases encoded in the genome of B. henselae, Bh-MutT, was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Cat scratch fever (also known as cat scratch disease and bartonellosis) is an infectious disease caused by the proteobacterium Bartonella henselae following a cat scratch. Although the infection usually resolves spontaneously without treatment in healthy adults, bartonellosis may lead to severe complications in young children and immunocompromised patients, and there is new evidence suggesting that B. henselae may be associated with a broader range of clinical symptoms then previously believed. The genome of B. henselae contains genes for two putative Nudix hydrolases, BH02020 and BH01640 (KEGG). Nudix proteins play an important role in regulating the intracellular concentration of nucleotide cofactors and signaling molecules. The amino-acid sequence of BH02020 is similar to that of the prototypical member of the Nudix superfamily, Escherichia coli MutT, a protein that is best known for its ability to neutralize the promutagenic compound 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphosphate. Here, the crystal structure of BH02020 (Bh-MutT) in the Mg2+-bound state was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. As observed in all Nudix hydrolase structures, the α-helix of the highly conserved ‘Nudix box’ in Bh-MutT is one of two helices that sandwich a four-stranded mixed β-sheet with the central two β-strands parallel to each other. The catalytically essential divalent cation observed in the Bh-MutT structure, Mg2+, is coordinated to the side chains of Glu57 and Glu61. The structure is not especially robust; a temperature melt obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that Bh-MutT irreversibly unfolds and precipitates out of solution upon heating, with a Tm of 333 K

  12. Multi-locus sequence typing of Bartonella henselae isolates from three continents reveals hypervirulent and feline-associated clones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardjan Arvand

    Full Text Available Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of cat scratch disease and a variety of other disease manifestations in humans. Previous investigations have suggested that a limited subset of B. henselae isolates may be associated with human disease. In the present study, 182 human and feline B. henselae isolates from Europe, North America and Australia were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST to detect any associations between sequence type (ST, host species and geographical distribution of the isolates. A total of 14 sequence types were detected, but over 66% (16/24 of the isolates recovered from human disease corresponded to a single genotype, ST1, and this type was detected in all three continents. In contrast, 27.2% (43/158 of the feline isolates corresponded to ST7, but this ST was not recovered from humans and was restricted to Europe. The difference in host association of STs 1 (human and 7 (feline was statistically significant (P< or =0.001. eBURST analysis assigned the 14 STs to three clonal lineages, which contained two or more STs, and a singleton comprising ST7. These groups were broadly consistent with a neighbour-joining tree, although splits decomposition analysis was indicative of a history of recombination. These data indicate that B. henselae lineages differ in their virulence properties for humans and contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of B. henselae.

  13. Estudo da ocorrência de bacteriemia de Bartonella henselae em gatos da região Norte de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Daniela Alexandra Machado Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias Bartonella henselae é considerado um agente patogénico emergente, responsável pelo desenvolvimento da Doença da Arranhadela do Gato, a principal causa de linfadenopatia em crianças e adultos, podendo também cursar com o desenvolvimento de quadros clínicos mais graves nos humanos, particularmente em indivíduos imunodeprimidos. Os gatos são o principal hospedeiro mamífero reservatório desta bactéria, que é tr...

  14. Seroprevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in HIV patients in Catalonia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, María Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M José; Segura, Ferran

    2008-01-01

    Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age. PMID:18452613

  15. Bartonella henselae en niños con adenitis regional atendidos en un hospital nacional del Perú, 2012

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    Edwin Miranda-Choque

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de casos seropositivos a Bartonella henselae en niños con adenitis regional atendidos en un hospital nacional del Perú, se realizó un estudio trasversal en 106 niños con adenitis regional mayor de 1 cm de diámetro, de aparición aguda, con tiempo de enfermedad mayor de cinco días, atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño durante el año 2012. Se definió seropositividad para B. henselae mediante el examen de inmunofluorescencia indirecta, siendo positivos 86 niños (81,1% con una mediana de edad de 7 años, rango de 5 a 11; en el análisis bivariado se encontraron como factores asociados, edad mayor de 5 años, antecedentes de fiebre, adenopatía mayor de 4 cm y reporte de contacto con gato. En conclusión, los niños con adenitis regional atendidos en este hospital de referencia nacional presentaron una frecuencia alta de serología positiva para B. henselae

  16. Novel Bartonella infection in northern and southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-06-01

    Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902

  17. Bartonella spp. bacteremia in blood donors from Campinas, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.

  18. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  19. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057

  20. Seronegative cat-scratch disease diagnosed by PCR detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in lymph node samples

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Chondrogiannis; Antonios Vezakis; Michael Derpapas; Aikaterini Melemeni; Georgios Fragulidis

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), the typical clinical manifestation of Bartonella infections usually follows a typical benign self-limited course. Nevertheless, a variety of unusual clinical manifestations and confusing imaging features can lead to misinterpretations and render the disease a diagnostic dispute. Routine laboratory tests exhibit varying reported sensitivity and are usually unhelpful in diagnosis, as serology fails in terms of specificity and/or sensitivity. Herein we report a case of...

  1. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The r

  2. Detection of Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus ticks and Bartonella seroprevalence in human populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection. PMID:26997137

  3. Pestilence, persistence and pathogenicity: infection strategies of Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Minnick, Michael F.; Battisti, James M.

    2009-01-01

    It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains...

  4. Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J

    2010-05-19

    Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372

  5. Prävalenz von hämotrophen Mycoplasma spp., Bartonella spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum und Borrelia burgdorferi bei Katzen im Raum Berlin/Brandenburg

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthal, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    Arthropod-borne infectious agents in the cat include Bartonella (B.) henselae, Bartonella (B.) clarridgeiae, Bartonella (B.) quintana, Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi. Moreover infections with Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis and Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) haemominutum occur in the cat. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is supposed to be the main vector for Mycoplasma spp.; moreover, transmission via blood transfusion and ...

  6. Functional characterization of "Bartonella" effector protein - BepE during "in vivo" and "in vitro" infection

    OpenAIRE

    Okujava, Rusudan

    2013-01-01

    The bartonellae is a family of gram-negative, fastidious, facultative intracellular, zoonotic bacteria. Most of the Bartonella species are highly adapted to establish asymptomatic bacteremia of their reservoir host within which the bacteria colonize erythrocytes as privileged host niche and develop long-lasting persistent infections. Bartonella uses a VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the infected cells. By using such a tool box it su...

  7. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Cabre, Olivier; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2011-12-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we collected the blood samples of 64 dogs, 8 cats, 30 bovines, 25 horses and 29 wild deer Cervus timorensis russa and 308 associated blood-sucking parasites (14 keds Hippobosca equina, 258 ticks (22 Rhipicephalus microplus, 235 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis), 12 fleas Ctenocephalides felis and 24 dog lice Trichodectes canis). We isolated ten strains of Bartonella: four Bartonella henselae from cats and six Bartonella chomelii from cattle. The strains were characterized by sequencing of five genes (16S, ITS, rpoB, gltA and ftsZ). The six strains isolated from cattle were close to the reference strain of B. chomelii and were, probably, imported from France with cattle of Limousin race. PCR showed that 35% of keds collected from deer and 31% of deer were infected by B. aff. schoenbuchensis; all other samples were negative. Our data confirmed that in New Caledonia, as in other regions of the world, cats are the major reservoirs of B. henselae. We also confirmed that Hippoboscidae flies may serve as the vectors of ruminant-associated bartonellae. PMID:22018646

  8. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi; André, Marcos Rogério; Seki, Meire Christina; Pinto, Aramis Augusto; Machado, Saulo de Tarso Zacarias; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats. PMID:23070430

  9. Bartonella DNA in Dog Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Ashlee W; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Edward B Breitschwerdt

    2007-01-01

    Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.

  10. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Pachirat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  11. The Trw type IV secretion system of Bartonella mediates host-specific adhesion to erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Vayssier-Taussat

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage

  12. Absence of zoonotic Bartonella species in questing ticks: First detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis in cat fleas in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reimerink Johan R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.

  13. Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245

  14. BALB/c Mice resist infection with Bartonella bacilliformis

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    Manguiña Ciro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis is a highly lethal endemic and sometimes epidemic infectious disease in South America, and a serious public health concern in Perú. There is limited information on the immunologic response to B. bacilliformis infection. The objective of this research was to produce experimental infection of BALB/c mice to B. bacilliformis inoculation. Findings BALB/c mice were inoculated with 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 × 108 live B. bacilliformis using different routes: intraperitoneal, intradermal, intranasal, and subcutaneous. Cultures of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from one to 145 days yielded no cultivable organisms. No organs showed lesions at any time. Previously inoculated mice showed no changes in the reinoculation site. Conclusion Parenteral inoculation of live B. bacilliformis via different infection routes produced no macroscopic or microscopic organ lesions in BALB/c mice. It was not possible to isolate B. bacilliformis using Columbia blood agar from 1 to 15 days after inoculation.

  15. Bartonella spp. in human and animal populations in Gauteng, South Africa, from 2007 to 2009

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    Anastasia N. Trataris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are highly adaptive organisms that have the ability to evade the host immune system and cause persistent bacteraemia by occupying the host’s erythrocytes. Bartonella spp. is under-studied and health care professionals often misdiagnose Bartonella-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of Bartonella spp. circulating in human and animal populations in Gauteng using culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection. A total of 424 human, 98 cat, 179 dog, and 124 wild rodent blood samples were plated onto specialised media and incubated for 7–21 days at 37 ºC in CO2. Culture isolates morphologically similar to Bartonella control strains were confirmed by PCR and sequenced to determine species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was extracted from all blood samples and tested by nested PCR. Bartonella could only be cultured from the cat and rodent specimens. Cat isolates were > 99% similar to Bartonella henselae URBHLIE 9, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient, and rat isolates were > 98% similar to either RN24BJ (candidus ‘Bartonella thailandensis’ or RN28BJ, previously isolated from rodents in China. The PCR prevalences were 22.5% in HIV-positive patients, 9.5% in clinically healthy volunteers, 23.5% in cats, 9% in dogs and 25% in rodents. Findings of this study have important implications for HIV-positive patients.

  16. Bartonella spp. in human and animal populations in Gauteng, South Africa, from 2007 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trataris, Anastasia N; Rossouw, Jennifer; Arntzen, Lorraine; Karstaedt, Allan; Frean, John

    2012-01-01

    Bartonellae are highly adaptive organisms that have the ability to evade the host immune system and cause persistent bacteraemia by occupying the host's erythrocytes. Bartonella spp. is under-studied and health care professionals often misdiagnose Bartonella-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of Bartonella spp. circulating in human and animal populations in Gauteng using culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. A total of 424 human, 98 cat, 179 dog, and 124 wild rodent blood samples were plated onto specialised media and incubated for 7-21 days at 37 ºC in CO2. Culture isolates morphologically similar to Bartonella control strains were confirmed by PCR and sequenced to determine species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from all blood samples and tested by nested PCR. Bartonella could only be cultured from the cat and rodent specimens. Cat isolates were > 99% similar to Bartonella henselae URBHLIE 9, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient, and rat isolates were > 98% similar to either RN24BJ (candidus 'Bartonella thailandensis') or RN28BJ, previously isolated from rodents in China. The PCR prevalences were 22.5% in HIV-positive patients, 9.5% in clinically healthy volunteers, 23.5% in cats, 9% in dogs and 25% in rodents. Findings of this study have important implications for HIV-positive patients. PMID:23327372

  17. Inter- and intraspecies identification of Bartonella (Rochalimaea) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, V; Raoult, D

    1995-06-01

    Species of the genus Rochalimaea, recently renamed Bartonella, are of a growing medical interest. Bartonella quintana was reported as the cause of trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been implicated in symptoms and infections of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, such as fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, and is involved in the etiology of cat scratch disease. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to obtain an intraspecies identification tool in order to perform epidemiological studies. B. vinsonii, B. elizabethae, seven isolates of B. quintana, and four isolates of B. henselae were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction with the infrequently cutting endonucleases NotI, EagI, and SmaI. Specific profiles were obtained for each of the four Bartonella species. Comparison of genomic fingerprints of isolates of the same species showed polymorphism in DNA restriction patterns, and a specific profile was obtained for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the B. quintana isolates was obtained by using the Dice coefficient, UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages), and Package Philip programming. Amplification by PCR and subsequent sequencing using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer (Pharmacia) was performed on the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16 and 23S rRNA genes. It was found that each B. henselae isolate had a specific sequence, while the B. quintana isolates fell into only two groups. When endonuclease restriction analysis of the ITS PCR product was done, three enzymes, TaqI, HindIII, and HaeIII, allowed species identification of Bartonella spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism after PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS may be useful for rapid species identification, and PFGE could be an efficient method for isolate identification. PMID:7650189

  18. Development of a Highly Specific IgM Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Bartonella henselae Using Refined N-Lauroyl-Sarcosine-Insoluble Proteins for Serodiagnosis of Cat Scratch Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD. PMID:26865692

  19. Migratory birds, ticks, and Bartonella

    OpenAIRE

    Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....

  20. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Detecção de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. e co-infecção com retrovírus em gatos submetidos a um programa de castração/esterilização em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Plácidi de Bortoli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5% cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3% for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2% for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3% were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4% were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2% showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats.Micoplasmas hemotróficos e espécies de Bartonella são importantes patógenos que circulam entre gatos e hospedeiros invertebrados, causando ocasionalmente doenças no homem. Apesar disto, poucos são os estudos acerca da ocorrência destes agentes entre gatos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou detectar o DNA de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. pela PCR e sequenciamento. Antígeno de FIV e anticorpos anti-FeLV foram estudados utilizando um "kit" comercial, em amostras de sangue e soro, respectivamente, de 46 gatos amostrados em uma campanha de castração em Jaboticabal, SP. Três gatos (6,5% foram positivos para hemoplasmas: dois (4,3% para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e um (2,2% para M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. Um dos gatos positivos para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum

  1. Exotic Small Mammals and Bartonella

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-09

    In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent that’s prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences.  Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/9/2009.

  2. Bartonella endocarditis mimicking adult Still's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clerck, K F; Van Offel, J F; Vlieghe, E; Van Marck, E; Stevens, W J

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 39-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the University Hospital of Antwerp with a clinical picture suggestive of adult Still's disease. Even though a transoesophageal echocardiography showed endocarditis of the aortic valve, blood cultures remained negative. Additional serological testing revealed a positive result for Bartonella henselae. Histology of the supraclavicular lymph node showed a reactive lymph node with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Bartonella henselae. Prednisolone treatment was started in a dosage of 10 mg per day and rifampicin 600 mg/d in combination with doxycyclin 200 mg/d was given for 6 months. During therapy the patient gradually improved and signs of endocarditis disappeared on echocardiography. PMID:18714850

  3. A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador re...

  4. Detection of serum antibodies against Bartonella species in cats with sporotrichosis from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A

    2014-04-01

    Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases. PMID:24127458

  5. Differentiation of Bartonella Species by a Microimmunofluorescence Assay, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis, and Western Immunoblotting

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhongxing; Raoult, Didier

    2000-01-01

    Bartonella species can be differentiated by microimmunofluorescence assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and immunoblotting with murine polyclonal antisera to Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. bacilliformis. A pairwise comparison on the basis of SDS-PAGE protein profiles demonstrated similarity values for proteins of different Bartonella species ranging from 28.6 to 86.4%. Antigenic relationships revealed by immunoblotting with mu...

  6. Human seroreactivity againstBartonella species in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Laudisoit; Jennifer Iverson; Simon Neerinckx; Jean-Christophe Shako; Jean-Marie Mafuko Nsabimana; Gilbert Kersh; Michael Kosoy; Nordin Zeidner

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the presence and identity ofBartonella species in a pool of human blood samples from DRC Congo.Methods: Blood (±120μL) was collected anonymously from Congolese patients and placed on calibrated filter papers.Bartonella serology determination was performed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay(IFA) against six specificBartonella antigens andCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antigen. The end cut-off value forBartonella sp. was a titre greater than1:200.Results:None of the patients was positive forBartonella elizabethae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp.vinsonii orBartonella vinsonii subsp.arupensis nor forC. burnetti, but4.5% of the155 samples were positive for eitherBartonella henselae,Bartonella quintana, orBartonella clarridgeiae.Conclusions: This preliminary study presents the first report of Bartonellaspecies in the DR Congo and the first report of antibodies toBartonella clarridgeiae in an African human population. Although few experimental trials have established the link between fleas andBartonella transmission, the repeated detection of similarBartonella species in fleas and humans in several countries suggests that Bartonellosis could be another flea-borne disease which specific reservoirs are still unknown.

  7. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norw...

  8. Experimental infection of three laboratory mouse stocks with a shrew origin Bartonella elizabethae strain: an evaluation of bacterial host switching potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Colton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bartonella elizabethae has been reported as a causative agent of human illnesses and strains of this bacterium are commonly isolated from commensal small mammals in Asia. Methods: Since the zoonotic potential of a pathogen is often related to its host switching ability, we explored the capacity of a B. elizabethae strain to host switch by subcutaneously inoculating groups of Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice with the bacteria at a range of doses. Results: A low number of mice in each of the three groups showed susceptibility to infection at high doses (105 and 106 bacteria, and developed bacteremias of 6–8 weeks duration. Conclusion: The capacity of this B. elizabethae strain to switch hosts can have important public health consequences for humans in areas of Asia where many small mammal populations have high bartonellae infection prevalences and live as commensals with humans.

  9. Bartonellae in animals and vectors in New Caledonia

    OpenAIRE

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B.; Cabre, O; Rolain, J. M.; Raoult, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we co...

  10. Bartonella quintana Endocarditis in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Patrick; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier

    2006-01-01

    We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis.

  11. Evaluation of Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Assay for Detection of Bartonella clarridgeiae and Seroprevalence of B. clarridgeiae among Patients with Suspected Cat Scratch Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Umeda, Akiko; Tsukahara, Masato; Sasaki, Kohsuke

    2004-01-01

    The possibility of Bartonella clarridgeiae being a causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD) was investigated by using indirect fluorescence antibody assays with 288 suspected CSD patients. Immunoglobulin G antibody to noncocultivated B. clarridgeiae was suitable only for detection of B. clarridgeiae antibody. Significant cross-reactivity between Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae was noted, and no CSD case caused by B. clarridgeiae was detected.

  12. Prevalence and diversity of Bartonella species in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kamani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177 of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus and 28% (9/32 of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria.

  13. Detection of Bartonella spp. in wild carnivores, hyraxes, hedgehog and rodents from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciano, Odelya; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; King, Roni; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon

    2016-09-01

    Bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from Israel. Golden jackals (Canis aureus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor), social voles (Microtus socialis), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami), Cairo spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Indian crested porcupines (Hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. Bartonella-DNA was detected in 46 animals: 9/70 (13%) golden jackals, 2/11 (18%) red foxes, 3/35 (9%) rock hyraxes, 1/3 (33%) southern white-breasted hedgehogs, 5/57 (9%) Cairo spiny mice, 25/43 (58%) Tristram's jirds and 1/6 (16%) house mice. Bartonella rochalimae and B. rochalimae-like were widespread among jackals, foxes, hyraxes and jirds. This report represents the first detection of this zoonotic Bartonella sp. in rock hyraxes and golden jackals. Moreover, DNA of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella acomydis, Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii and other uncharacterized genotypes were identified. Three different Bartonella strains were isolated from Tristram's jirds, and several genotypes were molecularly detected from these animals. Furthermore, this study reports the first detection of Bartonella infection in a southern hedgehog. Our study indicates that infection with zoonotic and other Bartonella species is widespread among wild animals and stresses their potential threat to public health. PMID:27210612

  14. Seroprevalence of Bartonella in Eastern China and analysis of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556 of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317 and females (20.92%, n = 239. Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.

  15. Studies of Genome Diversity in Bartonella Populations : A journey through cats, mice, men and lice

    OpenAIRE

    Lindroos, Hillevi Lina

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella inhabit the red blood cells of many mammals, including humans, and are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropod vectors. Different species of Bartonella are associated with different mammalian host species, to which they have adapted and normally do not cause any symptoms. Incidental infection of other hosts is however often followed by various disease symptoms, and several Bartonella species are considered as emerging human pathogens. In this work, I have studi...

  16. Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Bai; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typ...

  17. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros;

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the...

  18. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in s...

  19. Bartonella quintana in Homeless Persons

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the article’s authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  20. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawisa Jiyipong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  1. Bartonella species in small mammals and their potential vectors in Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tawisa Jiyipong; Sathaporn Jittapalapong; Serge Morand; Jean-Marc Rolain

    2014-01-01

    In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.

  2. Acquisition of nonspecific Bartonella strains by the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.

    2007-01-01

    Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Dirofilaria immitis infections in Egyptian cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and concurrent bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia infections in cats from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...

  5. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  6. Prevalence of Anaplasma, Bartonella and Borrelia Species in Haemaphysalis longicornis collected from goats in North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-06-30

    North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342

  7. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Two Bartonella bacilliformis Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillen, Yolanda; Casadellà, Maria; García-de-la-Guarda, Ruth; Espinoza-Culupú, Abraham; Paredes, Roger; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a highly endemic human bartonellosis in Peru. We performed a whole-genome assembly of two B. bacilliformis strains isolated from the blood of infected patients in the acute phase of Carrion’s disease from the Cusco and Piura regions in Peru. PMID:27389274

  8. Rickettsia and Bartonella Species in Fleas from Reunion Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263

  9. Bartonella spp. in fruit bats and blood-feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara E Brook

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia, which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.

  10. Bartonella quintana in Body Lice and Head Lice from Homeless Persons, San Francisco, California, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, Denise L.; Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L.; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2009-01-01

    Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of ...

  11. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    OpenAIRE

    Carrasco, Sebastian E.; Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied an...

  12. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella Species in Ixodid Ticks and Domestic Animals in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad

    2016-01-01

    Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374

  13. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  14. Bartonella: emerging pathogen or emerging awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon-Pasapera, Elin; Otvos, Laszlo; Giordano, Antonio; Cassone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The number of known Bartonella species is rapidly growing. Some of them are responsible for distinct infectious diseases and show different prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Not only have some vectors of Bartonella not been fully characterized, but also intermediate hosts are actually much more numerous and diverse than previously thought. Among these, dogs differ from cats because they tend to suffer an overt disease similar to humans, thus providing the base for a useful animal indicator and research model. Among the debilitating conditions with an unclear impact on the course of these infections, specific conditions (e.g., homelessness, alcoholism) have been linked to a much higher prevalence and to high risk of unfavorable outcome. Due to the limited arsenal of antibiotics effective in vivo on this peculiar intracellular pathogen, the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is sometimes difficult to draw. In this evolving picture, the recent discoveries of new species highlights the importance of basic molecular biology resources that would bring major public health benefits if available in endemic areas, and specifically in many areas of Peru and Bolivia. PMID:18621561

  15. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (potters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  16. Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F

    2015-10-01

    We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; pforestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. PMID:26422407

  17. Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Detecção de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. e co-infecção com retrovírus em gatos submetidos a um programa de castração/esterilização em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Plácidi de Bortoli; Marcos Rogério André; Meire Christina Seki; Aramis Augusto Pinto; Saulo de Tarso Zacarias Machado; Rosangela Zacarias Machado

    2012-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats t...

