Woods Christopher W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod
Woods Christopher W; Hegarty Barbara C; Lantos Paul M; Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B; Bradley Julie M
Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods ...
Rolain, J. M.; La Scola, B; Liang, Z.; B. Davoust; D. Raoult
To determine the presence of Bartonella henselae bacteremia in six cats, we compared isolation using blood culture with direct immunofluorescence on blood smears. Three cats that were positive by blood culture were also positive by direct immunofluorescence, and laser confocal microscopy confirmed the intraerythrocytic location of B. henselae.
Kordick, Dorsey L.; Brown, Talmage T.; Shin, KwangOk; Edward B Breitschwerdt
Human Bartonella infections result in diverse medical presentations, whereas many cats appear to tolerate chronic bacteremia without obvious clinical abnormalities. Eighteen specific-pathogen-free cats were inoculated with Bartonella henselae- and/or Bartonella clarridgeiae-infected cat blood and monitored for 454 days. Relapsing bacteremia did not correlate with changes in protein profiles or differences in antigenic protein recognition. Intradermal skin testing did not induce a delayed type...
Cotté, Violaine; Bonnet, Sarah; Le Rhun, Danielle; Le Naour, Evelyne; Chauvin, Alain; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Lecuelle, Benoit; Lilin, Thomas; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel
Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals. B. henselae causes cat-scratch disease and is increasingly associated with several other syndromes, particularly ocular infections and endocarditis. Cats are the main reservoir for B. henselae and the bacteria are transmitted to cats by cat fleas. However, new potential vectors are suspected of transmitting B. henselae, in particular, Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant ixodid...
Mehock, Jane R.; Greene, Craig E.; Gherardini, Frank C.; Hahn, Tae-Wook; Krause, Duncan C.
Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of cat scratch disease, establishes long-term bacteremia in cats, in which it attaches to and invades feline erythrocytes (RBC). Feline RBC invasion was assessed in vitro, based on gentamicin selection for intracellular bacteria or by laser confocal microscopy and digital sectioning. Invasion rates ranged from 2 to 20% of the inoculum, corresponding to infection of less than 1% of the RBC. Invasion was a slow process, requiring >8 h before significant ...
Luiza Helena Urso Pitassi
Full Text Available Bartonella species are blood-borne, re-emerging organisms, capable of causing prolonged infection with diverse disease manifestations, from asymptomatic bacteremia to chronic debilitating disease and death. This pathogen can survive for over a month in stored blood. However, its prevalence among blood donors is unknown, and screening of blood supplies for this pathogen is not routinely performed. We investigated Bartonella spp. prevalence in 500 blood donors from Campinas, Brazil, based on a cross-sectional design. Blood samples were inoculated into an enrichment liquid growth medium and sub-inoculated onto blood agar. Liquid culture samples and Gram-negative isolates were tested using a genus specific ITS PCR with amplicons sequenced for species identification. Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana antibodies were assayed by indirect immunofluorescence. B. henselae was isolated from six donors (1.2%. Sixteen donors (3.2% were Bartonella-PCR positive after culture in liquid or on solid media, with 15 donors infected with B. henselae and one donor infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae. Antibodies against B. henselae or B. quintana were found in 16% and 32% of 500 blood donors, respectively. Serology was not associated with infection, with only three of 16 Bartonella-infected subjects seropositive for B. henselae or B. quintana. Bartonella DNA was present in the bloodstream of approximately one out of 30 donors from a major blood bank in South America. Negative serology does not rule out Bartonella spp. infection in healthy subjects. Using a combination of liquid and solid cultures, PCR, and DNA sequencing, this study documents for the first time that Bartonella spp. bacteremia occurs in asymptomatic blood donors. Our findings support further evaluation of Bartonella spp. transmission which can occur through blood transfusions.
Holmes, A H; Greenough, T C; Balady, G J; Regnery, R L; Anderson, B E; O'Keane, J C; Fonger, J D; McCrone, E L
We describe a case of aggressive Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent man who owned a cat. Aortic valve replacement was required, and his infection was diagnosed by histology, serology, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The manifestations of his disease included mediastinal lymphadenopathy, glomerulonephritis, myocarditis, and a petechial rash; the unusual finding of a positive titer of c-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was noted. Serological titers were markedly elevated for > 1 year despite clinical improvement. PMID:8645787
Kerkhoff, F.T.; Rothova, A
AIM—To investigate the frequency of HLA-B27 in patients with presumed Bartonella henselae associated uveitis and to describe the clinical characteristics of HLA-B27 positive patients with uveitis and presumed ocular bartonellosis (POB). METHODS—The diagnosis of POB was considered in 19 patients with unexplained uveitis (except for the HLA-B27 association) and high positive IgG (titre ⩾1:900) and/or IgM (titre ⩾1:250) antibodies against B henselae. In addition to B henselae serology and HLA-B2...
Kim, You-seok; SEO, Kyoung-Won; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Choi, Eun-wha; Lee, Hee-Woo; Hwang, Cheol-Yong; Shin, Nam-Shik; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Youn, Hwa Young
Blood, saliva, and nail samples were collected from 54 dogs and 151 cats and analyzed for the presence of Bartonella henselae with a novel nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Bartonella (B.) henselae was detected in feral cat blood (41.8%), saliva (44.1%), and nail (42.7%) samples. B. henselae was also detected in pet cat blood (33.3%), saliva (43.5%), and nail (29.5%) samples and in pet dog blood (16.6%), saliva (18.5%), and nail (29.6%) samples. Nine samples were infected with B....
Full Text Available Both endocarditis and Bartonella infections are neglected public health problems, especially in rural Asia. Bartonella endocarditis has been described from wealthier countries in Asia, Japan, Korea, Thailand and India but there are no reports from poorer countries, such as the Lao PDR (Laos, probably because people have neglected to look.We conducted a retrospective (2006-2012, and subsequent prospective study (2012-2013, at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, Laos, through liaison between the microbiology laboratory and the wards. Patients aged >1 year admitted with definite or possible endocarditis according to modified Duke criteria were included. In view of the strong suspicion of infective endocarditis, acute and convalescent sera from 30 patients with culture negative endocarditis were tested for antibodies to Brucella melitensis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Bartonella quintana, B. henselae, Coxiella burnetii and Legionella pneumophila. Western blot analysis using Bartonella species antigens enabled us to describe the first two Lao patients with known Bartonella henselae endocarditis.We argue that it is likely that Bartonella endocarditis is neglected and more widespread than appreciated, as there are few laboratories in Asia able to make the diagnosis. Considering the high prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in Asia, there is remarkably little evidence on the bacterial etiology of endocarditis. Most evidence is derived from wealthy countries and investigation of the aetiology and optimal management of endocarditis in low income countries has been neglected. Interest in Bartonella as neglected pathogens is emerging, and improved methods for the rapid diagnosis of Bartonella endocarditis are needed, as it is likely that proven Bartonella endocarditis can be treated with simpler and less expensive regimens than "conventional" endocarditis and multicenter trials to optimize treatment are required. More understanding is needed on the risk factors for
Bartonella henselae is a world-wide distributed bacterial pathogen, which was first described in the 1990s. Its best known manifestations are Cat Scratch disease and Bacillary angiomatosis. In this study we determined a prevalence of 9,8% in Berlin composed of two populations prevalences: 1% in the group of cats which lived mainly indoors and 18,7% in the group of stray cats. Riskfactors for Bacteremia in cats are flee-infestation and age. We could confirm the flee-infestation as a riskfactor...
Buchmann, Alexandra U.; Kershaw, Olivia; Kempf, Volkhard A. J.; Gruber, Achim D.
Domestic cats serve as the reservoir hosts of Bartonella henselae and may develop mild clinical symptoms or none after experimental infection. In humans, B. henselae infection can result in self-limiting cat scratch disease. However, immunocompromised patients may suffer from more-severe courses of infection or may even develop the potentially lethal disease bacillary angiomatosis. It was reasoned that cats with immunocompromising viral infections may react similarly to B. henselae infection....
Maritsi, Despoina N; Zarganis, Diagoras; Metaxa, Zoi; Papaioannou, Georgia; Vartzelis, George
We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata), chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256) against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent. PMID:23424700
Despoina N. Maritsi
Full Text Available We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was negative. Abdominal imaging demonstrated multifocal lesions of the liver and spleen (later proved to be granulomata, chest X-ray showed enlarged hilar lymph nodes, and ophthalmology review revealed uveitis. Clinical, laboratory, and imaging features pointed towards sarcoidosis. Subsequently, raised titers (IgM 1 : 32, IgG 1 : 256 against Bartonella confirmed the diagnosis of B. henselae infection. She was treated with gentamycin followed by ciprofloxacin; repeat investigations showed complete resolution of findings. The presence of hepatic and splenic lesions in children with bartonellosis is well documented. Our case, however, exhibited certain unusual findings such as the coexistence of acute ocular and systemic involvement in an immunocompetent host. Serological testing is an inexpensive and effective way to diagnose bartonellosis in immunocompetent patients; we suggest that bartonella serology is included in the baseline tests performed on children with prolonged fever even in the absence of contact with cats in countries where bartonellosis is prevalent.
Glaus, T; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Greene, C; Glaus, B; Wolfensberger, C; Lutz, H.
The prevalence of infection with Bartonella henselae was investigated in cats from different areas of Switzerland. Serum samples of 728 cats were examined for antibodies to B. henselae by immunofluorescent antibody testing, and the results were analyzed with a view to a possible correlation between a positive titer and signalment, clinical signs, infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), feline coronavirus (FCoV), or feline spumavirus (FeSFV), and the l...
Raoult Didier; Collart Frédéric; Habib Gilbert; Lepidi Hubert; Gouriet Frédérique
Abstract Background Most patients with infectious endocarditis (IE) due to Bartonella henselae have a history of exposure to cats and pre-existing heart valve lesions. To date, none of the reported patients have had a history of typical cat scratch disease (CSD) which is also a manifestation of infection with B. henselae. Case presentation Here we report the case of a patient who had CSD and six months later developed IE of the mitral valve caused by B. henselae. Conclusion Based on this uniq...
Full Text Available Bartonellae are hemotropic bacteria, agents of emerging zoonoses. These bacteria are heme auxotroph Alphaproteobacteria which must import heme for supporting their growth, as they cannot synthesize it. Therefore, Bartonella genome encodes for a complete heme uptake system allowing the transportation of this compound across the outer membrane, the periplasm and the inner membranes. Heme has been proposed to be used as an iron source for Bartonella since these bacteria do not synthesize a complete system required for iron Fe³⁺ uptake. Similarly to other bacteria which use heme as an iron source, Bartonellae must transport this compound into the cytoplasm and degrade it to allow the release of iron from the tetrapyrrole ring. For Bartonella, the gene cluster devoted to the synthesis of the complete heme uptake system also contains a gene encoding for a polypeptide that shares homologies with heme trafficking or degrading enzymes. Using complementation of an E. coli mutant strain impaired in heme degradation, we demonstrated that HemS from Bartonella henselae expressed in E. coli allows the release of iron from heme. Purified HemS from B. henselae binds heme and can degrade it in the presence of a suitable electron donor, ascorbate or NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. Knocking down the expression of HemS in B. henselae reduces its ability to face H₂O₂ induced oxidative stress.
Melter, O.; Hercík, Kamil; Weyant, R. S.; Janeček, Jiří; Němec, A.; Mecera, J.; Gonzorová, L.; Branny, Pavel
Roč. 93, - (2003), s. 261-273. ISSN 0378-1135 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/98/0417; GA ČR GP204/02/D121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : bartonella henselae * cat * molecular typing Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.571, year: 2003
Full Text Available Sera collected from apparently healthy 6-12-month-old cats (n = 31 presented to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Veterinary Clinic in Bloemfontein for neutering were tested for antibodies reactive to Bartonella henselae (Houston-1 strain by indirect fluorescent antibody testing. Whole blood collected from the cats was used in isolation experiments and subsequent identification of Bartonella species was based on comparison of the nucleotide base sequence of polymerase chain reaction-amplified citrate synthase gene fragments. While none of the cats had antibodies reactive with B. henselae at titres > 1/64, an organism with a partial citrate synthase gene sequence identical to that of B. henselae (Houston-1 was isolated from 1 cat.
Lee, Anthea K.; Falkow, Stanley
The green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was expressed on a plasmid in B. henselae, and GFP-expressing bacteria were visualized by fluorescence microscopy. HEp-2 cells infected with GFP-expressing bacteria were separated from uninfected cells with a fluorescence activated cell sorter. Promoter fusions of B. henselae chromosomal DNA to gfp were examined by flow cytometry, and a B. henselae groEL promoter fusion which induced expression at 37°C was isolated.
Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infective disease of animals and humans caused with Bartonella henselae. Prevalence of infection varies between 0 and 68% depending on different population of cats and geographical region. Naturally infected cats are often clinically healthy and are inapparent germ carriers. In this investigation 40 cats from the area of Novi Sad were analyzed. After the epidemiological questionnaire was made, all cats were clinically investigated. To determine the presence of specific antibodies of class G on Bartonella henselae the method of indirect immunofluorescence was used. For the first time in Serbia, in the area of Novi Sad municipality the infection caused by Bartonella henselae in the population of cats was detected. Prevalence of specific antibodies of class IgG on Bartonella henselae antigen in the population of cats was 57%. The most common clinical manifestations in seropositive cats were gingivitis and lymphoadenopathy.
Zarzycka, Beata; Pieczara, Anna; Skowron-Kobos, Jolanta; Krzemiński, Zbigniew
Bartonella henselae is a cat scratch disease's etiological agent which is usually manifestated as regional lymphadenopathy. In differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy infections about etiology B. henselae are rarely taken into consideration. Enlargement of lymph nodes observed in children more often than in adults are caused by bacterial, virus or parasitic factors. In this study immunoglobulines G class antibodies to B. henselae were determined among children with limphadenopathy. At 53 children with recognized lymphadenopathy IgG antibodies were determined by indirect immunofluoroscence method specific for B. henselae. Of the 53 subjects examined, positive results were got at 29 (55%) children. Of the 23 children with negative results of IgG antibodies in 9 children study was repeated. In 5 (56%) cases the increase of IgG antibodies were shown with relation to the first research. The cat scratch disease should be considered as a cause of lymphadenopathy at children because the frequency of occurance of antibodies IgG specific for B. henselae is high. In case of getting negative results, participation of B. henselae should not be out of question in limphadenopathy etiology at children and second determination should be repeted after 10-21 days since the first one. PMID:19209738
Cerpa Polar, Rosario; Orellana, Gabriela; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Sánchez Carbonel, José; Santisteban, Javier; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Santisteban, Javier
Cat scratch's disease caused by Bartonella henselae, is known to be a self-limited benign process in immunocompetent children. The association with neurologic manifestations is very uncommon especially in patient with no immunologic defects and in cases without specific treatment. A 7 years old male patient, without any immunocompromised defect, presented an atypic presentation of the cat scratch disease. The patient came to the hospital in two opportunities in a status epilepticus, in both cases the diagnosis was encephalitis by Bartonella henselae and the evolution with treatment was monitored with PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in cerebrospinal fluid and blood, as well as IFI (IgM, IgG) serology (indirect immunofluorescence). The patient had a favorable clinical and laboratory evolution for 6 months showing no recurrence of the disease. PMID:27262077
Jabcuga, Christine E; Jin, Long; Macon, William R; Howard, Matthew T; Oliveira, Andre M; King, Rebecca L
Bartonella henselae lymphadenitis, or cat-scratch lymphadenitis (CSL), is classically associated with stellate microabscesses, occasional giant cells, and extension of the inflammatory infiltrate into perinodal soft tissue. Availability of B. henselae molecular testing on tissue specimens has broadened our understanding of the morphologic variation in this disease. Here we sought to describe the histopathologic features of the largest series to date of molecularly proven CSL. B. henselae polymerase chain reaction-positive tissue specimens from 2010 to 2012 were identified, and hematoxylin and eosin slides were reviewed. A single-step 16S-23S rRNA-based polymerase chain reaction testing was used to identify B. henselae on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. A total of 100 B. henselae-positive cases were identified. The median age of the patients was 26.5 years (range, 1 to 69 y). Ninety-two percent of cases presented in lymph nodes, with 66% of these occurring above the diaphragm, most commonly in the cervical chain. Of 100 cases, 57 had classical CSL features of necrotizing granulomas with microabscesses, with or without surrounding palisading histiocytes. In contrast, 43/100 cases lacked the prototypical microabscesses of CSL including: 23 cases (53.5%) with features of fungal/mycobacterial lymphadenitis, 6 (14%) cases with features of Kikuchi lymphadenitis, and 4 cases (9.3%) with the classic histologic triad of toxoplasma lymphadenitis. In summary, B. henselae lymphadenitis may lack the typical microabscesses in almost half of cases and may closely mimic other reactive, especially infectious, lymphadenopathies. Given the lack of specificity of many of these features, a low threshold for B. henselae molecular testing on tissue is warranted in the appropriate clinical context. PMID:26551620
Gillespie, Tracey N; Washabau, Robert J; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Cullen, John M; Rogala, Allison R; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
A 4-year-old Basset Hound and a 6-year-old Doberman Pinscher were referred for diagnostic evaluation following documentation of persistently increased hepatic enzyme activities and hepatic dysfunction. Histologic evaluation of hepatic biopsy specimens from the 2 dogs revealed granulomatous hepatitis in the Basset Hound and lymphocytic hepatitis with fibrosis and copper accumulation in the Doberman Pinscher. No etiologic agents were identified histologically. Bartonella henselae DNA was subsequently amplified from hepatic tissue from the Basset Hound and Bartonella clarridgeiae was amplified from hepatic tissue from the Doberman Pinscher. Amplification was performed with a polymerase chain reaction assay incorporating primers that target a portion of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Both dogs were treated with azithromycin, in combination with a variety of other medications and herbal treatments, and improved clinically. Identification of Bartonella DNA in these dogs indicates the need for future prospective studies to determine the clinical relevance of Bartonella spp infection in dogs with hepatic disease. PMID:12523479
Full Text Available Con la finalidad de detectar anticuerpos contra Bartonella henselae, se obtuvo sangre de una muestra de conveniencia de 76 gatos mestizos, de ambos sexos, de 3 meses a 9 años de edad, concurrentes al Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad Austral de Chile y a otras clínicas privadas de la ciudad de Valdivia, Chile. El diagnóstico serológico se realizó mediante inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Además, se consignaron datos descriptivos sobre raza, sexo, edad, actividad y presencia de pulgas de cada uno de los gatos en estudio. De los animales muestreados, un 71% presentó anticuerpos contra Bartonella henselae. La seroprevalencia fue de 68.4% en machos y 73.7% en hembras. Los animales con mayor porcentaje de seropositividad fueron los gatos de 3 a 6 años de edad. Veinte y nueve (69.0% gatos que pasaban la mayor parte del tiempo dentro de la casa y 25 (73.5% que permanecian casi todo el día fuera de la casa resultaron seropositivos. De los animales que presentaron pulgas, 50 (75.0% tenían anticuerpos contra B. henselae. De las 22 personas dueños de gatos positivos a Bartonella henselae, 4 (18%, evidenciaron anticuerpos contra esta bacteriaA convenience sample from 76 cats from the city of Valdivia, Chile was selected between April and September 1999 to detect Bartonella henselae antibodies. The cats were from the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Universidad Austral de Chile and several private clinics. The presence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae was tested for by indirect immunofluorescence. Descriptive data on sex, age, indoors and outdoors activity and flea infestation were recorded. Fifty four (71.0% cats were for Bartonella henselae antibody positive. Seroprevalence was 68.4% in males and 73.7% in females. Cats 3-6 years old had a higher antibody prevalence than younger and older cats. Twenty nine (69.0% cats that lived completely indoors and 25 (73.5% cats that lived mostly outdoors were seropositives. Fifty (75.0% cats
Zbinden, R.; Höchli, M; Nadal, D
Bartonella henselae, the major causative agent of cat scratch disease, was cocultivated with Vero cells on chamber slides and visualized by indirect immunofluorescence by using a patient serum containing specific antibodies. Confocal microscopy localized the granular B. henselae-specific fluorescence mainly around the nuclei of Vero cells. By transmission electron microscopy, these granules were identified as clusters of multiple intracellular organisms. Fixed slides with the monolayers of Ve...
Hansmann, Yves; Demartino, Sylvie; Piémont, Yves; Meyer, Nicolas; Mariet, Philippe; Heller, Rémy; Christmann, Daniel; Jaulhac, Benoît
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is mostly due to Bartonella henselae after inoculation of the organism through a skin injury. Since the causative bacteria cannot be easily cultured from human lymph node samples, the diagnosis usually relies on epidemiological, clinical, histological, and serological criteria (classical criteria). A study was performed to determine the diagnostic value of PCR analysis for the detection of B. henselae for the diagnosis of CSD and its place in the diagnostic strategy ...
Scott, M. A.; McCurley, T. L.; Vnencak-Jones, C L; Hager, C; McCoy, J. A.; Anderson, B; Collins, R. D.; K.M. Edwards
Serological and epidemiological studies suggest that Bartonella henselae is the etiological agent of cat scratch disease. We designed a study to detect B. henselae in archival biopsies by polymerase chain reaction amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by Southern blot hybridization. Forty-two histologically defined cat scratch disease biopsies and eighteen controls were selected for blinded analysis. After testing, charts were reviewed for clinical, immunological, and microbial evidence...
Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro
The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and t...
Kempf Volkhard AJ
Full Text Available Abstract Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA, the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail.
Franz, Bettina; Kempf, Volkhard A J
Bartonella henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease and the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis hepatis, contains to date two groups of described pathogenicity factors: adhesins and type IV secretion systems. Bartonella adhesin A (BadA), the Trw system and possibly filamentous hemagglutinin act as promiscous or specific adhesins, whereas the virulence locus (Vir)B/VirD4 type IV secretion system modulates a variety of host cell functions. BadA mediates bacterial adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and triggers the induction of angiogenic gene programming. The VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system is responsible for, e.g., inhibition of host cell apoptosis, bacterial persistence in erythrocytes, and endothelial sprouting. The Trw-conjugation system of Bartonella spp. mediates host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Filamentous hemagglutinins represent additional potential pathogenicity factors which are not yet characterized. The exact molecular functions of these pathogenicity factors and their contribution to an orchestral interplay need to be analyzed to understand B. henselae pathogenicity in detail. PMID:21489243
Full Text Available The prevalences of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Ehrlichia canis were determined in sera from 228 dogs in 5 communal lands of Zimbabwe, areas where traditional subsistence agro-pastoralism is practised. The sera were collected from apparently healthy dogs during routine rabies vaccination programmes and tested with indirect fluorescent antibody assays using B. henselae (Houston-I and E. canis (Oklahoma as antigens. We found reactive antibodies (>1:80 against B. henselae in 14 % of the dogs tested. Seropositive animals were found in Bikita (41 %; 17/42, Omay (13 %; 6/48, Chinamora (5 %; 2/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. No seropositive dogs were found in Chiredzi (0 %; 0/52. Antibodies reactive with E. canis (>1:80 were found in 34%of the dogs tested, from Bikita (88 %; 37/42, Chiredzi (31 %; 16/52, Omay (17 %; 8/48, Chinamora (26 %; 10/38 and Matusadona (15 %; 7/48. Our survey shows dogs in the communal lands of Zimbabwe are frequently exposed to E. canis and B. henselae or closely related species. Further studies are indicated to determine the pathogenicity of the organisms infecting these dogs and their clinical significance.
de La Blanchardière, A; Fournier, P-E; Haustraete, E; du Cheyron, D; Lepage, O; Verdon, R
We report a case of severe aortic bicuspid valve endocarditis, revealed by global cardiac failure without fever, in a 38-year-old man who had developed cerebral mycotic aneurysms nine months earlier. PCR analysis of the excised aortic valve and serological tests (even 9 months earlier) were positive for Bartonella henselae. A combination of intravenous then oral doxycyclin at 200mg/day and intravenous gentamycin at 90mg/day was given for 6 and 2 weeks respectively. The evolution was favorable on follow-up, 12 months after completion of the therapy. Only 49 cases of B. henselae endocarditis have been reported to date, none with associated mycotic aneurysm but most often located on the bicuspid aortic valve, and usually with severe valvular damage due to late diagnosis. PMID:19097835
Buchmann, Alexandra U.
From October 2006 to November 2008, 142 cats from animal shelters were necropsied and tested for Bartonella (B.) henselae, Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV). 11 cats (7.7%) tested positive for B. henselae by nested PCR from blood and/or bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, tonsils, liver or spleen. Of these, three also tested positive for B. henselae by immunohistochemistry. FeLV provirus was detected by semi-nested PCR in b...
Full Text Available A novel SYBR® green-real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was developed to detect two Bartonella species, B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae, directly from blood samples. The test was used in blood samples obtained from cats living in animal shelters in Southern Brazil. Results were compared with those obtained by conventional PCR targeting Bartonella spp. Among the 47 samples analyzed, eight were positive using the conventional PCR and 12 were positive using qPCR. Importantly, the new qPCR detected the presence of both B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in two samples. The results show that the qPCR described here may be a reliable tool for the screening and differentiation of two important Bartonella species.
While other aldolases crystallize readily in the apo form, diffraction-quality crystals of B. henselae aldolase could only be obtained in the presence of the native substrate. The quaternary structure is tetrameric, as is typical of aldolases. Fructose bisphosphate aldolase (FBPA) enzymes have been found in a broad range of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. FBPA catalyses the cleavage of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate into glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. The SSGCID has reported several FBPA structures from pathogenic sources, including the bacterium Brucella melitensis and the protozoan Babesia bovis. Bioinformatic analysis of the Bartonella henselae genome revealed an FBPA homolog. The B. henselae FBPA enzyme was recombinantly expressed and purified for X-ray crystallographic studies. The purified enzyme crystallized in the apo form but failed to diffract; however, well diffracting crystals could be obtained by cocrystallization in the presence of the native substrate fructose 1,6-bisphosphate. A data set to 2.35 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at 100 K. The crystal belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 72.39, b = 127.71, c = 157.63 Å. The structure was refined to a final free R factor of 22.2%. The structure shares the typical barrel tertiary structure and tetrameric quaternary structure reported for previous FBPA structures and exhibits the same Schiff base in the active site
Anastasia N. Trataris
Full Text Available Bartonella is a genus of opportunistic, Gram-negative bacilli transmitted from animals to human hosts. Bartonellae are newly emerging pathogens that can cause a variety of clinical manifestations in both immunocompromised and healthy persons.The aims were to determine the IgG and IgM seroprevalences of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA.A total of 382 HIV-positive outpatients of the Chris Hani Baragwanth HIV-clinic, 382 retrospective residual samples from HIV-negative antenatal patients, and 42 clinically healthy volunteers were tested using a commercially available IFA kit to determine the prevalence of IgG and IgM antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana.The IgM and IgG seroprevalences for the HIV-positive patients were 14% (53/382 and 32% (121/382, respectively, compared to 18% for both IgM (62/342 and IgG (63/342 in the HIV- negative antenatal patients. Similarly, the prevalence for IgM was 17% (7/42 and IgG was 19% (8/42 for the clinically healthy volunteers.HIV-positivity appears to be a significant risk factor for Bartonella infection, compared with healthy subjects. Although IFAs have a high sensitivity for Bartonella antibody detection, they have various limitations including cross-reactivity with other closely-related human pathogens.
Salvatore, Paola; Casamassimi, Amelia; Sommese, Linda; Fiorito, Carmela; Ciccodicola, Alfredo; Rossiello, Raffaele; Avallone, Bice; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Costa, Valerio; Rienzo, Monica; Colicchio, Roberta; Williams-Ignarro, Sharon; Pagliarulo, Caterina; Prudente, Maria Evelina; Abbondanza, Ciro; Lamberti, Florentia; Baroni, Adone; Buommino, Elisabetta; Farzati, Bartolomeo; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Ignarro, Louis Joseph; Napoli, Claudio
The recruitment of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) might have a beneficial effect on the clinical course of several diseases. Endothelial damage and detachment of endothelial cells are known to occur in infection, tissue ischemia, and sepsis. These detrimental effects in EPCs are unknown. Here we elucidated whether human EPCs internalize Bartonella henselae constituting a circulating niche of the pathogen. B. henselae invades EPCs as shown by gentamicin protection assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Dil-Ac-LDL/lectin double immunostaining and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of EPCs revealed EPC bioactivity after infection with B. henselae. Nitric oxide (NO) and its precursor l-arginine (l-arg) exert a plethora of beneficial effects on vascular function and modulation of immune response. Therefore, we tested also the hypothesis that l-arg (1-30 mM) would affect the infection of B. henselae or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in EPCs. Our data provide evidence that l-arg counteracts detrimental effects induced by TNF or Bartonella infections via NO (confirmed by DETA-NO and L-NMMA experiments) and by modulation of p38 kinase phosphorylation. Microarray analysis indicated several genes involved in immune response were differentially expressed in Bartonella-infected EPCs, whereas these genes returned in steady state when cells were exposed to sustained doses of l-arg. This mechanism may have broad therapeutic applications in tissue ischemia, angiogenesis, immune response, and sepsis. PMID:18595894
Arvand, Mardjan; Schäd, Susanne G.
We report the case of a girl with cervical lymphadenitis and a persistent primary lesion of cat scratch disease (CSD). Bartonella henselae DNA was isolated from plasma samples collected 3 and 4 months after the cat scratch, indicating that recurrent and long-term shedding of Bartonella DNA into peripheral blood may occur in typical CSD.
Drut, Amandine; Bublot, Isabelle; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Chabanne, Luc; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Cadoré, Jean-Luc
We report the first documented case of Bartonella henselae infection in a dog from France and the first isolation of B. henselae from a dog with fever of unknown origin. This observation contributes to the "One Health" concept focusing on zoonotic pathogens emerging from companion animals. A 1-year-old female German shepherd dog was referred for evaluation of fever of unknown origin of 1 month duration. Diagnostic investigations confirmed diffuse pyogranulomatous lymphadenitis. The dog became afebrile, and lymph node size normalized in response to a 6-week course of doxycycline. Retrospectively, Bartonella DNA was amplified from an EDTA-anticoagulated blood sample obtained before antimicrobial therapy, with the gtlA fragment sharing 99 % identity with the 350-bp gtlA fragment of the B. henselae Houston-1 strain. The same strain was isolated in the blood of three healthy cats from the household. Two months after discontinuation of doxycycline, the dog experienced a febrile relapse. Bartonella DNA was again amplified from blood prior to and immediately after administration of a 6-week course azithromycin therapy. However, without administration of additional medications, PCR was negative 9 months after azithromycin therapy and the dog remains clinically healthy 12 months following the second course of antibiotics. The medical management of this case raises several clinically relevant comparative infectious disease issues, including the extent to which Bartonella spp. contribute to fever of unknown origin and pyogranulomatous inflammatory diseases in dogs and humans, and the potential of doxycycline and azithromycin treatment failures. The possibility that dogs could constitute an underestimated reservoir for B. henselae transmission to people is also discussed. PMID:24310419
ZHAO Fan; Gemma Chaloner; Alistair Darby; SONG Xiu-ping; LI Dong-mei; Richard Birtles; LIU Qi-yong
Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is widely used to explore the population structure of numerous bacterial pathogens.However,for genotypically-restricted pathogens,the sensitivity of MLST is limited by a paucity of variation within selected loci.For Bartonella henselae (B.henselae),although the MLST scheme currently used has been proven useful in defining the overall population structure of the species,its reliability for the accurate delineation of closely-related sequence types,between which allelic variation is usually limited to,at most,one or two nucleotide polymorphisms.Exploitation of high-throughput sequencing data allows a more informed selection of MLST loci and thus,potentially,a means of enhancing the sensitivity of the schemes they comprise.Methods We carried out SOLiD resequencing on 12 representative B.henselae isolates and explored these data using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis.We determined the number and distribution of SNPs in the genes targeted by the established MLST scheme and modified the position of loci within these genes to capture as much genetic variation as possible.Results Using genome-wide SNP data,we found the distribution of SNPs within each open reading frame (ORF) of MLST loci,which were not represented by the established B.henselae MLST scheme.We then modified the position of loci in the MLST scheme to better reflect the polymorphism in the ORF as a whole.The use of amended loci in this scheme allowed previously indistinguishable ST1 strains to be differentiated.However,the diversity of B.henselae was still rare in China.Conclusions Our study demonstrates the use of SNP analysis to facilitate the selection of MLST loci to augment the currently-described scheme for B.henselae.And the diversity among B.henselae strains in China is markedly less than that observed in B.henselae populations elsewhere in the world.
Full Text Available Bartonella henselae is a zoonotic pathogen and the causative agent of cat scratch disease and a variety of other disease manifestations in humans. Previous investigations have suggested that a limited subset of B. henselae isolates may be associated with human disease. In the present study, 182 human and feline B. henselae isolates from Europe, North America and Australia were analysed by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST to detect any associations between sequence type (ST, host species and geographical distribution of the isolates. A total of 14 sequence types were detected, but over 66% (16/24 of the isolates recovered from human disease corresponded to a single genotype, ST1, and this type was detected in all three continents. In contrast, 27.2% (43/158 of the feline isolates corresponded to ST7, but this ST was not recovered from humans and was restricted to Europe. The difference in host association of STs 1 (human and 7 (feline was statistically significant (P< or =0.001. eBURST analysis assigned the 14 STs to three clonal lineages, which contained two or more STs, and a singleton comprising ST7. These groups were broadly consistent with a neighbour-joining tree, although splits decomposition analysis was indicative of a history of recombination. These data indicate that B. henselae lineages differ in their virulence properties for humans and contribute to a better understanding of the population structure of B. henselae.
Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Vahedi, Seyed Milad; Ashrafi, Iraj; Alipour, Faranak; Sharafi, Golnaz; Akbarein, Hesam; Aldavood, Seyed Javid
One of the most important species of the Bartonella genus is B. henselae that causes a zoonotic infection, cat scratch disease (CSD). The main source of the bacteria is cat and the carrier is Ctenocephalides felis flea. One hundred and forty nail and saliva samples were collected from 70 domestic cats. Positive samples for B. henselae were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Sequences of gltA gene were trimmed using BioEdit software and then compared with the sequences of the same gene from B. henselae isolated from cats and humans in GenBank database. Phylogenic tree was constructed using CLC Sequence Viewer software and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method. Molecular assessments showed that five samples out of 70 nail samples (7.14%) and one sample out of 70 saliva samples (1.42%) were genetically positive for B. henselae. At least an 87.00% similarity was seen between the gene sequences from the current study and the reference sequences from the GenBank database. Phylogenic analysis has shown that strains isolated in this study were grouped in a different haplo group, compared to other strains. Among the Asian countries, the prevalence of the bacteria in Iran was close to that in Japan and Turkey. In conclusion, findings of this study showed the prevalence of B. henselae in Iranian cats which is important due to its public health issues, especially for the immunocompromised pet owners.
Sander, Anna; Posselt, Miriam; Oberle, Karin; Bredt, Wolfgang
Serologic testing for the presence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae is a widely accepted diagnostic procedure for laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis of cat scratch disease (CSD). In this study a commercially available indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) based on B. henselae-infected human larynx carcinoma cells (test A) was evaluated. Sera from 42 patients with CSD (20 confirmed by PCR) and 270 sera from healthy controls (consisting of 63 cat owners, 65 individuals whose last cl...
Moreira, Daniela Alexandra Machado Mendes
Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária, Ciências Veterinárias Bartonella henselae é considerado um agente patogénico emergente, responsável pelo desenvolvimento da Doença da Arranhadela do Gato, a principal causa de linfadenopatia em crianças e adultos, podendo também cursar com o desenvolvimento de quadros clínicos mais graves nos humanos, particularmente em indivíduos imunodeprimidos. Os gatos são o principal hospedeiro mamífero reservatório desta bactéria, que é tr...
Full Text Available Con el objetivo de determinar la frecuencia de casos seropositivos a Bartonella henselae en niños con adenitis regional atendidos en un hospital nacional del Perú, se realizó un estudio trasversal en 106 niños con adenitis regional mayor de 1 cm de diámetro, de aparición aguda, con tiempo de enfermedad mayor de cinco días, atendidos en el Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño durante el año 2012. Se definió seropositividad para B. henselae mediante el examen de inmunofluorescencia indirecta, siendo positivos 86 niños (81,1% con una mediana de edad de 7 años, rango de 5 a 11; en el análisis bivariado se encontraron como factores asociados, edad mayor de 5 años, antecedentes de fiebre, adenopatía mayor de 4 cm y reporte de contacto con gato. En conclusión, los niños con adenitis regional atendidos en este hospital de referencia nacional presentaron una frecuencia alta de serología positiva para B. henselae
Karina Hatamoto Kawasato
Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are emerging pathogens detected in lymph node biopsies and aspirates probably caused by increased concentration of bacteria. Twenty-three samples of 18 patients with clinical, laboratory and/or epidemiological data suggesting bartonellosis were subjected to three nested amplifications targeting a fragment of the 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP, the internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA (ITS and the cell division (FtsZ of Bartonella henselae, in order to improve detection in clinical samples. In the first amplification 01, 04 and 05 samples, were positive by HSP (4.3%, FtsZ (17.4% and ITS (21.7%, respectively. After the second round six positive samples were identified by nested-HSP (26%, eight by nested-ITS (34.8% and 18 by nested-FtsZ (78.2%, corresponding to 10 peripheral blood samples, five lymph node biopsies, two skin biopsies and one lymph node aspirate. The nested-FtsZ was more sensitive than nested-HSP and nested-ITS (p < 0.0001, enabling the detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in 15 of 18 patients (83.3%. In this study, three nested-PCR that should be specific for Bartonella henselae amplification were developed, but only the nested-FtsZ did not amplify DNA from Bartonella quintana. We conclude that nested amplifications increased detection of B. henselae DNA, and that the nested-FtsZ was the most sensitive and the only specific to B. henselae in different biological samples. As all samples detected by nested-HSP and nested-ITS, were also by nested-FtsZ, we infer that in our series infections were caused by Bartonella henselae. The high number of positive blood samples draws attention to the use of this biological material in the investigation of bartonellosis, regardless of the immune status of patients. This fact is important in the case of critically ill patients and young children to avoid more invasive procedures such as lymph nodes biopsies and aspirates.
Durey, Areum; Kwon, Hea Yoon; Im, Jae-Hyoung; Lee, Sun Myoung; Baek, JiHyeon; Han, Seung Baik; Kang, Jae-Seung; Lee, Jin-Soo
We report a patient with a clinical picture of suggestive for adult-onset Still's Disease (ASOD) due to Bartonella infection. A 42-year-old immunocompetent man was admitted with fever, rash, arthralgia and sore throat. As his clinical picture suggested ASOD except unusual skin manifestation, we treated him on steroid and ibuprofen. His fever and constitutional symptoms responded immediately within 24hrs of commencing therapy, yet rash and leukocytosis remained. Meanwhile, Bartonella infection was proved by culture of bone marrow. Minocyclin treatment started combined with hydroxychloroquine sulfate and the patient discharged with overall improvement. PMID:27000538
Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Michaela; Tropel, David; Basler, Andrea; Toller, Isabella; Raddatz, Guenter; Engel, Philipp; Huser, Sonja; Schein, Hermine; Lindroos, Hillevi L.; Andersson, Siv G. E.; Dehio, Christoph
Here, we report the first comprehensive study of Bartonella henselae gene expression during infection of human endothelial cells. Expression of the main cluster of upregulated genes, comprising the VirB type IV secretion system and its secreted protein substrates, is shown to be under the positive control of the transcriptional regulator BatR. We demonstrate binding of BatR to the promoters of the virB operon and a substrate-encoding gene and provide biochemical evidence that BatR and BatS co...
B. henselae is the etiological agent responsible for cat scratch fever (bartonellosis). The crystal structure of the smaller of the two Nudix hydrolases encoded in the genome of B. henselae, Bh-MutT, was determined to 2.1 Å resolution. Cat scratch fever (also known as cat scratch disease and bartonellosis) is an infectious disease caused by the proteobacterium Bartonella henselae following a cat scratch. Although the infection usually resolves spontaneously without treatment in healthy adults, bartonellosis may lead to severe complications in young children and immunocompromised patients, and there is new evidence suggesting that B. henselae may be associated with a broader range of clinical symptoms then previously believed. The genome of B. henselae contains genes for two putative Nudix hydrolases, BH02020 and BH01640 (KEGG). Nudix proteins play an important role in regulating the intracellular concentration of nucleotide cofactors and signaling molecules. The amino-acid sequence of BH02020 is similar to that of the prototypical member of the Nudix superfamily, Escherichia coli MutT, a protein that is best known for its ability to neutralize the promutagenic compound 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanosine triphosphate. Here, the crystal structure of BH02020 (Bh-MutT) in the Mg2+-bound state was determined at 2.1 Å resolution. As observed in all Nudix hydrolase structures, the α-helix of the highly conserved ‘Nudix box’ in Bh-MutT is one of two helices that sandwich a four-stranded mixed β-sheet with the central two β-strands parallel to each other. The catalytically essential divalent cation observed in the Bh-MutT structure, Mg2+, is coordinated to the side chains of Glu57 and Glu61. The structure is not especially robust; a temperature melt obtained using circular dichroism spectroscopy shows that Bh-MutT irreversibly unfolds and precipitates out of solution upon heating, with a Tm of 333 K
Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, Bernard; Cabre, Olivier; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier
Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we collected the blood samples of 64 dogs, 8 cats, 30 bovines, 25 horses and 29 wild deer Cervus timorensis russa and 308 associated blood-sucking parasites (14 keds Hippobosca equina, 258 ticks (22 Rhipicephalus microplus, 235 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and 1 Haemaphysalis longicornis), 12 fleas Ctenocephalides felis and 24 dog lice Trichodectes canis). We isolated ten strains of Bartonella: four Bartonella henselae from cats and six Bartonella chomelii from cattle. The strains were characterized by sequencing of five genes (16S, ITS, rpoB, gltA and ftsZ). The six strains isolated from cattle were close to the reference strain of B. chomelii and were, probably, imported from France with cattle of Limousin race. PCR showed that 35% of keds collected from deer and 31% of deer were infected by B. aff. schoenbuchensis; all other samples were negative. Our data confirmed that in New Caledonia, as in other regions of the world, cats are the major reservoirs of B. henselae. We also confirmed that Hippoboscidae flies may serve as the vectors of ruminant-associated bartonellae. PMID:22018646
Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens typically infect only a limited range of hosts; however, the genetic mechanisms governing host-specificity are poorly understood. The alpha-proteobacterial genus Bartonella comprises 21 species that cause host-specific intraerythrocytic bacteremia as hallmark of infection in their respective mammalian reservoirs, including the human-specific pathogens Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis that cause trench fever and Oroya fever, respectively. Here, we have identified bacterial factors that mediate host-specific erythrocyte colonization in the mammalian reservoirs. Using mouse-specific Bartonella birtlesii, human-specific Bartonella quintana, cat-specific Bartonella henselae and rat-specific Bartonella tribocorum, we established in vitro adhesion and invasion assays with isolated erythrocytes that fully reproduce the host-specificity of erythrocyte infection as observed in vivo. By signature-tagged mutagenesis of B. birtlesii and mutant selection in a mouse infection model we identified mutants impaired in establishing intraerythrocytic bacteremia. Among 45 abacteremic mutants, five failed to adhere to and invade mouse erythrocytes in vitro. The corresponding genes encode components of the type IV secretion system (T4SS Trw, demonstrating that this virulence factor laterally acquired by the Bartonella lineage is directly involved in adherence to erythrocytes. Strikingly, ectopic expression of Trw of rat-specific B. tribocorum in cat-specific B. henselae or human-specific B. quintana expanded their host range for erythrocyte infection to rat, demonstrating that Trw mediates host-specific erythrocyte infection. A molecular evolutionary analysis of the trw locus further indicated that the variable, surface-located TrwL and TrwJ might represent the T4SS components that determine host-specificity of erythrocyte parasitism. In conclusion, we show that the laterally acquired Trw T4SS diversified in the Bartonella lineage
Konstantinos Chondrogiannis; Antonios Vezakis; Michael Derpapas; Aikaterini Melemeni; Georgios Fragulidis
Cat scratch disease (CSD), the typical clinical manifestation of Bartonella infections usually follows a typical benign self-limited course. Nevertheless, a variety of unusual clinical manifestations and confusing imaging features can lead to misinterpretations and render the disease a diagnostic dispute. Routine laboratory tests exhibit varying reported sensitivity and are usually unhelpful in diagnosis, as serology fails in terms of specificity and/or sensitivity. Herein we report a case of...
Duncan, Ashlee W; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Edward B Breitschwerdt
Bartonella species, transmitted by arthropods or animal bites and scratches, are emerging pathogens in human and veterinary medicine. PCR and DNA sequencing were used to test oral swabs collected from dogs. Results indicated the presence of 4 Bartonella species: B. bovis, B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii subspecies berkhoffii.
... School Lunch Lines FDA Cracks Down on Antibacterial Soaps Health Tip: Schedule a Back-to-School Dental ... from the infected site, causing bacteremia. In some bacterial infections , such as pneumonia and skin abscesses , bacteria ...
Life-threatening angioedema of the tongue: the detection of the RNA of B henselae in the saliva of a male patient and his dog as well as of the DNA of three Bartonella species in the blood of the patient.
