WorldWideScience

Sample records for barrows

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Donnai-Barrow syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tubes in the kidneys where urine is formed ( renal tubules ). LRP2 gene mutations that cause Donnai-Barrow syndrome ... protein. The lack of functional megalin in the renal tubules causes megalin's various ligands to be excreted in ...

  2. Climate reconstruction from Barrow Island, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Coningham, K.; Turner, L.; Veth, P.; Ditchfield, K.; Wurster, C. M.; Kendrick, P.

    2016-12-01

    Barrow Island ( 20.7°S) is ideally situated to register the first coastal occupations in Australia as well as peoples' responses to major changes in sea level, climate and eventual isolation from critical resources on the mainland. Its location in the arid region between monsoonal and extratropical rainfall belts also imply that Barrow Island may have experienced dramatic changes in precipitation over the period of human occupation. Boodie cave has been the focus of Barrow Island Archeological Project and records a rich record of human occupation. Also present at Boodie cave are significant quantities of water-lain cave carbonates (flowstones, stalactites, and stalagmites). Active (modern) deposition of such carbonates is limited to very small encrustations and consists primarily of stalactites that are less than 5 cm in diameter. This situation indicates that deposition of significant carbonates is indicative of wetter conditions at Barrow Island and dating of these carbonates using the U/Th method provides a record of wet intervals at Barrow Island over the last 120 thousand years. In addition to ages from flowstones, three complete speleothems were collected Ledge Cave for climatic reconstruction using stable isotopes. Ledge cave is large subterranean with high relative humidity (>98%) and abundant, but largely inactive speleothems. The wettest interval in our cave carbonate record predates stratigraphic units with cultural material, but indicates that wet intervals on Barrow Island were broadly coincidental with lake expansions on the Australian mainland. In particular, a very wet interval between 120 and 90 ka is recorded in two of the Ledge Cave speleothems. The Barrow Island speleothem record suggests that displacement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the strength of the Indo-Australian monsoon may have been the most important influence on water balance at Barrow Island. Continued development of these climate archives will offer insights

  3. 76 FR 8624 - Revision of Class E Airspace; Barrow, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action revises Class E airspace at Wiley Post/Will... airspace coordinates for Wiley Post/Will Rogers Memorial Airport at Barrow, Alaska. This error has been... airspace at Wiley Post/Will Rogers Memorial Airport at Barrow, AK, to accommodate five amended RNAV SIAPs...

  4. Cholecystokinin octapeptide immunization: effect on growth of barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekas, J C; Trout, W E

    1993-09-01

    A study was conducted to validate the previously reported growth response to cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) immunization in barrows and was extended to include gilts. Group-penned barrows and gilts were used to represent conditions in the swine industry. Thirty-two animals, 19 barrows and 13 gilts, were randomly assigned by sex to four pens and two treatments. The control groups were immunized with human serum globulin (hSG). The treated groups (CCK) were immunized with the C-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin conjugated to human serum globulin. Specific binding of CCK-8 was confirmed at 29 d after the primary inoculation. Antisera titers were highly variable throughout. The mean titer reached a peak on d 57 and then declined. Body weight gains during the last 49 d, the period during which titers were expressed, were compared by ANOVA. The treatment effect on gain was significant (P = .018); the sex effect approached significance (P = .071); the treatment x sex interaction effect was not significant (P = .82). Least squares mean gain of the CCK group was 8.4% greater than of the hSG group, 41.4 vs 38.2 kg, respectively. A significant linear regression coefficient for gain vs antisera titer was obtained for barrows (P = .03; r2 = .44) but not for gilts. Several carcass variables showed trends similar to that of BW gain, but the treatment effects were less robust (P immunization stimulated growth of barrows by 7.5% in the present and by 10.8% in the previous study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Under-utilized Important Data Sets from Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, A. M.; Misarti, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Barrow region has a number of high resolution data sets of high quality and high scientific and stakeholder relevance. Many are described as being of long duration, yet span mere decades. Here we highlight the fact that there are data sets available in the Barrow area that span considerably greater periods of time (centuries to millennia), at varying degrees of resolution. When used appropriately, these data sets can contribute to the study and understanding of the changing Arctic. However, because these types of data are generally acquired as part of archaeological projects, funded through Arctic Social Science and similar programs, their use in other sciences has been limited. Archaeologists focus on analyzing these data sets in ways designed to answer particular anthropological questions. That in no way precludes archaeological collaboration with other types of scientists nor the analysis of these data sets in new and innovative ways, in order to look at questions of Arctic change over a time span beginning well before the Industrial Revolution introduced complicating factors. One major data group consists of zooarchaeological data from sites in the Barrow area. This consists of faunal remains of human subsistence activities, recovered either from middens (refuse deposits) or dwellings. In effect, occupants of a site were sampling their environment as it existed at the time of occupation, although not in a random or systematic way. When analyzed to correct for biases introduced by taphonomic and human behavioral factors, such data sets are used by archaeologists to understand past people's subsistence practices, and how such practices changed through time. However, there is much additional information that can be obtained from these collections. Certain species have fairly specific habitat requirements, and their presence in significant numbers at a site indicates that such conditions existed relatively nearby at a particular time in the past, and

  6. Digestible phosphorus levels for barrows from 50 to 80 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maria Oliveira dos Santos Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible phosphorus in diets for barrows with a high potential for lean meat deposition from 50 to 80 kg. Eighty barrows, with an initial weight of 47.93±3.43 kg, were distributed in completely randomized blocks, with each group given five levels of digestible phosphorus (1.86, 2.23, 2.61, 2.99, and 3.36 g kg−1. There were eight replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. Daily digestible phosphorus intake increased linearly as levels of phosphorus in the diet were increased. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence muscle depth, loin eye area, backfat thickness, or the percentage and quantity of lean meat in the carcass. A linear increase was observed for feeding cost as the levels of digestible phosphorus in the diet were increased, and the level of 1.86 g kg−1 cost 29.4% less when compared with the level of 2.61 g kg−1. The dry matter, natural matter, the coefficient of the residue, and volatile solids of the waste were not significantly influenced by phosphorus levels. Conversely, it was possible to observe an increasing linear effect for total solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen in the waste of animals receiving diets with increased levels of digestible phosphorus. The level of 1.86 g kg−1, which corresponded to a daily intake of 4.77 g−1 of digestible phosphorus, meets the requirements of barrows weighing 50 to 80 kg.

  7. Ractopamine levels for finishing barrows maintained in heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sanches,Josilene Figueiredo; Kiefer,Charles; Carrijo,Alfredo Sampaio; Moura,Mariana Souza de; Silva,Elizangela Alves da; Santos,Alexandre Pereira dos

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, quantitative characteristics of carcass, and visceral responses of barrows maintained on heat stress enviroment and fed diets supplemented with ractopamine. It was used 48 animals with initial weight of 67.3 ± 3.8 kg, distributed in a randomized block design with four levels of ractopamine (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg), each one with six replicates with two animals each. The experimental period lasted 28 days. Air temperature was 31.8 ± 2.0ºC...

  8. A comparison of slice characteristics and sensory characteristics of bacon from immunologically castrated barrows with bacon from physically castrated barrows, boars, and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K J; Boler, D D

    2014-12-01

    The objectives were to compare slice characteristics and sensory attributes of bacon from immunologically castrated (IC) barrows with bacon from other sexes using a trained sensory panel. Bacon was obtained for sensory evaluation from 3 experiments. In Exp. 1, trimmed and squared bellies (n=180) of IC barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males (IM), and gilts were used. Data were analyzed as a general linear mixed model and pen (n=48) served as the experimental unit. Treatment (sex or diet) was a fixed effect in all 3 experiments. In Exp. 2, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed 0 or 30% or a withdrawal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) program when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose (25 wk of age) were used. In Exp. 3, untrimmed, natural fall bellies (n=96) from IC and PC barrows fed the same experimental diets as in experiment 2 but slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose (27 wk of age) were used. Data from Exp. 2 and 3 were analyzed as a 2×3 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design and pen was the experimental unit. Bellies from all 3 experiments were processed using the same protocols. In Exp. 1, IM had the greatest (Pbacon aroma and flavor among all treatments. No differences were detected among the other treatment groups for bacon aroma or flavor. There were no differences in bacon aroma or off-flavor between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Bacon from PC barrows was saltier (Pbacon from IC barrows when slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose. There were no differences in bacon aroma, off-aroma, bacon flavor, or saltiness between IC and PC barrows slaughtered at 7 wk after the second dose regardless of DDGS feeding program. Total slice area of bacon slices from IC barrows slaughtered at 5 wk after the second dose were less (Pbacon even when feeding differing DDGS

  9. Illegal treatment of barrows with nandrolone ester: effect on growth, histology and residue levels in urine and hair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Meijer, T.; Vinyeta, E.; Klis, van der J.D.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 17ß-19-nortestosterone (17ßNT) treatment of barrows on residue levels and growth was evaluated. Five barrows were treated three times during the fattening period with 17ßNT phenylpropionate (Nandrosol, nandrolone phenylpropionate 50¿mg/ml,1¿mg/kg body weight). Another five barrows were

  10. Demographic features of a lapland longspur population near Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Pitelka, Frank A.

    1977-01-01

    Breeding density, clutch size, hatching and fledging success, and survival of adult Lapland Longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus) were monitored over a 7-year period near the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory, Barrow, Alaska. Nesting begins as soon as the tundra starts to clear of snow and appears to be timed so that the young of the year reach independence before the end of adult insect emergence. Arthropod prey become abruptly scarce after the period of insect emergence and thus probability of success for late broods is low. Time of nesting is also discussed in relation to factors of predation and timing of molt. At least 42.9% of males and 45.4% of females survived the next season after 1 year of age. Maximum longevity observed for both sexes is 6 years. Mean clutch size for all years investigated was 5.06 eggs per clutch. Clutch size showed both yearly and seasonal variation. The data indicate that timing of nesting is the chief factor in the observed clutch size differences, further modified by habitat quality, second nesting attempts, and probably age of female. Over a 4-year period the longspur breeding population on a 17-ha study plot declined from 15 to 2 breeding females. Life-table analysis indicates that low fledgling success for 3 consecutive years apparently was the main cause of this decline. Overall mean egg success was 44.0%, but close to 60% in 4 years considered more "normal." The low egg success was due to 3 consecutive years of high predation, which may have been related to the disrupted lemming cycle of the Barrow region.

  11. Use of electromyography to detect muscle exhaustion in finishing barrows fed ractopamine HCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, J A; Broxterman, R M; McCoy, G M; Craig, J C; Phelps, K J; Burnett, D D; Vaughn, M A; Barstow, T J; O'Quinn, T G; Woodworth, J C; DeRouchey, J M; Rozell, T G; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of dietary ractopamine HCl (RAC) on muscle fiber characteristics and electromyography (EMG) measures of finishing barrow exhaustion when barrows were subjected to increased levels of activity. Barrows ( = 34; 92 ± 2 kg initial BW) were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a conventional swine finishing diet containing 0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl (CON) or a diet formulated to meet the requirements of finishing barrows fed 10 mg/kg RAC (RAC+). After 32 d on feed, barrows were individually moved around a track at 0.79 m/s until subjectively exhausted. Wireless EMG sensors were affixed to the deltoideus (DT), triceps brachii lateral head (TLH), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and semitendinosus (ST) muscles to measure median power frequency (MdPF) and root mean square (RMS) as indicators of action potential conduction velocity and muscle fiber recruitment, respectively. After harvest, samples of each muscle were collected for fiber type, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and capillary density analysis. Speed was not different ( = 0.82) between treatments, but RAC+ barrows reached subjective exhaustion earlier and covered less distance than CON barrows ( 0.29). There was a treatment × muscle interaction ( = 0.04) for end-point RMS values. The RAC diet did not change end-point RMS values in the DT or TLH ( > 0.37); however, the diet tended to decrease and increase end-point RMS in the ST and TFL, respectively ( 0.10). Muscles of RAC+ barrows tended to have less type I fibers and more capillaries per fiber ( < 0.07). Type I and IIA fibers of RAC+ barrows were larger ( < 0.07). Compared with all other muscles, the ST had more ( < 0.01) type IIB fibers and larger type I, IIA, and IIX fibers ( < 0.01). Type I, IIA, and IIX fibers of the ST also contained less SDH compared with the other muscles ( < 0.01). Barrows fed a RAC diet had increased time to subjective exhaustion due to loss of active muscle fibers in the ST, possibly due

  12. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Aerial Abundance Survey off Barrow, Alaska, Spring 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographic surveys for bowhead whales were conducted near Point Barrow, Alaska, from 19 April to 6 June in 2011. Approximately 4,594 photographs containing...

  13. To Love—To Live: Barrow and Cart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa McDonald

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available From the residue of meaning, an ensemble of shadows. From the glint of souvenir, pliable impressions. In this paper, we work a poetics of encounter, of being, keeping, homage, of paying homage to fragility, to object and to interspecies—ways are found to engage motion from within and around co-extensive bodies. With the consolation of images, we follow the terse rhythms of routine and street where dwelling is a case of affective dissent. Zones of departure appear through testimony as well as chance, taking their own form. A footfall brings us as observers into quiet spaces which refuse self-estrangement as we travel by way of an unquiet ground. Breath, respiration, aspiration. Precipitation. Sculptures of mist are also the language of lives, of kinship between object, footfall and air. A language of brackets, questions, ellipses. There may be a man, a dog, a barrow. There may be a woman, a cart. Air. How shall this image be made?

  14. UAV Aerial Survey - Blackquarries Hill Long Barrow (Data Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project was to conduct a low-altitude aerial survey of Blackquarries Long Barrow (ST77509320 in order to produce a re-usable dataset (Gray 2014c, to within a known degree of accuracy. A second objective was to construct and make available an exemplar UAV survey dataset. A custom-build hexacopter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle was used to collect data, running Ardupilot 3.1 firmware in conjunction with Mission Planner v1.1. The flight was conducted at approximately 25m above ground level at a vertical speed of approximately 2.5m/s. The camera used was a Canon Powershot S110 running CHDK 1.2.0 and a standard intervalometer script. The intervalometer script was set to take a photograph every 5 seconds. The number of photographs taken was ultimately constrained by flight time, limited by the capacity of the battery used to power the hexacopter. Ground Control Point (GCP markers were used to support the georeferencing of the photographs.

  15. Barrow, Leibniz and the geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In 1693, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published in the Acta Eruditorum a geometrical proof of the fundamental theorem of the calculus. It is shown that this proof closely resembles Isaac Barrow's proof in Proposition 11, Lecture 10, of his Lectiones Geometricae, published in 1670. This comparison provides evidence that Leibniz gained substantial help from Barrow's book in formulating and presenting his geometrical formulation of this theorem. The analysis herein also supports the work of J. M. Child, who in 1920 studied the early manuscripts of Leibniz and concluded that he had frequently copied his diagrams from Barrow's book, but without acknowledgement. It is also shown that the diagram of Leibniz associated with his 1693 proof has often been reproduced with errors that make some aspects of his text difficult to comprehend.

  16. Optofluidic Lab-on-a-Chip Fluorescence Sensor Using Integrated Buried ARROW (bARROW) Waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Thomas; McMurray, Johnny; Meena, Gopikrishnan; Ganjalizadeh, Vahid; Schmidt, Holger; Hawkins, Aaron R

    2017-08-01

    Optofluidic, lab-on-a-chip fluorescence sensors were fabricated using buried anti-resonant reflecting optical waveguides (bARROWs). The bARROWs are impervious to the negative water absorption effects that typically occur in waveguides made using hygroscopic, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) oxides. These sensors were used to detect fluorescent microbeads and had an average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that was 81.3% higher than that of single-oxide ARROW fluorescence sensors. While the single-oxide ARROW sensors were annealed at 300 °C to drive moisture out of the waveguides, the bARROW sensors required no annealing process to obtain a high SNR.

  17. Comparison of UV irradiance measurements at Summit, Greenland; Barrow, Alaska; and South Pole, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An SUV-150B spectroradiometer for measuring solar ultraviolet (UV irradiance was installed at Summit, Greenland, in August 2004. Here we compare the initial data from this new location with similar measurements from Barrow, Alaska, and South Pole. Measurements of irradiance at 345 nm performed at equivalent solar zenith angles (SZAs are almost identical at Summit and South Pole. The good agreement can be explained with the similar location of the two sites on high-altitude ice caps with high surface albedo. Clouds attenuate irradiance at 345 nm at both sites by less than 6% on average, but can reduce irradiance at Barrow by more than 75%. Clear-sky measurements at Barrow are smaller than at Summit by 14% in spring and 36% in summer, mostly due to differences in surface albedo and altitude. Comparisons with model calculations indicate that aerosols can reduce clear-sky irradiance at Summit by 4–6%; aerosol influence is largest in April. Differences in total ozone at the three sites have a large influence on the UV Index. At South Pole, the UV Index is on average 20–80% larger during the ozone hole period than between January and March. At Summit, total ozone peaks in April and UV Indices in spring are on average 10–25% smaller than in the summer. Maximum UV Indices ever observed at Summit, Barrow, and South Pole are 6.7, 5.0, and 4.0, respectively. The larger value at Summit is due to the site's lower latitude. For comparable SZAs, average UV Indices measured during October and November at South Pole are 1.9–2.4 times larger than measurements during March and April at Summit. Average UV Indices at Summit are over 50% greater than at Barrow because of the larger cloud influence at Barrow.

  18. Comparison of variability in pork carcass composition and quality between barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-10-01

    Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 different barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) and 2 production focuses (lean growth and meat quality) were used to characterize variability of carcass composition and quality traits between barrows and gilts. Data were collected on 7,684 pigs at the abattoir. Carcass characteristics, subjective loin quality, and fresh ham face color (muscles) were measured on a targeted 100% of carcasses. Fresh belly characteristics, boneless loin weight, instrumental loin color, and ultimate loin pH measurements were collected from 50% of the carcasses each slaughter day. Adipose tissue iodine value (IV), 30-min loin pH, LM slice shear force, and fresh ham muscle characteristic measurements were recorded on 10% of carcasses each slaughter day. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS as a 1-way ANOVA in a randomized complete block design with 2 levels (barrows and gilts). Barn (block), marketing group, production focus, and season were random variables. A 2-variance model was fit using the REPEATED statement of the MIXED procedure, grouped by sex for analysis of least squares means. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Hot carcass weight of pigs (94.6 kg) in this study was similar to U.S. industry average HCW (93.1 kg). Therefore, these data are representative of typical U.S. pork carcasses. There was no difference ( ≥ 0.09) in variability of HCW or loin depth between barrow and gilt carcasses. Back fat depth and estimated carcass lean were more variable ( ≤ 0.0001) and IV was less variable ( = 0.05) in carcasses from barrows than in carcasses from gilts. Fresh belly weight and thickness were more variable ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies of barrows than bellies of gilts, but there was no difference in variability for belly length, width, or flop distance ( ≥ 0.06). Fresh loin subjective color was less variable ( < 0.01) and subjective marbling was more variable ( < 0.0001) in loins

  19. Review of Barrow Hill: Curse of the Ancient Circle PC Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Charno

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological video games are few and far between. Internet Archaeology has reviewed a number of archaeologically-based computer applications, but none that in my opinion would fall under the video game category. Barrow Hill: Curse of the ancient circle from Shadow Tor Studios, is a video game…with archaeology in it. It would be a stretch to claim that Barrow Hill is actually an archaeological video game, but it does have an occasionally solid archaeological foundation and back story.

  20. Barrows' Integration of Cognitive and Clinical Psychology in PBL Tutor Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Kareen

    2013-01-01

    Scholars have noted PBL is consistent with John Dewey's educational theories and with constructivist philosophies. This paper explores the similarities between the assumptions within Howard Barrows' principles for the PBL tutor's actions with Dewey's theories that address teacher behaviors and with Carl Rogers's conceptual frameworks that support…

  1. Quantifying fall migration of Ross's gulls (Rhodostethia rosea) past Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Davis, Shanti E.; Maftei, Mark; Gesmundo, Callie; Suydam, R.S.; Mallory, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Ross's gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is a poorly known seabird of the circumpolar Arctic. The only place in the world where Ross's gulls are known to congregate is in the near-shore waters around Point Barrow, Alaska where they undertake an annual passage in late fall. Ross's gulls seen at Point Barrow are presumed to originate from nesting colonies in Siberia, but neither their origin nor their destination has been confirmed. Current estimates of the global population of Ross's gulls are based largely on expert opinion, and the only reliable population estimate is derived from extrapolations from previous counts conducted at Point Barrow, but these data are now over 25 years old. In order to update and clarify the status of this species in Alaska, our study quantified the timing, number, and flight direction of Ross's gulls passing Point Barrow in 2011. We recorded up to two-thirds of the estimated global population of Ross's gulls (≥ 27,000 individuals) over 39 days with numbers peaking on 16 October when we observed over 7,000 birds during a three-hour period.

  2. Effect of dietary boron on growth performance, calcium and phosphorus metabolism, and bone mechanical properties in growing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T A; Spears, J W

    2001-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary boron (B) on growth performance, bone mechanical properties, and calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) metabolism in pigs. Thirty-six barrows were weaned at approximately 21 d of age and randomly assigned to receive one of three dietary treatments. Treatments consisted of 1) low-B basal diet (control), 2) basal + 5 mg B/kg diet, and 3) basal + 15 mg B/kg diet. Boron was supplemented as sodium borate. Barrows remained on their respective experimental diets throughout the nursery (35 d) and growing (30 d) phases of production. Blood samples were obtained from each barrow at the end of each phase. Following the 30-d growing period, eight barrows per treatment were transferred to stainless steel metabolism crates. Barrows had an adjustment period of 7 d, followed by a 7-d total collection of urine and feces. All barrows were fed at 90% of the previous ad libitum grower intake of the control animals during the adjustment and collection periods. At the end of the 7-d collection period, barrows were killed and femurs and fibulas were harvested for the assessment of bone mechanical properties. During the nursery phase, ADG and ADFI were increased (P 0.05) by dietary B. These data indicate that B supplementation to pigs can increase growth and bone strength without greatly affecting Ca and P metabolism.

  3. Reduced-Resolution Radar Imagery, Digital Elevation Models, and Related GIS Layers for Barrow, Alaska, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This product set contains reduced-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) imagery and geospatial data for the Barrow Peninsula (155.39 - 157.48...

  4. High-Resolution Rectified Aerial Photography for Collaborative Research of Environmental Change at Barrow, Alaska, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes aerial photography of Barrow, Alaska, which has been geocorrected to a 2002 QuickBird satellite image or Interferometric Synthetic Aperture...

  5. Structure, specific surface area and thermal conductivity of the snowpack around Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domine, Florent; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Bock, Josué; Morin, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The structure of the snowpack near Barrow was studied in March-April 2009. Vertical profiles of density, specific surface area (SSA) and thermal conductivity were measured on tundra, lakes and landfast ice. The average thickness was 41 cm on tundra and 21 cm on fast ice. Layers observed were diamond dust or recent wind drifts on top, overlaying wind slabs, occasional faceted crystals and melt-freeze crusts, and basal depth hoar layers. The top layer had a SSA between 45 and 224 m2 kg-1. All layers at Barrow had SSAs higher than at many other places because of the geographical and climatic characteristics of Barrow. In particular, a given snow layer was remobilized several times by frequent winds, which resulted in SSA increases each time. The average snow area index (SAI, the dimensionless vertically integrated SSA) on tundra was 3260, higher than in the Canadian High Arctic or in the Alaskan taiga. This high SAI, combined with low snow temperatures, imply that the Barrow snowpack efficiently traps persistent organic pollutants, as illustrated with simple calculations for PCB 28 and PCB 180. The average thermal conductivity was 0.21 Wm-1 K-1, and the average thermal resistance on tundra was 3.25 m2 K W-1. This low value partly explains why the snow-ground interface was cold, around -19°C. The high SAI and low thermal resistance values illustrate the interplay between climate, snow physical properties, and their potential impact on atmospheric chemistry, and the need to describe these relationships in models of polar climate and atmospheric chemistry, especially in a climate change context.

  6. Early human occupation of a maritime desert, Barrow Island, North-West Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Peter; Ward, Ingrid; Manne, Tiina; Ulm, Sean; Ditchfield, Kane; Dortch, Joe; Hook, Fiona; Petchey, Fiona; Hogg, Alan; Questiaux, Daniele; Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee; Spooner, Nigel; Levchenko, Vladimir; Skippington, Jane; Byrne, Chae; Basgall, Mark; Zeanah, David; Belton, David; Helmholz, Petra; Bajkan, Szilvia; Bailey, Richard; Placzek, Christa; Kendrick, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages - including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics - integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant

  7. Analysis of summer subsidence in Barrow, Alaska, using InSAR and hyperspectral remote sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmud Haghshenas Haghighi; M. Motagh; B. Heim; S. Chabrillat; D. Streletskiy; G. Grosse; T. Sachs; Katrin Kohnert

    2016-01-01

    In this study, gradual elevation change due to summer thawing of active layer in tundra permafrost landscape of Barrow, Alaska is investigated using SAR interferometry (InSAR) technique. We used a variety of SAR sensors including TerraSAR-X, ALOS, and Sentinel-1 images to assess elevation changes in summer season. Preliminary result, obtained by TerraSAR-X InSAR analysis, clearly delineates subsidence during the summer by identifying thousands of coherent pixels on ...

  8. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Barrow (METTWR4H) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-04-01

    The Barrow meteorology station (BMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors mounted at four different heights (2m, 10m, 20m and 40m) on a 40 m tower to obtain profiles of wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility and precipitation data from sensors at the base of the tower. Additionally, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer and an Ultrasonic wind speed sensor are located near the 2m level for comparison purposes.

  9. Winter diet and weights of Barrow's and common goldeneye in southcentral Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzner, R.E.; Gray, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    Little data are available relative to diets and body weight dynamics of wintering Barrow's and common goldeneyes in freshwater habitats, and no data exist for subadults. Diets of these birds were studied on the Columbia and Yakima Rivers in southcentral Washington from October through May 1955--1956 and 1956--1957. Trichopteran larvae accounted for more than 67% of common goldeneye and 81% of Barrow's goldeneye food biomass. Mollusc and aquatic plant achenes were other important food items. Average weights of common goldeneye ranged from 599.3±39.86 g for subadult females to 1,060.2±33.36 g for adult males. Average weights of Barrow's goldeneye ranged from 736.0±44.73 g for subadult females to 1,330.5±18.69 g for adult males. Body-weight dynamics of birds may reflect resource availability, competition, and bioenergetics, all of which may influence winter distribution, differential migration and habitat use by sexes

  10. Growth performance of immunologically castrated (with Improvest) barrows (with or without ractopamine) compared to gilt, physically castrated barrow, and intact male pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, C L; Rojo, A; Ellis, M; Boler, D D; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Gaines, A M; Matzat, P D; Schroeder, A L

    2014-05-01

    The study used a randomized complete block design (blocking factor was date of start on test) with 5 treatments: 1) physically castrated barrows (PC), 2) intact males (IM), 3) gilts (G), 4) immunologically castrated barrows (IC), and 5) immunologically castrated barrows fed ractopamine at 5 mg/kg (IC+RAC). The study used 192 pigs and was performed from the 16 wk of age (67.2 ± 2.52 kg BW) to a pen mean BW of 132.5 ± 3.60 kg. For IC+RAC, ractopamine was fed for the final 23 d of the study. Pigs were housed in groups of 4 (10 groups for PC, IM, G, and IC and 8 groups for IC+RAC) in a finishing building at a floor space of 1.18 m(2)/pig. Diets were formulated to meet requirements of IM except that the diet for the IC+RAC fed during the ractopamine feeding period was formulated to meet requirements of pigs on that treatment. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study period and were individually weighed at the start, wk 2 and 4, and subsequently every week until the end of study. For the overall study period, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG than the other genders (1,150, 1,024, 1,064, and 954 g/d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 25.8) and required fewer days to reach slaughter weight than the other genders (58.1, 61.6, 61.6, and 66.5 d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 1.26). Overall ADFI was less (P ≤ 0.05) for IM and G than IC and PC, which were similar (P > 0.05) in this respect (3.11, 3.06, 2.68, and 2.75 kg/d for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 0.061). Overall G:F was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for IM than the other genders; IC had greater overall G:F than PC and G, which were similar in this respect (0.371, 0.335, 0.397, and 0.347 kg/kg for IC, PC, IM, and G, respectively; SEM = 0.0068). Immunologically castrated barrows had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (30.7%) and ADFI (22.5%) than PC from the second week following the second Improvest dose to the end of the study. During the ractopamine feeding period, IC+RAC had

  11. Wind-dependent beluga whale dive behavior in Barrow Canyon, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, K. M.; Citta, J. J.; Okkonen, S. R.; Suydam, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are the most abundant cetacean in the Arctic. The Barrow Canyon region, Alaska, is a hotspot for Pacific Arctic belugas, likely because the oceanographic environment provides reliable foraging opportunities. Fronts are known to promote the concentration of planktonic prey; when Barrow-area winds are weak or from the west, a front associated with the Alaskan Coastal Current (ACC) intensifies. This front is weakened or disrupted when strong easterly winds slow or displace the ACC. To determine if winds influence the diving depth of belugas, we used generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) to examine how the dive behavior of animals instrumented with satellite-linked time-depth recorders varied with wind conditions. When projected along-canyon winds are from the WSW and the front associated with the ACC is enhanced, belugas tend to target shallower depths (10-100 m) associated with the front. In contrast, when strong winds from the ENE displaced the ACC, belugas tended to spend more time at depths >200 m where the Arctic halocline grades into relatively warmer Atlantic Water (AW). The probability of diving to >200 m, the number of dives >200 m, and the amount of time spent below 200 m were all significantly related to along-canyon wind stress (pstress, currents and frontal structure in Barrow Canyon and the characteristic vertical distribution of Arctic cod, we infer that the probability of belugas targeting different depth regimes is based upon how wind stress affects the relative foraging opportunities between these depth regimes. Belugas are known to target AW throughout the Beaufort Sea; however, this is the first work to show that the probability of targeting the AW layer is related to wind stress.

  12. Temperature trends and extremes from long climatological records at Barrow, Alaska and Tiksi, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Makshtas, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    In the International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (www.IASOA.org) Barrow Alaska and Tiksi, Russia are sites with two of the longest climatological records dating from 1901 and 1936 respectively. Tiksi and Barrow are also particularly useful sites for comparing Arctic regional variability because they are located at nearly the same latitude (71.325 N and 71.596 N respectively). When making comparison of temperature trends and extremes, this fortunate coincidence allows elimination of the annual variability of incoming solar irradiance as one of the major factors controlling the variability of temperature when considering annual, seasonal, interannual and decadal changes. Although temperature is one of the most basic of environmental parameters measured globally on a routine basis, acquiring temperature records for analysis requires making choices about sources which may apply different quality control and averaging protocols affecting calculations especially of extremes. Records are available from the U.S. NOAA National Climatic Data Center and the Climate Research Unit of the U.K. Met Office. In addition, historical data rescue digitized data sets for Tiksi are available from the Russian Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Using these records a detailed analysis and comparison of temperature trends and extremes is performed. The temperature trends are examined using unique method whereby the variation of the trend itself is examined as a function of start year. Differences in statistics of extremes is examined for average, minimum and maximum temperatures. The trends and extremes are then compared between Barrow and Tiksi to determine if it is possible make a first order determination of relationships to larger scale circulation patterns.