  18. Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Nathalia; Mediannikov, Oleg; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier

    2014-12-01

    We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice. PMID:25449254

  19. Bartonella quintana detection in Demodex from erythematotelangiectatic rosacea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Murillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice.

  20. Bartonella, a common cause of endocarditis: a report on 106 cases and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2015-03-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools. PMID:25540398

  1. Deciphering bartonella diversity, recombination, and host specificity in a rodent community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Buffet

    Full Text Available Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.

  2. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  3. Cat Scratch Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection at some ... Poor appetite For people with weak immune systems, CSD may cause more serious problems. The best way ...

  4. Neuroretinitis with dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiu KH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Kwong-Han Kiu,1,2 Hashim Hanizasurana,1 Embong Zunaina21Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Selayang, Selayang, Selangor, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN, based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis.Keywords: neuroretinitis, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, bartonellosis, cat scratch disease

  5. Identification de facteurs des glandes salivaires d’Ixodes ricinus impliqués dans la transmission de Bartonella henselae

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiangye

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites of many hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles. After mosquitoes, they are the most important vectors worldwide, and are able to transmit the highest variety of pathogens including virus, bacteria and parasites. Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the most common tick species in Europe, is a three-life stage hard tick. It is frequently associated with bites in humans, and transmits several pathogens, including Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Babesia ...

  6. First description of Bartonella bovis in cattle herds in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael

    2014-09-17

    Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531

  7. Prevalence of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. in Ticks Collected from Korean Water Deer (Hydropotes inermis argyropus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok

    2016-02-01

    Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985

  8. Production of Bartonella Genus-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Zhongxing; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which react with heat-resistant proteins with molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa of 14 different Bartonella species were produced. These antibodies did not react with antigens of 26 diverse bacterial strains by microimmunofluorescence assay except MAb B3D4, which reacted with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis at low titers. The identification of a common Bartonella antigenic protein will make it possible to later produce a diagnostic antigen by cloning an...

  9. Bartonella-like bacteria carried by domestic mite species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066

  10. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007

  11. Detection of Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella Species and Yersinia pestis in Fleas (Siphonaptera from Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Leulmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries.Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin, Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199, and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199. In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania, R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20 of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20 of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7 of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20 of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23 of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38 of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11 of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21 of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11 of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30 of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa.Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.

  12. Identification of outer membrane proteins of Bartonella bacilliformis.

    OpenAIRE

    Minnick, M F

    1994-01-01

    Purification of the outer membrane of Bartonella bacilliformis by sucrose step gradient centrifugation and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) suggest that 14 proteins, ranging from 11.2 to 75.3 kDa, are located in the outer membrane of the pathogen. On the basis of M(r)s, eleven of these proteins have counterparts which are labeled by extrinsic radioiodination of intact bartonellae, and two of the proteins are visibly sensitive to extrinsic protei...

  13. Low seroprevalence of bartonella species in danish elite orienteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, Peter; Dyhr, Thomas; Rolain, Jean Marc;

    2004-01-01

    were detected in 1 handball player and 1 basketball player. We found no association between elite orienteers and the prevalence of Bartonella antibody positivity. This is in contrast to the Swedish study, and might be explained by the use of different serological methods in the 2 studies; to determine...

  14. Bartonella, a Common Cause of Endocarditis: a Report on 106 Cases and Review

    OpenAIRE

    Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis c...

  15. Presumed ocular bartonellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kerkhoff, F.T.; Ossewaarde, J.M.; de Loos, W.S.; Rothova, A.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency.
METHODS—The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay ...

  16. Neuroretinitis following bull ant sting

    OpenAIRE

    Ullrich, Katja; Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Cat scratch disease causes the majority of cases of neuroretinitis. Neuroretinitis is characterised by clinical features of papillitis, macular oedema and macular star. We report a case study of infection with Bartonella henselae most likely transmitted by a bull ant sting. The patient presented with blurred vision and reduced visual acuity after being stung by an ant in her garden some 7 days earlier. Further testing revealed positive serology to B henselae and the patient improved with appr...

  17. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. PMID:25810119

  18. Molecular detection of Bartonella spp. in deer ked pupae, adult keds and moose blood in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O

    2015-02-01

    The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607

  19. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Questing Adult Ixodes pacificus Ticks in California

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B.B.; Kasten, R W; Romano, V.; Tietze, N.

    2001-01-01

    Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-...

  20. Isolation and phylogenetic analysis of Bartonella species from wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-28

    The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404

  1. Possible Vertical Transmission of Bartonella bacilliformis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuya, Ximena L.; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Tinco, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; Petrozzi, Verónica; Ruiz, Joaquim; del Valle, Juana

    2015-01-01

    A 22-day-old male was admitted with a 2-day history of irritability, dyspnea, jaundice, fever, and gastrointestinal bleeding. A thin blood smear was performed, which showed the presence of intraerythrocyte bacteria identified as Bartonella bacilliformis, and subsequently, the child was diagnosed with Carrion's disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction. The child was born in a non-endemic B. bacilliformis area and had not traveled to such an area before hospitalization. However, the mother was from an endemic B. bacilliformis area, and posterior physical examination showed the presence of a wart compatible with B. bacilliformis in semi-immune subjects. These data support vertical transmission of B. bacilliformis. PMID:25371184

  2. Bartonella apis sp. nov., a honey bee gut symbiont of the class Alphaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kešnerová, Lucie; Moritz, Roxane; Engel, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the culture and characterization of an alphaproteobacterium of the order Rhizobiales, isolated from the gut of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Strain PEB0122T shares >95 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of the genus Bartonella, a group of mammalian pathogens transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PEB0122T and related strains from the honey bee gut form a sister clade of the genus Bartonella. Optimal growth of strain PEB0122T was obtained on solid media supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood under microaerophilic conditions at 35-37 °C, which is consistent with the cultural characteristics of other species of the genus Bartonella. Reduced growth of strain PEB0122T also occurred under aerobic conditions. The rod-shaped cells of strain PEB0122T had a mean length of 1.2-1.8 μm and revealed hairy surface structures. Strain PEB0122T was positive for catalase, cytochrome c oxidase, urease and nitrate reductase. The fatty acid composition was comparable to those of other species of the genus Bartonella, with palmitic acid (C16 : 0) and isomers of 18- and 19-carbon chains being the most abundant. The genomic DNA G+C content of PEB0122T was determined to be about 45.5 mol%. The high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of Bartonella and its close phylogenetic position suggest that strain PEB0122T represents a novel species within the genus Bartonella, for which we propose the name Bartonella apis sp. nov. The type strain is PEB0122T ( = NCIMB 14961T = DSM 29779T). PMID:26537852

  3. Development of a serum-free liquid medium for Bartonella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2016-09-01

    The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria. PMID:26842394

  4. Cat-Scratch Disease With Bone Involvemnet

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...

  5. Infection-related hemolysis and susceptibility to Gram-negative bacterial co-infection

    OpenAIRE

    Orf, Katharine; Cunnington, Aubrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Increased susceptibility to co-infection with enteric Gram-negative bacteria, particularly non-typhoidal Salmonella, is reported in malaria and Oroya fever (Bartonella bacilliformis infection), and can lead to increased mortality. Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates a causal association with risk of bacterial co-infection, rather than just co-incidence of common risk factors. Both malaria and Oroya fever are characterized by hemolysis, and observations in humans and animal models ...

  6. Evidence of Bartonella spp. in Blood and Ticks (Ornithodoros hasei) of Bats, in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-08-01

    We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species. PMID:27305604

  7. Prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella species in sika deer (Cervus nippon) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi

    2012-12-01

    We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020

  8. Cat scratch disease from a domestic dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2007-02-01

    Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900

  9. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella-henselae and quintana- were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.

  10. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks. PMID:25317626

  11. Human bartonellosis: seroepidemiological and clinical features with an emphasis on data from Brazil - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Lamas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonellae are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature with several animal reservoirs (mainly cats, dogs, and rodents and insect vectors (mainly fleas, sandflies, and human lice. Thirteen species or subspecies of Bartonella have been recognized as agents causing human disease, including B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, B. vinsonii berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. washoensis, B. koehlerae, B. rocha-limaea, and B. tamiae. The clinical spectrum of infection includes lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, neurological and ophthalmological syndromes, Carrion's disease, and others. This review provides updated information on clinical manifestations and seroepidemiological studies with an emphasis on data available from Brazil.

  12. Genomic fingerprinting of Bartonella species by repetitive element PCR for distinguishing species and isolates.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Hamill, R J; Houston, E D; Georghiou, P R; Clarridge, J E; Regnery, R L; Koehler, J. E.

    1995-01-01

    Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) with primers based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) repeated DNA sequences was used for genomic finger-printing of Bartonella species. This technique was applied by using either extracted genomic DNA or preparations of whole bacterial cells directly. PCR fingerprints with either the REP-based primers (REP-PCR) or primers based on the ERIC repeat (ERIC-PCR) revealed species-specific band patte...

  13. Bartonella species detection in captive, stranded and free-ranging cetaceans

    OpenAIRE

    Harms, Craig A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L.; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S.; Fair, Patricia A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D. Ann; Rowles, Teri K.; Lori H Schwacke; Townsend, Forrest I.

    2008-01-01

    International audience We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood ($n = 95$ live animals) and tissues ($n = 15$ freshly dea...

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Bartonella species isolated from ground squirrels and other rodents in northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedins, A C; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Kjemtrup, A M; Chang, C-C

    2016-07-01

    Bartonella spp. are endemic in wild rodents in many parts of the world. A study conducted in two northern California counties (Sonoma and Yolo) sampling California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and four other rodent species (Peromyscus maniculatus, P. boylii, P. truei and Neotoma fuscipes) led to the isolation of small Gram-negative bacilli which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and partial gene sequencing. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood of 71% (32/45) of the ground squirrels and one third (22/66) of the other rodents. PCR-RFLP analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes yielded seven unique profiles, four for the ground squirrels and three for the other rodents. Isolates from each PCR-RFLP profiles were submitted for partial sequencing. Ground squirrel isolates were most closely related to B. washoensis, whereas the other rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Two of these three species or subspecies are known zoonotic agents. PMID:27245290

  15. Cervical Cat Scratch Disease Lymphadenitis in a Patient with Immunoglobulin M Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii

    OpenAIRE

    Arvand, Mardjan; Kazak, Ilkay; Jovanovic, Sergije; Foss, Hans-Dieter; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2002-01-01

    We report on a young patient with chronic cervical lymphadenopathy and serological and histological evidence for infection with Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii. Serological follow-up studies, including testing for avidity of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, assisted in the determination of the cause of the acute lymphadenitis. Our results suggest that the clinical symptoms were most likely due to cat scratch disease rather than to acute toxoplasmosis.

  16. Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Hazards Exposure of employees to community and nosocomial infections, e.g., Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) . Nosocomial infections are infections that occur from exposure to infectious ...

  17. Bartonelosis (Fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana: ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cesar Gonzáles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.Bartonella bacilliformis is a facultative intracellular bacterial parasite of human erythrocytes and endotelial cells. Carrion’s disease, Oroya fever and Peruvian wart are all terms describing the pathological consequences of human infection with Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Although infections involving the Bartonella species, such as Bartonella henselae and Bartonella Quintana occur worldwide, Carrion’s disease is uniquely endemic to South America. (14 Bartonella baciliformis infections are a health problem in many rural areas of South America and to travellers who visit these regions. Outbreaks of

  18. 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis of bacterial communities of the tick with infection of 4 species of pathogens%4种病原菌特异基因片段阳性蜱的16S rRNA基因克隆文库分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张守印; 俞东征; 孙继民; 贺金荣; 付秀萍; 张景山; 张建华; 蔡虹; 马凤琴; 海荣

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop the method of 16S rRNA gene clone library for tick bacterial flora analysis, and to analyze the detection effective of pathogens in tick and capacity of bacterial flora diversity. Methods Primers were designed according to the specific gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella henselae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and templates were choosen by positive PCR result to amplify the DNA extracted from the ticks. One set of primers targeting 16S rRNA gene conserved region were chosen to amplify certain fragments, DNA extraction, PCR reaction, cloning and sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were compared with GenBank database. Calculated Coverage values of clone library and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Results Sixteen defined genus-or species-bacteria were detected in 103 valid sequences. Eight species were edge type (Clone No. > 5). Three kinds of pathogens were identified (Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia sp). Three kinds of pathogens were not edge type(Clone No. 5个);检测到伯氏疏螺旋体、汉赛巴通体和立克次体3种病原菌,但这3种病原菌均不是优势类型(克隆子数均<5个).Coverage值为96.11%,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为2.40.克隆序列分析结果表明,蜱寄生细菌主要为α、γ变形菌纲,占56.25%(9/16).结论 16S rRNA基因序列分析可以对蜱标本进行菌群相对定量研究,可以同时检出多种病原菌,是一种较好的细菌菌群多样性分析和病原菌筛检方法.

  19. Doença da arranhadura do gato por Bartonella quintana em lactente: uma apresentação incomum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azevedo Zina Maria Almeida de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Relato de caso de doença da arranhadura do gato (DAG, em um paciente lactente, com história epidemiológica negativa, descrevendo o rastreamento diagnóstico, a imagem ao ultra-som, a evolução clínica e o prognóstico. B. quintana foi identificada em aspirado de secreção ganglionar pelo método de PCR. B. henselae, embora seja o agente causal habitualmente responsável pela DAG, não foi isolada. Os autores concluem que a pesquisa de B. quintana e B. henselae deve ser incluída na investigação de adenites, principalmente quando a evolução é subaguda, mesmo em lactentes e, ainda que a história epidemiológica seja negativa.

  20. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C. J.; Nel, Louis H.; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518

  1. Evaluación de la transmisión vertical de Bartonella bacilliformis en Lutzomyia verrucarum (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ponce G

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar la existencia de transmisión vertical de Bartonella bacilliformis en Lutzomyia verrucarum. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio experimental, se realizó la crianza individual y masiva (Tº 22°C±2ºC, humedad relativa: 80%±5% de Lutzomyia verrucarum en el Laboratorio de Entomología del Centro de Investigaciones del Hospital de Caraz (Ancash- Perú. Con la finalidad de lograr la infección de las hembras se procedió a alimentarlas con sangre infectada obtenida por éstas directamente al picar la piel de pacientes con bartonelosis aguda frotis positivo. Las hembras, luego de poner sus huevos, fueron evaluadas a través de la prueba de PCR para Bartonella baciliformis. Resultados: 13 de 18 (72,2% hembras alimentadas con sangre infectada con bacteremia al 3% lograron poner huevos y de éstas ninguna resultó ser positiva al PCR. 12 de 54 (22,2% hembras alimentadas con sangre infectada con bacteremia al 80% ovipusieron y de éstas sólo una (8,3% resultó ser positiva al PCR. Ninguno de los descendientes adultos de esta hembra resultó positivo al PCR. Conclusiones: el bajo porcentaje de infección por Bartonella baciliformis encontrado en hembras oviponedoras no permitió determinar la existencia de transmisión vertical de Bartonella bacilliformis en Lutzomyia verrucarum.

  2. Bacillary angiomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Danica; Oeder, Caroline; Waltermann, Katharina; Mueller, Anke; Oehme, Albrecht; Rohrberg, Robert; Marsch, Wolfgang; Fischer, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    An infection with Bartonella henselae transmitted from domestic cats to humans by scratching normally leads to cat-scratch disease. When the human host has severe immunosuppression or HIV infection, the potentially life-threatening disease bacillary angiomatosis can develop. A 79-year-old man presented with livid-erythematous, angioma-like skin lesions. We considered a cutaneous infiltrate from his known chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous metastases of internal tumors, cutaneous sarcoidosis, mycobacterial infection and even atypical herpes simplex infection. The correct diagnosis was proven histologically and by PCR. Because of increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and HIV-positive patients, as well as an infection rate of 13% for B. henselae in domestic cats in Germany, one must be alert to the presence of bacillary angiomatosis. PMID:19298547

  3. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation. PMID:23473225

  4. Detection of Bartonella tamiae, Coxiella burnetii and rickettsiae in arthropods and tissues from wild and domestic animals in northeastern Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Methods Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickett...

  5. Evidence of transfer by conjugation of type IV secretion system genes between Bartonella species and Rhizobium radiobacter in amoeba.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharee Saisongkorh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.

  6. DETECTION OF ANTIBODIES TO ANAPLASMA, BARTONELLA AND COXIELLA IN RURAL INHABITANTS OF THE CARIBBEAN AREA OF COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Máttar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.

  7. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens. PMID:27012917

  8. Resistencia antimicrobiana de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de regiones endémicas de la Enfermedad de Carrión en EL Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Mendoza-Mujica

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo

  9. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11321-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available musculus oxoglutarate dehydrog... 231 9e-59 AY160679_1( AY160679 |pid:none) Bart...onella vinsonii subsp. berkhof... 229 3e-58 AB099923_1( AB099923 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae sucA, sucB g

  11. Bartonelosis (Fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana): ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?

    OpenAIRE

    R. Cesar Gonzáles; V. Ciro Maguiña; M. Felipe Heras; G. Luis Conde-Salazar

    2007-01-01

    La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1) Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémic...

  12. 16S rRNA sequences of Bartonella bacilliformis and cat scratch disease bacillus reveal phylogenetic relationships with the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, S P; Dorsch, M; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Stackebrandt, E

    1991-01-01

    The primary structures of 16S rRNAs of Bartonella bacilliformis, an isolate of the cat scratch disease (CSD) bacillus, and a strain phenotypically similar to the CSD bacillus were determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing. These microorganisms were found to be members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria. The sequence from B. bacilliformis was most closely related to the rRNA of Rochalimaea quintana (91.7% homology), the etiologic agent of trench fever. The sequence from t...

  13. Bacillary angiomatosis in an immunosuppressed dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Julie A; Best, Susan J; Maggi, Ricardo G; Varanat, Mrudula; Znajda, Nadine; Breitschwerdt, Edward B

    2010-08-01

    A dog being treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and azathioprine for pancytopenia of unknown origin, developed, over a 2-week period, multiple erythematous nodular lesions in the skin including footpads. Skin samples revealed lesions identical to those of human bacillary angiomatosis (BA). The nodules were composed of multifocal proliferations of capillaries, each lined by protuberant endothelial cells. The capillary clusters were separated by an oedematous connective tissue, lightly infiltrated with degenerate inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages. Tissue sections stained with Warthin-Starry silver stain revealed large numbers of positively stained bacilli in the stromal tissue, most heavily concentrated around the proliferating capillaries. Lesions of vascular degeneration and inflammation were evident. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype 1 was independently amplified and sequenced from the blood and the skin tissue. The pathognomonic nature of the histological lesions, demonstration of compatible silver-stained bacilli in the tissue, and identification of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in the blood and tissue indicates that this is most likely the aetiologic agent responsible for the lesions. Antibiotic therapy was successful in resolving the nodules. It would appear that B. vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, like Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, has the rare ability to induce angioproliferative lesions, most likely in association with immunosuppression. The demonstration of lesions identical to those of human BA in this dog is further evidence that the full range of clinical manifestations of human Bartonella infection occurs also in canines. PMID:20374571

  14. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

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    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  15. Three pathogens in sympatric populations of pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats: implications for infections disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevins, Sarah N.; Carver, Scott; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mat; Logan, Kenneth A.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter; Salman, Mo; Lappin, Michael R.; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic landscape change can lead to increased opportunities for pathogen transmission between domestic and non-domestic animals. Pumas, bobcats, and domestic cats are sympatric in many areas of North America and share many of the same pathogens, some of which are zoonotic. We analyzed bobcat, puma, and feral domestic cat samples collected from targeted geographic areas. We examined exposure to three pathogens that are taxonomically diverse (bacterial, protozoal, viral), that incorporate multiple transmission strategies (vector-borne, environmental exposure/ingestion, and direct contact), and that vary in species-specificity. Bartonella spp., Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Toxoplasma gondii IgG were detected in all three species with mean respective prevalence as follows: puma 16%, 41% and 75%; bobcat 31%, 22% and 43%; domestic cat 45%, 10% and 1%. Bartonella spp. were highly prevalent among domestic cats in Southern California compared to other cohort groups. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus exposure was primarily associated with species and age, and was not influenced by geographic location. Pumas were more likely to be infected with FIV than bobcats, with domestic cats having the lowest infection rate. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence was high in both pumas and bobcats across all sites; in contrast, few domestic cats were seropositive, despite the fact that feral, free ranging domestic cats were targeted in this study. Interestingly, a directly transmitted species-specific disease (FIV) was not associated with geographic location, while exposure to indirectly transmitted diseases - vectorborne for Bartonella spp. and ingestion of oocysts via infected prey or environmental exposure for T. gondii - varied significantly by site. Pathogens transmitted by direct contact may be more dependent upon individual behaviors and intra-specific encounters. Future studies will integrate host density, as well as landscape features, to better understand the

  16. Febre do viajante associada com adenite cervical e sororreatividade para Bartonella sp em paciente brasileira, após retorno da África do Sul Traveler's fever associated with cervical adenomegaly and antibodies for Bartonella sp in a Brazilian patient returning from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um grande número de viajantes visita anualmente, por estudo, turismo ou trabalho o continente africano. Um caso de adenomegalia cervical e hepatoesplenomegalia associado à febre de duas semanas de duração com teste sorológico positivo para Bartonella sp em uma paciente de 22 anos do sexo feminino que retornou da África do Sul após realização de trabalho de campo com primatas em área silvestre é apresentado.A large number of travelers visit the African continent annually for studying, tourism or business reasons. The authors report a case of cervical adenomegaly, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly associated with a two-week history of fever and seropositivity for Bartonella sp in a 22-year-old female patient who returned from South Africa after field work with primates in a wild area.

  17. Cat-Scratch disease in Crete: an update

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    Georgios Minadakis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA. For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11% cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56 were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05. Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002 and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity.

  18. Introduction to the alpha-proteobacteria: Wolbachia and Bartonella, Rickettsia, Brucella, Ehrlichia, and Anaplasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2011-11-01

    Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people. PMID:22152604

  19. Cat scratch disease in Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P

    1998-01-01

    An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...