Lösch, Barbara; Wank, Rudolf
Non-hereditary angioedema is a common disease with a prevalence between 5% and 19% and approximately half of the patients experience a swelling of the tongue. We report a case of a 49-year-old Caucasian man with a gross life-threatening angioedema of the tongue, whose attacks occurred every 4 weeks. The most frequent causes of angioedema were excluded. We detected DNA and RNA from Bartonella henselae in the blood and saliva of the patient and in the saliva of the patient's hunting dog. Treatment with azithromycin plus minocycline cleared the blood and saliva of RNA and DNA of Bartonella species, and the patient has been free from angioedema for 1 year. None of the therapy modalities used to treat the hereditary form or ACE or allergy-induced angioedema affect the detrimental course caused by Bartonella species. We therefore suggest that a molecular Bartonella test be included in the analysis of angioedema. PMID:24654245
O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J
Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts. PMID:21557057
Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Kasten, Rickie W; Maggi, Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Byrne, Barbara A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Miller, Melissa A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K
Since 2002, vegetative valvular endocarditis (VVE), septicemia and meningoencephalitis have contributed to an Unusual Mortality Event (UME) of northern sea otters in southcentral Alaska. Streptococcal organisms were commonly isolated from vegetative lesions and organs from these sea otters. Bartonella infection has also been associated with bacteremia and VVE in terrestrial mammals, but little is known regarding its pathogenic significance in marine mammals. Our study evaluated whether Streptococcus bovis/equinus (SB/E) and Bartonella infections were associated with UME-related disease characterized by VVE and septicemia in Alaskan sea otter carcasses recovered 2004-2008. These bacteria were also evaluated in southern sea otters in California. Streptococcus bovis/equinus were cultured from 45% (23/51) of northern sea otter heart valves, and biochemical testing and sequencing identified these isolates as Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. One-third of sea otter hearts were co-infected with Bartonella spp. Our analysis demonstrated that SB/E was strongly associated with UME-related disease in northern sea otters (P<0.001). While Bartonella infection was also detected in 45% (23/51) and 10% (3/30) of heart valves of northern and southern sea otters examined, respectively, it was not associated with disease. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bartonella ITS region allowed detection of two Bartonella species, one novel species closely related to Bartonella spp. JM-1, B. washoensis and Candidatus B. volans and another molecularly identical to B. henselae. Our findings help to elucidate the role of pathogens in northern sea otter mortalities during this UME and suggested that Bartonella spp. is common in sea otters from Alaska and California. PMID:24629902
Otsuyama, Ken-Ichiro; Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Kondou, Kaori; Yanagihara, Masashi; Tokuda, Nobuko; Shirasawa, Bungo; Ichihara, Kiyoshi
The conventional anti-Bartonella henselaeIgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IgM-ELISA) methods for diagnosing cat scratch disease (CSD) remain poor in both sensitivity and specificity. We sought to develop an IgM-ELISA with improved accuracy in the serodiagnosis of CSD by exploring the antigens that are most suitable for an ELISA. We prepared 5 different protein antigens: antigen I (sonicatedB. henselaewhole-cell antigen), antigen II (N-lauroyl-sarcosine-insoluble antigen), antigen III (processed sarcosine-soluble antigen), and antigen IV and antigen V (sarcosine-insoluble and sarcosine-soluble antigens refined by DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography). The IgM antibodies in the sera of 47 patients with clinically suspected CSD (24 definite, 23 suspected) and of 85 healthy individuals were examined by ELISAs using the 5 antigens, and the results were compared with those of an IgM indirect fluorescent antibody assay (IgM-IFA). In a reference panel, which consisted of 5 positive and 5 negative sera, antigen I and antigen III failed to distinguish between the two statuses, whereas the other three antigens succeeded in distinguishing between them. When the cutoff value was set at the 98th percentile of the ELISA index for healthy individuals, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA for the 24 cases of definite CSD was 54%, whereas the sensitivities of the IgM-ELISAs with antigen II, IV, and V were 75%, 83%, and 75%, respectively. The sensitivities of these three IgM-ELISAs for all 47 of the clinically suspected cases were 49%, 64%, and 51%, respectively. In contrast, the sensitivity of IgM-IFA was 28%. These results indicate that the refined sarcosine-insoluble proteins (antigen IV), which possessed the highest specificity among the 5 antigens, are the most appropriate for developing an IgM-ELISA for the highly specific serodiagnosis of CSD. PMID:26865692
Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi
Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057
Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Schötta, Anna Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold
Ticks are vectors for many bacterial, protozoan and viral pathogens and are potential vectors for Bartonella species. Hunters and foresters, therefore, may be regarded as high-risk groups for Bartonella infections. The aims of this study were (i) to identify Bartonella species in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in all provinces of Austria, and (ii) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to Bartonella species in hunters and blood donors in eastern Austria. A total of 515 larval, nymphal and adult I. ricinus, collected throughout Austria in 2005, were selected from the tick library at the Institute for Hygiene and Applied Immunology of the Medical University of Vienna and screened in a specific real-time PCR that targeted a region of the ssrA gene of Bartonella species. The overall Bartonella infection rate was 2.1% (11/515) and the highest rate, 7.5% (4/53), was found in ticks from Vienna. This finding was confirmed by screening a further 60 I. ricinus collected from Vienna in 2013: of these, 6.7% (4/60) were positive for Bartonella spp. The rate of infection was always higher in adult ticks. Sequence analysis in the Bartonella-positive ticks identified several species, including B. henselae, B. doshiae and B. grahamii. To our knowledge this is the first time that these species have been identified in I. ricinus in Austria. Prevalence of IgG antibodies against B. henselae and B. quintana was determined in serum samples from hunters (100) and blood donors (100): in hunters 23% were positive for B. quintana and in 2 samples (2%), antibodies to both B. quintana and B. henselae were detected; in blood donors 22% were positive for B. quintana, 1% for B. henselae and 5% for both. These results indicate that exposure to ticks does not constitutes a relevant risk for Bartonella infection. PMID:26997137
Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Gassner, F.; Nijhof, A.M.; Hovius, E.K.E.; Jongejan, F.; Takken, W.; Reimerink, J.R.; Overgaauw, P.A.M.; Sprong, H.
Background: Awareness for flea-and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The r
Minnick, Michael F.; Battisti, James M.
It has been nearly two decades since the discovery of Bartonella as an agent of bacillary angiomatosis in AIDS patients and persistent bacteremia and ‘nonculturable’ endocarditis in homeless people. Since that time, the number of Bartonella species identified has increased from one to 24, and 10 of these bacteria are associated with human disease. Although Bartonella is the only genus that infects human erythrocytes and triggers pathological angiogenesis in the vascular bed, the group remains...
Mediannikov, Oleg; Davoust, B.; Cabre, O; Rolain, J. M.; Raoult, Didier
Bartonellae are gram-negative facultative intracellular alpha-proteobacteria from the family Bartonellaceae. The natural history of bartonellae consists of a reservoir/host, which is a vertebrate with chronic intravascular infection with sustained bacteremia, and a vector (usually an arthropod) that transfers the bacteria from the reservoir to a susceptible yet uninfected host. In order to reveal the sources and reservoirs of Bartonella infection in animals and vectors in New Caledonia, we co...
De Clerck, K F; Van Offel, J F; Vlieghe, E; Van Marck, E; Stevens, W J
We describe the case of a 39-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to the University Hospital of Antwerp with a clinical picture suggestive of adult Still's disease. Even though a transoesophageal echocardiography showed endocarditis of the aortic valve, blood cultures remained negative. Additional serological testing revealed a positive result for Bartonella henselae. Histology of the supraclavicular lymph node showed a reactive lymph node with a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Bartonella henselae. Prednisolone treatment was started in a dosage of 10 mg per day and rifampicin 600 mg/d in combination with doxycyclin 200 mg/d was given for 6 months. During therapy the patient gradually improved and signs of endocarditis disappeared on echocardiography. PMID:18714850
The bartonellae is a family of gram-negative, fastidious, facultative intracellular, zoonotic bacteria. Most of the Bartonella species are highly adapted to establish asymptomatic bacteremia of their reservoir host within which the bacteria colonize erythrocytes as privileged host niche and develop long-lasting persistent infections. Bartonella uses a VirB type IV secretion system (T4SS) to translocate Bartonella effector proteins (Beps) into the infected cells. By using such a tool box it su...
Liang, Zhongxing; Raoult, Didier
Bartonella species can be differentiated by microimmunofluorescence assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and immunoblotting with murine polyclonal antisera to Bartonella henselae, B. quintana, B. elizabethae, and B. bacilliformis. A pairwise comparison on the basis of SDS-PAGE protein profiles demonstrated similarity values for proteins of different Bartonella species ranging from 28.6 to 86.4%. Antigenic relationships revealed by immunoblotting with mu...
Anne Laudisoit; Jennifer Iverson; Simon Neerinckx; Jean-Christophe Shako; Jean-Marie Mafuko Nsabimana; Gilbert Kersh; Michael Kosoy; Nordin Zeidner
Objective:To assess the presence and identity ofBartonella species in a pool of human blood samples from DRC Congo.Methods: Blood (±120μL) was collected anonymously from Congolese patients and placed on calibrated filter papers.Bartonella serology determination was performed using an indirect immunofluorescence assay(IFA) against six specificBartonella antigens andCoxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) antigen. The end cut-off value forBartonella sp. was a titre greater than1:200.Results:None of the patients was positive forBartonella elizabethae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp.vinsonii orBartonella vinsonii subsp.arupensis nor forC. burnetti, but4.5% of the155 samples were positive for eitherBartonella henselae,Bartonella quintana, orBartonella clarridgeiae.Conclusions: This preliminary study presents the first report of Bartonellaspecies in the DR Congo and the first report of antibodies toBartonella clarridgeiae in an African human population. Although few experimental trials have established the link between fleas andBartonella transmission, the repeated detection of similarBartonella species in fleas and humans in several countries suggests that Bartonellosis could be another flea-borne disease which specific reservoirs are still unknown.
Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.
Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bar...
Arthropod-borne infectious agents in the cat include Bartonella (B.) henselae, Bartonella (B.) clarridgeiae, Bartonella (B.) quintana, Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum and Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi. Moreover infections with Mycoplasma (M.) haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) turicensis and Candidatus Mycoplasma (C. M.) haemominutum occur in the cat. The cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) is supposed to be the main vector for Mycoplasma spp.; moreover, transmission via blood transfusion and ...
Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.
Reimerink Johan R
Full Text Available Abstract Background Awareness for flea- and tick-borne infections has grown in recent years and the range of microorganisms associated with these ectoparasites is rising. Bartonella henselae, the causative agent of Cat Scratch Disease, and other Bartonella species have been reported in fleas and ticks. The role of Ixodes ricinus ticks in the natural cycle of Bartonella spp. and the transmission of these bacteria to humans is unclear. Rickettsia spp. have also been reported from as well ticks as also from fleas. However, to date no flea-borne Rickettsia spp. were reported from the Netherlands. Here, the presence of Bartonellaceae and Rickettsiae in ectoparasites was investigated using molecular detection and identification on part of the gltA- and 16S rRNA-genes. Results The zoonotic Bartonella clarridgeiae and Rickettsia felis were detected for the first time in Dutch cat fleas. B. henselae was found in cat fleas and B. schoenbuchensis in ticks and keds feeding on deer. Two Bartonella species, previously identified in rodents, were found in wild mice and their fleas. However, none of these microorganisms were found in 1719 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks. Notably, the gltA gene amplified from DNA lysates of approximately 10% of the questing nymph and adult ticks was similar to that of an uncultured Bartonella-related species found in other hard tick species. The gltA gene of this Bartonella-related species was also detected in questing larvae for which a 16S rRNA gene PCR also tested positive for "Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii". The gltA-gene of the Bartonella-related species found in I. ricinus may therefore be from this endosymbiont. Conclusions We conclude that the risk of acquiring Cat Scratch Disease or a related bartonellosis from questing ticks in the Netherlands is negligible. On the other hand fleas and deer keds are probable vectors for associated Bartonella species between animals and might also transmit Bartonella spp. to humans.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonellae are fastidious bacteria causing persistent bacteremia in humans and a wide variety of animals. In recent years there is an increasing interest in mammalian bartonelloses in general and in rodent bartonelloses in particular. To date, no studies investigating the presence of Bartonella spp. in rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria were carried out. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of the current study was to investigate the presence of Bartonella spp. in commensal rodents and their ectoparasites in Nigeria. We report, for the first time, the molecular detection of Bartonella in 26% (46/177 of commensal rodents (Rattus rattus, R. norvegicus and Cricetomys gambianus and 28% (9/32 of ectoparasite pools (Xenopsylla cheopis, Haemolaelaps spp., Ctenophthalmus spp., Hemimerus talpoides, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus from Nigeria. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene (gltA revealed diversity of Bartonella spp. and genotypes in Nigerian rodents and their ectoparasites. Bartonella spp. identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum and Bartonella grahamii were detected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High prevalence of infection with Bartonella spp. was detected in commensal rodents and ectoparasites from Nigeria. The Bartonella spp. identified were previously associated with human diseases highlighting their importance to public health. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether the identified Bartonella species could be responsible for human cases of febrile illness in Nigeria.
Roux, V; Raoult, D
Species of the genus Rochalimaea, recently renamed Bartonella, are of a growing medical interest. Bartonella quintana was reported as the cause of trench fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis. B. henselae has been implicated in symptoms and infections of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, such as fever, endocarditis, and bacillary angiomatosis, and is involved in the etiology of cat scratch disease. Such a wide spectrum of infections makes it necessary to obtain an intraspecies identification tool in order to perform epidemiological studies. B. vinsonii, B. elizabethae, seven isolates of B. quintana, and four isolates of B. henselae were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after restriction with the infrequently cutting endonucleases NotI, EagI, and SmaI. Specific profiles were obtained for each of the four Bartonella species. Comparison of genomic fingerprints of isolates of the same species showed polymorphism in DNA restriction patterns, and a specific profile was obtained for each isolate. A phylogenetic analysis of the B. quintana isolates was obtained by using the Dice coefficient, UPGMA (unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic averages), and Package Philip programming. Amplification by PCR and subsequent sequencing using an automated laser fluorescent DNA sequencer (Pharmacia) was performed on the intergenic spacer region (ITS) between the 16 and 23S rRNA genes. It was found that each B. henselae isolate had a specific sequence, while the B. quintana isolates fell into only two groups. When endonuclease restriction analysis of the ITS PCR product was done, three enzymes, TaqI, HindIII, and HaeIII, allowed species identification of Bartonella spp. Restriction fragment length polymorphism after PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA gene ITS may be useful for rapid species identification, and PFGE could be an efficient method for isolate identification. PMID:7650189
Anastasia N. Trataris
Full Text Available Bartonellae are highly adaptive organisms that have the ability to evade the host immune system and cause persistent bacteraemia by occupying the host’s erythrocytes. Bartonella spp. is under-studied and health care professionals often misdiagnose Bartonella-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of Bartonella spp. circulating in human and animal populations in Gauteng using culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR detection. A total of 424 human, 98 cat, 179 dog, and 124 wild rodent blood samples were plated onto specialised media and incubated for 7–21 days at 37 ºC in CO2. Culture isolates morphologically similar to Bartonella control strains were confirmed by PCR and sequenced to determine species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was extracted from all blood samples and tested by nested PCR. Bartonella could only be cultured from the cat and rodent specimens. Cat isolates were > 99% similar to Bartonella henselae URBHLIE 9, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient, and rat isolates were > 98% similar to either RN24BJ (candidus ‘Bartonella thailandensis’ or RN28BJ, previously isolated from rodents in China. The PCR prevalences were 22.5% in HIV-positive patients, 9.5% in clinically healthy volunteers, 23.5% in cats, 9% in dogs and 25% in rodents. Findings of this study have important implications for HIV-positive patients.
Trataris, Anastasia N; Rossouw, Jennifer; Arntzen, Lorraine; Karstaedt, Allan; Frean, John
Bartonellae are highly adaptive organisms that have the ability to evade the host immune system and cause persistent bacteraemia by occupying the host's erythrocytes. Bartonella spp. is under-studied and health care professionals often misdiagnose Bartonella-related infections. The aim of this study was to investigate the carriage of Bartonella spp. circulating in human and animal populations in Gauteng using culturing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection. A total of 424 human, 98 cat, 179 dog, and 124 wild rodent blood samples were plated onto specialised media and incubated for 7-21 days at 37 ºC in CO2. Culture isolates morphologically similar to Bartonella control strains were confirmed by PCR and sequenced to determine species. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from all blood samples and tested by nested PCR. Bartonella could only be cultured from the cat and rodent specimens. Cat isolates were > 99% similar to Bartonella henselae URBHLIE 9, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient, and rat isolates were > 98% similar to either RN24BJ (candidus 'Bartonella thailandensis') or RN28BJ, previously isolated from rodents in China. The PCR prevalences were 22.5% in HIV-positive patients, 9.5% in clinically healthy volunteers, 23.5% in cats, 9% in dogs and 25% in rodents. Findings of this study have important implications for HIV-positive patients. PMID:23327372
A recurrent theme in bacterial pathogenicity is the understanding of the regulatory events necessary for a given pathogen to progress through its infection cycle while resisting the host defense mechanisms. This progression typically requires the coordinated expression of defined sub-portions of the virulence repertoire at the same time as others need to be tightly repressed or degraded. This so-called adaptive response is ultimately linked to the ability of the pathogen to sense its direct e...
Maritsi, Despoina N.; Diagoras Zarganis; Zoi Metaxa; Georgia Papaioannou; George Vartzelis
We present a case of a seven-year-old immunocompetent female patient who developed systemic symptoms mimicking an autoimmune rather than an infectious disease. The patient presented with rash, biquotidian fever, night sweats, and arthralgias. There was no antecedent history of cat contact. Investigations showed increased inflammatory markers, leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, hypercalcemia, and raised angiotensin-converting enzyme. Interferon-gamma releasing assay for tuberculosis infection was n...
Tsuneoka, Hidehiro; Umeda, Akiko; Tsukahara, Masato; Sasaki, Kohsuke
The possibility of Bartonella clarridgeiae being a causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD) was investigated by using indirect fluorescence antibody assays with 288 suspected CSD patients. Immunoglobulin G antibody to noncocultivated B. clarridgeiae was suitable only for detection of B. clarridgeiae antibody. Significant cross-reactivity between Bartonella henselae and B. clarridgeiae was noted, and no CSD case caused by B. clarridgeiae was detected.
Pons, Immaculada; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Nogueras, María Mercedes; Sala, Montserrat; Cervantes, Manuel; Amengual, M José; Segura, Ferran
Background Although the first clinical descriptions of Bartonella infection were associated with immunocompromised patient with bacillary angiomatosis, we currently know that this organism is directly involved in diseases affecting a large number of patients, regardless of their immune status. Cat scratch disease, hepatic peliosis, and some cases of bacteraemia and endocarditis, are directly caused by some species of the genus Bartonella. The purpose of this study was to determinate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against Bartonella henselae and B. quintana in HIV patients and to identify the epidemiological factors involved. Methods Serum samples were collected from HIV patients treated at Hospital de Sabadell. Antibodies to B. henselae and B. quintana from 340 patients were examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Significance levels for univariate statistical test were determined by the Mann-Whitney U test and χ2 test. Results Of 340 patients, 82 were women and 258 men, with a median age of 42.21 ± 10.35 years (range 16–86 years). Seventy-six (22.3%) patients reacted with one or more Bartonella antigens. Of all the factors concerning the seroprevalence rate being studied (age, sex, intravenous drugs use, alcohol consumption, CD4 levels, AIDS, HCV, HBV, residential area), only age was statistically significant. Conclusion A high percentage of HIV patients presents antibodies to Bartonella and is increasing with age. PMID:18452613
Rudoler, Nir; Rasis, Michal; Sharir, Benny; Novikov, Anna; Shapira, Gregory; Giladi, Michael
Bartonella bovis has been described in beef and dairy cattle worldwide, however the reported prevalence rates are inconsistent, with large variability across studies (0-89%). This study describes the first isolation and characterization of B. bovis among cattle herds in the Middle East. Blood samples from two beef cattle herds (each sampled thrice) and one dairy herd (sampled twice) in Israel were collected during a 16-months period. Overall, 71 of 95 blood samples (75%) grew Bartonella sp., with prevalence of 78% and 59% in beef and dairy cattle, respectively. High level bacteremia (≥100,000 colony forming units/mL) was detected in 25 specimens (26%). Such high-level bacteremia has never been reported in cattle. Two dairy cows and one beef cow remained bacteremic when tested 60 or 120 days apart, respectively, suggesting that cattle may have persistent bacteremia. One third of animals were infested with ticks. Sequence analysis of a gltA fragment of 32 bacterial isolates from 32 animals revealed 100% homology to B. bovis. Species identification was confirmed by sequence analysis of the rpoB gene. Phylogenetic analysis based on the concatenated sequences of gltA and rpoB demonstrated that the isolates described herein form a monophyletic group with B. bovis strains originating from cattle worldwide. Taken together, the high prevalence of bacteremia, including high-level bacteremia, in beef and dairy cattle, the potential to develop prolonged bacteremia, the exposure of cattle to arthropod vectors, and proximity of infected animals to humans, make B. bovis a potential zoonotic agent. PMID:25096531
Molin, Ylva; Lindeborg, Mats; Nyström, Fredrik; Madder, Maxime; Hjelm, Eva; Olsen, Björn; Thomas G.T. Jaenson; Ehrenborg, Christian
Bartonella spp. infections are considered to be vector-borne zoonoses; ticks are suspected vectors of bartonellae. Migratory birds can disperse ticks infected with zoonotic pathogens such as Rickettsia and tickborne encephalitis virus and possibly also Bartonella. Thus, in the present study 386 tick specimens collected in spring 2009 from migratory birds on the Mediterranean islands Capri and Antikythera were screened for Bartonella spp. RNA. One or more ticks were found on 2.7% of the birds....
Kosoy, Michael; Bai, Ying; Lynch, Tarah; Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.
We report the presence and diversity of Bartonella spp. in bats of 13 insectivorous and frugivorous species collected from various locations across Kenya. Bartonella isolates were obtained from 23 Eidolon helvum, 22 Rousettus aegyptiacus, 4 Coleura afra, 7 Triaenops persicus, 1 Hipposideros commersoni, and 49 Miniopterus spp. bats. Sequence analysis of the citrate synthase gene from the obtained isolates showed a wide assortment of Bartonella strains. Phylogenetically, isolates clustered in s...
In this podcast, Dr. Nina Marano discusses Bartonella, a bacterial agent thatâs prevalent in many species, including cats, dogs, and cattle. Wild animals are normally thought to carry Bartonella, so when animals are caught in the wild for pet trade, the risk that humans can become infected with Bartonella increases. Bartonella is an identified risk associated with ownership of exotic animals and has serious health consequences. Created: 4/9/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 4/9/2009.
In this podcast, Dr. Marina Eremeeva discusses an article about Bartonella quintana in homeless populations in San Francisco. Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that is transmitted by human body lice. Findings by the articleâs authors suggest that Bartonella quintana may be transmitted by head lice. This could mean that populations other than homeless populations, such as school children, might be at increased risk for Bartonella quintana. Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases. Date Released: 6/30/2009.
Maslow, J.N.; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D
Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-f...
Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Smith, W Barney; Kim, Heung-Chul; Lee, In-Yong; Chae, Joon-Seok
North Korea is located on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. While tick-borne pathogens of medical and veterinary importance have been reported from China and South Korea, they have not been reported from North Korea. To screen for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens in North Korea, ticks were collected from domestic goats. A total of 292 (27 nymph, 26 male, 239 female) Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis were collected and assayed individually for selected tick-borne pathogens. A total of 77 (26.4%) were positive for Anaplasma bovis, followed by Bartonella (B.) grahamii (15, 5.1%), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (12, 4.1%), Bartonella henselae (10, 3.4%), and Borrelia spp. (3, 1.0%) based on 16S ribosomal RNA and ITS species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction. Using the groEL-based nested PCR, a total of 6 and 1 H. longicornis were positive for B. grahamii and B. henselae, respectively. All products were sequenced and demonstrated 100% identity and homology with previously reported sequences from other countries in GenBank. This is the first report of the detection of tick-borne pathogens in the North Korea and suggests that farm animals may act as reservoirs for zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. PMID:26645342
Guimaraes, A M S; Brandão, P E; Moraes, W; Kiihl, S; Santos, L C; Filoni, C; Cubas, Z S; Robes, R R; Marques, L M; Neto, R L; Yamaguti, M; Oliveira, R C; Catão-Dias, J L; Richtzenhain, L J; Messick, J B; Biondo, A W; Timenetsky, J
Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopardus wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopardus geoffroyi, 17 L. wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure] were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher's exact test. The 635bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67=14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI=0.00-0.451, p=0.0028), however other analyzed variables were not considered risk factors (p>0.05). Hematological abnormalities were not associated with infection (p>0.05). This is the first report documenting B. henselae detection by PCR in several species of neotropical felids. PMID:19913372
Kitada, Amanda A B; Favacho, Alexsandra R M; Oliveira, Raquel V C; Pessoa, Adonai A; Gomes, Raphael; Honse, Carla O; Gremião, Isabella D F; Lemos, Elba R S; Pereira, Sandro A
Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella species, transmitted to humans through scratches or bites from infected cats and via direct contact with infected feces. Sporotrichosis, caused by the fungal complex Sporothrix, is transmitted by traumatic inoculation of the fungus. Cats are important in zoonotic transmission. Serum samples from 112 domestic cats with sporotrichosis and 77 samples from healthy cats were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), using the commercial kit Bartonella henselae IFA IgG (Bion). The presence of antibodies against feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) core antigens was detected using the commercial kit Snap Combo FIV-FeLV (Idexx). The group of animals with sporotrichosis contained 93 males with a median age of 22 months, eight (7.1%) of which were positive for FIV and 15 (13.4%) for FeLV. The group of animals without sporotrichosis contained 36 males with a median age 48 months, 10 (13.0%) of which were positive for FIV and eight (10.4%) for FeLV. Of the 112 cats with sporotrichosis and 77 cats without mycosis, 72 (64.3%) and 35 (45.5%), respectively, were IFA reactive. No association was found between age, sex, FIV/FeLV and the presence of antibodies to Bartonella species. The results suggest that the study population can be considered a potential source of zoonotic infection for both diseases. PMID:24127458
Carlos Ponce G
Full Text Available Objetivos: Identificar la existencia de transmisión vertical de Bartonella bacilliformis en Lutzomyia verrucarum. Materiales y métodos: en este estudio experimental, se realizó la crianza individual y masiva (Tº 22°C±2ºC, humedad relativa: 80%±5% de Lutzomyia verrucarum en el Laboratorio de Entomología del Centro de Investigaciones del Hospital de Caraz (Ancash- Perú. Con la finalidad de lograr la infección de las hembras se procedió a alimentarlas con sangre infectada obtenida por éstas directamente al picar la piel de pacientes con bartonelosis aguda frotis positivo. Las hembras, luego de poner sus huevos, fueron evaluadas a través de la prueba de PCR para Bartonella baciliformis. Resultados: 13 de 18 (72,2% hembras alimentadas con sangre infectada con bacteremia al 3% lograron poner huevos y de éstas ninguna resultó ser positiva al PCR. 12 de 54 (22,2% hembras alimentadas con sangre infectada con bacteremia al 80% ovipusieron y de éstas sólo una (8,3% resultó ser positiva al PCR. Ninguno de los descendientes adultos de esta hembra resultó positivo al PCR. Conclusiones: el bajo porcentaje de infección por Bartonella baciliformis encontrado en hembras oviponedoras no permitió determinar la existencia de transmisión vertical de Bartonella bacilliformis en Lutzomyia verrucarum.
Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Yamazaki, Mari; Takeno, Shinako; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Souma, Kousaku; Masuko, Takayoshi; Chomel, Bruno B; Maruyama, Soichi
We report the first description of Bartonella prevalence and genetic diversity in 64 Honshu sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) and 18 Yezo sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Overall, Bartonella bacteremia prevalence was 41.5% (34/82). The prevalence in wild deer parasitized with ticks and deer keds was 61.8% (34/55), whereas no isolates were detected in captive deer (0/27) free of ectoparasites. The isolates belonged to 11 genogroups based on a combination of the gltA and rpoB gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, ribC, and rpoB genes of 11 representative isolates showed that Japanese sika deer harbor three Bartonella species, including B. capreoli and two novel Bartonella species. All Yezo deer's isolates were identical to B. capreoli B28980 strain isolated from an elk in the USA, based on the sequences of the ftsZ, gltA, and rpoB genes. In contrast, the isolates from Honshu deer showed a higher genetic diversity. PMID:22832020
Maslow, J N; Mulligan, M E; Arbeit, R D
Escherichia coli is the most common gram-negative organism associated with bacteremia. While recurrent E. coli urinary tract infections are well-described, recurrent E. coli bacteremia appears to be uncommon, with no episodes noted in multiple series of patients with gram-negative bacteremias. We report on 5 patients with recurrent bloodstream infections identified from a series of 163 patients with E. coli bacteremia. For each patient, the isolates from each episode were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and ribotyping and for the presence of E. coli virulence factors. For each of four patients, the index and recurrent episodes of bacteremia represented the same strain as defined by PFGE, and the strains were found to carry one or more virulence factors. The remaining patient, with two episodes of bloodstream infection separated by a 4-year interval, was infected with two isolates that did not carry any virulence factors and that were clonally related by ribotype analysis but differed by PFGE. All five patients had either a local host defense defect (three patients) or impaired systemic defenses (one patient) or both (one patient). Thus, recurrent E. coli bacteremia is likely to represent a multifactorial process that occurs in patients with impaired host defenses who are infected with virulent isolates. Images PMID:7910828
Kelly, Patrick; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Maggi, Ricardo; Sontakke, Sushama; Keene, Bruce; Hunter, Stuart; Lepidi, Hubert; Breitschwerdt, Kyle T.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Raoult, Didier
We provide the first evidence that Bartonella quintana can infect dogs and cause typical signs of endocarditis. Using PCR and sequencing, we identified B. quintana in the blood of a dog from the United States with aortic valve endocarditis and probably also in the mitral valve of a dog from New Zealand with endocarditis.
de Bortoli, Caroline Plácidi; André, Marcos Rogério; Seki, Meire Christina; Pinto, Aramis Augusto; Machado, Saulo de Tarso Zacarias; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5%) cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2%) for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3%) were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4%) were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2%) showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats. PMID:23070430
Murillo, Nathalia; Mediannikov, Oleg; Aubert, Jérome; Raoult, Didier
We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice. PMID:25449254
Full Text Available We report here the presence of Bartonella quintana in a demodex. Demodex are arthropods associated with acnea. Bartonella quintana was found by broad Spectrum 16rDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, and confirmed by specific PCR. Bartonella quintana may parasite several arthropods and not only lice.
Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G;
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p < .001), the incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p < .001) and the...... incidence rate of nosocomial bacteremia decreased by 28.9% from 82.2 to 56.0 (4.2% annually, p < .001). The incidence rate of healthcare-associated bacteremia remained stable. The most common microorganisms were Escherichia coli (28.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (12.3%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (10...
Full Text Available Background: Bartonella elizabethae has been reported as a causative agent of human illnesses and strains of this bacterium are commonly isolated from commensal small mammals in Asia. Methods: Since the zoonotic potential of a pathogen is often related to its host switching ability, we explored the capacity of a B. elizabethae strain to host switch by subcutaneously inoculating groups of Swiss Webster, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice with the bacteria at a range of doses. Results: A low number of mice in each of the three groups showed susceptibility to infection at high doses (105 and 106 bacteria, and developed bacteremias of 6–8 weeks duration. Conclusion: The capacity of this B. elizabethae strain to switch hosts can have important public health consequences for humans in areas of Asia where many small mammal populations have high bartonellae infection prevalences and live as commensals with humans.
Ticks are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites of many hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles. After mosquitoes, they are the most important vectors worldwide, and are able to transmit the highest variety of pathogens including virus, bacteria and parasites. Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae), the most common tick species in Europe, is a three-life stage hard tick. It is frequently associated with bites in humans, and transmits several pathogens, including Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Babesia ...
Lee, Nan-Yao; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Ko, Wen-Chien
To determine clinical characteristics and outcome of patients with Clostridium difficile bacteremia (CDB), we identified 12 patients with CDB in 2 medical centers in Taiwan; all had underlying systemic diseases. Five had gastrointestinal diseases or conditions, including pseudomembranous colitis (2 patients); 4 recalled diarrhea, but only 5 had recent exposure to antimicrobial drugs. Ten available isolates were susceptible to metronidazole and vancomycin. Five isolates had C. difficile toxin ...
Virna L Saenz
Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.
Hovgaard, D; Skinhøj, P; Bangsborg, Jette Marie;
171 episodes of bacteremia and candidemia in 142 patients were recorded during the period 1981-1985 in patients with hematological malignancies. Overall mortality, within 1 week of onset of bacteremia, was 20%. Increased mortality was found in patients with poor disease-prognosis (39%), with...
Liao, Chun-Hsing; Liu, Liang-Chun; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Teng, Lee-Jeng; Hsueh, Po-Ren
A retrospective observational study in Taiwan, 1998–2004, identified 92 patients with group G streptococcal bacteremia; 86 had Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. The most common diagnosis was cellulitis (48 cases), followed by primary bacteremia (34 cases). Infection recurred in 9 patients. Mortality rate was low (3.3%); resistance to quinupristin-dalfopristin was high.
Liao, Chun-Hsing; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Lai, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Yu; Chu, Fang-Yeh; Hsu, Meng-Shiuan; Hsu, Hsin-Sui; Hsueh, Po-Ren
Capsular serotypes of 225 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Taiwan were identified by using PCR. Patients infected with K1 serotypes (41 isolates) had increased community-onset bacteremia, more nonfatal diseases and liver abscesses, lower Pittsburgh bacteremia scores and mortality rates, and fewer urinary tract infections than patients infected with non–K1/K2 serotypes (147 isolates).
Mogollon-Pasapera, Elin; Otvos, Laszlo; Giordano, Antonio; Cassone, Marco
The number of known Bartonella species is rapidly growing. Some of them are responsible for distinct infectious diseases and show different prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles. Not only have some vectors of Bartonella not been fully characterized, but also intermediate hosts are actually much more numerous and diverse than previously thought. Among these, dogs differ from cats because they tend to suffer an overt disease similar to humans, thus providing the base for a useful animal indicator and research model. Among the debilitating conditions with an unclear impact on the course of these infections, specific conditions (e.g., homelessness, alcoholism) have been linked to a much higher prevalence and to high risk of unfavorable outcome. Due to the limited arsenal of antibiotics effective in vivo on this peculiar intracellular pathogen, the risk/benefit balance of antibiotic therapy is sometimes difficult to draw. In this evolving picture, the recent discoveries of new species highlights the importance of basic molecular biology resources that would bring major public health benefits if available in endemic areas, and specifically in many areas of Peru and Bolivia. PMID:18621561
Liang, Zhongxing; La Scola, Bernard; Lepidi, Hubert; Raoult, Didier
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) which react with heat-resistant proteins with molecular masses of 32 to 33 kDa of 14 different Bartonella species were produced. These antibodies did not react with antigens of 26 diverse bacterial strains by microimmunofluorescence assay except MAb B3D4, which reacted with Chlamydia psittaci and Chlamydia trachomatis at low titers. The identification of a common Bartonella antigenic protein will make it possible to later produce a diagnostic antigen by cloning an...
Kopecký, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Hubert, Jan
Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are carried by haematophagous mites, ticks, fleas and flies, and attack the erythrocytes of mammals. Here we describe a Bartonella-like clade, a distinct group related to Bartonellaceae, in stored-product mites (Acari: Astigmata) and a predatory mite Cheyletus eruditus (Acari: Prostigmata) based on the analysis of cloned 16S rRNA gene sequences. By using the clade-specific primers, closely related Bartonella-like 16S rRNA sequences were amplified from both laboratory colonies and field strains of three synanthropic mite species (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and a predatory mite. Altogether, sequences of Bartonella-like bacteria were found in 11 strains, but were not detected in Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and two strains of L. destructor. All obtained sequences formed a separate cluster branching as a sister group to Bartonellaceae and related to other separate clusters comprising uncultured bacterial clones from human skin and hemipteran insects (Nysius plebeius and Nysius sp.). The classification of sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) showed a difference between A. siro and T. putrescentiae suggesting that the Bartonella-like bacteria are different in these two mite species. However, species specific sequences in separate OTUs were observed also for C. eruditus. Possible symbiotic interactions between Bartonella-like bacteria and their mite hosts are discussed. PMID:24711066
Latos, D L; Stone, W J; Alford, R H
Fifteen male hemodialysis patients developed 21 episodes of S. aureus bacteremia. Infections involving vascular access were responsible for 65% of initial bacteremias. The arteriovenous fistula was the most prevalent type of access used, and thus was responsible for the majority of these illnesses. Phage typing indicated that recurrent episodes were due to reinfection rather than relapse. Complications included endocarditis, osteomyelitis, septic embolism, and pericarditis. One patient died of infectious complications. It is recommended that hemodialysis patients developing bacteremia due to S. aureus receive at least 6 weeks of beta lactamase-resistant antimicrobial therapy. PMID:608860
Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Weis, Nina;
probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients <75 yrs old, sCD163 was superior to other markers, including C-reactive protein, in predicting fatal disease outcome....... pneumococcal bacteremia. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Five university hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 133 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (positive blood culture) and 133 age- and gender-matched controls. INTERVENTIONS: Samples were collected for biochemical...
Hagiya, Hideharu; Ogawa, Hiroko; Takahashi, Yusuke; Kimura, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Kan; Otsuka, Fumio
We herein present a rare case of Actinomyces turicensis bacteremia that was caused by pyometra. The patient was successfully treated with transvaginal drainage and antibiotic therapy. A literature review in MEDLINE showed that there have been only 8 previously reported cases of A. turicensis bacteremia. This infection frequently occurs in patients with visceral abscesses, and blood culture examinations usually reveal a polymicrobial pattern. However, the prognosis of such patients has been reported to generally be benign. Due to difficulties in performing bacterial identification and the wide-spectrum clinical pictures associated with this bacteremia, no comprehensive understanding of the clinical features of each Actinomyces species has yet been established. PMID:26521910
Juanjuan, D; Zhiyong, Z; Xiaoju, L; Yali, X; Xihai, Z; Zhenzhen, L
A total of 52 patients of Enterobacter cloacae bacteremia from a University hospital during the period from January 2000 to June 2005 were analysed and compared with a reference group comprising 52 patients of Escherichia coli bacteremia. Overall, E. cloacae ranked the tenth in all pathogens of bacteremia accounting for 2.8% of the total patients. Although the incidence of E. cloacae bacteremia was low, the attributable mortality rate till achieved 13.5%. Most patients (86.5%) with E. cloacae bacteremia were hospital-acquired. The overwhelming majority of patients (92.3%) were men, while almost half of the patients (48.1%) were from the Department of Urological Surgery with underlying diseases such as urinal obstruction, kidney transplantation and kidney tumours. Possible risks factors associated with E. cloacae bacteremia included immunocompromised status, long-term hospitalisation and invasive procedures or surgeries. E. cloacae bacteremia significantly differed from E. coli bacteremia in a number of clinical aspects, including underlying diseases, portal of entry, infection type, risks factors, laboratory findings and appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy. Besides the high prevalence of resistance to cephalosporins, most E. cloacae blood isolates were also resistant to ciprofloxacin (resistance rate, 67.3%), gentamicin (73.1%) and tobramycin (73.1%). Based on the findings of the present study, E. cloacae is probably an important pathogen of bacteremia occurring in male patients with underlying urinal system illnesses. PMID:17394432
Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Detecção de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. e co-infecção com retrovírus em gatos submetidos a um programa de castração/esterilização em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil
Caroline Plácidi de Bortoli
Full Text Available Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats that were sampled during a spaying/neutering campaign conducted in Jaboticabal, SP. Three (6.5% cats were positive for hemoplasmas: two (4.3% for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (2.2% for both M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One of the two 'Candidatus M. haemominutum'-infected cats was also positive for FeLV antigens and showed antibodies for FIV. Two cats (4.3% were positive for B. henselae. One of them was also positive for FeLV antigens. Eight cats (17.4% were positive for FeLV, and just one (2.2% showed anti-FIV antibodies. Bartonella species and hemoplasmas associated with infection due to retroviruses can circulate among apparently healthy cats.Micoplasmas hemotróficos e espécies de Bartonella são importantes patógenos que circulam entre gatos e hospedeiros invertebrados, causando ocasionalmente doenças no homem. Apesar disto, poucos são os estudos acerca da ocorrência destes agentes entre gatos no Brasil. O presente estudo objetivou detectar o DNA de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. pela PCR e sequenciamento. Antígeno de FIV e anticorpos anti-FeLV foram estudados utilizando um "kit" comercial, em amostras de sangue e soro, respectivamente, de 46 gatos amostrados em uma campanha de castração em Jaboticabal, SP. Três gatos (6,5% foram positivos para hemoplasmas: dois (4,3% para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' e um (2,2% para M. haemofelis and 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. Um dos gatos positivos para 'Candidatus M. haemominutum
Minnick, M F
Purification of the outer membrane of Bartonella bacilliformis by sucrose step gradient centrifugation and analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) suggest that 14 proteins, ranging from 11.2 to 75.3 kDa, are located in the outer membrane of the pathogen. On the basis of M(r)s, eleven of these proteins have counterparts which are labeled by extrinsic radioiodination of intact bartonellae, and two of the proteins are visibly sensitive to extrinsic protei...
Marciano, Odelya; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Morick, Danny; King, Roni; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon
Bartonella infection was explored in wild animals from Israel. Golden jackals (Canis aureus), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), rock hyraxes (Procavia capensis), southern white-breasted hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor), social voles (Microtus socialis), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami), Cairo spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Indian crested porcupines (Hystrix indica) were sampled and screened by molecular and isolation methods. Bartonella-DNA was detected in 46 animals: 9/70 (13%) golden jackals, 2/11 (18%) red foxes, 3/35 (9%) rock hyraxes, 1/3 (33%) southern white-breasted hedgehogs, 5/57 (9%) Cairo spiny mice, 25/43 (58%) Tristram's jirds and 1/6 (16%) house mice. Bartonella rochalimae and B. rochalimae-like were widespread among jackals, foxes, hyraxes and jirds. This report represents the first detection of this zoonotic Bartonella sp. in rock hyraxes and golden jackals. Moreover, DNA of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella acomydis, Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii and other uncharacterized genotypes were identified. Three different Bartonella strains were isolated from Tristram's jirds, and several genotypes were molecularly detected from these animals. Furthermore, this study reports the first detection of Bartonella infection in a southern hedgehog. Our study indicates that infection with zoonotic and other Bartonella species is widespread among wild animals and stresses their potential threat to public health. PMID:27210612
Guillen, Yolanda; Casadellà, Maria; García-de-la-Guarda, Ruth; Espinoza-Culupú, Abraham; Paredes, Roger; Ruiz, Joaquim
Bartonella bacilliformis is the causative agent of Carrion’s disease, a highly endemic human bartonellosis in Peru. We performed a whole-genome assembly of two B. bacilliformis strains isolated from the blood of infected patients in the acute phase of Carrion’s disease from the Cusco and Piura regions in Peru. PMID:27389274
Dieme, Constentin; Parola, Philippe; Guernier, Vanina; Lagadec, Erwan; Le Minter, Gildas; Balleydier, Elsa; Pagès, Frederic; Dellagi, Koussay; Tortosa, Pablo; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina
Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia typhi, and Bartonella DNA was detected by molecular tools in 12% of Rattus rattus fleas (Xenopsylla species) collected from Reunion Island. One-third of the infested commensal rodents captured during 1 year carried at least one infected flea. As clinical signs of these zoonoses are non-specific, they are often misdiagnosed. PMID:25646263
Schiellerup, Peter; Dyhr, Thomas; Rolain, Jean Marc;
were detected in 1 handball player and 1 basketball player. We found no association between elite orienteers and the prevalence of Bartonella antibody positivity. This is in contrast to the Swedish study, and might be explained by the use of different serological methods in the 2 studies; to determine...
Hagiya, Hideharu; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Maki, Miyako; Watanabe, Naoto; Murase, Tomoko
The clinical picture of Ochrobactrum anthropi infection is not well described because the infection is rare in humans and identification of the pathogen is difficult. We present a case of O. anthropi bacteremia that was initially misidentified as Ralstonia paucula and later identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and recA analysis.
Toeg, A; Berger, S A; Battat, A; Hoffman, M.; Yust, I
Bacteremia due to Vibrio cholerae is rare. Each of 15 cases previously reported in the English language literature occurred in the setting of immune deficiency. We describe an instance of non-serogroup O1 V. cholerae septicemia in an otherwise healthy patient. Susceptibility to such infection may have been enhanced by a prior gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer.
Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier
Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis c...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella infections are emerging in the Zhejiang Province of China. However, there has been no effort to date to explore the epidemiology of these infections in this region, nor to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Bartonella in both patients bitten by dogs and blood donors (for control in Eastern China, and to identify risk factors associated with exposure to Bartonella. As no previous data for this region have been published, this study will provide baseline data useful for Bartonella infection surveillance, control, and prevention. Methods Blood samples were collected from industrial rabies clinic attendees and blood donors living in eight areas of the Zhejiang Province of China, between December 2005 and November 2006. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test was used to determine the presence of Bartonella in these samples. Risk factors associated with Bartonella exposure were explored using Chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis of epidemiological data relating to the study's participants. Results Bartonella antibodies were detected in 19.60% (109/556 of blood samples. Seroprevalence varied among the eight areas surveys, ranging from over 32% in Hangzhou to only 2% in Jiangshan (X2 = 28.22, P Bartonella antibodies in people who had been bitten by dogs than in blood donors (X2 = 13.86, P Bartonella was similar among males (18.61%, n = 317 and females (20.92%, n = 239. Conclusions Bartonella antibodies were encountered in people living across Zhejiang Province and the seropositivity rate among those exposed to dog bites was significantly higher than that among blood donors, indicating that dog bites may be a risk factor for Bartonella infection.
Lindroos, Hillevi Lina
Bacteria of the genus Bartonella inhabit the red blood cells of many mammals, including humans, and are transmitted by blood-sucking arthropod vectors. Different species of Bartonella are associated with different mammalian host species, to which they have adapted and normally do not cause any symptoms. Incidental infection of other hosts is however often followed by various disease symptoms, and several Bartonella species are considered as emerging human pathogens. In this work, I have studi...
Nielsen, Stig Lønberg
Bacteremia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and ranks among the top seven causes of death in Europe and North America. The occurrence of bacteremia has increased for decades while short-term prognosis has remained unchanged or improved only slightly. Consequently, we are facing an increased number of bacteremia survivors for whom we know little about long-term survival and causes of death. Contemporary knowledge on the epidemiology and outcome of bacteremia is important to assess its impact on public health and is a prerequisite for any effective prevention and improvement of prognosis. This thesis is based on data from a bacteremia database (The Danish Observational Registry of Infectious Syndromes) comprising all bacteremias in Funen County, Denmark, between May 1999 and December 2008. Data on bacteremias were cross-linked with various administrative and research healthcare registries and we conducted 3 studies on adult bacteremia patients with the aims: to investigate the occurrence of and trends in first-time bacteremia and distribution of microorganisms in the general population; overall and by place of acquisition (study I), to investigate the overall and daily incidences of bacteremia among hospitalized patients (study II), to investigate and compare long-term mortality and causes of death after bacteremia with the general population (study III). Study I: In a population-based observational study, we identified 7786 residents of Funen County with first-time bacteremia for an overall incidence rate of 215.7 per 100,000 person years including 99.0 for community-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. The overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% (95% CI, 17.8%-28.4%) from year 2000 to 2008 (3.3% per year, p 65 years), and patients initially admitted to the Departments of Hematology, Nephrology, Internal Medicine, Urology or Oncology. The daily incidence was highest on the day of admission and declined
Hsueh, Po-Ren; Teng, Lee-Jene; Pan, Hui-Ju; Chen, Yu-Chi; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Ho, Shen-Wu; Luh, Kwen-Tay
From 7 to 24 March 1997, four patients developed Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteremia at the hospital; one on the oncology ward and the other three in the chemotherapy room. These patients all had underlying malignancies and had the Port-A-Cath (Smiths Industries Medical Systems, Deltec, Inc., St. Paul, Minn.) implants. Three patients had primary bacteremia, and one had Port-A-Cath-related infection. None of these patients had received a blood transfusion before the episodes of bacteremia. All ...
Bai, Y.; Kosoy, M.Y.; Cully, J.F.; Bala, T.; Ray, C.; Collinge, S.K.
Rodent-associated Bartonella species are generally host-specific parasites in North America. Here evidence that Bartonella species can 'jump' between host species is presented. Northern grasshopper mice and other rodents were trapped in the western USA. A study of Bartonella infection in grasshopper mice demonstrated a high prevalence that varied from 25% to 90% by location. Bartonella infection was detected in other rodent species with a high prevalence as well. Sequence analyses of gltA identified 29 Bartonella variants in rodents, 10 of which were obtained from grasshopper mice. Among these 10, only six variants were specific to grasshopper mice, whereas four were identical to variants specific to deer mice or 13-lined ground squirrels. Fourteen of 90 sequenced isolates obtained from grasshopper mice were strains found more commonly in other rodent species and were apparently acquired from these animals. The ecological behavior of grasshopper mice may explain the occurrence of Bartonella strains in occasional hosts. The observed rate at which Bartonella jumps from a donor host species to the grasshopper mouse was directly proportional to a metric of donor host density and to the prevalence of Bartonella in the donor host, and inversely proportional to the same parameters for the grasshopper mouse. ?? 2007 Federation of European Microbiological Societies.
Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A
Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. PMID:25810119
Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros;
More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the...
K M Shahunja; Leung, Daniel T.; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Ahmed, Dilruba; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer
Background: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi bacteremia are the causes of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a paucity of data regarding NTS bacteremia in South Asia, a region with a high incidence of typhoidal bacteremia. We sought to determine clinical predictors and outcomes associated with NTS bacteremia compared with typhoidal bacteremia. Methodology We performed a retrospective age-matched case-control study of patients admitted t...
Korhonen, E M; Pérez Vera, C; Pulliainen, A T; Sironen, T; Aaltonen, K; Kortet, R; Härkönen, L; Härkönen, S; Paakkonen, T; Nieminen, P; Mustonen, A-M; Ylönen, H; Vapalahti, O
The deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) is a haematophagous ectoparasite of cervids that harbours haemotrophic Bartonella. A prerequisite for the vector competence of the deer ked is the vertical transmission of the pathogen from the mother to its progeny and transstadial transmission from pupa to winged adult. We screened 1154 pupae and 59 pools of winged adult deer keds from different areas in Finland for Bartonella DNA using PCR. Altogether 13 pupa samples and one winged adult deer ked were positive for the presence of Bartonella DNA. The amplified sequences were closely related to either B. schoenbuchensis or B. bovis. The same lineages were identified in eight blood samples collected from free-ranging moose. This is the first demonstration of Bartonella spp. DNA in a winged adult deer ked and, thus, evidence for potential transstadial transmission of Bartonella spp. in the species. PMID:24901607
Full Text Available In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.
Tawisa Jiyipong; Sathaporn Jittapalapong; Serge Morand; Jean-Marc Rolain
In this article, authors review the current knowledge of Bartonella infection in small mammals including rodents, insectivores, bats and exotic small mammal pets and their vectors in Asia. Species of Bartonella are Gram-negative intracellular bacteria that infect erythrocytes of various mammalian and non-mammalian animals and mainly transmitted by blood sucking arthropod vectors. The genus Bartonella includes several species of important human diseases with severe clinical signs. Several new Bartonella species were isolated from rodents and other small mammals, and from human patients in Asia. Bartonella species are identified using standard polymerase chain reaction amplification and a sequencing targeting two housekeeping genes (gltA and rpoB) and the internal transcribed spacer fragment. Authors also discuss the implications in term of potential emerging zoonotic diseases.
Full Text Available Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%, A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%, A. caviae (43, 28.1%, and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5% were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC β-lactamase and metallo-β-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1, bla(MOX, or bla(CepH was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively. A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048. Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ≥ 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.
Pedersen, Rune Micha; Holt, Hanne Marie; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz
We present five cases of Solobacterium moorei bacteremia. The isolates were identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were susceptible to common antibiotics used for anaerobic infections. Bacteremia with S. moorei seems to be associated with debilitating conditions, but the prognosis of the infection appears to be good.
Micha Pedersen, Rune; Holt, Hanne Marie; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz
We present five cases of Solobacterium moorei bacteremia. The isolates were identified with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and were susceptible to common antibiotics used for anaerobic infections. Bacteremia with S. moorei seems to be associated with debilitating conditions, but the prognosis of the in...
Cara E Brook
Full Text Available We captured, ectoparasite-combed, and blood-sampled cave-roosting Madagascan fruit bats (Eidolon dupreanum and tree-roosting Madagascan flying foxes (Pteropus rufus in four single-species roosts within a sympatric geographic foraging range for these species in central Madagascar. We describe infection with novel Bartonella spp. in sampled Eidolon dupreanum and associated bat flies (Cyclopodia dubia, which nest close to or within major known Bartonella lineages; simultaneously, we report the absence of Bartonella spp. in Thaumapsylla sp. fleas collected from these same bats. This represents the first documented finding of Bartonella infection in these species of bat and bat fly, as well as a new geographic record for Thaumapsylla sp. We further relate the absence of both Bartonella spp. and ectoparasites in sympatrically sampled Pteropus rufus, thus suggestive of a potential role for bat flies in Bartonella spp. transmission. These findings shed light on transmission ecology of bat-borne Bartonella spp., recently demonstrated as a potentially zoonotic pathogen.
Corredoira, J C; Alonso, M P; García, J F; Casariego, E; Coira, A; Rodriguez, A; Pita, J; Louzao, C; Pombo, B; López, M J; Varela, J
The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Streptococcus salivarius isolates recovered from blood cultures and compare them with isolates of Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II. Seventeen of the 52 (32%) S. salivarius isolates recovered were considered clinically significant, compared with 62 of the 64 (97%) S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). Bacteremia caused by S. salivarius occurred mostly in patients who showed relevant disruption of the mucous membranes and/or serious underlying diseases. Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia were younger than those with S. bovis bacteremia (57 vs. 67 years; p<0.01). Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia and patients with S. bovis II bacteremia had similar rates of endocarditis, colon tumors, and non-colon cancer. On the other hand, when compared with S. bovis I bacteremia, S. salivarius bacteremia was associated with lower rates of endocarditis (18% vs. 74%, respectively) (p<0.01) and colon tumors (0% vs. 57%, respectively) (p<0.005) and higher rates of non-colon cancer (53% vs. 9.5%, respectively) (p<0.01). Bacteremia caused by S. bovis II had a hepatobiliary origin in 50% of the patients, while, in contrast, that due to S. salivarius or S. bovis I was less frequently associated with a hepatobiliary origin (12% and 5%, respectively) (p<0.00001). The rate of penicillin resistance was 31% among S. salivarius isolates and 0% among S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of S. salivarius bacteremia and S. bovis II bacteremia are similar, and the isolation of S. salivarius in blood should not be systematically regarded as contamination. PMID:15902530
Nielsen, Stig Lønberg
an increased number of bacteremia survivors for whom we know little about long-term survival and causes of death. Contemporary knowledge on the epidemiology and outcome of bacteremia is important to assess its impact on public health and is a prerequisite for any effective prevention and improvement......, Staphylococcus aureus, co-agulasenegative staphylococci and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and increased for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and enterococci species (p<0.05 for all the mentioned microorganisms). Regard-less of place of acquisition, the proportion of bacteremias caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci...
Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob; Rusan, Maria;
prophylaxis recommendations to patients at high risk of infective endocarditis who are undergoing tonsillectomy. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on 80 patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy and 36 patients undergoing acute tonsillectomy due to peritonsillar abscess. Blood cultures, tonsillar...... swabs, core tissue, and pus aspirates were analyzed by standard microbiological techniques. Results: Bacteremia was detected in 73% of patients during elective tonsillectomy compared to 56% during quinsy tonsillectomy (P ¼ .089, Fishers exact test). Significantly more blood culture bottles were positive...... prophylaxis recommendation only to patients undergoing procedures to treat an established infection. To provide full empiric coverage, including coverage for Staphylococcus aureus, we advocate the use of amoxicillin with clavulanic acid in patients at high risk of infective endocarditis....
Philip W Lam
Full Text Available Raoultella planticola is a Gram-negative bacillus commonly found in water, soil and aquatic environments. There have only been 16 cases of R planticola infection documented in the literature to date. R planticola possesses the ability to convert histidine to histamine and can produce symptoms of scombroid poisoning when poorly prepared seafood is consumed in large amounts. The present report describes a case involving a 56-year-old woman who presented with R planticola bacteremia and symptoms consistent with cholangitis four days after consuming a seafood salad containing squid and octopus. She was successfully treated with intravenous ceftriaxone followed by oral ciprofloxacin. Recent chemotherapy, proton pump inhibitor use and altered biliary flow secondary to hepatic metastases may have been contributing factors to the pathogenesis of disease.
Bonilla, Denise L.; Kabeya, Hidenori; Henn, Jennifer; Kramer, Vicki L.; Kosoy, Michael Y
Bartonella quintana is a bacterium that causes trench fever in humans. Past reports have shown Bartonella spp. infections in homeless populations in San Francisco, California, USA. The California Department of Public Health in collaboration with San Francisco Project Homeless Connect initiated a program in 2007 to collect lice from the homeless to test for B. quintana and to educate the homeless and their caregivers on prevention and control of louse-borne disease. During 2007–2008, 33.3% of ...
Chang, C. C.; Chomel, B.B.; Kasten, R W; Romano, V.; Tietze, N.
Ticks are the vectors of many zoonotic diseases in the United States, including Lyme disease, human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Most known Bartonella species are arthropod borne. Therefore, it is important to determine if some Bartonella species, which are emerging pathogens, could be carried or transmitted by ticks. In this study, adult Ixodes pacificus ticks were collected by flagging vegetation in three sites in Santa Clara County, Calif. PCR-...
Carrasco, Sebastian E.; Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied an...
Smit, Jesper; Søgaard, Mette; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich
We investigated whether different definitions of healthcare-associated infection influenced the prevalence, characteristics, and mortality of patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. With different definitions, the proportion of patients classified as having healthcare-associated S. aureus...
Andersen, Christian Østergaard; Leib, S.L.; Rowland, Ian J;
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Bacteremia and systemic complications both play important roles in brain pathophysiological alterations and the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. Their individual contributions to the development of brain damage, however, still remain to be defined. METHODS: Using an adult...... rat pneumococcal meningitis model, the impact of bacteremia accompanying meningitis on the development of hippocampal injury was studied. The study comprised of the three groups: I. Meningitis (n=11), II. meningitis with attenuated bacteremia resulting from iv injection of serotype......-specific pneumococcal antibodies (n=14), and III. uninfected controls (n=6). RESULTS: Pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a significantly higher apoptosis score 0.22 (0.18-0.35) compared to uninfected controls (0.02 (0.00-0.02), Mann Whitney test, P=0.0003). Also, meningitis with an attenuation of bacteremia by...
Full Text Available OXA-48-producing isolates were identified in approximately 4% and less than 1% of ESBL-producing and non-ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae causing bacteremia at the largest tertiary hospital in Abu Dhabi.
Sato, Shingo; Kabeya, Hidenori; Miura, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Kazuo; Bai, Ying; Kosoy, Michael; Sentsui, Hiroshi; Kariwa, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Soichi
The prevalence of Bartonella species was investigated among wild carnivores of the suborder Caniformia, including 15 Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), 8 Japanese martens (Martes melampus), 2 Japanese weasels (Mustela itatsi), 1 Siberian weasel (Mustela sibirica), 171 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and 977 raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Japan. Bartonella bacteria were isolated from one Japanese badger (6.7%) and from one Japanese marten (12.5%); however, no Bartonella species was found in other representatives of Caniformia. Phylogenetic analysis was based on concatenated sequences of six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gltA, groEL, ribC, and rpoB) and sequence of the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. The sequence analysis indicated that the isolate derived from the Japanese badger (strain JB-15) can represent a novel Bartonella species and the isolate from the Japanese marten (strain JM-1) was closely related to Bartonella washoensis. This is the first report on isolation of Bartonella from badger and marten. PMID:22841404
Ereqat, Suheir; Nasereddin, Abdelmajeed; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Abdelkader, Ahmad; Al-Jawabreh, Amer; Zaid, Taher; Azmi, Kifaya; Abdeen, Ziad
Ticks play an important role in disease transmission as vectors for human and animal pathogens, including the Gram-negative pathogen Bartonella. Here, we evaluated the presence of Bartonella in ixodid ticks and domestic animals from Palestine. We tested 633 partly engorged ticks and 139 blood samples from domestic animals (dogs, sheep and camels) for Bartonella using ITS-PCR. Bartonella DNA was detected in 3.9% of the tested ticks. None of the ticks collected from sheep and goats were positive for Bartonella. Seventeen R. sanguineus ticks (17/391; 4.3%) collected from dogs were infected with B. rochalimae (n = 10), B. chomelii (n = 6), and B. koehlerae (n = 1). Four H. dromedarri ticks (4/63; 6.3%) obtained from camels were infected with B. bovis (n = 2) and B. rochalimae (n = 2). Among canine blood samples (n = 110), we found one asymptomatic female dog to be infected with B. rochalimae (0.9%). The detection of zoonotic Bartonella species in this study should raise awareness of these vector-borne diseases among physicians, veterinarians and public health workers and highlight the importance of surveillance and preventive measures in the region. PMID:27540374
Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.
Brandt, Christian; Peters, David Alberg; Liptrot, Matthew George;
Background. Bacteremia plays a major role in the outcome of pneumococcal meningitis. This experimental study investigated how bacteremia influences the pathophysiologic profile of the brain. Methods. Rats with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were randomized to 1 of 3 groups of infected study ....... The different end points affected by the systemic and local infectious processes should be addressed in future studies. © 2008 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved....
Bisiaux-Salauze, B; Perez, C; Sebald, M; Petit, J C
We report two different cases of bacteremia caused by two recently described Selenomonas species, Selenomonas artemidis and Selenomonas infelix. Both species are normally found in human buccal flora. S. artemidis bacteremia appeared in a patient (number 1) who presented with an air-fluid pulmonary cavity and clinical conditions consistent with an anaerobic lung abscess. While the patient improved with antibiotic therapy, cultures of respiratory secretions yielded Mycobacterium tuberculosis. T...
Hofmans, M; Boel, A; Van Vaerenbergh, K; De Beenhouwer, H
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a well-known cause of uncomplicated urinary tract infections, especially in young and sexually active women. Presence in blood cultures is rare and often attributed to contamination. When bacteremia is significant, it occurs mostly in patients with hematologic malignancies and is predominantly catheter-related. However, we describe a case of significant bacteremia with S. saprophyticus associated with urinary tract infection after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy of an ureterolithiasis in an otherwise healthy patient. PMID:25523318
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1 year period in Sina Hospital, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Iran, and 81 burn were included. We collected patients’ data about their age, body weight, cause of burn, lesion color, place and percentage of burn by getting history and studying of their files. Then we documented all interventions. Blood tests and cultures and colonies criteria were recorded. Results: In this study, 39 patients were male (48.1%, and 42 was female (51.9%. Mean age was 32.06 ± 17.46 years. In patients without bacteremia, 57 patients did not need catheterization (89.1%, however in patients with bacteremia 9 patients demanded catheter insertion (52.9%. In patients with bacteremia 12 patients survived (70.9%, however in the without bacteremia group 56 patients survived (92.2%. Then, the relationship between type of burn, wound infection and bacterial species investigated, (P = 0.650, P = 0.210 and P = 0.110 respectively. Conclusion: We concluded, invasive interventions increased bacteremia susceptibility in our studied burned patients. Mortality rate is directly related to bacteremia prevalence and increased by extent of burn area in these patients. The three most frequent microbial agents responsible for bacteremia were Pseudomona aeruginosa, Klebsiella and Staphylococcus aureus.
Madsen, Ida Ringsborg; Justesen, Ulrik Stenz
Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite.......Animal bite wounds are often infected with bacteria from the animal's oral flora. We report what we believe to be the first case of bacteremia with Bacteroides pyogenes resulting from an infected cat bite....
Ying Bai; Hayman, David T. S.; McKee, Clifton D.; Kosoy, Michael Y.
Bartonellae are facultative intracellular bacteria and are highly adapted to their mammalian host cell niches. Straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) are commonly infected with several bartonella strains. To elucidate the genetic diversity of these bartonella strains, we analyzed 79 bartonella isolates from straw-colored fruit bats in seven countries across Africa (Cameroon, Annobon island of Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) using a multi-locus sequencing typ...
Tuya, Ximena L.; Escalante-Kanashiro, Raffo; Tinco, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; Petrozzi, Verónica; Ruiz, Joaquim; del Valle, Juana
A 22-day-old male was admitted with a 2-day history of irritability, dyspnea, jaundice, fever, and gastrointestinal bleeding. A thin blood smear was performed, which showed the presence of intraerythrocyte bacteria identified as Bartonella bacilliformis, and subsequently, the child was diagnosed with Carrion's disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by specific polymerase chain reaction. The child was born in a non-endemic B. bacilliformis area and had not traveled to such an area before hospitalization. However, the mother was from an endemic B. bacilliformis area, and posterior physical examination showed the presence of a wart compatible with B. bacilliformis in semi-immune subjects. These data support vertical transmission of B. bacilliformis. PMID:25371184
Adrelírio J. R. Gonçalves
Full Text Available São apresentados 31 casos de bacteremia por gram-negativos, assunto que vem merecendo muita atenção dos pesquisadores nos últimos anos. Os organismos etiológicos mais importantes que apareceram em igualdade de freqüência foram Escherichia coli e Klebsiella-Aerobacter, sendo responsáveis por 58% do total das infecções, seguidos por Pseudomonas. A porta de entrada mais freqüente foi o trato urinário em 61,3% dos casos. A infecção foi mais comum no sexo masculino e a faixa etária de 50 a 60 anos predominou. O uso prévio de antibióticos foi um fator predisponente muito importante, seguido pelo uso de esteróides e citostáticos. As principais doenças predisponentes foram diabetes mellitus e neoplasias malignas. Os principais fatores precipitantes foram a manipulação do aparelho urinário, com infecção prévia ou desencadeada, cirurgia do aparelho digestivo, uronatia obstrutiva e obstrução biliar. As principais manifestações clínicas foram a presença de febre, calafrios e hipotensão arterial. A complicação mais freqüente foi o choque bacteriano que incidiu em 58% dos casos, aproximadamente três vêzes aquela relatada na literatura. As outras foram a insuficiência renal aguda, superinfecção e infecção pulmonar metastática. Considerações terapêuticas gerais e esquemas de antibióticos são propostos para estes casos. A mortalidade da bacteremia simples foi de 30,7% e quando associada ao choque elevou-se para 72,2% . As infecções por Pseudomonas foram 100% fatais.
Kešnerová, Lucie; Moritz, Roxane; Engel, Philipp
Here, we report the culture and characterization of an alphaproteobacterium of the order Rhizobiales, isolated from the gut of the honey bee Apis mellifera. Strain PEB0122T shares >95 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of the genus Bartonella, a group of mammalian pathogens transmitted by bloodsucking arthropods. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PEB0122T and related strains from the honey bee gut form a sister clade of the genus Bartonella. Optimal growth of strain PEB0122T was obtained on solid media supplemented with defibrinated sheep blood under microaerophilic conditions at 35-37 °C, which is consistent with the cultural characteristics of other species of the genus Bartonella. Reduced growth of strain PEB0122T also occurred under aerobic conditions. The rod-shaped cells of strain PEB0122T had a mean length of 1.2-1.8 μm and revealed hairy surface structures. Strain PEB0122T was positive for catalase, cytochrome c oxidase, urease and nitrate reductase. The fatty acid composition was comparable to those of other species of the genus Bartonella, with palmitic acid (C16 : 0) and isomers of 18- and 19-carbon chains being the most abundant. The genomic DNA G+C content of PEB0122T was determined to be about 45.5 mol%. The high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with species of Bartonella and its close phylogenetic position suggest that strain PEB0122T represents a novel species within the genus Bartonella, for which we propose the name Bartonella apis sp. nov. The type strain is PEB0122T ( = NCIMB 14961T = DSM 29779T). PMID:26537852
Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K
Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (potters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118
Umemura, Takumi; Hamada, Yukihiro; Yamagishi, Yuka; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige
The presence of anaerobes in the blood stream is known to be associated with a higher rate of mortality. However, few prognostic risk factor analyses examining whether a patient's background characteristics are associated with the prognosis have been reported. We performed a retrospective case-controlled study to assess the prognostic factors associated with death from anaerobic bacteremia. Seventy-four patients with anaerobic bacteremia were treated between January 2005 and December 2014 at Aichi Medical University Hospital. The clinical information included drug susceptibility was used for analysis of prognostic factors for 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic analyses revealed an association between the 30-day mortality rate and malignancy (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.08-12.31) and clindamycin resistance (OR: 7.93, 95% CI: 2.33-27.94). The result of Kaplan-Meier analysis of mortality showed that the 30-day survival rate was 83% in clindamycin susceptible and 38.1% in clindamycin resistant anaerobes causing bacteremia. The result of log-rank test also showed that susceptibility to clindamycin affected mortality (P < 0.001). Our results indicated that malignancy and clindamycin susceptibility could be used to identify subgroups of patients with anaerobic bacteremia with a higher risk of 30-day mortality. The results of this study are important for the early and appropriate management of patients with anaerobic bacteremia. PMID:26903282
Müller, Andreas; Reiter, Michael; Mantlik, Katrin; Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold
The genus Bartonella comprises numerous species with at least 13 species pathogenic for humans. They are fastidious, aerobic, Gram negative, and facultative intracellular bacteria which cause a variety of human and non-human diseases. This study focused on the development of a serum-free liquid medium for culture of Bartonella species. Some liquid media are available commercially but all of them use undefined supplements such as fetal calf serum or defibrinated sheep blood. Our intention was to create a reproducible liquid medium for Bartonella species that can simply be prepared. We tested several supplements that could potentially support the growth of Bartonella species. Slight growth improvement was achieved with glucose and sucrose. However, hemin in particular improved the growth rate. At a temperature of 37 °C, a CO2 concentration of 5 %, a humidified atmosphere, and the use of the supplements glucose, sucrose, and hemin, we developed a medium that does not need serum as an undefined supplement any more. In conclusion, the newly developed medium supports growth of Bartonella species equal to the commercially available media but with the advantage that it has a serum-free formulation. It can be prepared fast and easy and is a useful tool in studying these bacteria. PMID:26842394
Transient bacteremia is induced by adenoidectomy when the integrity of the nasopharyngeal membrane is broken. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in patients undergoing adenoidectomy, to identify the causative organisms, and to compare the incidences of bacteremia between the two techniques suction diathermy and curettage.
Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin in the diagnosis of bacteremia.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis is a highly lethal endemic and sometimes epidemic infectious disease in South America, and a serious public health concern in Perú. There is limited information on the immunologic response to B. bacilliformis infection. The objective of this research was to produce experimental infection of BALB/c mice to B. bacilliformis inoculation. Findings BALB/c mice were inoculated with 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5 × 108 live B. bacilliformis using different routes: intraperitoneal, intradermal, intranasal, and subcutaneous. Cultures of spleen, liver, and lymph nodes from one to 145 days yielded no cultivable organisms. No organs showed lesions at any time. Previously inoculated mice showed no changes in the reinoculation site. Conclusion Parenteral inoculation of live B. bacilliformis via different infection routes produced no macroscopic or microscopic organ lesions in BALB/c mice. It was not possible to isolate B. bacilliformis using Columbia blood agar from 1 to 15 days after inoculation.
Elsayed, Sameer; Zhang, Kunyan
We describe a case of Clostridium glycolicum bacteremia and septic shock in an adult woman with a recent bone marrow transplant for relapsed Hodgkin's disease. The bacterium was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This is the first published report of the recovery of this organism from human clinical material.
A 76-year-old male with prostatic hyperplasia presented with acute pyelonephritis. Blood cultures yielded Rahnella aquatilis. Treatment with intravenous followed by oral levofloxacin resulted in cure. Important characteristics of this organism include its biochemical similarities to Enterobacter agglomerans, its apparent ability to cause bacteremia from a renal focus, and its response to quinolone therapy. PMID:15872303
Gardiner, B. J.; Korman, T. M.; Junckerstorff, R. K.
Eggerthella lenta bacteremia is uncommon and generally associated with abdominal sepsis. The organism and its clinical significance have not been well characterized due to historical difficulties with identification. We report a case of severe infection in a paraplegic man complicated by psoas abscess, osteomyelitis, and meningitis and discuss treatment challenges.
Mejer, N; Gotland, N; Uhre, M L;
OBJECTIVES: An association between infection and arterial thromboembolic events (ATE) has been suggested. Here we examined the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and other ATE after Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). METHODS: Danish register-based nation-wide observational cohort study...
Katz, Morgan J.; Parrish, Nicole M.; Belani, Anusha; Shah, Maunank
Although they are ubiquitous to aquatic environments, Aeromonas species have traditionally been considered nonvirulent; however, in the past 30 years, they have emerged as important human pathogens that can cause a wide spectrum of disease. In this study, we describe a case of recurrent Aeromonas bacteremia in an immunocompetent patient, and this exposure was linked to the patient's home well water supply. PMID:26495324
Domínguez, H.; Vogel, Birte Fonnesbech; Gram, Lone;
The first Danish cases of Shewanella alga bacteremia in two patients with chronic lower leg ulcers are reported. Both patients were admitted to the hospital during the same month of a very warm summer and had been exposed to the same marine environment, thereby suggesting the same source of......'Etoile, France), but further genetic and physiological analyses identified them as Shewanella alga....
Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia-Grande, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Pinnock, Elli; Salas, Antonio; Fink, Colin
Background The risk of bacteremia is considered low in children with acute bronchiolitis. However the rate of occult bacteremia in infants with RSV infection is not well established. The aim was to determine the actual rate and predictive factors of bacteremia in children admitted to hospital due to confirmed RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI), using both conventional culture and molecular techniques. Methods A prospective multicenter study (GENDRES-network) was conducted between 2011–2013 in children under the age of two admitted to hospital because of an ARI. Among those RSV-positive, bacterial presence in blood was assessed using PCR for Meningococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to conventional cultures. Results 66 children with positive RSV respiratory illness were included. In 10.6% patients, bacterial presence was detected: H. influenzae (n = 4) and S. pneumoniae (n = 2). In those patients with bacteremia, there was a previous suspicion of bacterial superinfection and had received empirical antibiotic treatment 6 out of 7 (85.7%) patients. There were significant differences in terms of severity between children with positive bacterial PCR and those with negative results: PICU admission (100% vs. 50%, P-value = 0.015); respiratory support necessity (100% vs. 18.6%, P-value < 0.001); Wood-Downes score (mean = 8.7 vs. 4.8 points, P-value < 0.001); GENVIP scale (mean = 17 vs. 10.1, P-value < 0.001); and length of hospitalization (mean = 12.1 vs. 7.5 days, P-value = 0.007). Conclusion Bacteremia is not frequent in infants hospitalized with RSV respiratory infection, however, it should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:26872131
Edouard, Sophie; Nabet, Cecile; Lepidi, Hubert; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier
Bartonella spp. are fastidious bacteria that cause blood culture-negative endocarditis and have been increasingly reported. In this study, we included all patients retrospectively and prospectively diagnosed with Bartonella endocarditis in our French reference center between 2005 and 2013. Our diagnosis was based on the modified Duke criteria and microbiological findings, including serological and PCR results. To review the published literature, we searched all human Bartonella endocarditis cases published in the PubMed database between January 2005 and October 2013. We report here a large series of 106 cases, which include 59 cases that had not previously been reported or mentioned. Indirect immunofluorescence assays, Western blotting, and real-time PCR from total blood, serum, and valve tissue exhibited sensitivities of 58%, 100%, 33%, 36%, and 91%, respectively. The number of cases reported in the literature between 2005 and 2013 increased to reach a cumulative number of 196 cases. The number of cases reported in the literature by other centers is increasing more rapidly than that reported by our French reference center (P immunofluorescence assay, or a positive Western blot assay be considered major Duke criteria for Bartonella endocarditis. There is no real increase in the incidence of these infections but rather a better understanding and interest in the disease resulting from the improvement of diagnostic tools. PMID:25540398
Full Text Available Host-specificity is an intrinsic feature of many bacterial pathogens, resulting from a long history of co-adaptation between bacteria and their hosts. Alpha-proteobacteria belonging to the genus Bartonella infect the erythrocytes of a wide range of mammal orders, including rodents. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of Bartonella colonizing a rodent community dominated by bank voles (Myodes glareolus and wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus in a French suburban forest to evaluate their diversity, their capacity to recombine and their level of host specificity. Following the analysis of 550 rodents, we detected 63 distinct genotypes related to B. taylorii, B. grahamii, B. doshiae and a new B. rochalimae-like species. Investigating the most highly represented species, we showed that B. taylorii strain diversity was markedly higher than that of B. grahamii, suggesting a possible severe bottleneck for the latter species. The majority of recovered genotypes presented a strong association with either bank voles or wood mice, with the exception of three B. taylorii genotypes which had a broader host range. Despite the physical barriers created by host specificity, we observed lateral gene transfer between Bartonella genotypes associated with wood mice and Bartonella adapted to bank voles, suggesting that those genotypes might co-habit during their life cycle.
Davoust, Bernard; Marié, Jean-Lou; Dahmani, Mustapha; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Bompar, Jean-Michel; Blanchet, Denis; Cheuret, Marie; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg
We screened blood from 59 bats from French Guiana for Bartonella spp. PCRs were positive for 13.6% and culture was positive in one Noctilio albiventris and one Pteronotus parnellii, as well as in Ornithodoros hasei ticks collected from bats. Two isolated strains represent possible two new species. PMID:27305604
Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Kolmos, Hans Jørn;
BACKGROUND: We investigated the overall and daily incidence of bacteremia among hospitalized patients and evaluated the traditional classification of bacteremia (community-onset vs nosocomial based on a 48-hour time window) by means of the daily incidence and associated 30-day mortality. METHODS...
Fadi Al Akhrass
Full Text Available Rhodococcus is an emerging cause of opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, most commonly causing cavitary pneumonia. It has rarely been reported as a cause of isolated bacteremia. However, the relationship between bacteremia and central venous catheter is unknown. Between 2002 and 2010, the characteristics and outcomes of seventeen cancer patients with Rhodococcus bacteremia and indwelling central venous catheters were evaluated. Rhodococcus bacteremias were for the most part (94% central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI. Most of the bacteremia isolates were Rhodococcus equi (82%. Rhodococcus isolates formed heavy microbial biofilm on the surface of polyurethane catheters, which was reduced completely or partially by antimicrobial lock solution. All CLABSI patients had successful response to catheter removal and antimicrobial therapy. Rhodococcus species should be added to the list of biofilm forming organisms in immunocompromised hosts and most of the Rhodococcus bacteremias in cancer patients are central line associated.
Dahl, Anders; Lauridsen, Trine K; Arpi, Magnus;
BACKGROUND: The NOVA score is a recently developed diagnostic tool to identify patients with increased risk of infective endocarditis (IE) among patients with Enterococcus faecalis (EF) bacteremia. We aim to validate an adapted version of the NOVA score and to identify risk factors for IE in......, unknown origin of infection 4 points, prior valve disease 2 points and heart murmur 1 point. RESULTS: IE was diagnosed in 78 patients (12%). Monomicrobial EF bacteremia (HR 3.60; CI95% 1.6-8.0), prosthetic heart valve (HR 6.2; CI95% 3.8-10.1), male sex (HR 2.0; CI95% 1.1-3.8), and community acquisition...
Korvick, J A; Bryan, C. S.; Farber, B.; Beam, T R; Schenfeld, L; Muder, R R; Weinbaum, D.; Lumish, R; Gerding, D.N.; Wagener, M M
Combination antimicrobial agent therapy has been advocated for treatment of gram-negative bacteremia, including that caused by Klebsiella spp. We performed a prospective, observational, 10-hospital collaborative study to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic combination therapy versus that of monotherapy for 230 consecutive patients with Klebsiella bacteremia. The species involved were K. pneumoniae (82%), K. oxytoca (15%), and K. ozaenae (0.4%). Of the bacteremias, 26% were polymicrobial in na...
Parviz Saleh; Hamid Noshad
Introduction: One of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in burn wards is infection, and it is the major reason of death in burn injuries. There are several reasons that make burn victims predisposed to infection. The current study aimed to investigate the role of different factors that have an effect on bacteremia occurrence in burn patients and factors which are relevant to mortality in these patients. Methods: This descriptive-analytic study conducted in a 1...
Mizrahi Meir; Roemi Lilach; Shouval Daniel; Adar Tomer; Korem Maya; Moses Alon; Bloom Alan; Shibolet Oren
AIM: To identify all cases of bacteremia and suspected endotipsitis after Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) at our institution and to determine risk factors for their occurrence. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent TIPS in our institution between 1996 and 2009. Data included: indications for TIPS, underlying liver disease, demographics, positive blood cultures after TIPS, microbiological characteristics, treatment and outcome. RESUL...
Tvedebrink, Torben; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Thomsen, Reimar W.;
The seasonal nature of invasive pneumococcal disease with peak incidences during winter months is well recognized (Dowell 2003, Talbot 2005, Watson 2006). However few detailed studies of the temporal relationship between actual climatic changes and subsequent pneumococcal disease are available. We...... perform an 8-year longitudinal population-based ecological study in a Danish county to examine whether foregoing changes in meteorological parameters, including temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and wind velocity, predicted variations in pneumococcal bacteremia (PB) incidence....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bloodstream infections (BSI are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially with persistent (PB or recurrent bacteremia (RB.
Hernandez, David; Seidl, Kati; Corvaglia, Anna-Rita; Bayer, Arnold S.; Xiong, Yan Q.; Francois, Patrice
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia (positive blood cultures after ≥7 days) represents a challenging subset of invasive MRSA infections. The comparison of genome sequences of persistent (300-169) and resolving (301-188) MRSA bacteremia isolates with similar genetic background (sequence type 45 [ST45]) will help us to better understand underlying mechanisms of persistent MRSA bacteremia.
Rodriguez-Barradas, M C; Hamill, R J; Houston, E D; Georghiou, P R; Clarridge, J E; Regnery, R L; Koehler, J. E.
Repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) with primers based on repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) repeated DNA sequences was used for genomic finger-printing of Bartonella species. This technique was applied by using either extracted genomic DNA or preparations of whole bacterial cells directly. PCR fingerprints with either the REP-based primers (REP-PCR) or primers based on the ERIC repeat (ERIC-PCR) revealed species-specific band patte...
Harms, Craig A.; Maggi, Ricardo G.; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Clemons-Chevis, Connie L.; Solangi, Mobashir; Rotstein, David S.; Fair, Patricia A.; Hansen, Larry J.; Hohn, Aleta A.; Lovewell, Gretchen N.; McLellan, William A; Pabst, D. Ann; Rowles, Teri K.; Lori H Schwacke; Townsend, Forrest I.
International audience We present prevalence of Bartonella spp. for multiple cohorts of wild and captive cetaceans. One hundred and six cetaceans including 86 bottlenose dolphins (71 free-ranging, 14 captive in a facility with a dolphin experiencing debility of unknown origin, 1 stranded), 11 striped dolphins, 4 harbor porpoises, 3 Risso's dolphins, 1 dwarf sperm whale and 1 pygmy sperm whale (all stranded) were sampled. Whole blood ($n = 95$ live animals) and tissues ($n = 15$ freshly dea...
Tao Wang; Yun-Liang Cui; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen
Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed...
WANG, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-fen; Chen, De-Chang
Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. P...
Ziedins, A C; Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Kjemtrup, A M; Chang, C-C
Bartonella spp. are endemic in wild rodents in many parts of the world. A study conducted in two northern California counties (Sonoma and Yolo) sampling California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi) and four other rodent species (Peromyscus maniculatus, P. boylii, P. truei and Neotoma fuscipes) led to the isolation of small Gram-negative bacilli which were identified as Bartonella spp. based on colony morphology, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and partial gene sequencing. Overall, Bartonella spp. were isolated from the blood of 71% (32/45) of the ground squirrels and one third (22/66) of the other rodents. PCR-RFLP analysis of the gltA and 16S rRNA genes yielded seven unique profiles, four for the ground squirrels and three for the other rodents. Isolates from each PCR-RFLP profiles were submitted for partial sequencing. Ground squirrel isolates were most closely related to B. washoensis, whereas the other rodent isolates were closest to B. vinsonii subsp. vinsonii and B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis. Two of these three species or subspecies are known zoonotic agents. PMID:27245290
Kang, Jun-Gu; Ko, Sungjin; Kim, Heung-Chul; Chong, Sung-Tae; Klein, Terry A; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Jo, Yong-Sun; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Park, Bae-Keun; Park, Jinho; Chae, Joon-Seok
Deer serve as reservoirs of tick-borne pathogens that impact on medical and veterinary health worldwide. In the Republic of Korea, the population of Korean water deer (KWD, Hydropotes inermis argyropus) has greatly increased from 1982 to 2011, in part, as a result of reforestation programs established following the Korean War when much of the land was barren of trees. Eighty seven Haemaphysalis flava, 228 Haemaphysalis longicornis, 8 Ixodes nipponensis, and 40 Ixodes persulcatus (21 larvae, 114 nymphs, and 228 adults) were collected from 27 out of 70 KWD. A total of 89/363 ticks (266 pools, 24.5% minimum infection rate) and 5 (1.4%) fed ticks were positive for Anaplasma phagocytophilum using nested PCR targeting the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 88/89 (98.9%) of positive samples for A. phagocytophilum corresponded to previously described gene sequences from KWD spleen tissues. The 16S rRNA gene fragment sequences of 20/363 (5.5%) of the ticks were positive for A. bovis and were identical to previously reported sequences. Using the ITS specific nested PCR, 11/363 (3.0%) of the ticks were positive for Bartonella spp. This is the first report of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. detected in ticks collected from KWD, suggesting that ticks are vectors of Anaplasma and Bartonella spp. between reservoir hosts in natural surroundings. PMID:26951985
Naseh; Marashi; Asgari; Aghabarari; Mahmudi; Asadi; Hatami; Kalantar
Background; Bacteremia is a frequent condition in cancer patients with a significant morbidity and mortality worldwide, which is a medical crisis that needs broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. Objectives This study examined bacteremia in cancer patients from two medical centers regarding isolates and spectrum of antibiotic resistance pattern. Patients and Methods This was a prospe...
Schaefer, Gabrielle; Campbell, Wesley; Jenks, Jeffrey; Beesley, Cari; Katsivas, Theodoros; Hoffmaster, Alex; Mehta, Sanjay R; Reed, Sharon
Bacillus cereus is typically considered a blood culture contaminant; however, its presence in blood cultures can indicate true bacteremia. We report 4 episodes of B. cereus bacteremia in 3 persons who inject drugs. Multilocus sequence typing showed that the temporally associated infections were caused by unrelated clones. PMID:27533890
Ashare, Alix; Stanford, Clark; Hancock, Patricia; Stark, Donna; Lilli, Kathleen; Birrer, Emily; Nymon, Amanda; Doerschug, Kevin C.; Hunninghake, Gary W.
Sepsis often causes impaired hepatic function. Patients with liver disease have an increased risk of bacteremia. This is thought to be secondary to impaired reticuloendothelial system function. However, this has not been demonstrated clinically. Since transient bacteremia occurs following toothbrushing, we hypothesized that subjects with cirrhosis would have impaired bacterial clearance following toothbrushing compared with subjects with pulmonary disease and healthy controls. After baseline ...
Holler, Jon G; Brandt, Christian T; Leib, Stephen L;
pneumococci. The study comprised of four experimental groups. I. Uninfected controls (n = 8); II. Meningitis (n = 11); III. Meningitis with early onset bacteremia by additional i.v. injection of live pneumococci (n = 10); IV. Meningitis with attenuated bacteremia by treatment with serotype-specific anti...
Ruoff, K L; Miller, S I; Garner, C V; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B
Two biotypes of Streptococcus bovis can be identified by laboratory testing and can be distinguished from the phenotypically similar organism Streptococcus salivarius. We assessed the clinical relevance of careful identification of these organisms in 68 patients with streptococcal bacteremia caused by these similar species. S. bovis was more likely to be clinically significant when isolated from blood (89%) than was S. salivarius (23%). There was a striking association between S. bovis I bacteremia and underlying endocarditis (94%) compared with that of S. bovis II bacteremia (18%). Bacteremia with S. bovis I was also highly correlated with an underlying colonic neoplasm (71% of patients overall, 100% of those with thorough colonic examinations) compared with bacteremia due to S. bovis II or S. salivarius (17% overall, 25% of patients with thorough colonic examinations). We conclude that careful identification of streptococcal bacteremic isolates as S. bovis biotype I provides clinically important information and should be more widely applied. PMID:2915024
Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI.
Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu
Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI. PMID:27433385
Møller, Holger Jon; K. Moestrup, Søren; Wejse, Christian;
probability of survival when sCD163 and CRP were known (p = .25). CONCLUSIONS: Macrophage marker response in pneumococcal bacteremia was compromised in old age. In patients <75 yrs old, sCD163 was superior to other markers, including C-reactive protein, in predicting fatal disease outcome....... pneumococcal bacteremia. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: Five university hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS: A total of 133 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia (positive blood culture) and 133 age- and gender-matched controls. INTERVENTIONS: Samples were collected for biochemical...
Full Text Available Little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of Rickettsia spp, Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical African countries.Fleas collected in Benin, the United Republic of Tanzania and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were investigated for the presence and identity of Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp. and Yersinia pestis using two qPCR systems or qPCR and standard PCR. In Xenopsylla cheopis fleas collected from Cotonou (Benin, Rickettsia typhi was detected in 1% (2/199, and an uncultured Bartonella sp. was detected in 34.7% (69/199. In the Lushoto district (United Republic of Tanzania, R. typhi DNA was detected in 10% (2/20 of Xenopsylla brasiliensis, and Rickettsia felis was detected in 65% (13/20 of Ctenocephalides felis strongylus, 71.4% (5/7 of Ctenocephalides canis and 25% (5/20 of Ctenophthalmus calceatus calceatus. In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, R. felis was detected in 56.5% (13/23 of Ct. f. felis from Kinshasa, in 26.3% (10/38 of Ct. f. felis and 9% (1/11 of Leptopsylla aethiopica aethiopica from Ituri district and in 19.2% (5/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 4.7% (1/21 of Echidnophaga gallinacea. Bartonella sp. was also detected in 36.3% (4/11 of L. a. aethiopica. Finally, in Ituri, Y. pestis DNA was detected in 3.8% (1/26 of Ct. f. strongylus and 10% (3/30 of Pulex irritans from the villages of Wanyale and Zaa.Most flea-borne infections are neglected diseases which should be monitored systematically in domestic rural and urban human populations to assess their epidemiological and clinical relevance. Finally, the presence of Y. pestis DNA in fleas captured in households was unexpected and raises a series of questions regarding the role of free fleas in the transmission of plague in rural Africa, especially in remote areas where the flea density in houses is high.
Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila) is a low virulent organism but may cause devastating fatal infections in immunocompromised host especially in liver cirrhosis. It is rarely reported to cause septicemia in a patient with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). The mortality rate of septicemia due to A. hydrophila is 29% to 73%. We report a case of 59-year-old female patient who was a known case of ALL, presented with the complaints of fever, lethargy and generalized weakness for one month. After taking blood samples for investigations, empirical antimicrobial therapy was started. She did not improve after 48 hours of therapy. Meanwhile blood culture revealed pure growth of A. hydrophila. After sensitivity report was available, ciprofloxacin was started. Patient became afebrile after 48 hours of treatment with ciprofloxacin. It is very vital to correctly identified and treat bacteremia due to A. hydrophila especially in the underlying leukemic patient. (author)
Azevedo Zina Maria Almeida de
Full Text Available Relato de caso de doença da arranhadura do gato (DAG, em um paciente lactente, com história epidemiológica negativa, descrevendo o rastreamento diagnóstico, a imagem ao ultra-som, a evolução clínica e o prognóstico. B. quintana foi identificada em aspirado de secreção ganglionar pelo método de PCR. B. henselae, embora seja o agente causal habitualmente responsável pela DAG, não foi isolada. Os autores concluem que a pesquisa de B. quintana e B. henselae deve ser incluída na investigação de adenites, principalmente quando a evolução é subaguda, mesmo em lactentes e, ainda que a história epidemiológica seja negativa.
Ansorena Luis; Garrido Jose; Rodríguez-Lera María; Peralta Galo; Roiz María
Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detec...
Thønnings Sara; Østergaard Christian
Abstract Background Optimal antibiotic treatment strategies of Haemophilus infections are still needed. Therefore, 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) of Haemophilus bacteremia and efficacy of various antibiotic treatment regimes were studied. Methods All episodes of Haemophilus bacteremia in the former Copenhagen County during the period 2000-9 were included in the study. Clinical and biochemical findings and outcome were collected retrospectively from medical records. Results 105 consecutive ep...
Brown, E J; Hosea, S W; Hammer, C H; Burch, C G; Frank, M M
The mechanism of protection of type-specific antipneumococcal antibody and complement in bacteremia was investigated with purified rabbit antibody and a guinea pig model of pneumococcal bacteremia. IgG and IgM were isolated from the sera of rabbits immunized with type 7 pneumococci (Pn), and their binding to Pn was quantitated. The number of antibody-binding sites on the pnuemococcal capsule was also determined. Pn were incubated with various amounts of the immunoglobulin preparations before ...
Gisele Peirano; Johann DD Pitout; Laupland, Kevin B; Bonnie Meatherall; Gregson, Daniel B.
The characteristics of hypermucoviscosity isolates among Klebsiella pneumoniae causing community-acquired bacteremia were investigated. The hypermucoviscous phenotype was present in 8.2% of K pneumoniae isolates, and was associated with rmpA and the K2 serotype; liver abscesses were the most common clinical presentation. The present analysis represents the first population-based surveillance study of hypermucoviscosity among K pneumoniae causing bacteremia.
A young woman with a history of sick sinus syndrome and placement of a permanent pacemaker 6 months before admission had fever and Haemophilus parainfluenzae bacteremia. A gallium scan localized the infection to the site of the pacemaker wire. Echocardiograms were negative for any vegetations. The patient responded to cefotaxime and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole therapy. We believe that this is the first case of H. parainfluenzae bacteremia associated with a pacemaker wire and localized by gallium scan
Dietrich, Muriel; Tjale, Mabotse A.; Weyer, Jacqueline; Kearney, Teresa; Seamark, Ernest C. J.; Nel, Louis H.; Monadjem, Ara; Markotter, Wanda
In addition to several emerging viruses, bats have been reported to host multiple bacteria but their zoonotic threats remain poorly understood, especially in Africa where the diversity of bats is important. Here, we investigated the presence and diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in bats and their ectoparasites (Diptera and Siphonaptera) collected across South Africa and Swaziland. We collected 384 blood samples and 14 ectoparasites across 29 different bat species and found positive samples in four insectivorous and two frugivorous bat species, as well as their Nycteribiidae flies. Phylogenetic analyses revealed diverse Bartonella genotypes and one main group of Rickettsia, distinct from those previously reported in bats and their ectoparasites, and for some closely related to human pathogens. Our results suggest a differential pattern of host specificity depending on bat species. Bartonella spp. identified in bat flies and blood were identical supporting that bat flies may serve as vectors. Our results represent the first report of bat-borne Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in these countries and highlight the potential role of bats as reservoirs of human bacterial pathogens. PMID:26999518
Eitan Naaman Berezin
Full Text Available We reviewed the incidence of occult bacteremia, to identify the most frequent etiological agents of bacteremias in otherwise healthy children from one month to 10 years old, who had fever of unknown origin attended at the emergency ward of an urban, university-affiliated pediatric referral center. This was a retrospective medical record review, evaluating children with fever. Data were collected from the initial visit, when blood cultures, hematological properties and hemosedimentation rates were examined. Fever was considered as the highest temperature assessed in the hospital or reported by the responsible adult. Occult bacteremia was discovered in 1.4% of the 1,051 children evaluated, and the most common etiologic agent was Streptococcus pneumoniae. Total leukocyte count and blood sedimentation rates greater than 30 mm³ were not predictive factors for occult bacteremia. Fever greater than 39ºC was the most important factor for predicting occult bacteremia (P<0.001. The presence of occult bacteremia was significantly correlated with patient hospitalization.
Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B
Abstract Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador re...