  13. Fat, meat quality and sensory attributes of Large White × Landrace barrows fed with crude glycerine

    OpenAIRE

    M. Belen Linares; M. Rocío Teruel; Macarena Egea; Carmen M. Villodre; Fuensanta Hernández-Ruipérez; Josefa Madrid; M. Dolores Garrido

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative raw materials like crude glycerine in animal feed to reduce final costs could be of interest as the sector seeks to increase its competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine on back-fat thickness and the proximate composition of pork and to examine the effect on pork quality of using growing-finishing feeds with different percentages of crude glycerine added. For this purpose 60 crossbreed (Large White × Landrace) barrows ...

  14. Building on and Honoring Forty Years of PBL Scholarship from Howard Barrows: A Scientometric, Large-Scale Data, and Visualization-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hanjun; Madhavan, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Over the past forty years, Howard Barrows' contributions to PBL research have influenced and guided educational research and practice in a diversity of domains. It is necessary to make visible to all PBL scholars what has been accomplished, what is perceived as significant, and what is the scope of applicability for Barrows' groundbreaking…

  15. Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT at Barrow, Alaska Using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Schaefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Active layer thickness (ALT is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost that is typically measured at specific locations using probing, in situ temperature sensors, or other ground-based observations. Here we evaluated the Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness (ReSALT product that uses the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar technique to measure seasonal surface subsidence and infer ALT around Barrow, Alaska. We compared ReSALT with ground-based ALT obtained using probing and calibrated, 500 MHz Ground Penetrating Radar at multiple sites around Barrow. ReSALT accurately reproduced observed ALT within uncertainty of the GPR and probing data in ~76% of the study area. However, ReSALT was less than observed ALT in ~22% of the study area with well-drained soils and in ~1% of the area where soils contained gravel. ReSALT was greater than observed ALT in some drained thermokarst lake basins representing ~1% of the area. These results indicate remote sensing techniques based on InSAR could be an effective way to measure and monitor ALT over large areas on the Arctic coastal plain.

  16. Temperature Regimes in Traditional Iñupiat Ice Cellars in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, A. E.; Yoshikawa, K.; Streletskiy, D. A.; Brown, J.; Nelson, F. E.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2011-12-01

    Historically ice cellars excavated in permafrost (perennially frozen ground) have been essential to Arctic residents and remain so today. These traditional facilities allow secure, year-round frozen storage of subsistence harvests over long periods. Iñupiat peoples in Barrow, Alaska, have many of these cellars, some of which were created more than a century ago. Others were established recently and continue to be enlarged. Temperatures within the cellars are critical because bacteria can damage meat even at temperatures below the freezing point. These cellars generally have temperatures close to those of surrounding permafrost. Climatic change has been suspected of compromising and causing damage to ice cellars in some northern communities, with thaw and spoilage of meat occurring in some cases. Beginning in 2005, local residents and the Native Village of Barrow organization provided access to their ice cellars and miniature temperature data loggers programmed to record at hourly intervals were installed. Cellars at a variety of depths, locations relative to the coast, and age were included in the survey. Analysis of the five years of record revealed seasonal variations within each cellar, temperature changes over time within some cellars, and temperature differences between the five cellars examined. Winter ventilation to artificially cool the cellars, local snow drifting, and proximity to brine-saturated sediments contribute to differences in ambient ground conditions. Long-term temperature measurements in these and other cellars are needed to better understand the observed changes.

  17. Mapping the Distribution of Traditional Iñupiat Ice Cellars in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klene, A. E.; Nyland, K.; Brown, J.; Shiklomanov, N. I.; Nelson, F. E.

    2012-12-01

    Historically, ice cellars excavated in permafrost have been essential to the Iñupiat residents of Barrow, Alaska, and remain so today. These traditional facilities, ranging in age from more than a century to newly excavated, allow secure, year-round frozen storage of subsistence harvests over long periods. Temperatures within the cellars are critical because bacteria can damage meat even at temperatures below the freezing point, and have traditionally been close to those of surrounding permafrost. Climatic change has been suspected of compromising and causing some ice cellars in Barrow to fill with water. Temperatures were monitored in five ice cellars, with little change observed over five years of observation, although sloughing was observed in one cellar. The lack of knowledge about the ice cellars as part of the local infrastructure led to a collaboration begun in 2012 with the North Slope Borough's Department of Planning and Community Services. Several meetings were held in August 2012 with local residents and stakeholders to assemble a GIS data layer of ice-cellar locations and conditions for use by researchers and by Borough representatives. Applications range from developing plans for snow plowing and construction to the protection of foodstuff quality and important cultural resources. Results from this collaboration will lead to improved understanding of the practical aspects of ice cellars use and maintenance in this urban Arctic environment.

  18. Scientific Infrastructure to Support Atmospheric Science and Aerosol Science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Programs at Barrow, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, D. A.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Hardesty, J.; Dexheimer, D.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific infrastructure to support atmospheric science and aerosol science for the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement programs at Barrow, Alaska.The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's located at Barrow, Alaska is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site. The site provides a scientific infrastructure and data archives for the international Arctic research community. The infrastructure at Barrow has been in place since 1998, with many improvements since then. Barrow instruments include: scanning precipitation Radar-cloud radar, Doppler Lidar, Eddy correlation flux systems, Ceilometer, Manual and state-of-art automatic Balloon sounding systems, Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), Micro-pulse Lidar (MPL), Millimeter cloud radar, High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) along with all the standard metrological measurements. Data from these instruments is placed in the ARM data archives and are available to the international research community. This poster will discuss what instruments are at Barrow and the challenges of maintaining these instruments in an Arctic site.

  19. BAID: The Barrow Area Information Database - an interactive web mapping portal and cyberinfrastructure for science and land management in the vicinity of Utqiaġvik (Barrow) on the North Slope of Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R. P.; Escarzaga, S. M.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Barba, M.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2017-12-01

    The Utqiaġvik (Barrow) area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic and the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.barrowmapped.org) tracks and facilitates a gamut of research, management, and educational activities in the area. BAID is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research undertaken within in the Barrow region in a suite of interactive web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 18,000 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940's and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, save or print maps and query results, and filter or view information by space, time, and/or other tags. Recent advances include provision of differential global positioning (dGPS) system and high resolution aerial imagery support to visiting scientists, analysis and multitemporal mapping of over 120 km of coastline for erosion monitoring; maintenance of a wireless micrometeorological sensor network; links to Barrow area datasets housed at national data archives; a NOAA funded community outreach program for citizen science and public outreach on costal erosion; and substantial upgrades to the BAID website. Web mapping applications that have launched to the public include: an Imagery Time Viewer that allows users to compare imagery of the Barrow area between 1948 and the present; a Coastal Erosion Viewer that allows users to view long-term (1955-2015) and recent (2013-2015) rates of erosion for the Barrow area; and a Community Planning tool that allows users to view and print dynamic reports based on an array of basemaps including a new 0.5m resolution wetlands map designed to

  20. Currents, Temperature, Salinity, and Sea Ice measurements from moorings in Barrow Canyon, Chukchi Sea, 2010-2015 (NCEI Accession 0160090)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From August 2010 – September 2012, six moorings (BC1 inshore to BC6 offshore), spaced ~13 km apart, spanned the head of Barrow Canyon, Chukchi Sea, Alaska. Each...

  1. High-Resolution QuickBird Imagery and Related GIS Layers for Barrow, Alaska, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains high-resolution QuickBird imagery and geospatial data for the entire Barrow QuickBird image area (156.15° W - 157.07° W, 71.15° N - 71.41° N)...

  2. Reduced-Resolution QuickBird Imagery and Related GIS Layers for Barrow, Alaska, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains reduced-resolution QuickBird imagery and geospatial data for the entire Barrow QuickBird image area 156.15° W - 157.07° W, 71.15° N - 71.41°...

  3. Drilling and Production Testing the Methane Hydrate Resource Potential Associated with the Barrow Gas Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve McRae; Thomas Walsh; Michael Dunn; Michael Cook

    2010-02-22

    In November of 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the North Slope Borough (NSB) committed funding to develop a drilling plan to test the presence of hydrates in the producing formation of at least one of the Barrow Gas Fields, and to develop a production surveillance plan to monitor the behavior of hydrates as dissociation occurs. This drilling and surveillance plan was supported by earlier studies in Phase 1 of the project, including hydrate stability zone modeling, material balance modeling, and full-field history-matched reservoir simulation, all of which support the presence of methane hydrate in association with the Barrow Gas Fields. This Phase 2 of the project, conducted over the past twelve months focused on selecting an optimal location for a hydrate test well; design of a logistics, drilling, completion and testing plan; and estimating costs for the activities. As originally proposed, the project was anticipated to benefit from industry activity in northwest Alaska, with opportunities to share equipment, personnel, services and mobilization and demobilization costs with one of the then-active exploration operators. The activity level dropped off, and this benefit evaporated, although plans for drilling of development wells in the BGF's matured, offering significant synergies and cost savings over a remote stand-alone drilling project. An optimal well location was chosen at the East Barrow No.18 well pad, and a vertical pilot/monitoring well and horizontal production test/surveillance well were engineered for drilling from this location. Both wells were designed with Distributed Temperature Survey (DTS) apparatus for monitoring of the hydrate-free gas interface. Once project scope was developed, a procurement process was implemented to engage the necessary service and equipment providers, and finalize project cost estimates. Based on cost proposals from vendors, total project estimated cost is $17.88 million dollars, inclusive of design work

  4. Decadal trends in aerosol chemical composition at Barrow, Alaska: 1976–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Shaw

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol measurements at Barrow, Alaska during the past 30 years have identified the long range transport of pollution associated with Arctic Haze as well as ocean-derived aerosols of more local origin. Here, we focus on measurements of aerosol chemical composition to assess (1 trends in Arctic Haze aerosol and implications for source regions, (2 the interaction between pollution-derived and ocean-derived aerosols and the resulting impacts on the chemistry of the Arctic boundary layer, and (3 the response of aerosols to a changing climate. Aerosol chemical composition measured at Barrow, AK during the Arctic haze season is compared for the years 1976–1977 and 1997–2008. Based on these two data sets, concentrations of non-sea salt (nss sulfate (SO4= and non-crustal (nc vanadium (V have decreased by about 60% over this 30 year period. Consistency in the ratios of nss SO4=/ncV and nc manganese (Mn/ncV between the two data sets indicates that, although emissions have decreased in the source regions, the source regions have remained the same over this time period. The measurements from 1997–2008 indicate that, during the haze season, the nss SO4= aerosol at Barrow is becoming less neutralized by ammonium (NH4+ yielding an increasing sea salt aerosol chloride (Cl deficit. The expected consequence is an increase in the release of Cl atoms to the atmosphere and a change in the lifetime of volatile organic compounds (VOCs including methane. In addition, summertime concentrations of biogenically-derived methanesulfonate (MSA and nss SO4= are increasing at a rate of 12 and 8% per year, respectively. Further research is required to assess the environmental factors behind the increasing concentrations of biogenic aerosol.

  5. Microbial population and activity responses to fertilization of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils near Barrow, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braddock, J. F.; Walworth, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    The bioremediation treatment strategy in the Arctic was tested, along with an examination of the effect of fertilization on microbial populations and activity at a pad of coarse sand that once supported fuel storage tanks near Barrow, Alaska. The effect of fertilization on the persistence of aliphatic versus aromatic hydrocarbons was also observed. Results of adding fertilizer showed a decline of soil pH and soil-water potential. The fertilizer significantly increased soil respiration potentials, but not the population of gasoline and diesel degrading microorganisms. Hydrocarbon concentrations were shown to decrease during the experiment, probably due to volatilization of the aromatic hydrocarbons from the surface soil and nutrient-stimulated biotic degradation processes in the subsurface soil. Linear alkanes appeared to have been more strongly affected than branched alkanes; this also suggest the importance of biological processes even at this cold Arctic site. 2 refs

  6. Spatial variation in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Barrow's goldeneye (Bucephala islandica) in coastal British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Megan; Esler, Daniel N.; Boyd, W. Sean; Molloy, Philip; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2017-01-01

    Barrow's goldeneyes are sea ducks that winter throughout coastal British Columbia (BC). Their diet consists primarily of intertidal blue mussels, which can accumulate PAHs; accordingly, goldeneyes may be susceptible to exposure through contaminated prey. In 2014/15, we examined total PAH concentrations in mussels from undeveloped and developed coastal areas of BC. At those same sites, we used EROD to measure hepatic CYP1A induction in goldeneyes. We found higher mussel PAH concentrations at developed coastal sites. Regionally, goldeneyes from southern BC, which has relatively higher coastal development, had higher EROD activity compared to birds from northern BC. Our results suggest goldeneyes wintering in coastal BC were exposed to PAHs through diet, with higher exposure among birds wintering in coastal areas with greater anthropogenic influence. These results suggest the mussel-goldeneye system is suitable as a natural, multi-trophic-level indicator of contemporary hydrocarbon contamination occurrence and exposure useful for establishing oil spill recovery endpoints.

  7. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise Conference 2008, Barrow, Alaska: IHY-IPY Outreach on Exploration of Polar and Icy Worlds in The Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Sandahl, I.; Østgaard, N.; Chernouss, S.; Moore, M. H.; Peticolas, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Thompson, B. J.; Tamppari, L. K.; Lewis, E. M.

    2008-09-01

    Polar, heliophysical, and planetary science topics related to the International Heliophysical and Polar Years 2007-2009 were addressed during this circumpolar video conference hosted January 23-29, 2008 at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium in Barrow, Alaska. This conference was planned as an IHY-IPY event science outreach event bringing together scientists and educational specialists for the first week of sunrise at subzero Arctic temperatures in Barrow. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun to Earth, Moon, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and the Kuiper Belt. On-site participants experienced look and feel of icy worlds like Europa and Titan by being in the Barrow tundra and sea ice environment and by going "on the ice" during snowmobile expeditions to the near-shore sea ice environment and to Point Barrow, closest geographic point in the U.S. to the North Pole. Many science presentations were made remotely via video conference or teleconference from Sweden, Norway, Russia, Canada, Antarctica, and the United States, spanning up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times. Extensive educational outreach activities were conducted with the local Barrow and Alaska North Slope communities and through the NASA Digital Learning Network live from the "top of the world" at Barrow. The Sun-Earth Day team from Goddard, and a videographer from the Passport to Knowledge project, carried out extensive educational interviews with many participants and native Inupiaq Eskimo residents of Barrow. Video and podcast recordings of selected interviews are available at http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2008/multimedia/podcasts.php. Excerpts from these and other interviews will be included in a new high definition video documentary called "From the Sun to the Stars: The New Science of Heliophysics" from Passport to Knowledge that will later broadcast on NASA TV and other educational networks. Full conference

  8. Transport and thermohaline variability in Barrow Canyon on the Northeastern Chukchi Sea Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Thomas J.; Potter, Rachel A.; Stoudt, Chase A.; Dobbins, Elizabeth L.; Statscewich, Hank; Winsor, Peter R.; Mudge, Todd D.; Borg, Keath

    2017-05-01

    We used a 5 year time series of transport, temperature, and salinity from moorings at the head of Barrow Canyon to describe seasonal variations and construct a 37 year transport hindcast. The latter was developed from summer/winter regressions of transport against Bering-Chukchi winds. Seasonally, the regressions differ due to baroclinicity, stratification, spatial, and seasonal variations in winds and/or the surface drag coefficients. The climatological annual cycle consists of summer downcanyon (positive and toward the Arctic Ocean) transport of ˜0.45 Sv of warm, freshwaters; fall (October-December) upcanyon transport of ˜-0.1 Sv of cooler, saltier waters; and negligible net winter (January-April) mass transport when shelf waters are saline and near-freezing. Fall upcanyon transports may modulate shelf freezeup, and negligible winter transports could influence winter water properties. Transport variability is largest in fall and winter. Daily transport probability density functions are negatively skewed in all seasons and seasonal variations in kurtosis are a function of transport event durations. The latter may have consequences for shelf-basin exchanges. The climatology implies that the Chukchi shelf circulation reorganizes annually: in summer ˜40% of the summer Bering Strait inflow leaves the shelf via Barrow Canyon, but from fall through winter all of it exits via the western Chukchi or Central Channel. We estimate a mean transport of ˜0.2 Sv; ˜50% less than estimates at the mouth of the canyon. Transport discrepancies may be due to inflows from the Beaufort shelf and the Chukchi shelfbreak, with the latter entering the western side of the canyon.

  9. Available phosphorus levels for 95 to 120 kg barrows genetically selected for lean gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Corrêa Arouca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating available phosphorus (aP levels in diets for barrows selected for lean meat deposition, eighty commercial hybrid pigs with initial weight of 94.05±1.05 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with five treatments (0.092, 0.156, 0.220, 0,284, and 0.348% of aP, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. The average daily weight gain of pigs increased and the feed conversion improved quadratically with increasing aP in the diets up to the estimated levels of 0.21 and 0.20%, respectively. There was no effect of the dietary aP on average daily feed intake. However, aP intake, bone strength and concentration of phosphorus in the bones increased linearly with increasing aP in the diets. The levels of aP did not affect carcass traits; however, the alkaline phosphatase activity was improved and the values of serum inorganic phosphorus increased quadratically up to the estimated levels of 0.26 and 0.27% of aP, respectively. The available phosphorus levels of 0.21, 0.27, and 0.35%, corresponding to daily aP intakes of 6.34, 8.13, and 10.44 g result, respectively, in greatest performance, blood and bone parameters of 95 to 120 kg barrows selected for lean gain.

  10. Anticipated changes in the emissions of green-house gases and ammonia from pork production due to shifts from fattening of barrows towards fattening of boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Berk, Andreas; Otten, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and of ammonia emissions from pork production will change when fattening of barrows switches towards to fattening of (intact) boars. The results of an accurate feeding experiment allow for the differentiation of the effects on emissions of gender (differentiating in boars, barrows...... effect of increased numbers of animals produced. The fattening of intact boars as compared to barrows is associated with a reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases and of ammonia per animal. For ammonia, all scenarios result in reduced emissions, most markedly when this shift is combined with increased...

  11. Estimation of the Optimal Ratio of Standardized Ileal Digestible Threonine to Lysine for Finishing Barrows Fed Low Crude Protein Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyuan Xie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestible (SID lysine (Lys requirement and the ideal SID threonine (Thr to Lys ratio for finishing barrows. In Exp. 1, 120 barrows with an average body weight of 72.8±3.6 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design conducted for 35 d. Each diet was fed to five pens of pigs containing four barrows. A normal crude protein (CP diet providing 15.3% CP and 0.71% SID Lys and five low CP diets providing 12% CP with SID Lys concentrations of 0.51, 0.61, 0.71, 0.81 and 0.91% were formulated. Increasing the SID Lys content of the diet resulted in an increase in weight gain (linear effect p = 0.04 and quadratic effect p = 0.08 and an improvement in feed conversion ratio (FCR (linear effect p = 0.02 and quadratic effect p = 0.02. For weight gain and FCR, the estimated SID Lys requirement of finishing barrows were 0.71 and 0.71% (linear broken-line analysis, 0.79 and 0.78% (quadratic analysis, respectively. Exp. 2 was a 26 d dose-response study using SID Thr to Lys ratios of 0.56, 0.61, 0.67, 0.72 and 0.77. A total of 138 barrows weighing 72.5±4.4 kg were randomly allotted to receive one of the five diets. All diets were formulated to contain 0.61% SID Lys (10.5% CP, which is slightly lower than the pig’s requirement. Weight gain was quadratically (p = 0.03 affected by SID Thr to Lys ratio while FCR was linearly improved (p = 0.02. The SID Thr to Lys ratios for maximal weight gain and minimal FCR and serum urea nitrogen (SUN were 0.67, 0.71 and 0.64 using a linear broken-line model and 0.68, 0.78 and 0.70 using a quadratic model, respectively. Based on the estimates obtained from the broken-line and quadratic analysis, we concluded that the dietary SID Lys requirement for both maximum weight gain and minimum FCR was 0.75%, and an optimum SID Thr to Lys ratio was 0.68 to maximize weight gain, 0.75 to optimize FCR and 0.67 to minimize SUN for

  12. Effects of time after a second dose of immunization against GnRF (Improvest) independent of age at slaughter on commercial bacon slicing characteristics of immunologically castrated barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Herrick, R T; Mellencamp, M A; Matulis, R J; Ellis, M; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effects of time after a second dose of anti-GnRF immunization on fresh belly characteristics and slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows and gilts slaughtered at 24 weeks of age. The second dose was staggered so that IC barrows were slaughtered at 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks after the second dose. Fresh belly characteristics (N=141) were collected at slaughter and bacon was manufactured commercially. The main effects in the model were treatment and the random effects of block and block within replication. Thickness, flop distance, and lipid content increased (L; Pbacon slicing characteristics in IC barrows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental properties and microbial communities in coastal waters of Barrow, Alaska from July 11, 2007 to January 14, 2009 (NODC Accession 0073540)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set consists of basic water column properties of the Beaufort Sea and the Chukchi Sea near Barrow, Alaska. The environmental properties include salinity,...

  14. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Trust, K.A.; Iverson, S.A.; Reed, J.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; McAdie, M.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Wilson, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (-2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of the timeline of chronic exposure of Barrow's goldeneyes to residual Exxon Valdez oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esler, Daniel; Ballachey, Brenda E; Trust, Kimberly A; Iverson, Samuel A; Reed, John A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; McAdie, Malcolm; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Wilson, Barry W

    2011-03-01

    We examined hepatic EROD activity, as an indicator of CYP1A induction, in Barrow's goldeneyes captured in areas oiled during the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and those from nearby unoiled areas. We found that average EROD activity differed between areas during 2005, although the magnitude of the difference was reduced relative to a previous study from 1996/1997, and we found that areas did not differ by 2009. Similarly, we found that the proportion of individuals captured from oiled areas with elevated EROD activity (≥ 2 times unoiled average) declined from 41% in winter 1996/1997 to 10% in 2005 and 15% in 2009. This work adds to a body of literature describing the timelines over which vertebrates were exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil and indicates that, for Barrow's goldeneyes in Prince William Sound, exposure persisted for many years with evidence of substantially reduced exposure by 2 decades after the spill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 4.27% units less (P = 0.05) in IC compared with PC. These data suggested that while bacon slicing yield was reduced in IC barrows fed control and 30% DDGS compared with PC barrow counterparts, withdrawal of DDGS improved bacon slicing yields of IC barrows.

  17. Detection of tundra trail damage near Barrow, Alaska using remote imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Eisner, W. R.; Kim, C. J.

    2017-09-01

    In the past several decades, the use of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) has proliferated in many Arctic communities in North America. One example is the village of Barrow, Alaska. This coastal community has only local roads, so all access to the interior utilizes off-road machines. These 4-wheel vehicles are the primary means of tundra traverse and transport in summer by hunters and berry-pickers, and by village residents accessing summer camps. Traveling cross-country is difficult due to the large number of thermokarst lakes, wetlands, and streams, and tundra trails tend to follow dryer higher ground while avoiding areas of high microrelief such as high-centered ice-wedge polygons. Thus, modern ATV trails tend to follow the margins of drained or partially drained thermokarst lake basins where it is flat and relatively dry, and these trails are heavily used. The deeply-ribbed tires of the heavy and powerful ATVs cause damage by destroying the vegetation and disturbing the underlying organic soil. Exposure of the dark soil enhances summer thaw and leads to local thermokarst of the ice-rich upper permafrost. The damage increases over time as vehicles continue to follow the same track, and sections eventually become unusable; this is especially true where the trail crosses ice-wedge troughs. Deep subsidence in the ponded troughs results in ATV users veering to avoid the wettest area, which leads to a widening of the damaged area. Helicopter surveys, site visits, and collection of ground penetrating radar data were combined with time series analysis of high-resolution aerial and satellite imagery for the period 1955-2014. The analysis reveals that there are 507 km of off-road trails on the Barrow Peninsula. About 50% of the total trail length was developed before 1955 in association with resource extraction, and an additional 40% were formed between 1979 and 2005 by ATVs. Segments of the more modern trail are up to 100 m wide. Damage to the tundra is especially pronounced

  18. Serum concentrations of melatonin during scotophase and photophase in 3, 4, 5 and 6 months old gilts and barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M L; Clapper, J A; Diekman, M

    1999-10-31

    One-hundred-twenty prepubertal crossbred gilts (Hampshire x Duroc) x (Yorkshire x Landrace) were removed from the nursery at 68.7+/-0.4 days of age and 23.6+/-0.9 kg body weight and relocated to a conventional grower-finisher unit. In addition, 60 barrows of similar genetics were relocated from the nursery at 71.0+/-0.5 days of age and 27.4+/-0.5 kg body weight to the same building. Twelve mature anestrous ewes that weighed 77.0+/-2.4 kg were assigned randomly to one of four pens of equal dimensions among the pens containing pigs. Ewes were included in this study to serve as positive controls since their secretory profiles of melatonin are well characterized. All pigs were bled by jugular venipuncture at approximately 3, 4, 5 and 6 months of age. At each age in the pigs and the mature ewes, a single sample was obtained during photophase and scotophase. Illumination intensity during the period of incandescent lighting averaged 220 1x. Blood collection was initiated approximately 4 h after sunrise and 3.5-4 h after sunset. The proportion of animals that exhibited a nocturnal rise in melatonin (MEL) was similar (P > 0.05) between gilts and barrows, but was higher (P < 0.002) in ewes than in pigs at each age examined. A greater proportion (P = 0.007) of 3 month old barrows had a nocturnal rise of MEL than any other age of barrow. Similarly, there was a tendency (P = 0.06) for more 3 month old gilts to exhibit a nocturnal increase in serum MEL than 4, 5 or 6 month old gilts.

  19. Net energy and ractopamine levels for barrows weighing 70 to 100kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Maria Piano Gonçalves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate net energy and dietary ractopamine levels for barrows weighing 70 to 100kg. The 150 pigs investigated (initial weight 70.80±3.84kg were distributed in a randomized block design with a 5×3 factorial arrangement, comprising five levels of net energy (2,300; 2,425; 2,550; 2,675; and 2,800Kcal kg-1 of diet and three levels of ractopamine (5, 10, and 20ppm kg-1 of diet, with five replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. No interaction (P>0.05 was observed between net energy and ractopamine levels. Increasing the dietary net energy levels led to a linear reduction in feed intake, with a linear improvement in feed conversion. Net energy levels had no observable effect (P>0.05 on weight gain, final weight, or carcass characteristics. A dietary net energy level of 2,800Kcal kg-1 can be recommended for pigs weighing 70-100kg, improving feed conversion without affecting carcass characteristics, regardless of dietary ractopamine levels. Ractopamine levels above 5ppm did not affect performance or modify the quantitative characteristics of carcasses, regardless of dietary net energy levels.

  20. Fat, meat quality and sensory attributes of Large White × Landrace barrows fed with crude glycerine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Belen Linares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative raw materials like crude glycerine in animal feed to reduce final costs could be of interest as the sector seeks to increase its competitiveness. The aims of the present work were to evaluate the effect of crude glycerine on back-fat thickness and the proximate composition of pork and to examine the effect on pork quality of using growing-finishing feeds with different percentages of crude glycerine added. For this purpose 60 crossbreed (Large White × Landrace barrows were subdivided into three groups according to the crude glycerine concentration administered in feed: C, control diet, no crude glycerine; and G2.5 and G5 with 2.5% and 5% added crude glycerine, respectively. This study evaluated proximate composition, pH, cooking losses, texture, colour coordinates, fatty acid profile, and sensorial analysis. No differences were found in any of the three groups studied (C, G2.5, G5 for measurements performed both before (with ultrasound equipment and after slaughter (millimetre ruler. The proximate composition and the physical-chemical parameters of longissimus dorsi were similar between groups. There were no differences detected (p>0.05 between the three groups as regards the CIELab coordinates, textural profile and sensory attributes. Therefore, 5% crude glycerine to replace corn could be used as an ingredient in pig feed without appreciably affecting the back-fat and meat quality characteristics.

  1. Effects of oxidized corn oil and a synthetic antioxidant blend on performance, oxidative status of tissues, and fresh meat quality in finishing barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boler, D D; Fernández-Dueñas, D M; Kutzler, L W; Zhao, J; Harrell, R J; Campion, D R; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Dilger, A C

    2012-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding oxidized corn oil with or without a dietary antioxidant (AOX) on performance, tissue oxidative status, and meat quality in barrows. One hundred sixty barrows were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial of treatments in a complete randomized block design with 8 pens per treatment and 5 pigs per pen. Diets contained 5.0 mg/kg of 1 of 2 types of corn oil (fresh or oxidized) with or without antioxidant. Final oxidized oil was produced in a heated container by continuously bubbling air heated to 95°C at a rate of 80 L/min to reach a target peroxide value of approximately 150 and 7.5 mEq/kg in the final diet. After 56 d, barrows fed diets formulated with fresh oil had increased ADG (P = 0.03) and ADFI (P = 0.04) and heavier final BW (P = 0.03) than barrows fed oxidized oil. Increased G:F (P = 0.07) was observed for barrows fed diets with AOX after 28 d of feeding but not after 56 d of feeding (P = 0.67) when compared with barrows not fed AOX. An increase (P = 0.06) in plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values, a decrease (P = 0.03) in plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) enzyme activity, and a decrease (P = 0.01) in liver vitamin E concentrations were observed in barrows fed diets with oxidized oil. Dietary AOX reduced plasma protein carbonyl content regardless of oil type (P = 0.04). Barrows fed fresh oil had 4.4% heavier HCW (P = 0.01) and 0.7 percentage units increase in dressing percentage (P = 0.01) compared with barrows fed oxidized oil. Loin TBARS values from barrows fed AOX were lower (P oil groups. In summary, oxidized oil impaired growth performance and caused oxidation stress. Dietary AOX partially ameliorated the negative effects of oxidized oil in finishing pigs by reducing protein oxidation and improving shelf life.

  2. Barrow real-time sea ice mass balance data: ingestion, processing, dissemination and archival of multi-sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Heinrichs, T. A.; Eicken, H.