  20. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with hig...

  1. Clonamiento, expresión y seroreactividad del antígeno recombinante flagelina de Bartonella bacilliformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Gallegos V

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Clonar el gen de la flagelina A (flaA de Bartonella bacilliformis, expresar y evaluar preliminarmente la seroreactividad de la proteína recombinante a sueros de pacientes con Bartonelosis por B. bacilliformis. Materiales y Métodos. Se diseñó una pareja de oligonucleótidos iniciadores -BbFlaA1 y BbFlaA2- para la amplificación del gen completo de la flagelina flaA de B. bacilliformis. El producto de amplificación obtenido se clonó en pGEM y luego se subclonó en el vector de expresión pGEX4T-1. Se indujo la expresión de la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA-GST con isopropil tio-β -D-galactosido (IPTG. La proteνna de fusiσn producida fue digerida con trombina para liberarla de GST. Finalmente, una prueba de ELISA fue estandarizada para detectar los anticuerpos IgG contra la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA-GST y rBbflaA libre de GST. Se evaluaron sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico de Bartonelosis por B. Bacilliformis (n= 30, sueros de individuos sanos (n= 20 y sueros de pacientes con otras enfermedades de posible reactividad cruzada; entre ellas, Brucelosis (n= 3, leptospirosis (n= 3 y salmonelosis (n=7. Resultados. Se determinó que para la expresión óptima en E. coli BL21 de la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA se requiere que el cultivo crezca en caldo LB/ampicilina a 30 °C suplementado con 2% de glucosa a partir de un preinóculo de 100 µL (crecido por toda la noche, hasta que alcance una densidad óptica de 1 OD600 y se induzca por dos horas con 2,5 mM de IPTG. Finalmente, el 57,6 % (17 de 30 sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de bartonelosis reaccionaron con la proteína recombinante BbFlaA en el formato de ELISA. Conclusiones. Se logró expresar exitosamente en E. coli la proteína recombinante BbFlaA de B. bacilliformis, determinándose un protocolo de expresión y de purificación de rBbFlaA para la producción de esta proteína. Así también, el antígeno rBbFlaA es reconocido por anticuerpos de sueros de

  2. Atypical form of cat scratch disease in immunocompetent patient

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    Kojić Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.

  3. Eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Francisella tularensis after a tick bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Socolovschi Cristina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined. To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome. Case presentation A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an inflammatory and suppurating eschar was seen on the scalp, with multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes on both sides. Although no tick was found in this scalp lesion, a diagnosis of tick-borne lymphadenopathy was suggested, and explored by serology testing and polymerase chain reaction of a biopsy from the eschar. Francisella tularensis DNA was found in the skin biopsy and the serology showed titres consistent with tularaemia. Conclusion This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite infection caused by F. tularensis.

  4. Hepatosplenic Cat Scratch Disease in Immunocompetent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16563-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available bactrum anthropi ATCC 4918... 65 6e-09 AE017223_847( AE017223 |pid:none) Brucella abortus biovar 1 str. 9......557( BX897699 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae strain Houst... 67 2e-09 AM260525_751( AM260525 |pid:none) Bartonella tribocor...rubrum ATCC 11170,... 62 3e-08 CP000524_502( CP000524 |pid:none) Bartonella bacillifor...habditis eleg... 55 4e-06 FN392321_390( FN392321 |pid:none) Pichia pastor...ch space used: 164162159778 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple h

  6. Tinea Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body they infect. Tinea corporis is a fungal infection of the skin on the body. ("Corporis" is ... Causes & Risk Factors How did I get a fungal infection? You can get a fungal infection by touching ...

  7. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staph infections are caused by the species Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) . Which of these infections do you worry about most? S. aureus most commonly causes skin infections like folliculitis, boils, ...

  8. Hookworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... with any of the following roundworms: Necator americanus Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Ancylostoma braziliense The first 2 ...

  9. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with cat-scratch disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)

  10. Pneumococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pneumococci are a type of streptococcus bacteria. The bacteria spread through contact with people who are ill or by healthy people who carry the bacteria in the back of their nose. Pneumococcal infections can be mild or severe. The most common types of infections are Ear infections Sinus infections ...

  11. Infection and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Heart Diseases; Myocardial Infarction; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Atherosclerosis

  12. Molecular diagnosis of cat scratch disease: a two-step approach.

    OpenAIRE

    Avidor, B; Kletter, Y; Abulafia, S; Golan, Y.; Ephros, M; Giladi, M.

    1997-01-01

    Amplification of Bartonella henselae DNA has been proposed as a diagnostic test for cat scratch disease (CSD). The sensitivities of the following three PCR assays were compared. PCR/rRNA with universal primers amplifies part of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by hybridization with a specific B. henselae probe; PCR/CS and PCR/HSP amplify portions of the gltA and the htrA genes, respectively, each followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The threshold of detection of B. hensel...

  13. Campylobacter Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter infection is a common foodborne illness. You get it from eating raw or undercooked poultry. You ... whether you need to take antibiotics. To prevent campylobacter infection, cook poultry thoroughly. Use a separate cutting ...

  14. Anaerobic Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genital tract. They can cause infections in various parts of the body in children and adults of all ages. The most common are dental infections, inflammation of the abdominal lining (peritonitis), and ...

  15. Staph Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... staph food poisoning, and these infections: Folliculitis and Boils Folliculitis is an infection of hair follicles, tiny ... But sometimes it goes on to become a boil (also called a furuncle). With a boil, the ...

  16. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although

  17. Conjuntivite granulomatosa atípica causada pela doença da arranhadura do gato: relato de caso Cat-scratch disease causing atypical granulomatous conjunctivitis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.We report a case of a 23-year-old female patient, Brazilian, resident of Germany, who presented with a bilateral chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, without lymphoadenopathy and irresponsive to topical treatment. Laboratorial work-up confirmed Bartonella henselae as the etiologic agent. The case shows that the absence of lymphoadenopathy does not exclude the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.

  18. The global phylogeny of glycolytic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Canback, B.; Andersson, S G E; Kurland, C G

    2002-01-01

    Genes encoding the glycolytic enzymes of the facultative endocellular parasite Bartonella henselae have been analyzed phylogenetically within a very large cohort of homologues from bacteria and eukaryotes. We focus on this relative of Rickettsia prowazekii along with homologues from other α-proteobacteria to determine whether there have been systematic transfers of glycolytic genes from the presumed α-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion to the nucleus of the early eukaryote. The α-p...

  19. Eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Francisella tularensis after a tick bite: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Socolovschi Cristina; Angelakis Emmanouil; Turc Yves; Gonin Khira; Edouard Sophie; Raoult Didier

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined. To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome. Case presentation A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an inflammatory and suppurating eschar was seen on the scalp, with multiple enlar...

  20. Cat Scratch Disease in kidney transplant receptors: is it a rare or underdiagnosed pathology?

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza; Carlos Abaeté de los Santos; José Amadeu Vargas

    2014-01-01

    Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy...

  1. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Matias, M.; Marques, T.; Ferreira, M.A.; Ribeiro, L.

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG−. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch ...

  2. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    OpenAIRE

    Filoni, C.; Catão-Dias, J L; Bay, G.; E. L. Durigon; Jorge, R S P; Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.

    2006-01-01

    Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemi...

  3. Flea-borne rickettsioses: ecologic considerations.

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, A F; Radulovic, S; Higgins, J. A.; Noden, B. H.; Troyer, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Ecologic and economic factors, as well as changes in human behavior, have resulted in the emergence of new and the reemergence of existing but forgotten infectious diseases during the past 20 years. Flea-borne disease organisms (e.g., Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, and Bartonella henselae) are widely distributed throughout the world in endemic-disease foci, where components of the enzootic cycle are present. However, flea-borne diseases could reemerge in epidemic form because of...

  4. Warthin-Starry特殊染色、免疫组织化学和透射电镜在猫抓病病理诊断中的作用%Application of Warthin-Starry stain,immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in diagnosis of cat scratch disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄娟; 董丹丹; 徐纲; 辜正策; 郝冀玲; 华平; 何磊; 段芳蕾; 代琳; 雷松; 廖殿英; 王晓卿; 罗添友; 陈昱; 杭振镳; 李甘地

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Warthin-Starry silver stain,immunohiatochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in the detection of human Bartonella henselae infection and pathologic diagnosis of cat scratch disease(CSD).Metbotis The paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues of 77 histologically.defined cases of cat scratch disease collected during the period from January,1998 to December,2008 were retrieved and studied using Warthin-Starry silver stain(WS stain)and mouse monoclonal antibody against Bartonella henselae(BhmAB stain).Five cases rich in bacteria were selected for transmission electron microscopy.Results Under electron microscope,the organisms Bartonella henselae appeared polymorphic,round,elliptical,short rod or bacilliform shapes,ranged from 0.489 to 1.110 μm by 0.333 to 0.534 μm and often clustered together.Black short rod-shaped bacilli arranged in chains or clumps were demonstrated in 61.0%(47/77)of CSD by WS stain.The organisms were located outside the cells and lie mainly in the necrotic debris,especially near the nodal capsule.In 72.7%(56/77)of the cases,dot-like,granular as well as few linear positive signals were observed using BhmAB immunostain and showed similar localization.Positive results for both stains were identified in 59.7%(46/77)of the cases.When applying both stains together,Bartonella henselae was observed in 74.0%(57/77)of the earle.The difference between the results obtained by WS stain and BhmAB immunostain was of statistical significance(P<0.05).Conclusions Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease.WS stain,BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis.Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.%目的 探讨Warthin-Starry银染色法、抗汉赛巴尔通体单克隆抗体和电镜在检测人巴尔通体感染、确诊猫抓病中的实用价值.方法 收集1998

  5. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  6. Cat-scratch disease: a wide spectrum of clinical pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064

  7. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  8. Biofilm Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Moser, Claus Ernst; Høiby, Niels

    being important in chronic infection. In 1993 the American Society for Microbiology (ASM) recognized that the biofilm mode of growth was relevant to microbiology. This book covers both the evidence for biofilms in many chronic bacterial infections as well as the problems facing these infections such as......A still increasing interest and emphasis on the sessile bacterial lifestyle biofilms has been seen since it was realized that the vast majority of the total microbial biomass exists as biofilms. Aggregation of bacteria was first described by Leeuwenhoek in 1677, but only recently recognized as...... diagnostics, pathogenesis, treatment regimes and in vitro and in vivo models for studying biofilms. This is the first scientific book on biofilm infections, chapters written by the world leading scientist and clinicians. The intended audience of this book is scientists, teachers at university level as well as...

  9. Anthrax Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Daniel A.; Caitlin W. Hicks; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q.

    2011-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described ...

  10. Ear Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... their hearing. How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen ...

  11. Spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tali, E. Turgut E-mail: turguttali@gazi.edu.tr

    2004-05-01

    Spinal infections can be thought of as a spectrum of disease comprising spondylitis, discitis, spondylodiscitis, pyogenic facet arthropathy, epidural infections, meningitis, polyradiculopathy and myelitis. Radiological evaluations have gained importance in the diagnosis, treatment planning, treatment and treatment monitoring of the spinal infections. Conventional radiographs are usually the initial imaging study. The sensitivity and specificity of the plain radiographs are very low. The sensitivity of CT is higher while it lacks of specificity. Conventional CT has played minor role for the diagnosis of early spondylitis and disc space infection and for follow-up, researches are going on the value of MDCT. MRI is as sensitive, specific and accurate as combined nuclear medicine studies and the method of choice for the spondylitis. Low signal areas of the vertebral body, loss of definition of the end plates and interruption of the cortical continuity, destruction of the cortical margins are typical on T1WI whereas high signal of affected areas of the vertebral body and disc is typical on T2WI. Contrast is mandatory and increases conspicuity, specificity, and observer confidence in the diagnosis and facilitates the treatment planning. Contrast enhancement is the earliest sign and pathognomonic in the acute inflammatory episode and even in the subtle infection then persists to a varying degree for several weeks or months. The outcome of the treatment is influenced by the type of infection and by the degree of neurologic compromise before treatment. There is an increasing move away from surgical intervention towards conservative therapy, percutaneous drainage of abscess or both. It is therefore critical to monitor treatment response, particularly in the immuno-deficient population.

  12. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    2009188 Multi-slice spiral CT appearances of pulmonary infections after liver transplantation.XIE Lixuan(谢丽璇),et al.Dept Imaging,Changzheng Hosp,2nd Milit Med Univ,Shanghai 200003.Chin J Radiol,2009;43(1):8-11.

  13. Staphylococcal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... days. Impetigo is a common and contagious skin infection in young children, developing most often during hot, humid summers and usually appearing on the face around the nose, mouth, and ears. It can be caused by staphylococcal or streptococcal bacteria. (More often, it is caused by a ...

  14. Baylisascaris Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This podcast will educate health care providers on diagnosing baylisascariasis and on providing patients at risk of Baylisascaris infection with prevention messages.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria.   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  15. Vaginal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll know that you’re drinking enough if your urine (pee) is light yellow or almost clear. Avoid scented hygiene products like bubble bath, sprays, scented pads, and scented tampons. They can be irritating. Having sex may increase your odds of some infections even if they’re ...

  16. Fungal nail infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nails - fungal infection; Onychomycosis; Infection - fungal - nails; Tinea unguium ... the hair, nails, and outer skin layers. Common fungal infections include: Athlete's foot Jock itch Ringworm on the ...

  17. Anthrax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Daniel A; Hicks, Caitlin W; Cui, Xizhong; Li, Yan; Eichacker, Peter Q

    2011-12-15

    Bacillus anthracis infection is rare in developed countries. However, recent outbreaks in the United States and Europe and the potential use of the bacteria for bioterrorism have focused interest on it. Furthermore, although anthrax was known to typically occur as one of three syndromes related to entry site of (i.e., cutaneous, gastrointestinal, or inhalational), a fourth syndrome including severe soft tissue infection in injectional drug users is emerging. Although shock has been described with cutaneous anthrax, it appears much more common with gastrointestinal, inhalational (5 of 11 patients in the 2001 outbreak in the United States), and injectional anthrax. Based in part on case series, the estimated mortalities of cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalational, and injectional anthrax are 1%, 25 to 60%, 46%, and 33%, respectively. Nonspecific early symptomatology makes initial identification of anthrax cases difficult. Clues to anthrax infection include history of exposure to herbivore animal products, heroin use, or clustering of patients with similar respiratory symptoms concerning for a bioterrorist event. Once anthrax is suspected, the diagnosis can usually be made with Gram stain and culture from blood or surgical specimens followed by confirmatory testing (e.g., PCR or immunohistochemistry). Although antibiotic therapy (largely quinolone-based) is the mainstay of anthrax treatment, the use of adjunctive therapies such as anthrax toxin antagonists is a consideration. PMID:21852539

  18. Infective endocarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, José M; Fonseca, Ana Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Infective endocarditis is a serious disease of the endocardium of the heart and cardiac valves, caused by a variety of infectious agents, ranging from streptococci to rickettsia. The proportion of cases associated with rheumatic valvulopathy and dental surgery has decreased in recent years, while endocarditis associated with intravenous drug abuse, prosthetic valves, degenerative valve disease, implanted cardiac devices, and iatrogenic or nosocomial infections has emerged. Endocarditis causes constitutional, cardiac and multiorgan symptoms and signs. The central nervous system can be affected in the form of meningitis, cerebritis, encephalopathy, seizures, brain abscess, ischemic embolic stroke, mycotic aneurysm, and subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke in endocarditis is an ominous prognostic sign. Treatment of endocarditis includes prolonged appropriate antimicrobial therapy and in selected cases, cardiac surgery. In ischemic stroke associated with infective endocarditis there is no indication to start antithrombotic drugs. In previously anticoagulated patients with an ischemic stroke, oral anticoagulants should be replaced by unfractionated heparin, while in intracranial hemorrhage, all anticoagulation should be interrupted. The majority of unruptured mycotic aneurysms can be treated by antibiotics, but for ruptured aneurysms, endovascular or neurosurgical therapy is indicated. PMID:24365290

  19. Fish tapeworm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish tapeworm infection is an intestinal infection with the tapeworm parasite found in fish. ... The fish tapeworm ( Diphyllobothrium latum ) is the largest parasite that infects humans. Humans become infected when they eat raw ...

  20. Caracterización molecular de la región determinante de resistencia a quinolonas (QRDR de la topoisomerasa IV de Bartonella bacilliformis en aislados clínicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Espinoza-Culupú

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis es el agente etiológico de la Enfermedad de Carrión, endémica del Perú. Pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas acerca de los genes asociados a la resistencia antimicrobiana en aislados clínicos de este patógeno. Estos genes no están caracterizados molecularmente, ni se conoce la región asociada a dicha resistencia. Por ello, el objetivo del este trabajo fue caracterizar molecularmente la región determinante de la resistencia a las quinolonas (QRDR en la topoisomerasa IV, que está codificada por los genes parC y parE, así como también desarrollar una prueba de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para B. bacilliformis. Las muestras sanguíneas de 65 pacientes procedentes de La Libertad, Cusco, Ancash y Piura, se sembraron en placas de agar sangre e incubaron a 30 °C con 5% CO2. Luego se procedió a: (1 determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y (2 extraer el DNA genómico, amplificar los genes mencionados, secuenciarlos y analizarlos mediante herramientas bioinformáticas. Se obtuvieron 6 cultivos positivos. Los aislados fueron sensibles a la ciprofloxacina (excepto uno procedente de Quillabamba-Cusco, que presentó susceptibilidad disminuida y resistentes al ácido nalidíxico. Del análisis de las secuencias aminoacídicas de ParC y ParE de B. bacilliformis se concluye que presentan diferencias aminoacídicas en comparación con las secuencias de las proteínas respectivas de E. coli K12 MG1655, que probablemente confieran resistencia al ácido nalidíxico pero no a la ciprofloxacina. Se determinó que las QRDR de las proteínas ParC y ParE de B. bacilliformis están comprendidas entre los aminoácidos 67 al 118 y 473 al 530, respectivamente. El antibiograma y la concentración mínima inhibitoria se evalúan mejor usando inóculos a escala 1 de McFarland y a los 6 días de incubación.

  1. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  2. Toxoplasmosis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Clara Delgado Varela

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasmosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide. Its prevalence can double in rural populations in relation to urban populations, and it is different in persons of different races within the same community. Objective: To determine the characteristics of toxoplasmosis infection in Charavalle community, Bermúdez municipality, Sucre State, Venezuelan Republic. Methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was developed between April and September 2006. Through observation and interview the primary data on the 343 patients selected through simple sampling was obtained. The studied population was classified according to socio-demographic variables, the serum presence of IgG antibodies anti-Toxoplasma gondii was determine through indirect hemagglutination and the main risk factors l inked to toxoplasmosis infection were identified. Results: There was a prevalence of the age group between 16 and 30 years, mainly females in the Stratum III of socioeconomic level. Serological prevalence rate of antibodies IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii was 63, 56/100 inhabitants and the most significant risk factors were: cohabitation with dogs and cats, raw vegetables and fruit intake, and no drinkable water intake. Conclusions: Results largely agree with other researches on the same subject.

  3. Lung infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930120 A clinical study of 50 cases of legion-naires disease.WANG Baofa(王保法),et al.Dept Intern Med,2nd Affili Hosp,Hehei MedColl,Shijiazhuang,050000.Chin J Tuberc &Respir Dis 1992;15(5):266-268.The clinical features and X-ray manifesta-tions of 50 cases of legionnaires disease wereanalysed.8 cases might be due to nosocomial in-fection through breathing in flying particles ofthe saliva or phlegm.According to the mainclinical features,this disease could be dividedinto common pneumonia type,acute gastroen-teritis type,encephalopathy type,shock type,and acute renal insufficiency type.The differen-

  4. Shigella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, P

    1996-04-01

    Shigella dysentery is a major public-health problem in many tropical areas. Despite improvements in water supplies and sanitation, it continues to be a disease of poor rural and urban communities and in populations affected by migration and crowding following disasters. Pathogenesis is due to colonic invasion, endotoxin, and, in Shigella dysenteriae 1, shiga toxin. As well as the local manifestations of dysentery, systemic complications include convulsions, haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, hyponatraemia and hypoglycaemia. The spread of shigella infection is most commonly person-person, although water and food-borne outbreaks have been reported. Since 1970, multiple antimicrobial resistance, particularly in Sh. dysenteriae 1, has complicated strategies for management. Multiply resistant strains have occurred in Latin America, Central Africa and southern and south-eastern Asia. No vaccines are currently available, and prevention and control will depend on public-health improvements and improved case management. PMID:8762400

  5. Staph infections - hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or skin cysts. Anyone can get a staph infection. Hospital patients can get staph infections of the skin: ... for and promptly reporting any sign of wound infections Many hospitals encourage patients to ask their providers if they ...

  6. Psychosis in mycoplasma infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Moor, S.; Skrine, H.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes a patient with psychosis due to a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Although he received specific treatment for this infection, the diagnosis was only confirmed after clinical recovery. The neuropsychiatric complications of mycoplasma infection are discussed.

  7. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection of the urinary tract. The infection can occur at different points in ... al. Diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of catheter-associated ... in adults: 2009 International Clinical Practice Guidelines from ...

  8. Bacterial Nail Infection (Paronychia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of nail infection is often caused by a bacterial infection but may also be caused by herpes, a ... to a type of yeast called Candida , or bacterial infection, and this may lead to abnormal nail growth. ...

  9. Impairment of circulating endothelial progenitors in Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Valerio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological angiogenesis represents a critical issue in the progression of many diseases. Down syndrome is postulated to be a systemic anti-angiogenesis disease model, possibly due to increased expression of anti-angiogenic regulators on chromosome 21. The aim of our study was to elucidate some features of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the context of this syndrome. Methods Circulating endothelial progenitors of Down syndrome affected individuals were isolated, in vitro cultured and analyzed by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. ELISA was performed to measure SDF-1α plasma levels in Down syndrome and euploid individuals. Moreover, qRT-PCR was used to quantify expression levels of CXCL12 gene and of its receptor in progenitor cells. The functional impairment of Down progenitors was evaluated through their susceptibility to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress with BODIPY assay and the major vulnerability to the infection with human pathogens. The differential expression of crucial genes in Down progenitor cells was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results We detected a marked decrease of progenitors' number in young Down individuals compared to euploid, cell size increase and some major detrimental morphological changes. Moreover, Down syndrome patients also exhibited decreased SDF-1α plasma levels and their progenitors had a reduced expression of SDF-1α encoding gene and of its membrane receptor. We further demonstrated that their progenitor cells are more susceptible to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress and infection with Bartonella henselae. Further, we observed that most of the differentially expressed genes belong to angiogenesis, immune response and inflammation pathways, and that infected progenitors with trisomy 21 have a more pronounced perturbation of immune response genes than infected euploid cells. Conclusions Our data provide evidences for a reduced number and altered

  10. Bartonelosis (Fiebre de la Oroya o Verruga Peruana: ¿Enfermedad ocupacional?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cesar Gonzáles

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.