Hirai, Jun; Yamagishi, Yuka; Sakanashi, Daisuke; Koizumi, Yusuke; Suematsu, Hiroyuki; Mikamo, Hiroshige
We report herein on a case of bacteremia caused by Ochrobactrum intermedium (O. intermedium) identified with biotyper matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). An 86-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with paralysis of the right side of the body and dysphagia. He was diagnosed as having a pontine infarction based on the brain MRI findings and was admitted to hospital to have anti-platelet therapy. Three days after admission, he had a fever. Although he had redness and swelling at the peripheral venous catheter insertion site, he was diagnosed as having aspiration pneumonia, since he had fine crackles on auscultation. Soon after taking two sets of blood cultures and removal of the peripheral venous catheter, sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was administrated. Fifty three hours after incubation, gram-negative bacilli was detected from an aerobic bottle and identified as O. intermedium with MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker MS). Antimicrobial chemotherapy was changed to meropenem (MEPM). He was treated for a total of seven days, and recovered without relapse. Infection caused by O. intermedium has been very uncommon, however, O. intermedium has been recognized as an emerging pathogen in immunodeficient and immunocompetent patients. Since identification of Ochrobactrum species by biochemical methods could be difficult, MALDI-TOF MS might be helpful to clarify Ochrobactrum species just as in the present case. PMID:27197440
Simplified risk stratification criteria for identification of patients with MRSA bacteremia at low risk of infective endocarditis: implications for avoiding routine transesophageal echocardiography in MRSA bacteremia.
Buitron de la Vega, P; Tandon, P; Qureshi, W; Nasr, Y; Jayaprakash, R; Arshad, S; Moreno, D; Jacobsen, G; Ananthasubramaniam, K; Ramesh, M; Zervos, M
The aim of this study was to identify patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia with low risk of infective endocarditis (IE) who might not require routine trans-esophageal echocardiography (TEE). We retrospectively evaluated 398 patients presenting with MRSA bacteremia for the presence of the following clinical criteria: intravenous drug abuse (IVDA), long-term catheter, prolonged bacteremia, intra-cardiac device, prosthetic valve, hemodialysis dependency, vertebral/nonvertebral osteomyelitis, cardio-structural abnormality. IE was diagnosed using the modified Duke criteria. Of 398 patients with MRSA bacteremia, 26.4 % of cases were community-acquired, 56.3 % were health-care-associated, and 17.3 % were hospital-acquired. Of the group, 44 patients had definite IE, 119 had possible IE, and 235 had a rejected diagnosis. Out of 398 patients, 231 were evaluated with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or TEE. All 44 patients with definite IE fulfilled at least one criterion (sensitivity 100 %). Finally, a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was obtained to evaluate the total risk score of our proposed criteria as a predictor of the presence of IE, and this was compared to the ROC curve of a previously proposed criteria. The area under the ROC curve for our criteria was 0.710, while the area under the ROC curve for the criteria previously proposed was 0.537 (p < 0.001). The p-value for comparing those 2 areas was less than 0.001, indicating statistical significance. Patients with MRSA bacteremia without any of our proposed clinical criteria have very low risk of developing IE and may not require routine TEE. PMID:26676855
Wang, Tao; Cui, Yun-Liang; Lin, Zhao-Fen; Chen, De-Chang
Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis of bacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia. The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis of bacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed. Patients (n = 241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels. The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors. Patients’ BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups. Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed. The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups. GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia. The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups. The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent. Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia. Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China. And PCT is a more valuable
Montassier, E; Batard, E; Gastinne, T; Potel, G; de La Cochetière, M F
Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complication in patients with cancer. Significant changes in the spectrum of microorganisms isolated from blood culture have been reported in cancer patients over the past years. The aim of our systematic review was to inventory the recent trends in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of microorganisms causing bacteremia in cancer patients. Data for this review was identified by searches of Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Library for indexed articles and abstracts published in English since 2008. The principal search terms were: "antimicrobial resistance", "bacteremia", "bacterial epidemiology", "bloodstream infection", "cancer patients", "carbapenem resistance", "Escherichia coli resistance", "extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli", "febrile neutropenia", "fluoroquinolone resistance", "neutropenic cancer patient", "vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus", and "multidrug resistance". Boolean operators (NOT, AND, OR) were also used in succession to narrow and widen the search. Altogether, 27 articles were selected to be analyzed in the review. We found that Gram-negative bacteria were the most frequent pathogen isolated, particularly in studies with minimal use of antibiotic prophylaxis. Another important trend is the extensive emergence of antimicrobial-resistant strains associated with increased risk of morbidity, mortality and cost. This increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance has been reported in Gram-negative bacteria as well as in Gram-positive bacteria. This exhaustive review, reporting the recent findings in epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of bacteremia in cancer patients, highlights the necessity of local continuous surveillance of bacteremia and stringent enforcement of antibiotic stewardship programs in cancer patients. PMID:23354675
Fishman, J A; Martell, K M; Rubin, R H
Patients with bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were prospectively studied using monoclonal antibody reagents to assess alterations in T-lymphocyte subpopulations. Patients with endocarditis had significantly higher ratios of T-helper (OKT4+) to T-suppressor-cytotoxic (OKT8+) cells than did patients with bacteremia alone. Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis patients had a mean ratio of 8.49 (range 4.73-22.36) while S aureus bacteremia had a mean ratio of 2.75 (range 2.15 to 3.21). Similar results were found with Staphylococcus epidermidis endocarditis (mean 1.62) and bacteremia (mean 1.23). Klebsiella pneumoniae endocarditis (5.10) and sepsis (4.32), and E coli bacteremia (2.15). Nine male patients with AIDS had markedly depressed ratios (mean 0.25, range 0.04 to 0.67) while eight male homosexuals with unexplained lymphadenopathy ("pre-AIDS") had normal or increased ratios. Bacteremic infections are associated with an increased OKT4+/OKT8+ ratio with the degree of increase dependent upon virulence, location, and duration of infection. The immunomodulating effects of infection are manifested in changes in T-cell subsets, and these measurements can be useful in clinical management. PMID:6094086
Leulmi, Hamza; Aouadi, Atef; Bitam, Idir; Bessas, Amina; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
Background In recent years, the scope and importance of emergent vector-borne diseases has increased dramatically. In Algeria, only limited information is currently available concerning the presence and prevalence of these zoonotic diseases. For this reason, we conducted a survey of hematophagous ectoparasites of domestic mammals and/or spleens of wild animals in El Tarf and Souk Ahras, Algeria. Methods Using real-time PCR, standard PCR and sequencing, the presence of Bartonella spp., Rickett...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bartonella species cospeciate with mammals and live within erythrocytes. Even in these specific niches, it has been recently suggested by bioinformatic analysis of full genome sequences that Lateral Gene Transfer (LGT may occur but this has never been demonstrated biologically. Here we describe the sequence of the B. rattaustraliani (AUST/NH4(T circular plasmid (pNH4 that encodes the tra cluster of the Type IV secretion system (T4SS and we eventually provide evidence that Bartonella species may conjugate and exchange this plasmid inside amoeba. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The T4SS of pNH4 is critical for intracellular viability of bacterial pathogens, exhibits bioinformatic evidence of LGT among bacteria living in phagocytic protists. For instance, 3 out of 4 T4SS encoding genes from pNH4 appear to be closely related to Rhizobiales, suggesting that gene exchange occurs between intracellular bacteria from mammals (bartonellae and plants (Rhizobiales. We show that B. rattaustraliani and Rhizobium radiobacter both survived within the amoeba Acanthamoeba polyphaga and can conjugate together. Our findings further support the hypothesis that tra genes might also move into and out of bacterial communities by conjugation, which might be the primary means of genomic evolution for intracellular adaptation by cross-talk of interchangeable genes between Bartonella species and plant pathogens. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this, we speculate that amoeba favor the transfer of genes as phagocytic protists, which allows for intraphagocytic survival and, as a consequence, promotes the creation of potential pathogenic organisms.
Full Text Available This study is conducted to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species.Patients with bacteremia caused by Aeromonas species during the period 2009 to 2013 were identified from a computerized database of a regional hospital in southern Taiwan. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed.A total of 91 patients with bacteremia due to Aeromonas species were identified. In addition to 16 (17.6% primary bacteremia, the most common source of secondary infection is peritonitis (n = 27, 29.7%, followed by biliary tract infection (n = 18, 19.8%, and SSTI (n = 12, 13.2%, pneumonia (n = 9, 9.9%, catheter-related bloodstream infection (n = 5, 5.5%, and genitourinary tract infection (n = 4, 4.4%. A. hydrophila (n = 35, 38.5% was the most common pathogen, followed by A. veronii biovar sobria (n = 31, 34.1%, A. caviae (n = 14, 15.4%, and A. veronii biovar veronii (n = 9, 9.9%. Forty-three (47.3% patients were classified as healthcare-associated infections (HCAI causes by Aeromonas species, and patients with HCAI were more likely to have cancer, and receive immunosuppressant than patients with community-acquired bacteremia. The overall outcomes, including rate of ICU admission, acute respiratory failure, and mortality were 33.3%, 28.6%, and 23.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that the in-hospital day mortality was significantly associated only with underlying cancer (P <.001, and initial shock (P <.001.Aeromonas species should be considered one of the causative pathogens of healthcare-associated bacteremia, especially in immunocompromised patients. In addition, it can be associated with high fatality. Cancer and initial shock were the poor prognostic factors.
Aroutcheva, Alla; Auclair, Julie; Frappier, Martin; Millette, Mathieu; Lolans, Karen; de Montigny, Danielle; Carrière, Serge; Sokalski, Stephen; Trick, William E; Weinstein, Robert A
There has been an increasing interest in the use of probiotic products for the prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Bio-K+(®) is a commercial probiotic product comprising three strains of lactobacilli-Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285(®), Lact. casei LBC80R(®) and Lact. rhamnosus CLR2(®)-that have been applied to prevent CDI. Generally considered as safe, lactobacilli have potential to cause bacteremia, endocarditis and other infections. The source of Lactobacillus bacteremia can be normal human flora or lactobacilli-containing probiotic. The aim of this study was to assess whether probiotic lactobacilli caused bacteremia and to show the value of molecular identification and typing techniques to determine probiotic and patient strain relatedness. We report an episode of Lactobacillus bacteremia in a 69-year-old man admitted to a hospital with severe congestive heart failure. During his hospitalization, he required long-term antibiotic therapy. Additionally, the patient received Bio-K+(®) probiotic as part of a quality improvement project to prevent CDI. Subsequently, Lactobacillus bacteremia occurred. Two independent blinded laboratory evaluations, using pulse field gel electrophoresis, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA fingerprint analysis (rep-PCR), were performed to determine whether the recovered Lact. acidophilus originated from the probiotic product. Ultimately, the patient strain was identified as Lact. casei and both laboratories found no genetic relation between the patient's strain and any of the probiotic lactobacilli. This clinical case of lactobacillus bacteremia in the setting of probiotic exposure demonstrates the value of using discriminatory molecular methods to clearly determine whether there were a link between the patient's isolate and the probiotic strains. PMID:26915093
Full Text Available Objetivo. Establecer la seroprevalencia de Bartonella spp, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (antesErlichia y Coexiella burnetii. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron sueros representativos de unsector de la población en el año 2003, recolectados de personas que trabajan en actividades delcampo en los departamentos de Córdoba y Sucre que sirvieron como población base de las muestrasque se obtuvieron. Los trabajadores rurales elegidos a participar tenían entra 16 – 65 años deedad. Los sueros fueron examinados por IFA para detección de anticuerpos contra IgG para Bartonellaspp, Erlichia Anaplasma phagocytophilum y Coexiella burnetii. Resultados. La seroprevalencia deanticuerpos de todos los microorganismos estudiados fue de 56.8%. De 81 muestras de sueroanalizadas el 26.6% fueron seropositivas contra C. burnetii, el 37.7% tuvieron anticuerpos contraBartonella y el 20% de los individuos evaluados fueron seropositivos para Anaplasmaphagocytophilum. Conclusiones. Nuestros datos indican que la prevalencia de anticuerpos contraBartonella, A. phagocytophilum y C. burnetii son altos en nuestra región. Los resultados indicanque estas enfermedades zoonoticas son muy comunes en las personas que residen en el área delcaribe colombiano. Este estudio demuestra por primera vez la presencia de estos microorganismosen Colombia.
Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit
Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia. PMID:27195164
Fatma Deniz Aygun
Full Text Available Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia.
Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit
Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case of catheter-related bacteremia caused by B. cereus in a patient with propionic acidemia. PMID:27195164
Pãosinho, Ana; Azevedo, Telma; Alves, João V.; Costa, Isabel A.; Carvalho, Gustavo; Peres, Susana R.; Baptista, Teresa; Borges, Fernando; Mansinho, Kamal
Enterococci are one of the usual residents of the microflora in humans. In the last decade this genus has been reported as the third most common cause of bacteremia. We present the case of a 78-year-old female who was admitted to the emergency room because of nausea, lipothymia, and weakness. She was diagnosed with a pyelonephritis with bacteremia, with the isolation in blood and urine cultures of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus hirae. This last microorganism is a rarely isolated pathogen in humans. Currently it is estimated to represent 1–3% of all enterococcal species isolated in clinical practice.
Full Text Available Background: Although Elizabethkingia meningoseptica (Chryseobacterium meningosepticum infections in immunocompromised hosts have been recognised, clinical data detailing these infections remain limited, especially from India. Antimicrobial susceptibility data on E. meningoseptica remain very limited, with no established breakpoints by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. The organism is usually multidrug resistant to antibiotics usually prescribed for treating Gram-negative bacterial infections, a serious challenge to the patient and the treating clinicians. Materials and Methods: The analysis was done in a tertiary care oncology and stem cell transplant center. Susceptibility testing and identification of E. meningoseptica was done using Vitek auto analyzer. Records of immunocompromised patients with E. meningoseptica bacteremia were analysed from January 2009 to March 2012. Results: A total of 29 E. meningoseptica bacteremia cases were documented between 2009 and 2012. Eleven patients were immunocompromised. Three were post stem cell transplant and one was post cord blood transplant. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Mean Charlson′s comorbidity index was 5.7. Four had solid organ malignancies, five had hematological malignancies, and two had lymphoreticular malignancy. Eight patients had received chemotherapy. Mean Apache II score was 18. Mean Pitts score for bacteremia was 4.7. Two were neutropenic (one post SCT, one MDS post chemo with a mean white blood cell (WBC count of 450/mm 3 . Ten had a line at the time of bacteremia. Mean duration of the line prior to bacteremia was 8 days. Eight had line-related bacteremia. Three had pneumonia with secondary bacteremia. All received combination therapy with two or more antibiotics which included cotrimoxazole, rifampicin, piperacillin-tazobactam, tigecycline, or cefepime-tazobactam. All the isolates showed in vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin. Five patients died, but a
Kordjian, Hayarpi H; Schultz, Joyce D J H; Rosenvinge, Flemming Schønning;
We present a case of Eggerthia catenaformis bacteremia originating from a dental abscess and imitating necrotizing fasciitis in a previously healthy adult. The isolates were easily identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The clinical course, surgical and antibiotic treatment as well as the successful outcome...
Basaglia, G; Carretto, E; Barbarini, D; Moras, L; Scalone, S; Marone, P; De Paoli, P
We report on the first case of a catheter-related recurrent bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, in a 51-year-old woman with ovarian cancer. This unusual pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases. PMID:11773142
G. Basaglia; Carretto, E.; Barbarini, D.; Moras, L.; Scalone, S.; Marone, P.; De Paoli, P
We report on the first case of a catheter-related recurrent bacteremia caused by Kocuria kristinae, a gram-positive microorganism belonging to the family Micrococcaceae, in a 51-year-old woman with ovarian cancer. This unusual pathogen may cause opportunistic infections in patients with severe underlying diseases.
Frederiksen, Marianne Sjølin; Espersen, Frank; Frimodt-Møller, Niels;
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is known to be a leading cause of bacteremia in childhood, and is associated with severe morbidity and increased mortality. To determine developments in incidence and mortality rates, as well as risk factors associated with outcome, we analyzed data from 1971 thr...
Hoppe, J E; Herter, M.; Aleksic, S; Klingebiel, T; Niethammer, D
Rahnella aquatilis, a rarely encountered member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, was twice isolated from the blood of a pediatric bone marrow transplant recipient. This is the first report of a pediatric case of R. aquatilis bacteremia, and it was probably related to inappropriate handling of a Hickman catheter.
Ng, V L; Hadley, W K; Fennell, C L; Flores, B. M.; Stamm, W. E.
A bisexual human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive male had successive bacteremias with "Campylobacter cinaedi" and "Campylobacter fennelliae." Because final identification of both isolates was not completed until 1 month after the last admission of the patient, a novel and nonstandardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing method was useful in guiding timely antimicrobial therapy.
Verstreken, Isabel; Laleman, Wim; Wauters, Georges; Verhaegen, Jan
Desulfovibrio spp. are anaerobic, sulfate-reducing, nonfermenting, Gram-negative bacteria found in the digestive tract of humans. Identification of these species with conventional methods is difficult. The reported case of a Desulfovibrio desulfuricans bacteremia occurring in an immunocompromised host with ulcerative colitis confirms that this organism may be a possible opportunistic human pathogen.
Parajuli, Sunita; Siegfried, Justin; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Rahimian, Joseph
We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin. PMID:27418986
Eckerle, Isabella; Zimmermann, Stefan; Kapaun, Annette; Junghanss, Thomas
We report a typhoid-like illness with fever and altered consciousness in a 22-year-old man with growth of Salmonella enterica serovar Virchow in blood and stool culture. Bacteremia and invasive disease due to non-typhoid salmonellae (NTS) are known in severely immunocompromised patients, but so far have not been described in immunocompetent adults.
Janum, Sine H; Søvsø, Morten; Gradel, Kim O; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Nielsen, Henrik Ib
Abstract Background and objective. C-reactive protein (CRP) is synthesized in the liver in response to inflammation, and CRP is a widely used marker of sepsis. In bacteremia the initial CRP level is an independent predictor of mortality. Since the CRP response in patients with chronic liver disease...
Abraham Tareq Yacoub
Full Text Available BackgoundNutritionally variant Streptococci (NVS, Abiotrophia and Granulicatella are implicated in causing endocarditis and blood stream infections more frequently than other sites of infection. Neutropenia and mucositis are the most common predisposing factors for infection with other pathogens in cancer patients. In this study we investigated the clinical characteristics of NVS bacteremia in cancer patients and identified risk factors and outcomes associated with these infections. Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed all cases of NVS bacteremia occurring from June 1999 to April 2014 at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute. The computerized epidemiology report provided by the microbiology laboratory identified thirteen cancer patients with NVS bacteremia. We collected data regarding baseline demographics and clinical characteristics such as age, sex, underlying malignancy, neutropenic status, duration of neutropenia, treatment, and outcome.ResultsThirteen patients were identified with positive NVS blood stream infection. Ten patients (77% had hematologic malignancies, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL (1, multiple myeloma (MM (1, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML (4, and non Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL (4. The non-hematologic malignancies included esophageal cancer (2 and bladder cancer (1.ConclusionNVS should be considered as a possible agent of bacteremia in cancer patients with neutropenia and a breach in oral, gastrointestinal and genitourinary mucosa (gingivitis/mucositis.
Larsen, F.L.; Kilian, Mogens; Holmstrup, P.
higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. Practical implications...
Forner, Lone; Larsen, Tove; Kilian, Mogens;
higher in periodontitis than in gingivitis patients and healthy control individuals. In periodontitis patients, the magnitude of bacteremia was associated with gingival index, plaque index and number of sites with bleeding on probing, but not with probing pocket depth measurements. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS...
Tugba Arslan Gulen
Conclusion: Our results suggest that the occurrence of MDR A.baumannii bacteremia was related with the usage of the wide spectrum antibiotics, and mortality rates were increased in patients that high SAPS II scores, long term hospitalization. Infection control procedures and limited antibiotic usage are very important for prevent nosocomial infections.
Full Text Available We describe a case of Bacteroides fragilis bacteremia associated with paraspinal and psoas abscesses in the United States. Resistance to b-lactam/b-lactamase inhibitors, carbapenems, and metronidazole was encountered despite having a recent travel history to India as the only possible risk factor for multidrug resistance. Microbiological cure was achieved with linezolid, moxifloxacin, and cefoxitin.
S. Lautenschlager; C. Herzog; W. Zimmerli
textabstractIn a retrospective survey of patients hospitalized in the University Hospital of Basel, Switzerland, the course and outcome of 281 cases of true bacteremia due to Staphylococcus aureus over a 7-year period were analyzed. The main purpose was to evaluate different case definitions. In 78%
Tao Wang; Yun-Liang Cui; Zhao-Fen Lin; De-Chang Chen
Background: Both procalcitonin (PCT) and plasma endotoxin levels cannot be solely used for a definite diagnosis ofbacteremia or sepsis, and there has been few study comparing the values of the two biomarkers for the diagnosis of bacteremia.The aim of this study was to identify bacteria causing bacteremia and evaluate the role of the two biomarkers in the diagnosis ofbacteremia in Intensive Care Unit (ICU).Methods: The medical records of 420 patients in ICU were retrospectively reviewed.Patients (n =241) who met the inclusion criteria were subjected to blood culture (BC) for the analysis of the endotoxin or PCT levels.The exclusion criteria included the presence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS, neutropenia without sepsis, pregnancy, treatment with immunosuppressive therapies, or blood diseases such as hematological tumors.Patients' BC episodes were divided into BC negative, Gram-negative (GN) bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.The PCT and plasma endotoxin levels were compared in the different groups.Results: A total of 241 patients with 505 episodes of BC were analyzed.The GN bacteria group showed higher levels of PCT and endotoxin than the BC negative, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi groups.GN bacteremia was more prevalent than Gram-positive bacteremia.The GN bacteremia caused by non-Enterobacteriaceae infection presented higher endotoxin level than that by Enterobacteriaceae, but no significant difference in PCT levels was observed between the two groups.The plasma endotoxin significantly differed among different groups and was bacterial species dependent.Conclusions: Plasma endotoxin was more related to GN than to Gram-positive bacteremia, and that endotoxin level was species dependent, but PCT level remained relatively more stable within the GN bacteria caused bacteremia.Both GN and positive bacteria caused bacteremia in the ICU patients in different regions of China.And PCT is a more valuable biomarker than endotoxin
To compare the efficiency of detecting Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteremia by the BACTEC radiometric system and a conventional Trypticase soy broth blood culture system, the authors developed an in vivo model of bacteremia in rats. After intravenous injection of 50 to 200 CFU into adult rats, there was a linear logarithmic increase in CFU per milliliter of rat blood during the first 10 h (r = 0.98), allowing accurate prediction of the level of bacteremia with time. Culture bottles were inoculated with 0.5 ml of blood obtained by cardiac puncture and processed as clinical samples in the microbiology laboratory with RS and conventional protocols. They found the following. (i) The first detection of bacteremia by RS was similar to that by TSB if a Gram stain of the TSB was done on day 1 and was superior if that smear was omitted (P less than 0.01). (ii) The detection times in both systems were comparable at different magnitudes of bacteremia (10(1) to 10(4) CFU/ml). (iii) Supplementation of inoculated bottles with 2 ml of sterile rat blood interfered with Gram stain detection in TSB but resulted in increased 14CO2 production in RS. (iv) No difference in detection time was found between RS and TSB for four different clinical isolates. These studies show that, in a biologically relevant model, the detection of positive blood cultures for H. influenzae type b by RS was comparable to or better than detection by TSB when blood was processed analogously to clinical specimens
Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.
Gilsdorf, J R; Ferrieri, P
Nasopharyngeal colonization of infant rats with Haemophilus influenzae type b was investigated by two methods of intranasal inoculation. After traumatic instillation of the bacteria, 100% of the animals became colonized, compared with 75.5% of animals after atraumatic instillation. Among colonized rats, significantly more animals in the traumatic group developed bacteremia compared with those in the atraumatic group. Rats in the traumatic group had an onset of bacteremia at a mean of 2.6 days...
MacLennan, Calman A.; Gondwe, Esther N.; Msefula, Chisomo L.; Kingsley, Robert A.; Thomson, Nicholas R.; White, Sarah A; Goodall, Margaret; Pickard, Derek J.; Graham, Stephen M.; Dougan, Gordon; Hart, C. Anthony; Molyneux, Malcolm E.; Drayson, Mark T.
Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella (NTS) are a common cause of bacteremia among African children. Cell-mediated immune responses control intracellular infection, but they do not protect against extracellular growth of NTS in the blood. We investigated whether antibody protects against NTS bacteremia in Malawian children, because we found this condition mainly occurs before 2 years of age, with relative sparing of infants younger than 4 months old. Sera from all healthy Malawian children teste...
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection ... symptoms of CSD, call your doctor. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Cat scratch disease (CSD) is an illness caused by the bacterium Bartonella henselae. Almost half of all cats carry the infection at some ... Poor appetite For people with weak immune systems, CSD may cause more serious problems. The best way ...
Boel, J; Søgaard, M; Andreasen, V;
When introducing new antibiotic guidelines for empirical treatment of bacteremia, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of the new guideline. We examined the utility of administrative data to evaluate the effect of new antibiotic guidelines and the prognostic impact of appropriate empirical...... (8 days) did not differ by regimen and neither did the proportion of those receiving appropriate empirical treatment (84.1 % vs. 85.5 %). However, fewer patients with the new regimen were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU; 3.8 % vs. 12.0 %) and they had lower 30-day mortality (16.4 % vs. 23.......87–1.25) for the new versus the old regimen. This study demonstrates that administrative data can be useful for evaluating the effect and quality of new bacteremia treatment guidelines...
Kim, Hyung Ho; Yun, Na Ra; Kim, Dong-Min; Kim, Soo Ah
A 30-year-old, 16-week primipara woman visited with complaints of lower back pain over the past 3 weeks. She had a history of ultrasound-guided transvaginal oocyte retrieval for in vitro fertilization (IVF) 14 weeks earlier. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed infectious spondylitis and the results of blood and spinal biopsy cultures showed Staphylococcus aureus. Intravenous cefazolin was continued for 6 weeks, and 4 months later, she delivered a healthy girl. This is the first reported case of successful term delivery following S. aureus bacteremia with vertebral osteomyelitis after IVF and embryo transfer. It should be considered that S. aureus bacteremia can be a serious complication of IVF. PMID:25914881
Dalgaard, Lars S; Nørgaard, Mette; Povlsen, Johan V;
♦ Background: The incidence of bacteremia and fungemia (BAF) is largely unknown in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Objective: The main objective was to estimate and compare incidence rates of first episodes of BAF in incident PD patients and a compar......♦ Background: The incidence of bacteremia and fungemia (BAF) is largely unknown in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients initiating peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Objective: The main objective was to estimate and compare incidence rates of first episodes of BAF in incident PD patients.......3%). Escherichia coli (27.3%) also ranked first among population controls. Thirty-day mortality following BAF was 20.8% (95% CI, 12.6 - 31.0) and 20.7% (95% CI, 16.3 - 25.9) among PD patients and population controls, respectively. ♦ Conclusions: Peritoneal dialysis patients are at markedly higher risk of BAF than...
Holt, Shannon; Thompson-Brazill, Kelly A; Sparks, E Ryan; Lipetzky, Juliana
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of hospital-associated infections, including central catheter-associated bacteremia. Vancomycin has been the drug of choice for treating this type of bacteremia for decades in patients who have no contraindications to the antibiotic. However, resistance to vancomycin is an emerging problem. Newer antibiotics approved by the Food and Drug Administration have activity against methicillin-resistant S aureus Some of the antibiotics also have activity against strains of S aureus that are intermediately susceptible or resistant to vancomycin. This article uses a case study to highlight the clinical signs of vancomycin failure and describes the indications for and appropriate use of alternative antimicrobials such as ceftaroline, daptomycin, linezolid, tigecycline, and telavancin. (Critical Care Nurse 2016;36:46-57). PMID:27481801
Abozaid, Said; Peretz, Avi; Nasser, Wael; Zarfin, Yehoshua
Actinomyces is an anaerobic, gram positive, rod shape bacteria that doesn't create spores. Actinomyces is part of the mouth, intestines, vagina and upper respiratory system flora. The infection appears mostly on the face, neck, abdomen and pelvis in cases of mucosa injury and most common in immunosuppressed patients. The spread of Actinomyces through the blood system is rare. In this article we present a 9 year old male patient with no history of diseases who was diagnosed with prolonged bacteremia of A. naeslundii without specific infection excluding severe caries. Characterization of bacteria from the blood culture was performed by molecular biology and the patient was treated with Ampicillin and tooth extraction that led to the disappearance of the bacteremia. PMID:23957079
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevalen...
Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia. PMID:22857007
Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Iimmunodeficiency Virus, and Human Leukemia Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the prevale...
Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro a cloranfenicol (CHL y ciprofloxacino (CIP de cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis procedentes de áreas endémicas de la enfermedad de Carrión (EC en el Perú, mediante tres métodos de laboratorio. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluó la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a CHL y CIP de 100 cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis, los aislamientos procedieron de pacientes de los departamentos de Ancash, Cusco, Cajamarca, Lima y La Libertad; las cepas se evaluaron mediante: disco difusión, E-Test y dilución en agar. Resultados. El 26% de las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis evaluadas, presentaron resistencia a CIP y 1% a CHL. Se obtuvieron patrones similares de sensibilidad/resistencia antimicrobiana en los tres métodos utilizados. Conclusiones. Las cepas de Bartonella bacilliformis circulantes en el Perú, presentan elevados niveles de resistencia in vitro a CIP, por lo que se recomienda ampliar la investigación sobre la utilización del fármaco en los esquemas de tratamiento de la EC. Los métodos de E-test y disco difusión resultaron más convenientes para la evaluación de la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana in vitro del microorganismo
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ICU, bacteremia is a life-threatening infection whose prognosis is highly dependent on early recognition and treatment with appropriate antibiotics. Procalcitonin levels have been shown to distinguish between bacteremia and noninfectious inflammatory states accurately and quickly in critically ill patients. However, we still do not know to what extent the magnitude of PCT elevation at the onset of bacteremia varies according to the Gram stain result. Methods Review of the medical records of every patient treated between May, 2004 and December, 2006 who had bacteremia caused by either Gram positive (GP or Gram negative (GN bacteria, and whose PCT dosage at the onset of infection was available. Results 97 episodes of either GN bacteremia (n = 52 or GP bacteremia (n = 45 were included. Procalcitonin levels were found to be markedly higher in patients with GN bacteremia than in those with GP bacteremia, whereas the SOFA score value in the two groups was similar. Moreover, in the study population, a high PCT value was found to be independently associated with GN bacteremia. A PCT level of 16.0 ng/mL yielded an 83.0% positive predictive value and a 74.0% negative predictive value for GN-related bacteremia in the study cohort (AUROCC = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.71–0.88. Conclusion In a critically ill patient with clinical sepsis, GN bacteremia could be associated with higher PCT values than those found in GP bacteremia, regardless of the severity of the disease.
Danielle Queiroz Bonilha; Lucianna Motta Correia; Marie Monaghan; Luciano Lenz; Marcus Santos; Ermelindo Della Libera
CONTEXT: Band ligation (BL) is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY) can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients ...
Mølbak Kåre; Ethelberg Steen; Holt Hanne M; Kristensen Brian; Koch Kristoffer; Schønheyder Henrik C
Abstract Background Information is sparse regarding the association between international travel and hospitalization with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion, risk factors and outcomes of travel-related non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia. Methods We conducted a 10-year population-based cohort study of all patients hospitalized with non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia in three Danish counties (population 1.6 million). We used denominator ...
Sinclair, D.; Svendsen, A.; Marrie, T
OBJECTIVE: To measure the prevalence of bacteremia and any correlation between signs and symptoms, risk factors, and laboratory data in elderly patients. DESIGN: Prospective analysis. All patients were contacted by the study nurse at 48 hours and 7 days after study entry. SETTING: Adult tertiary care hospital with an emergency department managing 48,000 visits yearly in a metropolitan area of 250,000. PARTICIPANTS: Members of the study population referred to the emergency department for medic...
Campos, Rodrigo Peixoto; do Nascimento, Marcelo Mazza; Chula, Domingos Candiota; Riella, Miguel Carlos
There is growing concern about the development of antibacterial resistance with the use of antibiotics in catheter lock solutions. The use of an antibiotic that is not usually used to treat other serious infections may be an alternative that may reduce the clinical impact should resistance develop. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare a solution of minocycline and EDTA with the conventional unfractionated heparin for the prevention of catheter-related bacteremia in hemodialys...
Abdulaziz Ahmed Hashi; Johannes Andries Delport; Sameer Elsayed; Michael Seth Silverman
Staphylococcus pettenkoferi is a relatively recently described coagulase-negative staphylococci species first described in 2002. Since then, nine additional cases of infection caused by this species have been reported in various countries around the world, including Germany, Belgium, France, South Korea, Italy, Brazil and Mexico. The present report describes a case of S pettenkoferi peripheral line-associated bacteremia. To our knowledge, the present report is the first description of human i...
Smyth, Davida S.; Kafer, Jared M.; Wasserman, Gregory A.; Velickovic, Lili; Mathema, Barun; Robert S Holzman; Knipe, Tiffany A.; Becker, Karsten; von Eiff, Christof; Peters, Georg; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N.; Novick, Richard P.; Shopsin, Bo
Inactivating mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus virulence regulator agr are associated with worse outcomes in bacteremic patients. However, whether agr dysfunction is primarily a cause or a consequence of early bacteremia is unknown. Analysis of 158 paired S. aureus clones from blood and nasal carriage sites in individual patients revealed that recovery of an agr-defective mutant from blood was usually predicted by the agr functionality of carriage isolates. Many agr-positive blood isolat...
Peretz, Avi; Simsolo, Claudia; Farber, Evgeny; Roth, Anna; Brodsky, Diana; Nakhoul, Farid
Patient: Female, 77 Final Diagnosis: Bacteremia Symptoms: Chills • diarrhea • fever • nausea Medication: — Clinical Procedure: X-Ray • CBC • urine and blood cultur Specialty: Infectious diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Cedecea davisae is a gram negative, oxidase negative bacilli that include 5 species. In the medical literature there are very few reports that describe infections caused by different species of the Cedecea genus. Case Report: In this paper we report a fourth case of...
Aygun, Fatma Deniz; Aygun, Fatih; Cam, Halit
Bacillus cereus can cause serious, life-threatening, systemic infections in immunocompromised patients. The ability of microorganism to form biofilm on biomedical devices can be responsible for catheter-related bloodstream infections. Other manifestations of severe disease are meningitis, endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and surgical and traumatic wound infections. The most common feature in true bacteremia caused by Bacillus is the presence of an intravascular catheter. Herein, we report a case ...
Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Linda MN Hoang; Romney, Marc G.
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A...
Full Text Available In order to analyse the impact of oxacillin resistance on the mortality of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired strains in two large university hospitals (the Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo and the Instituto Central do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo, we carried out a four-month-long prospective cohort study, which included 163 consecutive cases of S. aureus bacteremia. Of these, 140 (85.9% were hospital-acquired, 9 (5.5% were community-acquired and 14 (8.6% were of indeterminate origin. No cases of community-acquired infection by oxacillin-resistant S. aureus was identified. Among hospital-acquired infections, oxacillin-resistant S. aureus was responsible for 64.3% of cases. Mortality up to 15 days after diagnosis of bacteremia was 27% (18/67 for infections caused by susceptible strains and 33% (32/96 for infections caused by oxacillin-resistant strains (p=0.10. The following independent risk factors for the acquisition of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus were identified in multiple logistical regression analysis: age over 60 years, use of corticoids; presence of a central vascular catheter, and previous use of antibiotics.
Merchant, Chandni; Villanueva, Daphne-Dominique; Lalani, Ishan; Eng, Margaret; Kang, Yong
Staphylococcus schleiferi subsp. schleiferi is a coagulase-negative Staphylococcus which has been described as a pathogen responsible for various nosocomial infections including bacteremia, brain abscess, and infection of intravenous pacemakers. Recently, such bacteria have been described to be found typically on skin and mucosal surfaces. It is also believed to be a part of the preaxillary human flora and more frequently found in men. It is very similar in its pathogenicity with Staphylococcus aureus group and expresses a fibronectin binding protein. Literature on this pathogen reveals that it commonly causes otitis among dogs because of its location in the auditory meatus of canines. Also, it has strong association with pyoderma in dogs. The prime concern with this organism is the antibiotic resistance and relapse even after appropriate treatment. Very rarely, if any, cases have been reported about prostatic abscess (PA) with this microbe. Our patient had a history of recurrent UTIs and subsequent PA resulting in S. schleiferi bacteremia in contrast to gram negative bacteremia commonly associated with UTI. This organism was found to be resistant to methicillin, in spite of being negative for PBP2, which is a rare phenomenon and needs further studies. PMID:27092283
Ijyuuin, Toshiro; Umehara, Fujio
A 73-year old man was brought to our hospital because of acute onset of fever and consciousness disturbance. He had been hemodialyzed three times a week because of chronic renal failure since 13 years ago. Neurological examination revealed deteriorated consciousness and neck stiffness. A lumbar puncture yielded clouded fluid with a WBC 7,912/mm³ (polymorphonuclear cells 88%, mononuclear cells 12%), 786 mg/dl of protein and 4 mg/dl of glucose (blood glucose 118 mg/dl). Brain CT and MRI were unremarkable. He was treated with ceftriaxone and ampicillin. Streptococcus salivarius was isolated from the blood sample, but not from cerebrospinal fluid. The patient responded promptly to antibiotics therapy (ampicillin 3g/day, ceftriaxone 1g/day), and within several days he became lucid and afebrile. Isolated S. salivarius was sensitive for ampicillin and ceftriaxone. We diagnosed this case as S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis. A gastrointestinal diagnostic workup revealed an asymptomatic gastric adenocarcinoma. S. salivarius is a common inhabitant of the oral mucosa that has been associated with infection in different sites. Meningeal infection by S. salivarius generally related to neoplasia of colon or iatrogenia, has been described on few occasions. This is the first report of S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis associated with gastric neoplasm. Neurologist should be aware of the association of S. salivarius bacteremia/meningoencephalitis and gastrointestinal disease. PMID:22688117
Hepatic TNF-α production following gram-negative bacteremia or hypovolemic shock predisposes to acute lung injury. However, TNF-α expression may be modified by the manner in which the hepatic O2 supply is reduced and equally important, its timing relative to bacteremia. Brief secondary hypoxic stress of buffer-perfused rat livers downregulates E. Coli (EC)-induced TNF-α expression whereas low-flow ischemia preceding EC increases subsequent TNF-α production owing to reactive O2 species (ROS). Here we determined whether 30 min of constant-flow hypoxia preceding 109 intraportal EC likewise increases antigenic and bioactive TNF-α protein concentrations during reoxygenation via production of ROS. Multiple groups (n＝38) were studied over 180 minutes, circulation antigenic TNF-α decreased in H/R+EC vs. EC controls (1 939±640 vs. 12 407±2 476 μg/L at t＝180 min; P＜0.01, along with TNF-α bioactivity). TNF-α protein were not restored to control levels in ALLO+H/R+EC. Thus, EC-induced hepatic TNF-α production and export is strongly O2-dependent in intact liver regardless of the generation of ROS or the sequence of bacteremia and modest hypoxic stress.
Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is associated with adverse outcomes. Known risk factors include chronic kidney disease, malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and gastrointestinal disease. We present a 74-year-old man admitted with confusion, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Exam revealed tachycardia, hypotension, lethargy, distended abdomen, and cold extremities. He required intubation and aggressive resuscitation for septic shock. Laboratory data showed leukocytosis, metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, and elevated lipase. CT scan of abdomen revealed acute pancreatitis and small bowel ileus. He was started on vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Initial blood cultures were positive for C. perfringens on day five. Metronidazole and clindamycin were added to the regimen. Repeat CT (day 7 revealed pancreatic necrosis. The patient developed profound circulatory shock requiring multiple vasopressors, renal failure requiring dialysis, and bacteremia with vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Hemodynamic instability precluded surgical intervention and he succumbed to multiorgan failure. Interestingly, our isolate was beta lactamase producing. We review the epidemiology, risk factors, presentation, and management of C. perfringens bacteremia. This case indicates a need for high clinical suspicion for clostridial sepsis and that extended spectrum beta lactam antibiotic coverage may be inadequate and should be supplemented with use of clindamycin or metronidazole if culture is positive, until sensitivities are known.
Millard, Michael A; McManus, Kathleen A; Wispelwey, Brian
Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is an uncommon yet serious clinical syndrome that typically arises from a gastrointestinal source. However, clinicians should consider nongastrointestinal sources as well. We present a rare case of C. perfringens bacteremia of urinary origin that required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. A 61-year-old male presented with acute nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, and chronic diarrhea. His physical exam revealed right costovertebral tenderness and his laboratory work-up revealed acute renal failure. Percutaneous blood cultures grew C. perfringens. Cross-sectional imaging revealed a right-sided ureteral stone with hydronephrosis, which required nephrostomy placement. On placement of the nephrostomy tube, purulent drainage was identified and Gram stain of the drainage revealed Gram-variable rods. A urinary source of C. perfringens was clinically supported. Although it is not a common presentation, nongastrointestinal sources such as a urinary source should be considered in C. perfringens bacteremia because failure to recognize a nongastrointestinal source can delay appropriate treatment, which may include surgical intervention. PMID:26998370
Michael A. Millard
Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens bacteremia is an uncommon yet serious clinical syndrome that typically arises from a gastrointestinal source. However, clinicians should consider nongastrointestinal sources as well. We present a rare case of C. perfringens bacteremia of urinary origin that required surgical intervention for definitive treatment. A 61-year-old male presented with acute nausea and vomiting, altered mental status, and chronic diarrhea. His physical exam revealed right costovertebral tenderness and his laboratory work-up revealed acute renal failure. Percutaneous blood cultures grew C. perfringens. Cross-sectional imaging revealed a right-sided ureteral stone with hydronephrosis, which required nephrostomy placement. On placement of the nephrostomy tube, purulent drainage was identified and Gram stain of the drainage revealed Gram-variable rods. A urinary source of C. perfringens was clinically supported. Although it is not a common presentation, nongastrointestinal sources such as a urinary source should be considered in C. perfringens bacteremia because failure to recognize a nongastrointestinal source can delay appropriate treatment, which may include surgical intervention.
Hansford, Jordan R; Phillips, Marianne; Cole, Catherine; Francis, Joshua; Blyth, Christopher C; Gottardo, Nicholas G
Bacillus cereus can cause serious infections in immunosuppressed patients. This population may be susceptible to B. cereus pneumonia, bacteremia, cellulitis, and rarely cerebral abscess. Here we report an 8-year-old boy undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed multifocal B. cereus cerebral abscesses, highlighting the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscesses. A review of the literature over the past 25 years identified another 11 cases (3 children and 8 adults) of B. cereus cerebral abscess in patients undergoing cancer therapy. B. cereus cerebral abscesses were associated with a high mortality rate (42%) and significant morbidity. Notably, B. cereus bacteremia with concomitant cerebral abscess was associated with induction chemotherapy for acute leukemia in both children and adults (10 of 12 case reports). Our case report and review of the literature highlights the propensity for B. cereus to develop cerebral abscess(es). Therefore, early consideration for neuroimaging should be given for any neutropenic cancer patient identified with B. cereus bacteremia, in particular those with acute leukemia during induction therapy. PMID:23619116
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on persons with compatible illnesses, but whose blood was not cultured. RESULTS: NTS accounted for 60/155 (39% of blood culture isolates in the rural and 7/230 (3% in the urban sites. The adjusted incidence in the rural site was 568/100,000 person-years, and the urban site was 51/100,000 person-years. In both sites, the incidence was highest in children 85% of blood NTS isolates in both sites, but only 21% (urban and 64% (rural of stool NTS isolates. Overall, 76% of S. Typhimurium blood isolates were multi-drug resistant, most of which had an identical profile in Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis. In the rural site, the incidence of NTS bacteremia increased during the study period, concomitant with rising malaria prevalence (monthly correlation of malaria positive blood smears and NTS bacteremia cases, Spearman's correlation, p = 0.018 for children, p = 0.16 adults. In the rural site, 80% of adults with NTS bacteremia were HIV-infected. Six of 7 deaths within 90 days of NTS bacteremia had HIV/AIDS as the primary cause of death assigned on verbal autopsy. CONCLUSIONS: NTS caused the majority of bacteremias in rural Kenya, but typhoid predominated in urban Kenya, which most likely reflects differences in malaria endemicity. Control measures for malaria, as well as HIV, will likely decrease the burden of NTS bacteremia in Africa.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemic outbreaks of multi-drug resistant (MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (AB in intensive care units (ICUs are increasing. The incidence of MDR AB bacteremia, which develops as a result of colonization, is increasing through widespread dissemination of the pathogen, and further colonization. We sought to determine risk factors for MDR AB bacteremia in patients colonized with MDR AB in the ICU. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of 200 patients colonized with MDR AB in the ICU at Severance Hospital, South Korea during the outbreak period between January 2008 and December 2009. Results Of the 200 patients colonized with MDR AB, 108 developed MDR AB bacteremia, and 92 did not. APACHE II scores were higher in bacteremic than non-bacteremic patients at the time of ICU admission and colonization (24.0 vs. 21.6; P = 0.035, 22.9 vs. 16.8; P P = 0.923, but the duration of time at risk was shorter in bacteremic patients (12.1 vs. 6.0 days; P = 0.016. A recent invasive procedure was a significant risk factor for development of bacteremia (odds ratio = 3.85; 95% CI 1.45-10.24; P = 0.007. Multivariate analysis indicated infection and respiratory failure at the time of ICU admission, maintenance of mechanical ventilation, maintenance of endotracheal tube instead of switching to a tracheostomy, recent central venous catheter insertion, bacteremia caused by other microorganism after colonization by MDR AB, and prior antimicrobial therapy, were significant risk factors for MDR AB bacteremia. Conclusions Patients in the ICU, colonized with MDR AB, should be considered for minimizing invasive procedures and early removal of the invasive devices to prevent development of MDR AB bacteremia.
Detection of hemoplasma and Bartonella species and co-infection with retroviruses in cats subjected to a spaying/neutering program in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil Detecção de hemoplasmas e Bartonella sp. e co-infecção com retrovírus em gatos submetidos a um programa de castração/esterilização em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil
Caroline Plácidi de Bortoli; Marcos Rogério André; Meire Christina Seki; Aramis Augusto Pinto; Saulo de Tarso Zacarias Machado; Rosangela Zacarias Machado
Hemotrophic mycoplasmas and Bartonella species are important pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts, occasionally causing diseases in humans. Nevertheless, there are few reports on occurrences of these agents in cats in Brazil. The present study aimed to detect the presence of hemoplasma and Bartonella DNA by means of PCR and sequencing. FIV antigens and anti-FeLV antibodies, were studied by using a commercial kit on blood and serum samples, respectively, among 46 cats t...