    2012-12-01

    Sensor data can be highly variable in nature and also varied depending on the physical quantity being observed, sensor hardware and sampling parameters. The sea ice mass balance site (MBS) operated in Barrow by the University of Alaska Fairbanks (http://seaice.alaska.edu/gi/observatories/barrow_sealevel) is a multisensor platform consisting of a thermistor string, air and water temperature sensors, acoustic altimeters above and below the ice and a humidity sensor. Each sensor has a unique specification and configuration. The data from multiple sensors are combined to generate sea ice data products. For example, ice thickness is calculated from the positions of the upper and lower ice surfaces, which are determined using data from downward-looking and upward-looking acoustic altimeters above and below the ice, respectively. As a data clearinghouse, the Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) processes real time data from many sources, including the Barrow MBS. Doing so requires a system that is easy to use, yet also offers the flexibility to handle data from multisensor observing platforms. In the case of the Barrow MBS, the metadata system needs to accommodate the addition of new and retirement of old sensors from year to year as well as instrument configuration changes caused by, for example, spring melt or inquisitive polar bears. We also require ease of use for both administrators and end users. Here we present the data and processing steps of using sensor data system powered by the NoSQL storage engine, MongoDB. The system has been developed to ingest, process, disseminate and archive data from the Barrow MBS. Storing sensor data in a generalized format, from many different sources, is a challenging task, especially for traditional SQL databases with a set schema. MongoDB is a NoSQL (not only SQL) database that does not require a fixed schema. There are several advantages using this model over the traditional relational database management system (RDBMS

  3. Disappearing Arctic Tundra Ponds: Assessing 60 Years of Change in the Barrow Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, C.; Lougheed, V.

    2012-12-01

    Decadal hydrological changes of closed-basin tundra ponds in continuous permafrost fills a missing gap in arctic fresh water research. Furthermore, the lack of historic datasets and high resolution historical imagery adds to the challenge of understanding the long-term trends of these ecosystems. Given the dominance of these aquatic ecosystems in the Arctic landscape, documenting hydrological changes is important to understand carbon and energy balance, trophic energy flow, and biodiversity. We utilized historic aerial imagery from USGS archives of 1948 and modern high-resolution Quickbird imagery from 2008 to assess areal changes in arctic ponds over the past 60 years. Object-oriented classification was used to extract the areal extent of ponds and validated using a combination of ground-based measurements such as Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) and Differential Geographic Positioning System (DGPS). A total of 1120 ponds in different drained thaw lake basins (DTLB) distributed across the Barrow Peninsula were assessed. Analysis indicated a decline in total pond area and a decrease of 36% in the number of ponds, with change more pronounced in smaller ponds (plant cover data collected over a 40 year period (1970-2012) indicate that expansion of vegetation into the ponds may be a primary mechanism whereby ponds may experience infilling. Other mechanisms may include increased evaporation due to warmer and longer summers, transpiration from encroaching aquatic grasses and changes in precipitation patterns. However, images from additional years will be analyzed to separate out the roles of these variables on inter- versus intra-annual variability in pond surface area.

  4. Bromine atom production and chain propagation during springtime Arctic ozone depletion events in Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Chelsea R.; Shepson, Paul B.; Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Greg; Cantrell, Chris; Flocke, Frank; Orlando, John

    2017-03-01

    Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic are primarily controlled by a bromine radical-catalyzed destruction mechanism that depends on the efficient production and recycling of Br atoms. Numerous laboratory and modeling studies have suggested the importance of heterogeneous recycling of Br through HOBr reaction with bromide on saline surfaces. On the other hand, the gas-phase regeneration of bromine atoms through BrO-BrO radical reactions has been assumed to be an efficient, if not dominant, pathway for Br reformation and thus ozone destruction. Indeed, it has been estimated that the rate of ozone depletion is approximately equal to twice the rate of the BrO self-reaction. Here, we use a zero-dimensional, photochemical model, largely constrained to observations of stable atmospheric species from the 2009 Ocean-Atmosphere-Sea Ice-Snowpack (OASIS) campaign in Barrow, Alaska, to investigate gas-phase bromine radical propagation and recycling mechanisms of bromine atoms for a 7-day period during late March. This work is a continuation of that presented in Thompson et al. (2015) and utilizes the same model construct. Here, we use the gas-phase radical chain length as a metric for objectively quantifying the efficiency of gas-phase recycling of bromine atoms. The gas-phase bromine chain length is determined to be quite small, at < 1.5, and highly dependent on ambient O3 concentrations. Furthermore, we find that Br atom production from photolysis of Br2 and BrCl, which is predominately emitted from snow and/or aerosol surfaces, can account for between 30 and 90 % of total Br atom production. This analysis suggests that condensed-phase production of bromine is at least as important as, and at times greater than, gas-phase recycling for the occurrence of Arctic ODEs. Therefore, the rate of the BrO self-reaction is not a sufficient estimate for the rate of O3 depletion.

  5. Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J.; McGuire, A. David; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Skurikhin, Alexei N.; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Grosse, Guido; Bolton, W. Robert; Genet, Helene

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006–2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 106gC-CO2 day−1(uncertainty using 95% CI is between −438.3 and −1366 106gC-CO2 day−1) and CH4 flux at 28.9 106gC-CH4 day−1(uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 106gC-CH4 day−1), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2uptake (−166.9 106gC-CO2 day−1) and CH4 flux (2.8 106gC-CH4 day−1) with geomorphic change from

  6. Huygens & Barrow, Newton & Hooke i primi passi dell'analisi matematica e della teoria delle catastrofi, dalle evolventi ai quasicristalli

    CERN Document Server

    Arnol'd, Vladimir Igorevich

    1996-01-01

    Il genio di Newton ha quasi fatto dimenticare i contributi, spesso molto importanti, di altri fisici matematici suoi contemporanei. In questo libro Arnold ricostruisce in maniera inedita le origini della teoria della gravitazione universale e della dimostrazione dell'ellitticità delle orbite dei pianeti, mettendo in luce il ruolo svolto da Barrow, Huyghens e Hooke e chiarendo perché esso sia stato riconosciuto solo negli anni '80 attraverso le teorie contemporanee delle singolarità dei fronti d'onda e delle relazioni che sussistono fra i gruppi di riflessione di Coxeter, il moderno calcolo delle variazioni e la teoria delle simmetrie dei quasicristalli.

  7. Polygonal tundra geomorphological change in response to warming alters future CO2 and CH4 flux on the Barrow Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Mark J; McGuire, A David; Euskirchen, Eugenie S; Tweedie, Craig E; Hinkel, Kenneth M; Skurikhin, Alexei N; Romanovsky, Vladimir E; Grosse, Guido; Bolton, W Robert; Genet, Helene

    2015-04-01

    The landscape of the Barrow Peninsula in northern Alaska is thought to have formed over centuries to millennia, and is now dominated by ice-wedge polygonal tundra that spans drained thaw-lake basins and interstitial tundra. In nearby tundra regions, studies have identified a rapid increase in thermokarst formation (i.e., pits) over recent decades in response to climate warming, facilitating changes in polygonal tundra geomorphology. We assessed the future impact of 100 years of tundra geomorphic change on peak growing season carbon exchange in response to: (i) landscape succession associated with the thaw-lake cycle; and (ii) low, moderate, and extreme scenarios of thermokarst pit formation (10%, 30%, and 50%) reported for Alaskan arctic tundra sites. We developed a 30 × 30 m resolution tundra geomorphology map (overall accuracy:75%; Kappa:0.69) for our ~1800 km² study area composed of ten classes; drained slope, high center polygon, flat-center polygon, low center polygon, coalescent low center polygon, polygon trough, meadow, ponds, rivers, and lakes, to determine their spatial distribution across the Barrow Peninsula. Land-atmosphere CO2 and CH4 flux data were collected for the summers of 2006-2010 at eighty-two sites near Barrow, across the mapped classes. The developed geomorphic map was used for the regional assessment of carbon flux. Results indicate (i) at present during peak growing season on the Barrow Peninsula, CO2 uptake occurs at -902.3 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between -438.3 and -1366 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux at 28.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1) (uncertainty using 95% CI is between 12.9 and 44.9 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)), (ii) one century of future landscape change associated with the thaw-lake cycle only slightly alter CO2 and CH4 exchange, while (iii) moderate increases in thermokarst pits would strengthen both CO2 uptake (-166.9 10(6) gC-CO2 day(-1)) and CH4 flux (2.8 10(6) gC-CH4 day(-1)) with geomorphic change from low

  8. Effects of Supplemental Glutamine on Growth Performance, Plasma Parameters and LPS-induced Immune Response of Weaned Barrows after Castration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. Hsu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, plasma parameters and LPS-induced immune response of weaned barrows after castration. In experiment 1, forty-eight weaned male piglets were used and fed maize and soybean meal diets supplemented with 0 (Control or 2% L-Gln (Gln+ for 25 days. The results indicated that the Gln+ group tended to increase average daily gain compared to control in stages of days 7 to 14 and 0 to 25. The Gln+ had significantly better feed efficiency than the control group did during days 14 to 25 and 0 to 25. The plasma blood urea nitrogen and alkaline phosphatase contents of Gln+ group were higher than those of the control group on day 14 post-weaning. In experiment 2, sixteen weaned male piglets were injected with E. coli K88+ lipopolysaccharide (LPS on day 14 post-weaning. The results showed that the Gln+ group had lower concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol than the control group on day 14 pre-LPS challenge. In addition, Gln+ group had higher plasma IgG concentration than the control group for pre- or post-LPS challenged on day 14 post-weaning. In summary, dietary supplementation of Gln was able to alleviate the stressful condition and inflammation associated with castration in weaned barrows, and to improve their immunity and growth performance in the early starter stage.

  9. Gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia: the initial experience of the Barrow Neurological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C. Leland; Shetter, Andrew G.; Fiedler, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Kris A.; Han, Patrick P.; Speiser, Burton L.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy and complications of Gamma Knife radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Methods and Materials: The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Gamma Knife facility has been operational since March 17, 1997. A total of 557 patients have been treated, 89 for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). This report includes the first 54 TN patients with follow-up exceeding 3 months. Patients were treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (RS) in uniform fashion according to two sequential protocols. The first 41 patients received 35 Gy prescribed to the 50% isodose via a single 4-mm isocenter targeting the ipsilateral trigeminal nerve adjacent to the pons. The dose was increased to 40 Gy for the remaining 13 patients; however, the other parameters were unvaried. Outcome was evaluated by each patient using a standardized questionnaire. Pain before and after RS was scored as level I-IV per our newly-developed BNI pain intensity scoring criteria (I: no pain; II: occasional pain, not requiring medication; III: some pain, controlled with medication; IV: some pain, not controlled with medication; V: severe pain/no pain relief). Complications, limited to mild facial numbness, were similarly graded by a BNI scoring system. Results: Among our 54 TN patients, 52 experienced pain relief, BNI score I in 19 (35%), II in 3 (6%), III in 26 (48%), and IV in 4 (7%). Two patients (4%) reported no relief (BNI score V). Median follow-up was 12 months (range 3-28). Median time to onset of pain relief was 15 days (range 0-192), and to maximal relief 63 days (range 0-253). Seventeen (31%) noted immediate improvement (≤ 24 h). Prior to RS, all patients were on pharmacologic therapy felt to be optimal or maximal. Twenty-two (41%) were able to stop medications entirely (BNI score I or II). Another 16 (30%), with BNI Score III relief, decreased medication intake by at least 50%. Patients with classical TN pain symptoms were more likely to stop medications than those with

  10. Dissolved methane concentrations in the water column and surface sediments of Hanna Shoal and Barrow Canyon, Northern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Laura; Marshall, Kathleen; Magen, Cédric; Lyubchich, Viacheslav; Cooper, Lee W.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.

    2017-10-01

    Current estimates of methane (CH4) flux suggest that Arctic shelves may be a significant source of atmospheric CH4, a potent greenhouse gas. However, little information is known about the CH4 flux from most Arctic shelves, other than the East Siberian Arctic Shelf. We report here dissolved CH4 concentrations in the water column and within surface sediments of the Northern Chukchi Sea. We hypothesized that this area contains high concentrations of CH4 because it receives nutrient rich waters through the Bering Strait, promoting primary production that enhances an organic-rich material flux to the seafloor and eventual microbial methanogenesis in the sediments. In August 2012, as part of the Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area (COMIDA) project, fourteen stations were sampled on Hanna Shoal, a shallow feature on the shelf, and ten stations across the undersea Barrow Canyon. On Hanna Shoal, water column CH4 concentrations ranged from 14 to 74 nM, and surface concentrations were up to 15 times supersaturated in CH4 compared to equilibrium with the average atmospheric concentrations (3 nM). CH4 concentrations at the sediment-water interface were around 1,500 nM, and typically increased with depth in the sediment. At the head of Barrow Canyon, water column CH4 concentrations ranged from 5 to 46 nM, with the highest concentrations in the deepest waters that were sampled (118 m). Overall, the calculated fluxes to the atmosphere ranged from 1 to 80 μmol CH4 m-2 d-1 for Hanna Shoal and 4 to 17 μmol CH4 m-2 d-1 across the Barrow Canyon stations. Although there was a large range in these fluxes, the average atmospheric flux (20 μmol CH4 m-2 d-1) across Hanna Shoal was 12 times lower than the flux reported from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in summer. We conclude that while there is a positive flux of CH4 to the atmosphere, this part of the Chukchi Sea is not a significant source of atmospheric CH4 compared to the East Siberian Sea shelf.

  11. Dynamics of body protein deposition and changes in body composition after sudden changes in amino acid intake: I. Barrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ramírez, H R; Jeaurond, E A; de Lange, C F M

    2008-09-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the extent and dynamics of whole body protein deposition and changes in chemical and physical body composition after a period of AA intake restriction in growing barrows with medium lean tissue growth potentials. Forty Yorkshire barrows (initial BW 14.4 +/- 1.6 kg) were scale-fed at 75% of estimated voluntary daily DE intake up to 35 kg of BW and assigned to 1 of 2 diets: AA adequate (AA+; 20% above requirements; NRC, 1998) and AA deficient (AA-; 40% below requirements; restriction phase). Thereafter (re-alimentation phase), pigs from both dietary AA levels were scale-fed or fed ad libitum diets that were not limiting in AA. Body weight gain and body composition, based on serial slaughter, were monitored during the 34-d re-alimentation phase. During the restriction phase AA intake restriction reduced BW gains (556 vs. 410 g/d; P alimentation phase (P > 0.10). Throughout the re-alimentation phase, there were no interactive effects of time, feeding level, and previous AA intake level on growth performance, body protein, and body lipid content (P > 0.10). During the re-alimentation phase, body protein deposition, derived from the linear regression analysis of body protein content vs. time, was not affected by feeding level and previous AA intake level (P > 0.10; 156 g/d for AA- vs. 157 g/d for AA+). Based on BW and body protein content, it can be concluded that no compensatory body protein deposition occurred in barrows, with medium lean tissue growth potential after AA intake restriction between 15 and 35 kg of BW. It is suggested that the upper limit to body protein deposition was the main factor that limited the extent of compensatory body protein deposition in this population of pigs. The concept of an upper limit to body protein deposition may be used to explain why compensatory growth is observed in some studies and not in others.

  12. Effect of advancing the supply of finisher diet on growth performances and carcass and pork quality of heavy barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Belloch, J; Sanz, M A; Guada, J A; Latorre, M A

    2017-01-01

    A total of 120 Duroc×(Large White×Landrace) pigs, 50% barrows and 50% gilts, with 54.1±0.14 kg BW and 103±3 days of age, were used to study the effect of advancing the shift to a standard finisher feed from 100 to 90 and 80 kg BW on production performances and carcass and pork quality. Each of the six treatments (two sexes×three BWs at time of feeding shift) was replicated four times and the experimental unit was the pen (with five pigs for growth performance and carcass variables and three pigs for pork and fat traits). The grower (163 g CP and 9.5 g total Lys/kg) and the finisher diets (152 g CP and 7.9 g total Lys/kg) were based on maize, barley and vegetal protein concentrates, contained 13.39 MJ metabolizable energy/kg and were offered ad libitum through the trial. Pigs intended for dry-cured product elaboration were slaughtered at 170±3 days of age as average (124 and 115 kg BW for barrows and gilts, respectively). For the overall period, barrows ate more feed (Pgilts. No effect of feed shift was observed on growth performances, although the average daily CP intake (P=0.01) and feeding costs (P=0.04) were reduced by advancing the transition to the finisher feed. Carcasses from barrows were heavier (Pgilts but no significant differences were observed in the meat chemical composition. The feed change schedule did not modify carcass or meat traits. It is concluded that an early shift to the finisher feed (at 80 kg BW instead of 100 kg BW) might be an interesting strategy in pigs intended for dry-cured products because, although it neither increased body fatness nor improved pork quality, CP intake and feeding costs were reduced without impairment of growth performances. Results were similar for barrows and gilts.

  13. Administration of porcine somatotropin by daily injection: growth and endocrine responses in genetically lean and obese barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klindt, J; Buonomo, F C; Yen, J T; Pond, W G; Mersmann, H J

    1995-11-01

    Influences of genotype and sex on responses to porcine somatotropin (pST) administered by daily injection were examined in genetically lean and obese gilts and barrows. Pigs (59 +/- 1.4 kg BW, eight per pST dose x line x sex) were injected daily with pST at doses of 0, 2, and 4 mg/d for 6 wk. Administration of pST induced dose-dependent decreases in feed intake and rate of backfat deposition, whereas rate and efficiency of gain were increased in a quadratic manner indicating that 4 mg of pST/d approached the optimal dose. These live measures of growth were also influenced (P feedback on endogenous pST secretion. The pST-induced increases (P gilts, the influences of line and sex were not expunged by administration of pST.

  14. Biogeochemical Controls on Microbial CO2 and CH4 Production in Polygonal Soils From the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2014-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water quantity and geochemistry, and available electron acceptors. Significant amounts of iron(II) ions in organic and mineral soils of the active layer in low-centered ice wedge polygons indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in terrestrial ecosystem models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Using microcosm incubations at fixed temperatures and controlled thawing systems for frozen soil cores, we investigated the microbiological processes and rates of soil organic matter degradation and greenhouse gas production under anoxic conditions, at ecologically relevant temperatures of -2, +4 or +8 °C. In contrast to the low-centered polygon incubations representing in situ water-saturated conditions, microcosms with unsaturated high-centered polygon samples displayed lower carbon mineralization as either CH4 or CO2. Substantial differences in CH4 and CO2 response curves from different microtopographic samples separate the thermodynamic controls on biological activity from the kinetic controls of microbial growth and migration that together determine the temperature response for greenhouse gas emissions in a warming Arctic.

  15. Stoichiometry and temperature sensitivity of methanogenesis and CO2 production from saturated polygonal tundra in Barrow, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Chowdhury, Taniya; Herndon, Elizabeth M; Phelps, Tommy J; Elias, Dwayne A; Gu, Baohua; Liang, Liyuan; Wullschleger, Stan D; Graham, David E

    2015-02-01

    Arctic permafrost ecosystems store ~50% of global belowground carbon (C) that is vulnerable to increased microbial degradation with warmer active layer temperatures and thawing of the near surface permafrost. We used anoxic laboratory incubations to estimate anaerobic CO2 production and methanogenesis in active layer (organic and mineral soil horizons) and permafrost samples from center, ridge and trough positions of water-saturated low-centered polygon in Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow AK, USA. Methane (CH4 ) and CO2 production rates and concentrations were determined at -2, +4, or +8 °C for 60 day incubation period. Temporal dynamics of CO2 production and methanogenesis at -2 °C showed evidence of fundamentally different mechanisms of substrate limitation and inhibited microbial growth at soil water freezing points compared to warmer temperatures. Nonlinear regression better modeled the initial rates and estimates of Q10 values for CO2 that showed higher sensitivity in the organic-rich soils of polygon center and trough than the relatively drier ridge soils. Methanogenesis generally exhibited a lag phase in the mineral soils that was significantly longer at -2 °C in all horizons. Such discontinuity in CH4 production between -2 °C and the elevated temperatures (+4 and +8 °C) indicated the insufficient representation of methanogenesis on the basis of Q10 values estimated from both linear and nonlinear models. Production rates for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in organic horizons (20% to 40% wt. C) at all temperatures relative to mineral horizons (<20% wt. C). Permafrost horizon (~12% wt. C) produced ~5-fold less CO2 than the active layer and negligible CH4 . High concentrations of initial exchangeable Fe(II) and increasing accumulation rates signified the role of iron as terminal electron acceptors for anaerobic C degradation in the mineral horizons. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in

  16. Trends of solar ultraviolet irradiance at Barrow, Alaska, and the effect of measurement uncertainties on trend detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bernhard

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spectral ultraviolet (UV irradiance has been observed near Barrow, Alaska (71° N, 157° W between 1991 and 2011 with an SUV-100 spectroradiometer. The instrument was historically part of the US National Science Foundation's UV Monitoring Network and is now a component of NSF's Arctic Observing Network. From these measurements, trends in monthly average irradiance and their uncertainties were calculated. The analysis focuses on two quantities, the UV Index (which is affected by atmospheric ozone concentrations and irradiance at 345 nm (which is virtually insensitive to ozone. Uncertainties of trend estimates depend on variations in the data due to (1 natural variability, (2 systematic and random errors of the measurements, and (3 uncertainties caused by gaps in the time series. Using radiative transfer model calculations, systematic errors of the measurements were detected and corrected. Different correction schemes were tested to quantify the sensitivity of the trend estimates on the treatment of systematic errors. Depending on the correction method, estimates of decadal trends changed between 1.5% and 2.9%. Uncertainties in the trend estimates caused by error sources (2 and (3 were set into relation with the overall uncertainty of the trend determinations. Results show that these error sources are only relevant for February, March, and April when natural variability is low due to high surface albedo. This method of addressing measurement uncertainties in time series analysis is also applicable to other geophysical parameters. Trend estimates varied between −14% and +5% per decade and were significant (95.45% confidence level only for the month of October. Depending on the correction method, October trends varied between −11.4% and −13.7% for irradiance at 345 nm and between −11.7% and −14.1% for the UV Index. These large trends are consistent with trends in short-wave (0.3–3.0 μm solar irradiance measured with pyranometers at NOAA

  17. SID tryptophan levels and B6 vitamin supplementation do not change blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and meat quality of barrows (70-100kg).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilha, L D; Huepa, L M D; Fachinello, M R; Pozza, M S S; Vasconcellos, R S; Bonagurio, L P; Marcato, S M; Pozza, P C

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of standardized ileal digestible (SID) tryptophan and B6 on blood parameters, organ weights, carcass traits, and longissimus lumborum quality of barrows (70-100kg). Sixty-four crossbred barrows averaging 70.77±2.07kg were distributed in a 4×2 factorial with four SID tryptophan levels (0.130, 0.155, 0.180, and 0.205%) and two B6 levels (1 and 5mg/kg) in eight replicates of one animal each. The meat lightness degree answered linearly (P=0.015) to SID tryptophan levels and the shear force answered quadratically (P=0.050), with estimates of a higher value (31.67N) at 0.163% SID tryptophan. Although B6 showed positive effects (Ptryptophan requirement for barrows (70-100kg) was not higher than 0.130% (4.07g/day) and did not change due to B6. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Changing Conditions in the Arctic: An Analysis of 45 years of Tropospheric Ozone Measurements at Barrow Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Crepinsek, S.; Jefferson, A.; Emmons, L. K.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    In order to understand the impact of climate on local bio-systems, understanding the changes to the atmospheric composition and processes in the Arctic boundary layer and free troposphere is imperative. In the Arctic, many conditions influence tropospheric ozone variability such as: seasonal halogen caused depletion events, long range transport of pollutants from mid-northern latitudes, compounds released from wildfires, and different meteorological conditions. The Barrow station in Utqiagvik, Alaska has collected continuous measurements of ground-level ozone since 1973. This unique long-term time series allows for analysis of the influence of a rapidly changing climate on ozone conditions in this region. Specifically, this study analyzes the frequency of enhanced ozone episodes over time and provides in depth analysis of periods of positive deviations from the expected conditions. To discern the contribution of different pollutant sources to observed ozone variability, co-located measurements of aerosols, carbon monoxide, and meteorological conditions are used. In addition, the NCAR Mozart-4/MOPITT Chemical Forecast model and NOAA Hysplit back-trajectory analysis provide information on transport patterns to the Arctic and confirmation of the emission sources that influenced the observed conditions. These anthropogenic influences on ozone variability in and below the boundary layer are essential for developing an understanding of the interaction of climate change and the bio-systems in the Arctic.

  19. Body composition, tissue deposition, and lysine utilization for protein deposition of barrows and gilts fed crystalline or protein-bound lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colina, J J; Miller, P S; Lewis, A J; Fischer, R L; Diedrichsen, R M

    2016-05-01

    An experiment with 2 trials (28 d/trial) was conducted to determine body composition, tissue deposition, and utilization of Lys for protein deposition (PD) of barrows and gilts fed -Lys·HCl (CLys) or protein-bound Lys in soybean meal (SBM). Thirty-two growing pigs (16 barrows and 16 gilts; average initial BW of 18.6 kg) were used in each of 2 trials. Four pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) were euthanized at the start of each trial to determine initial body composition. The remaining pigs were euthanized at the end of the trials to determine empty-body composition and deposition rates of water, protein, fat, ash, and AA. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 7 dietary treatments. There were 2 replications per treatment in each trial for a total of 4 replications. Dietary treatments consisted of a corn-SBM basal diet (0.48% Lys) and diets containing 0.56%, 0.65%, and 0.74% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys that were achieved by adding Lys to the basal diet from either SBM or CLys. Pigs fed the CLys-supplemented diets at 0.65% SID Lys had more ( Gilts had greater ( = 0.05) body Lys content in body protein than barrows (7.68 vs. 7.52 g/100 g). Empty-body ash contents were not different between pigs fed CLys or SBM-supplemented diets. Water deposition and PD increased linearly ( gilts did not differ in tissue deposition rates. Overall, empty-body contents and deposition rates of essential and nonessential AA were not different between pigs fed CLys and pigs fed SBM-bound Lys. The amount of SID Lys required for PD ranged between 0.09 and 0.13 g/g for both sources of Lys. The Lys deposition:SID Lys intake ratio was greater ( gilts than barrows (0.62 vs. 0.56). Body composition, tissue deposition, and utilization of Lys for PD and Lys deposition were not different in pigs fed diets supplemented with -Lys·HCl with respect to protein-bound Lys in SBM.

  20. Effects of ractopamine on growth performance and carcass characteristics of immunologically and physically castrated barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puls, C L; Ellis, M; McKeith, F K; Gaines, A M; Schroeder, A L

    2014-10-01

    The study was performed to evaluate the effect of feeding ractopamine (RAC) to physically castrated barrows (PC), immunologically castrated barrows (IC), and gilts (gilts) using a randomized complete block design with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) sex (PC, IC, and gilts) and 2) RAC inclusion level (0, 5, and 7.5 mg/kg). The IC received 2 doses of gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate (Improvest; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at the start of the study (wk 16 of age; 69.6 ± 2.96 kg BW) and 4 wk later. The study used 180 pigs housed in groups of 4 (5 groups/sex × RAC subclass) and was performed over a fixed time of 61 d with RAC being fed for the final 26 d of study. Diets were formulated to meet requirements of intact males for the first 35 d and of intact males fed 7.5 mg/kg RAC for the remainder of the study. Pigs had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the study period. At the end of the study, pigs were harvested at a commercial facility and HCW and last rib backfat thickness were measured. There were no treatment interactions (P > 0.05) for any variables. For the overall study period, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) overall ADG compared to PC, which grew faster (P ≤ 0.05) than gilts (1,246, 1,083, and 1,025 g/d for IC, PC, and gilts, respectively; SEM = 20.3); ADFI was lower (P ≤ 0.05) for gilts than IC and PC, which had similar ADFI (3.36, 3.37, and 2.87 kg/d, respectively; SEM = 0.051); and G:F was greater (P ≤ 0.05) for IC than gilts and greater for gilts than PC (0.371, 0.322, and 0.358 kg/kg, respectively; SEM = 0.0039). For the period from the second dose to the end of study, IC had greater (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (28.6%), ADFI (12.3%), and G:F (14.3%) than PC. Carcass yield was lower (P ≤ 0.05) for IC compared to PC and gilts (72.8, 75.0, and 74.6%, respectively; SEM = 0.25). Feeding RAC increased (P ≤ 0.05) ADG (15.7 and 14.5% for 5 and 7.5 mg/kg, respectively), G:F (17.1 and 16.4%, respectively

  1. Atmospheric 14CO2 Over the mid Pacific Ocean and at Point Barrow, Alaska, USA From 2002 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Trumbore, S.; Ajie, H.; Tyler, S.; Randerson, J.; Krakauer, N.

    2004-12-01

    , while data from a mid-continental site at Niwot Ridge, CO (41° N, 105° W) were significantly higher during the same period (83.7±1.7‰ ). The time series of atmospheric 14CO2 at a coastal site at Point Barrow, Alaska (71° N, 157° W) from July 12, 2003 to August 18, 2004 shows a general decreasing trend with time. The average Δ 14C of this time series was 66.6‰ with a range of about 11‰ , showing a hint of a seasonal cycle and lower 14C values at high northern latitudes. Low Δ 14C values in Pt. Barrow air correlate with wind direction, indicating that part of the temporal variation may be caused by the advection of low 14C air from lower latitudes. Our results confirm large-scale patterns in atmospheric 14C predicted using carbon cycle models coupled with models of atmospheric transport. We plan to continue measuring radiocarbon in CO2 in the mid-Pacific and at the surface US stations in different seasons for the next several years for a fuller picture of seasonal and latitudinal variation in atmospheric Δ 14C.

  2. ?14C of Atmospheric CO2 over the Subtropical and Equatorial Pacific and at Point Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X.; Trumbore, S.; Ajie, H.; Tyler, S.