  11. Musculoskeletal infections: ultrasound appearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, C.L.F. [Department of Radiology, North District Hospital, NTEC, Fanling, NT, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: c8681@yahoo.com; Griffith, J.F. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, NTEC, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-02-01

    Musculoskeletal infections are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This review will discuss the ultrasound appearances of a variety of musculoskeletal infections such as cellulitis, infective tenosynovitis, pyomyositis, soft-tissue abscesses, septic arthritis, acute and chronic osteomyelitis, and post-operative infection. The peculiar sonographic features of less common musculoskeletal infections, such as necrotizing fasciitis, and rice body formation in atypical mycobacterial tenosynovitis, and bursitis will also be presented.

  12. Fungal toenail infections

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Fungal toenail infection (onychomycosis) is characterised as infection of part or all of the toenail unit, which includes the nail plate, the nail bed, and the nail matrix. Over time, the infection causes discoloration and distortion of part or all of the nail unit. Fungal infections are reported to cause 23% of foot diseases and 50% of nail conditions in people seen by dermatologists, but are less common in the general population, affecting 3% to 12% of people.Infection can cause discomfo...

  13. First evidence of feline herpesvirus, calicivirus, parvovirus, and Ehrlichia exposure in Brazilian free-ranging felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2006-04-01

    Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time. PMID:16870878

  14. Middle ear infection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A middle ear infection is also known as otitis media. It is one of the most common of childhood infections. With this illness, the middle ear becomes red, swollen, and inflamed because of bacteria ...

  15. C. difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include fever and abdominal distension and/or tenderness. Screening/Diagnosis C. difficile infection requires documenting the presence ... First, it would be ideal to stop the antibiotic that led to the infection in the first ...

  16. Urinary tract infection - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  17. Upper respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grief, Samuel N

    2013-09-01

    Upper respiratory infections (URIs) are infections of the mouth, nose, throat, larynx (voice box), and trachea (windpipe). This article outlines the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and management of URIs, including nasopharyngitis (common cold), sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, and laryngotracheitis. PMID:23958368

  18. Ear Infection and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Infection and Vaccines Ear Infection and Vaccines Patient Health Information News ... or may need reinsertion over time. What about vaccines? A vaccine is a preparation administered to stimulate ...

  19. Yeast Infection (Candidiasis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Yeast Infection (Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A This is a candida (yeast) infection of the skin folds of the abdomen. Overview ...

  20. Vaginal yeast infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeast infection - vagina; Vaginal candidiasis; Monilial vaginitis ... Most women have a vaginal yeast infection at some time. Candida albicans is a common type of fungus. It is often found in small amounts in the ...

  1. Urinary tract infection - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection spreads to your kidneys, symptoms may include: Chills and shaking or night sweats Fatigue and a ... kidney infection, such as: Back or side pain Chills Fever Vomiting Also call if UTI symptoms come ...

  2. Middle Ear Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Middle Ear Infections Page Content Article Body What are ... serious illness. What if a child with a middle ear infection is in great pain and discomfort? ...

  3. HPV Infection in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Palefsky, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the ge...

  4. Infections in spinal instrumentation

    OpenAIRE

    Gerometta, Antoine; Olaverri, Juan Carlos Rodriguez; Bitan, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Surgical-site infection (SSI ) in the spine is a serious postoperative complication. Factors such as posterior surgical approach, arthrodesis, use of spinal instrumentation, age, obesity, diabetes, tobacco use, operating-room environment and estimated blood loss are well established in the literature to affect the risk of infection. Infection after spine surgery with instrumentation is becoming a common pathology. The reported infection rates range from 0.7% to 11.9%, depending on the diagnos...

  5. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Bruun, Niels Eske

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever...... ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity will be...

  6. Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can usually be found and treated before the kidneys become infected. If your doctor treats a urinary tract infection early and ... Tips on preventing urinary tract infections Drink plenty of water to flush out bacteria. Drinking cranberry juice may also help ...

  7. Primary disseminated fusarial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavan, M.; Ratnakar, C.; Veliath, A. J.; Kanungo, R.; Smile, S. R.; Bhat, S

    1992-01-01

    Among the fungal pathogens the species Fusariam solani causing systemic infection is very rare and generally causes systemic infection only in an immuno-compromised host. We report a systemic infection caused by F. solani in a non-immunocompromised adult male, to our knowledge the first such case report.

  8. Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders; Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Bundgaard, Henning;

    2013-01-01

    Because of the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides, the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis were changed in January 2007, reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal infective endocarditis from 4 to 6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study, we compare outcomes in patients with...... Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations....

  9. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K

    1995-01-01

    central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than...

  10. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  11. Inflammation, Infection, and Future Cardiovascular Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular Diseases; Coronary Disease; Cerebrovascular Accident; Myocardial Infarction; Venous Thromboembolism; Heart Diseases; Infection; Chlamydia Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Helicobacter Infections; Herpesviridae Infections; Inflammation

  12. Middle Ear Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Middle Ear Infections KidsHealth > For Parents > Middle Ear Infections ... eventually leading to an ear infection. continue About Middle Ear Infections Inflammation in the middle ear area ...

  13. Infections following epidural catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, MS; Andersen, SS; Andersen, Ove; Gahrn-Hansen, B; Siboni, K

    1995-01-01

    central nervous system infection of at least 0.7% at Odense University Hospital. This degree of infection is of the same magnitude as that reported for intravascular devices. We found that the patients with generalized symptoms of infection had been catheterized for a longer time, and were older than......Seventy-eight patients with culture-positive epidural catheters, were studied. Fifty-nine had symptoms of exit site infection and 11 patients had clinical meningitis, two of whom also had an epidural abscess. This corresponds to a local infection incidence of at least 4.3% and an incidence of...... patients with only local symptoms of infection. The microorganisms isolated from the tips of the epidural catheters were coagulase-negative staphylococci (41%), Staphylococcus aureus (35%), Gram-negative bacilli (14%) and others (10%). The Gram-negative bacilli and S. aureus caused serious infections more...

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11162-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ) Kuenenia stuttgartiensis genome f... 137 1e-30 AE014613...r violaceus PCC 7421 D... 134 7e-30 U57757_1( U57757 |pid:none) Treponema pallidum PolA gene, partial ... 13...s ... 133 2e-29 AJ238760_2( AJ238760 |pid:none) Rickettsia montana ftsY (partial)...i 12J chromos... 131 6e-29 BX897699_6( BX897699 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae strain...) Neisseria meningitidis 053442, c... 129 2e-28 EU708319_1( EU708319 |pid:none) Thermus thermophilus strain

  15. Doença de arranhadela do gato em mulher de 44 anos de idade

    OpenAIRE

    Murinello, Natacha; Murinello, N.; Murinello, A; Damásio, H; Carvalho, A; Sousa, R.

    2010-01-01

    A doença da arranhadela do gato é uma zoonose causada pela bactéria Bartonella henselae, e transmitida ao homem por inoculação em lesões de arranhadelas ou mordeduras de gatos. Descreve-se aqui um caso de doença da arranhadela do gato numa mulher de 44 anos de idade, imunocompetente, que se apresentou com uma pápula/crosta num dedo da mão direita, linfadenopatias regionais e foi tratada com azitromicina por apresentar uma linfadenopatia epitroclear muito dolorosa. O diagnóstico de infecção po...

  16. Bedeutung verschiedener Infektionserreger bei der chronischen Gingivostomatitis der Katze

    OpenAIRE

    Belgard, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Die Ätiologie der chronischen Gingivostomatitis bei der Katze konnte bislang nicht vollständig geklärt werden, obwohl dieses Krankheitsbild häufig in der Kleintierpraxis auftritt. Die Ätiologie scheint multifaktoriell zu sein, und verschiedenen Infektionserregern wird eine Bedeutung zugeschrieben. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Prävalenz von felinen Caliciviren (FCV), felinen Herpesviren (FHV), felinen Immunschwächeviren (FIV), felinen Leukämieviren (FeLV) sowie Bartonella henselae bei Katzen...

  17. High-throughput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie;

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens, a large scale epidemiological study was...... venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi) and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major...... improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of tick-borne pathogens, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases....

  18. A 31-year-old man with bilateral blurry vision and floaters

    OpenAIRE

    ABAZARI, AZIN; Kaplowitz, Kevin; Sibony, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral multifocal retinochoroiditis and bilateral optic disc edema in a patient with cat-scratch disease from Bartonella henselae. The patient initially had negative serologic testing. Repeat testing showed a markedly increased IgG and IgM convalescent titer and the development of a branch retinal artery and vein occlusion. In patients for whom there is a high clinical suspicion of cat-scratch disease, a convalescent titer should be obtained 2–3 weeks following a negati...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10797-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available none) Bartonella henselae strain Hous... 232 3e-59 BC135119_1( BC135119 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis phosphoglucomut...IC-16... 50 2e-04 CU861906_696( CU861906 |pid:none) Ralstonia solanacearum strain...ncisella tularensis clone ... 72 4e-29 6 ( AY871860 ) Synthetic construct hypothetical prot...86( CR382131 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB12... 307 7e-82 AK064893_1... |pid:none) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20... 51 1e-04 BA000045_388( BA000045 |pid:none) Gloeobacter violaceu

  20. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  1. AcEST: BP917536 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Q57CZ1|Q57CZ1_BRUAB Citrate synthase OS=Brucella abortus GN=g... 69 1e-10 >tr|B0M1B8|B0M1B8_SOYBN Citrate sy...TH Citrate synthase 1, peroxisomal OS=Arabido... 72 9e-13 sp|P51033|CISY_BARHE Citrate synthase OS=Bartonell...1033|CISY_BARHE Citrate synthase OS=Bartonella henselae GN=gltA PE=3 SV=1 Length = 431 Score = 69.7 bits (16...idopsis thaliana Align length 84 Score (bit) 132.0 E-value 5.0e-31 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [No... chromosomal OS=Rhizobium... 67 4e-11 sp|P51034|CISY_BARQU Citrate synthase OS=Bartonella quintana GN=... 66

  2. Periprosthetic Joint Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia L. Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of joint prostheses is becoming increasingly common, especially for the hip and knee. Infection is considered to be the most devastating of prosthesis-related complications, leading to prolonged hospitalization, repeated surgical intervention, and even definitive loss of the implant. The main risk factors to periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs are advanced age, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus, HIV infection at an advanced stage, presence of distant infectious foci, and antecedents of arthroscopy or infection in previous arthroplasty. Joint prostheses can become infected through three different routes: direct implantation, hematogenic infection, and reactivation of latent infection. Gram-positive bacteria predominate in cases of PJI, mainly Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. PJIs present characteristic signs that can be divided into acute and chronic manifestations. The main imaging method used in diagnosing joint prosthesis infections is X-ray. Computed tomography (CT scan may assist in distinguishing between septic and aseptic loosening. Three-phase bone scintigraphy using technetium has high sensitivity, but low specificity. Positron emission tomography using fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET presents very divergent results in the literature. Definitive diagnosis of infection should be made by isolating the microorganism through cultures on material obtained from joint fluid puncturing, surgical wound secretions, surgical debridement procedures, or sonication fluid. Success in treating PJI depends on extensive surgical debridement and adequate and effective antibiotic therapy. Treatment in two stages using a spacer is recommended for most chronic infections in arthroplasty cases. Treatment in a single procedure is appropriate in carefully selected cases.

  3. The Etiology of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions

  4. [Deep neck infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Katarzyna; Szyfter, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Deep neck infection is relatively rare but potentially life threatening complication of common oropharyngeal infections. This retrospective study was aimed at analyzing the occurrence of complications, diagnostic methods and proper management of deep neck infection. A review was conducted in 32 cases who were diagnosed as having deep neck infection from 1995 to 2005. The causes of deep neck infections were tonsillitis (16 cases), tooth diseases (6 cases), paratonsillar abscess (4 cases), parotitis (1 case), pussy lymphonodes after tonsillectomy (2 cases), pussy congenital neck cyst (1 case), chronic otitis media (1 case), parotitis (1 case), foreign body of the esophagus (1 case). All the puss bacterial cultivation were positive. All the patients were treated by different ways of chirurgical drainage and use of large dosage of antibiotics. Deep neck infection should be suspected in patients with long lasting fever and painful swelling of the neck and treatment should begin quick as possible. PMID:17152800

  5. Imaging of hepatic infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, D J; Hanbidge, A E; O'Malley, M E

    2006-09-01

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented. PMID:16905380

  6. Imaging of hepatic infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, D.J. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)]. E-mail: doyledj@hotmail.com; Hanbidge, A.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada); O' Malley, M.E. [Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network and Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont. (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented.

  7. Imaging of hepatic infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaging plays a significant role in the detection, characterization and treatment of hepatic infections. Infectious diseases of the liver include pyogenic and amoebic abscesses and parasitic, fungal, viral and granulomatous infections. With increases in worldwide travel, immunosuppression and changing population demographics, identification of cases of hepatic infection is becoming more common in daily practice. Knowledge of the imaging features seen with hepatic infections can assist in early diagnosis and timely initiation of appropriate therapy. This review presents the imaging appearances of hepatic infections, emphasizing specific features that may contribute to the diagnosis. Examples of the imaging findings seen with pyogenic and amoebic abscesses, infection with Echinococcus granulosus (Hydatid), schistosomiasis, candidiasis and tuberculosis (TB) are presented

  8. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  9. Influenza infection and COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Mallia, Patrick; Johnston, Sebastian L.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza is a disease with global impact that causes enormous morbidity and mortality on an annual basis. It primarily infects the respiratory tract and causes a broad range of illness ranging from symptomless infection to fulminant primary viral and secondary bacterial pneumonia. The severity of infection depends on both the virus strain and a number of host factors, primarily age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as cardiopulmonary disease. The mortality and utilization of healt...

  10. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Došen Radoslav; Gagrčin Mladen; Prodanov Jasna; Orlić Dušan B.

    2002-01-01

    Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV) are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge o...

  11. Imaging of Periprosthetic Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carty, Fiona

    2013-05-22

    Periprosthetic infection is one of the most challenging and difficult complications in orthopaedics. It can result in significant patient distress and disability, with repeated surgeries, increased cost and utilization of medical resources, and in rare cases even mortality. The biggest challenge to date is the correct diagnosis of periprosthetic infection and implementation of effective treatment regimens capable of eradicating the organism. This article reviews the various modalities used in the imaging of periprosthetic and post-arthroplasty infection.

  12. Microcomputer Infection Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, William S.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a set of microcomputer programs designed to streamline and assist with infection control monitoring. The system is designed to capture patient demographic and culture data as well as the infection control practitioner's (ICP) evaluation of whether the infection is hospital (nosocomial) or community acquired. Once the data are acquired, they can be sorted and printed in a multitude of ways to generate various detailed line reports and tables. Organism sensitivity profiles...

  13. Clostridium difficile infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Geller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is a significant and increasing medical problem, surpassing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as the most common hospital-onset or facility-associated infection, and a key element in the challenging battle against hospital-acquired infections. This Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming colonizes the intestinal tract after antibiotics have altered the normal intestinal flora.

  14. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  15. Approach to urinary tract infections

    OpenAIRE

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomati...

  16. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  17. Congenital CMV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infect the baby. This can happen when a pregnant woman experiences a first-time infection, a reinfection with a different CMV strain (variety), ... passed their newborn hearing test. Diagnosis Congenital CMV ... newborn baby’s saliva, urine, or blood. Such specimens must be collected for ...

  18. Severe Strep Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies on ClinicalTrials.gov . Related Links Group A Streptococcal Infections National Library of Medicine, MedlinePlus ​​ Javascript Error Your ... the greatest risk of getting a severe strep infection are Children with chickenpox People with suppressed immune systems Burn ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... get up into the bladder more easily and cause an infection there. Some of the bacteria that cause UTIs normally live in your intestines. Each time ... bladder. If the bacteria go there, they can cause a bladder infection, which is a type of ...

  20. Surgical infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Prag, Jørgen Brorson; Jensen, J S;

    1997-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum are common inhabitants of the human genital tract. Evidence for an aetiological role in pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, post-abortion and post-partum fever has been presented. There are sporadic reports of Mycoplasma causing serious...... extragenital infection such as septicemia, septic arthritis, neonatal meningitis and encephalitis. We review 38 cases of surgical infections with Mycoplasma....

  1. Diagnosing BVDV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are widespread among the U.S. cattle population and it is generally accepted that these infections result in substantial economic loss for producers. There is a push in the U.S. to design BVDV control programs that will curb these losses. While ...

  2. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  3. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, ... a Booger? Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) KidsHealth > For Kids > Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) Print A A A ...

  5. [Diabetic foot infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryšková, Lenka

    2015-06-01

    Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are serious problems in persons with diabetes, about 10 to 25 % of patients with dia-betes develop a foot ulcer and 60 % of them are infected. DFIs cause morbidity, limit mobility, worsen patients quality of life. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most DFIs are polymicrobial, with Gram-positive cocci (especially staphylococci), Gram-negative bacilli and obligate anaerobes. Successful therapy of DFI requires proper topical care and often includes surgical interventions but appropriate antibiotic treatment plays a key role. Initial antimicrobial therapy of these infections is usually empirical, the antibiotic regimen should be based on the severity of the infection. Definitive therapy should then be tailored according to the results of culture and susceptibility tests from a reliably obtained specimen. PMID:26258977

  6. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Organizations​​ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Urinary Tract Infections in Children Page Content On this page: What ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a urinary tract infection (UTI)? A UTI is an infection in the ...

  7. HPV Infection in Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel M. Palefsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available While much is known about the natural history of cervical human papillomavirus (HPV infection and its consequences, including cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer, relatively little is known about the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and diseases in men. In part this reflects difficulties in penile sampling and visual assessment of penile lesions. Anal HPV infection and disease also remain poorly understood. Although HPV is transmitted sexually and infects the genitals of both sexes, the cervix remains biologically more vulnerable to malignant transformation than does the penis or anus in men. An understanding of male HPV infection is therefore important in terms of reducing transmission of HPV to women and improving women's health. However, it is also important due to the burden of disease in men, who may develop both penile and anal cancer, particularly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Improved sampling techniques of the male genitalia and cohort studies in progress should provide important information on the natural history of anogenital HPV infection and disease in men, including risk factors for HPV acquisition and transmission. The impact of HPV vaccination in women on male anogenital HPV infection will also need to be assessed.

  8. Antimicrobials in urogenital infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Wullt, Björn; Perletti, Gianpaolo

    2011-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) and male genital infections are amongst the most prevalent infections. A prudent antibiotic policy therefore has a large impact on society. The clinical classification in uncomplicated cystitis, uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated UTI and genital infections is useful, also for the right choice of antibiotic treatment. In this regard pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic aspects have to be considered. Nowadays in uncomplicated cystitis antibiotics exclusively reserved for this indication are preferred, such as fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin and pivmecillinam, in order to reduce antibiotic pressure in this extremely frequent entity. In complicated UTI a broad bacterial spectrum has to be considered. Different antibiotic substances should be used for treatment, such as penicillins, with β-lactamase inhibitors, cephalosporins or carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides or cotrimoxazole, if tested susceptible. For genital infections the pharmacokinetic properties of the antibiotics should especially be considered, such as in prostatitis, where mainly fluoroquinolones and macrolides show sufficient pharmacokinetic parameters for treatment of bacterial infections. Furthermore in genital infections fastidious organisms, such as Chlamydia or Mycoplasma spp. have to be considered with respect to their antimicrobial susceptibility. PMID:22019184

  9. Clostridium difficile infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Wiep Klaas; Lyras, Dena; Lacy, D Borden; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the colon with the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium difficile is potentially life threatening, especially in elderly people and in patients who have dysbiosis of the gut microbiota following antimicrobial drug exposure. C. difficile is the leading cause of health-care-associated infective diarrhoea. The life cycle of C. difficile is influenced by antimicrobial agents, the host immune system, and the host microbiota and its associated metabolites. The primary mediators of inflammation in C. difficile infection (CDI) are large clostridial toxins, toxin A (TcdA) and toxin B (TcdB), and, in some bacterial strains, the binary toxin CDT. The toxins trigger a complex cascade of host cellular responses to cause diarrhoea, inflammation and tissue necrosis - the major symptoms of CDI. The factors responsible for the epidemic of some C. difficile strains are poorly understood. Recurrent infections are common and can be debilitating. Toxin detection for diagnosis is important for accurate epidemiological study, and for optimal management and prevention strategies. Infections are commonly treated with specific antimicrobial agents, but faecal microbiota transplants have shown promise for recurrent infections. Future biotherapies for C. difficile infections are likely to involve defined combinations of key gut microbiota. PMID:27158839

  10. Parvoviral Infections in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došen Radoslav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections hold an important place among factors which can cause disorders in swine reproduction. Infections with the porcine parvovirus (PPV are present in all herds. In the past four years, 70-77% seropositive animals have been registered in herds of the industrial type. There are increasing reports about disorders in swine reproduction, both from individual breeders and mini farmers, caused by parvoviral infections. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the latest knowledge on epizootiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, and prophylaxis of this diseases.

  11. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  12. Imaging infection and inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text. The use of nuclear medicine techniques to image infection has been with us for over 20 years, indeed this year sees the 20th anniversary of the publication of Matthew Thakur's paper of the use of In-111 oxime labelled leukocytes in imaging infection. Without doubt this technique has stood the test of time and has been used to save many lives in infected patients worldwide. As we approach the 21st century we are faced with new problems which will need new solutions. Infections themselves have changed their very nature, HIV a benign virus which only infected monkeys in central Africa in 1977 has now spread throughout the globe and unfortunately few societies have remained free of its ravages. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. In its wake tuberculosis continues to infect both both the poor and weak but also has started to re-infect more affluent societies. The use of immuno suppressive therapy in many patients with transplants or cancer has lead to new infections in a wider group of patients. The wide spread use of antibiotics has lead to the emergence of antibiotic resistant organisms. The old approach of widespread antibiotic treatment in patients with suspected infection is not acceptable. If possible organisms must be isolated. Normally imaging is required to localize infection and it is important to realize that a combination or anatomical imaging with CT, ultrasound or MRI and nuclear medicine is often the only way to determine the site of infection. Allied to this a new educated public has demanded that diagnostic tests be accurate and non-invasive, particularly in non-fatal inflammatory disease. All these challenges has lead us to a new frontier in nuclear medicine. In some ways we have had to rediscover the old. For example the use of Ga-67 citrate in imaging tuberculosis or infection in patients with Aids. The use of Tc-99 m HMPAO labelled leukocytes in

  13. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and Bowel Why is it important to begin urologic care in infancy and ...