Lukovac, Enra; Koluder-Cimic, Nada; Hadzovic-Cengic, Meliha; Baljic, Rusmir; Hadzic, Amir; Gojak, Refet
SUMMARY CONFLICT OF INTEREST: none declared. Introduction Staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis is one of the most serious bacterial infections around the world. In individuals with pre-existing diseases, there is always an increased risk of infections occurring due to impaired immune system, a variety of drug therapy, exposure to a diagnostic and therapeutic procedure and frequent hospitalizations. Objectives To analyze the prevalence of comorbidity in a patient with the staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis according to the diagnosis, the site of infection and according to the isolated agent. Patients and methods We analyzed the patients affected by the staphylococcal bacteremia/sepsis and treated in the Clinic for Infectious Diseases during a ten-year period. Results 87 patients were included, out of whom 20 (23%) with clinical signs of the bacteremia and 67 (77%) of sepsis. In the analyzed sample, in 36 (41.4%) were not registered comorbidity. Hospital infections are represented by the previous antibiotic, corticosteroid and chemo therapy, pressure ulcers, and different implants. In all comorbidity, the most common isolated bacteria was S. aureus primarily strain MSSA followed by MRSA strain which is more frequent in patients who were surgically treated (comorbidity–various implants). Conclusion The results suggest the importance of being mindful of the staphylococcal etiology of the bacteremia/sepsis in patients with comorbidities due to the selection of an adequate initial empirical therapy and reducing the risks of the septic shock. PMID:24493989
Rautanen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Mills, Tara C; Rockett, Kirk A; Strange, Amy; Ndungu, Anne W; Naranbhai, Vivek; Gilchrist, James J; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Band, Gavin; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Edkins, Sarah; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard D; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Macharia, Alex W; Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne; Mturi, Neema; Njuguna, Patricia; Mohammed, Shebe; Berkley, James A; Mwangi, Isaiah; Mwarumba, Salim; Kitsao, Barnes S; Lowe, Brett S; Morpeth, Susan C; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Chapman, Stephen J; Donnelly, Peter; Hill, Adrian V S; Spencer, Chris C A
Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study. We identified an association between polymorphisms in a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (AC011288.2) and pneumococcal bacteremia and replicated the results in the same population (p combined = 1.69 × 10(-9); OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.84-3.31). The susceptibility allele is African specific, derived rather than ancestral, and occurs at low frequency (2.7% in control subjects and 6.4% in case subjects). Our further studies showed AC011288.2 expression only in neutrophils, a cell type that is known to play a major role in pneumococcal clearance. Identification of this novel association will further focus research on the role of lincRNAs in human infectious disease. PMID:27236921
Third generation cephalosporin resistant Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug resistant gram-negative bacteria causing bacteremia in febrile neutropenia adult cancer patients in Lebanon, broad spectrum antibiotics use as a major risk factor, and correlation with poor prognosis
Full Text Available Bacteremia remains a major cause of life-threatening complications in patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy. The spectrum and susceptibility profiles of causative microorganisms differ with time and place. Data from Lebanon are scarce. We aim at evaluating the epidemiology of bacteremia in cancer patients in a university hospital in Lebanon, emphasizing antibiotic resistance and risk factors of multi-drug resistant organism (MDRO-associated bacteremia.This is a retrospective study of 75 episodes of bacteremia occurring in febrile neutropenic patients admitted to the hematology-oncology unit at Makassed General Hospital, Lebanon, from October 2009-January 2012.It corresponds to epidemiological data on bacteremia episodes in febrile neutropenic cancer patients including antimicrobial resistance and identification of risk factors associated with third generation cephalosporin resistance (3GCR and MDRO-associated bacteremia. Out of 75 bacteremias, 42.7% were gram-positive (GP, and 57.3% were gram-negative (GN. GP bacteremias were mostly due to methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (28% of total bacteremias and 66% of GP bacteremias. Among the GN bacteremias, Escherichia coli (22.7% of total, 39.5% of GN organisms and Klebsiellapneumoniae(13.3% of total, 23.3% of GN organisms were the most important causative agents. GN bacteremia due to 3GC sensitive (3GCS bacteria represented 28% of total bacteremias, while 29% were due to 3GCR bacteria and 9% were due to carbapenem-resistant organisms. There was a significant correlation between bacteremia with MDRO and subsequent intubation, sepsis and mortality. Among potential risk factors, only broad spectrum antibiotic intake >4 days before bacteremia was found to be statistically significant for acquisition of 3GCR bacteria. Using carbapenems or piperacillin/ tazobactam>4 days before bacteremia was significantly associated with the emergence of MDRO (p value<0.05.
Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Arpi, Magnus; Jensen, Thøger Gorm; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Søgaard, Mette; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
Seasonal variation analysis. METHODS In 3 Danish health regions (2.3 million total inhabitants), patients with bacteremia were identified from 2000 through 2011 using information from laboratory information systems. Analyses were confined to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus...... pneumoniae. Additional data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry for the construction of admission histories and calculation of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Bacteremias were categorized as community acquired, healthcare associated (HCA), and hospital acquired. We defined multiple....... coli, 6,924 S. aureus, and 4,884 S. pneumoniae bacteremia cases. For E. coli, the seasonal variation was highest for community-acquired cases (PTT ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.32), was diminished for HCA (PTT ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.25), and was missing for hospital-acquired cases. No seasonal...
Abhrajit Ganguly; Saibal Das; Jayanta Kumar Dey; Somnath Mondal
With increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, several extra-intestinal manifestations of the organism have been unmasked which include-bacteremia, brain abscess, pericarditis etc. We report a rare and interesting case of C. difficile bacteremia and subsequent meningitis in a 10 year old child. The child was immune competent, which further raises the question about the virulent possibilities of the organism and its implications in the near future. The condition resulted from a prolonged treatment with intravenous (I.V.) cefotaxime for staphylococcal pyogenic arthritis. The child recovered from the septic arthritis but on the 7th day post-admission developed features of bacteremia. The child was later treated with intravenous metronidazole and vancomycin and he was discharged on the 21st day post-admission. No recurrence of symptoms was noted.
Gautam, Manjushree; Chopra, Kapil B; Douglas, David D; Stewart, Rebecca A; Kusne, Shimon
Bacterial infections are a serious complication of end-stage liver disease (ESLD) that occurs in 20% to 60% of patients. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of patients with ESLD who were identified by our microbiology laboratory as having Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia. Of 592 patients listed for transplantation between January 1998 and January 2006, 9 (1.5%) had 10 episodes of S salivarius bacteremia. Of 2 patients already receiving quinolone prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), 1 later presented with a second episode. The male-to-female ratio was 1:1.2. Medians for age, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, and Child-Turcotte-Pugh score were 50 years, 17, and 10, respectively. Presenting symptoms and signs in 10 episodes of infection were ascites (in 8 episodes), elevated temperature (6), abdominal pain (5), and encephalopathy (4). Median laboratory values included: white blood cell count, 15.1 x 10(9)/L; creatinine, 0.9 mg/dL; albumin, 3.1 gm/dL; aspartate aminotransferase, 64 U/L; alanine aminotransferase, 52.5 U/L; ammonia, 67 mug/dL; and prothrombin time, 17.3 seconds. Ascitic fluid in patients with peritonitis showed a median white blood cell count of 466 cells/mm(3) (range, 250-12,822 cells/mm(3)), with 66% polymorphs, protein of 0.9 gm/dL, and albumin of 0.4 gm/dL. S salivarius may cause primary bacteremia and SBP in liver transplantation candidates despite quinolone prophylaxis. PMID:17969206
Full Text Available musculus oxoglutarate dehydrog... 231 9e-59 AY160679_1( AY160679 |pid:none) Bart...onella vinsonii subsp. berkhof... 229 3e-58 AB099923_1( AB099923 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae sucA, sucB g
Full Text Available There is paucity of data on the invasive group A Streptococcal disease in children, especially from the developing countries. As an infection in children could take a life-threatening course, an early diagnosis and prompt treatment can go a long way in achieving positive therapeutic outcome. In the present study, 3 infants were detected to have bacteremia due to group A Streptococcus as per their positive blood cultures. There is need to create an awareness among clinicians regarding prevalence of GAS infections. The increasing isolation of organisms in this era of anti-microbial drug resistance necessitates regular epidemiological monitoring of invasive GAS infections in developing countries also.
Miller, Mark; Mendelson, Jack
The use of acridine orange stained buffy coat smears was assessed as a rapid screening test for bacteremia in adults. A total of 356 consecutive blood cultures were submitted with simultaneous anticoagulated blood samples, from which a buffy coat smear was prepared and stained with acridine orange (100 mg/L; pH 3.0). Forty-one of 356 blood samples (12%) yielded organisms in the blood culture system. Compared to blood culture, the overall sensitivity of acridine orange stained buffy coat smear...
Pedersen, Michael; Brandt, Christian T.; Knudsen, Gitte Moos;
during incremental reductions in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) by controlled hemorrhage. Autoregulation was preserved in all rats without meningitis (groups A and E) and was lost in 24 of 25 meningitis rats (groups B, C, and D) (P<0.01). In group A, the lower limit was higher than that of group E (P......<0.05). The slope of the CBF/CPP regression line differed between the meningitis groups (P<0.001), being steeper for group B than groups C and D, with no difference between these two groups. The results suggest that pneumococcal bacteremia in rats triggers cerebral vasodilation, which right shifts...
During the period of 1971 to 1979, 172 Proteus mirabilis and 17 Proteus vulgaris strains were collected from blood cultures. Of these strains, 144 could be grouped into 25 O antigens. The most common antigens were O3, O23, O10, O30, and O24, which represented 46.1% of all strains. The O antigen distribution of strains isolated from blood cultures did not differ significantly from that of fecal and urinary strains. No particular O antigen could thus be defined as a virulence factor in bacteremia.
Goel, Noopur; Munshi, Lubna Bashir; Thyagarajan, Braghadheeswar
Patients with history of intravenous drug abuse are noted to be at risk of several infections including HIV, endocarditis, and other opportunistic infections. We report the case of a patient with sustained Bacillus cereus bacteremia despite use of multiple antibiotic regimens during his inpatient stay. Our case highlights the importance of high suspicion for active drug use inside the hospital in such patients. This is important in order to minimize unnecessary diagnostic workup and provide adequate treatment and safe hospital stay for these patients. PMID:27433362
Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;
. Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention......Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is an urgent medical problem due to its growing frequency and its poor associated outcome. As healthcare delivery increasingly involves invasive procedures and implantable devices, the number of patients at risk for SAB and its complications is likely to grow...
Benusic, Michael A; Press, Natasha M; Hoang, Linda Mn; Romney, Marc G
Bacillus cereus is a ubiquitous spore-forming organism that is infrequently implicated in extraintestinal infections. The authors report three cases of B cereus bacteremia among injection drug users presenting within one month to an urban tertiary care hospital. Treatment with intravenous vancomycin was successful in all three cases. While temporal association suggested an outbreak, molecular studies of patient isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis did not suggest a common source. A review of the association of B cereus infections with heroin use and treatment of this pathogen is provided. PMID:26015795
R. Cesar Gonzáles; V. Ciro Maguiña; M. Felipe Heras; G. Luis Conde-Salazar
La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1) Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémic...
O'Connor, S P; Dorsch, M; Steigerwalt, A G; Brenner, D J; Stackebrandt, E
The primary structures of 16S rRNAs of Bartonella bacilliformis, an isolate of the cat scratch disease (CSD) bacillus, and a strain phenotypically similar to the CSD bacillus were determined by reverse transcriptase sequencing. These microorganisms were found to be members of the alpha-2 subgroup of the class Proteobacteria. The sequence from B. bacilliformis was most closely related to the rRNA of Rochalimaea quintana (91.7% homology), the etiologic agent of trench fever. The sequence from t...
Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E.
Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norw...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We report an outbreak of Achromobacter xylosoxidans at a neonatal intensive care unit. We aimed to present clinical, laboratory and treatment data of the patients. Materials and METHODS: All consecutive episodes of bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans at our neonatal intensive care unit, beginning with the index case detected at November 2009 until cessation of the outbreak in April 2010, were evaluated retrospectively. RESULTS: Thirty-four episodes of bacteremia occurred in 22 neonates during a 6-month period. Among the affected, 90% were preterm newborns with gestational age of 32 weeks or less and 60% had birth weight of 1000 g or less. Endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheter use, total parenteral nutrition and prolonged antibiotic therapy were the predisposing conditions. Presenting features were abdominal distention, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. The mortality rate was 13.6% and the majority of isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenems and trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole, and resistant to gentamycin. More than half were breakthrough infections. Despite intensive efforts to control the outbreak by standard methods of hand hygiene, patient screening and isolation, containment could be achieved only after the neonatal intensive care unit was relocated. The investigation was not able to single out the source of the outbreak. CONCLUSION: A. xylosoxidans has the potential to cause serious infections in premature babies. More studies are needed to determine the importance of different sources of infection in hospital units.
Full Text Available Objective: To investigate microorganisms causing bacteremia in Jordanian children and to assess their sensitivity to various groups of antimicrobials."nMethods: A retrospective study was conducted on positive blood cultures taken from 378 children aged below 15 year, who sought medical attention at Princess Rahmah Hospital between January and December/2008."nResults: Out of 4475 tested blood samples, 378 isolates were recovered from blood cultures. The male to female isolate ratio was (1.26:1.0. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus (86.2%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (9%, Escherichia coli (1.9%, Streptococcus spp. (1.9%, Pseudomonas spp. (0.8%, and Acinetobacter sp. was found in only one culture (0.3%. The susceptibility rate of S. aureus was recorded the highest (99.6% for vancomycin, and the lowest susceptibility rate (3.2% was recorded for aztreonam."nConclusions: Staphylococcus aureus was the main isolate in bacteremic children, with all isolates demonstrating susceptibility to vancomycin. Overall, aztreonam resistance was near 97%, and this rate was not affected by sex and blood isolate type. This information should be considered when empirical therapy is recommended or prescribed for children with bacteremia.
David Michael Z
Full Text Available Abstract Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided.
Dunn, Ryan; Bares, Sara; David, Michael Z
Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided. PMID:21864336
Full Text Available Campylobacter fetus bacteremia is rare and occurs mainly in patients with immunosuppression. This infection, which often involves secondary localizations has already been reported in some primary humoral immune deficiencies. We describe three cases of severe infection due to C. fetus with cellulitis at presentation, but without any gastrointestinal symptoms, occurring in patients with acquired hypogammaglobulinemia.
Pialoux, G; Faure, K; Durand, F.; F. Delisle; Said Ibrahim, T.; Lescure, F. X.; G. Béraud; Venon, M. D.; Flateau, C.; T. Galperine; Guery, B.
We report the first description of recurrent bacteremia in two patients after cyanoacrylate injection for gastric varices bleeding treated with antibiotics alone. Adapted and prolonged antibiotic treatment allowed a complete resolution of the infection with no relapse after more than 6 months. According to recent data, prophylactic antibiotics should be further investigated for patients with bleeding varices undergoing cyanoacrylate injection.
D. J. Hadad
Full Text Available A case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteremia in an HIV negative immunodepressed patient was described using the BACTEC 460 TB system. This bacterium should be investigated in the blood of immunodepressed non-HIV infected patients with prolonged fever.
Abbott, S L; Janda, J M
Yokenella regensburgei ("Koserella trabulsii") was isolated from a 74-year-old male with a septic knee and from a 35-year-old immunocompromised female whose transient bacteremia occurred without overt signs of sepsis. Neither strain was correctly identified by laboratories using a variety of techniques.
During six months, we obtained Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients with Gram-negative bacteremia at a 1250-bed teaching hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, and compared carbapenem susceptibility with the presence of blaKPC, a transferable carbapenemase gene. Three (1.2%) out of 243 isolates were ...
Avery, R; Kalaycio, M; Pohlman, B; Sobecks, R; Kuczkowski, E; Andresen, S; Mossad, S; Shamp, J; Curtis, J; Kosar, J; Sands, K; Serafin, M; Bolwell, B
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal (VRE) infection is a growing threat. We studied the incidence, risk factors, and clinical course of early-onset VRE bacteremia in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. We carried out a chart review of 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients from 1997-2003, including preparative regimen, diagnosis, status of disease, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, antimicrobial therapy, and survival. VRE bacteremia developed in 12/281 (4.3%) recipients; 10 (3.6%) were within 21 days of transplant. Diagnoses were acute leukemia (7), NHL (2), and MDS (1). In all, 70% had refractory/relapsed disease; 30% were in remission. In total, 50% had circulating blasts. Nine of 10 had matched unrelated donors (7/9 with CD8+ T-cell depletion). The average time to positive VRE cultures was 15 days; average WBC was 0.05, and 80% had concomitant infections. Despite treatment, all patients died within 73 days of VRE bacteremia. Intra-abdominal complications were common. Causes of death included bacterial or fungal infection, multiorgan failure, VOD, ARDS, and relapse. A total of 60% of patients engrafted neutrophils, but none engrafted platelets. Early VRE bacteremia after allogeneic bone marrow transplant is associated with a rapidly deteriorating clinical course, although not always directly due to VRE. Early VRE may be a marker for the critical condition of these high-risk patients at the time of transplant. PMID:15640812
Tromp, M.; Lansdorp, B.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Pickkers, P.
Objectives We evaluated the value of a single biomarker, biomarker panels, biomarkers combined with clinical signs of sepsis, and serial determinations of biomarkers in the prediction of bacteremia in patients with sepsis. Methods Adult patients visiting the emergency department because of a susp
Tromp, M.; Lansdorp, B.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.; Gunnewiek, J.M.; Kullberg, B.J.; Pickkers, P.
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the value of a single biomarker, biomarker panels, biomarkers combined with clinical signs of sepsis, and serial determinations of biomarkers in the prediction of bacteremia in patients with sepsis. METHODS: Adult patients visiting the emergency department because of a suspe
Full Text Available Abstract Background Ertapenem is a once-a-day carbapenem and has excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The susceptibility of isolates of community-acquired bacteremia to ertapenem has not been reported yet. The present study assesses the in vitro activity of ertapenem against aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens isolated from patients with community-acquired bacteremia by determining and comparing the MICs of cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin. The prevalence of extended broad spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL producing strains of community-acquired bacteremia and their susceptibility to these antibiotics are investigated. Methods Aerobic and facultative bacteria isolated from blood obtained from hospitalized patients with community-acquired bacteremia within 48 hours of admission between August 1, 2004 and September 30, 2004 in Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan, were identified using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated by Etest according to the standard guidelines provided by the manufacturer and document M100-S16 Performance Standards of the Clinical Laboratory of Standard Institute. Antimicrobial agents including cefepime, cefoxitin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam, ciprofloxacin, amikacin and gentamicin were used against the bacterial isolates to test their MICs as determined by Etest. For Staphylococcus aureus isolates, MICs of oxacillin were also tested by Etest to differentiate oxacillin-sensitive and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. Results Ertapenem was highly active in vitro against many aerobic and facultative bacterial pathogens commonly recovered from patients with community-acquired bacteremia (128/159, 80.5 %. Ertapenem had more potent activity than ceftriaxone, piperacillin
McGregor Jessina C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA has led clinicians to select antibiotics that have coverage against MRSA, usually vancomycin, for empiric therapy for suspected staphylococcal infections. Clinicians often continue vancomycin started empirically even when methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA strains are identified by culture. However, vancomycin has been associated with poor outcomes such as nephrotoxicity, persistent bacteremia and treatment failure. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of vancomycin versus the beta-lactam antibiotics nafcillin and cefazolin among patients with MSSA bacteremia. The outcome of interest for this study was 30-day in-hospital mortality. Methods This retrospective cohort study included all adult in-patients admitted to a tertiary-care facility between January 1, 2003 and June 30, 2007 who had a positive blood culture for MSSA and received nafcillin, cefazolin or vancomycin. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess independent mortality hazards comparing nafcillin or cefazolin versus vancomycin. Similar methods were used to estimate the survival benefits of switching from vancomycin to nafcillin or cefazolin versus leaving patients on vancomycin. Each model included statistical adjustment using propensity scores which contained variables associated with an increased propensity to receive vancomycin. Results 267 patients were included; 14% (38/267 received nafcillin or cefazolin, 51% (135/267 received both vancomycin and either nafcillin or cefazolin, and 35% (94/267 received vancomycin. Thirty (11% died within 30 days. Those receiving nafcillin or cefazolin had 79% lower mortality hazards compared with those who received vancomycin alone (adjusted hazard ratio (HR: 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.09, 0.47. Among the 122 patients who initially received vancomycin empirically, those who were switched to nafcillin or cefazolin (66
Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green
Yakut, Nurhayat; Kepenekli, Eda Kadayifci; Karaaslan, Ayse; Atici, Serkan; Akkoc, Gulsen; Demir, Sevliya Ocal; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa
Acinetobacter ursingii is an aerobic, gram-negative, opportunistic microorganism which is rarely isolated among Acinetobacter species. We present two immunocompetent infants who developed bacteremia due to A. ursingii. The first patient is a two -month- old boy who had been hospitalized in pediatric surgery unit for suspected tracheo-esophageal fistula because of recurrent aspiration pneumonia unresponsive to antibiotic therapy. The second patient is a fourteen -month- old boy with prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. A. ursingii was isolated from their blood cultures. They were successfully treated with ampicillin-sulbactam. Although A. ursingii has recently been isolated from a clinical specimen; reports of infection with A. ursingii in children are rare. A. ursingii should be kept in mind as an opportunistic microorganism in children. PMID:27347282
Laupland, Kevin B; Schønheyder, Henrik C; Østergaard, Christian;
OBJECTIVES: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of invasive infection but contemporary data in non-selected populations is limited. METHODS: Population-based surveillance for Haemophilus influenzae bacteremia was conducted in seven regions in Australia, Canada, and Denmark during 2000......-2008. RESULTS: The overall annual incidence rate was 1.31 per 100,000 population and type specific rates were 0.08 for H. influenzae serotype b (Hib), 0.22 for H. influenzae serotypes a, c-f (Hiac-f), and 0.98 per 100,000 for non-typeable H. influenzae (NTHi). Very young and old patients were at highest risk......%. Factors independently associated with death at 30-days in logistic regression analysis included male gender, hospital-onset disease, older age, and lower respiratory tract, central nervous system, or unknown focus of infection. CONCLUSIONS: Haemophilus influenzae is an important cause of morbidity and...
Hardjo Lugito, Nata Pratama; Cucunawangsih; Kurniawan, Andree
Sphingomonas paucimobilis is a yellow-pigmented, glucose nonfermenting, aerobic, Gram negative bacillus of low pathogenicity. This organism was found in the implantation of indwelling catheters, sterile intravenous fluid, or contaminated hospital environment such as tap and distilled water, nebulizer, ventilator, and hemodialysis device. A 55-year-old female was hospitalized for diabetic foot ulcer in the presence of multiple comorbidities: diabetes mellitus, colonic tuberculosis, end-stage renal disease, and indwelling catheters for central venous catheter and hemodialysis. The patient passed away on the 44th day of admission due to septic shock. The organism found on blood culture on the 29th day of admission was multidrug resistant S. paucimobilis. Severe infection and septic shock due to S. paucimobilis have been reported particularly in immunocompromised patients, but there has been only one reported case of death in a premature neonate with septic shock. This is the first reported lethal case of S. paucimobilis bacteremia in an adult patient. PMID:27088020
Full Text Available Delftia acidovorans, formerly called as Comamonas acidovorans,is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria.A 79 year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Bilateralrespiratory sounds were diminished, he had roughrhonchi. He was started sulbactam/ampicilline. On theseventh day of hospitalization, White Blood Cells increasedand infiltration was occured on the left lung,blood and deep tracheal aspirate culture samples weretaken; ceftriaxone was replaced. Cultures revealed D. acidovorans.Meropenem was started for septicemia due toD. acidovorans on the 11th day of admission. On followup,the patient died on the 17th day.Key words: Delftia acidovorans, bacteremia, pneumonia,
Mölkänen, T; Ruotsalainen, E; Thorball, C W;
the first positive blood culture for S. aureus, suPAR levels were higher in 19 fatalities (median 12.3; range 5.7-64.6 ng/mL) than in 40 survivors (median 8.4; range 3.7-17.6 ng/mL, p = 0.002). This difference persisted for 10 days. The presence of deep infection focus was not associated with elevated su...... are scarce. To elucidate the role of suPAR in a common bacteremic infection, the serum suPAR levels in 59 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) were measured using the suPARnostic ELISA assay and associations to 1-month mortality and with deep infection focus were analyzed. On day three, after...
Twenty-four patients were evaluated to determine if the method of performing T-tube cholangiography had bearing on the development of bacteremia. Fifteen patients underwent cholangiography after hand injection (HI) of contrast medium and 12 patients cholangiogrpahy after gravity infusion of contrast medium. In three patients both techniques were used. Injection pressures were monitored and blood and bile samples were obtained for culture. In four of the 11 patients (36%) in the HI group who were not taking antibiotics, pathogens were cultured from blood drawn immediately after cholangiographic. The remaining four patients in this group were taking antibiotics and had negative blood cultures. None of the 12 patients in the GI group had positive blood cultures. There was a correlation between the higher injection pressures generated using the HI technique and positive blood cultures
Full Text Available Aim: Brucellosis are most commonly caused by the Brucella species Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. This study was aimed to determine the differences in the routine diagnostic tests (serological tests and blood culture positivity that differentiate bacteremias caused by B. melitensis and B. abortus. Material and Method: This study included a total of 42 patients from whose blood cultures Brucella sp. were isolated between January 2010 and April 2014. A 8-10 ml blood sample was put into BACTEC plus/Aerobic F culture bottles after being drawn from patients (n:42 with suspected brucellosis. The obtained samples were incubated in BACTEC 9240 device (BD Diagnostic, Maryland, USA for 21 days. Sera of the blood samples taken simultaneously with the blood culture were studied with the Rose Bengal and Standard Tube Agglutination (STA tests. Results: In patients with acute brucellosis, B. melitensis and B. abortus species showed no significant differences with respect to time to positive signal in blood cultures (for hours p=0.850; for days p=0.696 and the mean time to positivity. The earliest signal in the device was delivered at day 2., 44th hour and the latest at day 6., 123rd hour. No significant difference was noted between the two species with respect to the mean time to positivity. Discussion: This study did not show any significant differences between B. melitensis (n=22 and B. abortus (n=20 bacteremias with respect to age, sex, time to blood culture positivity, and STA test titer level.
Febre do viajante associada com adenite cervical e sororreatividade para Bartonella sp em paciente brasileira, após retorno da África do Sul Traveler's fever associated with cervical adenomegaly and antibodies for Bartonella sp in a Brazilian patient returning from South Africa
Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Full Text Available Um grande número de viajantes visita anualmente, por estudo, turismo ou trabalho o continente africano. Um caso de adenomegalia cervical e hepatoesplenomegalia associado à febre de duas semanas de duração com teste sorológico positivo para Bartonella sp em uma paciente de 22 anos do sexo feminino que retornou da África do Sul após realização de trabalho de campo com primatas em área silvestre é apresentado.A large number of travelers visit the African continent annually for studying, tourism or business reasons. The authors report a case of cervical adenomegaly, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly associated with a two-week history of fever and seropositivity for Bartonella sp in a 22-year-old female patient who returned from South Africa after field work with primates in a wild area.
Randi, Bruno A.; Ninomiya, Daniel A.; Nicodemo, Elizabeth L.; Lopes, Beatriz C.; Eduardo R. Cançado; Levin, Anna S.
Background Bleeding from gastric varices has high mortality rate, and obliteration using N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate is the treatment of choice. Recurrent bacteremia is rarely reported following the procedure. We aimed to report a case of recurrent bacteremia after N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate treatment and to review published cases. Case presentation and review In May 2014, a 43-year-old Brazilian male presented with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopy showed active bleeding from gastric varix...
Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.
The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greate...
Full Text Available Os estafilococos coagulase-negativos (ECN são importantes agentes etiológicos das bacteremias hospitalares e freqüentemente considerados como contaminantes de hemoculturas. No período de outubro de 1990 a setembro de 1992, foram estudadas 300 hemoculturas positivas para ECN no Hospital São Paulo, sendo 141 bacteremias consideradas de origem hospitalar. Com o objetivo de diferenciar as bacteremias hospitalares verdadeiras das contaminantes por ECN, foram definidos critérios clínicos e microbiológicos. Apenas 20,6% das bacteremias hospitalares por ECN foram consideradas como verdadeiras. A maior freqüência de recém-nascidos internados na unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal, a presença de cateter intravascular e a utilização de nutrição parenteral foram achados significativos. Não houve diferença significante quanto a resistência a oxacilina e produção de SLIME entre os ECN isolados das bacteremias verdadeiras e contaminantes. O critério clínico e a positividade da hemocultura até 48 horas após a incubação, utilizados em nossa definição, foram úteis para caracterizar as bacteremias verdadeiras por ECN.
Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Thomassen, Anders; Hess, Søren; Alavi, Abass; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming
We report incidental FDG PET/CT findings of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient with bacteremia. In this patient, diagnosis of thromboembolism was not considered until FDG PET/CT imaging was performed, and the findings prompted immediate anticoagulant therapy. The role of F...... PET/CT in venous thromboembolism is not yet well established, but the potential benefit must be kept in mind when interpreting FDG PET/CT images regardless of the underlying disease.......We report incidental FDG PET/CT findings of deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a patient with bacteremia. In this patient, diagnosis of thromboembolism was not considered until FDG PET/CT imaging was performed, and the findings prompted immediate anticoagulant therapy. The role of FDG...
Beneri, Christy A; Nicolau, David P; Seiden, Howard S; Rubin, Lorry G
Infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) may be difficult to treat because of the limited armamentarium of antimicrobial agents. The difficulty is compounded in pediatric patients in general and neonates in particular because many of the newer antimicrobials have not been studied or approved for children. We report a 3-week-old infant who developed enterococcal bacteremia on post-operative day 10 after a surgical palliation for complex congenital heart disease that was complicated by acute renal failure. Despite removal of vascular catheters and antimicrobial regimens that included linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, ampicillin/sulbactam, rifampin, and gentamicin, bacteremia persisted. It was not cleared until daptomycin (in combination with doxycycline) was started. This is the first case of successful treatment of probable endocarditis due to VRE in a neonate using a daptomycin-containing regimen. PMID:21694874
Lee, Wen-Sen; Chen, Yen-Chuo; Chen, Hung-Ping; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Cheng, Chung-Yi
An 85-year-old female presented with fever and consciousness disturbance for 3 days. The patient's blood culture subsequently revealed persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia despite the administration of vancomycin or teicoplanin monotherapy. Gallium inflammation scan and magnetic resonance image of the spine disclosed osteomyelitis and discitis at the level of L4-5. Surgical debridement was not feasible in this debilitated patient. Because of the creeping minimal inhibitory concentration of vancomycin of the causative isolate (1.5 μg/mL) and clinical failure with glycopeptide monotherapy, we changed the antibiotic therapy to a fosfomycin and teicoplanin combination therapy. The patient showed improved clinical response in terms of her enhanced consciousness as well as subsidence of persisted bacteremia. Despite the potential side effects of fosfomycin (such as diarrhea and hypernatremia), it combined with a glycopeptide may be an alternative therapy for invasive refractory MRSA infections. PMID:24269007
Full Text Available The Kytococcus genus formerly belonged to Micrococcus. The first report of a Kytococcus schroeteri infection was in 2002 in a patient diagnosed with endocarditis. We report a case of central line associated Kytococcus schroeteri bacteremia in a patient with underlying Hairy Cell Leukemia. Kytococcus schroeteri is an emerging infection in the neutropenic population and in patients with implanted artificial tissue. It is thought to be a commensal bacterium of the skin; however, attempts to culture the bacteria remain unsuccessful. There have been a total of 5 cases (including ours of K. schroeteri bacteremia in patients with hematologic malignancies and neutropenia and only 18 documented cases in any population. Four of the cases of bacteria in neutropenic patients have been fatal, but early detection and treatment could make a difference in clinical outcomes.
Dilworth, Thomas J.; Ibrahim, Omar; Hall, Pamela; Sliwinski, Jora; Walraven, Carla
Vancomycin (VAN) is often used to treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia despite a high incidence of microbiological failure. Recent in vitro analyses of β-lactams in combination with VAN demonstrated synergistic activity against MRSA. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of combination therapy with VAN and a β-lactam (Combo) on the microbiological eradication of MRSA bacteremia compared to VAN alone. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with MRSA bacteremia who received Combo therapy or VAN alone. Microbiological eradication of MRSA, defined as a negative blood culture obtained after initiation of therapy, was used to evaluate the efficacy of each regimen. A total of 80 patients were included: 50 patients in the Combo group and 30 patients in the VAN-alone group. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 48 patients (96%) in the Combo group compared to 24 patients (80%) in the VAN-alone group (P = 0.021). In a multivariable model, the Combo treatment had a higher likelihood of achieving microbiological eradication (adjusted odds ratio, 11.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 144.3; P = 0.01). In patients with infective endocarditis (n = 22), 11/11 (100%) who received Combo therapy achieved microbiological eradication compared to 9/11 (81.8%) treated with VAN alone, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.20). Patients with MRSA bacteremia who received Combo therapy were more likely to experience microbiological eradication of MRSA than patients who received VAN alone. PMID:24145519
Li, Julius; Echevarria, Kelly L; Hughes, Darrel W; Cadena, Jose A; Bowling, Jason E; Lewis, James S
Contrary to prior case reports that described occasional clinical failures with cefazolin for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections, recent studies have demonstrated no difference in outcomes between cefazolin and antistaphylococcal penicillins for the treatment of MSSA bacteremia. While promising, these studies described low frequencies of high-inoculum infections, such as endocarditis. This retrospective study compares clinical outcomes of cefazolin versus oxacillin for complicated MSSA bacteremia at two tertiary care hospitals between January 2008 and June 2012. Fifty-nine patients treated with cefazolin and 34 patients treated with oxacillin were included. Osteoarticular (41%) and endovascular (20%) sources were the predominant sites of infection. The rates of clinical cure at the end of therapy were similar between cefazolin and oxacillin (95% versus 88%; P=0.25), but overall failure at 90 days was higher in the oxacillin arm (47% versus 24%; P=0.04). Failures were more likely to have received surgical interventions (63% versus 40%; P=0.05) and to have an osteoarticular source (57% versus 33%; P=0.04). Failures also had a longer duration of bacteremia (7 versus 3 days; P=0.0002), which was the only predictor of failure. Antibiotic selection was not predictive of failure. Rates of adverse drug events were higher in the oxacillin arm (30% versus 3%; P=0.0006), and oxacillin was more frequently discontinued due to adverse drug events (21% versus 3%; P=0.01). Cefazolin appears similar to oxacillin for the treatment of complicated MSSA bacteremia but with significantly improved safety. The higher rates of failure with oxacillin may have been confounded by other patient factors and warrant further investigation. PMID:24936596
Damir Kapetanović; Emin Teskeredžić
Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples) of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 2...
Nielsen, Lise Have; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Benfield, Thomas;
delineated. METHODS: In this Danish nationwide, population-based cohort study patients with end-stage renal disease and matched population controls were observed from end-stage renal disease diagnosis/sampling until first episode of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, death, or end of study period......BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of bloodstream infections among hemodialysis patients and of exit-site infections among peritoneal dialysis patients. However, the risk and prognosis of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia among end-stage renal disease patients have not been...... bacteremia was very high for end-stage renal disease patients (35.7 per 1,000 person-years; 95% CI, 33.8-37.6) compared to population controls (0.5 per 1,000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.5-0.6), yielding a relative risk of 65.1 (95% CI, 59.6-71.2) which fell to 28.6 (95% CI, 23.3-35.3) after adjustment for sex...
Sasahara, Yosuke; Noguchi, Shingo; Orihashi, Takeshi; Shimabukuro, Ikuko; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi
Helicobacter cinaedi is typically isolated from immunocompromised patients. Some reports of infection caused by H.cinaedi have been found in recent years. We experienced three cases of H.cinaedi bacteremia in one year and ten months in our hospital, although the detection of H.cinaedi in blood cultures is extremely rare. In case 1, a 77-year-old female had been treated with a steroid and immunosuppressive agent for interstitial pneumonia. In cases 2 and 3, two 71-year-old men had been treated with chemotherapy for lung cancer. Although the identification of the bacteria could not be performed by the culture method in the three cases, H.cinaedi bacteremia was diagnosed by a 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis in case 1, and by nested PCR in cases 2 and 3. H.cinaedi bacteremia often tends to recur and also requires prolonged antimicrobial therapy. We believe that gene analysis is useful in the identification of H.cinaedi. PMID:26667196
Juan S. Lasa
Full Text Available La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB. Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celulitis. Se analizaron retrospectivamente los registros clínicos de los pacientes con este diagnóstico al ingreso entre junio de 2007 y marzo de 2010. Se evaluaron los datos poblacionales, presencia de comorbilidades, y resultados de los cultivos. En ese período, se internaron 140 pacientes con diagnóstico de celulitis y a todos ellos se les realizó hemocultivo y cultivos de PPB. Setenta y cuatro eran varones (52.8%. La edad promedio: 47.5 ± 19.7 años (rango 16-94. El 40% tuvo cultivos positivos de PPB, en los que el Staphylococcus aureus meticilino resistente (SAMR fue el germen más frecuentemente aislado (35.7%; la prevalencia de bacteriemia fue del 8.6%, en donde el germen más frecuente fue Streptoccocus Beta hemolítico, grupo G (33% del total de hemocultivos positivos. La bacteriemia se asoció significativamente a mayor estadía hospitalaria (10.5 ± 8.9 vs. 4.9 ± 6, p = 0.004. Se asoció con mayor riesgo de hemocultivo positivo a ser diabético, tener cultivo de PPB positivo, consumo de alcohol y/o enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica.Cellulitis is an acute inflammation of dermis and subcutaneous tissue, usually complicating wounds, ulcers, or dermatosis. Even though in these cases it is recommended to perform culture from skin and soft tissue samples, the utility of blood cultures remains controversial due to the low frequency of positive results. Here we report the prevalence of bacteremia in patients with cellulitis admitted in our
Eduardo Balzano Maulaz
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endoscopic procedures can develop bacteremia. Patients with chronic liver disease are more predisposed to undergo bacteremia and infections because they are immunocompromised. AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotics submitted to endoscopic variceal ligation. METHODS: Three groups of 40 patients each were studied. One group was made up of patients with cirrhosis who were submitted to ligation, a second group was composed of cirrhotics who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy only, and a third group was composed of patients without liver disease who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Blood was sampled from all patients for culture, both in aerobic and in anaerobic mediums, immediately before endoscopy and at 5 and 30 minutes after its completion. RESULTS: Blood culture was positive in 6 samples. In 4 of these, the bacteria (Staphylococcus hominis hominis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Acinetobacter lwoffii, and coagulase-negative staphylococcus were isolated before the endoscopic procedure and thus were considered as contamination. In the ligation group, a streptococcus of the viridans group was isolated 5 minutes after the procedure, and in the cirrhosis without ligation group, a Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated at 30 minutes. None of the patients showed clinical evidence of infection. CONCLUSIONS: The bacteremia incidence in cirrhotic patients submitted to variceal ligation was 2.5%, showing no difference from the control groups.RACIONAL: Os procedimentos endoscópicos são passíveis de favorecerem o desenvolvimento de bacteremia. Por serem imunodeprimidos, os hepatopatas crônicos estão mais predispostos a essa complicação e, conseqüentemente, a infecções. OBJETIVO: Determinar a incidência de bacteremia em pacientes cirróticos submetidos a ligadura elástica endoscópica de varizes esofágicas. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram estudados prospectivamente 120 pacientes
BO Shi-ning; BO Jian; NING Yong-zhong; ZHAO Yu; LU Xiao-lin; YANG Ji-yong; ZHU Xi; YAO Gai-qi
Background Previous studies indicated that the time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture is a parameter correlating with degree of the bacteremia and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli (E.co/i). The objective of this study was to further investigate the diagnostic and prognostic power of using TTP to predict E. coli bacteremia.Methods A retrospective cohort study at two university hospitals was conducted. We retrieved all the medical records of those with E. coli bloodstream infection according to the records generated by their microbiology departments.Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical factors correlating with fast bacterial growth and significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality.Results Medical records of 353 episodes of E. coli bacteremia diagnosed between January 1,2007 and December 31,2009 were retrieved in the investigation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the TTP≤7 hours group is associated with higher incidence of active malignancies (41.7% vs. 27.2%, P=0.010), neutropenia (30% vs.14.3%, P=0.007), primary bacteremia (55.0% vs. 33.4%, P=0.002), and poorer outcome (hospital mortality 43.3% vs.11.9%, P=0.000) than the TTP ＞7 hours group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant predictors of hospital mortality, in rank order from high to low, were TTP (for TTP ＜7 hours, odds ratio (OR): 4.886; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.572-9.283; P=0.000),neutropenia (OR: 2.800; 95% CI:1.428-5.490; P=0.003), comedication of steroids or immunosuppressive agents (OR:2.670; 95% CI: 0.971-7.342; P=0.057).Conclusions Incidence of malignancies, neutropenia and primary bacterernia correlates with fast bacterial growth in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The parameter of TTP has been identified as a variable of highest correlation to hospital mortality and therefore can be potentially utilized as a mortality prognostic marker.
Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of procalcitonin measurement in neonatal bacteremia/septicemia with suspected nosocomial infection are unclear and unresearched. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess procalcitonin value as an early or first line diagnosis/prognosis for bacterial neonatal septicemic infection in selected critically ill neonates. Patients and Methods: An observational cohort study in a 10-bed intensive care unit was performed. Sixty neonates, with either proven or clinically suspected, but not confirmed, bacterial neonatal septicemic infection were included. Procalcitonin measurements were obtained on the day when the infection was suspected. Neonates with proven septicemic infection were compared to those without. The diagnostic value of procalcitonin was determined through the area under the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC. In addition, the predictive value of procalcitonin variations preceding the clinical suspicion of infection was also assessed. Results: Procalcitonin was the best early predictor of proven infection in this population of neonates with a clinical suspicion of septicemia (AUROCC = 0.80; 91.6% CI, 0.68-0.91. In contrast, CRP elevation, leukocyte count and fever had a poor predictive value in our population. Conclusion: PCT monitoring could be helpful in the early diagnosis of neonatal septicemic infection in the intensive care unit. Both absolute values and variations should be considered and evaluated in further studies.
Ibeh Isaiah Nnanna
Full Text Available Background: The benefits of procalcitonin measurement in neonatal bacteremia/septicemia with suspected nosocomial infection are unclear and unresearched. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess procalcitonin value as an early or first line diagnosis/prognosis for bacterial neonatal septicemic infection in selected critically ill neonates. Patients and Methods: An observational cohort study in a 10-bed intensive care unit was performed. Sixty neonates, with either proven or clinically suspected, but not confirmed, bacterial neonatal septicemic infection were included. Procalcitonin measurements were obtained on the day when the infection was suspected. Neonates with proven septicemic infection were compared to those without. The diagnostic value of procalcitonin was determined through the area under the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROCC. In addition, the predictive value of procalcitonin variations preceding the clinical suspicion of infection was also assessed. Results: Procalcitonin was the best early predictor of proven infection in this population of neonates with a clinical suspicion of septicemia (AUROCC = 0.80; 91.6% CI, 0.68–0.91. In contrast, CRP elevation, leukocyte count and fever had a poor predictive value in our population. Conclusion: PCT monitoring could be helpful in the early diagnosis of neonatal septicemic infection in the intensive care unit. Both absolute values and variations should be considered and evaluated in further studies.
Smit, Jesper; Adelborg, Kasper; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich;
analysis, we computed hazard ratios as estimates of mortality rate ratios (MRRs) overall and stratified by CHF-related conditions (e.g., cardiomyopathy and valvular heart disease), CHF severity (defined by daily dosage of loop-diuretics), and CHF duration while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS...... patients with valvular heart disease (aMRR = 1.73 (95 % CI, 1.26-2.38)), patients with daily loop-diuretic dosages of 81-159 mg/day (aMRR = 1.55 (95 % CI, 1.11-2.14)) and ≥160 mg/day (aMRR = 1.62 (95 % CI, 1.21-2.18)), and among patients with <3 years of CHF duration (aMRR = 1.43 (95 % CI, 1......BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) may experience higher mortality of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) than patients without CHF due to insufficient cardiovascular responses during systemic infection. We investigated 90-day mortality in SAB patients with and without CHF...
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA is an uncommon, but important, condition encountered in the emergency department (ED. While cardiac arrest represents the final common pathway of multiple conditions, early evaluation often focuses on cardiac abnormalities. However, observed associations between infection, particularly pneumonia, and in-hospital cardiac arrest led Coba et al. (1 to investigate the incidence of bacteremia among OHCA patients. The study prospectively investigated 250 adult patients who presented to an academic ED with OHCA between 2007 and 2009. Two blood culture samples were drawn during resuscitation or shortly after return of spontaneous circulation through vascular devices placed for clinical purposes. Children, pregnant women, victims of trauma were excluded. To minimize false positive results, patients were classified as bacteremic if one sample was positive for a typical pathogen or both samples were positive for the same skin colonizing organism. Patients in whom only 1 sample was positive for suspected skin contaminant ...
Maria Antonietta Distasi
Full Text Available Background. Anaerobic bacteria are part of the commensal bacterial flora of skin and mucosae. Iatrogenic and pathological conditions altering this commensal relationship cause life-threatening diseases. Materials and Methods. We analysed the blood cultures sent to the microbiology of our hospital between 2008 and the first quarter of 2013 to measure the frequency of bacteraemia caused by anaerobia. We examined 3138 vials of blood cultures for anaerobia, inoculated following in-house standard procedures. The colonies grown in absence of air were subjected to biochemical analysis. The MICs of metronidazole for 23 of the 26 organisms was tested. Results. Twelve bacteria of the Bacteroides genus were identified, 9 Propionibacterium acnes, 1 Peptosctreptococcus micros, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Clostridium perfringens, 1 Prevotella oralis, 1 Eubacterium lentum. Conclusions. The analysis of the results suggests that the incidence of cultures positive to anaerobia was constant across the years. We note that advanced age, altered mucocutaneous tropism, alterations to the oral and intestinal bacterial flora intensify the risk of anaerobial pathogenicity. The analysis of the metronidazole-determined MIC suggests that the intestinal anaerobic flora responds well to therapy and prophylaxis with Metronidazole, while the anaerobic bacteria residing on skin and other mucosae are resistant. It is however hard to determine the clinical impact of anaerobic bacteremiae and their effect on the outcome of the patient, due to the scarcity of available clinical data.
Vila, Andrea; Pagella, Hugo; Vera Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Alicia
Ochrobactrum and Brucella are genetically related genera of the family Brucellaceae, sharing 98.8% rRNA similarity. Because of their phenotypic similarity, Ochrobactrum can be miscoded as Brucella by automated identification systems. The misidentification on blood cultures (BCs) of B. suis as O. anthropi by the VITEK 2 system is herein described. A 67-year-old male with a prosthetic mitral valve and fever was admitted with bacteremia due to a Gram-negative coccobacillus identified as O. anthropi by VITEK 2. The patient's fever persisted along with positive blood cultures despite specific antimicrobial treatment. Due to this adverse outcome, the patient was interrogated again and admitted having domestic swine. Serological tests were positive for acute brucellosis. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of BC strains identified B. suis biovar 1. Timely identification of Brucella is essential for providing proper treatment to the patient and for advising safe handling of laboratory cultures in biological safety cabinets to prevent laboratory-acquired infection. Countries where brucellosis is endemic must be aware of this possibility. PMID:27131010
Kulohoma, Benard W; Cornick, Jennifer E; Chaguza, Chrispin; Yalcin, Feyruz; Harris, Simon R; Gray, Katherine J; Kiran, Anmol M; Molyneux, Elizabeth; French, Neil; Parkhill, Julian; Faragher, Brian E; Everett, Dean B; Bentley, Stephen D; Heyderman, Robert S
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a nasopharyngeal commensal that occasionally invades normally sterile sites to cause bloodstream infection and meningitis. Although the pneumococcal population structure and evolutionary genetics are well defined, it is not clear whether pneumococci that cause meningitis are genetically distinct from those that do not. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing of 140 isolates of S. pneumoniae recovered from bloodstream infection (n = 70) and meningitis (n = 70) to compare their genetic contents. By fitting a double-exponential decaying-function model, we show that these isolates share a core of 1,427 genes (95% confidence interval [CI], 1,425 to 1,435 genes) and that there is no difference in the core genome or accessory gene content from these disease manifestations. Gene presence/absence alone therefore does not explain the virulence behavior of pneumococci that reach the meninges. Our analysis, however, supports the requirement of a range of previously described virulence factors and vaccine candidates for both meningitis- and bacteremia-causing pneumococci. This high-resolution view suggests that, despite considerable competency for genetic exchange, all pneumococci are under considerable pressure to retain key components advantageous for colonization and transmission and that these components are essential for access to and survival in sterile sites. PMID:26259813
Kronborg, G; Østergaard, C; Weis, Nina Margrethe; Nielsen, H; Obel, N; Pedersen, SS; Price, PA; Johansen, J
YKL40 is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum YKL-40 levels in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia...... and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age...... was an independent prognostic factor of survival in logistic multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.002). In conclusion, high serum levels of YKL40 indicated a poorer prognosis for patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia....