    2007-12-01

    Δ14C is a unique tracer for studying the carbon cycle, especially for discriminating between fossil and biosphere carbon emissions. However observations of Δ14C variation in atmospheric CO2 are available for only a few locations. We have been measuring atmospheric 14CO2 in boundary layer air over the subtropical and equatorial Pacific and at stations in the US since 2002 to expand the 14CO2 database with high precision data that sample either at high temporal resolution (Point Barrow, Alaska) or high spatial resolution (cross-equatorial mid-Pacific). These data provide observational constraints for the roles of 14C isotope disequilibirum in the tropical terrestrial biosphere, the Southern ocean, and fossil fuel burning and enhance our understanding of the patterns of atmospheric 14CO2 distribution and its seasonal variation. Five transects of atmospheric 14CO2 were collected on shipboard over the Pacific Ocean between Los Angeles (34°N, 118°W) and Auckland, New Zealand (34°N, 177°W) from fall 2002 to summer 2005. Abundances of CO and CH4 in addition to CO2, and their stable isotopes were also measured for these samples. The high precision of our Δ14C analysis (~2‰ based on duplicate measurements) allows us to observe relatively small variations over the latitude span investigated. All five transects show that Δ14C in atmospheric CO2 were relatively uniform from the equatorial region to 30°S latitude. They also indicate a consistent decreasing trend in Δ14C (~7‰) northward of ~6°N to 30°N latitude, consistent with an increase in fossil fuel input in the northern hemisphere. From fall 2002 to summer 2005, Δ14C decreased by an average rate of 6‰/year, with a slightly higher rate of decrease over the southern ocean. Correlation between CO mixing ratio and Δ14C indicates short-term atmospheric circulation may significantly affect the 14CO2 distribution pattern and its latitudinal gradient. In addition, signals from seasonal variation of 14CO2 could

  3. Biogeochemical controls on microbial CO2 and CH4 production in interstitial area polygon soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, D. E.; Roy Chowdhury, T.; Herndon, E.; Chourey, K.; Ladd, M.; Tas, N.; Jansson, J.; Elias, D. A.; Hettich, R. L.; Phelps, T. J.; Gu, B.; Liang, L.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2013-12-01

    Organic matter buried in Arctic soils and permafrost will become accessible to increased microbial degradation as the ground warms due to climate change. The rates of organic matter degradation and the proportion of CH4 and CO2 greenhouse gasses released in a potential warming feedback cycle depend on the microbial response to warming, organic carbon structure and availability, the pore-water pH, and available electron acceptors. To adapt and improve the representation of these Arctic subsurface processes in land models for the NGEE Arctic project, we examined soil organic matter transformations from elevated and subsided areas of low- and high-centered polygons from interstitial tundra on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (Barrow, AK). Significant amounts of iron(II) in organic and mineral soils of the active layer and groundwater indicate anoxic conditions in most soil horizons. Unamended, anoxic incubations of soils at -2, +4 or +8 °C produced both CH4 and CO2, with different response curves. CO2 formed rapidly while CH4 production lagged. Rates of formation for both CH4 and CO2 were substantially higher in microcosms containing active layer O horizon (38-43% total carbon) compared to B horizon (17-18% carbon) samples. The ratio of CO2 to CH4 produced decreased with increasing temperature. A constant Q10 relationship is not adequate to explain temperature effects from -2 to +8 °C. Measurements of ionic species dissolved in soil porewater from frozen cores, humic-rich surface water, or groundwater indicated low levels of nitrate and sulfate, constraining the role of these alternative electron acceptors in anaerobic respiration. The surface water pH (4.4) was significantly lower than groundwater (5.8 to 6.3). Organic acid degradation and Fe(III) reduction increased the pH in soil water during some incubations. Substantial differences in other ionic species confirm that surface and groundwater do not mix rapidly in the field. Biomass extracted from frozen

  4. Assessment of the subsurface hydrology of the UIC-NARL main camp, near Barrow, Alaska, 1993-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K.A.; Solin, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Imikpuk Lake serves as the drinking-water source for the Ukpeagvik Inupiat Corporation-National Arctic Research Laboratory (UIC-NARL, formerly known as the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory) near Barrow, Alaska. Previously acceptable hazardous-waste disposal practices and accidental releases of various fuels and solvents during the past several decades have resulted in contamination of soil and ground water in the vicinity of the lake. As part of an assessment of the risk that subsurface contamination poses to the quality of water in the lake, the subsurface hydrology of the UIC-NARL main camp was examined. The study area is located approximately 530 kilometers north of the Arctic Circle, on the northern coast of Alaska, and the short annual thaw season and the presence of shallow, areally continuous permafrost restrict hydrologic processes. A transient ground-water system is present within the active layer-the shallow subsurface layer that thaws each summer and refreezes each winter. Water-level and thaw-depth data collected during the summers of 1993 and 1994 show that the configurations of both the water table and the subsurface frost govern the ground- water flow system in the UIC-NARL main camp and indicate that recharge to and discharge from the system are small. Spatial irregularities in the vertical extent of the active layer result from variations in land-surface elevation, variations in soil type, and the presence of buildings and other structures that either act as a heat source or block heat transfer to and from the subsurface. Distinct features in the active-layer hydrologic system in the UIC-NARL main camp include a permafrost ridge, which generally acts as a flow-system divide between the Arctic Ocean and inland water bodies; a mound in the water table, which indicates increased impedance to ground- water flow toward Imikpuk Lake and acts as a flow-system divide between the lake and Middle Salt Lagoon; and a depression in the water table, which

  5. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  6. Ractopamina em dietas para suínos machos imunocastrados, castrados e fêmeas Ractopamine in diets for immunocastrated, barrows and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleíza Moraes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e as características quantitativas de carcaça de suínos machos imunocastrados, castrados e fêmeas, na fase de terminação, alimentados com dietas contendo 10ppm de ractopamina. Foram utilizados 120 animais, com peso inicial de 99,1±5,3kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 (dois níveis de ractopamina, 0 e 10ppm e três sexos, cinco repetições com quatro animais cada. A inclusão de 10ppm de ractopamina na dieta melhorou (P0,05 as características quantitativas de carcaça dos suínos. O sexo foi determinante para o desempenho e as características quantitativas de carcaça; as fêmeas apresentaram rendimento de carcaça quente superior (PThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and the quantitative characteristics of carcass of immunocastrated, barrows and females in the finishing phase fed with diets containing 10ppm of ractopamine. One hundred and twenty animals were used, with initial weight of 99.1±5.3kg, distributed in a randomized blocks factorial design in 2 x 3 (two ractopamine levels, 0 and 10ppm and three sex, five replicates of four animals each. The inclusion of 10ppm of ractopamine in the diet improved (P0.05 quantitative carcass characteristics of pigs. The sex was determining factor in performance and carcass quantitative traits and the females had higher (P<0.05 hot carcass yield for immunocastrated male and they have yield above (P<0.05 the barrows. Immunocastrated males and females had higher (P<0.05 percentage of lean meat for barrows. The results of this study highlight the need for studies to adjust the nutrient levels of diets containing ractopamine to immunocastrated pigs.

  7. Search for the flavor changing neutral current B-meson decays B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+ and B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0 at CDF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Wolfram; Speer, Thomas

    1997-04-01

    We present a search for rare B-meson decays B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+ and B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0 using data from pbarp collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV recorded with CDF during the 1994 to 95 running period. We set upper limits on BR(B^+arrow μ^+ μ^- K^+) and BR(B^0arrow μ^+ μ^-K^*0). ^ Supported by U.S. DOE DE-AC02-76CH03000. ^*We thank the Fermilab staff and the technical staffs of the participating institutions for their vital contributions. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and National Science Foundation; the Italian Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation.

  8. The Role of Explicitly Modeling Bryophytes in Simulating Carbon Exchange and Permafrost Dynamics of an Arctic Coastal Tundra at Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.; Thornton, P. E.; McGuire, A. D.; Oechel, W. C.; Yang, B.; Tweedie, C. E.; Rogers, A.; Norby, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Bryophyte cover is greater than 50% in many Arctic tundra ecosystems. In regions of the Arctic where shrubs are expanding it is expected that bryophyte cover will be substantially reduced. Such a loss in cover could influence the hydrological, biogeochemical, and permafrost dynamics of Arctic tundra ecosystems. The explicit representation of bryophyte physiological and biophysical processes in large-scale ecological and land surface models is rare, and we hypothesize that the representation of bryophytes has consequences for estimates of the exchange of water, energy, and carbon by these models. This study explicitly represents the effects of bryophyte function and structure on the exchange of carbon (e.g., summer photosynthesis effects) and energy (e.g., summer insulation effects) with the atmosphere in the Community Land Model (CLM-CN). The modified model was evaluated for its ability to simulate C exchange, soil temperature, and soil moisture since the 1970s at Barrow, Alaska through comparison with data from AmeriFlux sites, USDA Soil Climate Networks observation sites at Barrow, and other sources. We also compare the outputs of the CLM-CN simulations with those of the recently developed Dynamical Organic Soil coupled Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (DOS-TEM). Overall, our evaluation indicates that bryophytes are important contributors to land-atmospheric C exchanges in Arctic tundra and that they play an important role to permafrost thermal and hydrological processes which are critical to permafrost stability. Our next step in this study is to examine the climate system effects of explicitly representing bryophyte dynamics in the land surface model. Key Words: Bryophytes, Arctic coastal tundra, Vegetation composition, Net Ecosystem Exchange, Permafrost, Land Surface Model, Terrestrial Ecosystem Model

  9. Effect of nonwaxy and waxy sorghum on growth, carcass traits, and glucose and insulin kinetics of growing-finishing barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J L; Matthews, J O; Southern, L L; Higbie, A D; Bidner, T D; Fernandez, J M; Pontif, J E

    2004-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of nonwaxy (amylose and amylopectin starch) or waxy (amylopectin starch) sorghum on growth, carcass traits, and glucose and insulin kinetics of pigs. In Exp. 1 (95-d), 60 crossbred barrows or gilts (initial and final BW of 24 and 104 kg) were allotted to three treatments with five replications of four pigs per replicate pen in a randomized complete block design. The dietary treatments for Exp. 1 were 1) corn-soybean meal (C-SBM) diet, 2) sorghum-SBM (red pericarp, non-waxy), and 3) sorghum-SBM (red pericarp, waxy). In Exp. 2, 28 crossbred barrows (initial and final BW of 24 and 64 kg) were allotted to two treatments with three replications of four or five pigs per replicate pen in a randomized complete block design. Growth data were collected for 49 d, and then 20 barrows were fitted with jugular catheters, and then a glucose tolerance test (500 mg glucose/kg BW), an insulin challenge test (0.1 IU of porcine insulin/kg BW), and a feeding challenge were conducted. The dietary treatments for Exp. 2 were 1) sorghum-SBM (white pericarp, nonwaxy) and 2) sorghum-SBM (white pericarp, waxy). In Exp. 1, ADG (P = 0.10) and ADFI (as-fed basis; P = 0.02) were increased (P = 0.10) and gain:feed was decreased (P = 0.04) in pigs fed the sorghum-SBM diets relative to those fed the C-SBM diet. These responses may have resulted from the lower energy content of sorghum relative to corn. Plasma NEFA concentration (collected after a 16-h fast on d 77) was decreased (P = 0.08) in pigs fed the waxy sorghum-SBM diet relative to those fed the nonwaxy sorghum-SBM diet. Kilograms of carcass fat was decreased (P = 0.07) in pigs fed the waxy sorghum-SBM diet relative to those fed the nonwaxy sorghum-SBM diet. In Exp. 2, there was no effect (P = 0.57 to 0.93) of sorghum starch type on growth performance by pigs. During the glucose tolerance and insulin challenge tests, there were no effects (P = 0.16 to 0.98) of diet on glucose or insulin

  10. Long-term bowhead whale abundance data collected near Point Barrow Alaska (1978-2011) and postmortem examination data (1974-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J.; Suydam, R.

    2012-12-01

    Primarily in response to concerns about the sustainability of the subsistence bowhead whale harvest along the Alaskan coast, population surveys were initiated by NOAA in 1978, and were conducted by the North Slope Borough from 1981 to present. The surveys of migrating bowhead whales were made from pressure ridges on the landfast sea ice margin in the vicinity of Point Barrow, Alaska. Surveys were conducted 24 hr/day from about 15 April and 1 June depending on weather and ice conditions. Specific observation data include: (for each whale sighting) date, time, location, whale group size, species, migration speed and direction, (every 2 hrs) ice floe speed and direction (surrogate for current data), weather, pressure ridge height, bird observations and other data. Full-time acoustic surveillance during the survey has been conducted from 1984 to present. A statistically significant positive trend (3.5% year; 95% CI=2.2-4.8%) in bowhead whale population size is evident over this time period. The more recent abundance estimate was 12,631 (CV 0.2442) whales for year 2004. Over a more extensive time period, postmortem examinations of bowhead whales landed by Inupiat Eskimos have been made at Barrow and other whale hunting villages. We have detailed whale examination data from 1974-present with sporadic harvest data dating to the 1800s. The older records lack the detail of current examinations. These "harvest data" are connected with estimates of Yankee commercial whaling takes from 1848 to 1915 compiled by other researchers. Together they provide a continuous record of anthropogenic takes of bowhead whales for more than 150 years. These datasets have been essential in estimating sustainable harvest levels by the International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee, NOAA and the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission. The records are also used for modeling environmental effects on bowheads, oil and gas leasing decisions, and many other scientific projects and policy matters. The

  11. Determining of the Effect of Lysine:calorie Ratio on Growth Performance and Blood Urea Nitrogen of Growing Barrows and Gilts in Hot Season and Cool Season in a Commercial Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z F; Kim, I H

    2013-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine an optimum Lys:calorie ratio (g of total dietary Lys/Mcal of DE) for growing barrows and gilts in cool and hot seasons in a commercial environment. In Exp. 1, 96 barrows and 96 gilts were randomly allocated in 1 of 4 dietary treatments (2.7, 3.0, 3.3, 3.6 g of Lys/Mcal of DE). Each treatment had 12 replicate pens with 4 pigs per pen. The experiment lasted for 34 d in the cool season (March 12th to April 15th). Diets were based on corn-wheat-soybean meal. Lys:calorie ratio were attained by adjusting the amount of corn and soybean and supplementation of crystalline Lys. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake were increased (pcalorie ratio increased. The BUN concentration on d 34 for barrows, and BUN change for barrows and gilts linearly increased (pcalorie ratio. For gilts, back fat was decreased and then increased (Quadratically, pcalorie ratio. Exp. 2 had a similar design as Exp. 1 with the exception that Exp. 2 was conducted in hot season (June 30th to September 11th) for 42 d. Diet of Exp. 2 was the same as Exp. 1. Total Lys intake and available Lys intake increased (pcalorie increased. On d 42, the BUN concentration increased (pcalorie ratio. In conclusion, dietary Lys:calorie ratio of 2.7 g of Lys/Mcal of DE could satisfy the requirement of 25 to 50 kg growing pigs. Increasing dietary Lys:calorie ratio could increase BUN concentration in growing pigs.

  12. Exclusion of brown lemmings reduces vascular plant cover and biomass in Arctic coastal tundra: resampling of a 50 + year herbivore exclosure experiment near Barrow, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D R; Lara, M J; Tweedie, C E; Shaver, G R; Batzli, G O; Shaw, J D

    2011-01-01

    To determine the role lemmings play in structuring plant communities and their contribution to the 'greening of the Arctic', we measured plant cover and biomass in 50 + year old lemming exclosures and control plots in the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The response of plant functional types to herbivore exclusion varied among land cover types. In general, the abundance of lichens and bryophytes increased with the exclusion of lemmings, whereas graminoids decreased, although the magnitude of these responses varied among land cover types. These results suggest that sustained lemming activity promotes a higher biomass of vascular plant functional types than would be expected without their presence and highlights the importance of considering herbivory when interpreting patterns of greening in the Arctic. In light of the rapid environmental change ongoing in the Arctic and the potential regional to global implications of this change, further exploration regarding the long-term influence of arvicoline rodents on ecosystem function (e.g. carbon and energy balance) should be considered a research priority.

  13. Impact of shallow water bodies on the permafrost temperature and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at the Barrow Environmental Observatory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Chamberlain, A. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.

    2015-12-01

    Extension of the thermokarst features such as lakes and ponds had been noticed in many regions of the Arctic affected by the modern climate warming. Thermokarst is a process of permafrost thawing under the water bodies with depths larger than maximal thickness of seasonal ice in the area, i.e. with permanent positive temperature at the bottom. This process is most probable in the areas where massive ice bodies (wedges, lenses, layers etc) or ice rich deposits exist close to ground surface and even insignificant increasing of thaw depth can lead to its melting and surface subsidence. Local depressions such as low-centered polygonal ponds or interpolygonal troughs can potentially become triggers of thermokarst development. Current research was aimed on determination of warming impact of small water bodies on the permafrost temperature and seasonal thawing and estimation of risk of thermokarst development at Barrow Environmental Observatory area. Comparison of temperature measurements under shallow (10 - 40 cm deep) with relatively dry spots and active layer thickness survey show that warming impact of small water bodies (mean annual temperature at the permafrost table here is up to 2oC higher then under "dry" geomorphological features) is not realized in increasing of the thawing depth. Active layer thickness does not exceed values of 45 cm under polygonal ponds and 35 cm under troughs that is less then thickness of protective layer above ice wedges in the area. For estimation of risk of thermokarst development we used analytical equations developed by V.Kudryavtsev (1974). Results of calculations show that in this area crucial depth of water bodies required for mean annual temperature at the bottom of the pond became higher then freezing point consists of 0.95 cm. Current research was supported by US DOE as a part of research project Next Generation of Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE).

  14. The Barrow Neurological Institute Grading Scale as a Predictor for Delayed Cerebral Ischemia and Outcome After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Data From a Nationwide Patient Registry (Swiss SOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidert, Marian Christoph; Maldaner, Nicolai; Stienen, Martin Nikolaus; Roethlisberger, Michel; Zumofen, Daniel W; D'Alonzo, Donato; Marbacher, Serge; Maduri, Rodolfo; Hostettler, Isabel Charlotte; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Schneider, Michel M; Seule, Martin A; Schöni, Daniel; Goldberg, Johannes; Fung, Christian; Arrighi, Marta; Valsecchi, Daniele; Bijlenga, Philippe; Schaller, Karl; Bozinov, Oliver; Regli, Luca; Burkhardt, Jan-Karl

    2018-01-17

    The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scale is a novel quantitative scale measuring maximal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) thickness to predict delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). This scale could replace the Fisher score, which was traditionally used for DCI prediction. To validate the BNI scale. All patient data were obtained from the prospective aneurysmal SAH multicenter registry. In 1321 patients, demographic data, BNI scale, DCI, and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score up to the 1-yr follow-up (1FU) were available for descriptive and univariate statistics. Outcome was dichotomized in favorable (mRS 0-2) and unfavorable (mRS 3-6). Odds ratios (OR) for DCI of Fisher 3 patients (n = 1115, 84%) compared to a control cohort of Fisher grade 1, 2, and 4 patients (n = 206, 16%) were calculated for each BNI grade separately. Overall, 409 patients (31%) developed DCI with a high DCI rate in the Fisher 3 cohort (34%). With regard to the BNI scale, DCI rates went up progressively from 26% (BNI 2) to 38% (BNI 5) and corresponding OR for DCI increased from 1.9 (1.0-3.5, 95% confidence interval) to 3.4 (2.1-5.3), respectively. BNI grade 5 patients had high rates of unfavorable outcome with 75% at discharge and 58% at 1FU. Likelihood for unfavorable outcome was high in BNI grade 5 patients with OR 5.9 (3.9-8.9) at discharge and OR 6.6 (4.1-10.5) at 1FU. This multicenter external validation analysis confirms that patients with a higher BNI grade show a significantly higher risk for DCI; high BNI grade was a predictor for unfavorable outcome at discharge and 1FU. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  15. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struffert, T.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Reith, W.; Muecke, I.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  16. Changes in the Seasonal Cycle of δ18Op at Barrow, AK, US Between 1962 and 2013 Reflect the Importance of Proximal Sea Ice Coverage for Coastal Arctic Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, A.; Feng, X.; Posmentier, E. S.; Bowen, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic is sensitive to climate change, exhibiting increases in sea surface temperatures, coupled with decreased sea ice cover. The potential for increased local evaporative flux may affect the Arctic hydrologic cycle in two ways. The first is the direct effect of increased local vapor supply, which is supported by studies using isotope-enabled atmospheric circulation models. The second is an indirect effect via warming of Arctic associated with decreased sea ice cover. Changes in temperature gradient between the mid-latitudes and Arctic may affect circulation and thus meridional vapor flux. The isotopic observations combined with moisture source conditions may help disentangle the direct and indirect effects of sea ice change on Arctic hydrology and climate. We use two precipitation δ18O datasets, from 1962-1969 and 2009-2013, to investigate the hydrological response to sea ice cover changes on the seasonal scale at Barrow, AK, US, where strong seasonal variability and multi-decadal decrease in local summer/fall sea ice coverage are well documented. Previous research has shown that the vapor supplying June through November precipitation at Barrow originates in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, while December through May precipitation is supplied by vapor evaporated in the North Pacific and Gulf of Alaska. The seasonal cycle of δ18Op is amplified in the more recent dataset (-9.1‰ to -26.3‰) relative to the historic one (-12.9‰ to -24.9‰), with lower δ18Op during December through May and higher δ18Op during June through November. Deuterium excess tends to be greater during all months except July through September. The decrease in δ18Op during the cold season may indicate a change to water vapor transport to Barrow. May and November exhibited the greatest changes in δ18Op and d-excess. The May decrease in δ18Op of 8.3‰ and deuterium excess increase of 21‰ coupled with MODIS imagery from May 2011 that shows open ocean near Barrow, suggests that

  17. Cryostratigraphy and Main Physical Properties of Active Layer Soils and Upper Horizon of Permafrost at the Barrow Environmental Observatory Research Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Liljedahl, A.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.

    2014-12-01

    Complete understanding of the results of geophysical survey, microbiological and biogeochemical analyzes of soil cores in the Arctic environment impossible without detail description of the frozen soil and its physical properties determination. Cryostratigraphyc features i.e. total ice content and forms of ice patterns reflects the important processes such as water migration due to freezing in frozen active layer soils and history of sedimentation and freezing in underlying perennially frozen deposits. That plays significant role in biogeochemical processes that take place in the Arctic ecosystem. Current research was based on description and analyzing of 8 cores taken during 2012 and 2013 coring campaigne had been done at the Barrow Environmental Observatory research site. Cores were taken from different types of polygons and analyzed on lithological composition, soil density, ice content and thermal conductivity. Volumetric ice content within the active layer composed by organic soil consists of 70 to 80% and within silt one - less than 60%. Ice content of underlying syncryogenic perennial frozen deposits is about 70%. No clear evidences of soil moisture redistribution due to freezing of active layer were noticed in the cores composed by the organic soil. Organic soil does not have any clear cryogenic structures. Ice usually fills the pores and follows the plants fibers. Mineral soil has recticulated cryogenic structure (ice forms grid like patterns with vertically oriented cells) with some thin (up to 2 cm thick) layers of soil particles and aggregates suspended in ice. Thermal conductivity of frozen samples varies in the range from 1.5 to 2.8 W/(m*°K). It has a positive correlation with soil density and negative with gravimetric ice content (see figure below). Mineral soils have a higher bulk density and average thermal conductivity in the range 2.15 W/(m*°K), organic soils have a lower density and average thermal conductivity about 2 W/(m*°K). Samples

  18. Effect of Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Soil Nitrogen Reactive Transport in a Polygonal Arctic Tundra Ecosystem at Barrow AK Using 3-D Coupled ALM-PFLOTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F.; Wang, G.; Painter, S. L.; Tang, G.; Xu, X.; Kumar, J.; Bisht, G.; Hammond, G. E.; Mills, R. T.; Thornton, P. E.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    In Arctic tundra ecosystem soil freezing-thawing is one of dominant physical processes through which biogeochemical (e.g., carbon and nitrogen) cycles are tightly coupled. Besides hydraulic transport, freezing-thawing can cause pore water movement and aqueous species gradients, which are additional mechanisms for soil nitrogen (N) reactive-transport in Tundra ecosystem. In this study, we have fully coupled an in-development ESM(i.e., Advanced Climate Model for Energy, ACME)'s Land Model (ALM) aboveground processes with a state-of-the-art massively parallel 3-D subsurface thermal-hydrology and reactive transport code, PFLOTRAN. The resulting coupled ALM-PFLOTRAN model is a Land Surface Model (LSM) capable of resolving 3-D soil thermal-hydrological-biogeochemical cycles. This specific version of PFLOTRAN has incorporated CLM-CN Converging Trophic Cascade (CTC) model and a full and simple but robust soil N cycle. It includes absorption-desorption for soil NH4+ and gas dissolving-degasing process as well. It also implements thermal-hydrology mode codes with three newly-modified freezing-thawing algorithms which can greatly improve computing performance in regarding to numerical stiffness at freezing-point. Here we tested the model in fully 3-D coupled mode at the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment-Arctic (NGEE-Arctic) field intensive study site at the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), AK. The simulations show that: (1) synchronous coupling of soil thermal-hydrology and biogeochemistry in 3-D can greatly impact ecosystem dynamics across polygonal tundra landscape; and (2) freezing-thawing cycles can add more complexity to the system, resulting in greater mobility of soil N vertically and laterally, depending upon local micro-topography. As a preliminary experiment, the model is also implemented for Pan-Arctic region in 1-D column mode (i.e. no lateral connection), showing significant differences compared to stand-alone ALM. The developed ALM-PFLOTRAN coupling

  19. British gas barrow onshore terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, G.W.; Woodward, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the Morecambe Bay Gas Field that was discovered in 1974 by Gas Council Exploration, a wholly owned subsidiary of British Gas plc. The Project to develop the Field commenced in January, 1980 against the background of escalating world oil prices. Production began on January 8, 1985, in time to help meet the peak winter demands. A maximum daily production rate of 1,587 million scfd was achieved on February 7, 1991. The PURASPEC H 2 S removal process was commissioned in May of 1989 to control export gas quality

  20. Complex carotid cavernous sinus fistulas Barrow type D: endovascular treatment via the ophthalmic vein, imaging control with standardized MRI, long-term results; Interdisziplinaere Embolisation spontaner Karotis-Cavernosus-Fisteln Typ D nach Barrow ueber die Vena ophthalmica: klinische Langzeitergebnisse und kernspintomografische Befunde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany); Muecke, I. [Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Purpose: Since feeding arteries from both the internal and external carotid artery are common, cavernous fistulas of Barrow type D are difficult to treat. Embolization using the transarterial approach is considered to be the standard therapy. However, it is often impossible to embolize feeders from the internal carotid artery. The transorbital approach after anterior orbitotomy through the ophthalmic vein is an alternative in this complex situation. The following reports our experience with three female patients who underwent transvenous embolization. Procedural success was documented using standardized MRI and clinical reevaluation. Materials and Methods: Three female patients between 57 and 78 years of age were diagnosed with carotid cavernous fistulas by conventional angiogram. All patients were suffering from exophthalmus and visual impairment. Two patients showed secondary glaucoma and diplopia. In one patient we performed a technically successful transarterial embolization using particles, but no relevant improvement of the patient's condition was seen. Transfemoral transvenous access via the sinus petrosus was not possible in any patient. All patients were then embolized via the ophthalmic vein using GDC detachable coils. All patients were clinically reevaluated by an ophthalmologist. Also a standardized MRI was performed for documentation. Follow-up was performed for the first patient for 32 months, for the second patient for 34 months and for the third patient for 50 months. Results: Transvenous embolization was technically successful in all three cases. Clinical symptoms disappeared rapidly. Postprocedural MRI showed a symmetric diameter of the ophthalmic vein. Venous congestion of the orbit caused by fatty tissue edema regressed completely. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography showed normal arterial vessels without evidence of fistula. (orig.)

  1. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas comerciais para suínos em crescimento e terminação Crude protein levels in commercial diets of growing and finishing barrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Alves da Trindade Neto

    2008-01-01

    considered as commercial fed to barrows in the growing and finishing phases. A total of 48 barrows, from the same genetic strain, averaging initial weights of 30.8 ± 0.12 kg (growing phase and 61.2 ± -0.89 kg (finishing phase, segregated in the production system, was used. The animals were allotted to randomized blocks design, composed of four treatment (level of CP and six replications and two animals per experimental unit. The CP levels tested were: 19.5, 18.0, 16.5, and 15.0% in growing and 18.0, 16.5, 15.0 and 13.5% in finishing phases. There was no difference in the growing phase of barrows performance. Independently of the dietary CP levels, the nutritional requirements were supplied, in spite of the diet with 16.5% CP indicated greater economic viability, calculated as gross margin due to the feed. Similar to the growing phase, there were no differences among CP levels on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing barrows at slaughter. The gross margin due to the feed indicated that 15.0% CP in the diet offered greater economic gain for barrows from 60 to 100 kg. The results indicate that dietary protein changes, with main principal amino acids supplied not impaired the barrows performance. The creation and segregation conditions of commercial farm system in growing and finishing phases need considerations. Small variations between amino acids did not affect performance of barrows in the growing and finishing phases if the requirements of digestible lysine and others amino acids are maintained close to the indicated minimal relation.

  2. Mapping Arctic Plant Functional Type Distributions in the Barrow Environmental Observatory Using WorldView-2 and LiDAR Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Langford

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale modeling of Arctic tundra vegetation requires characterization of the heterogeneous tundra landscape, which includes representation of distinct plant functional types (PFTs. We combined high-resolution multi-spectral remote sensing imagery from the WorldView-2 satellite with light detecting and ranging (LiDAR-derived digital elevation models (DEM to characterize the tundra landscape in and around the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO, a 3021-hectare research reserve located at the northern edge of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain. Vegetation surveys were conducted during the growing season (June–August of 2012 from 48 1 m × 1 m plots in the study region for estimating the percent cover of PFTs (i.e., sedges, grasses, forbs, shrubs, lichens and mosses. Statistical relationships were developed between spectral and topographic remote sensing characteristics and PFT fractions at the vegetation plots from field surveys. These derived relationships were employed to statistically upscale PFT fractions for our study region of 586 hectares at 0.25-m resolution around the sampling areas within the BEO, which was bounded by the LiDAR footprint. We employed an unsupervised clustering for stratification of this polygonal tundra landscape and used the clusters for segregating the field data for our upscaling algorithm over our study region, which was an inverse distance weighted (IDW interpolation. We describe two versions of PFT distribution maps upscaled by IDW from WorldView-2 imagery and LiDAR: (1 a version computed from a single image in the middle of the growing season; and (2 a version computed from multiple images through the growing season. This approach allowed us to quantify the value of phenology for improving PFT distribution estimates. We also evaluated the representativeness of the field surveys by measuring the Euclidean distance between every pixel. This guided the ground-truthing campaign in late July of 2014 for

  3. Níveis de ractopamina para suínos machos castrados em terminação e mantidos sob conforto térmico Ractopamine levels to finishing barrows maintained o n thermoneutral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Figueiredo Sanches

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho e as características quantitativas de carcaça de suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente de conforto térmico e alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de ractopamina. Foram utilizados 48 animais, com peso médio inicial de 67,0±2,7kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso composto por quatro níveis de ractopamina (0, 5, 10 e 20ppm e seis repetições, com dois animais cada. O período experimental teve duração de 28 dias. A temperatura do ar obtida foi de 20,9±2,9°C, a umidade relativa foi de 86,7±7,3%, e o Índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade foi de 69,6±4,0. O peso final dos animais e o consumo de ração não foram influenciados (P>0,05 pelos tratamentos. Os níveis de ractopamina influenciaram (P0,05 pelos tratamentos. Concluiu-se que o nível ótimo de inclusão de ractopamina na dieta de suínos machos castrados e mantidos em ambiente termoneutro é de 20ppm.The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and the quantitative characteristics of barrow's carcass maintained under thermoneutral environment and fed with diets containing different ractopamine levels. Forty-eight barrows were used, with initial weight of 67.0±2.7kg, distributed in a randomized blocks design with four ractopamine levels (0, 5, 10 and 20ppm and six replicates with two animals each. The experimental period lasted 28 days. The average temperature recorded was 20.9±2.9°C, relative humidity was 86.7±7.3% and BGHI was 69.6±4.0. The final weight of the animals and feed intake were not influenced (P>0.05 by treatments. The ractopamine levels influenced (P0.05 by treatments. It was concluded that the ractopamine optimal level of inclusion in the diet of barrows kept under thermoneutral environment is 20ppm.