  14. Update on infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Infection control is a dynamic and ever-changing subject and all dental staff should be kept aware of the most up-to-date procedures required to prevent the transmission of infection and should understand why these procedures are necessary. Regular monitoring and updating of all procedures in the light of new scientific evidence is necessary and all new staff must be trained in infection control procedures prior to working in the surgery. A practitioner who is routinely following an appropriate infection control policy, including the use of techniques and products of proven efficacy (perhaps through accreditation), is better placed to refute allegations arising in the course of civil litigation, health and safety at work prosecution, complaints and disciplinary procedures, or investigations by the GDC. PMID:16892574

  15. Urticaria and infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedi Bettina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Urticaria is a group of diseases that share a distinct skin reaction pattern. Triggering of urticaria by infections has been discussed for many years but the exact role and pathogenesis of mast cell activation by infectious processes is unclear. In spontaneous acute urticaria there is no doubt for a causal relationship to infections and all chronic urticaria must have started as acute. Whereas in physical or distinct urticaria subtypes the evidence for infections is sparse, remission of annoying spontaneous chronic urticaria has been reported after successful treatment of persistent infections. Current summarizing available studies that evaluated the course of the chronic urticaria after proven Helicobacter eradication demonstrate a statistically significant benefit compared to untreated patients or Helicobacter-negative controls without urticaria (p

  16. Small Intestinal Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munot, Khushboo; Kotler, Donald P

    2016-06-01

    Small intestinal infections are extremely common worldwide. They may be bacterial, viral, or parasitic in etiology. Most are foodborne or waterborne, with specific etiologies differing by region and with diverse pathophysiologies. Very young, very old, and immune-deficient individuals are the most vulnerable to morbidity or mortality from small intestinal infections. There have been significant advances in diagnostic sophistication with the development and early application of molecular diagnostic assays, though these tests have not become mainstream. The lack of rapid diagnoses combined with the self-limited nature of small intestinal infections has hampered the development of specific and effective treatments other than oral rehydration. Antibiotics are not indicated in the absence of an etiologic diagnosis, and not at all in the case of some infections. PMID:27168147

  17. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  18. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Kids Are Reading Movie: Digestive System Winter Sports: Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ...

  19. Healthcare Associated Infections - State

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - state data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and collected...

  20. Healthcare Associated Infections - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) measures - national data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  1. Chikungunya Infection in Travelers

    OpenAIRE

    Hochedez, Patrick; Jaureguiberry, Stephane; Debruyne, Monique; Bossi, Philippe; Hausfater, Pierre; Brucker, Gilles; Bricaire, Francois; Caumes, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The largest described outbreak of chikungunya virus has been occurring on the islands of the southwest Indian Ocean since March 2005. We describe the manifestations of chikungunya virus infection in travelers returning from these islands, with focus on skin manifestations.

  2. Neuroinvasive flavivirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, Gregorius J.; Wilschut, Jan; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2012-01-01

    Flaviviruses, including Dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, and Tick-borne encephalitis virus, are major emerging human pathogens, affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Many clinically important flaviviruses elicit CNS diseases in infected hosts, including traditional "hemorrhagic" viru

  3. Healthcare Associated Infections - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Healthcare-Associated Infection (HAI) measures - provider data. These measures are developed by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and...

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  5. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection ... tract is actually a system made up of these main parts: two kidneys two ureters (say: yur - ...

  6. Fungal Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Infections Medical Dictionary Also of Interest (Quiz) Vitiligo (Video) Hives Additional Content Medical News Overview of ... Professional Version Also of Interest Test your knowledge Vitiligo is a loss of melanocytes (cells that produce ...

  7. Skin infections in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müllegger, Robert R; Häring, Nina S; Glatz, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A wide array of infectious diseases can occur in pregnancy. Their acquisition, clinical presentation, and course during gestation may be altered due to an impairment of the maternal cellular immunity. Some infectious diseases can lead to serious consequences for the mother or the offspring, including congenital malformations. This review describes in detail the clinical presentation, course, management, and associated maternal and fetal risks of selected viral (varicella-zoster virus infections, condylomata acuminata), fungal (candida vulvovaginitis), bacterial (Lyme borreliosis), and parasitic (scabies) infections. The treatment options are critically reviewed. First-line therapies include acyclovir and varicella-zoster virus immunoglobulin for varicella-zoster virus infections, surgical modalities for genital warts, topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole for Candida vulvovaginitis, amoxicillin and cefuroxime for Lyme borreliosis, and permethrin for scabies. A synopsis of maternal and fetal risks of other important infections is also included. PMID:27265075

  8. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infections Page Content Article Body Some lung ... walking pneumonia), are caused by an organism called Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It is spread from person to person ...

  9. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  11. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Treatment On ... Healthy people (nonpregnant) Most healthy people recover from toxoplasmosis without treatment. Persons who are ill can be ...

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  13. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  14. Bacterial Nasal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Nose Sinusitis Bacteria may cause pimples and boils (furuncles) to form just inside the opening of ... weeks. Nasal furuncles More serious infections result in boils (furuncles) in the nasal vestibule. Boils may develop ...

  15. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... frye -tus), or a kidney infection, and it's serious because it can damage the kidneys and make ... For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Chronic Kidney Diseases Movie: Urinary System Your Urinary System Bedwetting Contact ...

  16. Necrotizing soft tissue infections

    OpenAIRE

    Holtom, P D

    1999-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections are a group of highly lethal infections that typically occur after trauma or surgery. Many individual infectious entities have been described, but they all have similar pathophysiologies, clinical features, and treatment approaches. The essentials of successful treatment include early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement, antibiotics, and supportive intensive treatment unit care. The two commonest pitfalls in management are failure of early diagnosis a...

  17. [The infected diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voide, C; Trampuz, A; Orasch, C

    2012-10-31

    Disorders of local immunity associated with diabetes, neuropathy, vascular disease and pressure lesions all contribute to the pathogenesis of diabetic foot lesions. Diabetic foot infections are frequently encountered, comprising multifactorial pathology and high morbidity and mortality rates. Microbiological sampling is indicated only when infection is suspected clinically, that is, when a lesion presents a minimum of two of the following six signs: erythema, heat, pain, tumefaction, induration or purulent discharge. PMID:23117963

  18. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infection�and highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the p...

  19. Clostridium difficile infection

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2011-01-01

    This leaflet provides healthcare patients, their families and carers with comprehensive information on Clostridium difficile (C. diff) infection. It provides some background on the infectionand highlights a range of key factors, including the symptoms to look out for, common causes of contamination, the appropriate course of action should you become infected, and possible treatment options. It also offers advice to visitors and carers on precautions and rules they should follow when in the pr...

  20. Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Stephen A.; Fernando Peixoto Ferraz de Campos

    2010-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in Europe and North America and is a serious re-emerging pathogen. Recent outbreaks have led to increasing morbidity and mortality and have been associated with a new strain (BI/NAP1/027) of C. difficile that produces more toxin than historical strains. With the increasing incidence of C. difficile infection, clinicians have also seen a change in the epidemiology with increased infections in previously low-risk populatio...

  1. Circoviral infections in swine

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetić Vojin; Savić Božidar; Valter Dragoš; Milošević Bratislav

    2002-01-01

    Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic w...

  2. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  3. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Agnese Latino; Daniela De Maria; Andrea Caneparo; Claudia Rosso; Gianfranco De Intinis; Anna Maria Calì; Pierangelo Clerici; Marco Cusini; Ivano Dal Conte; Tiziano Maggino; Enrico Magliano; Alfonso Panuccio; Roberto Pozzoli; Mario Rassu; Barbara Suligoi

    2008-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t.) infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more c...

  4. Biophysics of Biofilm Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofi...

  5. Occupational Infection in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Yun Kyung; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and m...

  6. Detection and Characterization of Infections and Infection Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-31

    Immune Disorders; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; Genetic Immunological Deficiencies; Hyperimmunoglobulin-E Recurrent Infection Syndrome; Recurrent Infections; Unknown Immune Deficiency; GATA2 Deficiency (MonoMAC),; Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections; Hyper IgE (Job s) Syndrome; Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency; Susceptibility to Disseminated Infections; Primary Immune Deficiency Disease (PIDD)

  7. A prospective study of cat-scratch disease in Lima-Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUARCAYA Erick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53% of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients.

  8. Hospitalized Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Med 1998;24:206-16. Alangaden GJ. Nosocomial Fungal Infections: Epidemiology, Infection Control, and Prevention. Infectious Disease Clinics ... 25:201-25. Zilberberg MD, Shorr AF. Fungal infections in the ICU. Infect Dis ... D. Nosocomial aspergillosis and building construction. Med Mycol 2009;47 ...

  9. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  10. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  11. Allergic diseases and helminth infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sitcharungsi, Raweerat; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between allergic diseases and helminth infections are inconsistent. Some studies have suggested that helminth infections induce or increase the severity of atopic diseases. Other studies report that children infected with some helminths have lower prevalence and milder atopic symptoms. Expanding our knowledge on the mechanism of immunological modification as a result of helminth infection, and understanding the interaction between helminth infections and allergic diseases wi...

  12. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  13. Immunotherapy of Cryptococcus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J

    2012-02-01

    Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. PMID:22264261

  14. Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Agnese Latino

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis (C.t. infection is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease in Europe and in developed countries. The main biological features and pathogenic mechanisms of C.t. infection are summarized in this review. It usually occurs without symptoms and often goes undiagnosed. If untreated, it can cause severe consequences for women, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, ectopic pregnancy and tubal infertility. Several studies have found that Chlamydia is more common among young women <25 years old, with multiple sexual partners within six months and non protected intercourses. Because re-infection rates are high, complications may be reduced if partners are treated and women re-tested. This paper emphasizes the importance of counselling and prevention programs and underlines that selective screening of high-risk population remains an essential component of C.t. control. In the last years, the detection of C.t. infection has been improved in sensitivity and specificity.We describe the main diagnostic techniques, from culture, enzyme immunoassay (EIA, direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA to the new DNA-based test systems. Actually, NAATs (nucleic acid amplification tests are regarded as the gold standard diagnostic techniques for chlamydial infections.

  15. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  16. Pituitary aspergillus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lauren A; Erstine, Emily M; Prayson, Richard A

    2016-07-01

    Fungal infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a pituitary or sellar mass, albeit fungal infections involving the pituitary gland and sella are a rare occurrence. We report a case of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary gland and sellar region discovered in a 74-year-old man. The patient had a history of hypertension, chronic renal disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia and presented with right eye pain, headaches and worsening hemiparesis. Imaging studies revealed a right internal carotid artery occlusion and an acute right pontine stroke along with smaller infarcts in the right middle cerebral artery distribution. Clinically, the patient was thought to have vasculitis. An infectious etiology was not identified. He developed respiratory distress and died. At autopsy, necrotizing meningitis was discovered. A predominantly chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate consisting of benign-appearing lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages was accompanied by acute angle branching, angioinvasive hyphae which were highlighted on Gomori methenamine silver staining and were morphologically consistent with Aspergillus species. In previously reported cases of Aspergillus infection involving the pituitary or sella, most presented with headaches or impaired vision and were not immunocompromised. A transsphenoidal surgical approach is recommended in suspected cases in order to minimize the risk of dissemination of the infection. Some patients have responded well to antifungal medications once diagnosed. PMID:26896907

  17. HPV Infections in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Barbara Moscicki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents who are sexually active have the highest rates of prevalent and incident HPV infection rates with over 50–80% having infections within 2–3 years of initiating intercourse. These high rates reflect sexual behavior and biologic vulnerability. Most infections are transient in nature and cause no cytologic abnormality. However, a small number of adolescents will not clear the infection. Persistence of HPV is strongly linked to the development of high-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions (HSIL and invasive cancer. The HSIL detected, however, does not appear to progress rapidly to invasive cancer. Understanding the natural history of HPV in adolescents has shed light into optional treatment strategies which include watchful observation of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS and low grade (LSIL. The association between age of first intercourse and invasive cancer cannot be ignored. Consequently, initiating screening at appropriate times in this vulnerable group is essential. In addition, with the advent of the HPV vaccine, vaccination prior to the onset of sexual activity is critical since most infections occur within a short time frame post initiation.

  18. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  19. [Urinary tract infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended. PMID:21850538

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria in natural, industrial and clinical settings predominantly live in biofilms, i.e., sessile structured microbial communities encased in self-produced extracellular matrix material. One of the most important characteristics of microbial biofilms is that the resident bacteria display a...... remarkable increased tolerance toward antimicrobial attack. Biofilms formed by opportunistic pathogenic bacteria are involved in devastating persistent medical device-associated infections, and chronic infections in individuals who are immune-compromised or otherwise impaired in the host defense. Because the...... use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  1. Apoptosis in Pneumovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinout A. Bem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pneumovirus infections cause a wide spectrum of respiratory disease in humans and animals. The airway epithelium is the major site of pneumovirus replication. Apoptosis or regulated cell death, may contribute to the host anti-viral response by limiting viral replication. However, apoptosis of lung epithelial cells may also exacerbate lung injury, depending on the extent, the timing and specific location in the lungs. Differential apoptotic responses of epithelial cells versus innate immune cells (e.g., neutrophils, macrophages during pneumovirus infection can further contribute to the complex and delicate balance between host defense and disease pathogenesis. The purpose of this manuscript is to give an overview of the role of apoptosis in pneumovirus infection. We will examine clinical and experimental data concerning the various pro-apoptotic stimuli and the roles of apoptotic epithelial and innate immune cells during pneumovirus disease. Finally, we will discuss potential therapeutic interventions targeting apoptosis in the lungs.

  2. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  3. Nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevez G.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis sp. from host to host has been demonstrated in rodent models and several observations suggest that interindividual transmission occurs in humans. Moreover, it is accepted that the Pneumocystis organisms infecting each mammalian species are host specific and that the hypothesis of an animal reservoir for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii, the human-specific Pneumocystis species, can be excluded. An exosaprophytic form of the fungus cannot be strictly ruled out. However, these data point toward the potential for the specific host to serve as its own reservoir and for Pneumocystis infection in humans as an anthroponosis with humans as a reservoir for P. jirovecii. This review highlights the main data on host-to-host transmission of Pneumocystis in rodent models and in humans by the airborne route and provides a rationale for considering the occurrence of nosocomial infections and measures for their prevention

  4. Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections among HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, and the American Academy of Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofenson, Lynne M; Brady, Michael T; Danner, Susie P; Dominguez, Kenneth L; Hazra, Rohan; Handelsman, Edward; Havens, Peter; Nesheim, Steve; Read, Jennifer S; Serchuck, Leslie; Van Dyke, Russell

    2009-09-01

    guidelines include 1) greater emphasis on the importance of antiretroviral therapy for preventing and treating OIs, especially those OIs for which no specific therapy exists; 2) information about the diagnosis and management of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes; 3) information about managing antiretroviral therapy in children with OIs, including potential drug--drug interactions; 4) new guidance on diagnosing of HIV infection and presumptively excluding HIV infection in infants that affect the need for initiation of prophylaxis to prevent Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in neonates; 5) updated immunization recommendations for HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children, including hepatitis A, human papillomavirus, meningococcal, and rotavirus vaccines; 6) addition of sections on aspergillosis; bartonella; human herpes virus-6, -7, and -8; malaria; and progressive multifocal leukodystrophy (PML); and 7) new recommendations on discontinuation of OI prophylaxis after immune reconstitution in children. The report includes six tables pertinent to preventing and treating OIs in children and two figures describing immunization recommendations for children aged 0--6 years and 7--18 years. Because treatment of OIs is an evolving science, and availability of new agents or clinical data on existing agents might change therapeutic options and preferences, these recommendations will be periodically updated and will be available at http://AIDSInfo.nih.gov. PMID:19730409

  5. Infections and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinov Jovan S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology Aging is a natural process and a part of our lives, but nowadays there is an increase in the number of persons aged 65 and over. Today infectious diseases are still responsible for one-third of all deaths in the world. The elderly population is most vulnerable to serious infections and at greatest risk for death and complications. Among geriatric population pneumonia and influenza are the fourth most common cause of death Vaccination One of the goals of preventive medicine is to reduce the rate of complications and mortality from infectious diseases by increasing immunization rates. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccines are indicated for persons aged 65 and over. Despite well-recognized benefit of such vaccination, less than 50% of eligible patients receive the vaccine each year. Infections Older persons generally have increased susceptibility to infections because of multiple risk factors and they are the most vulnerable population to nosocomial and health-care associated infections. Older persons may manifest infectious diseases atypically, with acute confusion or delirium which can lead into delay in diagnosis and therapy. It is important to know that the older present with delayed or poor response to antimicrobial therapy and high rates of adverse reactions to drugs, including antibiotics Conclusion As elderly population is rapidly growing, majority of patients with serious or life-threatening infections are old. Geriatric issues have not typically been a focus of training in infectious diseases, but we must become aware of and knowledgeable about special and unique aspects of infections in this population.

  6. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  7. Cytomegalovirus Infection in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; O’Neill, Derek; Honari, Bahman; De Gascun, Cillian; Connell, Jeff; Keogan, Mary; Hickey, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and primary infection usually occurs in early childhood and is often asymptomatic whereas primary infection in adults may result in symptomatic illness. CMV establishes a chronic latent infection with intermittent periods of reactivation. Primary infection or reactivation associate with increased mortality and morbidity in those who are immunocompromised. Transplacental transmission may result in significant birth defects or long-term sensorineural hearing loss. We performed a study to determine the CMV seroprevalence and the association between HLA Class I alleles and frequency of CMV infection in Ireland. The presence of CMV IgG, a marker of previous CMV infection, was determined for a cohort of 1849 HLA typed solid organ transplant donors between 1990 and 2013. The presence of CMV IgG was correlated with HLA type. The CMV seroprevalence in solid organ transplant donors was 33.4% (range 22–48% per annum) over the time period 1990 to 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that both age and HLA alleles were associated with CMV seropositivity. A significant and positive relationship between age and CMV seropositivity was observed (OR = 1.013, P HLA-A1, HLA-A2, and HLA-A3 in our cohort were 40.8%, 48.8%, and 25.9%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of HLA-A1 but not HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 was independently associated with CMV seronegativity (P HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 alleles were significantly more likely to be CMV seropositive (P HLA-B5, HLA-B7, and HLA-B8 in our cohort were 6.1%, 31.2%, and 30.8%, respectively. The presence of the most common inherited haplotype in the Irish population, HLA-A1, B8 was significantly associated with CMV seronegativity (OR = 1.278, P HLA-A1 in the Irish population may, in part, have a role in the reduced susceptibility to CMV infection. PMID:26871815

  8. Herpes zoster infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpes zoster (HZ or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV. Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be the mainstay of its management. This paper presents a case report of such an infection and its management.

  9. Lymphangiosarcoma after filarial infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sordillo, E.M.; Sordillo, P.P.; Hajdu, S.I.; Good, R.A.

    1981-03-01

    A case of lymphangiosarcoma of a lower extremity is described in a patient with chronic lymphedema of that leg from a filarial infection in childhood. Histologically, the neoplasm resembled lymphangiosarcomas that arise in arms that become lymphedematous after mastectomies, but was different in that it also contained areas of calcification consistent with prior filarial infection. Calcifications were also present in muscle uninvolved by the lymphangiosarcoma of this case. The prolonged survival of this patient is unlike that of most patients with lymphangiosarcoma, which is generally shorter. Although lymphedema after filariasis is common, this is the first case of a lymphangiosarcoma arising in chronic lymphedema of filarial origin.

  10. Imaging spinal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Acharya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infection involving the vertebral column, including the bone, intervertebral disk, and paravertebral soft tissues is critical and early diagnosis and directed treatment is paramount. Different infectious organisms present with variable imaging characteristics, which when examined in conjunction with the clinical history, can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment and ultimately prevent patient morbidity and mortality. This article discusses the pathophysiology of infection of the vertebral column, as well as the imaging findings of bacterial, tuberculous, and fungal spondylitis/spondylodiskitis. We review the imaging findings utilizing plain radiography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as a discussion regarding advanced imaging techniques.

  11. Re: Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Dries David J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract A response to Struck MF. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated? Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2009 Oct 9;17(1):51. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 19818134.

  12. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might have the feeling that you need to go to the bathroom all the time. And when you do, phew! Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary tract. Let's find out more. What Exactly Is a Urinary ...

  13. Fungal Wound Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-28

    Dr. David Tribble, acting director of the infectious disease clinical research program at Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, discusses fungal wound infections after combat trauma.  Created: 1/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/28/2016.

  14. Cancer treatment: preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are safe. DO NOT eat fish, eggs, or meat that is raw or undercooked. And DO NOT ... During or right after cancer treatment, call your health care provider right away if you have any of the signs of infection mentioned above. Getting ...

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2014-01-01

    use of conventional antimicrobial compounds in many cases cannot eradicate biofilms, there is an urgent need to develop alternative measures to combat biofilm infections. The present review is focussed on the important opportunistic pathogen and biofilm model organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Initially...

  16. Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics ePublications News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Skip left navigation ePublications Our ePublications For health professionals Federal ... a UTI treated? Will a UTI hurt my kidneys? How can I keep from getting ... infection Nancy's story It was a normal day at work, but I was tired and ...

  17. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  18. Imaging of Orbital Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Mostafavi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Preseptal and orbital cellulitis occur more commonly in children than adults. The history and physical examination are crucial in distinguishing between preseptal and orbital cellulitis. The orbital septum delineates the anterior eyelid soft tissues from the orbital soft tissue. Infections anterior to the orbital septum are classified as preseptal cellulitis and those posterior to the orbital septum are termed orbital cellulitis. "nRecognition of orbital involvement is important not only because of the threatened vision loss associated with orbital cellulitis but also because of the potential for central nervous system complications including cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and death. "nOrbital imaging should be obtained in all patients suspected of having orbital cellulitis. CT is preferred to MR imaging, as the orbital tissues have high con-trast and the bone can be well visualized. Orbital CT scanning allows localization of the disease process to the preseptal area, the extraconal or intraconal fat, or the subperiosteal space. Axial CT views allow evaluation of the medial orbit and ethmoid sinuses, whereas coronal scans image the orbital roof and floor and the frontal and maxillary sinuses. If direct coronal imaging is not possible, reconstruction of thin axial cuts may help the assessment of the orbital roof and floor. Potential sources of orbital cellulitis such as sinusitis, dental infection, and facial cellulitis are often detectable on CT imaging. "nIn this presentation, the imaging considerations of the orbital infections; including imaging differentiation criteria of all types of orbital infections are reviewed.