Kronborg, Gitte; Ostergaard, Christian; Nielsen, Henrik; Obel, Niels; Pedersen, Svend S; Price, Paul A; Johansen, Julia S; Weis, Nina
YKL40 is secreted by activated macrophages and neutrophils. Elevated serum concentrations of YKL40 are found in patients with diseases characterized by inflammation or ongoing fibrosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum YKL-40 levels in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia...... and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age...... was an independent prognostic factor of survival in logistic multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.002). In conclusion, high serum levels of YKL40 indicated a poorer prognosis for patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in public hospitals in developing countries. We evaluated trends in incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB and healthcare-associated bacteremia (HCAB and associated mortality in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS: Information from the microbiology and hospital databases of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand was linked with the national death registry for 2004-2010. Bacteremia was considered hospital-acquired if detected after the first two days of hospital admission, and healthcare-associated if detected within two days of hospital admission with a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 3,424 patients out of 1,069,443 at risk developed HAB and 2,184 out of 119,286 at risk had HCAB. Of these 1,559 (45.5% and 913 (41.8% died within 30 days, respectively. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rate of HAB increased from 0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days at risk (p<0.001, and the cumulative incidence of HCAB increased from 1.2 to 2.0 per 100 readmissions (p<0.001. The most common causes of HAB were Acinetobacter spp. (16.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%, while those of HCAB were Escherichia coli (26.3%, S. aureus (14.0%, and K. pneumoniae (9.7%. There was an overall increase over time in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli causing HAB and HCAB. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high and increasing incidence of HAB and HCAB in provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, increasing proportions of ESBL-producing isolates, and very high associated mortality.
Weinstein Robert A
Full Text Available Abstract Background When Staphylococcus aureus is isolated in urine, it is thought to usually represent hematogenous spread. Because such spread might have special clinical significance, we evaluated predictors and outcomes of S. aureus bacteriuria among patients with S. aureus bacteremia. Methods A case-control study was performed at John H. Stroger Jr. Hospital of Cook County among adult inpatients during January 2002-December 2006. Cases and controls had positive and negative urine cultures, respectively, for S. aureus, within 72 hours of positive blood culture for S. aureus. Controls were sampled randomly in a 1:4 ratio. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were done. Results Overall, 59% of patients were African-American, 12% died, 56% of infections had community-onset infections, and 58% were infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA. Among 61 cases and 247 controls, predictors of S. aureus bacteriuria on multivariate analysis were urological surgery (OR = 3.4, p = 0.06 and genitourinary infection (OR = 9.2, p = 0.002. Among patients who died, there were significantly more patients with bacteriuria than among patients who survived (39% vs. 17%; p = 0.002. In multiple Cox regression analysis, death risks in bacteremic patients were bacteriuria (hazard ratio 2.9, CI 1.4-5.9, p = 0.004, bladder catheter use (2.0, 1.0-4.0, p = 0.06, and Charlson score (1.1, 1.1-1.3, p = 0.02. Neither length of stay nor methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infection was a predictor of S. aureus bacteriuria or death. Conclusions Among patients with S. aureus bacteremia, those with S. aureus bacteriuria had 3-fold higher mortality than those without bacteriuria, even after adjustment for comorbidities. Bacteriuria may identify patients with more severe bacteremia, who are at risk of worse outcomes.
Yahav, D; Yassin, S; Shaked, H; Goldberg, E; Bishara, J; Paul, M; Leibovici, L
Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a fatal disease. We aimed to describe risk factors for long-term mortality with SAB. We analyzed data from a retrospectively collected database including 1,692 patients with SAB. We considered variables of infection and background conditions for the analysis of long-term survival. The Kaplan-Meier procedure was used for analysis of long-term survival. Variables significantly associated with mortality were analyzed using a Cox regression model. We included 1,692 patients in the analysis. Patients were followed for up to 22 years. Within one year, 62% of patients died and within 5 years 72% died. A total of 82% of patients aged 65 years and older died within 5 years. Independent predictors of long-term mortality were older age (Hazard ratio 1.029, 95% confidence interval 1.022-1.036), female gender (HR 1.302, 95% CI 1.118-1.517), pneumonia or primary/ unknown source of infection (HR 1.441, 95% CI 1.230-1.689), dementia (HR 1.234, 95% CI 1.004-1.516), higher Charlson score (HR 1.155, 95% CI 1.115-1.196), shock at onset (HR 1.776, 95% CI 1.430-2.207) and arrival to hospitalization from an institution (HR 1.319, 95% CI 1.095-1.563). Long-term survival of patients older than 65 years and of women with SAB is severely curtailed. PMID:26873381
Onder, Ali Mirza; Chandar, Jayanthi; Billings, Anthony; Diaz, Rosa; Francoeur, Denise; Abitbol, Carolyn; Zilleruelo, Gaston
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate if the application of chlorhexidine-based solutions (ChloraPrep) to the exit site and the hub of long-term hemodialysis catheters could prevent catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) and prolong catheter survival when compared with povidone-iodine solutions. There were 20,784 catheter days observed. Povidone-iodine solutions (Betadine) were used in the first half of the study and ChloraPrep was used in the second half for all the patients. Both groups received chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings at the exit sites. The use of ChloraPrep significantly decreased the incidence of CRB (1.0 vs 2.2/1,000 catheter days, respectively, P = 0.0415), and hospitalization due to CRB (1.8 days vs 4.1 days/1,000 catheter days, respectively, P = 0.0416). The incidence of exit site infection was similar for the two groups. Both the period of overall catheter survival (207.6 days vs 161.1 days, P = 0.0535) and that of infection-free catheter survival (122.0 days vs 106.9 days, P = 0.1100) tended to be longer for the catheters cleansed with ChloraPrep, with no statistical significance. In conclusion, chlorhexidine-based solutions are more effective for the prevention of CRB than povidone-iodine solutions. This positive impact cannot be explained by decreased number of exit site infections. This study supports the notion that the catheter hub is the entry site for CRB. PMID:19296135
Das, Sudip; Lindemann, Claudia; Young, Bernadette C; Muller, Julius; Österreich, Babett; Ternette, Nicola; Winkler, Ann-Cathrin; Paprotka, Kerstin; Reinhardt, Richard; Förstner, Konrad U; Allen, Elizabeth; Flaxman, Amy; Yamaguchi, Yuko; Rollier, Christine S; van Diemen, Pauline; Blättner, Sebastian; Remmele, Christian W; Selle, Martina; Dittrich, Marcus; Müller, Tobias; Vogel, Jörg; Ohlsen, Knut; Crook, Derrick W; Massey, Ruth; Wilson, Daniel J; Rudel, Thomas; Wyllie, David H; Fraunholz, Martin J
Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial pathogen, which causes severe blood and tissue infections that frequently emerge by autoinfection with asymptomatically carried nose and skin populations. However, recent studies report that bloodstream isolates differ systematically from those found in the nose and skin, exhibiting reduced toxicity toward leukocytes. In two patients, an attenuated toxicity bloodstream infection evolved from an asymptomatically carried high-toxicity nasal strain by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the transcription factor repressor of surface proteins (rsp). Here, we report that rsp knockout mutants lead to global transcriptional and proteomic reprofiling, and they exhibit the greatest signal in a genome-wide screen for genes influencing S. aureus survival in human cells. This effect is likely to be mediated in part via SSR42, a long-noncoding RNA. We show that rsp controls SSR42 expression, is induced by hydrogen peroxide, and is required for normal cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Rsp inactivation in laboratory- and bacteremia-derived mutants attenuates toxin production, but up-regulates other immune subversion proteins and reduces lethality during experimental infection. Crucially, inactivation of rsp preserves bacterial dissemination, because it affects neither formation of deep abscesses in mice nor survival in human blood. Thus, we have identified a spontaneously evolving, attenuated-cytotoxicity, nonhemolytic S. aureus phenotype, controlled by a pleiotropic transcriptional regulator/noncoding RNA virulence regulatory system, capable of causing S. aureus bloodstream infections. Such a phenotype could promote deep infection with limited early clinical manifestations, raising concerns that bacterial evolution within the human body may contribute to severe infection. PMID:27185949
Danielle Queiroz Bonilha
Full Text Available CONTEXT: Band ligation (BL is the most appropriate endoscopic treatment for acute bleeding or prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. Sclerotherapy with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (CY can be an alternative for patients with advanced liver disease. Bacteremia is an infrequent complication after BL while the bacteremia rate following treatment with CY for esophageal varices remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare the incidence of transient bacteremia between cirrhotic patients submitted to diagnostic endoscopy, CY and BL for treatment of esophageal varices. METHODS: A prospective study comprising the period from 2004 to 2007 was conducted at Hospital of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, UNIFESP, SP, Brazil. Cirrhotic patients with advanced liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according treatment: BL Group (patients undergoing band ligation, n = 20 and CY Group (patients receiving cyanoacrylate injection for esophageal variceal, n = 18. Cirrhotic patients with no esophageal varices or without indication for endoscopic treatment were recruited as control (diagnostic group n = 20. Bacteremia was evaluated by blood culture at baseline and 30 minutes after the procedure. RESULTS: After 137 scheduled endoscopic procedures, none of the 58 patients had fever or any sign suggestive of infection. All baseline cultures were negative. No positive cultures were observed after CY or in the control group - diagnostic endoscopy. Three (4.6 % positive cultures were found out of the 65 sessions of band ligation (P = 0.187. Two of these samples were positive for coagulase-negative staphylococcus, which could be regarded as a contaminant. The isolated microorganism in the other case was Klebsiella oxytoca. The patient in this case presented no evidence of immunodeficiency except liver disease. CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in bacteremia rate between these three groups. BL or CY
Collins Tabu; Breiman, Robert F.; Benjamin Ochieng; Barrack Aura; Leonard Cosmas; Allan Audi; Beatrice Olack; Godfrey Bigogo; Juliette R Ongus; Patricia Fields; Eric Mintz; Deron Burton; Joe Oundo; Feikin, Daniel R.
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. METHODS: As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006-2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on ...
Tabu, Collins; Breiman, Robert F.; Ochieng, Benjamin; Aura, Barrack; Cosmas, Leonard; Audi, Allan; Olack, Beatrice; Bigogo, Godfrey; Ongus, Juliette R.; Fields, Patricia; Mintz, Eric; Burton, Deron; Oundo, Joe; Feikin, Daniel R.
Background The epidemiology of non-Typhi Salmonella (NTS) bacteremia in Africa will likely evolve as potential co-factors, such as HIV, malaria, and urbanization, also change. Methods As part of population-based surveillance among 55,000 persons in malaria-endemic, rural and malaria-nonendemic, urban Kenya from 2006–2009, blood cultures were obtained from patients presenting to referral clinics with fever ≥38.0°C or severe acute respiratory infection. Incidence rates were adjusted based on pe...
WU Xiao-xia; WAN Qi-quan; YE Qi-fa; ZHOU Jian-dang
Background Bacteremia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after kidney transplantation.This study was conducted to investigate whether the polymorphisms of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-β,interleukin (IL)-1β,and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) gene predicted the susceptibility to bacteremia within the first 6 months after kidney transplantation.Methods Subjects comprised 82 infected kidney transplant recipients and 60 non-infected kidney transplant recipients.Bacteremia was diagnosed in 16 of the 82 infected recipients.Genomic DNA from these 142 kidney transplant recipients was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes.Regions containing the Ncol polymorphic site at position +252 of TNF-βgene and the Aval polymorphic site at position-511 of IL-1β gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently digested with Ncol and Aval restriction enzymes,respectively.The polymorphic regions within intron 2 of IL-1ra gene containing variable numbers of a tandem repeat (VNTR) of 86 base pairs were amplified by PCR.Results Genotypic and allelic frequencies were similar between infected recipients and non-infected ones.Individual locus analysis showed that recipient TNF-β and IL-1ra gene polymorphisms were not associated with the presence of bacteremia (P=0.684 and P=0.567,respectively).However,genotype analysis revealed that recipient IL-1β-511CC genotype was strongly associated with susceptibility to develop bacteremia (P=0.003).Recipient IL-1β-511CC genotype (odds ratio 5.242,95％ confidence intervals 1.645-16.706,P=0.005) independently predicted the risk for bacteremia within the first 6 months after kidney transplantation.Conclusions These findings indicate a critical role of IL-1β gene polymorphisms in susceptibility to bacteremia after kidney transplantation,which may be useful to screen for patients at higher risk for post-transplant bacteremias.Thus,the identified individuals can benefit from preventive treatment and a
Kerkhoff, F.T.; Ossewaarde, J.M.; de Loos, W.S.; Rothova, A.
BACKGROUND—The spectrum of diseases caused by Bartonella henselae continues to expand and ocular involvement during this infection is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. METHODS—The clinical features and visual prognosis for 13 patients with intraocular inflammatory disease and laboratory evidence of bartonellosis were investigated. There were nine patients with neuroretinitis and four with panuveitis with positive antibody titres against B henselae determined by an enzyme immunoassay ...
Ullrich, Katja; Saha, Niladri; Lake, Stewart
Cat scratch disease causes the majority of cases of neuroretinitis. Neuroretinitis is characterised by clinical features of papillitis, macular oedema and macular star. We report a case study of infection with Bartonella henselae most likely transmitted by a bull ant sting. The patient presented with blurred vision and reduced visual acuity after being stung by an ant in her garden some 7 days earlier. Further testing revealed positive serology to B henselae and the patient improved with appr...
Karpathios, T; Golphinos, C; Psychou, P; Garoufi, A; Papadimitriou, A; Nicolaidou, P
An indirect fluorescent antibody test for Bartonella henselae, B quintana, and B elizabethae was performed in all 18 children who presented to our paediatric outpatient clinic with cat scratch disease over a six year period. Serum samples were taken on admission, after 15 days, and after six months. Diagnosis was confirmed in 15 patients (83%) and was based on seroconversion or a fourfold change of the antibody titre to B henselae in 12 patients and on a single high titre...
Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech
The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with hig...
Epidemiology of extended spectrum β-lactamase producing Enterobacter bacteremia in a brazilian hospital Epidemiologia de bacteremia causadas por Enterobacter produtores de β-lactamases de espectro estendido em um hospital brasileiro
Felipe Francisco Tuon
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Enterobacter can be included in the group of extended spectrum β-lactamases (EBSL-producing bacteria, though few studies exist evaluating risk factors associated with this microorganism. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to determine risk factors associated with ESBL-producing-Enterobacter and mortality METHODS: A retrospective cohort study with 58 bacteremia caused by ESBL-producing-Enterobacter (28 cases and non-ESBL (30 cases RESULTS: Risk factors associated with ESBL-Enterobacter were trauma, length of hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit, urinary catheter and elective surgery (pINTRODUÇÃO: Enterobacter pode ser incluído no grupo de bactérias produtoras de β-lactamases de espectro estendido (ESBL, mas existem poucos estudos avaliando fatores de risco para ESBL. Nós realizamos uma coorte retrospective para determiner fatores de risco associados com Enterobacter produtores de ESBL MÉTODOS: Uma coorte retrospectiva com 58 bacteremias por Enterobacter ESBL (28 casos e não-ESBL (30 casos RESULTADOS: Fatores de risco para ESBL-Enterobacter foram trauma, tempo de internação, admissão em UTI, sonda vesical e cirurgia eletiva (p<0.05. A mortalidade foi similar entre ESBL e não-ESBL CONCLUSÕES: Enterobacter produtor de ESBL é prevalente e a curva de mortalidade foi semelhante com o grupo não-ESBL.
Bai, A D; Showler, A; Burry, L; Steinberg, M; Tomlinson, G A; Bell, C M; Morris, A M
Infectious diseases specialists often use diagnostic tests to assess the probability of a disease based on knowledge of the diagnostic properties. It has become standard for published studies on diagnostic tests to report sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. Likelihood ratios are often omitted. We compared published clinical prediction rules in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia to illustrate the importance of likelihood ratios. We performed a narrative review comparing published clinical prediction rules used for excluding endocarditis in S. aureus bacteremia. Of nine published clinical prediction rules, only three studies reported likelihood ratios. Many studies concluded that the clinical prediction rule could safely exclude endocarditis based on high sensitivity and high negative predictive value. Of the studies with similar high sensitivity and high negative predictive value, calculated negative likelihood ratios were able to differentiate and identify the best clinical prediction rule for excluding endocarditis. Compared to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, likelihood ratios can be more directly used to interpret diagnostic test results to assist in ruling in or ruling out a disease. Therefore, a new standard should be set to include likelihood ratios in reporting of diagnostic tests in infectious diseases research. PMID:27357965
Kanık Yüksek, Saliha; Gülhan, Belgin; Tezer, Hasan; Özkaya Parlakay, Aslınur; Uzun Kenan, Bahriye; Sayed Oskovi, Hülya; Nar Ötgün, Selin
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the causative agent of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) characterized by severe infections such as bacteraemia, sepsis and meningitis. S.pneumoniae and IPDs are situated in the focus of the vaccine studies because of being encompassed of a significant burden of disease in the world, severe mortality and morbidities, and location in vaccine-preventable diseases group. Although S.pneumoniae has more than 90 defined serotypes, certain serotypes are often identified as the cause of IPDs. Individuals with comorbid and chronic diseases, primary or secondary immune deficiencies, and 65 years of age are at increased risk for IPDs. Currently, a 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine and also 7, 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCV) have been produced for pneumococci. Phase studies of protein based vaccines, which will provide protection independent of serotypes, and 15-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine are still ongoing. In Turkey, in November 2008 PCV7 and in April 2011 PCV13 have been implemented in the national immunization program. First case of the pneumococcal unvaccinated cases presented in this report was a 6-year-old girl patient with pneumonia and pleural empyema due to S.pneumoniae serotype 1, without any underlying risk factors. The other case is a 52-days-old male patient, who had a history of pneumococcal septicemia in the newborn period and was followed for bacteremia associated S.pneumoniae serotype 12B and diagnosed as complement deficiency on follow-up. S.pneumoniae serotype 1 is within serotypes covered by 10 and 13 valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines and pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine that are in use today, and is a highly invasive strain often isolated in pneumococcal lobar pneumonia and empyema. S.pneumoniae serotype 12B is a non-vaccine serotype not included in any of conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines, and usually obtained in respiratory infections and
David Michael Z; Bares Sara; Dunn Ryan
Abstract Kocuria species are unusual human pathogens isolated most commonly from immunocompromised hosts, such as transplant recipients and cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, or from patients with chronic medical conditions. A case of catheter-related bacteremia with pulmonary septic emboli in a pregnant adult female without chronic medical conditions is described. A review of other reported Kocuria infections is provided.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to analyze the factors that are associated with the adequacy of empirical antibiotic therapy and its impact in mortality in a large cohort of patients with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL - producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. bacteremia. Methods Cases of ESBL producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E bacteremia collected from 2003 through 2008 in 19 hospitals in Spain. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results We analyzed 387 cases ESBL-E bloodstream infections. The main sources of bacteremia were urinary tract (55.3%, biliary tract (12.7%, intra-abdominal (8.8% and unknown origin (9.6%. Among all the 387 episodes, E. coli was isolated from blood cultures in 343 and in 45.71% the ESBL-E was multidrug resistant. Empirical antibiotic treatment was adequate in 48.8% of the cases and the in hospital mortality was 20.9%. In a multivariate analysis adequacy was a risk factor for death [adjusted OR (95% CI: 0.39 (0.31-0.97; P = 0.04], but not in patients without severe sepsis or shock. The class of antibiotic used empirically was not associated with prognosis in adequately treated patients. Conclusion ESBL-E bacteremia has a relatively high mortality that is partly related with a low adequacy of empirical antibiotic treatment. In selected subgroups the relevance of the adequacy of empirical therapy is limited.
Verhasselt, B; Claeys, G; Elaichouni, A; Verschraegen, G; Laureys, G; Vaneechoutte, M
Flavimonas oryzihabitans bacteremias, which occurred immediately after the flushing or use of an implanted central venous catheter (Port-A-Cath) in two patients at the same pediatric ward, were studied by arbitrarily primed PCR. We conclude that the colonization of the Port-A-Cath with F. oryzihabitans described here lasted for several months.
Kronborg, G; Østergaard, C; Weis, Nina Margrethe; Nielsen, H; Obel, N; Pedersen, SS; Price, PA; Johansen, J
and to correlate these levels with clinical findings and outcomes. YKL40 was determined by ELISA and 89 patients were included in the study. Serum YKL-40 levels were significantly higher in patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia (median 342 microg/l; range 20-20,400 microg/l) than in age-matched...
Karen Gallegos V
Full Text Available Objetivos. Clonar el gen de la flagelina A (flaA de Bartonella bacilliformis, expresar y evaluar preliminarmente la seroreactividad de la proteína recombinante a sueros de pacientes con Bartonelosis por B. bacilliformis. Materiales y Métodos. Se diseñó una pareja de oligonucleótidos iniciadores -BbFlaA1 y BbFlaA2- para la amplificación del gen completo de la flagelina flaA de B. bacilliformis. El producto de amplificación obtenido se clonó en pGEM y luego se subclonó en el vector de expresión pGEX4T-1. Se indujo la expresión de la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA-GST con isopropil tio-β -D-galactosido (IPTG. La proteνna de fusiσn producida fue digerida con trombina para liberarla de GST. Finalmente, una prueba de ELISA fue estandarizada para detectar los anticuerpos IgG contra la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA-GST y rBbflaA libre de GST. Se evaluaron sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico de Bartonelosis por B. Bacilliformis (n= 30, sueros de individuos sanos (n= 20 y sueros de pacientes con otras enfermedades de posible reactividad cruzada; entre ellas, Brucelosis (n= 3, leptospirosis (n= 3 y salmonelosis (n=7. Resultados. Se determinó que para la expresión óptima en E. coli BL21 de la proteína de fusión rBbFlaA se requiere que el cultivo crezca en caldo LB/ampicilina a 30 °C suplementado con 2% de glucosa a partir de un preinóculo de 100 µL (crecido por toda la noche, hasta que alcance una densidad óptica de 1 OD600 y se induzca por dos horas con 2,5 mM de IPTG. Finalmente, el 57,6 % (17 de 30 sueros de pacientes con diagnóstico confirmado de bartonelosis reaccionaron con la proteína recombinante BbFlaA en el formato de ELISA. Conclusiones. Se logró expresar exitosamente en E. coli la proteína recombinante BbFlaA de B. bacilliformis, determinándose un protocolo de expresión y de purificación de rBbFlaA para la producción de esta proteína. Así también, el antígeno rBbFlaA es reconocido por anticuerpos de sueros de
Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Fuglsang, Eva; Jiang, Pingping;
Immature immunity may predispose preterm neonates to infections and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Intravenous antibiotics are frequently given to prevent and treat sepsis, while oral antibiotics are seldom used. We hypothesized that oral antibiotics promote maturation of systemic immunity and...... delay gut bacterial colonization and thereby protect preterm neonates against both NEC and bacteremia in the immediate postnatal period. Preterm pigs were given formula and administered saline (CON) or broad-spectrum antibiotics orally (ORA) or systemically (SYS) for 5 d after birth. Temporal changes in...... blood parameters and bacterial composition in the intestine, blood and immune organs were analyzed. Newborn preterm pigs had few blood neutrophils and a high frequency of progenitor cells. Neutrophils gradually matured after preterm birth with increasing CD14 and decreasing CD172a expressions. Preterm...
Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court;
transitions unanimously distinguished between community and hospital acquisition with regard to sex, comorbidity, or microorganisms, and no difference in 30-day mortality was seen for HCA patients in relation to a 30- or 90-day time window. ORs decreased consistently in the order of hospital acquisition, HCA......Objective. We examined whether specific time windows after hospital admission reflected a sharp transition between community and hospital acquisition of bacteremia. We further examined whether different time windows to distinguish between community acquisition, healthcare association (HCA), and......) curve for 30-day mortality, adjusting for sex, age, comorbidity, and microorganisms. Results. For 56,606 bacteremic episodes, no sharp transitions were detected on a specific day after admission. Among the 8 combined time windows, ORs for 30-day mortality varied from 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI...
Cha, Min Kyeong; Kang, Cheol-In; Kim, So Hyun; Cho, Sun Young; Ha, Young Eun; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon
Among 127 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates causing bacteremia, 41 (32.3%) were nonsusceptible to levofloxacin, in which four sequence types and 24 diverse allelic profiles were detected. The most prevalent ST was ST77 (n = 8, 19.5%), followed by ST28 (n = 3, 7.3%). Amino acid substitutions were found in the gyrB and parC genes of 10 and 1 isolates, respectively. No amino acid substitutions were identified in gyrA. Twenty-three (56.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in the parE gene. These results suggest that quinolone resistance-determining regions of parE may not be the primary targets, but an important determining factor of high levels of fluoroquinolone resistance. PMID:27117514
Full Text Available Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type of disease has been previously associated with a high incidence of endocarditis. Here we report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia in a 74- year-old man, probably started from an erysipeloid form, in which endocarditis did not develop. This case presents some particular and uncommon features: i no correlation with animal source; ii correlation between bacteremia and erysipeloid lesion; iii absence of endocarditis. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed to obtain a rapid identification (within 4 hours from bottle positivity of E. rhusiopathiae. Together with direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing, this approach could improve the rate of appropriate therapy for bloodstream infections due to this fastidious pathogen.
Principe, Luigi; Bracco, Silvia; Mauri, Carola; Tonolo, Silvia; Pini, Beatrice; Luzzaro, Francesco
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid) caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type of disease has been previously associated with a high incidence of endocarditis. Here we report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia in a 74-year-old man, probably started from an erysipeloid form, in which endocarditis did not develop. This case presents some particular and uncommon features: i) no correlation with animal source; ii) correlation between bacteremia and erysipeloid lesion; iii) absence of endocarditis. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry allowed to obtain a rapid identification (within 4 hours from bottle positivity) of E. rhusiopathiae. Together with direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing, this approach could improve the rate of appropriate therapy for bloodstream infections due to this fastidious pathogen. PMID:27103974
Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Mateos-Díaz, Ana-María; Martinez, Jose-Antonio; Almela, Manel; Cobos-Trigueros, Nazaret; Morata, Laura; De-la-Calle, Cristina; Sala, Marta; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex
The role of linezolid in empirical therapy of suspected bacteremia remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of empirical use of linezolid or glycopeptides in addition to other antibiotics on the 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. For this purpose, 1,126 patients with Gram-negative bacteremia in the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona from 2000 to 2012 were included in this study. In order to compare the mortality rates between patients who received linezolid or glycopeptides, the propensity scores on baseline variables were used to balance the treatment groups, and both propensity score matching and propensity-adjusted logistic regression were used to compare the 30-day mortality rates between the groups. The overall 30-day mortality rate was 16.0% during the study period. Sixty-eight patients received empirical treatment with linezolid, and 1,058 received glycopeptides. The propensity score matching included 64 patients in each treatment group. After matching, the mortality rates were 14.1% (9/64) in patients who received glycopeptides and 21.9% (14/64) in those who received linezolid, and a nonsignificant association between empirical linezolid treatment and mortality rate (odds ratio [OR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 3.82; P = 0.275, McNemar's test) was found. This association remained nonsignificant when variables that remained unbalanced after matching were included in a conditional logistic regression model. Further, the stratified propensity score analysis did not show any significant relationship between empirical linezolid treatment and the mortality rate after adjustment by propensity score quintiles or other variables potentially associated with mortality. In conclusion, the propensity score analysis showed that empirical treatment with linezolid compared with that with glycopeptides was not associated with 30-day mortality rates in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. PMID:25199780
Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, but regional data is limited. Updated burden estimates are critical as pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV is highly effective, but not yet included in the Expanded Program on Immunization of Thailand or neighboring countries.We implemented automated blood culture systems in two rural Thailand provinces as part of population-based surveillance for bacteremia. Blood cultures were collected from hospitalized patients as clinically indicated.From May 2005- March 2010, 196 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia were confirmed in hospitalized patients. Of these, 57% had clinical pneumonia, 20% required mechanical ventilation, and 23% (n = 46 died. Antibiotic use before blood culture was confirmed in 25% of those with blood culture. Annual incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal bacteremia was 3.6 per 100,000 person-years; rates were higher among children aged <5 years at 11.7 and adults ≥65 years at 14.2, and highest among infants <1 year at 33.8. The median monthly case count was higher during December-March compared to the rest of the year 6.0 vs. 1.0 (p<0.001. The most common serotypes were 23F (16% and 14 (14%; 61% (74% in patients <5 years were serotypes in the 10-valent PCV (PCV 10 and 82% (92% in <5 years in PCV 13. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, but non-susceptibility was high for co-trimoxazole (57%, erythromycin (30%, and clindamycin (20%.We demonstrated a high pneumococcal bacteremia burden, yet underestimated incidence because we captured only hospitalized cases, and because pre-culture antibiotics were frequently used. Our findings together with prior research indicate that PCV would likely have high serotype coverage in Thailand. These findings will complement ongoing cost effectiveness analyses and support vaccine policy evaluation in Thailand and the region.
Luigi Principe; Silvia Bracco; Carola Mauri; Silvia Tonolo; Beatrice Pini; Francesco Luzzaro
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a Gram-positive bacillus that is infrequently responsible for infections in humans. Three forms have been classified: a localized cutaneous form (erysipeloid) caused by traumatic penetration of E. rhusiopathiae, a generalized cutaneous form and a septicemic form. The latter type of disease has been previously associated with a high incidence of endocarditis. Here we report a case of E. rhusiopathiae bacteremia in a 74- year-old man, probably started from an ery...
Mölkänen, T.; Rostila, A.; Ruotsalainen, E.; Alanne, M.; Perola, M.; Järvinen, A.
Abstract C-reactive protein (CRP) is widely used in early detection of sepsis or organ dysfunction. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CRP gene are shown to be associated with variability of basal CRP. To clarify the effect of these SNPs to CRP response in systemic infections, we compared genetic and clinical data on patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Six SNPs in the CRP gene region (rs2794521, rs30912449, rs1800947, rs1130864, rs1205 and rs309...
Gradel, Kim Oren; Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, Court; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Arpi, Magnus; Jensen, Thøger Gorm; Kolmos, Hans Jørn; Søgaard, Mette; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl
OBJECTIVE Seasonal variation is a characteristic of many infectious diseases, but relatively little is known about determinants thereof. We studied the impact of place of acquisition and patient characteristics on seasonal variation of bacteremia caused by the 3 most common pathogens. DESIGN Seasonal variation analysis. METHODS In 3 Danish health regions (2.3 million total inhabitants), patients with bacteremia were identified from 2000 through 2011 using information from laboratory information systems. Analyses were confined to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additional data were obtained from the Danish National Hospital Registry for the construction of admission histories and calculation of the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI). Bacteremias were categorized as community acquired, healthcare associated (HCA), and hospital acquired. We defined multiple subgroups by combining the following characteristics: species, acquisition, age group, gender, CCI level, and location of infection. Assuming a sinusoidal model, seasonal variation was assessed by the peak-to-trough (PTT) ratio with a 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS In total, we included 16,006 E. coli, 6,924 S. aureus, and 4,884 S. pneumoniae bacteremia cases. For E. coli, the seasonal variation was highest for community-acquired cases (PTT ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.32), was diminished for HCA (PTT ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.04-1.25), and was missing for hospital-acquired cases. No seasonal variation was observed for S. aureus. S. pneumoniae showed high seasonal variation, which did not differ according to acquisition (overall PTT ratio, 3.42; 95% CI, 3.10-3.83). CONCLUSIONS Seasonal variation was mainly related to the species although the place of acquisition was important for E. coli. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:946-953. PMID:27142942
Full Text Available bactrum anthropi ATCC 4918... 65 6e-09 AE017223_847( AE017223 |pid:none) Brucella abortus biovar 1 str. 9......557( BX897699 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae strain Houst... 67 2e-09 AM260525_751( AM260525 |pid:none) Bartonella tribocor...rubrum ATCC 11170,... 62 3e-08 CP000524_502( CP000524 |pid:none) Bartonella bacillifor...habditis eleg... 55 4e-06 FN392321_390( FN392321 |pid:none) Pichia pastor...ch space used: 164162159778 Neighboring words threshold: 12 Window for multiple h
Kaneko, Masahiko; Maruta, Masaki; Shikata, Hisaharu; Hanayama, Masakazu; Ikebe, Tadayoshi
Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) is an aerobic gram-positive coccus that causes infections ranging from non-invasive pharyngitis to severely invasive necrotizing fasciitis. Mutations in csrS/csrR and rgg, negative regulator genes of group A streptococcus, are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, which is a severe, invasive infection characterized by sudden onset of shock and multiorgan failure, resulting in a high mortality rate. Here we present a case of group A streptococcal bacteremia in a 28-year-old Japanese woman with no relevant previous medical history. The patient developed progressive abdominal symptoms that may have been due to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, followed by a state of shock, which did not fulfill the proposed criteria for streptococcal toxic shock. The isolate was found to harbor a mutation in the negative regulator csrS gene, whereas the csrR and rgg genes were intact. It was noteworthy that this strain carrying a csrS mutation had caused group A streptococcal bacteremia characterized by acute abdomen as the presenting symptom in a young individual who had been previously healthy. This case indicates that group A streptococcus with csrS mutations has potential virulence factors that are associated with the onset of group A streptococcal bacteremia that does not meet the diagnostic criteria for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. PMID:26231317
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although causing substantial morbidity, the burden of pneumococcal disease among older children and adults in Africa, particularly in rural settings, is not well-characterized. We evaluated pneumococcal bacteremia among 21,000 persons ≥5 years old in a prospective cohort as part of population-based infectious disease surveillance in rural western Kenya from October 2006-September 2008. Methods Blood cultures were done on patients meeting pre-defined criteria - severe acute respiratory illness (SARI, fever, and admission for any reason at a referral health facility within 5 kilometers of all 33 villages where surveillance took place. Serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae was done by latex agglutination and quellung reaction and antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using broth microdilution. We extrapolated incidence rates based on persons with compatible illnesses in the surveillance population who were not cultured. We estimated rates among HIV-infected persons based on community HIV prevalence. We projected the national burden of pneumococcal bacteremia cases based on these rates. Results Among 1,301 blood cultures among persons ≥5 years, 52 (4% yielded pneumococcus, which was the most common bacteria isolated. The yield was higher among those ≥18 years than 5-17 years (6.9% versus 1.6%, p 95%. The crude rate of pneumococcal bacteremia was 129/100,000 person-years, and the adjusted rate was 419/100,000 person-years. Nineteen (61% of 31 patients with HIV results were HIV-positive. The adjusted rate among HIV-infected persons was 2,399/100,000 person-years (Rate ratio versus HIV-negative adults, 19.7, 95% CI 12.4-31.1. We project 58,483 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia will occur in Kenyan adults in 2010. Conclusions Pneumococcal bacteremia rates were high among persons ≥5 years old, particularly among HIV-infected persons. Ongoing surveillance will document if expanded use of highly-active antiretroviral
Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila and other members of Aeromonas genus are ubiquitus in aquatic environment and make part of normal bacterial flora of rainbow trout. Aeromonas spp. infections are worldwide registered. Here we present our experience and knowledge on Aeromonas bacteremia, which causes mortality of rainbow trout fry. Rainbow trout fry, 7 month old, started to die in November 2003. Fish samples (17 samples of dead and moribund fish were delivered to the Laboratory for aquaculture. With Api 20 NE tests Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type I was identified with an average probability of 99.9 % (one test against, as well as Aeromonas hydrophila / caviae type II with an average probability of 99.5 % (one test against from liver, spleen, kidney, intestines and damaged eye. All of isolated and identified samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion method. The test showed that specimens were most sensitive on flumequin, and relatively less sensitive on chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Therapy was successfully applied with Flubactin®.
Gradel, Kim O; Jensen, Thøger G; Kolmos, Hans J;
characteristic curve (AUC) to evaluate 30-day mortality in four models: (i) age, gender, comorbidity, bacteria, and ward. (ii) Model 1 and sepsis severity. (iii) Model 1 and CRP. (iv) Model 1, sepsis severity, and CRP. Altogether, 416 of 1999 patients died within 30 days. CRP independently predicted 30-day...... mortality [Model 4, odds ratio (95% CIs) for 100 mg/L: 1.16 (1.06-1.27)], but it did not contribute to the AUC (Model 2 vs Model 4: p = 0.31). In the 963 non-severe sepsis patients, CRP independently predicted 30-day mortality [Model 4: 1.42 (1.20-1.69)] and it increased the AUC (Model 2 vs Model 4: p = 0......We evaluated whether sepsis severity and C-reactive protein (CRP) level on admission prognostically corroborated or annulled each other in adult patients with incident community-acquired bacteremia (Funen, Denmark, 2000-2008). We used logistic regression and area under the receiver operating...
Tavadze, M; Rybicki, L; Mossad, S; Avery, R; Yurch, M; Pohlman, B; Duong, H; Dean, R; Hill, B; Andresen, S; Hanna, R; Majhail, N; Copelan, E; Bolwell, B; Kalaycio, M; Sobecks, R
Vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) is a well-known infectious complication among immunocompromised patients. We performed a retrospective analysis to identify risk factors for the development of VRE bacteremia (VRE-B) within 15 months after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) and to determine its prognostic importance for other post-transplant outcomes. Eight hundred consecutive adult patients who underwent alloHCT for hematologic diseases from 1997 to 2011 were included. Seventy-six (10%) developed VRE-B at a median of 46 days post transplant. Year of transplant, higher HCT comorbidity score, a diagnosis of ALL, unrelated donor and umbilical cord blood donor were all significant risk factors on multivariable analysis for the development of VRE-B. Sixty-seven (88%) died within a median of 1.1 months after VRE-B, but only four (6%) of these deaths were attributable to VRE. VRE-B was significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 4.28, 95% confidence interval 3.23-5.66, P<0.001) in multivariable analysis. We conclude that the incidence of VRE-B after alloHCT has increased over time and is highly associated with mortality, although not usually attributable to VRE infection. Rather than being the cause, this may be a marker for a complicated post-transplant course. Strategies to further enhance immune reconstitution post transplant and strict adherence to infection prevention measures are warranted. PMID:25111516
Marmolin, Ea S; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Christensen, Jens J; Nielsen, Xiaohui C; Dargis, Rimtas; Skov, Marianne N; Knudsen, Elisa; Kemp, Michael; Justesen, Ulrik S
DNA sequencing of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used to identify 53 blood culture isolates that had previously been designated to the bovis group streptococci and clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients' records using a standardized protocol. ITS sequencing identified 19 (35.8%) isolates as Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, 12 (22.6%) as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, two (3.8%) as S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus, seven (13.2%) as S. infantarius subsp. infantarius, 12 (22.6%) as S. lutetiensis and one (1.9%) as S. equinus. The association of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus with colorectal neoplasia and with infective endocarditis and the association between S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and pancreatic cancer were found to be clinically important. Also, a very high 1-year mortality rate with S. lutetiensis (66.7%) and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (58.7%) bacteremia calls for intensive investigation for underlying disease focusing on the pancreas and the hepatobiliary system. PMID:27117515
Hirose, Kosuke; Okabe, Hirohisa; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Uchiyama, Hideaki; Ikegami, Toru; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Kimura, Koichi; Baba, Hideo; Maehara, Yoshihiko
A 62-year-old woman was admitted for acute epigastralgia and high-grade fever of over 39 °C. The patient had undergone splenectomy for idiopathic portal hypertension 1 year ago and vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae immediately post operation. She developed localized peritoneal irritation and abdominal distension. Her serum creatinine had increased to 1.5 mg/dL and procalcitonin was 12.5 ng/ml. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed edematous large intestine and increased ascites. From these results, the patient was considered to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). Vancomycin (VCM) and doripenem (DRPM) were administered to control the infection. Unexpectedly, S. pneumoniae was detected in the blood culture. Hence, ampicillin/sulbactam was administered after discontinuing VCM. The patient recovered without any life-threatening complications and was discharged after 10 days. In conclusion, overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) due to S. pneumoniae could develop in patient with splenectomy even after vaccination. Although the bacteremia probably due to SBP and acute renal dysfunction was accompanied by OPSI, our patient recovered rapidly. PMID:27221131
Sanne van den Berg
Full Text Available Proteomic studies with different Staphylococcus aureus isolates have shown that the cell surface-exposed and secreted proteins IsaA, LytM, Nuc, the propeptide of Atl (pro-Atl and four phenol-soluble modulins α (PSMα are invariantly produced by this pathogen. Therefore the present study was aimed at investigating whether these proteins can be used for active immunization against S. aureus infection in mouse models of bacteremia and skin infection. To this end, recombinant His-tagged fusions of IsaA, LytM, Nuc and pro-Atl were isolated from Lactococcus lactis or Escherichia coli, while the PSMα1-4 peptides were chemically synthesized. Importantly, patients colonized by S. aureus showed significant immunoglobulin G (IgG responses against all eight antigens. BALB/cBYJ mice were immunized subcutaneously with a mixture of the antigens at day one (5 μg each, and boosted twice (25 μg of each antigen with 28 days interval. This resulted in high IgG responses against all antigens although the response against pro-Atl was around one log lower compared to the other antigens. Compared to placebo-immunized mice, immunization with the octa-valent antigen mixture did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in blood, lungs, spleen, liver, and kidneys in a bacteremia model in which the animals were challenged for 14 days with a primary load of 3 × 10(5 CFU. Discomfort scores and animal survival rates over 14 days did not differ between immunized mice and placebo-immunized mice upon bacteremia with S. aureus USA300 (6 × 10(5 CFU. In addition, this immunization did not reduce the S. aureus isolate P load in mice with skin infection. These results show that the target antigens are immunogenic in both humans and mice, but in the used animal models do not result in protection against S. aureus infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Campylobacter is an important causative agent of intestinal infections in humans. Bacteremia is detected in less than 1% of patients, mainly in immunocompromised patients and in extreme age groups. Cellulitis is a relatively common manifestation of Campylobacter infection, but concomitant bacteremia is a rare event. Infections of the pacemaker area are caused primarily by staphylococci, followed by fungi, streptococci and Gram-negative rods. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of pacemaker pocket infection and bacteremia caused by Campylobacter fetus. Case presentation A 72-year-old Croatian Caucasian man with myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels and a recently implanted permanent pacemaker was admitted to hospital after six days of fever, development of red swelling of the pacemaker pocket area and worsening of his general condition. No antibiotic therapy was introduced in the outpatient setting. He denied any recent gastrointestinal disturbances. With the exception of an elevated leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein and blood glucose levels, other laboratory findings were normal. Treatment with vancomycin plus netilmicin was introduced, and a surgical incision with drainage of the pacemaker pocket was performed. The entire pacemaker system was removed and a new one re-implanted after 14 days of antibiotic therapy. Transesophageal echocardiography showed no pathological findings. Three subsequent blood cultures obtained on admission as well as swab culture of the incised pacemaker area revealed Campylobacter fetus; stool and pacemaker lead cultures were negative. According to the microbiological results, antibiotic therapy was changed to ciprofloxacin plus netilmicin. A clinical examination and the results of a laboratory analysis performed after two weeks of therapy were within normal limits. Conclusion Myelodysplasia, impaired fasting glucose levels
Zavascki, Alexandre Prehn
Full Text Available Objetivos: avaliar a prevalência da produção de beta-lactamases de espectro estendido (extendedspectrum beta-lactamases – ESBL por Klebsiella pneumoniae e Escherichia coli isoladas de pacientes adultos hospitalizados e descrever as características clínicas dos pacientes. Métodos: em estudo transversal retrospectivo, foram revisados os prontuários de pacientes adultos que apresentaram bacteremia por Klebsiella pneumoniae e Escherichia coli no Hospital São Lucas da PUCRS, no período de junho de 2004 a março de 2006. Resultados: um total de 145 pacientes foram incluídos no estudo; destes, em 51 (35,2% foi isolada uma bactéria produtora de ESBL; a prevalência de ESBL foi maior em Klebsiella pneumoniae (45 isolados, 55,6% do que em Escherichia coli (6 isolados, 9,4% p<0,001. O uso de antimicrobianos beta-lactâmicos dentro dos 14 dias prévios ao isolamento foi mais comum no grupo ESBL (50 pacientes, 98% que no grupo não-ESBL (15 pacientes, 16%; p<0,001. O imipenem foi a droga com maior taxa de eficácia in vitro contra isolados produtores de ESBL (100%. Conclusões: o estudo demonstrou uma elevada prevalência de produção de ESBL em bacteremias por K. pneumoniae. Pacientes com bacteremia por isolados produtores de ESBL apresentaram maior mortalidade e o uso prévio de beta-lactâmicos esteve fortemente associado à produção dessa enzima. É necessária a vigilância contínua da prevalência de ESBL em enterobactérias, para definição de esquemas terapêuticos e políticas de controle de infecção.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: National statistics in developing countries are likely to underestimate deaths due to bacterial infections. Here, we calculated mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia (CAB in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Information was obtained from the microbiology and hospital database of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, and compared with the national death registry from the Ministry of Interior, Thailand for the period between 2004 and 2010. CAB was defined in patients who had pathogenic organisms isolated from blood taken within 2 days of hospital admission without a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. A total of 15,251 CAB patients identified, of which 5,722 (37.5% died within 30 days of admission. The incidence rate of CAB between 2004 and 2010 increased from 16.7 to 38.1 per 100,000 people per year, and the mortality rate associated with CAB increased from 6.9 to 13.7 per 100,000 people per year. In 2010, the mortality rate associated with CAB was lower than that from respiratory tract infection, but higher than HIV disease or tuberculosis. The most common causes of CAB were Escherichia coli (23.1%, Burkholderia pseudomallei (19.3%, and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%. There was an increase in the proportion of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that national statistics on causes of death in developing countries could be improved by integrating information from readily available databases. CAB is neglected as an important cause of death, and specific prevention and intervention is urgently required to reduce its incidence and mortality.
McCrea, Keith R.; Ward, Robert S.
Removal of several drug-resistant bacteria from blood by affinity adsorption onto a heparin-functional media is reported. Heparin is a chemical analogue of heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans, found on transmembrane proteins of endothelial cells. Many blood-borne human pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi have been reported to target HS as an initial step in their pathogenesis. Here, we demonstrate the binding and removal of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Extended-Spectrum Betalactamase Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL), and two Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (both CRE Escherichia coli and CRE K. pneumoniae) using 300 μm polyethylene beads surface modified with end-point-attached heparin. Depending on the specific bacteria, the amount removed ranged between 39% (ESBL) and 99.9% (CRE). The total amount of bacteria adsorbed ranged between 2.8 × 105 and 8.6 × 105 colony forming units (CFU) per gram of adsorption media. Based on a polymicrobial challenge which showed no competitive binding, MRSA and CRE apparently utilize different binding sequences on the immobilized heparin ligand. Since the total circulating bacterial load during bacteremia seldom exceeds 5 × 105 CFUs, it appears possible to significantly reduce bacterial concentration in infected patients by multi-pass recirculation of their blood through a small extracorporeal affinity filter containing the heparin-functional adsorption media. This 'dialysis-like therapy' is expected to improve patient outcomes and reduce the cost of care, particularly when there are no anti-infective drugs available to treat the infection.
Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.
The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406
Full Text Available Ochrobactrum anthtropi es un bacilo gram negativo aeróbico, no fermentador de la glucosa, anteriormente conocido como Achromobacter sp o CDC grupo Vd. Ha sido aislado del medio ambiente y de infecciones en seres humanos que generalmente presentaban algún tipo de inmunocompromiso. Las infecciones por este microorganismo fueron bacteriemias relacionadas a catéteres y en ocasiones endoftalmitis, infecciones urinarias, meningitis, endocarditis, absceso hepático, osteocondritis, absceso pelviano y absceso pancreático. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de sexo masculino, de 69 años de edad, que consultó a la guardia por hipotensión sostenida y síndrome febril de cuatro días de evolución, escalofrío, sudoración profusa y deterioro del sensorio. El paciente tenía diabetes de tipo 2 y antecedente de accidente cerebrovascular. Debido a insuficiencia renal crónica presentaba un catéter de doble lumen para la diálisis. Se documentó una bacteriemia relacionada a catéter por cultivo de sangre a través de catéter y de vena periférica, utilizando el sistema automatizado de hemocultivos Bact-Alert y la metodología de tiempo diferencial (>120min. La confirmación se realizó, una vez removido el catéter, por la técnica semicuantitativa de Maki (> 15 UFC. El microorganismo fue identificado por API 20NE y Vitek 1 como Ochrobactrum anthropi.Ochrobactrum anthropi is a non-glucose fermentative, aerobic gram-negative bacillus, formerly known as Achromobacter sp or CDC group Vd. It has been isolated from the environment and from infections in usually immunocompromised human beings. The documented infections frequently involved catheter related bacteremia whereas endophthalmitis, urinary infections, meningitis, endocarditis, hepatic abscess, osteochondritis, pelvic abscess and pancreatic abscess were rarely involved. Here it is presented the case of a male patient aged 69 years with sustained hypotension, four day febrile syndrome, chill, lavish
Aim: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy images various neoplastic, granulomatous, and auto-immun diseases. Cat-scratch disease in an infectious granulomatous disease usually affecting the lymphnodes. It is not known whether cat-scratch disease provides positive somatostatin receptor scintigrams. Patients, methods: twelve patients with lymphadenitis and suspected cat-scratch disease were investigated by immunofluorescence antibody testing and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy. Suppurated lymphnodes were extracted or drained and Bartonella henselae specific PCR was then performed. Results: eleven of 12 patients showed IgG antibodies against B. henselea. SRS showed positive scintigraphic results in 6 of 11 patients with CSD. B. henselae DNA was detected in tissue of lymphnodes from 4 of 5 patients with lymphnode extraction or lymphnode drainage. SRS demonstrated positive scintigrams in all patients with a positive PCR. In one patient with suspected CSD SRS was negative as well as antibody testing. Conclusion: somatostatin receptor scintigraphy correlated with positive Bartonella henselae specific PCR tests and positive Bartonella henselae specific antibody tests in patients with CSD. (orig.)
Full Text Available OBJETIVO. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a freqüência, os fatores associados e a manifestação clínica de bacteremia em pacientes submetidos à colangiopancreatografia retrógrada endoscópica (CPRE, associada ou não à realização de procedimento terapêutico. CASUÍSTICA. Foram analisadas prospectivamente 46 colangiopancreatografias retrógradas endoscópicas (CPREs realizadas em 42 pacientes. Os pacientes foram divididos em três subgrupos na dependência da utilização de antibióticos, da presença de obstrução do ducto biliar e/ou pancreático e da realização de procedimentos terapêuticos. MÉTODO. A pesquisa de bacteremia foi realizada mediante coleta de hemoculturas seriadas antes e após a CPRE. Foram utilizados, como meio para as hemoculturas, frascos tipo Bactec®, capazes de receber maiores volumes de sangue e com resinas para adsorção de antibióticos. A análise de positividade das hemoculturas foi realizada no sistema Bactec 9240®, e a identificação das bactérias, por meio de rotina do Laboratório Central da instituição e com o sistema autoScan®/Microscan® . RESULTADOS. Foi detectada bacteremia após sete exames; entretanto, em dois os microrganismos isolados foram considerados contaminantes. Em cinco exames ocorreu bacteremia verdadeira (freqüência, 10,9%. Foram identificados os microrganismos: Streptococcus viridans, Corynebacterium sp., Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca e Enterobacter aerogenes. Os episódios de bacteremia foram detectados com maior freqüência nas hemoculturas realizadas imediatamente após os exames (p<0,05, e foram restritos aos pacientes que não estavam utilizando antibióticos (p=0,0192. Não houve manifestação clínica dos episódios de bacteremia. CONCLUSÕES. Concluiu-se que os episódios de bacteremia ocorreram exclusivamente nos pacientes que não estavam utilizando antibióticos e foram transitórios e completamente assintomáticos.
Christensen, J S; Jensen, T G; Kolmos, H J;
severe sepsis, and 11 (3 %) were in septic shock. Overall, the 30-day mortality was 16 %. Mortality increased with the severity of sepsis. There was no association between the focal diagnosis of SPB or the number of diagnoses and mortality. Nosocomial infection, male sex, increasing age, and increasing...
Avidor, B; Kletter, Y; Abulafia, S; Golan, Y.; Ephros, M; Giladi, M.
Amplification of Bartonella henselae DNA has been proposed as a diagnostic test for cat scratch disease (CSD). The sensitivities of the following three PCR assays were compared. PCR/rRNA with universal primers amplifies part of the 16S rRNA gene, followed by hybridization with a specific B. henselae probe; PCR/CS and PCR/HSP amplify portions of the gltA and the htrA genes, respectively, each followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The threshold of detection of B. hensel...
Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Yen-Hsu
Cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae, is a zoonosis and characterized by self-limited lymphadenopathy. It is transmitted commonly by scratch or bite from cats or kitten. We report an unusual case of CSD caused by a domestic dog scratch that we believe is the first report in Taiwan. A 23-year-old healthy woman developed cervical lymphadenopathy, mild fever, headache, and malaise 3 days after dog scratch. Her symptoms improved after azithromycin treatment. Serology proved B. henselae infection. The owners of a domestic dog might be at risk of "cat" scratch disease. PMID:17493900
Kronborg, Gitte; Ostergaard, Christian; Weis, Nina;
-matched healthy subjects (44 microg/l; 20-184; p < 0.001). Serum YKL-40 levels were related to the severity of the infection, with significantly higher serum YKL-40 levels being observed in patients who needed hemodialysis (p < 0.001), pharmacological treatment of hypotension (p < 0.001) and mechanical...... ventilation (p = 0.003) compared to those in patients who did not need this supportive treatment. Nineteen patients died and these patients had significantly higher serum YKL-40 levels (980 microg/l; 88-20,400 microg/l) than those of survivors (256 microg/l; 20-9,100 microg/l; p < 0.001). Serum YKL40 level...... was an independent prognostic factor of survival in logistic multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.002). In conclusion, high serum levels of YKL40 indicated a poorer prognosis for patients with S. pneumoniae bacteremia....
Gallardo-García, M M; Sánchez-Espín, G; Ivanova-Georgieva, R; Ruíz-Morales, J; Rodríguez-Bailón, I; Viñuela González, V; García-López, M V
Pathogenic factors of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in the development of infective endocarditis (IE) have not been sufficiently investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the pathogenesis and virulence factors of SA in patients with IE as compared to patients with uncomplicated bacteremia (un-BAC). This is a retrospective case-control study (2002-2014) performed at a tertiary hospital in Spain. Clinical and epidemiological factors were analyzed. We assessed the presence of toxin genes [toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (tst-1) and enterotoxins A (etA), B (etB), and D (etD)] and the potential relationship between accessory gene regulator (agr) groups and the development of IE confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-nine patients with IE were compared with 58 patients with uncomplicated S. aureus bacteremia (SAB). As many as 75.9 % of patients had community-acquired IE (p infection and severe sepsis or septic shock and IE. Also, a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin ≥1.5 μg/ml was found to be associated with IE. The agr group I was prevalent (55.2 % vs. 31.0 %; p = 0.030). No association was observed between toxin genes (tst-1, etA, etB, and etD) and IE. The superantigen (SAg) most frequently found in SA isolates was tst-1 (12.6 %). We found no association between toxin genes and IE, probably due to the small sample size. However, a direct relationship was found between agr I and the development of IE, which suggests that agr I strains may have more potential to cause IE. PMID:26951263
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. High plasma cell free DNA (cf-DNA concentrations have been shown to be associated with sepsis outcome. The origin of cf-DNA is unclear. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma and the amplifiable cf-DNA assessed using quantitative PCR in 132 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, ß-hemolytic streptococcae or Escherichia coli. The quality of cf-DNA was analyzed with a DNA Chip assay performed on 8 survivors and 8 nonsurvivors. Values were measured on days 1-4 after positive blood culture, on day 5-17 and on recovery. RESULTS: The maximum cf-DNA values on days 1-4 (n = 132 were markedly higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (2.03 vs 1.26 ug/ml, p1.52 ug/ml remained an independent risk factor for case fatality in a logistic regression model. Qualitative analysis of cf-DNA showed that cf-DNA displayed a predominating low-molecular-weight cf-DNA band (150-200 bp in nonsurvivors, corresponding to the size of the apoptotic nucleosomal DNA. cf-DNA concentration showed a significant positive correlation with visually graded apoptotic band intensity (R = 0.822, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cf-DNA concentration proved to be a specific independent prognostic biomarker in bacteremia. cf-DNA displayed a predominating low-molecular-weight cf-DNA band in nonsurvivors corresponding to the size of apoptotic nucleosomal DNA.
Juliana Pena Porto
Full Text Available Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is among the most important pathogens of nosocomial infections, mainly in intensive care units (ICUs, and accounts for 40-60% of all healthcare-associated S. aureus infections. We evaluated the incidence of nosocomial infection by S. aureus, identified the risk factors for MRSA infection, and evaluated the effect of resistance to methicillin on mortality in patients. Methods We conducted MRSA surveillance at a university hospital in Brazil from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010, and performed a retrospective case-control matched study to evaluate the frequency of subsequent MRSA bacteremia and death among patients. We evaluated and compared the risk factors between patients with MRSA and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA infection. Results Sepsis was the most common cause of infection (17.7/1,000 patient-days, followed by surgical site (11.4/1,000 patient-days, pneumonia (4.1/1,000 patient-days, and urinary tract infection (2.4/1,000 patient-days. The significant risk factors were time of hospitalization, use of central vascular catheter (CVC, urinary catheter, nasogastric tube, parenteral nutrition, tracheostomy, mechanical ventilation, and previous antibiotic administration, the latter of which was the only independent risk factor for MRSA infection. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with MRSA. The number of antibiotics tested was not related to increases in the frequency of MRSA/1,000 patient-days. The incidence of mortality attributable to MRSA (bloodstream infection BSI was 50%. Conclusions Surveillance results showed that the use of high levels of antibiotics was directly related to the development of MRSA infection, and the mortality attributable to MRSA in patients with bacteremia was significant.
Full Text Available Bartonellae are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature with several animal reservoirs (mainly cats, dogs, and rodents and insect vectors (mainly fleas, sandflies, and human lice. Thirteen species or subspecies of Bartonella have been recognized as agents causing human disease, including B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, B. vinsonii berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. washoensis, B. koehlerae, B. rocha-limaea, and B. tamiae. The clinical spectrum of infection includes lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, neurological and ophthalmological syndromes, Carrion's disease, and others. This review provides updated information on clinical manifestations and seroepidemiological studies with an emphasis on data available from Brazil.
és de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To determine the incidence of catheter-related bacteremia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in children admitted to a secondary care hospital. Material and Methods. A prospective active surveillance system was conducted from January 1999 to June 2000, at the Hospital General of Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, Mexico. Daily visits to the pediatric ward were conducted to detect episodes of bacteremia and pneumonia, according to the Official Mexican Norm. Hospitalized patients under mechanical ventilation and/or with a central venous catheter, were followed from the first day of exposure, until a nosocomial infection was detected, or until the invasive device was removed. Blood and tracheal aspirate cultures were obtained from all exposed patients. Incidence rates with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for ventilator-associated pneumonia and bacteremia/sepsis per 1000 exposure days. Also, the monthly infection rate is presented for days of exposure, using statistical control graphs. Results. A total of 47 episodes of bacteremia/sepsis and 44 of ventilator associated pneumonia were recorded. The incidence rate of pneumonia and bacteremia/sepsis was 28 and 26 cases respectively, per 1000 days of exposure to and invasive device. The gram-positive rods (61.11% were more common than the gram negative rods (38.88%. Conclusions. The most striking finding of this study was the higher incidence of these two nosocomial infections in children, as compared to that reported elsewhere. These findings call for preventive strategies and guidelines for handling intravenous catheters and mechanical ventilation in Mexico. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html
Value of soluble TREM-1, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein serum levels as biomarkers for detecting bacteremia among sepsis patients with new fever in intensive care units: a prospective cohort study
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to explore the diagnostic value of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1 (sTREM-1, procalcitonin (PCT, and C-reactive protein (CRP serum levels for differentiating sepsis from SIRS, identifying new fever caused by bacteremia, and assessing prognosis when new fever occurred. Methods We enrolled 144 intensive care unit (ICU patients: 60 with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and 84 with sepsis complicated by new fever at more than 48 h after ICU admission. Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels were measured on the day of admission and at the occurrence of new fever (>38.3°C during hospitalization. Based on the blood culture results, the patients were divided into a blood culture-positive bacteremia group (33 patients and blood culture-negative group (51 patients. Based on 28-day survival, all patients, both blood culture-positive and -negative, were further divided into survivor and nonsurvivor groups. Results On ICU day 1, the sepsis group had higher serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels compared with the SIRS group (P P Conclusions Serum sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels each have a role in the early diagnosis of sepsis. Serum sTREM-1, with the highest sensitivity and specificity of all indicators studied, is especially notable. sTREM-1, PCT, and CRP levels are of no use in determining new fever caused by bacteremia in ICU patients, but sTREM-1 levels reflect the prognosis of bacteremia. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov identifier NCT01410578
Sahrmann, P; Manz, A.; Attin, T.; Zbinden, R.; Schmidlin, P R
BACKGROUND: To assess the effect of concomitant subgingival rinsing with 10% PVP-iodine during subgingival instrumentation on the prevalence and magnitude of bacteremia of oral origin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Subgingival instrumentation was performed with water or PVP-iodine rinse in patients with periodontitis. Prior to instrumentation, subjects gargled for 1 min with the allocated liquid. Pockets were then rinsed for 1 min and subgingivally instrumented with liquid-cooled (water/PVP-iodin...
Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza
Full Text Available Cat Scratch Disease (CSD is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella-henselae and quintana- were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks.
Verçoza, Ana Maria Teixeira; de los Santos, Carlos Abaeté; Vargas, José Amadeu
Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy in patients who had been exposed to cats should prompt clinicians to maintain a suspicion for the infection. In this report CSD infecting a renal transplanted adolescent complaining of headache, blurred vision and fever, presenting a cat scratching lesion in the right arm, with a bilateral painful cervical lymphadenopathy was related. He also presented indirect immunofluorescency identifying that the two subtype's titles of Bartonella--henselae and quintana--were elevated. Treatment with doxicicline e rifampicin was introduced and the patient became asymptomatic in about 3 weeks. PMID:25317626
Alexandre Hassler Príncipe de Oliveira
Full Text Available Relatamos caso de paciente do sexo feminino, brasileira, 23 anos, residente na Alemanha, que cursou com quadro de conjuntivite granulomatosa bilateral crônica, sem acometimento ganglionar, não responsiva a tratamento tópico. A pesquisa laboratorial confirmou diagnóstico de conjuntivite por Bartonella henselae. O caso demonstra que a ausência de acometimento ganglionar não exclui o diagnóstico de doença da arranhadura do gato.We report a case of a 23-year-old female patient, Brazilian, resident of Germany, who presented with a bilateral chronic granulomatous conjunctivitis, without lymphoadenopathy and irresponsive to topical treatment. Laboratorial work-up confirmed Bartonella henselae as the etiologic agent. The case shows that the absence of lymphoadenopathy does not exclude the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease.
Maia, R; Brito, MJ; Sousa, R.; Gouveia, C.
Background: Bartonella henselae infection typically presents as a self-limiting regional lymphadenopathy. Bone involvement is a very rare form of the disease. Aims: To describe bone infection associated to cat-scratch disease (CSD) in a portuguese pediatric hospital. Methods: Clinical records of children admitted at the hospital with the diagnosis of CSD associated bone infection, during 2010, were reviewed. Diagnosis was confirmed by serology using indirect fluorescence assay ...
Canback, B.; Andersson, S G E; Kurland, C G
Genes encoding the glycolytic enzymes of the facultative endocellular parasite Bartonella henselae have been analyzed phylogenetically within a very large cohort of homologues from bacteria and eukaryotes. We focus on this relative of Rickettsia prowazekii along with homologues from other α-proteobacteria to determine whether there have been systematic transfers of glycolytic genes from the presumed α-proteobacterial ancestor of the mitochondrion to the nucleus of the early eukaryote. The α-p...
Socolovschi Cristina; Angelakis Emmanouil; Turc Yves; Gonin Khira; Edouard Sophie; Raoult Didier
Abstract Introduction In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined. To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome. Case presentation A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an inflammatory and suppurating eschar was seen on the scalp, with multiple enlar...
Ana Maria Teixeira Verçoza; Carlos Abaeté de los Santos; José Amadeu Vargas
Cat Scratch Disease (CSD) is an infectious disorder which appears after cat scratching particularly in children and adolescents. Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent more frequently involved. There are only a few recent reports demonstrating the disease after transplantation, although the illness is not infrequent in immunologically competent people. Indeed CSD in transplant receptors has only been recently emphasized in the literature and it was concluded that fever and lymphadenopathy...
Matias, M.; Marques, T.; Ferreira, M.A.; Ribeiro, L.
A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG−. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch ...
Arvand, Mardjan; Kazak, Ilkay; Jovanovic, Sergije; Foss, Hans-Dieter; Liesenfeld, Oliver
We report on a young patient with chronic cervical lymphadenopathy and serological and histological evidence for infection with Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii. Serological follow-up studies, including testing for avidity of Toxoplasma-specific immunoglobulin G antibodies, assisted in the determination of the cause of the acute lymphadenitis. Our results suggest that the clinical symptoms were most likely due to cat scratch disease rather than to acute toxoplasmosis.
Filoni, C.; Catão-Dias, J L; Bay, G.; E. L. Durigon; Jorge, R S P; Lutz, H.; Hofmann-Lehmann, R.
Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemi...
Azad, A F; Radulovic, S; Higgins, J. A.; Noden, B. H.; Troyer, J. M.
Ecologic and economic factors, as well as changes in human behavior, have resulted in the emergence of new and the reemergence of existing but forgotten infectious diseases during the past 20 years. Flea-borne disease organisms (e.g., Yersinia pestis, Rickettsia typhi, R. felis, and Bartonella henselae) are widely distributed throughout the world in endemic-disease foci, where components of the enzootic cycle are present. However, flea-borne diseases could reemerge in epidemic form because of...
Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech
The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064
Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Paweł; Figlerowicz, Magdalena; Służewski, Wojciech
The aim of this review is to present an emerging zoonotic disease caused by Bartonella henselae. The wide spectrum of diseases connected with these bacteria varies from asymptomatic cases, to skin inflammation, fever of unknown origin, lymphadenopathy, eye disorders, encephalitis and endocarditis. The reservoirs of B. henselae are domestic animals like cats, guinea pigs, rabbits and occasionally dogs. Diagnosis is most often based on a history of exposure to cats and a serologic test with high titres of the immunoglobulin G antibody to B. henselae. Most cases of cat-scratch disease are self-limited and do not require antibiotic treatment. If an antibiotic is chosen, however, azithromycin has been shown to speed recovery. PMID:26161064
Chau, Jennifer Y; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Nimishakavi, Shilpa; Lawrence, Jessica A; Pakpour, Nazzy; Mooney, Jason P; Lokken, Kristen L; Caughey, George H; Tsolis, Renee M; Luckhart, Shirley
Coinfection with malaria and nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can cause life-threatening bacteremia in humans. Coinfection with malaria is a recognized risk factor for invasive NTS, suggesting that malaria impairs intestinal barrier function. Here, we investigated mechanisms and strategies for prevention of coinfection pathology in a mouse model. Our findings reveal that malarial-parasite-infected mice, like humans, develop L-arginine deficiency, which is associated with intestinal mastocytosis, elevated levels of histamine, and enhanced intestinal permeability. Prevention or reversal of L-arginine deficiency blunts mastocytosis in ileal villi as well as bacterial translocation, measured as numbers of mesenteric lymph node CFU of noninvasive Escherichia coli Nissle and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the latter of which is naturally invasive in mice. Dietary supplementation of malarial-parasite-infected mice with L-arginine or L-citrulline reduced levels of ileal transcripts encoding interleukin-4 (IL-4), a key mediator of intestinal mastocytosis and macromolecular permeability. Supplementation with L-citrulline also enhanced epithelial adherens and tight junctions in the ilea of coinfected mice. These data suggest that increasing L-arginine bioavailability via oral supplementation can ameliorate malaria-induced intestinal pathology, providing a basis for testing nutritional interventions to reduce malaria-associated mortality in humans. PMID:23690397
Patrick, C H; John, J F; Levkoff, A H; Atkins, L M
The emergence of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus as a major bacterial pathogen in neonatal intensive care units has stimulated interest in the epidemiology of spread of the organism. During a 12-month "epidemic" of bacteremias with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus we compared the characteristics of bacteremic and personnel nasally-carried strains by traditional and biomolecular methods. Sixty-two percent of neonatal intensive care unit nurses were colonized with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus with similar speciation to bacteremic strains. Inspection of plasmid profiles revealed a moderate degree of similarity between bacteremic and colonizing strains although genomic DNA restriction patterns showed diversity. Ribotype patterns were highly conserved (90%) in personnel strains. A 2.6-kilobase plasmid DNA probe hybridized to similarly sized plasmids and larger plasmids in one-half of the strains. We hypothesize that related methicillin-resistant strains may be transferred among personnel and neonates in the neonatal intensive care unit. Epidemiologic studies of coagulase-negative staphylococci should consider multiple molecular techniques to relate strains. PMID:1454435
R. Cesar Gonzáles
Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.Bartonella bacilliformis is a facultative intracellular bacterial parasite of human erythrocytes and endotelial cells. Carrion’s disease, Oroya fever and Peruvian wart are all terms describing the pathological consequences of human infection with Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Although infections involving the Bartonella species, such as Bartonella henselae and Bartonella Quintana occur worldwide, Carrion’s disease is uniquely endemic to South America. (14 Bartonella baciliformis infections are a health problem in many rural areas of South America and to travellers who visit these regions. Outbreaks of
韦小瑜; 田克诚; 游旅; 唐光鹏; 王定明
目的：对贵州省1例菌血症患儿血液中分离的疑似空肠弯曲菌进行鉴定。方法运用传统细菌学方法和分子生物学方法，对从菌血症患者血液分离的可疑空肠弯曲菌进行鉴定和亚种分型。结果来自菌血症患儿血液的可疑菌株，经传统生化鉴定为空肠弯曲菌空肠亚种，特异性多重PCR方法鉴定为弯曲菌属空肠弯曲菌，NAP-mPCR方法鉴定为空肠弯曲菌空肠亚种。结论分离自贵州省菌血症患儿血液的菌株确认为空肠弯曲菌空肠亚种，NAP-mPCR方法可将空肠弯曲菌鉴定到亚种水平。%To identify the isolated suspicious strain of Campylobacter jejuni from the blood of bacteremia patient in Guizhou Province ,China ,conventional and molecular techniques (specific mPCR and NAP-mPCR) were used to identify suspi-cious bacteria strains .Results showed that Campylobacter jejuni suspicious colonies were cultured in bacteremia patient blood samples .The strain was identified as Campylobacter jejuni ssp . jejuni by conventional tests and was identified as Campy-lobacter jejuni by genus specific mPCR .Then the strain was classified as Campylobacter jejuni ssp . jejuni by subspecies NAP-mPCR .The strain was identified as Campylobacter jejuni ssp .jejuni isolated from the blood of bacteremia patient and Campylobacter jejuni can be identified subspecies by NAP-mPCR .
The Epidemiologic, Microbiologic and Clinical Picture of Bacteremia among Febrile Infants and Young Children Managed as Outpatients at the Emergency Room, before and after Initiation of the Routine Anti-Pneumococcal Immunization
Leibovitz, Eugene; David, Nuphar; Ribitzky-Eisner, Haya; Abo Madegam, Mouner; Abuabed, Said; Chodick, Gabriel; Maimon, Michal; Fruchtman, Yariv
We described the occult bacteremia (OB) and bacteremia with diagnosed focus (BwF) picture among children managed as outpatients at the pediatric emergency room (PER) in southern Israel, before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) introduction in a retrospective study enrolling all three- to 36-month-old patients with fever >38.0 °C during 2005–2014. Of 511 (0.82% of all febrile patients) true bacteremias, 230 (45%) were managed as outpatients; 96 of 230 (41.7%) had OB and 134 (3.59%) had BwF. OB and BwF rates were 0.22% and 3.02%, respectively. A significant decrease was noted in OB and BwF rates (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.02, respectively). S. pneumoniae (SP, 37.5%), K. kingae (11.4%) and Brucella spp. (8.7%) were the most common OB pathogens and SP (29.8%), S. viridans (13.4%), and Brucella spp. (12.7%) were the most common in BwF patients. PCV13 serotypes were not found among the serotypes isolated post-PCV13 introduction. During 2010–2014 there was an increase in non-PCV13 serotype isolation (p = 0.005). SP was the main pathogen isolated among patients with pneumonia, acute otitis media (AOM) and periorbital cellulitis (62.5%, 33.3% and 60%, respectively). OB and BwF decreased following the introduction of PCVs and SP was the main pathogen in both conditions. Vaccine-SP serotypes were not isolated in OB after PCV13 introduction and non-vaccine serotypes increased significantly. PMID:27447651
Jaime A. del Río
Full Text Available Ante la evidencia de un brote de bacteremia secundaria neonatal, en la Unidad de Recién Nacidos, Hospital de Caldas, Manizales, se realizó un estudio de casos y controles 1:4, para determinar la asociación de factores de riesgo importantes para los pediatras como nutrición parenteral, terapia respiratoria, tubo orotraqueal, cámara cefálica, parto vaginal, la aplicación de hemoderivado, remisión de otra unidad, leche materna por sonda, peso y edad. Como definición de caso se adoptó la clínica con por lo menos dos hemocultivos positivos, patógeno de piel hemocultivado y germen aislado en sangre sin foco definido. Los 19 controles se tomaron al azar de los recién nacidos que se encontraban hospitalizados por otras causas diferentes o relacionadas con la patología. Se realizó una regresión logística paso a paso, para determinar los eventos causales. Los gérmenes hemocultivados fueron Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, E. aerogenes y E. cloacae. La edad promedio de los casos fue 30.6 semanas, en los controles 36.6 meses (p 0.2 NS. Peso promedio de los casos 1,385 g contra 2,621 g en los controles. Se encontró asociada la nutrición parenteral con el brote OR=15 (IC=1-482 p 0.027 S. Otros factores como la edad y el peso fueron de confusión. En cuanto a la nutrición parenteral, se corroboró su implicación, porque al revisar de inmediato el proceso de nutrición parenteral se encontró que los productos sobrantes se estaban almacenando y reutilizando hasta por 30 días.
Kao, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Wei-Hung; Tseng, Chin-Chung; Yan, Jing-Jou; Wang, Ming-Cheng; Teng, Ching-Hao; Wu, Jiunn-Jong
The aim of this study was to characterize fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from bacteremia in Taiwan in 2001-2015. During the study period, 248 (21.2%) of 1171 isolates were identified as levofloxacin-resistant. The results of phylogenetic group analysis showed that 38.7% of the FQ-resistant isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2, 23.4% to group B1, 22.6% to groupA, 14.9% to group D, and 0.4% belonged to group F. FQ-resistant isolates were highly susceptible to cefepime (91.5%), imipenem (96.0%), meropenem (98.8%), amikacin (98.0%), and fosfomycin (99.6%), as determined by the agar dilution method. β-lactamases, including blaTEM (66.1%), blaCMY-2 (16.5%), blaCTX-M (5.2%), blaDHA-1 (1.6%), and blaSHV-12 (1.6%), were found in FQ-resistant isolates. The results of PCR and direct sequencing showed that 37 isolates (14.9%) harbored plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes. qnrB2, qnrB4, qnrS1, coexistence of qnrB4 and qnrS1, oqxAB, and aac(6')-Ib-cr were found in 1, 4, 4, 1, 15, and 14 isolates, respectively. PMQR genes were successfully transfered for 11 (29.7%) of the 37 PMQR-harboring isolates by conjugation to E. coli C600. These findings indicate that qnr genes remained rare in E. coli but demonstrate the potential spread of oqxAB and aac(6')-Ib-c in Taiwan. PMID:27573927
Serological survey of Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi, Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Francisella tularensis, Leptospira spp., Echinococcus, Hanta-, TBE- and XMR-virus infection in employees of two forestry enterprises in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, 2011-2013.
Jurke, Annette; Bannert, N; Brehm, K; Fingerle, V; Kempf, V A J; Kömpf, D; Lunemann, M; Mayer-Scholl, A; Niedrig, M; Nöckler, K; Scholz, H; Splettstoesser, W; Tappe, D; Fischer, Silke F
We initiated a survey to collect basic data on the frequency and regional distribution of various zoonoses in 722 employees of forestry enterprises in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) from 2011 to 2013. Exposures associated with seropositivity were identified to give insight into the possible risk factors for infection with each pathogen. 41.2% of participants were found to be seropositive for anti-Bartonella IgG, 30.6% for anti-Borrelia burgdorferi IgG, 14.2% for anti-Leptospira IgG, 6.5% for anti-Coxiella burnetii IgG, 6.0% for anti-Hantavirus IgG, 4.0% for anti-Francisella tularensis IgG, 3.4% for anti-TBE-virus IgG, 1.7% for anti-Echinococcus IgG, 0.0% for anti-Brucella IgG and anti-XMRV IgG. Participants seropositive for B. burgdorferi were 3.96 times more likely to be professional forestry workers (univariable analysis: OR 3.96; 95% CI 2.60-6.04; pforestry workers nor office workers represent a risk population and that NRW is not a typical endemic area. Forestry workers appear to have higher risk for contact with B. burgdorferi-infected ticks and a regionally diverse risk for acquiring Hantavirus-infection. The regional epidemiology of zoonoses is without question of great importance for public health. Knowledge of the regional risk factors facilitates the development of efficient prevention strategies and the implementation of such prevention measures in a sustainable manner. PMID:26422407
Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis es el agente etiológico de la Enfermedad de Carrión, endémica del Perú. Pocas investigaciones han sido realizadas acerca de los genes asociados a la resistencia antimicrobiana en aislados clínicos de este patógeno. Estos genes no están caracterizados molecularmente, ni se conoce la región asociada a dicha resistencia. Por ello, el objetivo del este trabajo fue caracterizar molecularmente la región determinante de la resistencia a las quinolonas (QRDR en la topoisomerasa IV, que está codificada por los genes parC y parE, así como también desarrollar una prueba de susceptibilidad antimicrobiana para B. bacilliformis. Las muestras sanguíneas de 65 pacientes procedentes de La Libertad, Cusco, Ancash y Piura, se sembraron en placas de agar sangre e incubaron a 30 °C con 5% CO2. Luego se procedió a: (1 determinar la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana y (2 extraer el DNA genómico, amplificar los genes mencionados, secuenciarlos y analizarlos mediante herramientas bioinformáticas. Se obtuvieron 6 cultivos positivos. Los aislados fueron sensibles a la ciprofloxacina (excepto uno procedente de Quillabamba-Cusco, que presentó susceptibilidad disminuida y resistentes al ácido nalidíxico. Del análisis de las secuencias aminoacídicas de ParC y ParE de B. bacilliformis se concluye que presentan diferencias aminoacídicas en comparación con las secuencias de las proteínas respectivas de E. coli K12 MG1655, que probablemente confieran resistencia al ácido nalidíxico pero no a la ciprofloxacina. Se determinó que las QRDR de las proteínas ParC y ParE de B. bacilliformis están comprendidas entre los aminoácidos 67 al 118 y 473 al 530, respectivamente. El antibiograma y la concentración mínima inhibitoria se evalúan mejor usando inóculos a escala 1 de McFarland y a los 6 días de incubación.
Control de bacteriemia nosocomial pediátrica mediante un programa de cultivo de soluciones parenterales en uso Pediatric nosocomial bacteremia control program based on culturing in use parenteral infusions
Juan M. Muñoz
Full Text Available OBJETIVO. Dado que Klebsiella, Enterobacter y Serratia se multiplican en soluciones parenterales y son responsables de una elevada proporción de bacteriemias en los hospitales de México, se propone una estrategia de control mediante la vigilancia microbiológica de las soluciones en uso. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS. Hospital de enseñanza de segundo nivel con 193 camas. Atiende principalmente pacientes de escasos recursos. En 1992 se inició la vigilancia de la esterilidad de las soluciones parenterales en los servicios pediátricos mediante cuatro estrategias: durante la primera etapa se cultivó el total de soluciones en uso. Durante la segunda se cultivaron muestras aleatoriamente elegidas. Tercera y cuarta etapas con muestreo controlado y dirigido, respectivamente. RESULTADOS. Se han cultivado 1940 infusiones. Se ha observado una reducción de la tasa de contaminación (de 29.6% en 1992 a 12.9% en 1997, pOBJECTIVES. As Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Serratia are capable of growth in IV fluids and these bacteria are commonly implicated in nosocomial bacteremia, a control strategy through microbiological surveilance of in-use parenteral solutions is proposed. MATERIAL AND METHODS. A second level general teaching hospital, serving low-income patients. Through four consecutive strategies, a continous surveillance program of IV fluids sterility in pediatric wards was stablished in 1992. During the first stage all of the in -use solutions were cultured. During the second stage randomly selected samples were studied. Third stage was designed as a case-control study. The last stage included samples drawn in convenience. Positive cultures point out eventual infusion mishandling, as well as high-risk areas and patients. RESULTS. After culturing 1940 parenteral solutions, infusion contamination rates decreased from 29.6% in 1992 to 12.9% in 1997 (p< 0.001. The proportion of Gram-negative rods isolated from blood cultures went from 72.7% to 40.85% (p< 0
梁栋伟; 张振洪; 黄勤; 黄平
Objective To investigate the auxiliary diagnostic value of PCT,WBC and CRP for bacteremia. Methods 202 patients were given blood culture, PCT,WBC and CRP detection.According to the results of blood culture, the patients were divided into the positive group and the negative group, then PCT,WBC and CRP results of the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results Except for PCT,there was no statistical difference of WBC and CRP value in the two groups (P>0.05).According to the data of ROC curve,diagnostic critical value,sensitivity and specificity of PCT were 1.28 ng/ml,53.5%and 79.8%. Conclusion PCT is helpful for the diagnosis of bacteremia.%目的：探讨PCT、WBC和CRP对菌血症的辅助诊断价值。方法对202例患者进行血培养、PCT、WBC和CRP检测。根据血培养结果,将患者分成阳性组与阴性组,然后对两组的PCT、WBC和CRP结果进行统计分析。结果除PCT外,两组的WBC、CRP比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。根据ROC曲线数据可知,PCT的诊断临界值是1.28 ng/ml,灵敏度为53.5%,特异度为79.8%。结论 PCT对菌血症有辅助诊断价值。
Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe
In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens. PMID:27012917
R. Cesar Gonzáles
Full Text Available La Bartonella bacilliformis es un parásito bacteriano intracelular facultativo de los eritrocitos humanos y de las células endoteliales. La enfermedad de Carrión, fiebre de La Oroya y Verruga Peruana son todos términos que describen las consecuencias patológicas de la infección humana por Bartonella bacilliformis. (1 Aunque las infecciones que involucran especies de Bartonella, tales como Bartonella henselae y Bartonella quintana, ocurren en todo el mundo, la enfermedad de Carrión es endémica únicamente en Sudamérica. (14 Las infecciones por B. bacilliformis son un problema de salud en numerosas áreas rurales de Sudamérica y para los viajeros que visitan esas regiones. Se han reportado brotes de bartonelosis en las regiones montañosas de Perú, Ecuador y Colombia. (1 La Lutzomyia verrucarum es el principal vector para la transmisión de la bacteria al ser humano; la hembra del mosquito transmite el patógeno durante su alimentación nocturna de sangre humana. Presumiblemente el insecto se alimenta de sangre de un individuo infectado y disemina el patógeno por medio de su saliva durante la siguiente ingesta de sangre. La bacteria no es contagiosa entre humanos. (1 Presentamos un enfoque laboral de la enfermedad en trabajadores que realizan desplazamientos continuos a zonas endémicas y analizamos sus posibles consecuencias.
Impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on patients with bacteremia in intensive care units and resistance patterns in Latin America Impacto de la terapia antimicrobiana inapropiada en pacientes con bacteriemia en unidades de cuidado intensivo y patrones de resistencia en América Latina
J.A. Cortés; D. C. Garzón; J. A. Navarrete; K. M. Contreras
Patient care in an intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with an increased risk of developing nosocomial infections. Bacteremia is responsible for a great number of cases, 23% of which have attributable mortality in developed countries and can affect up to 52% of ICU patients. The main cause of mortality is inadequate and inappropriate antimicrobial empirical therapy. The incorrect use of antimicrobials is a major risk for identifying multidrug resistant microorganisms, thereby involving in...
Mortality among critically ill patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a multicenter cohort study in Colombia Mortalidad en pacientes gravemente enfermos con bacteriemia por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a la meticilina: un estudio multicéntrico de cohortes en Colombia
Juan S. Castillo; Aura L Leal; Jorge A. Cortes; Alvarez, Carlos A; Ricardo Sanchez; Giancarlo Buitrago; Liliana I. Barrero; Andrés L. Gonzalez; Daibeth H. Henriquez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate risk factors associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia emergence, its prognosis, and mortality-determining factors in critically ill patients in Colombia. METHODS: A multicenter, retrospective cohort study conducted in 2005-2008 at 16 public and private reference health care institutions in Bogotá, Colombia, that form part of a national epidemiological surveillance network and a hospital network with 4 469 beds. Methicillin-resistant ...
Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.
Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.
Lange, Danica; Oeder, Caroline; Waltermann, Katharina; Mueller, Anke; Oehme, Albrecht; Rohrberg, Robert; Marsch, Wolfgang; Fischer, Matthias
An infection with Bartonella henselae transmitted from domestic cats to humans by scratching normally leads to cat-scratch disease. When the human host has severe immunosuppression or HIV infection, the potentially life-threatening disease bacillary angiomatosis can develop. A 79-year-old man presented with livid-erythematous, angioma-like skin lesions. We considered a cutaneous infiltrate from his known chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Merkel cell carcinoma, cutaneous metastases of internal tumors, cutaneous sarcoidosis, mycobacterial infection and even atypical herpes simplex infection. The correct diagnosis was proven histologically and by PCR. Because of increasing numbers of immunosuppressed and HIV-positive patients, as well as an infection rate of 13% for B. henselae in domestic cats in Germany, one must be alert to the presence of bacillary angiomatosis. PMID:19298547
Filoni, Claudia; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Bay, Gert; Durigon, Edison Luiz; Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
Serum samples from 18 pumas (Puma concolor), one ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and two little spotted cats (Leopardus tigrinus) collected from free-ranging animals in Brazil between 1998 and 2004 were tested by indirect immunofluorescence (IFA) for antibodies to feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV 1), calicivirus (FCV), coronavirus (FCoV), parvo-virus (FPV), Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma pha-gocytophilum, and Bartonella henselae. Serum samples also were tested, by Western blot and ELISA, for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) specific antibodies and antigen, respectively, by Western blot for antibodies to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and by indirect ELISA for antibodies to puma lentivirus (PLV). Antibodies to FHV 1, FCV, FCoV, FPV, FeLV, FIV, PLV or related viruses, and to B. henselae were detected. Furthermore, high-titered antibodies to E. canis or a closely related agent were detected in a puma for the first time. PMID:16870878
Full Text Available ) Kuenenia stuttgartiensis genome f... 137 1e-30 AE014613...r violaceus PCC 7421 D... 134 7e-30 U57757_1( U57757 |pid:none) Treponema pallidum PolA gene, partial ... 13...s ... 133 2e-29 AJ238760_2( AJ238760 |pid:none) Rickettsia montana ftsY (partial)...i 12J chromos... 131 6e-29 BX897699_6( BX897699 |pid:none) Bartonella henselae strain...) Neisseria meningitidis 053442, c... 129 2e-28 EU708319_1( EU708319 |pid:none) Thermus thermophilus strain
Murinello, Natacha; Murinello, N.; Murinello, A; Damásio, H; Carvalho, A; Sousa, R.
A doença da arranhadela do gato é uma zoonose causada pela bactéria Bartonella henselae, e transmitida ao homem por inoculação em lesões de arranhadelas ou mordeduras de gatos. Descreve-se aqui um caso de doença da arranhadela do gato numa mulher de 44 anos de idade, imunocompetente, que se apresentou com uma pápula/crosta num dedo da mão direita, linfadenopatias regionais e foi tratada com azitromicina por apresentar uma linfadenopatia epitroclear muito dolorosa. O diagnóstico de infecção po...
Die Ätiologie der chronischen Gingivostomatitis bei der Katze konnte bislang nicht vollständig geklärt werden, obwohl dieses Krankheitsbild häufig in der Kleintierpraxis auftritt. Die Ätiologie scheint multifaktoriell zu sein, und verschiedenen Infektionserregern wird eine Bedeutung zugeschrieben. Ziel dieser Studie war es, die Prävalenz von felinen Caliciviren (FCV), felinen Herpesviren (FHV), felinen Immunschwächeviren (FIV), felinen Leukämieviren (FeLV) sowie Bartonella henselae bei Katzen...
Michelet, Lorraine; Delannoy, Sabine; Devillers, Elodie;
Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens, a large scale epidemiological study was...... venatorum), unexpected (Borrelia miyamotoi) and rare (Bartonella henselae) pathogens in the three European countries. Moreover we detected Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia miyamotoi, Babesia divergens, and Babesia venatorum for the first time in Danish ticks. This surveillance method represents a major...... improvement in epidemiological studies, able to facilitate comprehensive testing of tick-borne pathogens, and which can also be customized to monitor emerging diseases....
ABAZARI, AZIN; Kaplowitz, Kevin; Sibony, Patrick
We report a case of bilateral multifocal retinochoroiditis and bilateral optic disc edema in a patient with cat-scratch disease from Bartonella henselae. The patient initially had negative serologic testing. Repeat testing showed a markedly increased IgG and IgM convalescent titer and the development of a branch retinal artery and vein occlusion. In patients for whom there is a high clinical suspicion of cat-scratch disease, a convalescent titer should be obtained 2–3 weeks following a negati...
Full Text Available none) Bartonella henselae strain Hous... 232 3e-59 BC135119_1( BC135119 |pid:none) Xenopus tropicalis phosphoglucomut...IC-16... 50 2e-04 CU861906_696( CU861906 |pid:none) Ralstonia solanacearum strain...ncisella tularensis clone ... 72 4e-29 6 ( AY871860 ) Synthetic construct hypothetical prot...86( CR382131 |pid:none) Yarrowia lipolytica strain CLIB12... 307 7e-82 AK064893_1... |pid:none) Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20... 51 1e-04 BA000045_388( BA000045 |pid:none) Gloeobacter violaceu
Lorelei L. Clarke
Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.
Full Text Available Q57CZ1|Q57CZ1_BRUAB Citrate synthase OS=Brucella abortus GN=g... 69 1e-10 >tr|B0M1B8|B0M1B8_SOYBN Citrate sy...TH Citrate synthase 1, peroxisomal OS=Arabido... 72 9e-13 sp|P51033|CISY_BARHE Citrate synthase OS=Bartonell...1033|CISY_BARHE Citrate synthase OS=Bartonella henselae GN=gltA PE=3 SV=1 Length = 431 Score = 69.7 bits (16...idopsis thaliana Align length 84 Score (bit) 132.0 E-value 5.0e-31 Report BLASTX 2.2.19 [No... chromosomal OS=Rhizobium... 67 4e-11 sp|P51034|CISY_BARQU Citrate synthase OS=Bartonella quintana GN=... 66
[Recommendations for prevention of community-acquired pneumonia with bacteremia as the leading form of invasive pneumococcal infections in the population of people over 50 years of age and risk groups above 19 years of age].
Albrecht, Piotr; Antczak, Adam; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczyńska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Bernatowska, Ewa; Stompór, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Gyrczuk, Ewa; Imiela, Jacek; Jedrzejczak, Wiesław; Windak, Adam
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a main cause of mortality associated with pneumococcal infections. Although, IPD is regarding mainly small children and persons in the age > 65 years, the investigations showed that because of IPD exactly sick persons are burdened with the greatest mortality in the older age, rather than of children. The most frequent form of IPD is community acquired pneumonia (CAP) with the bacteremia. The presence of even a single additional risk factor is increasing the probability of the unfavorable descent of pneumococcal infection. The risk factors for IPD and/or pneumonia with bacteremia apart from the age are among others asthma (> 2 x), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sarcoidosis (4 x), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (5 x), bronchiectases (2 x), allergic alveolitis (1.9 x) and pneumoconiosis (2 x), type 1 diabetes (4.4 x), type 2 diabetes (1.2 x), autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (4.2 to 14.9 x), kidney failure with the necessity to dialysis (12 x), immunosuppression, cardiovascular disease, alcoholism and cancers. Examinations show that the best method of IPD and CAP preventing are pneumococcal vaccinations. On the market for ages 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is available covering close the 90% of IPD triggering stereotypes. Her role in preventing CAP is uncertain and the immunological answer after vaccination at older persons and after revaccination is weak. Widely discussed disadvantageous effects of growing old of the immunological system show on the benefit from applying the immunization inducing the immunological memory, i.e. of conjugated vaccines which are activating the T-dependent reply and are ensuring the readiness for the effective secondary response. Examinations so far conducted with conjugated 7-valent and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines at persons in the age > 50 years are confirming these expectations. Also sick persons can take benefits from PCV13 applying back from so-called IPD
Yager, Julie A; Best, Susan J; Maggi, Ricardo G; Varanat, Mrudula; Znajda, Nadine; Breitschwerdt, Edward B
A dog being treated with immunosuppressive doses of prednisone and azathioprine for pancytopenia of unknown origin, developed, over a 2-week period, multiple erythematous nodular lesions in the skin including footpads. Skin samples revealed lesions identical to those of human bacillary angiomatosis (BA). The nodules were composed of multifocal proliferations of capillaries, each lined by protuberant endothelial cells. The capillary clusters were separated by an oedematous connective tissue, lightly infiltrated with degenerate inflammatory cells, including neutrophils and macrophages. Tissue sections stained with Warthin-Starry silver stain revealed large numbers of positively stained bacilli in the stromal tissue, most heavily concentrated around the proliferating capillaries. Lesions of vascular degeneration and inflammation were evident. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype 1 was independently amplified and sequenced from the blood and the skin tissue. The pathognomonic nature of the histological lesions, demonstration of compatible silver-stained bacilli in the tissue, and identification of B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in the blood and tissue indicates that this is most likely the aetiologic agent responsible for the lesions. Antibiotic therapy was successful in resolving the nodules. It would appear that B. vinsonii subsp berkhoffii, like Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, has the rare ability to induce angioproliferative lesions, most likely in association with immunosuppression. The demonstration of lesions identical to those of human BA in this dog is further evidence that the full range of clinical manifestations of human Bartonella infection occurs also in canines. PMID:20374571
Full Text Available Cat-Scratch Disease (CSD is a benign lymphadenitis that may progress to severe or recurrent forms, and it is occasionally associated with morbidity. Between January of 1998 and March of 1999, forty-three suspected CSD patients were assessed in the Hospital Cayetano Heredia and the Instituto de Salud del Niño, in Lima, Peru. Twelve patients had a confirmed diagnosis, 8 of whom were women, and the mean age was 10 years old. The majority (53% of the cases were encountered in the summer. All patients reported having had contact with cats. Fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy and skin lesions were the most frequent clinical features. Twelve patients had indirect immunofluorescence antibody test titers of between 1/50 and 1/800 for Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. Two lymph node biopsies were histologically compatible with CSD. No positive blood cultures could be obtained. This is the first Peruvian prospective study able to identify B. henselae and B. clarridgeiae in pediatric patients.