  4. Período de suplementação de ractopamina em dietas para suínos machos castrados em terminação Lenght of ractopamine supplementation in diets for finishing barrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Ferreira de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi determinar o período ideal de suplementação de 20ppm de ractopamina nas dietas de suínos machos castrados em terminação. Foram utilizados 50 suínos machos castrados com peso inicial de 65,85±4,34kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com seis tratamentos (0, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 35 dias de suplementação de ractopamina pré-abate, sendo quatro repetições para os tratamentos 0, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias e cinco repetições para o tratamento com suplementação por 35 dias. A unidade experimental foi composta por dois animais. A conversão alimentar melhorou (PThe study was conducted to determine the optimal period of supplementation of 20ppm of ractopamine in diets of finishing barrows. Fifty pigs, with initial weight of 65.85±4.34kg were used. The pigs were distributed in randomized blocks design of six treatments (supplementation of ractopamine for 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days pre-slaughter, with four replications for treatments 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days and five replicates for the treatment supplemented by 35 days. Each experimental unit consisted of two animals. The feed conversion improved (P<0.05 and the hot carcass weight, the amount of lean meat and the index of carcasses increased linearly (P<0.05 with increasing period of ractopamine supplementation. The economic return for the amount of lean meat produced per animal improved linearly until the period of seven days of supplementation with ractopamine, from which remained at a plateau (P<0.05. Supplementation of 20ppm of ractopamine in the diet of finishing barrows during the 35 days improved feed conversion, increases the hot carcass weight, the amount of lean meat and the index of carcasses. The supplementation of 20ppm ractopamine in the diet of finishing barrows results in economic return for the amount of lean meat produced per animal regardless of the length of supplementation.

  5. Ractopamine levels for finishing barrows maintained in heat stress Níveis de ractopamina para suínos machos castrados em terminação mantidos sob estresse por calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josilene Figueiredo Sanches

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance, quantitative characteristics of carcass, and visceral responses of barrows maintained on heat stress enviroment and fed diets supplemented with ractopamine. It was used 48 animals with initial weight of 67.3 ± 3.8 kg, distributed in a randomized block design with four levels of ractopamine (0, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, each one with six replicates with two animals each. The experimental period lasted 28 days. Air temperature was 31.8 ± 2.0ºC, air humidity was 72.6 ± 10.2% and BGHI was 82.7 ± 2.8. Daily feed intake was not affect by the levels of ractopamine but they improved feed conversion and increased daily weight gain and final weight of the animals. The carcass quantitative characteristics were not affected by levels of ractopamine. The weights of the liver and kidneys showed linear increases accordingly to increase of ractopamine levels in the diet whereas weight of other organs and length of small intestine were not affected by supplementation with ractopamine. The optimum level of ractopamine for the best performance of barrows under heat stress is 20 mg/kg and it does not affect the quantitative characteristics of carcass.Avaliaram-se o desempenho, as características quantitativas de carcaça e as respostas viscerais de suínos machos castrados mantidos em ambiente de estresse por calor e alimentados com dietas suplementadas com ractopamina. Foram utilizados 48 animais com peso inicial de 67,3 ± 3,8 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro níveis de ractopamina (0, 5, 10 e 20 mg/kg, cada um com seis repetições de dois animais. O período experimental foi de 28 dias. A temperatura do ar foi de 31,8 ± 2,0ºC, a umidade relativa foi de 72,6 ± 10,2% e índice de temperatura de globo e umidade (ITGU de 82,7 ± 2,8. Os níveis de ractopamina não influenciaram o consumo diário de ração, mas melhoraram a conversão alimentar e aumentaram o ganho di

  6. Alaskan Exemplary Program The Rural Alaska Honors Institute (RAHI) A Quarter Century of Success of Educating, Nurturing, and Retaining Alaska Native and Rural Students An International Polar Year Adventure in Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, D.; Owens, G.

    2007-12-01

    UA system who participated in RAHI are nearly twice as likely to earn a bachelors degree, than those who did not attend RAHI. This summer, in celebration of the International Polar Year, in collaboration with Ilisagvik College, at the completion of the traditional RAHI program, ten RAHI students flew to Barrow for an additional two weeks of study. Five students participated in an archaeological dig and five students performed research with the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium scientists studying climate change. In addition, ten students from Greenland visited the program, with plans to more fully participate next summer. This added dimension to the program has proved successful, allowing the students to compare and contrast between their own countries and indigenous perspectives. Global warming was an issue that was hotly debated, as its effects are so evident in the Polar Regions. In the Arctic, life is directly tied to the ice and snow. As the ice disappears and/or changes, the Indigenous people have to adapt. RAHI would like to share with you some of the results of this past summers IPY activities.

  7. Ractopamine hydrochloride in formulated rations for barrows or gilts from 94 to 130 kg Cloridrato de ractopamina em rações formuladas para suínos machos castrados ou para fêmeas na fase dos 94 aos 130 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas de Oliveira Amaral

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance, carcass composition, cutting yields and economic viability of 5 or 10 ppm of ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC in diets for barrows and gilts from 94 to 130 kg. Sixty commercial hybrid pigs within a gender, were individually kept in pens and assigned a randomized experimental block design, in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three levels of RAC (0; 5 and 10 ppm and two sexs (barrows and gilts. There were no RAC × sex interactions for all evaluated parameters. There were significant improvements for the groups of RAC-treated on final weight, average daily gain (ADG and feed:gain (F:G. The RAC, independent from the level (5 or 10 ppm, improved the F:G, but did not influence the average feed intake. The gilts had smaller final weight, smaller average feed intake and better F:G. The supplementation with 10 ppm of RAC provided better carcass yield, better longissimus muscle area and better meat percentage. The pigs supplemented with RAC showed better tenderloin yield, better ham weight and better meat percentage of ham. The gilts had better meat percentage, better back fat thickness, bigger belly flexibility and smaller fat thickness of the belly than barrows. On economic viability, the RAC-treated pigs increased the allowance index, gross earnings and net earnings. Compared to the barrows, gilts showed lower total cost, better allowance index and higher net earnings. The supplementation with 5 ppm of RAC was enough to improve performance, carcass composition and cutting yields in the heavy pigs. Furthermore, 5 or 10 ppm of RAC was economically viable and the heavy gilts were more profitable than heavy barrows.Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho, a composição de carcaça e a viabilidade econômica do uso de 5 e 10 ppm de cloridrato de ractopamina (RAC em rações formuladas para suínos machos castrados ou para fêmeas dos 94 aos 130 kg. Utilizaram-se 60 su

  8. Efeito da ractopamina e de métodos de formulação de dietas sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados em terminação Effect of ractopamine and the methods of diet formulation on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing barrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cambraia Marinho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de métodos de formulação e da suplementação de ractopamina (RAC na dieta sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados em terminação. Foram utilizados 60 suínos distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 ´ 3, com dois níveis de RAC e três métodos de formulação das dietas. A suplementação de RAC melhorou o peso final, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar (CA dos animais. A adição de RAC melhorou também as características de carcaça por reduzir a espessura de toucinho no ponto P1 e aumentar a taxa de deposição diária de carne magra. Dietas formuladas com base no conceito de proteína ideal ou pelo aumento do farelo de soja proporcionaram melhores resultados de CA, mas não influenciaram significativamente o consumo diário de ração, o GPD e as características de carcaça. Suínos machos castrados em terminação sob suplementação com RAC durante 21 ou 28 dias apresentaram melhor desempenho e qualidade de carcaça. Dietas formuladas para atender o nível de lisina digestível pela inclusão de L-lisina-HCl com o ajuste dos demais aminoácidos para relação ideal (proteína ideal ou pela maior inclusão de farelo de soja (aumento do teor de PB proporcionam melhores resultados de conversão alimentar em suínos machos castrados em terminação sob suplementação com RAC durante 28 dias.An experiment was conduced with the objective of evaluating the effects of diet formulation methods and supplementation of ractopamine (RAC on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing barrows. Sixty commercial hybrid swines were used, distributed in a randomized experimental block design, in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangment, with two levels of RAC and three methods of diet formulation. Supplementation with RAC improved the final weight, daily weight gain (DWG and feed conversion (FC

  9. Exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados mantidos em ambiente termoneutro dos 15 aos 30kg Digestible sulphurous aminoacid requirement for swine barrows maintained in a thermoneutral environment from 15 to 30kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.M.V. Vaz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados para suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente termoneutro, dos 15 aos 30kg. Utilizaram-se 70 leitões mestiços, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0,465; 0,511; 0,558; 0,605 e 0,652% de metionina + cistina digestível, sete repetições e dois animais por repetição. As rações experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade. A temperatura no interior da sala foi mantida em 21,8±0,4ºC e a umidade relativa, em 73,8±4,9%. Os níveis de metionina + cistina digestível da dieta influenciaram de forma quadrática o ganho de peso diário, que aumentou até o nível de 0,596%, e a conversão alimentar, que reduziu até o nível de 0,627%. O consumo de ração dos animais não variou com os tratamentos. Os tratamentos influenciaram a deposição de proteína na carcaça, que aumentou de forma quadrática até o nível de 0,630%, enquanto a de gordura não variou. A exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados, mantidos em ambiente termoneutro, dos 15 aos 30 kg, é de 0,63%, correspondente à relação metionina + cistina digestível:lisina digestível de 67%, para máximo desempenho e composição de ganho.The requirements of digestible sulphurous aminoacids for swine barrows maintained in a thermoneutral environment from 15 to 30kg were estimated. Seventy crossbred barrows were allotted to a completely randomized block design with five treatments (0.465; 0.511; 0.558; 0.605; 0.652% of digestible methionine+cystine, seven replicates and two animals by replicate. The experimental diets and the water were supplied ad libitum. The inside room temperature was maintained in 21.8±0.4ºC and the relative humidity in 73.8±4.9%. The digestible methionine and cystine levels of the diet had a quadratic effect on average daily gain that increased until the level of 0.596% and the feed:gain ratio that reduced

  10. Níveis de energia metabolizável mantendo a relação lisina digestível: caloria em rações para suínos machos castrados em terminação Metabolizable energy levels maintaining digestible lysine: calorie ratio in diets for finishing barrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkson Oliveira Rezende

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 suínos machos castrados, híbridos comerciais com peso inicial de 60,1 ± 1,3 kg, em um estudo para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de EM, mantendo-se a relação lisina digestível:caloria sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro níveis de EM (3.100, 3.230, 3.370 e 3.500 kcal/kg de ração, nos quais foi mantida a relação de 2,41 g de lisina digestível/Mcal de EM. As rações foram fornecidas à vontade até o fim do período experimental, quando os animais atingiram 95,46 ± 2,89 kg. Os níveis de energia metabolizável influenciaram o consumo diário de ração, que reduziu linearmente. A conversão alimentar melhorou linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de energia metabolizável. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de energia, o ganho de peso diário, a eficiência de utilização da EM para ganho de peso, o rendimento de carcaça, a espessura de toucinho e o rendimento de carne magra. Níveis crescentes de energia metabolizável (3.100 a 3.500 kcal/kg, mantendo-se a relação lisina digestível:caloria na ração de suínos machos castrados, promovem melhora na conversão alimentar e redução no consumo de ração, sem alterar os valores do ganho de peso e das características de carcaça.Forty barrows from commercial hybrids averaging initial weight of 60.1 ± 1.3 kg were used in a trial to evaluate different ME levels, maintaining the digestible lysine:calorie ratio, on the performance and carcass characteristics. A randomized block experimental design with four treatments, five replicate and two animals per experimental unit was used. The treatments consisted of four ME levels (3,100, 3,230, 3,370, and 3,500 kcal/kg with 2.41 g of digestible lysine/Mcal of EM ratio. Animals were fed until the

  11. Exigências de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados e fêmeas de 15 a 30 kg Digestible sulfur amino acids requirements for barrows and gilts from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline de Oliveira Moura

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cinqüenta leitões mestiços (Landrace x Large White, sendo 25 machos castrados e 25 fêmeas, na fase inicial de crescimento (15 a 30 kg, foram utilizados em um experimento visando determinar a exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0,502; 0,530; 0,558; 0,586 e 0,614% de metionina + cistina digestível, cinco repetições e dois animais, um macho e uma fêmea, por unidade experimental. Os níveis de metionina + cistina digestível da ração influenciaram de forma quadrática o ganho de peso diário (GPD dos animais, que aumentou até o nível de 0,582%; a conversão alimentar (CA, que reduziu até o nível de 0,588%; e o consumo diário de ração (CDR, que aumentou até o nível de 0,579%. Os tratamentos influenciaram a deposição de gordura (DG, que variou de forma quadrática, reduzindo até o nível de 0,556%, mas não alteraram a deposição de proteína (DP. A exigência de aminoácidos sulfurados digestíveis para suínos machos castrados e fêmeas de 15 a 30 kg, para maior ganho de peso, é de 0,582% e, para menor conversão alimentar, de 0,588% de metionina + cistina digestível na ração, correspondendo a uma relação de 63% de metionina + cistina digestível:lisina digestível.A trial was conducted with fifty pigs (Landrace x Large White, barrows and gilts, from 15 to 30 kg, in the initial growing phase to determine the digestible sulfur amino acids requirements. The animals were allotted to a completely randomized experimental block design, with five treatments (0.502, 0.530, 0.558, 0.586, and 0.614% of digestible methionine plus cystine, five replicates and two animals (one male and one female per experimental unit. It was observed quadract effect of treatments on daily weight gain, that increased up to the level of 0.582%, on feed:gain ratio, that decreased up to the level of 0.588%, and on daily feed intake

  12. Exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados selecionados para deposição de carne magra, dos 30 aos 60kg Available phosphorus requirement of barrows from 30 to 60kg selected for high lean deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L.C. Arouca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento para determinar a exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados (Agroceres-Pic utilizando-se 60 animais, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos -0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4 e 0,5% de fósforo disponível, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os animais foram sangrados por punção do plexo venoso orbitário aos 21 dias e ao final do experimento, em jejum, para obtenção dos valores da atividade da fosfatase alcalina no soro (AFAS e fósforo no soro. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo disponível sobre o ganho de peso diário, consumo diário de ração, fósforo no soro aos 21 dias, fósforo no soro ao final do experimento e conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível de 0,39% de fósforo disponível. Houve efeito linear sobre o consumo diário de fósforo, AFAS aos 21 dias e AFAS ao final do experimento. Concluiu-se que a exigência de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados selecionados para deposição de carne magra na carcaça, de 30 a 60kg, é de 0,39%, correspondendo ao consumo de 9,11g/dia.An experiment was carried to determine available phosphorus requirement of crossbred barrows (Agroceres-Pic, using 60 animals in a completely randomized block design with five dietary treatments - 0.1; 0.2; 0.3; 0.4; and 0.5% of available phosphorus, six replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. On the 21st day of the experiment and at its end, blood samples were collected from orbital plexus of fasting animals to analyze and register alkaline phosphatase and serum phosphorus values. Quadratic effect of available phosphorus level on average daily gain, daily feed intake, serum phosphorus on the 21st day of the experiment, serum phosphorus at the end of the experiment, and feed conversion ratio were observed. Minimum feed conversion ratio was estimated for animals fed diets containing 0.39% available

  13. Níveis de treonina digestível em rações para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético na fase dos 95 aos 125 kg Digestible threonine levels in diets for barrows of high genetic potential in the phase from 95 to 125 kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Almeida Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos níveis de treonina digestível na dieta sobre o desempenho e a composição da carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Oitenta suínos com peso inicial de 95,87 ± 1,26 kg foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco níveis de treonina digestível (0,470; 0,497; 0,528; 0,557 e 0,587%, correspondentes às relações treonina digestível:lisina digestível de 58,0; 61,0; 65,0; 69,0 e 73,0%, respectivamente, cada um com oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. As rações experimentais e a água foram fornecidas à vontade até o final do período experimental, quando os animais atingiram 125,26 ± 2,59 kg. Os níveis de treonina digestível das rações não influenciaram o consumo diário de ração e o ganho de peso dos animais, mas tiveram efeito quadrático sobre a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível estimado de 0,526% de treonina na ração. O consumo diário de treonina digestível aumentou de forma linear de acordo com os níveis desse aminoácido na ração. Os níveis de treonina digestível da ração não influenciaram o peso de carcaça, a quantidade de carne, a espessura de toucinho no ponto P2 e a deposição diária de carne. O nível de treonina digestível de 0,526%, correspondente a uma relação de 65% com a lisina digestível e a um consumo de treonina digestível de 18,49 g/dia, proporciona os melhores resultados de conversão alimentar em suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético na fase dos 95 aos 125 kg.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine levels on performance and carcass composition of barrows of high genetic potential for meat deposition. Eighty barrows with initial weight of 95.87 ± 1.26 kg were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0.470; 0.497; 0.528; 0.557; 0

  14. Levels of digestible methionine+cystine in diets for high genetic potential barrows from 95 to 125 kg Níveis de metionina+cistina digestíveis em rações para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético de 95 a 125 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício de Almeida Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of digestible methionine+cystine on performance and carcass composition of high genetic potential barrows for lean deposition. Sixty-four barrows with initial weight of 95.46 ± 1.09 kg were allotted to a completely randomized block design, with four levels of digestible methionine+cystine (0.427, 0.466, 0.504, and 0.545%, corresponding to the digestible methionine+cystine:digestible lysine ratios of 57.0, 62.0, 67.0 and 73.0%, respectively, with eight replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Experimental diets and water were provided ad libitum until the end of the experimental period when pigs reached 125.21 ± 2.49 kg. Levels of digestible methionine+cystine did not affect daily intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion of the animals, but they affected daily intake of digestible methionine+cystine which increased linearly. Levels of digestible methionine+cystine did not affect carcass weight, meat amount, backfat thickness at P2, and daily meat deposition. The digestible methionine+cystine level of 0.427%, corresponding to the digestible methionine+cystine:lysine ratio of 57.0% and to a daily digestible methionine+cystine intake of 14.20 g/d, provides the best performance and carcass traits for high genetic potential barrows in the phase of 95 to 125 kg.Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de níveis crescentes de metionina+cistina digestível sobre o desempenho e a composição da carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne. Sessenta e quatro suínos com peso inicial 95,46 ± 1,09 kg foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro níveis de metionina+cistina digestível (0,427; 0,466; 0,504 e 0,545%, correspondentes às relações de metionina+cistina:lisina digestíveis de 57,0; 62,0; 67,0 e 73,0%, respectivamente, com oito repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental

  15. . Палеопедологические исследования курганов у с. Глиное / Paleopedological studies of the barrows near Glinoe village

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    Z. N. Matviishyna

    2016-12-01

    еработкой материала лугово-степной растительностью, измененная почвообразованием, может быть определена как обыкновенный чернозем, что подтверждается как характером профиля, так и чертами микроморфологии, отличается довольно резким переходом гумусированной массы к корбонатному иллювию. Погребенная почва раннего бронзового века во всех четырех расчистках по сравнению с фоновой имеет более темноокрашенный гумусовый горизонт, более четкие переходы между гумусовыми горизонтами. Условия раннего бронзового века были несколько более влажными по сравнению с современными. Территория находилась в пределах степной зоны с некоторым (но не значительным перемещением границ зон к северу. Условия были сухостепными, о чем свидетельствует карбонатность профилей, высокое положение карбонатных иллювиев. In 2013 the Pridnestrovian-Ukrainian archaeological expedition continued study of Bronze Age barrows located near Glinoe village, Slobodzeya district, of the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic. In the course of the work two Bronze Age barrows were excavated. They contained 46 burials, 44 of which were made in the Bronze Age (end of the IVth — IInd millennium BCE and only two — in the Middle Ages (X—XIII centuries. 22 burials of the Pit cultural community of the Early Bronze Age, 12 burials of the Catacomb cultural community

  16. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético dos 15 aos 30 kg Dietary digestible lysine levels, using the ideal protein concept, for barrows with high genetic potential from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márvio Lobão Teixeira de Abreu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 40 leitões machos castrados, de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne magra na carcaça, com pesos inicial e final de 15,76 + 0,93 e 30,23 + 1,56 kg, respectivamente, para avaliar o efeito de níveis de lisina digestível, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desempenho e a composição da carcaça. Os tratamentos corresponderam a uma ração basal com 19,46% de PB e 3.280 kcal de EM/kg, suplementada com L-lisina HCl, resultando em rações com 0,90; 1,.00; 1,10 e 1,20% de lisina digestível. As rações foram suplementadas com níveis crescentes de aminoácidos sintéticos, resultando em rações com relações constantes entre metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina (60, 60, 19 e 69%, respectivamente, com base na digestibilidade verdadeira. Não se observou efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo diário de ração, a concentração de uréia no plasma e as porcentagens de água, proteína e gordura na carcaça dos animais. Houve efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina digestível sobre o ganho de peso diário, que aumentou até o nível estimado de 1,10% de lisina na ração, e a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível estimado de 1,12%. Houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo diário de lisina, que aumentou de forma linear. As deposições de proteína e gordura na carcaça foram influenciadas de forma quadrática, aumentando até os níveis estimados de 1,12 e 1,08% de lisina digestível, respectivamente. O nível de 1,12% de lisina digestível foi o que proporcionou os melhores resultados de desempenho e de características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético na fase de 15 a 30 kg, o que correspondeu a um consumo de lisina digestível de 12,03 g/dia (3,42 g de Lis/Mcal de EM.Fourty barrows with high genetic potential for lean gain averaging initial and final body weights of 15.76 + 0.93 kg and 30.23 + 1.56 kg, respectively

  17. NPP Tundra: Point Barrow, Alaska, 1970-1972, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains three data files. One file (.csv format) provides above- and below-ground biomass and leaf area index (LAI) data for a wet arctic tundra...

  18. Efeito dos níveis de lisina digestível e da ractopamina sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados em terminação Effect of digestible lysine levels and of ractopamine on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing barrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cambraia Marinho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi conduzido um experimento com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de lisina digestível em rações suplementadas ou não com ractopamina (RAC sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados em terminação. Quarenta suínos, híbridos comerciais, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 - dois níveis de lisina digestível (0,67 e 0,87%, com ajuste para os demais aminoácidos para a relação de proteína ideal, e dois níveis de RAC (0 e 5,0 ppm - em um período de 28 dias. A suplementação com RAC resultou em maiores ganho de peso diário e taxa de deposição de carne magra diária e melhor conversão alimentar. Os níveis de lisina não influíram no desempenho dos animais, porém reduziram a espessura de toucinho nos pontos P1 e P2 e aumentaram a taxa de deposição de carne magra diária na carcaça de suínos alimentados com dietas contendo 0,87% de lisina digestível quando avaliadas in vivo. Concluiu-se que as características de desempenho e de carcaça dos suínos alimentados com ração suplementada com RAC na fase de terminação melhoraram, porém, o efeito da RAC sobre a profundidade de lombo foi maior no nível de 0,87% de lisina digestível.An experiment was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effect of different lysine levels in diets supplemented or not with ractopamine (RAC on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing barrows. Forty commercial hybrid swines were distributed to a randomized experimental block design, in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement, with two digestible lysine levels (0.67 and 0.87%, with adjustment for the others amino acids to achieve an ideal protein relationship, and two levels of RAC (0 and 5.0 ppm in a period of 28 days. Supplementation with RAC resulted in a higher daily weight gain and of daily lean meat deposition rate, and better feed conversion. The lysine levels

  19. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance Ractopamina para suínos em terminação recebendo ração restrita ou à vontade: desempenho e balanço de nitrogênio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Souza Cantarelli

    2009-12-01

    improved the efficiency of the nitrogen use of barrows.Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de 5 ppm de ractopamina associada ou não à restrição alimentar em rações com elevado teor de lisina total (1,04% sobre o desempenho e o balanço de nitrogênio em suínos. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se 60 híbridos machos castrados (76,2 ± 2,3kg alojados em pares, em delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2 ×2 + 1 (0 ou 5 ppm de ractopamina; arraçoamento à vontade ou com restrição; dieta com 1,04% de lisina e uma ração testemunha, sem racopamina e com 0,8% de lisina, fornecida à vontade totalizando cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Foram determinados o peso vivo final, o ganho de peso diário, o consumo diário de ração e a conversão alimentar durante 28 dias. A ractopamina melhorou o peso final, o ganho de peso diário e a conversão alimentar. A alimentação à vontade melhorou o peso final e o ganho de peso diário em relação à restrição. Em comparação à ração testemunha, a conversão alimentar melhorou com a suplementação de ractopamina e o peso final aumentou com a alimentação à vontade associada à suplementação com ractopamina. No experimento 2, utilizaram-se 30 suínos machos castrados híbridos (74,1 ± 2,5kg alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo, recebendo as mesmas rações experimentais para avaliar as porcentagens de nitrogênio absorvido (%Nabs, retido (%Nret e retido do absorvido (%Nret/abs e a concentração plasmática de ureia aos 14 e 28 dias de experimento. Aos 14 dias, a porcentagem de nitrogênio retido do absorvido e a concentração plasmática de ureia aumentaram com a suplementação de ractopamina na ração. Em comparação aos valores obtidos com a ração testemunha, a concentração plasmática de ureia foi menor nos animais sob alimentação restrita com suplementação de ractopamina. Aos 28 dias, a porcentagem de nitrogênio retido do absorvido aumentou com a suplementação desse aditivo. A

  20. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, para suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético, dos 30 aos 60 kg Dietary digestible lysine requirements, based on the ideal protein concept, for barrows with high genetic potential from 30 to 60 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márvio Lobão Teixeira de Abreu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar o efeito de níveis de lisina digestível, utilizando-se o conceito de proteína ideal, sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça de 40 leitões machos castrados (peso inicial de 30,02 ± 1,38 kg e peso final 60,44 ± 1,81 kg de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne magra. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal (18,08% de PB e 3.250 kcal de EM/kg suplementada com L-lisina HCL, resultando em rações com 0,80; 0,90; 1,00 e 1,10% de lisina digestível. As rações foram suplementadas com níveis crescentes de aminoácidos sintéticos, mantendo-se constantes as relações entre os níveis desses aminoácidos essenciais e os de lisina, com base na digestibilidade verdadeira. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre o consumo de ração, o ganho de peso diário e a concentração de uréia no plasma dos animais. Observou-se comportamento linear da conversão alimentar, que melhorou, e do consumo de lisina digestível diário, que aumentou em função dos níveis de lisina digestível da ração. Os tratamentos não influenciaram as porcentagens de água, proteína e gordura e a deposição de gordura na carcaça dos animais. Os níveis de lisina digestível afetaram de forma linear crescente a deposição de proteína na carcaça. O nível de 1,10% de lisina digestível, correspondente a um consumo de lisina digestível de 21,94 g/dia (3,43 g de Lis/Mcal de EM proporcionou os melhores resultados de desempenho e características de carcaça de suínos machos castrados de alto potencial genético dos 30 aos 60 kg.The effect of increasing dietary digestible lysine levels, based on the ideal protein concept, on performance and carcass characteristics of forty barrows with high genetic potential for lean gain averaging initial and final body weights of

  1. Multibeam collection for HLY1302: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2013-08-16 to 2013-09-07, Barrow, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  2. Multibeam collection for HLY0805: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2008-08-14 to 2008-09-05, Barrow, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  3. Multibeam collection for HE0805: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2008-08-14 to 2008-09-05, Barrow, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  4. Multibeam collection for HLY1202: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2012-08-26 to 2012-09-24, Barrow, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Ractopamine for finishing barrows fed restricted or ad libitum diets: performance and nitrogen balance

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarelli,Vinícius de Souza; Fialho,Elias Tadeu; Almeida,Erin Caperuto de; Zangeronimo,Márcio Gilberto; Rodrigues,Paulo Borges; Freitas,Rilke Tadeu Fonseca de

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of 5 ppm of ractopamine, associated or not to feed restriction in diets with a high total lysine content (1.04%) was evaluated on performance and nitrogen balance. In experiment 1, 60 hybrid castrated male swine (76.2 ± 2.3 kg) were housed in pairs according to a randomized complete block design in a factorial treatment arrangement (2 ×2 + 1) with or without ractopamine supplementation, two forms of feeding, ad libitum and feed restriction with 1.04% lysine, and an...

  6. Ham and belly processing characteristics of immunological castrated barrows (Improvest) fed ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Overholt, M F; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2016-02-01

    Effects of sex class (physically castrated, PC or immunologically castrated, IC) and diet (0 or 5mg/kg ractopamine hydrochloride, RAC) on characteristics of ham and bellies were determined from pigs slaughtered in three groups with similar ending live weights. One carcass per pen per marketing group (n=8) was selected to evaluate further processing characteristics. Data were analyzed as a 2×2 factorial design with a split plot in time and fixed effects of sex, diet, marketing group, and their interactions. IC fresh bellies were thinner (P0.05) fresh ham or belly characteristics but decreased (P<0.01) fat in cured PC bellies. Marketing group affected (P<0.05) fresh quality, processing characteristics, and composition of hams and bellies. Immunological castration and RAC produced leaner finished products but did not alter processing yield of hams or bacon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrated metagenomics and field measurements of polygon features at the NGEE-Arctic Barrow site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, N.; Wu, Y.; Smith, L. J.; Ulrich, C.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Torn, M. S.; Hubbard, S. S.; Wullschleger, S. D.; Jansson, J.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic soils contain an estimated 12-42% of terrestrial carbon, most of which is sequestered in permafrost. High latitudes have experienced the greatest regional warming in recent decades and observations suggest that permafrost degradation is now commonly observed in the region. With increasing global temperatures, permafrost soils are becoming a potential source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because of widespread permafrost thaw much of the soil organic matter may be available for rapid mineralization by microorganisms in the soil. Yet little is known about the vulnerability of permafrost and the potential response of soil microorganisms to availability of new carbon sources. On the Alaskan North Slope the collapse and rise of soil due to formation of ice wedges and permafrost thaw create distinct features called polygons. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) in the Arctic, we aimed to determine the distribution of microbial populations across a range of polygon features and to correlate the microbial data to GHG flux data. To determine the microbial community distribution and metabolic potential, we collected seasonally thawed active layer soil samples along two polygon transects (Site 0 and AB), including high-centered, transitional and low-centered polygons. Illumina HiSeq technology was used to sequence 16SrRNA genes and metagenomes from these active layer soils. The sequence data was correlated to GHG flux measurements and to environmental data from the site, including geophysical and geochemical soil characteristics. Both the microbial communities and the flux measurements varied along the polygon transect. Each polygon had a distinct microbial community structure; however, these microbial communities shared many metabolic capabilities. For example, many genes involved in degradation of chitin could be found all three polygons. Functional genes involved in methanogenesis and CH4-flux measurements were higher in low centered and wetter polygons than high centered drier polygons. On the edges of polygons the microbial community compositions and flux data were indicative of CO2 production. The metagenome sequence data suggested that nitrate was utilized as a nitrogen source, but not lost through denitrification. The long-term goal is to use information gleaned from omics datasets to better inform climate models.