  19. Group B Strep Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Group B Strep Infection Overview What is group B strep? Group B streptococcus, or group B strep for short, is a certain kind ... in the intestine, rectum, and vagina (in women). Group B strep doesn’t usually cause problems in ...

  20. Biophysics of biofilm infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This article examines a likely basis of the tenacity of biofilm infections that has received relatively little attention: the resistance of biofilms to mechanical clearance. One way that a biofilm infection persists is by withstanding the flow of fluid or other mechanical forces that work to wash or sweep microorganisms out of the body. The fundamental criterion for mechanical persistence is that the biofilm failure strength exceeds the external applied stress. Mechanical failure of the biofilm and release of planktonic microbial cells is also important in vivo because it can result in dissemination of infection. The fundamental criterion for detachment and dissemination is that the applied stress exceeds the biofilm failure strength. The apparent contradiction for a biofilm to both persist and disseminate is resolved by recognizing that biofilm material properties are inherently heterogeneous. There are also mechanical aspects to the ways that infectious biofilms evade leukocyte phagocytosis. The possibility of alternative therapies for treating biofilm infections that work by reducing biofilm cohesion could (1) allow prevailing hydrodynamic shear to remove biofilm, (2) increase the efficacy of designed interventions for removing biofilms, (3) enable phagocytic engulfment of softened biofilm aggregates, and (4) improve phagocyte mobility and access to biofilm. PMID:24376149

  1. Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  2. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  3. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your lower belly? Is there blood in your pee? Is your pee cloudy? Does it smell bad when you pee? ... your body. If the doctor finds germs in your pee, it's a sign of infection and he or ...

  5. Vaginal Yeast Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oral and vaginal mucosa in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women . Mycopathologia; 176(3–4): 175–81. Return to top This fact sheet was reviewed by: Michail S. Lionakis, M.D., Sc.D., Clinical Investigator, Chief, Fungal Pathogenesis Unit, Laboratory of Clinical Infectious Diseases, National Institute ...

  6. Salmonella Infections in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bula-Rudas, Fernando J; Rathore, Mobeen H; Maraqa, Nizar F

    2015-08-01

    Salmonella are gram-negative bacilli within the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are the cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animals (pets) are an important reservoir for nontyphoidal Salmonella, whereas humans are the only natural host and reservoir for Salmonella Typhi. Salmonella infections are a major cause of gastroenteritis worldwide. They account for an estimated 2.8 billion cases of diarrheal disease each year. The transmission of Salmonella is frequently associated with the consumption of contaminated water and food of animal origin, and it is facilitated by conditions of poor hygiene. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections have a worldwide distribution, whereas most typhoidal Salmonella infections in the United States are acquired abroad. In the United States, Salmonella is a common agent for food-borne–associated infections. Several outbreaks have been identified and are most commonly associated with agricultural products. Nontyphoidal Salmonella infection is usually characterized by a self-limited gastroenteritis in immunocompetent hosts in industrialized countries, but it may also cause invasive disease in vulnerable individuals (eg, children less than 1 year of age, immunocompromised). Antibiotic treatment is not recommended for treatment of mild to moderate gastroenteritis by nontyphoidal Salmonella in immunocompetent adults or children more than 1 year of age. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for nontyphoidal Salmonella infections in infants less than 3 months of age, because they are at higher risk for bacteremia and extraintestinal complications. Typhoid (enteric) fever and its potential complications have a significant impact on children, especially those who live in developing countries. Antibiotic treatment of typhoid fever has become challenging because of the emergence of Salmonella Typhi strains that are resistant to classically used first-line agents: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and chloramphenicol. The

  7. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  8. [Immunodepression and pulmonary infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N A; Ngoran, N; de Jaureguiberry, J P; Bérard, H; Jaubert, D

    2002-11-01

    The acquired immunosuppressed states are increasingly numerous. Pneumopathies are a frequent, serious complication and etiologic diagnosis is often difficult. The nature of the micro-organism in question is a function of the immunizing type of deficiency. In neutropenias, the infections are primarily bacterial, their potential gravity being correlated with the depth of the deficiency into polynuclear, or fungic, especially in prolonged neutropenias. The aspleened states are responsible for a deficit of the macrophage system and contribute to the infections with encapsulated germs (pneumococci, klebsiellas...). The organic grafts imply an attack of cell-mediated immunity, in the particular case of the auxiliary T lymphocytes (CD4)), with a special predisposition for viral and fungic infections. During VIH infection, the immunizing deficit of CD4 lymphocytes worsens with time. At the early stage, the infections are especially bacterial. At the more advanced stages, the pulmonary pneumocystosis and tuberculosis dominate. At the late stage, finally, deep immunosuppression allows emerging of the atypical mycobacteries. In the deficiencies of humoral immunity (congenital hypogammaglobulinemias, lymphoid hemopathies B), the germs to be mentioned are the pneumococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, the salmonellas and the legionellas. Immunosuppressed pneumopathies are characterized by radio-clinical pictures of very variable gravity, ranging from focused acute pneumopathy to bilateral diffuse pneumopathy with acute respiratory distress syndrome, with phases of atypical tables with respiratory symptomatology larval or absent. The highlighting of the micro-organisms in question requires urgent complementary investigations: hemocultures, bronchiolo-alveolar washing. In certain cases, it will be possible to resort to the transtracheal puncture or transthoracic puncture guided by tomodensitometry, and if necessary to pulmonary biopsy under videothoracoscopy. Emergency of the anti

  9. Mycobacterium avium infection improved by microbial substitution of fungal infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Shuichi

    2010-01-01

    We reported a case of Mycobacterium avium infection in which disease activity appeared to have been suppressed after fungal infection. After the increase in β-D-glucan, her symptoms of fever and chest pain disappeared. We think this phenomenon may be microbial substitution and mild fungal infection may improve the activity due to M avium.

  10. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  11. Preventing Infections in the Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share | With attention increasing on the incidence of infection in hospitals, patients everywhere need sensible principles to manage their ... will reduce the chance of developing a lung infection while in the hospital and may also improve your healing abilities following ...

  12. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts Soil-transmitted helminth infections Fact sheet Updated March 2016 Key facts Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species ...

  13. Thrush and Other Candida Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Thrush and Other Candida Infections Page Content Article Body The fungus Candida is ... thrush, frequently occurs in infants and toddlers. If Candida infections become chronic or occur in the mouth of ...

  14. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection caused by a type of fungus called candida albicans . Yeast infections usually happen in warm, moist parts of the ... fungus can grow. Doctors call this candida overgrowth candidiasis (pronounced: can-dih-DYE-uh-sis) Candida can ...

  15. Candida infection of the skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000880.htm Candida infection of the skin To use the sharing features ... of the warm, moist conditions inside the diaper. Candida infection is particularly common in people with diabetes and ...

  16. Infective endocarditis, 1984 through 1993

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Hagelskjaer, L H; Tvede, M

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population.......To characterize the epidemiology and the clinical and microbiological spectrum of infective endocarditis in a Danish population....

  17. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  18. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J;

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis that...... the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis and bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    N L Prokopjeva; N N Vesikova; I M Marusenko; V A Ryabkov

    2008-01-01

    To study features of bacterial infections course in pts with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and changes of laboratory measures after focus of infection sanation. Material and methods. 46 pts with definite rheumatoid arthritis were examined at the time of comorbid infection (Cl) detection and after infection focus sanation. Bacteriological test with evaluation of flora sensitivity to antibiotics by disco-diffusion method was performed at baseline and after the course of antibacterial therapy to ass...

  20. Managing infection: a holistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Khaled Abdullah

    2015-05-01

    All wound infection presents risks for the patient, but the risks are multiplied in the presence of a comorbidity such as diabetes, when they can potentially be fatal. Where diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) infection is concerned, early recognition is crucial. Prompt treatment, comprising wound cleansing, debridement of devitalised tissue and use of antimicrobial dressings, can stop locally infected ulcers from deteriorating further. PMID:26079164

  1. Herpesvirus infections in childhood: 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, D; Wood, M J

    Infections due to herpesviruses have received increasing attention over the past decade, culminating in the isolation in 1986 of human herpesvirus-6. This is the second of two articles in which we examine the clinical spectrum of acquired herpesvirus infections in children and review developments in our understanding of the molecular biology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of these infections. PMID:8242213

  2. Varicella infection modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Katherine A.; Finley, Patrick D.; Moore, Thomas W.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Martin, Nathaniel; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Evans, Leland B.; Berger, Taylor Eugen

    2013-09-01

    Infectious diseases can spread rapidly through healthcare facilities, resulting in widespread illness among vulnerable patients. Computational models of disease spread are useful for evaluating mitigation strategies under different scenarios. This report describes two infectious disease models built for the US Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) motivated by a Varicella outbreak in a VA facility. The first model simulates disease spread within a notional contact network representing staff and patients. Several interventions, along with initial infection counts and intervention delay, were evaluated for effectiveness at preventing disease spread. The second model adds staff categories, location, scheduling, and variable contact rates to improve resolution. This model achieved more accurate infection counts and enabled a more rigorous evaluation of comparative effectiveness of interventions.

  3. Preventing HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  4. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Malavige, G; Fernando, S; Fernando, D; Seneviratne, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne diseases in the world. They may be asymptomatic or may give rise to undifferentiated fever, dengue fever, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), or dengue shock syndrome. Annually, 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of DHF occur worldwide. Ninety percent of DHF subjects are children less than 15 years of age. At present, dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. No vaccine is available for preventing...

  5. Infection Prophylaxis Update

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Patrick; Bullocks, Jamal; Matthews, Martha

    2006-01-01

    The use of prophylactic antibiotics in surgery has been debated for numerous years. Although their indications have been elucidated in the general surgery literature, their role in plastic surgery has yet to be clearly defined. Although the incidence of surgical site infections in clean, elective plastic surgery procedures has been reported to be as low as 1.1%, the use of antibiotics has surged over the past 20 years. Much of the increased use has been attributed to common surgical practice ...

  6. Herpes zoster infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mohit Bansal; Sunint Singh; Saryu Arora; Sanjeev Laller; Manpeet Walia

    2012-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) or ′shingles′ results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Developmental anomalies, osteonecrosis of jaw bones, and facial scarring are the other complications associated with it. Primary VZV infections in sero-negative individuals are known as varicella or chicken pox. Secondary or reactivated disease is known as shingles or herpes zoster. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment of the disease in the prodromal phase by the use of antiviral agents should be t...

  7. Nosocomial Pneumocystis jirovecii infections

    OpenAIRE

    Nevez G.; Chabé M.; Rabodonirina M.; Virmaux M.; Dei-Cas E.; Hauser P.M.; Totet A.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne transmission of Pneumocystis sp. from host to host has been demonstrated in rodent models and several observations suggest that interindividual transmission occurs in humans. Moreover, it is accepted that the Pneumocystis organisms infecting each mammalian species are host specific and that the hypothesis of an animal reservoir for Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii), the human-specific Pneumocystis species, can be excluded. An exosaprophytic form of the fungus cannot be strictly r...

  8. Stop C. difficile Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-06

    This podcast is based on the March 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. C. difficile is a germ that causes diarrhea linked to 14,000 deaths in the US each year. This podcast helps health care professionals learn how to prevent C. difficile infections.  Created: 3/6/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/6/2012.

  9. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-24

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  10. Infection and Pulp Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahng G. Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The regeneration of the pulp-dentin complex has been a great challenge to both scientists and clinicians. Previous work has shown that the presence of prior infection may influence the characteristics of tissues formed in the root canal space after regenerative endodontic treatment. The formation of ectopic tissues such as periodontal ligament, bone, and cementum has been observed in the root canal space of immature necrotic teeth with apical periodontitis, while the regeneration of dentin and pulp has been identified in previously non-infected teeth. The current regenerative endodontic therapy utilizes disinfection protocols, which heavily rely on chemical irrigation using conventional disinfectants. From a microbiological point of view, the current protocols may not allow a sufficiently clean root canal microenvironment, which is critical for dentin and pulp regeneration. In this article, the significance of root canal disinfection in regenerating the pulp-dentin complex, the limitations of the current regenerative endodontic disinfection protocols, and advanced disinfection techniques designed to reduce the microorganisms and biofilms in chronic infection are discussed.

  11. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection. PMID:27096872

  12. Hyperbilirubinemia and Neonatal Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholmali Maamouri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperbilirubinemia is a relatively common disorder among infants in Iran. Bacterial infection and jaundice may be associated with higher morbidity. Previous studies have reported that jaundice may be one of the signs of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate, presentation time, severity of jaundice, signs and complications of infection within neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.   Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted between 2003 and 2011, at Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad- Iran. We prospectively evaluated 1763 jaundiced newborns. We Finally found 434 neonates who were categorized into two groups.131 neonates as case group (Blood or/and Urine culture positive or sign of pneumonia and 303 neonates with idiopathic jaundice as control group. Demographic data including prenatal, intrapartum, postnatal events and risk factors were collected by questionnaire. Biochemical markers including bilirubin level, urine and blood cultures were determined at the request of the clinicians.   Results: Jaundice presentation time, age on admission, serum bilirubin value and hospitalization period were reported significantly higher among case group in comparison with control group (p

  13. Achromobacter respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Colin E; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2015-02-01

    Achromobacteria are ubiquitous environmental organisms that may also become opportunistic pathogens in certain conditions, such as cystic fibrosis, hematologic and solid organ malignancies, renal failure, and certain immune deficiencies. Some members of this genus, such as xylosoxidans, cause primarily nosocomially acquired infections affecting multiple organ systems, including the respiratory tract, urinary tract, and, less commonly, the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Despite an increasing number of published case reports and literature reviews suggesting a global increase in achromobacterial disease, most clinicians remain uncertain of the organism's significance when clinically isolated. Moreover, effective treatment can be challenging due to the organism's inherent and acquired multidrug resistance patterns. We reviewed all published cases to date of non-cystic fibrosis achromobacterial lung infections to better understand the organism's pathogenic potential and drug susceptibilities. We found that the majority of these cases were community acquired, typically presenting as pneumonias (88%), and were most frequent in individuals with hematologic and solid organ malignancies. Our findings also suggest that achromobacterial lung infections are difficult to treat, but respond well to extended-spectrum penicillins and cephalosporins, such as ticarcillin, piperacillin, and cefoperazone. PMID:25706494

  14. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim N. Mak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate filaments (IFs. IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria-vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial virulence factors that target vimentin to subvert its function in order to change the host cell fate in the course of a bacterial infection.

  15. Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Organ Transplant Patients and Fungal Infections Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As an ... fungal infections. What you need to know about fungal infections Fungal infections can range from mild to life- ...

  16. Pyogenic infection and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, I. F.; Deans, A. C.; Keat, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Ten episodes of severe pyogenic infection occurring in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. There was a wide range of presenting features including pyoarthrosis in 7 episodes. Three cases presented with meningitis, bacterial endocarditis and probable multiple abscesses respectively. Infection was caused by Staphylococcus aureus in 7 episodes and by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in each of one episode. Three infective episodes were fatal. Pyogenic, especially staphylococcal, infection should be considered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis with unexplained illness with or without sudden deterioration in joint symptoms. It is important to recognize and treat infection rapidly. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3671222

  17. Interaction of obesity and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhurandhar, N V; Bailey, D; Thomas, D

    2015-12-01

    There is evidence that certain infections may induce obesity. Obese persons may also have more severe infections and have compromised response to therapies. The objective of this study is to review the available literature identifying infections that potentially contribute to greater body mass index (BMI) and differential responses of overweight and obese persons to infections. A systematic literature review of human studies examining associations between infections and weight gain, differential susceptibility, severity, and response to prevention and treatment of infection according to BMI status (January 1980-July 2014) was conducted. Three hundred and forty-three studies were eligible for inclusion. Evidence indicated that viral infection by human adenovirus Ad36 and antibiotic eradication of Helicobacter pylori were followed by weight gain. People who were overweight or obese had higher susceptibility to developing post-surgical infections, H1N1 influenza and periodontal disease. More severe infections tended to be present in people with a larger BMI. People with a higher BMI had a reduced response to vaccinations and antimicrobial drugs. Higher doses of antibiotics were more effective in obese patients. Infections may influence BMI, and BMI status may influence response to certain infections, as well as to preventive and treatment measures. These observations have potential clinical implications. PMID:26354800

  18. [Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Masumi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 or 3 years and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. In developing countries, acquisition age of the infection is probably lower than in developed countries. In Japan, main transmission route is intrafamilial and mother to children infection is most important. But in developing countries, some reports suggest that extrafamilial infection is more important. The famous paper revealed that H. pylori can be cultivated from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of H. pylori infection. Bed sharing, large number of family members, delayed weaning from a feeding bottle, regurgitated gastric juice in the mother's mouth are reported as risk factors of the infection. PMID:19999106

  19. EBV CHRONIC INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Racciatti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The infection from Epstein-Barr virus (EBV or virus of infectious mononucleosis, together with other herpesviruses’ infections, represents a prototype of persistent viral infections characterized by the property of the latency. Although the reactivations of the latent infection are associated with the resumption of the viral replication and eventually with the “shedding”, it is still not clear if this virus can determine chronic infectious diseases, more or less evolutive. These diseases could include some pathological conditions actually defined as “idiopathic”and characterized by the “viral persistence” as the more credible pathogenetic factor. Among the so-called idiopathic syndromes, the “chronic fatigue syndrome” (CFS aroused a great interest around the eighties of the last century when, just for its relationship with EBV, it was called “chronic mononucleosis” or “chronic EBV infection”.

    Today CFS, as defined in 1994 by the CDC of Atlanta (USA, really represents a multifactorial syndrome characterized by a chronic course, where reactivation and remission phases alternate, and by a good prognosis

  20. SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN: NOSOCOMIAL VERSUS COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Bayram

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a causative agent of infection in immunocompromised patients, and healthcare-associated infections. Although the infections associated with S.paucimobilis occurs rarely, it has been encountered with increasing frequency in clinical settings. In the current study we noted the risk factors and clinical features of the children with S.paucimobilis infections, and the antimicrobial susceptibilities of the isolated strains among the patients. This study was conducted in Dr. Behçet Uz Children’s Hospital, Turkey, during the period of January 2005 and December 2012. The medical records of pediatric patients with positive cultures for S.paucimobilis were reviewed. Sphingomonas paucimobilis isolates were recovered from 24 pediatric patients. The median age was 4 years (ranging from 3 days infant to 15 years and 58,3% were male. Eight (33,3% of the patients were under 1 months of age. Among the patients; 13 (54,2% infections were community related however 11(45.8% infections were nosocomial infection. The median duration of hospital stay was 7 days (ranging from 4 to 22 days. The most effective antibiotics were fluoroquinolones, carbapenems, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. This is the first largest study in children to evaluate the clinical features of S. paucimobilis infections. Sphingomonas paucimobilis may cause infections in both previously healthy and immunocompromised children. Although variable antimicrobial regimens were achieved to the patients, there was no attributable fatality due to S.paucimobilis infections due to the low virulence of the bacteria.

  1. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  2. Haemolymph Components of Infected & None Infected Lymnaea Snails with Xiphidiocercariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Saboor Yaraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study the haemolymph components of infected and none infected Lymnaea gedrosiana with xiphidiocercaria larvae was compared.Methods: Five hundred Fifty Lymnaea snails were collected from Ilam and Mazandaran prov­inces, Iran, during 2008-2009. The snails were transported to the lab at Tehran University of Medi­cal Sciences and their cercarial sheddings were studied. Haemolmyphs of snails were ex­tracted and cells were counted using haemocytometer and cell-surface carbohydrate were recog­nized by conjugated lectin (Lentil. Haemolymph protein concentrations were measured by Brad­ford protein assay method and soluble protein compositions were determined on sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE.Result: From the 550 examined Lymnaea snails for cercariae, 27 snails were infected with xiphidiocer­cariae. Mean of haemolymph cells (haemocyte number were obtained 93480±2.43 (cells/ml for none infected snails (25 snail and 124560±2800 (cells/ml for infected snails (25 snail. Mannose carbohydrate was recognized on haemocyte of none infected and infected snails. Mean of protein concentration of haemolymph plasma was obtained as 1354 ± 160 μg/ml (1.4 mg/ml for none infected snails (25 snails and 1802±138 μg/ml (1.8 mg/ml for infected snail (25 snails. Comparing to none infected snails, the SDS-PAGE results of haemolymph plasma of infected snails, showed an extra protein band (70 kDa. The results showed a significant differ­ence between the amounts and the kinds of proteins in haemolymph of infected and none infected snails.Conclusion: This information might be useful to understand of parasite detection, adhesion, engulf­ment and antigen agglutination by snail.

  3. Spargana infection of frogs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastura, A B; Ambu, S; Hasnah, O; Rosli, R

    1996-03-01

    Frogs caught from two States (Selangor and Langkawi) in Malaysia were examined for spargana of Spirometra sp. Infected frogs usually show no marks of infection but some had swelling and bleeding at the infection site. The size and weight of the infected frogs did not correlate with the infection status. The infection status in relation to human health is discussed. PMID:9031400

  4. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  5. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  6. Congenital and perinatal cytomegalovirus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Soo Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus (CMV is currently the most common agent of congenital infection and the leading infectious cause of brain damage and hearing loss in children. Symptomatic congenital CMV infections usually result from maternal primary infection during early pregnancy. One half of symptomatic infants have cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID, which is characterized by involvement of multiple organs, in particular, the reticuloendothelial and central nervous system (CNS. Moreover, such involvement may or may not include ocular and auditory damage. Approximately 90% of infants with congenital infection are asymptomatic at birth. Preterm infants with perinatal CMV infection can have symptomatic diseases such as pneumonia, hepatitis, and thrombocytopenia. Microcephaly and abnormal neuroradiologic imaging are associated with a poor prognosis. Hearing loss may occur in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infants with congenital infection and may progress through childhood. Congenital infection is defined by the isolation of CMV from infants within the first 3 weeks of life. Ganciclovir therapy can be considered for infants with symptomatic congenital CMV infection involving the CNS. Pregnant women of seronegative state should be counseled on the importance of good hand washing and other control measures to prevent CMV infection. Heat treatment of infected breast milk at 72?#608;for 5 seconds can eliminate CMV completely.

  7. Dengue viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Gurugama Padmalal; Garg Pankaj; Perera Jennifer; Wijewickrama Ananda; Seneviratne Suranjith

    2010-01-01

    Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host...

  8. Paediatric respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Everard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections remain a major cause of infant and child mortality worldwide and are responsible for a substantial burden of morbidity. During the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, some of the main findings from peer-reviewed articles addressing this topic that were published in the preceding 12 months were reviewed in a Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session. The following article highlights some of the insights provided by these articles into the complex interactions of the human host with the extensive and dynamic populations of microorganisms that call an individual “home”.