Full Text Available There are few epidemiological and clinical studies about the presence of cat scratch disease (CSD on the island of Crete. The objective of this study was to analyze a large number of patients with suspected CSD to define the frequency of Bartonella infections in Crete. From January 2005 to October 2008, we studied patients with suspected CSD from hospitals in Crete. Sera of the referred patients were tested by immunofluorescence assay (IFA. For some patients, we also received lymph nodes and blood samples that we tested for the presence of Bartonella henselae by molecular assays. Overall, we tested 507 serum samples and we found 56 (11% cases of CSD. PCR assay was positive for 2 patients; one had a B. henselae positive lymph node and the other a positive whole blood sample. Significantly more CSD cases (62.5%, 35 of 56 were reported in children than in infants and adults (P<0.05. Moreover, we identified that most cases of CSD occurred between May and September (P=0.002 and December and January. CSD is prevalent in Crete and is mostly associated with an increase in outdoor activity.
Bruun, B; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Hovgaard, D;
The microorganisms isolated in 1981-1985 from 171 cases of septicemia in patients with hematological malignancies were on the whole the same as those found in 1970-1972. The distribution between species was also quite similar for the two periods except within staphylococci, where the isolation rate...
Casanova, Carlo; Iselin, Lukas; von Steiger, Niklaus; Droz, Sara; Sendi, Parham
Bacteria known in animal infectious diseases can cause challenges in human diagnostic laboratories. We present pitfalls in the identification and susceptibility testing of Staphylococcus hyicus, a pathogen that typically causes exudative epidermitis in pigs. In this case, the coagulase-positive staphylococcus isolated from a septic patient was misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus.
Marmolin, Ea S; Hartmeyer, Gitte N; Christensen, Jens J;
DNA sequencing of the intergenic spacer (ITS) region was used to identify 53 blood culture isolates that had previously been designated to the bovis group streptococci and clinical data was collected retrospectively from patients' records using a standardized protocol. ITS sequencing identified 19...
Pedersen, Marie Kristine Jessen; Mackenhauer, Julie; Hvass, Anne Mette Sondrup Wulff;
Objective The objective of this study was to validate a previously published clinical decision rule for predicting a positive blood culture in emergency department (ED) patients with suspected infection on the basis of major and minor criteria and a total score (Shapiro et al., J Emerg Med, 2008...... bacteremia’. Data on clinical history, comorbid illnesses, physical observations, and laboratory tests were used to evaluate the application of the clinical decision rule. We report the sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve. Results Among 1526 patients, 105 (6.9%) patients were classified with...... and is likely to be a useful supplement to clinical judgment....
Mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido: cohorte retrospectiva en un hospital de Lima, Perú Mortality caused by bacteremia Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- producers: a retrospective cohort from a hospital in Lima, Peru
Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar los factores asociados a la mortalidad causada por bacteriemias por Escherichia coli y Klebsiella spp. productoras de beta lactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE. Materiales y Métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohortes retrospectivo, que incluyó 85 pacientes mayores de 16 años con diagnóstico de bacteriemia por Escherichia coli o Klebsiella spp. hospitalizados entre 2006 y 2008 en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Las cohortes se clasificaron de acuerdo a la producción de BLEE según los resultados de los hemocultivos. Se evaluaron los factores asociados a la mortalidad cruda y atribuible empleando regresión de Poisson en un modelo multivariado, con lo que se obtuvo riesgos relativos ajustados (RRa. Además, se construyeron curvas de mortalidad. Resultados. Se encontró que el 35,3% de las bacteriemias fueron debidas a cepas productoras de BLEE. El análisis de la mortalidad cruda mostró una mayor mortalidad en el grupo de cepas productoras de BLEE (63,3%. El RRa fue de 1,5 (IC95%: 1,02-2,3. En el caso de mortalidad atribuible, la proporción también fue mayor (63,3%, el RRa fue de 1,9 (IC95%: 1,2-2,9. El uso de catéter venoso central fue otro factor asociado tanto a la mortalidad cruda (RRa= 2,4; IC95%: 1,2- 4,8 como a la mortalidad atribuible (RRa= 3,8; IC95%: 1,6-8,8. Conclusiones. La producción de BLEE es un factor de riesgo independiente para mortalidad por bacteriemia causada por E. coli y Klebsiella spp. Su presencia debe evaluarse tras la sospecha diagnóstica y la elaboración de la terapéutica inicial, lo que podría disminuir la mortalidad por esta causaObjectives. To evaluate the factors associated to mortality caused by bacteremia due to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. producers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL. Materials and methods. We performed a retrospective cohort study, including 85 patients older than 16 and diagnosed with bacteremia by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp
Sanchez Clemente, Nuria; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Solorzano, Nelson; Maguiña, Ciro; Moore, David
Background Bartonellosis affects small Andean communities in Peru, Colombia and Ecuador. Research in this area has been limited. Methods Retrospective review of 191 cases of bartonellosis managed in Caraz District Hospital, Peru, during the last outbreak (2003). Results The majority of cases (65%) were 14 years old and younger. There was a peak in acute cases after the rainy season; chronic cases presented more constantly throughout the year. The sensitivity of blood smear against blood culture in acute disease was 25%. The most commonly used treatment for chronic disease was rifampicin; chloramphenicol was used to treat most acute cases. Complications arose in 6.8% and there were no deaths. Conclusions Diagnostic and treatment algorithms for acute and chronic bartonellosis have been developed without a strong evidence base. Preparation of ready-to-go operational research protocols for future outbreaks would strengthen the evidence base for diagnostic and treatment strategies and enhance opportunities for control. PMID:26991495
Brouqui, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Dupont, Hervé Tissot; Gallian, Pierre; Badiaga, Sekene; Rolain, Jean Marc; Mege, Jean Louis; La Scola, Bernard; Berbis, Philippe; Raoult, Didier
Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasites, but their exposure to arthropod-borne diseases has not been evaluated systematically. A medical team of 27 persons (7 nurses, 6 infectious disease residents or fellows, 2 dermatologists, and 12 infectious disease specialists) visited the 2 shelters in Marseilles, France, for 4 consecutive years. Homeless volunteers were interviewed, examined, and received care; and blood was sampled for cell counts and detection of bacteremia, antibodies to louse-borne (Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis), flea-borne (R. typhi, R. felis), mite-borne (R. akari), and tick-borne (R. conorii) bacterial agents. We selected sex- and age-adjusted controls among healthy blood donors. Over 4 years, 930 homeless people were enrolled. Lice were found in 22% and were associated with hypereosinophilia (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence intervals, 1.46-22.15). Twenty-seven patients (3%) with scabies were treated with ivermectin. Bartonella quintana was isolated from blood culture in 50 patients (5.3%), 36 of whom were treated effectively. The number of bacteremic patient increased from 3.4% to 8.4% (p = 0.02) over the 4 years of the study. We detected a higher seroprevalence to Borrelia recurrentis, R. conorii, and R. prowazekii antibodies in the homeless. Our study shows a high prevalence of louse-borne infections in the homeless and a high degree of exposure to tick-borne diseases and scabies. Despite effective treatment for Bartonella quintana bacteremia and the efforts made to delouse this population, Bartonella quintana remains endemic, and we found hallmarks of epidemic typhus and relapsing fever. The uncontrolled louse infestation of this population should alert the community to the possibility of severe re-emerging louse-borne infections. PMID:15643300
Full Text Available Introduction Cat scratch disease (CSD is an infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative rod Bartonella henselae (BH. It usually leads to subacute loco-regional lymphadenitis occasionally associated with fever. In most of the cases, it resolves spontaneously within 4 - 6 weeks. However, CSD has also been associated with other atypical presentations. Case Presentation We reported a series of seven children with unusual symptoms of CSD. In particular, we described the case of a child with ptosis, miosis and enophtalmy, suggesting Horner syndrome, associated with cervical lymphadenitis. Cat scratch was mentioned in only one patient, while four of them mentioned a recent contact with cats. We reviewed and discussed the incidence of these atypical presentations of CSD as well as the therapeutic approaches recommended and the available diagnostic tools. Conclusions This paper highlighted the need to exclude CSD in children with unexplained symptoms such as prolonged fever, hepatosplenic lesion and osteomyelitis.
Full Text Available Introduction. Cat scratch disease (CSD is an acute infectious disease with benign course caused by the bacteria Bartonella henselae. Clinically, it is usually manifested as regional lymphadenopathy and mild infective syndrome. Rare forms of the disease which usually occur in immunocompromised presons are: encephalitis, transverse myelitis, neuroretinitis, granulomatosus conjunctivitis, arthritis, hepatitis etc. Case report. We presented an atypical form of cat scratch disease in a young immunocompetent female person. The disease was manifested with prolonged fever, rash, purulent lymphadenitis and hepatitis. The diagnosis was based on characteristic patohystological finding and exclusion of the other causes of lymphadenopathy. The patient was treated by antibiotics for a few weeks, with surgical incision and drainage of the purulent lymphadenitis. Conclusion. Atypical forms of CSD could be an important differential-diagnostic problem, especially if there is no opportunity for serological confirmation of the disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In 25 to 35% of cases, the aetiological agent of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after a tick bite remains undetermined. To date, Rickettsia slovaca, Rickettsia raoultii and more recently Bartonella henselae have been associated with this syndrome. Case presentation A four-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to hospital with fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. On physical examination, an inflammatory and suppurating eschar was seen on the scalp, with multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes on both sides. Although no tick was found in this scalp lesion, a diagnosis of tick-borne lymphadenopathy was suggested, and explored by serology testing and polymerase chain reaction of a biopsy from the eschar. Francisella tularensis DNA was found in the skin biopsy and the serology showed titres consistent with tularaemia. Conclusion This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first reported case of scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy after tick bite infection caused by F. tularensis.
Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease,which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardioinfantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.
Cat scratch disease is a zoonosis caused by Bartonella henselae, which is transmitted by scratches, bites or exposition to cats saliva (1). The disease typically manifests with local lymphadenitis after bacterial inoculation in the skin, however, there is an atypical systemic presentation in 5 to 10% of patients, which causes unspecific symptoms. There are several imaging findings that lead the radiologist to consider this diagnosis, in order to prevent an invasive procedure, especially if we consider that the majority of cases occur in the pediatric population (2,3). Although in the majority of cases the symptoms and imaging findings resolve spontaneously, there are specific indications like the systemic form of the disease, which requires antibiotic treatment. In the present article we are exposing a case report from Fundacion Cardio infantil; we will review some epidemiologic aspects, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods as well as imaging findings in Ultrasonography, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance and Nuclear Medicine.
García, Juan C.; Núñez, Manuel J.; Castro, Begoña; Fernández, Jesús M.; Portillo, Aránzazu; Oteo, José A.
Abstract Cat-scratch disease (CSD) is the most frequent presentation of Bartonella henselae infection. It has a worldwide distribution and is associated with a previous history of scratch or bite from a cat or dog. CSD affects children and teenagers more often (80%) than adults, and it usually has a self-limiting clinical course. Atypical clinical course or systemic symptoms are described in 5%–20% of patients. Among them, hepatosplenic (HS) forms (abscess) have been described. The majority of published cases have affected children or immunosuppressed patients. Few cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adult hosts have been reported, and data about the management of this condition are scarce. Herein, we present 3 new cases of HS forms of CSD in immunocompetent adults and review 33 other cases retrieved from the literature. We propose an approach to clinical diagnosis and treatment with oral azithromycin. PMID:25398062
张守印; 俞东征; 孙继民; 贺金荣; 付秀萍; 张景山; 张建华; 蔡虹; 马凤琴; 海荣
Objective To develop the method of 16S rRNA gene clone library for tick bacterial flora analysis, and to analyze the detection effective of pathogens in tick and capacity of bacterial flora diversity. Methods Primers were designed according to the specific gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella henselae, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and templates were choosen by positive PCR result to amplify the DNA extracted from the ticks. One set of primers targeting 16S rRNA gene conserved region were chosen to amplify certain fragments, DNA extraction, PCR reaction, cloning and sequencing. Nucleotide sequences were compared with GenBank database. Calculated Coverage values of clone library and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. Results Sixteen defined genus-or species-bacteria were detected in 103 valid sequences. Eight species were edge type (Clone No. > 5). Three kinds of pathogens were identified (Borrelia burgdorferi, Bartonella henselae and Rickettsia sp). Three kinds of pathogens were not edge type(Clone No. 5个);检测到伯氏疏螺旋体、汉赛巴通体和立克次体3种病原菌,但这3种病原菌均不是优势类型(克隆子数均<5个).Coverage值为96.11%,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为2.40.克隆序列分析结果表明,蜱寄生细菌主要为α、γ变形菌纲,占56.25%(9/16).结论 16S rRNA基因序列分析可以对蜱标本进行菌群相对定量研究,可以同时检出多种病原菌,是一种较好的细菌菌群多样性分析和病原菌筛检方法.
NMR structures of the glutaredoxin (GLXR) domains from Br. melitensis and Ba. henselae have been determined as part of the SSGCID initiative. Comparison of the domains with known structures reveals overall structural similarity between these proteins and previously determined E. coli GLXR structures, with minor changes associated with the position of helix 1 and with regions that diverge from similar structures found in the closest related human homolog. Glutaredoxin proteins (GLXRs) are essential components of the glutathione system that reductively detoxify substances such as arsenic and peroxides and are important in the synthesis of DNA via ribonucleotide reductases. NMR solution structures of glutaredoxin domains from two Gram-negative opportunistic pathogens, Brucella melitensis and Bartonella henselae, are presented. These domains lack the N-terminal helix that is frequently present in eukaryotic GLXRs. The conserved active-site cysteines adopt canonical proline/tyrosine-stabilized geometries. A difference in the angle of α-helix 2 relative to the β-sheet surface and the presence of an extended loop in the human sequence suggests potential regulatory regions and/or protein–protein interaction motifs. This observation is consistent with mutations in this region that suppress defects in GLXR–ribonucleotide reductase interactions. These differences between the human and bacterial forms are adjacent to the dithiol active site and may permit species-selective drug design
Pagani, Leonardo; Lang, Adolf; Vedovelli, Claudio; Moling, Oswald; Rimenti, Giovanni; Pristerà, Raffaele; Mian, Peter
Shewanella putrefaciens is as yet rarely responsible for clinical syndromes in humans. However, a case involving multiple organs in an elderly male under treatment with appropriate steroids confirms that attention should be devoted to unusual pathogens.
Morello, J A; Leitch, C; Nitz, S.; Dyke, J W; Andruszewski, M; Maier, G.; Landau, W.; Beard, M. A.
In a multicenter study, the Difco ESP blood culture system (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) was compared with the BACTEC NR660 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.). The ESP system monitors each blood culture bottle every 12 to 24 min to detect changes in oxygen consumption and gas production by microbes. Equal volumes of blood were inoculated into aerobic ESP-80A and BACTEC 6A, 16A, or PEDS Plus broths and anaerobic ESP-80N and BACTEC 7A or 17A broths and w...
Paul, R; Siitonen, A.; Kärkkäinen, P
A previously healthy 15-year-old girl fell ill with febrile gastroenteritis; Plesiomonas shigelloides was isolated from the blood 6 h after she had received one tablet of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine on the third day of symptoms. She recovered uneventfully. P. shigelloides may be isolated from the blood in immunocompetent patients with mild, uncomplicated gastroenteritis.
Full Text Available Leuconostoc species are opportunistic pathogens that rarely encountered as an infection agent. It has been reported that, this pathogen could cause infections especially in immunsupressive patients, after invasive procedures and antibiotic treatment. In this report, we aim to present a case with intrinsically vancomycin resistant Leuconostoc spp. that was isolated in blood culture. Fifty six years old male patient with type II diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease had been operated for sigmoid colon cancer one a half years ago. He was taken radiotherapy and chemotherapy right after the operation. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a complaint of stenosis in colostomy opening. Empiricial treatment was started for high fever. Gram positive coccus was reported in the blood culture(Bactec 9050, Becton-Dickinson, USA. The isolate was identified as Leuconostoc spp. with API 20 Strep (BioMerieux, French kit. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. The isolate was found susceptible to linezolid and quinupristin-dalfopristine, while it was resistant to penicilin, ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, vancomycin and teicoplanin by the disk diffusion method. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by E-test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden.
Ogawa, Yoshihiko; Koizumi, Akira; Kasahara, Kei; Lee, Sang-Tae; Yamada, Yuki; Nakano, Ryuichi; Yano, Hisakazu; Mikasa, Keiichi
A 70-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with malaise, bilateral leg edema, and oliguria. She had a history of advanced uterine cancer. Bilateral double-J catheters were inserted because growth of intra-abdominal metastases led to bilateral ureteral stricture and hydronephrosis. Two days later, she suddenly developed high fever. Thin gram-positive bacilli of moderate length were detected in the anaerobic blood culture bottles. We performed 16S ribosomal RNA analysis of the isolate and it showed 100% match with Alloscardovia omnicolens DSM 21503(T). She was successfully treated with cefmetazole in addition to percutaneous nephrostomy. PMID:26829996
Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M.M.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus that causes wide spectrum clinical infections. However, it is most frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. In this case a 58-year-old male with underlying hypertension and dyslipidaemia was admitted for acute right leg cellulitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the case, though it was not a usual suspected organism. It might be due to community-acquired infection.
Elio Jesús Núñez Tamayo
Full Text Available This is a case report of septicaemia due to Sphingobacterium Spiritovirum that caused acute symmetric acronecrosis in a previously healthy man who received medical assistance at the University Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ from Cienfuegos province in November 2002. The clinical symptoms were: fever, lumbar pain and chills which evolved to shock with general malaise, accompanied with paresthesia, symptoms of distal necrosis in the four members, nose and ear. Sphingobacterium Spiritovirum was diagnosed by the conventional diagnosis of growing in the marrow tests and serial blood cultures. Susceptibility antimicrobial tests were sensible to sulphametoxazole – trimetropin and resistant to tetracycline, aztreonam, ceftriaxone and imipenem. The bibliography consulted did not evidence any previous isolation in Cuba .
黄娟; 董丹丹; 徐纲; 辜正策; 郝冀玲; 华平; 何磊; 段芳蕾; 代琳; 雷松; 廖殿英; 王晓卿; 罗添友; 陈昱; 杭振镳; 李甘地
Objective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of Warthin-Starry silver stain,immunohiatochemistry and transmission electron microscopy in the detection of human Bartonella henselae infection and pathologic diagnosis of cat scratch disease(CSD).Metbotis The paraffin-embedded lymph node tissues of 77 histologically.defined cases of cat scratch disease collected during the period from January,1998 to December,2008 were retrieved and studied using Warthin-Starry silver stain(WS stain)and mouse monoclonal antibody against Bartonella henselae(BhmAB stain).Five cases rich in bacteria were selected for transmission electron microscopy.Results Under electron microscope,the organisms Bartonella henselae appeared polymorphic,round,elliptical,short rod or bacilliform shapes,ranged from 0.489 to 1.110 μm by 0.333 to 0.534 μm and often clustered together.Black short rod-shaped bacilli arranged in chains or clumps were demonstrated in 61.0%(47/77)of CSD by WS stain.The organisms were located outside the cells and lie mainly in the necrotic debris,especially near the nodal capsule.In 72.7%(56/77)of the cases,dot-like,granular as well as few linear positive signals were observed using BhmAB immunostain and showed similar localization.Positive results for both stains were identified in 59.7%(46/77)of the cases.When applying both stains together,Bartonella henselae was observed in 74.0%(57/77)of the earle.The difference between the results obtained by WS stain and BhmAB immunostain was of statistical significance(P＜0.05).Conclusions Bartonella henselae is the causative pathogen of cat scratch disease.WS stain,BhmAB immunostain and transmission electron microscopy are helpful in confirming the histologic diagnosis.Immunostaining using BhmAB can be a better alternative than WS stain in demonstrating the organisms.%目的 探讨Warthin-Starry银染色法、抗汉赛巴尔通体单克隆抗体和电镜在检测人巴尔通体感染、确诊猫抓病中的实用价值.方法 收集1998
Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura
Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although
Bowman, Dwight D
Wolbachia is an obligate intracellular endosymbiont and likely mutualist living within the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis and a number of other filarial nematodes in the family Onchocercidae. The bacterial infection is passed from worm to worm transovarially; the organisms are in ovarian cells, the developing microfilariae, and multiply and persist in all later developmental stages through the mosquito and into the next host. Besides being present in the ovaries of the adult worms, they also are present in large numbers within the hypodermal tissues of the nematode. It is now know that these bacteria that were first observed in heartworms more than 30 years ago are actually related to similar Wolbachia bacteria that are found in arthropods. Wolbachia is an alpha-proteobacteria, and this group includes a number of important arthropod-transmitted bacterial agents of dogs and cats: Rickettsia rickettsii, R. felis, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. ewingii. Alpha-proteobacteria are also important as obligate intracellular mutualists in plants in which they are responsible for nitrogen fixation. Recent work on the treatment of heartworms in dogs with doxycycline stems from related work with the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that causes river blindness in people. PMID:22152604
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cat scratch disease is an infectious disease transmitted by young cats, in which the principal causative factor is Bartonella henselae. The typical course of cat scratch disease is usually benign and self-limited and requires only supportive therapy. However, cases lasting up to 2 years have been reported, and more serious complications may occur. Many manifestations of the disease have been reported by different medical disciplines. Case presentation A case of cat scratch disease in a 71-year-old Greek woman with an unusual clinical course is presented here. Serous otitis media was combined with rotational vertigo due to labyrinthitis. The invaded ear was ipsilateral to the inoculation site. Conclusion Cervicofacial lymphadenopathy has been demonstrated as the most common otolaryngologic manifestation of cat scratch disease. Manifestation in the middle and inner ear has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported before. Our report presents a patient with cat scratch disease with clinical signs and symptoms in the middle and inner ear.
Mariana Andrade Baptista
Full Text Available Although infectious diseases are the most prevalent cause of fevers of unknown origin (FUO, this diagnosis remains challenging in some pediatric patients. Imaging exams, such as computed tomography (CT are frequently required during the diagnostic processes. The presence of multiple hypoattenuating scattered images throughout the liver associated with the history of cohabitation with cats should raise the suspicion of the diagnosis of cat-scratch disease (CSD, although the main etiologic agent of liver abscesses in childhood is Staphylococcus aureus. Differential diagnosis by clinical and epidemiological data with Bartonella henselae is often advisable. The authors report the case of a boy aged 2 years and 9 months with 16-day history of daily fever accompanied by intermittent abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable. Abdominal ultrasound performed in the initial work up was unrevealing, but an abdominal CT that was performed afterwards disclosed multiple hypoattenuating hepatic images compatible with the diagnosis of micro abscesses. Initial antibiotic regimen included cefotaxime, metronidazole, and oxacillin. Due to the epidemiology of close contact with kittens, diagnosis of CSD was considered and confirmed by serologic tests. Therefore, the initial antibiotics were replaced by clarithromycin orally for 14 days followed by fever defervescence and clinical improvement. The authors call attention to this uncommon diagnosis in a child presenting with FUO and multiple hepatic images suggestive of micro abscesses.
Omasits, U.; Quebatte, Maxime; Stekhoven, Daniel J.; Fortes, Claudia; Roschitzki, Bernd; Robinson, Mark D.; Dehio, Christoph; Ahrens, Christian H.
Prokaryotes, due to their moderate complexity, are particularly amenable to the comprehensive identification of the protein repertoire expressed under different conditions. We applied a generic strategy to identify a complete expressed prokaryotic proteome, which is based on the analysis of RNA and proteins extracted from matched samples. Saturated transcriptome profiling by RNA-seq provided an endpoint estimate of the protein-coding genes expressed under two conditions which mimic the interaction of Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Directed shotgun proteomics experiments were carried out on four subcellular fractions. By specifically targeting proteins which are short, basic, low abundant, and membrane localized, we could eliminate their initial underrepresentation compared to the estimated endpoint. A total of 1250 proteins were identified with an estimated false discovery rate below 1%. This represents 85% of all distinct annotated proteins and ~90% of the expressed protein-coding genes. Genes that were detected at the transcript but not protein level, were found to be highly enriched in several genomic islands. Furthermore, genes that lacked an ortholog and a functional annotation were not detected at the protein level; these may represent examples of overprediction in genome annotations. A dramatic membrane proteome reorganization was observed, including differential regulation of autotransporters, adhesins, and hemin binding proteins. Particularly noteworthy was the complete membrane proteome coverage, which included expression of all members of the VirB/D4 type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor.
Enma Estrella de la Torre-Rodríguez
Full Text Available Abordó un estudio descriptivo del comportamiento de algunas variables epidemiológicas en un universo de 18 pacientes con neuropatía óptica inflamatoria en el Centro Oftalmológico de Holguín de enero a diciembre de 2009. La muestra estuvo representada por 12 pacientes con etiología infecciosa. El mayor número de pacientes se incluyó en el grupo de edad de 15 a 29 años. Las ocupaciones de riesgo más frecuentes fueron los estudiantes, las amas de casa y criadores de palomas. Los perros, gatos y cerdos fueron los animales más frecuentes en contacto con los casos. La etiología parasitaria representó el grupo más frecuente como causa de la neuropatía y el agente que predominó fue Bartonella henselae. Se recomendó realizar estudios que incluyan confirmación serológica y/o del agente causal en este grupo de enfermedades.
Full Text Available ... 72 2e-11 tr|Q2YP35|Q2YP35_BRUA2 GrpE protein OS=Brucella abortus (strain ... 72 2e-...11 tr|B2S8G2|B2S8G2_BRUA1 GrpE protein OS=Brucella abortus (strain ... 72 2e-11 tr|B6ACF7|B6ACF7_9CRYT GrpE ...pE-type co-chaperone of t... 72 1e-11 tr|Q57FK5|Q57FK5_BRUAB GrpE, heat shock protein OS=Brucella abor...25840 / 63/290 / NCTC 10512) Align length 98 Score (bit) 73.6 E-value 3.0e-13 Report...|GRPE_BARHE Protein grpE OS=Bartonella henselae GN=grpE... 63 5e-10 sp|Q98GQ5|GRPE_RHILO Protein grpE OS=Rhi
Juan S. Lasa; María L. Fernández Recalde; Bárbara C. Finn; Julio E. Bruetman; José Peroni; Pablo Young
La celulitis es una inflamación aguda de la dermis y tejido celular subcutáneo de causa bacteriana, que generalmente complica a heridas, úlceras y dermatosis, aunque de manera frecuente no existe sitio de entrada. Se recomienda la realización de cultivo de punción de piel y partes blandas (PPB). Los hemocultivos raramente dan resultados positivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de bacteriemia en pacientes internados en nuestra institución con diagnóstico de celuliti...
Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Wolcott, M.; Morris, R.
Past studies of free-ranging green turtles Chelonia mydas with fibropapillomatosis (FP) in Hawaii have shown that animals become immunosuppressed with increasing severity of this disease. Additionally, preliminary clinical examination of moribund turtles with FP revealed that some animals were also bacteraemic. We tested the hypothesis that bacteraemia in sea turtles is associated with the severity of FP. We captured free-ranging green turtles from areas in Hawaii where FP is absent, and areas where FP has been endemic since the late 1950s. Each turtle was given an FP severity score ranging from 0 (no tumours) to 3 (severely affected). A fifth category included turtles that were stranded ashore and moribund with FP. We found that the percentage of turtles with bacteraemia increased with the severity of FP, and that the majority of bacteria cultured were Vibrio spp. Turtles with severe FP were more susceptible to bactaeremia, probably in part due to immunosuppression. The pattern of bacteraemia in relation to severity of disease strengthens the hypothesis that immunosuppression is a sequel to FP.
Al-Jasser A M
Full Text Available Infections caused by Achromobacter xylosoxidans cause significant morbidity and mortality in debilitated individuals. Eradication of these infections requires prolonged therapy with antimicrobial agents and removal of any infected central venous catheter. The outcome is usually poor in patients with high risk malignancy, septic complications, and/or multi-organ dysfunction
Full Text Available We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia as compared to gentamicin in E. Coli induced peritonitis. Pretreatment with tinospora cordifolia or gentamicin reduced mortality in mice injected with 1 x 10(8 E. coli intraperitoneally from 100% in controls to 17.8% and 11.1% respectively. This was associated with significantly improved bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of neutrophils in the Tinospora cordifolia treated group. In the gentamicin treated mice although bacterial clearance was rapid, polymorph phagocytosis was depressed. Tinospora cordifolia did not possess in vitro bactericidal activity. The results demonstrate that a "prohost approach" may be beneficial in the therapy of peritonitis.
Thatte U; Kulkarni M; Dahanukar S
We present here the protective effects of an Indian medicinal plant Tinospora cordifolia as compared to gentamicin in E. Coli induced peritonitis. Pretreatment with tinospora cordifolia or gentamicin reduced mortality in mice injected with 1 x 10(8) E. coli intraperitoneally from 100% in controls to 17.8% and 11.1% respectively. This was associated with significantly improved bacterial clearance as well as improved phagocytic and intracellular bactericidal capacities of n...
Sarkar, Somenath; Patra, Arnab Kumar; Mondal, Madhumita
Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG) is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality. PMID:26955586
Tekin Taş; Abdulkadir Küçükbayrak; Esra Koçoğlu; Şeyda Özsoy; Özlem Bucak; Ümit Yaşar Tekelioğlu; İsmail Necati Hakyemez
Delftia acidovorans, formerly called as Comamonas acidovorans,is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria.A 79 year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Bilateralrespiratory sounds were diminished, he had roughrhonchi. He was started sulbactam/ampicilline. On theseventh day of hospitalization, White Blood Cells increasedand infiltration was occured on the left lung,blood and deep tracheal aspirate culture samples weretaken; ceftriaxo...
Taş, Tekin; KÜÇÜKBAYRAK, Abdulkadir; Koçoğlu, Esra; ÖZSOY, Şeyda; Bucak, Özlem; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Hakyemez, İsmail Necati
Delftia acidovorans, formerly called as Comamonas acidovorans, is a non-fermentative gram-negative bacteria. A 79 year-old male with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was hospitalized in the intensive care unit. Bilateral respiratory sounds were diminished, he had rough rhonchi. He was started sulbactam/ampicilline. On the seventh day of hospitalization, White Blood Cells increased and infiltration was occured on the left lung, blood and deep tracheal aspirate culture samples were taken; ...
Full Text Available Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease treated with hemodialysis. Antibiotic lock solutions can be effective in preventing this complication in patients with hemodialysis. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening more than twenty databases, we identified eight systematic reviews including seventeen randomized trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded that antibiotic lock solutions probably decrease catheter-related blood stream infection in hemodialysis patients.
Shao, Xinxian; Levin, Bruce; Nemenman, Ilya
There is an abundance of largely qualitative information about the physiological and molecular mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. However, little is known about population dynamic processes by which bacteria colonize hosts and invade cells and tissues and thereby cause disease. Classic experiment of Moxon and Murphy observed that, when inoculated intranasally with a mixture of equally virulent strains of Haemophilus influenzae type b(Hib), neonatal rats develop a bacteremic infection that often is dominated by only one random competing strain. A common qualitative explanation for this phenomenon is that the bacteria must switch stochastically into a rapidly growing phenotype to start the full-fledged invasion. Then the first bacterium to switch activates the host immune response, which in turn 'shuts the door' in front of the second strain. We implemented this model computationally and analytically, and we conclude that this model cannot explain the data, specifically, the observed dependence of the rate of infections on the inoculum size. New experiments are needed to identify mechanisms underlying the dependence.
Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum (EG is a cutaneous lesion classically associated with potentially fatal Pseudomonas septicemia in immunocompromised patients. Other bacterial and fungal pathogens have also been implicated. Although EG typically occurs in immunocompromised or neutropenic patients, it may occasionally affect a previously healthy person. The cutaneous findings are characteristic with small indurated papulovesicles progressing rapidly to necrotic ulcers with surrounding erythema and a central black Eschar. While lesions can occur at any site, most are commonly found over the buttocks, perineum, limbs, and axillae. We describe a case of EG in periorbital region in a previously healthy woman who responded to appropriate antibiotic treatment for Pseudomonas. It is very important to establish the diagnosis early so that appropriate systemic antibiotic therapy can be initiated to reduce morbidity and potential mortality.
Mehmet Özdemir, Sevgi Pekcan, Mehmet Emin Demircili, Fatma Esenkaya Taşbent, Bahadır Feyzioğlu, Şerife Pirinç, Mahmut Baykan
Full Text Available Sphingomonas paucimobilis, is a yellow-pigmented, aerobic, non fermentative, gram negative motile bacillus. S. paucimobilis which is widely found in nature and hospital environments rarely cause serious or life threatening infections. In this report, a case of hospital acquired bloodstream infection due to S. paucimobilis in a patient with Down syndrome who was on treatment for presumed pneumonia is presented.A one year-old child patient who was a known case of Down syndrome and had previously experienced cardiac surgery was hospitalized and treated for pneumonia. On the 12th day of hospitalization, blood cultures were taken because of a high body temperature. One of the blood cultures was positive for gram-negative rods. After 48 hour of incubation, the sub-cultures on blood agar medium yielded pure growth of a yellow, non-fermentative, gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium. The microorganism was positive for oxidase, and esculin hydrolysis, while negative for urea and nitrate reduction, citrate utilisation and motility. The isolate had been identified as S. paucimobilis by using Vitek 2 system. The antibiotic susceptibility test was also performed with the same system and the strain was found to be susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam and other antibiotics. Treatment with intravenous piperacilin-tazobactam (150 mg/kg/day was initiated. He responded well to the treatment and was discharged after 10 days. This case is reported to emphasize that S. paucimobilis should be kept in mind as a nosocomial infectious agent in patients with Down syndrome and immunosuppressive patients and the infections should be treated according to the sensitivity test results.
Palma, Noemí; Gomes, Cláudia; Riveros, Maribel; García, Wilfredo; Martínez-Puchol, Sandra; Ruiz-Roldán, Lidia; Mateu, Judit; García, Coralith; Jacobs, Jan; Ochoa, Theresa J; Ruiz, Joaquim
The presence of 25 virulence genes (VGs), genetic phylogroups, quinolone-resistance and Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-production was assessed in 65 Escherichia coli isolates from blood cultures in children Quinolone-susceptible (22 isolates - 33.8%) and ESBL-negative (31 isolates - 47.7%) isolates carried more VGs that their respective counterparts (5.7 vs. 4.7 and 5.3 vs. 4.4 respectively); the frequency of the fyuA, aat, aap, and hly genes significantly differed between quinolone-resistant and quinolone-susceptible isolates. Neonatal sepsis isolates tended to be more quinolone-resistant (P = 0.0697) and ESBL-producers (P = 0.0776). Early-onset neonatal sepsis isolates possessed a high number of VGs (5.2 VGs), especially in neonates of ≤1 day (5.9 VGs). PMID:27345125
Melissa Anne Herrin
Full Text Available Temsirolimus has been demonstrated to result in significant disease stabilization in children with high-grade glioma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. While mucositis has been reported as a common adverse effect of temsirolimus therapy in adult and pediatric patients, bowel perforation is an infrequent and life-threatening side effect of temsirolimus in adults and has not previously been reported in children. We present a child treated with temsirolimus for recurrent metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma who underwent ileocecectomy and small bowel resection for perforation with frank necrosis. His presentation was complicated by Clostridium septicum infection, a rare, frequently fatal, gastrointestinal pathogen associated with malignancy and bowel ischemia.
Wahab, Asrul Abdul; Rahman, M.M.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a gram-negative bacillus that causes wide spectrum clinical infections. However, it is most frequently associated with hospital-acquired infection. In this case a 58-year-old male with underlying hypertension and dyslipidaemia was admitted for acute right leg cellulitis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was identified from the case, though it was not a usual suspected organism. It might be due to community-acquired infection.
Rasmussen, Rasmus V; Fowler, Vance G; Skov, Robert;
. Compounding this problem is the growing prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and the dwindling efficacy of vancomycin, long the treatment of choice for this pathogen. Despite the recent availability of several new antibiotics for S. aureus, new strategies for treatment and prevention are...
Full Text Available Kwong-Han Kiu,1,2 Hashim Hanizasurana,1 Embong Zunaina21Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Selayang, Selayang, Selangor, 2Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, MalaysiaAbstract: A 22-year-old Malay female presented with left eye floaters for 2 weeks, associated with temporal visual field defect and metamorphopsia for 3 days. She has a guinea pig and a hedgehog at home, but denied being bitten or scratched by them. Her visual acuity at presentation was 6/12 on the left eye and 6/6 on the right eye. Her left eye relative afferent pupillary defect was barely positive with mild anterior chamber reaction. Fundus examination of the left eye showed mild vitritis, swollen optic disc with macular star, crops of active choroidal lesions at superonasal retina with a linear arrangement in the form of migratory track nasally. However, there were no nematodes seen on fundus examination. Investigations showed normal full blood count with no eosinophilia and positive serology test for Bartonella henselae. She was diagnosed to have dual infection – diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN, based on the presence of crops of choroidal lesions with migratory track, and cat scratch disease (CSD based on a positive serological test. She was treated with oral albendazole 400 mg 12 hourly for 6 weeks for DUSN and oral doxycycline 100 mg 12 hourly for 4 weeks for CSD. Focal laser had been applied to the area of migratory track in the left eye. Her left eye vision improved to 6/6 at 1 month after treatment, with resolution of neuroretinitis.Keywords: neuroretinitis, diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis, bartonellosis, cat scratch disease
Rigante, Donato; Bosco, Annalisa; Esposito, Susanna
Over the years, the commonly used term to describe juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has changed. By definition, JIA includes all types of arthritis with no apparent cause, lasting more than 6 weeks, in patients aged less than 16 years at onset. JIA pathogenesis is still poorly understood: the interaction between environmental factors and multiple genes has been proposed as the most relevant working mechanism to the development of JIA. The concept that various microbes that colonize or infect not only the mucosal surfaces, like the oral cavity, but also the airways and gut might trigger autoimmune processes, resulting in chronic arthritides, and JIA was first drafted at the outset of last century. JIA development might be initiated and sustained by the exposure to environmental factors, including infectious agents which affect people at a young age, depending on the underlying genetic predisposition to synovial inflammation. Many data from patients with JIA suggest a scenario in which different external antigens incite multiple antigen-specific pathways, cytotoxic T cell responses, activation of classical complement cascade, and production of proinflammatory cytokines. In this review, emphasis is paid not only to the potential role of parvovirus B19 and Epstein-Barr virus in primis but also to the general involvement of different bacteria as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Bartonella henselae, and Streptococcus pyogenes for the development of immune-mediated arthritides during childhood. No unequivocal evidence favoring or refuting these associations has been clearly proved, and today, the strict definition of JIA etiology remains unknown. The infection can represent a random event in a susceptible individual, or it can be a necessary factor in JIA development, always in combination with a peculiar genetic background. Further studies are needed in order to address the unsolved questions
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathological angiogenesis represents a critical issue in the progression of many diseases. Down syndrome is postulated to be a systemic anti-angiogenesis disease model, possibly due to increased expression of anti-angiogenic regulators on chromosome 21. The aim of our study was to elucidate some features of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in the context of this syndrome. Methods Circulating endothelial progenitors of Down syndrome affected individuals were isolated, in vitro cultured and analyzed by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. ELISA was performed to measure SDF-1α plasma levels in Down syndrome and euploid individuals. Moreover, qRT-PCR was used to quantify expression levels of CXCL12 gene and of its receptor in progenitor cells. The functional impairment of Down progenitors was evaluated through their susceptibility to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress with BODIPY assay and the major vulnerability to the infection with human pathogens. The differential expression of crucial genes in Down progenitor cells was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results We detected a marked decrease of progenitors' number in young Down individuals compared to euploid, cell size increase and some major detrimental morphological changes. Moreover, Down syndrome patients also exhibited decreased SDF-1α plasma levels and their progenitors had a reduced expression of SDF-1α encoding gene and of its membrane receptor. We further demonstrated that their progenitor cells are more susceptible to hydroperoxide-induced oxidative stress and infection with Bartonella henselae. Further, we observed that most of the differentially expressed genes belong to angiogenesis, immune response and inflammation pathways, and that infected progenitors with trisomy 21 have a more pronounced perturbation of immune response genes than infected euploid cells. Conclusions Our data provide evidences for a reduced number and altered
Ohnishi, Hiroko; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu; Takade, Akemi; Tanaka, Yoshitaka; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Harada, Mine; Yoshida, Shin-ichi
Legionella dumoffii is one of the common causes of Legionnaires' disease and is capable of replicating in macrophages. To understand the mechanism of survival within macrophages, transposon mutagenesis was employed to isolate the genes necessary for intracellular growth. We identified four defective mutants after screening 790 transposon insertion mutants. Two transposon insertions were in genes homologous to icmB or dotC, within dot/icm loci, required for intracellular multiplication of L. pneumophila. The third was in a gene whose product is homologous to the 17-kDa antigen forming part of the VirB/VirD4 type IV secretion system of Bartonella henselae. The fourth was in the djlA (for "dnaj-like A") gene. DjlA is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 family. Transcomplementation of the djlA mutant restored the parental phenotype in J774 macrophages, A549 human alveolar epithelial cells, and the amoeba Acanthamoeba culbertsoni. Using confocal laser-scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, we revealed that in contrast to the wild-type strain, L. dumoffii djlA mutant-containing phagosomes were unable to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion. Transmission electron microscopy also showed that in contrast to the virulent parental strain, the djlA mutant was not able to recruit host cell rough endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, the stationary-phase L. dumoffii djlA mutants were more susceptible to H2O2, high osmolarity, high temperature, and low pH than was their parental strain. These results indicate that DjlA is required for intracellular growth and organelle trafficking, as well as bacterial resistance to environmental stress. This is the first report demonstrating that a single DjlA-deficient mutant exhibits a distinct phenotype. PMID:15155669
Full Text Available 118_1( AJ583118 |pid:none) Bartonella sp. AN-tr103 partial gl... 163 8e-39 EU111794_1( EU111794 |pid:none) Bartonella rattaustralia...( EU111796 |pid:none) Bartonella rattaustraliani strain ... 162 1e-38 EU111798_1( EU111798 |pid:none) Barton...CP000557 |pid:none) Geobacillus thermodenitrificans... 162 1e-38 EU111795_1( EU111795 |pid:none) Bartonella rattaustralia...none) Bartonella sp. MN-ko1 partial gltA... 161 3e-38 EU111793_1( EU111793 |pid:none) Bartonella rattaustralia
Mortalidad de la bacteremia causada por Staphyloccoccus aureus resistente a meticilina en pacientes críticamente enfermos de la red distrital / Methicillin-resistant Staphyloccoccus aureus bacteremia mortality in critically ill patients in the a city healthcare network
Castillo Londoño, Juan Sebastián
Introducción: La resistencia bacteriana constituye uno de los principales problemas de la atención hospitalaria para el sistema de salud Distrital. La emergencia y diseminación de bacterias resistentes ha mostrado impacto en la morbilidad y mortalidad de los pacientes y en el consumo de recursos económicos. Conocer el fenómeno y sus consecuencias es un paso fundamental para lograr la movilización de los actores implicados en su contención. En nuestro país existe poca informació...
Full Text Available Yersinia enterocolitica es un cocobacilo gram negativo de amplia distribución mundial cuyo reservorio natural se encuentra en una gran variedad de animales. La transmisión a los humanos se realiza principalmente a través de la vía fecal-oral aunque también se han descrito casos de transmisión a través de transfusiones sanguíneas. Su aislamiento se realiza habitualmente dentro de un cuadro gastrointestinal y rara vez produce trastornos extraintestinales como bacteriemia, abscesos, manifestaciones cutáneas, etc. Éstos se han asociado a diferentes enfermedades de base como alteraciones del metabolismo del hierro, diabetes mellitus, alcoholismo, malnutrición, tumores, terapia inmunosupresora y cirrosis. Presentamos el caso de un paciente diabético que desarrolló bacteriemia asociada a abscesso hepático por Yersinia enterocolitica.Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative coccobacillus that is distributed world-wide and whose natural reservoire is found in a great variety of animals. Transmission to humans mainly occurs through the faecal-oral path although cases have been described of transmission through blood transfusions. It is isolated within a gastro-intestinal clinical picture and it rarely produces extra-intestinal disorders such as bacteraemia, abscesses, cutaneous signs, etc. The latter have been associated with different underlying diseases such as alterations of the iron metabolism, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, malnutrition, tumours, immunosuppressant therapy and cirrhosis. We present the case of a diabetic patient who developed bacteraemia associated with hepatic abscess due to Yersinia enterocolitica.
Southern, P M
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (radiobacter) is usually a plant pathogen, but is isolated occasionally from human clinical specimens, frequently along with other bacteria. Agrobacterium tumefaciens (radiobacter) has been isolated from blood, central intravenous catheters, peritoneal fluid, urine, and cellulitis aspirates, often in immunocompromised individuals. This report details the isolation of A. tumefaciens (radiobacter) from the blood of a pregnant woman, as well as from the blood of her stillborn, premature fetus. It is, to our knowledge, the first report of such an occurrence. PMID:8988763
Karin Janssen van Doorn
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exploration of the impact of severe hypotension on the evolution of acute kidney injury in septic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed the hemodynamic parameters of 137 adults with septic shock and proven blood stream infection in the ICU. Severe hypotension was defined as a mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ≤65 mmHg. The influence of the duration of severe hypotension on the evolution of acute kidney injury was evaluated according to the RIFLE classification, with day 0 defined as the day of a positive blood stream infection. After bloodstream infection, the probability for a patient to be in Failure was significantly higher than before blood stream infection (OR = 1.94, p = 0.0276. Patients have a significantly higher risk of evolving to Failure if the duration of severe hypotension is longer (OR = 1.02 for each 10 minutes increase in duration of a MAP <65 mmHg, p = 0.0472. A cut-off of at least 51 minutes of severe hypotension (<65 mmHg or at least 5.5 periods of severe hypotension within 1 day identified patients with increased risk to evolve to Failure. CONCLUSIONS: There is a significant influence of both the duration and the number of periods of severe hypotension on the evolution to Failure. Blood stream infection has a significantly negative effect on the relationship between severe hypotension and Failure.