  8. Barrow's Living Room: How a Tribal College Library Connects Communities across the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Erin

    2015-01-01

    More than just storerooms of information, tribal college libraries are gathering spaces that bring people together. The Tuzzy Consortium Library at IIisagvik College builds community by providing services and programs that reflect the values of Alaska's North Slope Iñupiaq people. The college library collaborates with different organizations to…

  9. Preliminary Permafrost and Hangar Investigation: Naval Arctic Research Lab., Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    5 1 1 Background It is our understanding that the U.S. Navy possibly will acquire the Finn- ish air cushion vehicle ( ACV ), Tuuli. This project...ability to house the ACV and additional support equipment. CDR Buch requested CRREL to ob- serve and provide expertise regarding any past or possible

  10. Facultative Sex Allocation and Sex-Specific Offspring Survival in Barrow's Goldeneyes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaatinen, K.; Ost, M.; Gienapp, P.; Merila, J.

    2013-01-01

    Sex allocation theory predicts that females should bias their reproductive investment towards the sex generating the greatest fitness returns. The fitness of male offspring is often more dependent upon maternal investment, and therefore, high-quality mothers should invest in sons. However, the local

  11. Pre-ABoVE: Remotely Sensed Active Layer Thickness, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Active layer thickness (ALT) is a critical parameter for monitoring the status of permafrost that is typically measured at specific locations using probing, in situ...

  12. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead whale aerial surveys and photography near Barrow, Alaska, from 1979-1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bowhead whales were documented during their spring migration most years from 1979 to 1992 by biologists from NMML. This documentation consisted of flying aerial...

  13. Quality assurance in design: policy adopted by Vickers Barrow Engineering Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubrey, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    The approach of the Engineering Company of the Shipbuilding Group to the establishment of design quality assurance is described. The introduction of a Design Quality Assurance Record (DQAR) is discussed and its manner of operation illustrated, taking a special pump design as an example. Future applications will include the shield and above-core structure of the first commercial fast reactor. (U.K.)

  14. Metabolizable energy levels maintaining digestible lysine: calorie ratio in diets for finishing barrows

    OpenAIRE

    Rezende, Wilkson Oliveira; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Oliveira, Rita Flávia Miranda de; Abreu, Márvio Lobão Teixeira de; Ferreira, Aloízio Soares; Silva, Francisco Carlos de Oliveira; Apolônio, Lourdes Romão

    2006-01-01

    Foram utilizados 40 suínos machos castrados, híbridos comerciais com peso inicial de 60,1 ± 1,3 kg, em um estudo para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de EM, mantendo-se a relação lisina digestível:caloria sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça. Foi utilizado o delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro níveis de EM (3.100, 3.230, 3.370 e 3.500 ...

  15. Fish remnants from the excavations of the Bronze Age barrow near Maryanskoe village (Dnepropetrovsk region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kovalchuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bronze Age mound (2.5–2.3 kya BC is located near the Maryanskoe village (Apostolovskyi district, Dnepropetrovsk region and was excavated in 1953. The results of determination of the fish remnants, which were found during the excavation, are presented in the paper. Eleven species belonging to 9 genera, 5 families and 5 orders (Acipenseriformes, Cypriniformes, Siluriformes, Esociformes, Perciformes were identified: russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt et Ratzeburg, 1833, stellate sturgeon A. stellatus Pallas, 1771, common ide Idus idus (Linnaeus, 1758, common roach Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758, pontic roach R. frisii (Nordmann, 1840, common bream Abramis brama (Linnaeus, 1758, common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus, 1758, tench Tinca tinca (Linnaeus, 1758, european catfish Silurus glanis Linnaeus, 1758, northern pike Esox lucius (Linnaeus, 1758, and zander Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus, 1758. Most of them are quite common in the Dnieper river basin. It was found that carp fishes predominate in the number of species. Most of the bone remnants in the collection belong to zander, catfish and pike, while common roach, pontic roach and common bream are identified by the few bones. This may indicate a different role of these species in the diet of the local population. The ratio of skeletal elements in the collection is the evidence of the fish cutting on the site. Body length and weight was reconstructed for 64 fish specimens. It was found that they were mature and small-sized, except for catfish, pike and perch. Taking into account the characteristics of the funeral rituals of the Yamna culture population, fish bones from the mound near Maryanskoe can be remnants of the parting meal.

  16. Measured Hydrologic Storage Characteristics of Three Major Ice Wedge Polygon Types, Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, A. J.; Liljedahl, A.; Wilson, C. J.; Cable, W.; Romanovsky, V. E.

    2014-12-01

    Model simulations have suggested that the hydrologic fluxes and stores of Arctic wetlands are constrained by the micro-topographical features of ice wedge polygons, which are abundant in lowland tundra landscapes. Recently observed changes in ice wedge polygon landscapes - in particular, ice wedge degradation and trough formation - emphasize the need to better understand how differing ice wedge polygon morphologies affect the larger hydrologic system. Here we present three seasons of measured end-of-winter snow accumulation, continuous soil moisture and water table elevations, and repeated frost table mapping. Together, these describe the hydrologic characteristics of three main ice wedge polygon types: low centered polygons with limited trough development (representative of a ~500 year old vegetated drained thaw lake basin), and low- and high-centered polygons with well-defined troughs. Dramatic spatiotemporal variability exists both between polygon types and between the features of an individual polygon (e.g. troughs, centers, rims). Landscape-scale end-of-winter snow water equivalent is similar between polygon types, while the sub-polygon scale distribution of the surface water differs, both as snow and as ponded water. Some sub-polygon features appear buffered against large variations in water levels, while others display periods of prolonged recessions and large responses to rain events. Frost table elevations in general mimic the ground surface topography, but with spatiotemporal variability in thaw rate. The studied thaw seasons represented above long-term average rainfall, and in 2014, record high June precipitation. Differing ice wedge polygon types express dramatically different local hydrology, despite nearly identical climate forcing and landscape-scale snow accumulation, making ice wedge polygons an important component when describing the Arctic water, nutrient and energy system.

  17. Carbonaceous species and humic like substances (HULIS) in Arctic snowpack during OASIS field campaign in Barrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Didier; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Houdier, StéPhan; Barret, Manuel; Cozic, Julie; King, Martin D.; France, James L.; Reay, Holly J.; Grannas, Amanda; Kos, Gregor; Ariya, Parisa A.; Beine, Harry J.; Domine, Florent

    2012-07-01

    Snowpacks contain many carbonaceous species that can potentially impact on snow albedo and arctic atmospheric chemistry. During the OASIS field campaign, in March and April 2009, Elemental Carbon (EC), Water insoluble Organic Carbon (WinOC) and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) were investigated in various types of snow: precipitating snows, remobilized snows, wind slabs and depth hoars. EC was found to represent less than 5% of the Total Carbon Content (TCC = EC + WinOC + DOC), whereas WinOC was found to represent an unusual 28 to 42% of TCC. Snow type was used to infer physical processes influencing the evolution of different fractions of DOC. DOC is highest in soil influenced indurated depth hoar layers due to specific wind related formation mechanisms in the early season. Apart from this specific snow type, DOC is found to decrease from precipitating snow to remobilized snow to regular depth hoar. This decrease is interpreted as due to cleaving photochemistry and physical equilibration of the most volatile fraction of DOC. Depending on the relative proportions of diamond dust and fresh snow in the deposition of the seasonal snowpack, we estimate that 31 to 76% of DOC deposited to the snowpack is reemitted back to the boundary layer. Under the assumption that this reemission is purely photochemical, we estimate an average flux of VOC out of the snowpack of 20 to 170 μgC m-2 h-1. Humic like substances (HULIS), short chain diacids and aldehydes are quantified, and showed to represent altogether a modest (<20%) proportion of DOC, and less than 10% of DOC + WinOC. HULIS optical properties are measured and could be consistent with aged biomass burning or a possible marine source.

  18. 7 CFR 59.202 - Mandatory daily reporting for barrows and gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED... loss; (iv) The average backfat; (v) The average loin depth; (vi) The average lean percentage; and (vii...

  19. The late Quaternary environmental evolution of marine Arctic Canada: Barrow Strait to Lancaster Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieńkowski, Anna J.; England, John H.; Furze, Mark F. A.; MacLean, Brian; Blasco, Steve

    2014-05-01

    A marine sediment core from the east-central Canadian Arctic Archipelago (Core 86027-154; 74° 22.01‧N 89° 51.26‧W; 329 m water depth), studied by a multiproxy approach [lithostratigraphy, biogeochemistry, micropalaeontology (dinoflagellate cysts, other non-pollen palynomorphs, benthic and planktonic foraminifera, ostracods)], and encompassing 14 AMS 14C dates, provides valuable insights into regional deglacial to Holocene palaeoenvironments. Six palaeoenvironmental zones are recognized, based on prominent changes in the litho- and biostratigraphy. The waterlain diamicton of Zone I records immediate deglaciation, being derived from lift-off and calving of previously grounded glacial ice. Though deglacial timing is complicated by the sparsity of dating materials and the Portlandia Effect, age-depth model extrapolation places deglaciation at 11.54 cal ka BP. Zone II (11.5-11.0 cal ka BP) represents a distinct progression from initially ice-proximal to increasingly ice-distal conditions, interrupted by an interval of pervasive sea-ice (11.4-11.2 cal ka BP). Noteworthy biological activity commences in Zone III (11.0-9.7 cal ka BP) with a prominent signal of planktonic foraminifera (Neogloboquadrina pachyderma). This likely signifies penetration of deeper, Atlantic-derived water through the central Canadian Arctic Archipelago upon deglaciation, facilitated by the greater, glacioisostatically-induced water depths (+80 m), and implies separation of Laurentide and Innuitian ice sheets by ˜11.0 cal ka BP. Zone IV (9.7-7.2 cal ka BP) records ameliorated, biologically favourable conditions with reduced seasonal sea-ice accompanied by high microfossil species diversity and the presence of subpolar taxa. Zone V (7.2-6.5 cal ka BP) signals the exclusion of Atlantic-derived water, concomitant with increasing sea-ice, simultaneously representing the termination of the dynamic deglacial to early Holocene environments (zones I-IV). Conditions similar to modern typified by uniform sediment characteristics, present-day microfossil assemblage structures, and sparse benthic foraminifera were established by 5.6 cal ka BP (Zone VI).

  20. Performance and carcass yield of barrows fed dried poultry waste as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-02-19

    Feb 19, 2007 ... The layers were housed inside battery cages. Prior to the collection of the waste, ..... Laying hen excreta as a ruminant feed II. Preservation and acceptability of wet excreta by sheep. J. Anim. Sci. 46: 527-534. Haydon KD, Tanksley Jr. TD, Knabe DA (1989): Performance and carcass composition of limit-fed ...

  1. Pre-ABoVE: Arctic Vegetation Plots, IBP Tundra Biome, Barrow, Alaska, 1972-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides vegetation cover and environmental plot data collected as part of the International Biological Program (IBP), U. S. Tundra Biome Program, in...

  2. Pre-ABoVE: Active Layer Thickness and Soil Water Content, Barrow, Alaska, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides estimates of Active Layer Thickness (ALT) determined with ground-based measurements, and calculated soil volumetric water content (VWC) at...

  3. 2013 Georgia Department of Natural Resources (GADNR) Topographic Lidar: Barrow, Clarke, Madison and Oglethorpe Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Contract: EA133C11CQ0009 NOAA Task Order Number: T0013 The PS FY13 GA DNR Elevation Data Task Order involves collecting and delivering topographic elevation...

  4. Multibeam collection for HLY13TC: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2013-09-08 to 2013-09-21, Barrow, AK to Seward, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Multibeam collection for HLY08TI: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2008-10-01 to 2008-10-15, Barrow, AK to Dutch Harbor, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  6. Multibeam collection for HLY12TC: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2012-09-24 to 2012-09-27, Barrow, AK to Dutch Harbor, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. Multibeam collection for HLY09TD: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2009-07-06 to 2009-07-25, Seattle, WA to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  8. Non-electric applications of geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns. Final report, October 1976--November 1977. [Barrow, Huslia, Kiana, Nikolski, Nome, and Wrangell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquhar, J.; Grijalva, R.; Kirkwood, P.

    1977-11-01

    The potential for direct (non-electric) utilization of local-gradient geothermal energy in six Alaskan towns is summarized. A major objective of this study was to stimulate development and use of the geothermal resource provided by the earth's average thermal gradient, as opposed to the few anomalies that are typically chosen for geothermal development. Hence, six towns for study were selected as being representative of remote Alaskan conditions, rather than for their proximity to known geothermal resources. The moderate-temperature heat available almost everywhere at depths of two to four kilometers into the earth's mantle could satisfy a major portion of the nation's heating requirements--but the cost must be reduced. It is concluded that a geothermal demonstration in Nome would probably be successful and would promote this objective.

  9. Sea ice meiofauna abundance in coastal fast ice off Barrow, Alaska, with a focus on Scolelepis squamata (Polychaeta), July 12, 2005 - April 4, 2006 (NODC Accession 0064869)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The fast ice along the Alaskan coastline forms in November/December and reaches a thickness of 1.5-1.8m by April. Break-up usually occurs between late June and...

  10. Multibeam collection for HLY1201: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2012-08-09 to 2012-08-25, Dutch Harbor, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for HLY1301: Multibeam data collected aboard Healy from 2013-07-29 to 2013-08-15, Dutch Harbor, AK to Barrow, AK

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. The Barrow-in-Furness legionnaires' outbreak: qualitative study of the hospital response and the role of the major incident plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A F; Wild, C; Law, J

    2005-04-01

    To document the organisational response of Furness General Hospital to the large outbreak of legionnaire's disease in April 2002 and assess the contribution made by the hospital's major incident plan. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts and written comments from some staff involved in the management of the incident. Documentary analysis of major incident plan and other written materials. The incident posed considerable managerial and clinical problems and this paper describes how they were overcome. In particular, strategies for dealing with supply (of staff, beds, and resources) and managing demand (by liaising with primary care and the public) seem to have been successful. Many functions necessary for managing the incident were poorly dealt with in the plan, especially procedures for handling the news media and liaison with agencies outside the hospital. Lack of explicit guidance appeared not to hinder the organisational response. There may have been an unspoken high level decision to allow staff to draw on their skills and experience in improvising a response to the initial challenge and learning adaptively as the incident unfolded. There was also evidence that staff disregarded existing job and role boundaries and focused instead on tasks, working flexibly to ensure that these tasks were completed. Protracted major incidents pose particular management challenges and may benefit from an approach different from that set out in typical major incident plans. Staff must be able to act flexibly and responsively. Some form of checklist or toolkit may be preferable to a detailed plan for some types of incident.

  13. 75 FR 32096 - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures, and Takeoff Minimums and Obstacle Departure Procedures...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... Minimums and Obstacle DP, Orig Barrow, AK, Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial, GPS RWY 24, Orig-B, CANCELLED Barrow, AK, Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial, ILS OR LOC/DME RWY 6, Orig-B CANCELLED Barrow, AK, Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial, ILS OR LOC/DME RWY 7, Orig Barrow, AK, Wiley Post-Will Rogers Memorial, LOC...

  14. Very Versatile Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    6 Figure 3: Skima Hovercraft Ltd’s "SkimaBarrow 250... Hovercraft Limited 5. Figure 3: Skima Hovercraft Ltd’s "SkimaBarrow 250" In use, the loaded hover pallet would be inflated onboard the VVV and

  15. Impact of sex on composition and quality of fresh loins, bellies, and fresh and processed hams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to characterize the effect of sex and selection focus on primal quality. Pigs (N=7,672) from a lean growth selection [n=1,468 barrows (LB); n=2,151 gilts (LG)] or superior meat quality selection [n=1,895 barrows (QB); n=2,158 gilts (QG)] focus were slaughtered in 3 marketing groups...

  16. Effects of various pre-slaughter conditions on pig carcasses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gender, slaughter weight, stocking density, lairage time and season on carcass and meat quality parameters in a low-input production system. The study was conducted on 400 slaughter pigs (200 barrows and 200 gilts) with live weight of 115.0 ± 4.70 kg. Barrows had ...

  17. Acoustic effects of oil-production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska-1990 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.J.; Greene, C.R.; Koski, W.R.; Smultea, M.A.; Cameron, G.

    1991-10-01

    The report concerns the effects of underwater noise from simulated oil production operations on the movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales migrating around northern Alaska in spring. An underwater sound projector suspended from pack ice was used to introduce recorded drilling noise and other test sounds into leads through the pack ice. These sounds were received and measured at various distances to determine the rate of sound attenuation with distance and frequency. The movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales approaching the operating projector were studied by aircraft- and ice-based observers. Some individuals of both species were observed to approach well within the ensonified area. However, behavioral changes and avoidance reactions were evident when the received sound level became sufficiently high. Reactions to aircraft are also discussed

  18. Lisina digestível para suínos machos castrados de alta deposição de carne submetidos a estresse por calor dos 30 aos 60 kg Digestible lysine levels for high lean deposition barrows from 30 to 60 kg kept under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Mauro Batista

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar níveis de lisina digestível para suínos dos 30 aos 60 kg mantidos sob estresse por calor. Utilizaram-se 70 suínos machos castrados mantidos em ambiente a 30ºC e outros 70 em ambiente a 34ºC, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (0,83; 0,93; 1,03; 1,13 e 1,23% de lisina digestível, sete repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. O ganho de peso diário dos animais mantidos a 30ºC aumentou até o nível de 1,04% de lisina digestível, mas a 34ºC não variou. O consumo de ração diário dos animais a 30 e a 34ºC não variou com os níveis de lisina. O consumo de lisina diário dos animais, em ambos os ambientes, aumentou de acordo com o nível de lisina da ração. A 30ºC, a conversão alimentar melhorou até o nível de 1,07% de lisina, enquanto a 34ºC não variou entre os níveis de lisina. Independentemente da temperatura, a eficiência de utilização de lisina reduziu conforme aumentaram os níveis de lisina e foi 4,4% pior no ambiente com temperatura mais elevada. A deposição de proteína na carcaça dos animais no ambiente a 30ºC aumentou até o nível de 1,05% de lisina, mas não variou no ambiente a 34ºC. A 30ºC, a deposição de gordura reduziu até o nível de 1,08% de lisina, enquanto a 34ºC, aumentou até o nível de 1,08% e foi, em média, 25,6% menor que a 30ºC. Os níveis de triiodotironina e tiroxina foram 35 e 30%, respectivamente, menores nos animais mantidos em ambiente a 34ºC, em que a frequência respiratória e temperatura retal também foram mais altas que as observadas nos animais mantidos a 30ºC. Os níveis de 1,04 e 0,83% de lisina digestível proporcionam maior ganho de peso e deposição de proteína em suínos mantidos, respectivamente, em ambientes a 30 e 34ºC.This study was conducted to evaluate levels of digestible lysine for pigs at 30 to 60 kg kept under heat stress. It was used 70 castrated animals kept in environment at 30ºC and others 70 kept at 34ºC, distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments (0.83, 0.93, 1.03, 1.13 and 1.23% digestible lysine, and seven repetitions with two animals per experimental unit. The daily weight gain of the animals kept at 30ºC increased up to 1.04% of digestible lysine, whereas it did not change at 34ºC. Feed daily intake of animals at 30ºC and 34ºC did not change with levels of lysine. Daily lysine intake of animals, in both environments, increased according to the level of lysine in the diet. At 30ºC, feed conversion improved up to the level of 1.07% lysine, whereas at 34ºC, it did not vary among lysine levels. Regardless of the temperature, use efficiency of lysine decreased as levels of lysine increased and it was 4.4% worse in the environment with higher temperature. Protein deposition in carcass in the 30ºC environment increased up to the level of 1.05% lysine, but it did not change at 34ºC. At 30ºC, fat deposition decreased down to 1.08% lysine, whereas in the 34ºC environment, it increased up to 1.08%, and it was on average 25.6% lower than at 30ºC. Levels of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were 35 and 30%, respectively, which was lower in animals kept in the 34ºC environment, where respiratory rate and rectal temperature were higher than those observed in animals kept in the environment at 30ºC. The levels of 1.04 and 0.83% of digestible lysine provide greater weight gain and protein deposition in pigs kept in environments at 30ºC and 34ºC, respectively.

  19. Effects of immunological castration (Improvest) on further processed belly characteristics and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, J M; Bohrer, B M; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D

    2014-09-01

    Objectives were to compare fresh belly characteristics, further processed belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of immunologically castrated (IC) barrows, IC barrows fed ractopamine hydrochloride (IC+RAC), physically castrated (PC) barrows, intact males, and gilts. One hundred eighty-eight bellies from pigs housed in single sex pens (n = 48) slaughtered at 130 kg ending live weight were evaluated for flop distance, length, width, thickness, and fatty acid composition. Bellies were injected, thermally processed, and sliced according to standard protocols at a USDA federally inspected facility. Complete slices were sorted by trained plant personnel. Then, sliced bellies were individually packaged to maintain anatomical orientation. The effects of treatments were analyzed as a generalized linear mixed model with pen of pigs serving as the experimental unit for all comparisons. Belly thickness was not different (P ≥ 0.11) in bellies from IC barrows (3.74 cm) compared with bellies from IC+RAC (3.60 cm), PC barrows (3.94 cm), or gilts (3.64 cm); however, bellies were 0.42 cm thicker (P bacon manufactured from IC barrows were less than both PC barrows and gilts.

  20. Effect of gender on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat and fat composition of pigs slaughtered at 125 kg of live weight destined to Teruel (Spain ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Garitano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Duroc x (Landrace x Large White barrows (n=60 and gilts (n=72, that consumed the same feed during the experimental period (25-125 kg of live weight were used. The duration of experimental period was 130 and 143 days for barrows and gilts respectively. The average daily gain and average daily feed intake were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, but no significant differences between sexes were observed for the feed conversion efficiency. The gender had not significant influence on carcass weight, carcass yield, carcass inner length, ham length and perimeter, but fat thickness at the level of Gluteus medius muscle and the last rib were significantly higher (P <0.05 in barrows than in gilts. The number of thighs removed per pig in the slaughterhouse was significantly higher in gilts than in barrows. The intramuscular fat (IMF percentage in Longissimus dorsi muscle was significantly higher in barrows than in gilts. The C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:1 n-9, C20:1 and Σ MUFA proportions were significantly higher (P<0.05 in barrows than in gilts, while C10:0, C18:2 n-6, Σ n-6 and Σ PUFA proportions were higher in gilts than in barrows. Positive relations among IMF and C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 n-9, Σ SFA and Σ MUFA fatty acids were observed, whereas negative relations among IMF and C18:2 n-6 and PUFA fatty acids were detected. These results indicate that meat and fat quality was slightly better in barrows than in gilts.

  1. Effects of Crossbreeding and Gender on the Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Korean Native Black Pig and Duroc Crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhlisin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D. A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001 than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01 than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001 than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001 than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001 than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05 than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts.

  2. AFSC/RACE/EcoFOCI: 2011 Chukchi Sea Cruise MB11-01/1MB11

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A total of 64 stations were occupied along onshore-offshore transect lines from the Bering Strait to Barrow Canyon. At each station we sampled zooplankton using a...

  3. 76 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    .... coachellae habitat by impacting these sand formations (for example, development, unauthorized off- highway... new sand to the aeolian transport corridor (Barrows and Allen 2007, p. 323; USFWS GIS data). This type...

  4. Mohyla únětické kultury z Brandýsa nad Labem jako doklad ojedinělých pohřebních praktik starší doby bronzové

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielisová, Alžběta; Langová, Michaela; Kočár, Petr; Kyselý, René; Stránská, Petra; Sůvová, Z.; Světlík, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 1 (2013), s. 56-88 ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Central Bohemia * Early Bronze Age * barrow * cultural layer * settlement pit Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  5. Bowhead whale aerial abundance survey conducted by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2011-04-19 to 2011-06-11 (NCEI Accession 0133937)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial photographic surveys for bowhead whales were conducted near Point Barrow, Alaska, from 19 April to 6 June in 2011. Approximately 4,594 photographs containing...

  6. Trajetories during AGASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric trajectories were calculated for various Arctic locations for March and April 1983, during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten-day back trajectories arriving twice daily were calculated on the 850-, 700-, and 500-mb isobaric surfaces. During AGASP flights 1-4, trajectories arriving at Barrow show that flow was over the pole from western Asia and Europe, and that the strongest winds and least vertical wind shear on March 14 at 0000 UT. Surface aerosols and optical depth measured at this time at Barrow reflect a significant haze episode. Trajectories arriving along the flight tracks north of Barrow were frequently very different from those arriving at Barrow, indicating that source areas were in northeast Asia. Trajectories arriving along AGASP flight track 8 near Svalbard showed that the source area changed dramatically in the approximate location of an Arctic aerosol/haze front

  7. Ketone Bodies Mediate Antiseizure Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena M. Krueger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from The Barrow Neurological Institute, Creighton University, University of Kentucky and the University of Calgary Faculty of Medicine investigated the effect of ketone bodies and the ketogenic diet on epileptic Kcna1-null mice.

  8. Effect of immunological castration management strategy on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, R T; Tavárez, M A; Harsh, B N; Mellencamp, M A; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of 1) immunological castration (Improvest, a gonadotropin releasing factor analog-diphtheria toxoid conjugate) management strategy (age at slaughter and time of slaughter after second dose) and 2) sex on lipid oxidation and sensory characteristics of bacon stored under simulated food service conditions. For Objective 1, immunological castration management strategies included 24-wk-old immunologically castrated (IC) barrows 4, 6, 8, or 10 wk after the second Improvest dose (ASD); 26-wk-old IC barrows 6 wk ASD; and 28-wk-old IC barrows 8 wk ASD ( = 63). Objective 2 ( = 97) included IC barrows, physically castrated (PC) barrows, and gilts slaughtered at 24, 26, and 28 wks of age. Bellies from 2 slaughter dates were manufactured into bacon under commercial conditions. Bacon slices were laid out on parchment paper, packaged in oxygen-permeable poly-vinyl-lined boxes, and frozen (-33°C) for 1, 4, 8, or 12 wk to simulate food service conditions. At the end of each storage period, bacon was evaluated for lipid oxidation, moisture and lipid content, and sensory characteristics. Data from both objectives were analyzed using the MIXED procedure in SAS with belly as the experimental unit. For both objectives, as storage time increased, lipid oxidation of bacon increased ( bacon from IC barrows increased as time of slaughter ASD increased ( bacon across management strategies. For the evaluation of sex effects in Objective 2, lipid oxidation was greater ( 0.05). After 12 wk of frozen storage, lipid oxidation values for IC barrows, PC barrows, and gilts were still below 0.5 mg malondialdehyde/kg of meat, the threshold at which trained panelists may deem a food to be rancid. In conclusion, bacon shelf life characteristics were not altered by the immunological castration management strategy and bacon from IC barrows was similar to bacon from gilts. Therefore, bacon from IC barrows would result in shelf life and sensory

  9. Arctic Haze: Natural or Pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    and for sulfate by turbidimetry . The project on particle- size distributions of the Barrow aerosol will be concluded. The cooperative study of Arctic...sulfate by turbidimetry and trace elements by short-lived neutron activation. One winter has been analyzed for additional elements by long-lived neutron...analyzed the first four years of filter samples from Barrow for sulfate by turbidimetry and for trace elements by short-lived neutron activation. For

  10. Root Zone Microbial Communities and Restoration of Plant Communities in Owens Valley, California - Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    rangelands of the south- western U.S. are more extensively colonized by dark septate endophytes than by traditional mycorrhizal fungi (Barrow 2003...Dichloromethane, methylene chloride, a non-polar organic solvent DSE Dark septate endophytes ERDC Engineer Research and Development Center FSL Fish...U.S. range- lands (Barrow and Aaltonen 2001). These fungi are characteristically iden- tified using conventional fungus staining methods, in which

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NARROW SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    NARROW-SPECTRUM ANTIMICROBIAL THAT EXHIBITS SPECIFIC ACTIVITY AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA by Caitlin M. Barrows Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer...AGAINST UROPATHOGENIC BACTERIA 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Caitlin M. Barrows, Courtney M...antimicrobials which have been implicated as a critical cause of the rise of drug resistant bacteria . Additionally, the presence of females in the field

  12. Polar Gateways Arctic Circle Sunrise 2008 Conference at the Top of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. F.; Kauristie, K.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Sheehan, G. W.; Smith, R. W.; Cline, T. D.; Lewis, E. M.; Haines-Stiles, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Polar Gateways conference was hosted during January 23-29, 2008, the first week of polar sunrise at Barrow, Alaska, at the new Barrow Arctic Research Center of the Barrow Arctic Science Consortium (BASC). The dawn week of polar day, the highly variable low temperatures, and the ice-covered shore tundra and adjacent sea ice conditions provided an appropriate locale for a conference dedicated in the spirit of the International Polar and Heliophysical Years 2007-2009 to the educational exploration of polar and icy world science of Earth and the solar system. The many scientific, educational, and cultural interactions with the local community of four thousand residents, sixty percent native Inupiat Eskimo, further provided an unforgettable experience of what life might be someday be like on other remote polar and icy worlds to be explored and eventually inhabited. Over one hundred active participants, more than half participating remotely, contributed science presentations and educational activities during this unique circumpolar and very "green" conference. Most remote contributions came via videoconference from the Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) at Kiruna, Sweden, the EISCAT Svalbard Radar Facility at Spitzbergen, Norway, the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the University of California at Berkeley, and the University of Arizona. A few contributors participated via teleconference, including one from the Polar Geophysical Institute at Apatity in Russia. These active contributions spanned up to thirteen time zones (Alaska to Russia) at various times during the conference. Primary videoconferencing support between Barrow and other sites was ably provided by the University of Alaska at Fairbanks, and local operators at each remote site collectively made this conference possible. Science presentations spanned the solar system from the polar Sun and heliospheric environment to Earth, Moon

  13. Ритуальный комплекс раннего бронзового века с левобережья Нижнего Днестра / Early Bronze Age ritual complex from the left bank of the Lower Dniester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Razumov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2015 the employees of the Pridnestrovian State University conducted rescue excavations of three barrows from the group «Sad» near Glinoe Village, Slobodzeiya district on the left bank of the Lower Dniester. In the barrow 4, in addition to the seven secondary Early Iron Age graves, the burial of a small child and related constructions were found: 11 round ritual pits with animal bones and a fi replace located on the ancient horizon in a certain order, surrounded by a ring ditch with two gaps. Two pits contained dogs’ burials, and the one pit – a young specimen of small cattle. Funeral practice and inventory of the main burial and features of the under barrow constructions allow to attribute this monument to the earliest stage of Usatovo culture – to the time, when its carriers had active contacts with the population of the Yamna cultural-historical community. Barrow 4 of the group «Sad» near Glinoe village is preliminary dated to the turn of the 4th-3rd millennia BC. The interpretation of this barrow as a sanctuary of Early Bronze Age, probably associated with the ritual sacrifice of animals and humans, is the most reasonable.