  9. Circoviral infections in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Circoviral infections in swine have appeared only recently and they today attract the attention of large numbers of researchers all over the world. They represent a great mystery, an unknown in veterinary medicine, both in our country and in the world. The causes of these infections are circoviruses, called after the DNA which is shaped like a circle. A large number of authors today believe the PCV-2 causes two pathological entities in weaned piglets which are known as porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS and porcine dermatitis nephropathy syndrome (PDNS. Current investigations indicate that there is a causal connection between these two syndromes. These two new diseases, which have recently spread all over the world, cause serious losses, great concern and confusion, especially when they occur simultaneously or in a sequence in the same herd, or in parallel with other pathogenes, primarily with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and the porcine parvovirus (PPV. PMWS was first described in Canada in 1991. It most often affect pigs aged 5-12 weeks. The main clinical expression, depending on the stage of progression is diarrhea, delayed development or depressed growth, stuntedness, dyspnea ictherus, eyelid swelling, and lymphadenopathy. More rarely, there are neurological symptoms. Prominent suppression of the immune system is the main characteristic of PMWS, and a wave of secondary bacterial infection is also observed. PDNS is a new disease of economic importance, which mostly affects older swine, from 5 weeks to 5 months of age. The most prominent clinical symptoms in seriously ill piglets is extensive dermatitis, mostly on the chest, abdomen, haunches and forelegs, with the appearance of purple-red swellings of different shape and size. The swine are depressive febrile, anorectic, all of which leads to stunted growth. They are inactive. Mortality is often about 15%. PDNS is a differentially diagnostically

  10. Tropheryma whipplei infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2009-01-01

    Whipple's disease was initially described in 1907. Over the next century, the clinical and pathological features of this disorder have been better appreciated. Most often, weight loss, diarrhea, abdominal and joint pain occur. Occasionally, other sites of involvement have been documented, including isolated neurological disease, changes in the eyes and culture-negative endocarditis. In the past decade, the responsible organism Tropheryma whipplei has been cultivated, its genome sequenced and its antibiotic susceptibility defined. Although rare, it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders and may have a fatal outcome. If recognized, prolonged antibiotic therapy may be a very successful form of treatment.

  11. Opportunistic Infections in Patients with HTLV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Tanaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As an acquired immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is primarily responsible for opportunistic infections in infected patients. However, opportunistic infections also occur in individuals with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection. Here, we report opportunistic infections in two Japanese HTLV-1-seropositive patients. The first patient was a 67-year-old male, who had cytomegalovirus infection associated with esophagogastritis and terminal ileitis. The patient was HTLV-1-positive and was diagnosed with smoldering adult T cell leukemia (ATL. High levels of serum soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R; 4,304 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (75.5% in peripheral blood were also detected. The second patient was a 78-year-old female, a known asymptomatic HTLV-1 carrier, who presented with persistent herpes zoster, followed by Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Disease progression of smoldering ATL along opportunistic infections was observed with very high levels of serum sIL-2R (14,058 U/mL and an increased percentage of CD4+CD25+ T cells (87.2% in peripheral blood. In patients with suspected opportunistic infections, both HTLV-1 and HIV should be considered. In HTLV-1-positive patients, an increase in the CD4+CD25+ T cell subset may have its value as a prognostic marker.

  12. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms). PMID:12861708

  13. "RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF PARAINFLUENZA INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Rahbarimanesh

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available According to statistical data from WHO, respiratory tract infections are among the most important health problems all over the world. Differentiating viral from other causes of respiratory infections is difficult, but a good knowledge of viral etiologic factors can guide the physicians in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We carried out this descriptive, case-series study to evaluate the relative frequency of parainfluenza virus (PIV infections in upper and lower respiratory tract infections. A total of 263 three children with respiratory infection were studied from autumn 1998 to autumn 2000. We prepared samples from their nasopharynx with sterile swabs for viral culture and study of cytopathic effects of PIV. Thirty six cases had positive culture for PIV (14%. There was a significant statistical correlation between the prevalence of PIV infection and age of patients. The highest prevalence was in the of 1-5 years old age group. There was also a correlation with season, and majority of cases were seen in autumn and spring (P< 0.0001. There was no significant correlation between PIV infection and sex. PIV infection had significant correlation with croup and bronchiolitis (P<0.0001. PIV plays an important role in causing lower respiratory tract infections.

  14. Cross-species infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, R A

    2003-01-01

    Animals have always been a major source of human infectious disease. Some infections like rabies are recognized as primary zoonoses caused in each case by direct animal-to-human transmission, whereas others like measles become independently sustained within the human population so that the causative virus has diverged from its morbillivirus progenitor in ruminants. Recent examples of direct zoonoses are variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease arising from bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and the H5N1 avian influenza outbreak in Hong Kong. Recent epidemic diseases of animal origin are the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic, and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic caused by human immunodeficiency virus. Some retroviruses move into and out of the chromosomal DNA of the host germline, so that they may oscillate between being an avirulent inherited Mendelian trait in one species and an infectious pathogen in another. Cross-species viral and other infections are reviewed historically with respect to the evolution of virulence and the concern about iatrogenic enhancement of cross-species transfer by medical procedures akin to xenotransplantation. PMID:12934941

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarguna P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS shunt infection is a cause of significant morbidity, causing shunt malfunction and chronic ill health. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate associated with CNS shunts, assess the frequency of the pathogens as well as their antibiotic sensitivity pattern aiming at suitable prophylaxis. A retrospective analysis of 226 CSF cerebrospinal fluid (CSF shunt procedures sent for bacteriological work up over a period of one year and six months was undertaken. Laboratory diagnosis was established by subjecting the CSF to cell count, biochemical tests, bacteriological culture and antibiotic susceptibility test. Nine out of 226(3.98% of the CSF samples were culture positive. Coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the most common isolate accounting for 36.36%. Majority of the isolates were sensitive to the thirdgeneration cephalosporins and quinolones. The antibiotic sensitivity pattern suggests cephalosporins and quinolones to be a better choice of antibiotics either prophylactically or therapeutically, which may result in effective and rapid sterilisation of the CSF.

  16. Enterovirus D68 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Esposito

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available First described in 1962 in children hospitalized for pneumonia and bronchiolitis, the Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 is an emergent viral pathogen. Since its discovery, during the long period of surveillance up to 2005, EV-D68 was reported only as a cause of sporadic outbreaks. In recent years, many reports from different countries have described an increasing number of patients with respiratory diseases due to EV-D68 associated with relevant clinical severity. In particular, an unexpectedly high number of children have been hospitalized for severe respiratory disease due to EV-D68, requiring intensive care such as intubation and mechanical ventilation. Moreover, EV-D68 has been associated with acute flaccid paralysis and cranial nerve dysfunction in children, which has caused concerns in the community. As no specific antiviral therapy is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Moreover, because no vaccines are available, conventional infection control measures (i.e., standard, for contacts and droplets in both community and healthcare settings are recommended. However, further studies are required to fully understand the real importance of this virus. Prompt diagnosis and continued surveillance of EV-D68 infections are essential to managing and preventing new outbreaks. Moreover, if the association between EV-D68 and severe diseases will be confirmed, the development of adequate preventive and therapeutic approaches are a priority.

  17. Prevention of Chlamydia trachomatis infections

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydia infection, caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection in Sweden. In 2008 it was estimated by WHO that there were 105.7 million new cases of CT worldwide, an increase by 4.2 million cases (4.1%) compared to 2005. If untreated, CT infections can progress to serious reproductive health problems, especially in women. These complications include subfertility/infertility, ectopic pregnancy and chronic pain. Th...

  18. CNS infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CNS infections caused by infective agents are rare in immunocompetent hosts, but more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In addition, the spectrum of causative agents is completely different. There are no pathognomonic alterations in radiologic imaging, even in clinically severely ill patients imaging is often non-specific or inconspicious. This article gives a review of the most frequent infective agents and image alterations. Modern radiology is not yet able to replace the gold standard of pathogen detection. (orig.)

  19. Photochemotherapeutic Strategy against Acanthamoeba Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Anwar, Ayaz; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Khoja, Shahrukh; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Acanthamoeba is a protist pathogen that can cause serious human infections, including blinding keratitis and a granulomatous amoebic encephalitis that almost always results in death. The current treatment for these infections includes a mixture of drugs, and even then, a recurrence can occur. Photochemotherapy has shown promise in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections; however, the selective targeting of pathogenic Acanthamoeba has remained a major concern. The mannose-binding protein is a...

  20. Fungal infection of the colon

    OpenAIRE

    Praneenararat S

    2014-01-01

    Surat PraneenararatDivision of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, ThailandAbstract: Fungi are pathogens that commonly infect immunocompromised patients and can affect any organs of the body, including the colon. However, the literature provides limited details on colonic infections caused by fungi. This article is an intensive review of information available on the fungi that can cause colon infections. It uses a comparative style so that its con...

  1. SECONDARY INFECTIONS IN SWINE FLU

    OpenAIRE

    Duthade Mangala; Damle Ajit; Bhakare Jayshree; Bajaj.Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE : Swine influenza is respiratory disease of pigs ca used by type A influenza virus that causes regular outbr eak in pigs. Human to human transmission occurs. Some people develop severe respiratory symptoms and need ventilator. Patients can get secondary bacterial infections in the form of pneumonia if vi ral infections persist. Death of swine flu occurs d ue to secondary bacterial infections leading to bacter ial pneumonia...

  2. Immunological aspects of Giardia infections

    OpenAIRE

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2014-01-01

    Immunodeficiency, particularly antibody deficiency, predisposes to increased intensity and persistence of Giardia infections. Giardia-infected immunocompetent hosts produce serum and intestinal antibodies against Giardia trophozoites. The number of Giardia muris trophozoites, in mice with G. muris infection, is reduced by intra-duodenal administration of anti-G. muris antibody. Giardia intestinalis antigens that are recognised by human anti-trophozoite antibodies include variable (variant-spe...

  3. Pyogenic infection and rheumatoid arthritis.

    OpenAIRE

    Rowe, I F; Deans, A. C.; Keat, A C

    1987-01-01

    Ten episodes of severe pyogenic infection occurring in nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis are reported. There was a wide range of presenting features including pyoarthrosis in 7 episodes. Three cases presented with meningitis, bacterial endocarditis and probable multiple abscesses respectively. Infection was caused by Staphylococcus aureus in 7 episodes and by Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-haemolytic Streptococcus in each of one episode. Three infective ep...

  4. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    OpenAIRE

    Smeekens, S P; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B J; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the...

  5. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  6. Chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L; Kalmar, I D; Boden, J; Vanrompay, D

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence and impact of chlamydial infections in Western livestock is well documented in the international literature, but less is known aboutthese infections in livestock in the People's Republic of China. China's livestock production and its share in the global market have increased significantly in recent decades. In this review, the relevant English and Chinese literature on the epidemiology of chlamydial infections in Chinese livestock is considered, and biosecurity measures, prophylaxis and treatment of these infections in China's livestock are compared with Western practices. Chlamydial infections are highly prevalent in Chinese livestock and cause important economic losses, as they do in the rest of the world. Surveillance data and diagnostic results of abortion outbreaks in cattle, sheep and goats highlight the importance of virulent chlamydial infections in China's major ruminant species in many of China's provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Data from many of China's provincial divisions also indicate the widespread presence of chlamydial infections in industrially reared swine across the country. Less is known about chlamydial infections in yak, buffalo and horses, but available reports indicate a high prevalence in China's populations. In these reports, chlamydiosis was related to abortions in yak and pneumonia in horses. In Western countries, chlamydial infections are principally treated with antibiotics. In China, however, traditional medicine is often used in conjunction with antibiotics or used as an alternative treatment. PMID:24761733

  7. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  8. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. PMID:27079865

  9. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzeer Abdulaziz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

  10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Ruiz Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The main infection routes are ingestion of cysts from raw or badly-cooked meat, ingestion of oocysts from substrates contaminated with the feces of infected felines and congenital transmission by tachyzoites. The congenital form results in a severe systemic disease, because if the mother is infected for the first time during gestation, she can present a temporary parasitemia that will infect the fetus. Many of the clinical symptoms are seen in congenitally-infected children, from a mild disease to serious signs, such as mental retardation. Early diagnosis during the pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection, through treatment of pregnant women, reducing the probability of fetal infection and consequent substantial damage to the fetus. Conventional tests for establishment of a fetal diagnosis of toxoplasmosis include options from serology to PCR. Prevention of human toxoplasmosis is based on care to avoid infection, understanding the disease and serological exams during gestation. Pregnant women should be tested serologically from three months gestation, until one month after childbirth. Inclusion of serology for congenital toxoplasmosis along with the basic Guthrie test for PKU is of fundamental importance for early diagnosis of infection and so that treatment is initiated, in order to avoid possible sequels in the infant.

  11. Rhinovirus Infection Induces Degradation of Antimicrobial Peptides and Secondary Bacterial Infection in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Mallia; Joseph Footitt; Rosa Sotero; Annette Jepson; Marco Contoli; Maria-Belen Trujillo-Torralbo; Tatiana Kebadze; Julia Aniscenko; Gregory Oleszkiewicz; Katrina Gray; Message, Simon D.; Kazuhiro Ito; Barnes, Peter J; Adcock, Ian M.; Alberto Papi

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations are associated with virus (mostly rhinovirus) and bacterial infections, but it is not known whether rhinovirus infections precipitate secondary bacterial infections.

  12. Infection control in burn patients: are fungal infections underestimated?

    OpenAIRE

    Struck Manuel F

    2009-01-01

    Abstract With great interest, I read the paper of David J. Dries about recent developments, infection control and outcomes research in the management of burn injuries 1. I have some comments about an important, however missing, topic in the paragraphs concerning infection control.

  13. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    -vimentin interactions are presented in this review: the role of vimentin in pathogen-binding on the cell surface and subsequent bacterial invasion and the interaction of cytosolic vimentin and intracellular pathogens with regards to innate immune signaling. Mechanistic insight is presented involving distinct bacterial......Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...

  14. Morbillivirus Infections: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D. de Vries

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on morbillivirus infections has led to exciting developments in recent years. Global measles vaccination coverage has increased, resulting in a significant reduction in measles mortality. In 2011 rinderpest virus was declared globally eradicated – only the second virus to be eradicated by targeted vaccination. Identification of new cellular receptors and implementation of recombinant viruses expressing fluorescent proteins in a range of model systems have provided fundamental new insights into the pathogenesis of morbilliviruses, and their interactions with the host immune system. Nevertheless, both new and well-studied morbilliviruses are associated with significant disease in wildlife and domestic animals. This illustrates the need for robust surveillance and a strategic focus on barriers that restrict cross-species transmission. Recent and ongoing measles outbreaks also demonstrate that maintenance of high vaccination coverage for these highly infectious agents is critical. This introduction briefly summarizes the most important current research topics in this field.

  15. The Eosinophil in Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravin, Karen A; Loy, Michael

    2016-04-01

    First described by Paul Ehrlich in 1879, who noted its characteristic staining by acidophilic dyes, for many years, the eosinophil was considered to be an end-effector cell associated with helminth infections and a cause of tissue damage. Over the past 30 years, research has helped to elucidate the complexity of the eosinophil's function and establish its role in host defense and immunity. Eosinophils express an array of ligand receptors which play a role in cell growth, adhesion, chemotaxis, degranulation, and cell-to-cell interactions. They play a role in activation of complement via both classical and alternative pathways. Eosinophils synthesize, store and secrete cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. They can process antigen, stimulate T cells, and promote humoral responses by interacting with B cells. Eosinophils can function as antigen presenting cells and can regulate processes associated with both T1 and T2 immunity. Although long known to play a role in defense against helminth organisms, the interactions of eosinophils with these parasites are now recognized to be much more complex. In addition, their interaction with other pathogens continues to be investigated. In this paper, we review the eosinophil's unique biology and structure, including its characteristic granules and the effects of its proteins, our developing understanding of its role in innate and adaptive immunity and importance in immunomodulation, and the part it plays in defense against parasitic, viral, fungal and bacterial infections. Rather than our worst enemy, the eosinophil may, in fact, be one of the most essential components in host defense and immunity. PMID:26690368

  16. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  17. Urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    970374 The relationship between chronic pyelitis andcytomegalovirus infection: a primary study. LI Na(李娜), et al. 81021st Milit Hosp, Changchun,130021. Chin J Med Lab Sci 1997; 20(1): 26-27. Objective: To research the relationship betweenchronic pyelitis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection.

  18. Ear Infections and Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    Ear infections in infants and preschoolers can cause mild or moderate temporary hearing loss, which may in turn affect a child's ability to understand and learn language. Noting that providing children with proper medical treatment for ear infections or middle ear fluid is important in preventing possible problems with language development, this…

  19. Imaging fungal infections in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ankrah, Alfred O.; Sathekge, Mike M; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections in children rarely occur, but continue to have a high morbidity and mortality despite the development of newer antifungal agents. It is essential for these infections to be diagnosed at the earliest possible stage so appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly. The addition of

  20. SIV Infection of Lung Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    Full Text Available HIV-1 depletes CD4+ T cells in the blood, lymphatic tissues, gut and lungs. Here we investigated the relationship between depletion and infection of CD4+ T cells in the lung parenchyma. The lungs of 38 Indian rhesus macaques in early to later stages of SIVmac251 infection were examined, and the numbers of CD4+ T cells and macrophages plus the frequency of SIV RNA+ cells were quantified. We showed that SIV infected macrophages in the lung parenchyma, but only in small numbers except in the setting of interstitial inflammation where large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages were detected. However, even in this setting, the number of macrophages was not decreased. By contrast, there were few infected CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma, but CD4+ T cells were nonetheless depleted by unknown mechanisms. The CD4+ T cells in lung parenchyma were depleted even though they were not productively infected, whereas SIV can infect large numbers of macrophages in the setting of interstitial inflammation without depleting them. These observations point to the need for future investigations into mechanisms of CD4+ T cell depletion at this mucosal site, and into mechanisms by which macrophage populations are maintained despite high levels of infection. The large numbers of SIV RNA+ macrophages in lungs in the setting of interstitial inflammation indicates that lung macrophages can be an important source for SIV persistent infection.

  1. Trichinella infection and clinical disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, M R; Meyer, C N; Krantz, T;

    1996-01-01

    Trichinellosis is caused by ingestion of insufficiently cooked meat contaminated with infective larvae of Trichinella species. The clinical course is highly variable, ranging from no apparent infection to severe and even fatal disease. We report two illustrative cases of trichinellosis. Returning...

  2. Serious complications after infective endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes.......The objective of the present study was to review all cases of infective endocarditis at our hospital between 2002 and 2006 concerning the bacteriological aetiology and outcomes....

  3. Infections associated with body modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson Sai-Yin; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-12-01

    Although exact statistics are lacking, body modifications for cosmetic purposes are performed in many countries. The commonest forms include tattooing, body piercing, and breast and facial augmentation using implants or injectable fillers. Liposuction and, to a lesser extent, mesotherapy are also practiced in many countries. Infective complications of these procedures include local infections, transmission of bloodborne pathogens (viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus), and distant infections such as infective endocarditis. Presence of foreign bodies, long healing time of piercing wounds, and poor compliance with infection control practices of some practitioners all predispose the recipients to infections. Apart from the endogenous microbial flora of the skin and mucosae, atypical mycobacteria, especially the rapid growers, have emerged as some of the most important pathogens in such settings. Outbreaks of infection are commonly reported. We hereby review the current knowledge of the topic with specific focus on infections associated with tattooing, body piercing, breast augmentation, mesotherapy, liposuction, and tissue filler injections. Greater awareness among consumers and health-care professionals, as well as more stringent regulations by the health authorities, is essential to minimize the health risks arising from these procedures. PMID:23265745

  4. Raccoon Roundworm Infection PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-08-27

    This 60 second PSA describes the signs and symptoms of and ways to prevent Baylisascaris infection, a parasitic roundworm infection that is spread through raccoon feces.  Created: 8/27/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/28/2012.

  5. Petriellidium boydii infection of knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of Petriellidium boydii (synonym: Allescheria boydii) infection of the knee joint is described. It followed a penetrating soft tissue injury with a pitchfork. Such infections are rare in this country and bone involvement has not been recorded previously except in maduramycosis contracted in tropical areas. (orig.)

  6. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.P.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility

  7. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy. PMID:27004142

  8. Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Top of page What is a urinary tract infection? A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that involves ... page What is a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI)? A catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) occurs when germs (usually bacteria) ...

  9. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common infection experienced by humans after respiratory and gastro-intestinal infections, and also the most common cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial infections for patients admitted to hospitals. For better management and prognosis, it is mandatory to know the possible site of infection, whether the infection is uncomplicated or complicated, re-infection or relapse, or treatment failure and its pathogenesis and risk factors. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in certain age groups and has different connotations. It needs to be treated and completely cured in pregnant women and preschool children. Reflux nephropathy in children could result in chronic kidney disease; otherwise, urinary tract infections do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of end-stage renal disease. Symptomatic urinary tract infections occur most commonly in women of child-bearing age. Cystitis predominates, but needs to be distinguished from acute urethral syndrome that affects both sexes and has a different management plan than UTIs. The prostatitis symptoms are much more common than bacterial prostatic infections. The treatment needs to be prolonged in bacterial prostatitis and as cure rates are not very high and relapses are common, the classification of prostatitis needs to be understood. The consensus conference convened by National Institute of Health added two more groups of patients, namely, chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis, in addition to acute and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Although white blood cells in urine signify inflammation, they do not always signify UTI. Quantitative cultures of urine provide definitive evidence of UTI. Imaging studies should be done 3-6 weeks after cure of acute infection to identify abnormalities predisposing to infection or renal damage or which may affect management. Treatment of cystitis in women should be a three-day course and if

  10. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    . Also noninvasive tests have been studied in children, including serology, 13C-urea breath test and stool antigen test, showing good results in the different age groups as compared to the gold standard. However, the infection often remains asymptomatic in children and the role of this bacterium in...... gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take......A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...

  11. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27221831

  12. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-06-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  13. Concurrent infection of Japanese encephalitis and mixed plasmodium infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Chandra Bhatt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Japanese encephalitis (JE and malaria would coexist in the areas where both illnesses are endemic with overlapping clinical pictures, especially in a case of febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. However, there are no published data till date showing concurrent infection of these two agents despite both diseases being coendemic in many areas. We report a case of concurrent infection of JE and mixed plasmodium infection, where the case, initially diagnosed as cerebral malaria did not improve on antimalarials and alternative diagnosis of JEV encephalitis was thought which was confirmed by a serological test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of concurrent Japanese encephalitis with mixed plasmodium infection. We report a case of 3-year-old male child, who presented with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly. Based on a rapid diagnostic test and peripheral smear examination, a diagnosis of mixed P.Vivax and P.falciparum infection was made and the patient was treated with quinine and doxycycline. However, besides giving antimalarials the patient did not improve and an alternative diagnosis of JE was considered as the patient was from the endemic zone of Japanese encephalitis. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of the patient was sent for a virological study which came out to be positive for JE IgM in CSF, which is confirmatory of JE infection. In a patient with febrile encephalopathy with hepatosplenomegaly especially in areas coendemic for JE and malaria, the possibility of mixed infection should be kept in mind.

  14. Dengue Virus Infection Perturbs Lipid Homeostasis in Infected Mosquito Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Rushika M.; Riley, Catherine; Isaac, Georgis; Hopf- Jannasch, Amber; Moore, Ronald J.; Weitz, Karl K.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Metz, Thomas O.; Adamec, Jiri; Kuhn, Richard J.

    2012-03-22

    Dengue virus causes {approx}50-100 million infections per year and thus is considered one of the most aggressive arthropod-borne human pathogen worldwide. During its replication, dengue virus induces dramatic alterations in the intracellular membranes of infected cells. This phenomenon is observed both in human and vector-derived cells. Using high-resolution mass spectrometry of mosquito cells, we show that this membrane remodeling is directly linked to a unique lipid repertoire induced by dengue virus infection. Specifically, 15% of the metabolites detected were significantly different between DENV infected and uninfected cells while 85% of the metabolites detected were significantly different in isolated replication complex membranes. Furthermore, we demonstrate that intracellular lipid redistribution induced by the inhibition of fatty acid synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme in lipid biosynthesis, is sufficient for cell survival but is inhibitory to dengue virus replication. Lipids that have the capacity to destabilize and change the curvature of membranes as well as lipids that change the permeability of membranes are enriched in dengue virus infected cells. Several sphingolipids and other bioactive signaling molecules that are involved in controlling membrane fusion, fission, and trafficking as well as molecules that influence cytoskeletal reorganization are also up regulated during dengue infection. These observations shed light on the emerging role of lipids in shaping the membrane and protein environments during viral infections and suggest membrane-organizing principles that may influence virus-induced intracellular membrane architecture.

  15. Infections and autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Jean-François

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the encephalomyocarditis virus in autoimmune myositis, two models in which viruses are thought to act by increasing immunogenicity of autoantigens secondary to local inflammation. The induction of a Guillain-Barré syndrome in rabbits after immunization with a peptide derived from Campylobacter jejuni is explained by mimicry between C. jejuni antigens and peripheral nerve axonal antigens. Other models involve chemical modification of autoantigens, as in the case of iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis. These mechanisms have so far only limited clinical counterparts (rheumatic fever, Guillain-Barré syndrome and drug-induced lupus or myasthenia gravis) but one may assume that unknown viruses may be at the origin of a number of chronic autoimmune diseases, such as type I diabetes and multiple sclerosis) as illustrated by the convergent data incriminating IFN-alpha in the pathophysiology of type I diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. Perhaps the difficulties met in identifying the etiologic viruses are due to the long lag time between the initial causal infection and onset of clinical disease. More surprisingly, infections may also protect from autoimmune diseases. Western countries are being confronted with a disturbing increase in the incidence of most immune disorders, including autoimmune and allergic diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and some lymphocyte malignancies. Converging epidemiological evidence indicates that this increase is linked to improvement of the socio-economic level of these countries, posing the question of the causal relationship and more precisely the

  16. Sternal wound infection revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternal wound infections (SWIs) can be subdivided into two types, superficial or deep, that require different treatments. The clinical diagnosis of superficial SWI is normally easy to perform, whereas the involvement of deep tissues is frequently difficult to detect. Therefore, there is a need for an imaging study that permits the assessment of SWIs and is able to distinguish between superficial and deep SWI. The present work was a prospective study aiming to evaluate the role of technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) labelled leucocyte scan in SWI management. Twenty-eight patients with suspected SWIs were included in the study. On the basis of clinical examination they were subdivided into three groups: patients with signs of superficial SWI (group 1), patients with signs of superficial SWI and suspected deep infection (group 2) and patients with suspected deep SWI without superficial involvement (group 3). Ten patients previously submitted to median sternotomy, but without suspected SWI, were also included in the study as a control group (group 4). All patients with suspected SWI had bacteriological examinations of wound secretion, if present. In addition 99mTc-HMPAO labelled leucocyte scan was performed in all patients. The patients of groups 1, 2 and 3 were treated on the basis of the clinical signs and microbiological findings, independently of the scintigraphic results. The patients of group 4 did not receive treatment. The final assessment of infection was based on histological and microbiological findings or on long-term clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive and negative predictive values for scintigraphic and non-scintigraphic results were calculated. In the diagnosis of superficial and deep SWI, clinical and microbiological examination (combined) yielded, respectively, a sensitivity of 68.7% and 100%, a specificity of 77.3% and 80.8%, an accuracy of 73.7% and 86.8%, a positive predictive value of 68

  17. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  18. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  19. Group B Strep Infection in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Bacteremia and sepsis (blood infections) symptoms include: Fever Chills Low alertness Pneumonia (lung infection) symptoms include: Fever ... in the infected area and might also include: Fever Chills Swilling Stiffness or inability to use affected limb ...

  20. Candida Infection of the Bloodstream - Candidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candida Infection of the Bloodstream– Candidemia Fungal Disease Series #4 Candida is the single most important cause of ... Where in my body can I get a Candida infection? Candida infection can happen in almost any part ...

  1. Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print Share Streptococcal Infections: Not A or B Page Content Article Body While many streptococcal infections can be categorized as Group A or B, other streptococcal infections do not fall into either ...

  2. Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Issues Listen Text Size Email Print Share Rare Infections: Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis Page Content ... infected animal, drinking contaminated well water, or on rare occasions, from contaminated transfusions. The infections are increasing ...

  3. Middle ear infection (otitis media) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an inflammation and/or infection of the middle ear. Acute otitis media (acute ear infection) occurs ... or viral infection of the fluid of the middle ear, which causes production of fluid or pus. ...

  4. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  5. Pulmonary fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeannina A; Kauffman, Carol A

    2012-08-01

    This review details some of the advances that have been made in the recent decade in the diagnosis, treatment and epidemiology of pulmonary fungal infections. These advances have occurred because of increasing knowledge regarding the fungal genome, better understanding of the structures of the fungal cell wall and cell membrane and the use of molecular epidemiological techniques. The clinical implications of these advances are more rapid diagnosis and more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. For example, the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, as well as histoplasmosis and blastomycosis, has improved with the use of easily performed antigen detection systems in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment of angioinvasive moulds has improved with the introduction of the new azoles, voriconazole and posaconazole that have broad antifungal activity. Amphotericin B is less frequently used, and when used is often given as lipid formulation to decrease toxicity. The newest agents, the echinocandins, are especially safe as they interfere with the metabolism of the fungal cell wall, a structure not shared with humans cells. Epidemiological advances include the description of the emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in North America and the increase in pulmonary mucormycosis and pneumonia due to Fusarium and Scedosporium species in transplant recipients and patients with haematological malignancies. The emergence of azole resistance among Aspergillus species is especially worrisome and is likely related to increased azole use for treatment of patients, but also to agricultural use of azoles as fungicides in certain countries. PMID:22335254

  6. Pediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute urinary tract infection (UTI) is an important cause of morbidity in children and may be complicated by congenital urinary tract abnormalities of a functional or anatomic nature which, predispose to recurrent UTI's that in turn may lead to renal failure and hypertension. Early radiologic and ultrasonographic investigations may reveal these anatomic anomalies in particular because the urinary tract, specifically in children, is not readily accessible to adequate clinical examinations Excretory urography (EU) has been considered as the 'gold standard' of upper urinary tract visualization, while the voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was thought to be the preferential method of imaging of the lower urinary tract. Recently, major technical advances have altered this commonly accepted diagnostic workup. Although ultrasonography, radio-nuclide scanning and urodynamics have become important contributors to the understanding of pathophysiology of UTI's their value and place in assessment of the sequence of imaging has not been comprehensively studied. This thesis deals about the optimization of the choice and the order of the different imaging techniques used in the evaluation of children, younger than six year with UTI. (author). 243 refs.; 23 figs.; 8 tabs

  7. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

  8. Autophagy in infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deretic, Vojo

    2010-04-01

    Autophagy is a ubiquitous eukaryotic cytoplasmic quality and quantity control pathway. The role of autophagy in cytoplasmic homeostasis seamlessly extends to cell-autonomous defense against intracellular microbes. Recent studies also point to fully integrated, multitiered regulatory and effector connections between autophagy and nearly all facets of innate and adaptive immunity. Autophagy in the immune system as a whole confers measured immune responses; on the flip side, suppression of autophagy can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, as evidenced by Crohn's disease predisposition polymorphisms in autophagy basal apparatus (Atg16L) and regulatory (IRGM) genes. Polymorphisms in the IRGM gene in human populations have also been linked to predisposition to tuberculosis. There are several areas of most recent growth: first, links between autophagy regulators and infectious disease predisposition in human populations; second, demonstration of a role for autophagy in infection control in vivo in animal models; third, the definition of specific antiautophagic defenses in highly evolved pathogens; and fourth, recognition of connections between the ubiquitin system and autophagy of bacteria (and interestingly mitochondria, which are incidentally organelles of bacterial evolutionary origin) via a growing list of modifier and adapter proteins including p62/SQSTM1, NDP52, Atg32, Parkin, and Nix/BNIP3L. PMID:20116986

  9. An Outbreak of Bartonella bacilliformis in an Endemic Andean Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Solorzano, Nelson; Maguiña, Ciro; Moore, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited. Methods Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003). Results The majority of cases (65%) were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control. PMID:26991495

  10. Imaging of diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Robert; Bar-David, Tzvi; Kamen, Stewart; Staron, Ronald B; Leung, David K; Rasiej, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Complications from diabetic foot infections are a leading cause of nontraumatic lower-extremity amputations. Nearly 85% of these amputations result from an infected foot ulcer. Osteomyelitis is present in approximately 20% of diabetic foot infections. It is imperative that clinicians make quick and successful diagnoses of diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) because a delay in treatment may lead to worsening outcomes. Imaging studies, such as plain films, bone scans, musculoskeletal ultrasound, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography scans, aid in the diagnosis. However, there are several mimickers of DFO, which present problems to making a correct diagnosis. PMID:24296017

  11. Hepatitis B Infection and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güçlü E et al.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%, intermediate (2-7% to low (<2% prevalence. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults and using shared needles amongst injection drug users are the predominant route. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization.

  12. Pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The lung is one of the most commonly affected organs in immunocompromised patients. Primary complication is pulmonary infection which is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although radiography and CT, as main diagnostic tools are reliable and credible methods, often there is difficulty with the correct diagnose. The reasons for this are that immunocompromised patients are potentially susceptible to infection by various microorganisms and that the radiographic findings are rarely specific for detecting a particular pathogen. What you will learn : Our objective is to present general nosological classification of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients, and to evaluate and analyze new imaging methods and discuss their correlation with the clinical setting, which aims to facilitate the diagnosis and to take a decision for the treatment. The experience indicates that a clinical environment conducive the immunocompromised patients to infection with certain pathogens, thereby changing the frequency of their occurrence. The most commonly cited fungal infections, cytomegalovirus infections, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) of which convincing is the Imaging diagnosis primarily in fungal infections, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and less accurate - in bacterial and viral infections. Discussion: The term 'immunocompromised' describes a subject with an increased risk for life-threatening infection as a result of congenital or acquired abnormalities of the immune system. Over the past few decades, the number of immunocompromised patients has grown considerably, reflecting the increased use of immunosuppressive drugs, and the syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency. Given the high incidence of pulmonary infections in immunocompromised patients (lung is one of the most commonly affected organs, such as lung infection is about 75% of pulmonary complications), rapid and accurate diagnosis is important

  13. Riemerella Anatipestifer Infection in Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. X. Li*, Y. Tang, J. Y. Gao, C. H. Huang1 and M. J. Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Riemerella anatipestifer (RA is the causative agent of septicemic and exudative disease for a variety of bird species. Although RA had been isolated from chickens, whether can bring damages to them is not unrevealed yet. In this study, we report a flock of SanHuang chickens infected by RA with 15% morbidity and less than 8% mortality. The infection is further substantiated by case duplicate. The tested chickens demonstrate typical signs of pericarditis, air sacculitis and perihepatitis that are completely consistent with the field outbreak. The results suggest that RA is pathogenic to SanHuang chickens, which can then be theoretically and practicably incorporated into its infection spectrum.

  14. Catheter-related bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, Matthew R; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2009-04-01

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) are a common, frequently preventable complication of central venous catheterization. CR-BSIs can be prevented by strict attention to insertion and maintenance of central venous catheters and removing unneeded catheters as soon as possible. Antiseptic- or antibiotic-impregnated catheters are also an effective tool to prevent infections. The diagnosis of CR-BSI is made largely based on culture results. CR-BSIs should always be treated with antibiotics, and except in rare circumstances the infected catheter needs to be removed. PMID:19281894

  15. Prediction of eyespot infection risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Váòová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to design a prediction model for eyespot (Tapesia yallundae infection based on climatic factors (temperature, precipitation, air humidity. Data from experiment years 1994-2002 were used to study correlations between the eyespot infection index and individual weather characteristics. The model of prediction was constructed using multiple regression when a separate parameter is assigned to each factor, i.e. the frequency of days with optimum temperatures, humidity, and precipitation. The correlation between relative air humidity and precipitation and the infection index is significant.

  16. Chronic infections in hip arthroplasties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Jeppe; Troelsen, Anders; Thomsen, Reimar W; Søballe, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two-stage revisi......Two-stage revision is regarded by many as the best treatment of chronic infection in hip arthroplasties. Some international reports, however, have advocated one-stage revision. No systematic review or meta-analysis has ever compared the risk of reinfection following one-stage and two......-stage revisions for chronic infection in hip arthroplasties....

  17. Intraabdominal Infections in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Ana; Johanning, Jason Michael

    2016-08-01

    Intraabdominal infections represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in the elderly population. Atypical presentations, diagnostic delays, additional comorbidities, and decreased physiologic reserve contribute to high morbidity and mortality, particularly among frail patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. While many infections are the result of age-related inflammatory, mechanical, or obstructive processes, infectious complications of feeding tubes are also common. The pillars of treatment are source control of the infection and judicious use of antibiotics. A patient-centered approach considering the invasiveness, risk, and efficacy of a procedure for achieving the desired outcomes is recommended. Structured communication and time-limited trials help ensure goal-concordant treatment. PMID:27394019

  18. Congenital Blindness and Visual Impairment Cause Infection or Non Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana A. Janicijevic-Petrovic; Tatjana S. Sarenac-Vulovic; Katarina M. Janicijevic; Dragan I. Vujic; Dejan D. Vulovic

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Authors are from reference documentation to archive at Organization of Federation of blind and visually impaired in central Serbia (Kragujevac), by retrograde analysis, of 2007-2012, comprehend two groups by etiology–clinical characteristics of congenital blindness and visually impaired, caused infection or non infection example. Aim to analyze relationship between infectious and non infectious of congenital blindness and visually impaired in ...

  19. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... matter how busy you are. Water and cranberry juice are two good choices. Those trips to the ... wash bacteria out of your body and cranberry juice may actually help prevent another infection. If you' ...

  20. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... stick into your cup of urine. The stick has specially treated paper on it and if it ... making you even more uncomfortable. A kid who has a kidney infection — with chills and a high ...

  1. Urinary Tract Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Taskesen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections (UTI are frequent conditions in children. Untreated urinary tract infections can lead to serious kidney problems that could threaten the life of the child. Therefore, early detection and treatment of urinary tract infection is important. In older children, urinary tract infections may cause obvious symptoms such as stomach ache and disuria. In infants and young children, UTIs may be harder to detect because of less specific symptoms. Recurrences are common in children with urinary abnormalities such as neurogenic bladder, vesicourethral reflux or those with very poor toilet and hygiene habits. This article reviews the diagnostic approach and presents the current data related to the roles of radiologic imaging, surgical correction and antibiotic prophylaxis of UTIs in children. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2009; 18(2.000: 57-69

  2. What Is an Ear Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quizzes Kids' Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Back-to-School Butterflies? ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What Is an Ear Infection? KidsHealth > For Kids > What ...

  3. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  4. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a bladder infection, your doctor will order some medicine for you to take to kill the bacteria. ... the hospital. At the hospital, the germ-fighting medicine can be delivered more effectively through a tiny ...

  5. Obesity and risk of infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Kathrine Agergård; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that obesity complicates the course of several diseases. However, it is unknown whether obesity affects the risk of infection among healthy individuals. METHODS: We included 37,808 healthy participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study, who completed a questionnaire on...... health-related items. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Infections among participants were identified by relevant ICD-10 codes in the Danish National Patient Register and Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) codes in the Danish Prescription Register. Multivariable Cox proportional...... prescription of antimicrobials. Obesity was associated with risk of hospital-based treatment for infection (women: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1, 1.9; men: HR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9). For specific infections, obesity was associated with increased risk of abscesses (both sexes...

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Kalach, Nicolas

    2003-01-01

    A high prevalence and early colonization of Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood was described again this year in developing countries in contrast to developed ones. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy including gastric biopsies remains the diagnostic gold standard method for this infection...... gastric manifestations is the subject of conflicting reports. Extra-digestive manifestations are also reported in the course of this infection. The treatment of H. pylori infection is influenced by resistance of the bacteria to the antibiotics used. We suggest that eradication of H. pylori should take...... place only after susceptibility testing. The association of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics for 1 or 2 weeks gives the best eradication rates. The crucial question to elucidate is whether asymptomatic children should be treated to prevent cancer in the future....

  7. Cancer Patients and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... site. Top of Page Preventing fungal infections in cancer patients Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are a natural part of the environment. Fungi live outdoors in soil, on plants, trees, and other vegetation. They are also on ...

  8. Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Virus Images Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Seasonal Flu and Staph Infection Questions & Answers Language: English Españ ...

  9. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidney infection and you should see a doctor right away. previous continue What Will the Doctor Do? ... consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma infection) Disease Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Parasites - Toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma infection) Parasites Home Share Compartir Disease On ... stillborn child a child born with signs of toxoplasmosis (e.g., abnormal enlargement or smallness of the ...

  11. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your pee smells bad. These changes occur because bacteria have caused an infection somewhere in your urinary ... shorter than boys' urethras. The shorter urethra means bacteria can get up into the bladder more easily ...

  12. Joint Infection (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for some deep joints (eg, hip, shoulder), surgical placement of a drainage tube. ARTIFICIAL JOINT INFECTION — People ... medications, the user is advised to check the product information sheet accompanying each drug to verify conditions ...

  13. Urinary Tract Infections (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... these questions and share your answers with your mom or dad: Does it hurt or sting when ... bladder infection, so based on your answers, your mom or dad may decide to call your doctor ...

  14. Pyelonephritis (Kidney Infection) in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Tract Infections in Adults Vesicoureteral Reflux Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800- ... or both kidneys. This problem, which is called vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), happens when the valve mechanism that normally ...

  15. [INFECTIONS IN THE TRANSPLANT PATIENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pourcher, Valérie

    2015-10-01

    Infections in the transplant patient are common. There are infections related to the host (recipient), those related to the graft and the related donor. Infectious risk factors depend on the history of the underlying disease of the transplanted organ, the donor, the immunosuppressive treatment. All pathogens, bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites are possible but their frequency varies according to the transplanted organ, the selected immunosuppressive therapy and prophylaxis. Indeed, it is important to detect and treat latent infections in pro-transplant and prevent post-transplant infections by lifestyle and dietary measures, vaccinations, intraoperative antibiotic, antiviral, antifugal, antiparasitic treatments according graft and a variable length depending on the immunosuppression and donor-recipient status. PMID:26749711

  16. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo*, Luiz Sergio; Pierrotti, Lígia Camera; Abdala, Edson; Costa, Silvia Figueiredo; Strabelli, Tânia Mara Varejão; Campos, Silvia Vidal; Ramos, Jéssica Fernandes; Latif, Acram Zahredine Abdul; Litvinov, Nadia; Maluf, Natalya Zaidan; Filho, Helio Hehl Caiaffa; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Lopes, Marta Heloisa; dos Santos, Vera Aparecida; da Cruz Gouveia Linardi, Camila; Yasuda, Maria Aparecida Shikanai; de Sousa Marques, Heloisa Helena

    2015-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication) or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease). The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia. PMID:26222822

  17. Cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Sergio Azevedo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus infection is a frequent complication after transplantation. This infection occurs due to transmission from the transplanted organ, due to reactivation of latent infection, or after a primary infection in seronegative patients and can be defined as follows: latent infection, active infection, viral syndrome or invasive disease. This condition occurs mainly between 30 and 90 days after transplantation. In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in particular, infection usually occurs within the first 30 days after transplantation and in the presence of graft-versus-host disease. The major risk factors are when the recipient is cytomegalovirus seronegative and the donor is seropositive as well as when lymphocyte-depleting antibodies are used. There are two methods for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infection: the pp65 antigenemia assay and polymerase chain reaction. Serology has no value for the diagnosis of active disease, whereas histology of the affected tissue and bronchoalveolar lavage analysis are useful in the diagnosis of invasive disease. Cytomegalovirus disease can be prevented by prophylaxis (the administration of antiviral drugs to all or to a subgroup of patients who are at higher risk of viral replication or by preemptive therapy (the early diagnosis of viral replication before development of the disease and prescription of antiviral treatment to prevent the appearance of clinical disease. The drug used is intravenous or oral ganciclovir; oral valganciclovir; or, less frequently, valacyclovir. Prophylaxis should continue for 90 to 180 days. Treatment is always indicated in cytomegalovirus disease, and the gold-standard drug is intravenous ganciclovir. Treatment should be given for 2 to 3 weeks and should be continued for an additional 7 days after the first negative result for viremia.

  18. Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection

    OpenAIRE

    DePestel, Daryl D.; David M. Aronoff

    2013-01-01

    There has been dramatic change in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) since the turn of the 21st Century noted by a marked increase in incidence and severity, occurring at a disproportionately higher frequency in older patients. Historically considered a nosocomial infection associated with antibiotic exposure, CDI has now also emerged in the community in populations previously considered low risk. Emerging risk factors and disease recurrence represent continued challeng...

  19. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kneeland, Rachel E.; Fatemi, S. Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bact...

  20. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.