  14. “New” Scythian Complex of the 3rd Century BC on the Right Bank of the Lower Dniester Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Razumov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the new attribution of the materials from barrow 20, excavated in 1975 near Semenovka village on the right bank of the Dniester liman, Belgorod-Dnesterovsky district, Odessa region, Ukraine. The only burial of this barrow was still considered as the monument of Babino culture (aka Multi-Cordoned Ware culture of the first quarter of the 2nd millennium BC. The ceramic and metal artifacts found under the barrow were considered during the study of the material culture of the Scythians of the last third of the 1st millennium BC. The thorough analysis of the stratigraphy, planigraphy, funeral rite and artifacts showed that barrow 20 near Semenovka village was built instantaneously, and in fact it is Scythian. A cenotaph was the main complex of the barrow. It came with not only the armament items (iron-socketed arrowheads, spearheads and sockets of spears, horse harness (bronze frontlet with axe-shaped blade and a hook, bronze ringed beads, iron bits and iron snaffle ring, iron round pendants, glass cup, remains of the funeral feast as a ceramic breakage (Rhodes, Sinop, Cos, Cnidus amphorae, two pottery jars and molded vessel, but also with the burial of a dependent person lying crouched on his left side, his head in the eastern sector, in the catacomb. Depth of the fixing of these findings corresponded to the level of the ancient horizon on which the two-sided mainland ejected from the burial construction. Based on the Rhodes amphora marked with the eponym Άγήσιππος of - manufacturer - Έπίγονος 1, the barrow dates back to the last third or last quarter of the 3rd century BC.

  15. The Arctic Lower Troposphere Observed Structure (ALTOS) Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verlinde, J

    2010-10-18

    The ALTOS campaign focuses on operating a tethered observing system for routine in situ sampling of low-level (< 2 km) Arctic clouds. It has been a long-term hope to fly tethered systems at Barrow, Alaska, but it is clear that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) will not permit in-cloud tether systems at Barrow, even if unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations are allowed in the future. We have provided the scientific rationale for long-term, routine in situ measurements of cloud and aerosol properties in the Arctic. The existing restricted air space at Oliktok offers an opportunity to do so.

  16. GROWTH ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF PIG’S BIOLOGICAL MAXIMUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Vincek

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine a mathematical model which can be used to describe the growth of domestic animals in an attempt to predict the optimal time of slaughter/weight or the development of body parts or tissues and estimate the biological maximum. The study was conducted on 60 pigs (30 barrows and 30 gilts in the interval between the age of 49 and 215 days. By applying the generalized logistic function, the growth of live weight and tissues were described. The observed gilts reached the inflection point in approximately 121 days (I = 70.7 kg. The point at which the interval of intensive growth starts was at the age of approximately 42 days, (TB=17.35 kg and the saturation point the pigs reached at the age of 200.5 days (TC=126.74 kg. The estimated biological maximum weight of gilts was 179.79 kg. The barrows reached the inflection point in approximately 149 days (I=92.2 kg. The point at which the intensive interval of growth starts was estimated at the age of approximately 52 days (TB=22.93 kg, and the saturation point the barrows reached at the age of 245 days (TC=164.8 kg. The estimated biological maximum weight of barrows was 233.25 kg. Muscle tissue of gilts reached the inflection point (I = 28.46 kg in approximately 110 days. The point at which the interval of intensive growth of muscle tissue starts (TB=6.06 kg was estimated at approximately 53 days, and the saturation point of growth (TC=52.25 kg the muscle tissue of gilts reached at the age of 162 days. The estimated maximum biological growth of muscle tissue in gilts was 75.79 kg. The muscle tissue of barrows reached the inflection point (I=28.78 kg in approximately 118 days, the point at which the interval of intensive growth starts (TB=6.36 kg at the age of approximately 35 days. The saturation point of muscle tissue growth in barrows (TC=52.51 kg was reached at the age of 202 days. The estimated maximum biological growth of muscle tissue in barrows was 75.74 kg. The

  17. Aggressiveness and brain amines in pigs fed the ß-adrenoreceptor agonist Ractopamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of the widely used feed additive Ractopamine (RAC), gender and social rank on aggressiveness and concentrations of brain amines in finishing pigs. Thirty-two barrows and 32 gilts (4 pigs/pen/gender) were fed either control or RAC (5 mg/kg/2 w...

  18. Review of Rainwater Harvesting Techniques and Evidence for their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critchley and' Sahara Atrica. (SsPl) h~s been well documen'ted. Siegert, 1991; Prinz, 1995; Barrow, 1999), in Kenya (Kiome a~d-Stocking, 1993), in_Zim-. For simplicity, this paper adopts a classifica-babwe (Twornlow i and Hagma~, 1998) and.

  19. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greatest notational development of all time brings us back to India, and that is the place value system for numbers. To quote John Barrow: "The Indian system of counting has been the most successful intellectual innovation ever made on our planet .... It constitutes the nearest thing we have to a universal language.".

  20. High-accuracy C-14 measurements for atmospheric CO2 samples by AMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.A.J.; Pertuisot, M.H.; van der Plicht, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how to achieve high-accuracy radiocarbon measurements by accelerator mass spectrometry (ANIS) and present measurement series (performed on archived CO2) of (CO2)-C-14 between 1985 and 1991 for Point Barrow (Alaska) and the South Pole. We report in detail the measurement

  1. The Tsymlyansk complex of Khazar time on the Lower Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flyorov Valerij S.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The two series of objects that arrived at the Tsymlyansk city museum (Rostov oblast, Russia in 2013 are published. The first group comes from a roughly square construction of still unclear purpose covering an area of 130×130 m, which is hardly visible on the surface (conventionally named “Tsimlyansky square” or “Tsimlyanky kvadrat”. The group consists of about 170 items, including 60–70 horse cheek-bits and their fragments. Nearby, a well-known barrow in the form of truncated pyramid named (Dark- Blue Mound is situated, covering an area of 95×100 m, over 10 m in height. Its base is encircled by a trench, square in plane. The barrow has not been excavated, its date remaining undetermined. The relation between the barrow and the published complex is presumable. The finds from the “Tsimlyansky square” show analogy with those from the Bolshaya Orlovka mound site belonging to the Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture and dated by the early-8th c. The second group of the objects includes trilobate arrowheads that come from the remains of the ploughed burial mound with traces of a demolished stone construction (barrow with stones. The items also belong to the Saltovo-Mayatskaya culture and are presumably dated by the late-8th – early-9th cc.

  2. Microwave-assisted synthesis and photoluminescence properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-11

    Nov 11, 2017 ... Sasakura H 1984 Appl. Phys. Lett. 45 960. [5] Barrow W A, Coovert R E and King C N 1984 SID Sympo- sium Digest of Technical Papers, San Francisco, CA, USA, p 249. [6] Tanaka S, Shankar V, Shiiki M, Deguchi H and May K H. 1985 SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers, Orlando,. FL, USA, p 255.

  3. 75 FR 78613 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Justice Reform. This interim rule meets the applicable standards of Executive Order 12988. List of... Business of Miami, 3500 Pan Review. American Drive, Miami, FL 33133. Florida: Orange City of Orlando..., 2010, Mayor, City of Orlando, Orlando Weekly. P.O. Box 4990, Orlando, FL 32802. Georgia: Barrow...

  4. comparative evaluation of active learning and the traditional lectures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barrows, H. S. and Tamblyn, R. M. (1980). Problem based learning, an approach to medical education. Springer, New York. Committee on developments in the science of learning (2004). How people learn (expanded edition). National Academy Press, Washington. D.C.. Cross, P. K. (1987). Teaching for learning. Am Assoc.

  5. 202 197 Heavy Metals and Microbial Contamin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-02

    Dec 2, 2008 ... plant micronutrients, trace minerals http://www.virginearth. com/indexhotm. Barrow, G.I. and Feltham, R.K.A. (1993). Cowan and Steel's manual for identification of medical bacteria. Third edition. Cambridge University Press, London. .Ed. Pp. 7 – 27; 37, 47, 58, 199-231. But, P.P., Tomlinson, B. and Cheung ...

  6. La préservation, atout essentiel pour contrer la précarité des ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC Officer. Sanginga, Pascal. Total funding. CA$ 1,000,000. Country(s). North of Sahara, South of Sahara. Project Leader. Dr. Edmund Barrow. Project Leader. Dr. Alice Kaudia. Institution. Union mondiale pour la conservation de la nature et des ressources. Institution Country. Kenya. Institution Website. http://www.iucn.

  7. Alpine orogenic evolution from subduction to collisional thermal overprint: The 40Ar/39Ar age constraints from the Valaisan Ocean, central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiederkehr, Michael; Sudo, Masafumi; Bousquet, Romain

    2009-01-01

    age populations of white mica record peak pressure conditions (42–40 Ma) and several stages of subsequent retrograde metamorphic evolution (36–25 Ma). Biotite isotopic analyses yield consistent apparent ages that cluster around 18–16 Ma for the Barrow-type thermal overprint. The recorded isotopic data...

  8. Health and Social Science Research in the Arctic: Guidelines and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Proposes ethical principles for Arctic research suggested by the Barrow Alcohol Study. Suggests that lack of understanding of the Native community, the mistaken assumption that informed consent had been obtained, and the influence of (and political struggles among) non-Native institutions and agencies contributed to the problems. (DHP)

  9. Effects of two different dietary fermentable carbohydrates on activity and heat production in group-housed growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnen, M.M.J.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of two sources of dietary fiber (DF) on behavior and heat production (HP) in group-housed growing pigs were studied. Twenty clusters of 14 barrows (50 kg) were fed one of 10 diets. Diets differed mainly in type,and content of fermentable DF (fDF) and in content of digestible starch. Five

  10. Road Salt Transport at Two Municipal Wellfields in Wilmington, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloride concentrations in raw water at the Browns Crossing and Barrows Wellfields in Wilmington, Massachusetts have increased from an average of 6 mg/l in 1961 to 242 mg/l today. Average sodium concentrations since 2009 are six to seven times the state’s drinking water guideline...

  11. Of farms and fields : the Bronze Age and Iron Age settlement and Celtic field at Hijken-Hijkerveld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, S.; de Vries, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Between 1969 and 1973, excavations were undertaken at Hijken, the Netherlands. An area of 3 hectares within a cultural landscape replete with barrows and Celtic field banks was opened-up and yielded Late Neolithic graves, a Bronze Age palisade and several Middle Bronze Age houses. During the Late

  12. Comparative Energy Values Of Sorghum Distillers Waste, Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A balance trial aimed at determining the energy values of Sorghum Distiller's Wastes (SDW), Maize cob (MC) and Shea butter Waste (SBW) for barrows was conducted using a 4 x 4 Latin square cross- over experimental design. While feed intake was influenced (P < 0.05) by the test feed ingredients, the weight gained was ...

  13. Modifications to a Laboratory-Scale Confined Laser Ignition Chamber for Pressure Measurements to 70 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    of about 2.2%. We would expect volume expansion to scale in a linear fashion within the pressure range of the trend line plotted in Fig. 4 down to...13 5. References 1. Forch BE, Barrows AW, Beyer RA, Newberry JE, O’Reilly JJ. Trends observed in the laser ignition of blackpowder and JA2

  14. Cosmological magnetic fields - V

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the site of resistance to a former colonial prison, where many freedom fighters refused to surrender. References. [1] K Enqvist, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D7, 331 (1998). A Olinto, astro-ph/9807051. O Tцrnkvist, astro-ph/0002307. E Battaner and H Lesch, astro-ph/0003370. [2] C G Tsagas and J D Barrow, Class. Quantum Gravit.

  15. 40 CFR 81.237 - Northeast Georgia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Newton County, Oconee County, Oglethorpe County, Rabun County, Stephens County, Towns County, Union... within the outermost boundaries of the area so delimited): In the State of Georgia: Banks County, Barrow County, Clarke County, Dawson County, Elbert County, Forsyth County, Franklin County, Greene County...

  16. The factors influencing safety of archeology monuments in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir K. Tulush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article characterizes situation in preserving the arche-ology monuments in region – the most numerous objects of a cultural heritage in the republic. Modern factors, making the greatest influence on barrows and sites of ancient settlement as the basic types of monu-ments of Tuva are considered.

  17. Molecules and morphology reveal overlooked populations of two presumed extinct Australian sea snakes (Aipysurus: Hydrophiinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Kate Laura; Schroeder, Tina; Guinea, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    assessments.Morphological variation and mitochondrial sequence data confirm the assignment of these coastal specimens to A. foliosquama (Barrow Island, and offshore from Port Hedland) and A.apraefrontalis (Exmouth Gulf, and offshore from Roebourne and Broome). Collection dates, and molecular and morphological...

  18. Review of: Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016) T. Douglas Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    , barrows and megaliths that still mark the present-day landscape and bear witness to an intriguing prehistory. One of the important factors involved in the discovery of these archaeological remains is the nature of Scandinavian landscapes, riddled as they are with wet marshes, bogs, rivers and flooded...

  19. Supporting Young English Learners in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Lisa; Markman-Pithers, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Simply put, children with poor English skills are less likely to succeed in school and beyond. What's the best way to teach English to young children who aren't native English speakers? In this article, Lisa Barrow and Lisa Markman-Pithers examine the state of English learner education in the United States and review the evidence behind different…

  20. 47 CFR 90.614 - Segments of the 806-824/851-869 MHz band for non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Regulations Governing Licensing and... farther then 110 km (68.4 miles) from the U.S./Mexico border and 140 km (87 miles) from the U.S./Canadian..., Baker, Baldwin, Banks, Barrow, Bartow, Ben Hill, Berrien, Bibb, Bleckley, Brantley, Brooks, Bryan...

  1. Student-Athletes' Perceptions of Mental Illness and Attitudes toward Help-Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Jordan D.

    2016-01-01

    Given that there is evidence that college student-athletes may be at risk for psychological disturbances (Pinkerton, Hintz, & Barrow, 1989), and possibly underutilizing college mental health services (Watson & Kissinger, 2007), the purpose of this study was to examine attitudes toward mental illness and help seeking among college…

  2. The effects of sex and slaughter weight on growth performance and carcass traits of pigs intended for dry-cured ham from Teruel (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, M A; García-Belenguer, E; Ariño, L

    2008-08-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 200) from Duroc sires mated to Landrace x Large White dams, with a mean BW of 107.0 +/- 2.4 kg and intended for highquality dry-cured hams (Teruel ham) from Spain, were used to investigate the effects of sex (barrows and gilts) and slaughter weight (SW; 120, 125, 130, 135, and 140 kg of BW) on growth performance and carcass characteristics. For productive performance, there were 5 treatments based on 5 SW; each treatment was replicated 4 times and the replicate was a pen made up of 5 barrows and 5 gilts allotted together. For carcass traits, there were 10 treatments based on 2 sexes and 5 SW; each treatment was replicated 20 times and the replicate was a carcass. Barrows had fatter carcasses (P We can conclude that barrows were better than gilts when intended for Teruel ham. Furthermore, an increase in SW up to 130 kg in pigs impaired growth performance but improved some aspects of carcass quality that are required by the Teruel ham industry.

  3. Spinal cord injuries in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    passenger and load carriage, use of manual or motorised wheel barrow as against bearing heavy load on the head, principles of moving spinal injured patients taught every road traveller and establishment of spinal centres and training of specialised personnel. Keywords: Spinal Cord, Injury, Poraplegia, Quadriplegia.

  4. Behavioural and physiological consequences of acute social defeat in growing gilts : effects of the social environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, Marko A W; de Groot, Johanna; Brake, JHAT; Ekkel, ED; van de Burgwal, JA; Erkens, JHF; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2001-01-01

    Endocrine, behavioural and immunologic processes, together with body growth, were evaluated in gilts that were defeated at 10 weeks of age in resident-intruder tests. Immediately after defeat, gilts were either separated from or reunited with a familiar conspecific (litter-mate; always a barrow).

  5. Impacts of genetic line, gender and season on feeding behavior of grow-finish swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding behavior contains important information that can enable producers to better manage livestock. A study was conducted to quantify these impacts. Data were collected on barrows and gilts (n = 931) from 3 different genetic lines (Landrace x Yorkshire material line with three different sire bree...

  6. Hulled and hull-less barley cultivars with the genetic trait for low-phytic acid increased the apparent digestibility of phosphorus and calcium in diets for young swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 35-d experiment was conducted using 63 crossbred pigs (35 barrows and 28 gilts) with an average initial BW of 7.0 kg and age of 28 d to evaluate the efficacy of the low-phytic acid (LPA) genetic trait in hulled and hull-less barley cultivars. The hulled cultivars were Harrington normal barley (NB)...

  7. Long-term effects of social stress on antiviral immunity in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, J; Ruis, M A; Scholten, J W; Koolhaas, J M; Boersma, W J

    2001-05-01

    Mixing of unfamiliar pigs is common practice in intensive pig husbandry. Since pigs maintain a dominance hierarchy, mixing often leads to vigorous fighting. Apart from the negative impact that fighting has on welfare, there is evidence that the social stress associated with fighting suppresses immune function. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of mixing on specific long-term immune responses and protection against challenge infection after vaccination with pseudorabies virus (PRV). Specific pathogen-free (SPF) pigs were mixed pairwise with an unfamiliar same-gender conspecific or left undisturbed with a same-gender littermate at 3 days after vaccination with PRV. Half of the pigs were females (gilts) and half were castrated males (barrows). Mixing increased agonistic behavior to the same degree in gilts and barrows. Cortisol concentrations in saliva and catecholamine excretion in urine were increased in mixed pigs, and these effects were independent of dominance status and gender. Subsequently, the effects of mixing, gender, dominance status and interactions between these factors on immune response parameters were studied. The main result was that mixed barrows showed suppressed immune responses after vaccination and increased clinical symptoms after challenge infection compared to control barrows. Mixed gilts however did not differ from control gilts. It also appeared that mixed dominants were more seriously affected than mixed subordinates were. We conclude that, in some pigs, social stress after mixing suppresses the immune response to a viral vaccine and consequently impairs protection against challenge infection.

  8. Maternal-fetal cholesterol transport in the second half ofmouse pregnancy does not involve LDL receptor-related protein 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Mathijs V; Baardman, Maria E; van Dijk, Theo H; Jurdzinski, Angelika; Wisse, Lambertus J; Bloks, Vincent W; Berger, Rolf M F; DeRuiter, Marco C; Groen, Albert K; Plösch, Torsten

    AimLDL receptor-related protein type 2 (LRP2) is highly expressed on both yolk sac and placenta. Mutations in the corresponding gene are associated with severe birth defects in humans, known as Donnai-Barrow syndrome. We here characterized the contribution of LRP2 and maternal plasma cholesterol

  9. Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal Parasites among Waste-Handlers in Jos Metropolitan Area of Plateau State, Nigeria. ... Giardia lamblia was detected in 10.0% of barrow-pushers alone. About 2.3% of van-loaders were infected with ... Waste disposal workers are at high risk of infection with different species of intestinal parasites. Sahel Medical ...

  10. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol in growing pigs : Effects of age, gender, and stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruis, MAW; Brake, JHAT; Engel, B; Ekkel, ED; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    This experiment was designed to examine circadian rhythmicity of cortisol in saliva of growing pigs, in relation to age, gender, and (time of) stressor application. Additionally, the acute cortisol response to a stressor was studied. Five groups, each consisting of 3 barrows and 3 gilts, were

  11. A Random Assignment Evaluation of Learning Communities Seven Years Later: Impacts on Education and Earnings Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael J.; Mayer, Alexander; Cullinan, Dan; Ratledge, Alyssa; Sommo, Colleen; Diamond, John

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence confirms that increased education is positively associated with higher earnings across a wide spectrum of fields and student demographics (Barrow & Rouse, 2005; Card, 2001; Carneiro, Heckman, & Vytlacil, 2011; Dadgar & Weiss, 2012; Dynarski, 2008; Jacobson & Mokher, 2009; Jepsen, Troske, & Coomes, 2009; Kane…

  12. Bayesian simultaneous equation models for the analysis of energy intake and partitioning in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jørgensen, Henry; Kebreab, E

    2012-01-01

    genders (barrows, boars and gilts) selected on the basis of similar birth weight. The pigs were fed four diets based on barley, wheat and soybean meal supplemented with crystalline amino acids to meet or exceed Danish nutrient requirement standards. Nutrient balances and gas exchanges were measured at c...

  13. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  14. 77 FR 41448 - Notice of Availability of the Proposed Final Five Year Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Oil and Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... for leasing. Table B (from the PFP document) lists the location and timing of the proposed lease sales... additional deferral area is located north of Barrow and covers 208 OCS lease blocks beyond the northern edge... assessment of market and resource conditions. Table B--Proposed Final Program for 2012-2017--Lease Sale...

  15. Phenotypic Correlations of Backfat Thickness with Meatiness Traits ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the present study was to determine the phenotypic correlations of backfat thickness with meatiness traits and intramuscular fat, cholesterol and fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle of pigs. For this study, 60 barrows and 60 gilts (Pietrain × Duroc boars and Polish Large White crossbred sows) were ...

  16. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on oxidative status in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding thermally processed peroxidized soybean oil (SO) induces markers of oxidative stress and alters antioxidant status in pig tissue, blood, and urine. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments...

  17. Illustrations of damnation in late Anglo-Saxon manuscripts.

    OpenAIRE

    Semple, S. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper interprets a group of innovative illustrations from the eleventh century English manuscript, the Harley Psalter, in the context of textual, documentary, place-name and archaeological evidence for an uniquely late Anglo-Saxon conception of barrows, ancient monuments and deviant burial places as places of damnation and hellish torment.

  18. Microwave Assisted Synthesis and Photoluminescence Properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    46

    [5] Barrow W. A., Coovert R. E. and King C. N. (1984) SID Symposium Digest of Technical. Papers, San Francisco, CA, USA, 249. [6] Tanaka S., Shankar V., Shiiki M., Deguchi H., Kobayashi H. May (1985) SID. Symposium Digest to Technical Papers, Orlando, FL, USA, 255. [7] Kane J., Harty W. E., Ling M. and Yocom P. N. ...

  19. Making restorative justice work for women who have offended: A Restorative Justice Council research report

    OpenAIRE

    Osterman, Linnéa; Masson, Isla

    2016-01-01

    This study addresses a major gap in research and knowledge regarding female offenders' experiences of, and access to, restorative justice. The research was funded by Barrow Cadbury Trust and conducted with the support of the RJC, in association with Coventry University.

  20. 78 FR 75392 - American Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Asset Management LLC; (b) American Beacon Balanced Fund--the Manager, Barrow, Hanley, Mewhinney... Beacon Funds, et al.; Notice of Application December 5, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission...) (order). Applicants: American Beacon Funds and American Beacon Select Funds (collectively, the ``Trusts...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: arterial tortuosity syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Barrow M, Dekens R, Loeys BL, Coucke PJ, De Paepe AM. Arterial tortuosity syndrome: clinical and molecular findings in 12 newly identified ... R, Dietz HC, Barlati S, Colombi M, Loeys B, De Paepe A. Mutations in the ... and cause arterial tortuosity syndrome. Nat Genet. 2006 Apr;38(4):452-7. ...

  2. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of barley fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, H K; Mosenthin, R; Rosenfelder, Pia

    2016-01-01

    , Canberra, Metaxa and Fridericus. Growing barrows with an average initial BW of 30±2 kg were surgically fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, and allotted to an 8×9 Youden square design with eight periods of 6 days each and nine pigs. Barley was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. On average...

  3. Determination of ether extract digestibility and energy content of specialty lipids with different fatty acid and free fatty acid content, and the effect of lecithin, for nursery pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various specialty lipids are commercially available and used in nursery pig diets, but may have FA profiles and FFA content that affect their caloric value. In each of 2 experiments, 54 barrows (28-d of age) were fed a common diet for 7-d, allotted to dietary treatments and fed their respective expe...

  4. Genome-wide association of a novel porcine stress-syndrome to dystrophin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losses of slaughter-weight pigs due to transport stress are both a welfare and an economic concern to pork producers. We identified two sibling barrows in the USMARC swine herd that died from apparent symptoms of a stress syndrome after transport at 12 weeks of age. The symptoms included open-mouth ...

  5. Dystrophin deficiency-induced changes in porcine skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel porcine stress syndrome was detected in the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center’s swine research population when two sibling barrows died of apparent stress symptoms (open mouth breathing, vocalization, and refusal to move or stand) after transport at 12 weeks of age. At eight weeks of age, the...

  6. A defect in dystrophin causes a novel porcine stress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sibling barrows were identified in the USMARC swine herd that died from apparent symptoms of a stress syndrome after transport to a research location at 12 weeks of age. The symptoms included open-mouth breathing, skin discoloration, vocalization and loss of mobility. The original mating was rep...

  7. Ways of Wandering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2013-01-01

    in the mobility complexes maintained a similar active mnemonic role in the landscape. It further argues that barrows and mobility lines probably existed as two mutually dependent landscape components playing very different roles in both a very collective and at the same time a very individual remembrance...

  8. Dynamic Oxidation of Gaseous Mercury in the Arctic Troposphere at Polar Sunrise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Brooks, S.; Lin, C.-J.

    2002-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) is a globally distributed air toxin with a long atmospheric residence time. Any process that reduces its atmospheric lifetime increases its potential accumulation in the biosphere. Our data from Barrow, AK, at 71 degrees N show that rapid, photochemically driven ox...

  9. RHM 4.indb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    Australian hospitality sector since the boom in the 1980s. The need for qualified managers mushroomed during this time and the industry could not produce nearly enough trained managers to serve its own needs (Barrows and Bosselman. 2000). One of the unique characteristics of hospitality management education is its ...

  10. Effect of graded levels of iron, zinc, and copper supplementation in diets with low-phytate or normal barley on growth performance, bone characteristics, hematocrit volume, and zinc and copper balance of young swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifty crossbred barrows with an average initial age of 31 d and BW of 9.94 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the effect of a low-phytic acid (LPA) barley mutant (M) M955, a near-isogenic progeny of the normal barley (NB) cultivar Harrington with about 90% less phytate than NB, to increas...

  11. Monitoring the stepwise phytate degradation in the upper gastrointestinal tract of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemme, P.A.; Schlemmer, U.; Mroz, Z.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    The degradation and formation of inositol phosphates as affected by microbial phytase and gastrointestinal enzyme activities during the passage of phytate through the stomach and small intestine were studied in two experiments with four barrows and three collection periods. The degradation and

  12. Effects of high-protein/low-carbohydrate swine diets during the final finishing phase on pork muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Wulf, D M; Clapper, J A; Thaler, R C; Maddock, R J

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to lower the glycogen stores in pork muscle in order to improve pork muscle quality by feeding an ultra-high-protein/low-carbohydrate (HIPRO) diet. Forty-eight barrows (average live weight = 92 kg) were assigned across five treatments and two replications (four or five pigs per treatment by replication combination). All barrows were fed a control diet (13.1% CP) until their assigned treatment began. A treatment was the number of days the barrows were fed the HIPRO diet prior to slaughter (0, 2, 4, 7, or 14 d). The HIPRO diet (35.9% CP) was 97% extruded soybeans. Daily feed intake and weekly live weights were recorded for all barrows. At-death blood glucose levels were determined. Muscle pH, temperature, and electrical impedance were measured in the longissmus lumborum and semimembranosus muscles at 45 min, 3 h, and 24 h postmortem. Glycolytic potential; Minolta L*a*b* values; visual scores for color, firmness, and marbling; water-holding capacity traits (drip loss, purge loss, and cooking loss); and Warner-Bratzler shear force values were determined in the longissmus thoracis et lumborum. Weight gain per day decreased the longer the pigs were fed the HIPRO diet (P 0.05); therefore, no differences in rate of pH decline or ultimate pH among dietary treatments were found (P > 0.05). Likewise, there were no differences among dietary treatments in any of the measured meat quality attributes (P > 0.05). Feeding barrows the HIPRO diet for a time period prior to slaughter decreased feed intake, rate of gain, and feed efficiency and was not effective at lowering glycolytic potential or improving pork muscle quality.

  13. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  14. Assessing Biodegradation Susceptibilities of Selected Petroleum Hydrocarbons at Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heryanto Langsa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility to biodegradation of selected saturated hydrocarbons (SHCs, polycyclic aromatichydrocarbons (PAHs and asphaltenes in a Barrow crude oil and extracts isolated from soils contaminated with theBarrow crude oil at day 0 and 39 was determined. Soil samples were contaminated with a Barrow crude oil across thesurface (5% w/w as part of a mesocosm experiment in order to mimic similar conditions in the environment. Theextent of biodegradation of the Barrow oil extracted from the contaminated soils at day 0 and day 39 was assessed byGC-MS analyses of SHCs and PAHs fractions. Changes in the relative abundances of n-alkanes (loss of low-molecularweighthydrocarbons and pristane relative to phytane (Pr/Ph and their diastereoisomers were determined. Changesin the diastereoisomer ratios of Pr and Ph relate to the decrease in abundance of the phytol-derived 6(R,10(Sisoprenoids with increasing biodegradation. The percentage change in abundances of each of selectedalkylnaphathalenes with time (day 0 to 39 was determined, enabling an order of susceptibility of their isomers tobiodegradation. It was established that the 2-methylnaphthalene isomers (2-MN is more susceptible to microbialattack than 1-MN isomer indicated by decreasing in percent abundance from day 0 to 39 for the 2-MN isomer. TheGC-MS analyses of the original Barrow oil indicated the oil had not undergone biodegradation. When this oil wasused in the soil mesocosm experiments the oil was shown to biodegrade to about a level 2 -3 based on the biodegradationsusceptibility of the various SHCs and PAHs described above

  15. Effects of narasin (Skycis) on live performance and carcass traits of finishing pigs sold in a three-phase marketing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Gruber, S L; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of feeding narasin (Skycis; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs sold in a 3-phase marketing system. Pigs ( = 1,232) were housed in 56 single-sex pens (22 pigs/pen) divided into 2 even blocks based on initiation of treatment. Each treatment × sex combination was replicated 14 times. Pigs were fed either 0 mg/kg narasin (control) or 15 mg/kg narasin for up to 85 d of finishing (initiated at an average of 52.95 kg BW). In each pen, 18% (4 pigs per pen) of pigs were sold in the first marketing group (Day 64 of dietary treatment), 50% (11 of the original 22) were sold in the second marketing group (Day 78), and 32% (the remaining 7 pigs) were sold in the third marketing group (Day 85). Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with pen as the experimental unit. The model included the fixed effects of diet, sex, and their interaction. Block and replicate nested within block were random variables. Carcass data from pigs in marketing group 3 of block 2 was not collected due to inclement weather. Narasin had no effect on growth performance traits ( ≥ 0.15) in phases 1 (Days 1-28) or 2 (Days 29-56), regardless of sex. Barrows fed narasin had a 2.0% greater overall (Day 0-85) ADG than barrows fed the control diet ( marketing groups 1 and 2. Narasin-fed barrows in marketing group 3 had 0.9 percentage units lower ( 2.0%); no difference existed in gilts ( = 0.21). This is likely due to narasin-fed barrows of marketing group 3 tending ( = 0.06) to have 7.7% greater fat depth than control barrows of marketing group 3. Pooled effects (across all 3 marketing groups) of feeding narasin tended ( = 0.08) to reduce loin depth by 1.1% (60.00 vs. 60.66 mm), but there were no effects on fat depth ( = 0.24) or estimated carcass lean ( = 0.11). Overall, narasin can be used during the last 85 d of feeding to increase feed efficiency of barrows and gilts with minimal

  16. Biogenic and fossil contributions to organic aerosol at two sites on the North Slope of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Claire; Barrett, Tate; Gunsch, Matthew; Pratt, Kerri; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the Earth's albedo by scattering or absorbing solar radiation and acting as cloud and ice condensation nuclei. In order to better understand the variability of aerosol sources in the Alaskan Arctic, this study utilizes radiocarbon analysis for the apportionment of total organic carbon to fossil and contemporary carbon sources. Fossil sources include fossil fuel combustion and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from fossil precursors while contemporary sources include biomass combustion, primary biogenic emissions, and SOA produced from biogenic and biomass combustion-derived precursors. Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected in August/September 2012, 2015, and 2016 at two Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement climate research facilities. Barrow, AK, is located on the northern most point of the United States; the site is 7.4 km north of the village of Barrow (population 4,581). Research shows the site receives minimal aerosol contribution from the village with dominant contributions from long range transport. Oliktok Point, AK, is 300 km south east of Barrow in a region of intense petroleum development. It receives contributions from the petroleum industry surrounding it as well as from long range transport. The proximity of the two sites allows for a finer spatial analysis of Arctic carbonaceous aerosol source contributions. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and radiocarbon (14C) abundance. Preliminary results for 2015 show Barrow had OC concentrations from 0.05 to 0.16 μg/m3, while Oliktok had concentrations of OC from 0.11 to 0.27 μg/m3. EC concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.013 μg/m3 in Barrow, 0.002 to 0.088 μg/m3 in Oliktok. In Barrow, 14C abundance shows the contribution of fossil sources remained in the range of 21% to 28%. At Oliktok, analysis reveals an increase from 30% contribution from fossil sources in August to a 70% contribution at

  17. Factors affecting the tissues composition of pork belly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duziński, K; Knecht, D; Lisiak, D; Janiszewski, P

    2015-11-01

    Bellies derived from the commercial population of pig carcasses are diverse in terms of tissue composition. Knowledge of the factors influencing it and the expected results, permits quick and easy evaluation of raw material. The study was designed to determine the factors affecting the tissues composition of pork bellies and to estimate their lean meat content. The research population (n=140 pig carcasses) was divided into groups according to sex (gilts, barrows), half-carcass mass (meat content class: S (⩾60%), E (55% to 60%), U (50% to 55%), R (meat content affected the growth of the fat and skin mass in a linear way. No differences were observed between class S and E in terms of belly muscle mass. A 0.37% higher share of belly in the half-carcass was found for barrows (Pmeat content in bellies, suggesting they may be used directly in the production line.

  18. Experience of a Reconstruction of "Archaeological" Costume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altynbekov Krym

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reconstruction of “archaeological” costume restored by the Ostrov Krym Scientific Restoration Laboratory (Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan by the finds uncovered from Early Iron Age graves. The authors examined organic remains of clothes from barrow no. 11 of Berel burial ground (4th – 3rd centuries BC located on the territory of the Kazakhstan Altai and undertook a partial reconstruction of several items: a fur coat, a headdress and two felt stockings. The accuracy of this reconstruction is confirmed by well-preserved analogues of synchronous Altai barrows on the territory of Russia and Mongolia, belonging to the Pazyryk culture. The article also describes a method by which undisturbed graves can be extracted as one (monolithic block and contains techniques for formation of such blocks in the dig and lab studies of “archaeological” costumes in such blocks, applied by the Ostrov Krym Laboratory.

  19. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( protein concentrate than soy concentrate ( digestibility among protein sources ( protein sources ( digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals.

  20. Gas transport processes in sea ice: How convection and diffusion processes might affect biological imprints, a challenge for modellers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, J.-L.; Zhou, Shaola J. G.; Thomas, D. N.

    2012-01-01

    ice cover. These rates were however obtained surmising that neither convection, nor diffusion had affected the gas concentration profiles in the ice between discrete ice core collections. This paper discusses examples from three different field surveys (the above-mentioned Barrow experiment......, the INTERICE IV tank experiment in Hamburg and a short field survey close to the Kapisilit locality in the South-East Greenland fjords) where convection or diffusion processes have clearly affected the temporal evolution of the gas profiles in the ice, therefore potentially affecting biological signatures....... The INTERICE IV and Barrow experiment show that the initial equilibrium dissolved gas entrapment within the skeletal layer basically governs most of the profiles higher up in the sea ice cover during the active sea ice growth. However, as the ice layers age and cool down under the temperature gradient, bubble...

  1. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), aerosol scattering coefficient (σ sp ), aerosol number concentration (NC asl ), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on atmospheric composition in the Arctic. We

  2. Identification of sources and long term trends for pollutants in the arctic using isentropic trajectory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahura, A.; Jaffe, D.; Harris, J.

    2003-07-01

    The understanding of factors driving climate and ecosystem changes in the Arctic requires careful consideration of the sources, correlation and trends for anthropogenic pollutants. The database from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow Observatory (71deg.17'N, 156deg.47'W) is the longest and most complete record of pollutant measurements in the Arctic. It includes observations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O{sub 3}), aerosol scattering coefficient ({sigma}{sub sp}), aerosol number concentration (NC{sub asl}), etc. The objectives of this study are to understand the role of long-range transport to Barrow in explaining: (1) the year-to-year variations, and (2) the trends in the atmospheric chemistry record at the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory. The key questions we try to answer are: 1. What is the relationship between various chemical species measured at Barrow Observatory, Alaska and transport pathways at various altitudes? 2. What are the trends of species and their relation to transport patterns from the source regions? 3. What is the impact of the Prudhoe Bay emissions on the Barrow's records? To answer on these questions we apply the following main research tools. First, it is an isentropic trajectory model used to calculate the trajectories arriving at Barrow at three altitudes of 0.5, 1.5 and 3 km above sea level. Second - clustering procedure used to divide the trajectories into groups based on source regions. Third - various statistical analysis tools such as the exploratory data analysis, two component correlation analysis, trend analysis, principal components and factor analysis used to identify the relationship between various chemical species vs. source regions as a function of time. In this study, we used the chemical data from the NOAA-CMDL Barrow observatory in combination with isentropic backward trajectories from gridded ECMWF data to understand the importance of various pollutant source regions on

  3. Hepatic lipomas and myelolipomas in subsistence-harvested bowhead whales Balaena mysticetus, Alaska (USA): a case review 1980-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Rotstein, David; Seguel, Mauricio; Gottdenker, Nicole

    2017-12-19

    We describe a case series of benign hepatic fatty tumors in 10 subsistence-harvested bowhead whales. Microscopic features included lipomatous and myelolipomatous masses. Extensive atrophy and/or destruction of hepatic parenchyma was not observed. No other significant disease was present except in an animal with unrelated chronic pleuritis. Based on our longitudinal case series (1980-2016) which identified 1-2 hepatic lipomas and myelolipomas in landed whales annually at Barrow, Alaska (USA), since 2012, hepatic lipomas and myelolipomas are occasionally seen in hunter-harvested bowhead whales. A conservative estimate for the percentage of bowhead whales with hepatic fatty tumors in landed whales in Barrow from 2012 to 2016 was 6% (7/111). The pathogenesis and exact cell origin of these benign fatty tumors in bowhead whales is undetermined. Assessment of further cases is warranted to better define the tissue distribution and pathogenesis of these tumors in bowhead whale liver.

  4. Integration of Advanced Statistical Analysis Tools and Geophysical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    1.56 0.48 Beale: MetalMapper Cued: Beale_MMstat Target: 477 Cell 202 of 1547 (SOI, 2OI) Model 1 of 3 (Inv #1 / 2 = SOI: 1 / 1) Tag...Statistical classification of buried unexploded ordnance using nonparametric prior models. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 45: 2794–2806, 2007. T...Bell and B. Barrow. Subsurface discrimination using electromagnetic induction sensors. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing, 39:1286–1293, 2001. S. D

  5. Contributions to the Study of the Beginnings of the Orthodox Church in Western Rus’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Liwoch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In 1882 T. Ziemięcki conducted in Pìdgìrcì (Lviv district, Ukraine a research excavation of two neighboring burial mounds which he called the Great Twin Barrows No. 1 and No. 2. In barrow No., he discovered on richly furnished double burial (probably of a married couple where he found two identical silver crosses. The crosses belong to the so called Scandinavian type (variant B.1 type 1.4.3 acc. J. Staecker. In barrow No. 2, he found a skeleton of a male buried with furnishings, including two crosses. The bigger one (lost was a bronze encolpion depicting the Crucifixion and the Virgin Orans, which can find analogies in the Danube countries. The smaller one is a silver St. Peter’s cross. In the mouths of the corpses found in both barrows there were tiny gold objects which could be interpreted as a local variation of the obolus of the dead custom. Both graves are a part of necropolis with druzhina burials. They date back to the end of the 10th century or the first half of the 11th century. The objects presented here are the earliest evidence to confirm the presence of a Christianized (Greek version of Christianity elite in the region of the Upper Bug and Upper Dniester, which is not burdened with chronological or interpretative reservation. The deceased were not members of the clergy but, nevertheless, representatives of the new official religion in a pagan Slavic population whose conversion had barely begun. It seems, therefore, that their presence in Pìdgìrcì can be considered the beginning of the Orthodox Church in the western part of the former Kievan Rus’.

  6. 75 FR 44094 - Update of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's Fees Schedule for Annual Charges for the Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... Connecticut Windham 313.89 Delaware Kent 94.17 Delaware New Castle......... 156.94 Delaware Sussex 156.94... Baldwin 62.78 Georgia Banks 156.94 Georgia Barrow 156.94 Georgia Bartow 94.17 Georgia Ben Hill 47.08... Garrett 62.78 Maryland Harford 156.94 Maryland Howard 156.94 Maryland Kent 94.17 Maryland Montgomery...

  7. Employer branding and retention of employees in luxury hotel chains in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Alwi, SF; Arshad, R; Siew Yee, C

    2012-01-01

    Employer brand is an image of one organization which is seen through the eyes of its associates and potential hires. In particular, it is “a package of all functional, economic and psychological benefits provided by employment, and identifies with the employing organization” (Ambler and Barrow, 1996). Thomson et al. (1999) suggest that employees play specific role in building the service brand in order to make the brand ‘come alive’. Furthermore, employees can have a positive influence on con...

  8. The influence of creatine and a high glycemic carbohydrate on the growth performance and meat quality of market hogs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, C A; Carlson-Shannon, M S; Wiegand, B R; Meyer, D L; Schmidt, T B; Berg, E P

    2007-01-01

    Crossbred barrows (n=128; 85±0.91kg) were randomly allotted to one of four dietary treatments. A pelleted corn-soybean diet containing 5ppm Paylean(®) (PAY) was tested against a negative control (NCON) diet formulated to meet or exceed the National Research Council's requirements for the growing pig, a pelleted corn-soybean diet containing 0.92% creatine and 2.75% dextrose (COMBO), and a pelleted corn-soybean diet containing a combination of 5ppm Paylean(®), 0.92% creatine, and 2.75% dextrose (PAYPLUS). No treatment differences were noted when comparing ADG (P=0.66) and hot carcass weight (P=0.75). Over the 27d test, barrows fed PAY and PAYPLUS produced loins with a larger (P<0.01) loin muscle area (LMA) than those fed NCON or COMBO diets. Barrows fed the NCON diet were fatter at the 10th-rib (P<0.01) than those animals fed the remaining dietary treatments. Dietary treatment did not affect the ultimate pH (P=0.87), Japanese color score (P=0.25) or Minolta L(∗) (P=0.61) and b(∗) (P=0.56) values of the loin. Loin chops from NCON, COMBO and PAYPLUS tended (P=0.07) to contain a higher intramuscular fat content than those from barrows fed PAY. Additionally, loin chops from the NCON and COMBO fed animals were more red (higher a(∗)-value) than those chops coming from animals fed the PAY diet (P<0.01).

  9. Infection of growing swine with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae — Effects on growth, serum metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, N. Elizabeth; Almond, Glen W.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of concomitant infections with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on growth performance, serum metabolite concentrations, and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in growing pigs. Twenty-two barrows (10 weeks of age) were treated with either an intranasal administration of PRRSV and an intratracheal infusion of M. hyopneumoniae (treatment; n = 8) or a sham inoculation with medium (sham; n = 8), or w...

  10. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    13 nov. 2012 ... manuelle de l'artère carotide homolatérale au niveau du cou [5], une artérialisation des vaisseaux conjonctivaux qui prennent un aspect en « tire- .... Universitaire, Société Française de Radiologie et d'Imagerie Médicale, Journées Francophones de Radiologie, 25-28 octobre 1994. 8. Barrow DL, Spector ...

  11. Flow of endogenous and exogenous nitrogen in different segments of the small intestine in pigs fed diets with soyabean concentrate, soyabean meal or rapeseed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grala, W.; Buraczewska, L.; Wasilewko, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Tamminga, S.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Huisman, J.; Korczynski, W.

    1998-01-01

    Six barrows of an average initial BW 27.5±1.2 kg were used. Each pig was fitted with two cannulas in different segments of the small intestine: pig 1 in the duodenum (C1) and upper jejunum (C2), pig 2 in C2 and the lower jejunum (C3), pig 3 in C2 and C3, pig 4 in C1 and the terminal ileum (C4), pig

  12. Logistic Requirements and Capabilities for Response to Oil Pollution in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    Dome Point Barrow Sawmill Sheep Mountain Sitka Skagway Smugglers Cove Tahneta Tok Junction Tolsona Yakataga Installation and/or Facilities...with the food service equipment built In. The shelter Is 7« high, 8’ wide and 12’ long. It is designed for use with the standard Dolly Set...aircraft, truck or dolly set. 7. Logistical Data; The Air Force Is procuring a quantity of 200 shelters from the Electro Mechanical Corporation at a

  13. Education for Philippine Pacification: How the U.S. Used Education as Part of its Counterinsurgency Strategy in the Philippines from 1898 to 1909

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    alluded to the U.S.’s economic vision for the Philippines. Neighboring countries such as China and Japan predominately used English in their ports...additional infrastructure. To fix the already overpopulation of many of the schoolhouses, Barrows needed to increase the number of schools. He expanded the...the Same, Including the Insurrection in the Philippine Islands and the China Relief Expedition, between the Adjutant-General of the Army and

  14. Impossibilità i limiti della scienza e la scienza dei limiti

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1999-01-01

    Il libro parte da una semplice domanda: esistono fenomeni che alla fine si riveleranno semplicemente inconoscibili e inspiegabili? Dopo avere definito il significato della inconoscibilità, Barrow lo esamina in rapporto ai limiti della mente umana, a quelli della tecnologia, a quelli cosmologici e ai limiti profondi insiti nella natura dell'universo. Alla fine di questa panoramica emerge prepotentemente una convinzione: la presenza dell'impossibilità e del limite non mina affatto alle fondamenta l'idea di scienza.

  15. Assessing dark tourism as a sustainable economic activity for emerging destinations using a multi criteria approach

    OpenAIRE

    Seraphin, Hugues

    2017-01-01

    The tourism industry only started to be considered as an economic activity in 1911 (Scutariu, 2009). The reasons why people have been travelling and are still travelling to certain places are for sport and leisure; culture; Visiting Friends and Relatives; business; health; religion; education (Barrow, 2008). These different reasons contribute to the branding of some destinations by visitors and potential visitors. On that basis, it is legitimate to wonder whether being branded as a dark touri...

  16. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Jessica L; Ildefonso, Kenneth; Jones, Megan L; Arvinen-Barrow, Monna

    2017-01-01

    Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of...

  17. Maritime Services to Support Polar Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Superstructure Width Depth Ice Type Ice Thickness Ice Icing Currents Unimak Pass 10 miles 64 to g I M No ice - Very severe-early winter through Tidal Current...Sea through the passes (principally Unimak , Amukta, and Amchitka) of the Aleutian Islands, the wave refracts markedly to traverse the Sea from south...conditions should prevail until the vessel is near Point Barrow. Upon clearing the Unimak Pass on a northnorthwesterly heading, the Master of "MANHATTAN II

  18. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Fialko; Yurii Boltryk

    2013-01-01

    In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine). In the crypt, which remained und...

  19. Qualitative feed restriction for late finishing pigs on meat quality and fatty acid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apauliana Daniela Lima da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of including cashew bagasse bran (CBB as a food ingredient in qualitative feed restriction programs on the carcass traits and meat quality of barrows and gilts. Twenty–four crossbred pigs (12 barrows and 12 gilts were used, with an average initial body weight of 57.93 ± 3.67 kg/LW. The experimental design was a randomized block 3x2 factorial arrangement with three levels (0%, 15% and 30% CBB, two sexes (barrows and gilts and four repetitions. The treatments were composed of the basal diet (BD formulated with corn, soybean meal and a commercial base mix for finishing pigs, to which different levels of CBB were added. At the end of the trial period, the animals were slaughtered for the evaluation of the meat quality and carcass traits. The inclusion of CBB in the diets did not affect the carcass traits of the gilts but affected the carcass traits of the barrow positively, increasing theyield of meat in the chilled carcass and reducing the thickness of subcutaneous fat. In the longissimus dorsi muscle and in the adipose tissue of the pigs, the myristic (C14:0, palmitoleic (C16:1, oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2, linolenic (C18:3 and arachidonic (C20:4 fatty acids were evaluated, and no effect was observed (P > 0.05 from the levels of CBB in the diets. In the comparisons between the sexes, a greater concentration of C20:4 fatty acid was observed in the carcass of the gilts. In this context, CBB was considered for use as a feed ingredient in programs of qualitative feed restriction for finishing pigs.

  20. Effect of supplementing finishing pigs with different sources of chromium on performance and meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Louise Manha; Bridi, Ana Maria; Silva, Caio Abércio da; Andreo, Nayara; Barata, Cátia Chilanti Pinheiro; Dário, Julie Gabriela Nagi

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the dietary supplementation of different sources of chromium (inorganic: chromium sulfate and chelated: chromium-methionine) during the finishing period of pigs to obtain improvements in the animal performance, and carcass and meat quality. The statistical design was randomized blocks, where 44 barrows, with an initial weight 60.49±5.12 kg, were divided into four blocks (heavier, heavy, light and lighter) according to initial weight. The experimental diets were i...

  1. The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs : A review

    OpenAIRE

    Dunshea, F. R.; Allison, J. R. D.; Bertram, M.; Boler, D. D.; Brossard, Ludovic; Campbell, R.; Crane, J. P.; Hennessy, D. P.; Huber, L.; de Lange, C.; Ferguson, N.; Matzat, P.; McKeith, F.; Moraes, P. J. U.; Mullan, B. P.

    2013-01-01

    In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immun...

  2. Analysis of the Linkage Effects of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector and Political Risk Analysis of Venezuela’s Petroleum Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    APPENDIX A Table 1, Petroleum Tax Rates. Balestrini, Los precios del petroleo y la participacion fiscal de Venezuela, p. 39. Table 2... precios del petroleo y la participacion fiscal de Venezuela (Caracas, 1974), p. 39. 12. Allen, p. 15. 13. Alvarez R. Torrealba, El petroleo en la...S.J. and S.M. Barrow. Business Yearbook of Brazil, Mexico, and Venezuela. London: Graham and Trotman, Ltd., 1980. Balestrini, Caesar. Los precios del

  3. The Shock and Vibration Digest. Volume 13. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Isolation Precision Ma- S/V Sound Vib., 13 (8), p 1823 21. Kishor, B., "Effects of System Parameters and Gear Errors of Drive Train ...incorporate NDT at the design stage, make cost effectiveness studies, prepare and respond to the needs of the general society and train its personnel...Also see No. 1541) 81-1429 Modeling and Dynamic Response of Maglev Vehicle« Subjected to Crouwind Gusts D.P. Garg and T.M. Barrows Duke Univ

  4. Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hirdman; H. Sodemann; S. Eckhardt; J. F. Burkhart; A. Jefferson; T. Mefford; P. K. Quinn; S. Sharma; J. Ström; A. Stohl

    2010-01-01

    As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport), this paper studies the sources of equivalent black carbon (EBC), sulphate, light-scattering aerosols and ozone measured at the Arctic stations Zeppelin, Alert, Barrow and Summit during the years 2000–2007. These species are important pollutants and climate forcing agents, and sulphate and EBC are main components of Arctic haze. To d...

  5. String cosmology in Bianchi type-VI0 dusty Universe with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [25] P P Kronberg, J J Perry and E L Zukowski, Astrophys. J. 387, 528 (1991). [26] A M Wolfe, K Lanzetta and A L Oren, Astrophys. J. 388, 17 (1992). [27] R Kulsrud, R Cen, J P Ostriker and D Ryu, Astrophys. J. 380, 481 (1997). [28] J D Barrow, Phys. Rev. D55, 7451 (1997). [29] A Banerjee, A K Sanyal and S Chakraborty, ...

  6. The effect of supplementary feeding on the work output and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, no significant difference (P>0.05) in the rectal temperature was noticed between the two breeds after work. The average weight of bunches of oil palm fruits carried by a bullock cart per day was 2.03 tonnes while that of a wheel barrow used by human porters was 1.61 tonnes. It was more economical to use bullock ...

  7. RAPID RESCUE: BREAKING THE MOLD OF ROUTINE CONTINGENCY RESPONSE FOR PERSONNEL RECOVERY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-23

    Amateurs talk about tactics, but professionals study logistics. – Gen Robert H. Barrow, USMC Noted in 1980 Rescue is in jeopardy. This seems...significant modification. Service guidance provides a provision for “cross- pollination ” of UTCs in an effort to synergize capabilities under a single... Robert Nalepa, Anna-Marie Wyant, and Fred Zimmerman, eds. Special Operations Forces Reference Manual, 4th ed., (Macdill AFB, FL: JSOU Press, 2015), xi

  8. Tower Temperature and Humidity Sensors (TWR) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, DR

    2010-02-01

    Three tall towers are installed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility: a 60-meter triangular tower at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF), a 21-meter walkup scaffolding tower at the SGP Okmulgee forest site (E21), and a 40-meter triangular tower at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site. The towers are used for meteorological, radiological, and other measurements.

  9. Transactions of the Army Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computing (6th) Held in Boulder, Colorado on 31 May - 3 June 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-02-01

    University of California Press. Berkeley). 122 Numerical Implication of RP Menikoff Fowles, G., 1981, "Stimulated and Spontaneous Emission of Acoustic Waves...Christopher Bogart, Thomas Garvey, Henry Kyburg, James Mulligan , and Azriel Rosenfeld. Bibliography [B1] Barrow, H.G. et. al. "Parametric Correspondence and...case for the low carbon steel. Additionally, a hardening coefficient of 40.0 and a corresponding hardening exponent of 0.35 was used to model the

  10. A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage in Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nicholas Theodore, MD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Dignity Health San Francisco, CA 94107-1773 REPORT DATE: October 2017...theodore@jhmi.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dignity Health 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 185...at all three active centers, which include: Barrow Neurological Institute/ Dignity Health (the main study site) in Arizona, the University of Arizona

  11. Formation of Burial Mounds of the Sarmatian Time in the Basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Korobkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the features of the formation of the burial mounds in the basin of the Esaulovsky Aksai river in the Sarmatian period. Most of the burial mounds of the region begin to form in the Bronze Age and continue to function throughout the early, middle and early late-Sarmatian periods. Most of the burial mounds were located on the watersheds and above-flood terraces of different levels. All of them are characterized by same principles of planning, barrows in them are stretched in a chain in the natural form of the terrace on which the burial mound was built. The territories developed already in the Bronze Age were chosen for creating mounds in the early Sarmatian period. The main part of them is concentrated on a small section landplot of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai river. During the Middle Sarmatian period, the main part of barrows were also located in the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai, but represented 2 plots. One of these plots continues to use large burial mounds of the previous period, and the other one undergoes the creation of small barrow groups consisting usually of two-three barrows containing the richest burials of the region with the “classical” set of Middle Sarmatian features. In the late Sarmatian period, as well as in the previous stages of the Sarmatian culture, the burial mounds of the middle course of the Esaulovsky Aksai continue to be used, which cease to function no later than at the first half of the 3rd century AD. But the territory of actively used burial mounds changes, and the main complexes of that time concentrate in the upper reaches, where new burial mounds are created and continue to function until the end of the Sarmatian era.

  12. A Multicenter, Randomnized Controlled Trial of Cerebrospinal Fluid Drainage in Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    enrolling patients at all three active centers, which include Barrow Neurological Institute in Arizona, the University of Arizona in Tucson and the...improving neurologic motor outcomes, spinal trauma, traumatic injury 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF...These injuries incur significant costs to the patient and their families. This includes not only financial costs but also the serious psychological

  13. Bacon Production: Evaluating Potential Processing and Management Practices to Improve Product Quality of Industrial Sliced Bacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scramlin, Stacy Maurine

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine areas of improvement to bacon production. The first trial was conducted to determine differences in belly and bacon quality traits in pigs fed ractopamine (RAC) for various durations during finishing. A 2x3x2 factorial arrangement was used with barrows and gilts, fed RAC levels of 0.0, 5.0, or 7.4…

  14. Evaluation of growth, deposition of back fat, and loin muscle for purebred Berkshire pigs housed in bedded hoop buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walugembe, M; Swantek, P M; Honeyman, M S; Mabry, J W; Stalder, K J; Rothschild, M F

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accretion of BW, back fat, and loin muscle from purebred Berkshire pigs raised in bedded hoop barns in Iowa. The growth of a total of 144 purebred Berkshire pigs (18 barrows and 18 gilts per trial) was evaluated from 4 trials (2 winter and 2 summer trials). Pigs were fed ad libitum utilizing a 5-phase standard corn-soybean meal feeding program that met or exceeded NRC nutrient requirements. Pigs were housed in bedded hoop barns (unheated) to approximate common niche market requirements. At 21-d intervals, pigs were serially weighed, and ultrasonic back fat depth and loin muscle area (LMA) measurements were taken. Live BW measurements began at the trial initiation at approximately 18 to 32 kg, but ultrasonic scans for 10th-rib back fat depth and LMA began at between 36 and 45 kg until market weight of about 122 ± 2.5 kg. The rate (µ) of live body growth (weight) and ultrasonic back fat depth were influenced ( 0.05) by trial and sex. Overall, barrows averaged 31 mm of back fat at 125 kg, whereas gilts had an average of about 23 mm at 121 kg of market weight. Results suggest that because of the sex differences in growth and back fat deposition between Berkshire barrows and gilts, it may be important to formulate their diets differently in commercial pork production systems.

  15. Studies on nitrogen retention in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorbek, G; Henckel, S; Chwalibog, André

    1987-01-01

    Nitrogen retention (RN) was measured in 60 barrows of Danish Landrace and a total of 470 balance periods was carried out during the growth period from 20 to 85 kg live weight. In the first serie (Expt A) six different feed compounds of high biological value (HBV) were fed to 48 barrows, while...... in the second serie (Expt B) 12 barrows were measured on feed compounds of HBV or low biological value (LBV). Three different levels of gross energy were used in Expt B. Individual differences of 10-20% in the pigs capability for nitrogen retention were observed. Nitrogen retention increased from 12 to 21 g N....../d on the HBV-compounds and was not influenced by increasing nitrogen or energy intake. Nitrogen retention was curvilinear in relation to metabolic live weight (kg0.75) in both series. A parabolic function on kg0.75 gave the best fit to the data with the following regression equations: Expt A + B: RN, g/d = 1...

  16. Ractopamine hydrochloride and immunological castration in pigs. Part 1: fresh belly characteristics for bacon processing and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina COSTA E SILVA

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of ractopamine and immunological castration on belly characteristics, processing yield, physicochemical and sensory quality of bacon were investigated from two crossbred pigs under different conditions of animal production, diet, management and slaughter arranged in factorial design using 2 ractopamine levels (0 and 7.5 ppm and 3 genders (barrows, immunocastrated and gilts. Before processing, belly firmness, weight, length, width and thickness were measured, and then, bacon processing yield evaluated. After processing, bacon slices were digitally imaged and analyzed for lean meat and fat areas, pH, instrumental color of meat and fat, cooking loss and sensory quality. The ractopamine did not alter belly characteristics, but significantly increased the process yield and decreased cooking loss. Barrows and immunocastrated pigs showed firmer bellies, which could be advantageous for bacon processing and slicing. Barrows presented the highest total area of bacon slices. The results of this study indicate that both techniques ractopamine in the finishing diets and immunocastration of pigs can be combined with no further consequences for belly processing and to bacon quality and with some advantages.

  17. The effect of gender on the characteristics of muscle fibers in pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika OKROUHL

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of gender on the proportional representation of different types of muscle fibres and their selected characteristics. The experiment was carried out with the use of 72 crossbred pigs of final TOPIGS hybrid combination with balanced gender ratio (24 boars/24 gilts/24 barrows at an average live weight of 22.5 kg. The average slaughter weight of the animals was 108.7 kg. In order to determine the quantitative (number and qualitative (area, diameter, length characteristics of the muscle fibre, samples were obtained from the loin carcass part, specifically the muscle musculus longissimus lumborum et thoracis (MLLT. These samples were used for the manufacture and evaluation of permanent histological slides. There were negative correlations found between the number of muscle fibres and their size. Gilts had the highest number of muscle fibres (208.55 per measured surface (1 mm2 and simultaneously the smallest diameter (66.31 m of muscle fibres in comparison with boars and barrows. Statistically significant (P<0.05 differences in the area and diameter of muscle fibres type IIA were detected between gilts and barrows.

  18. Two Oil Types on the North Slope of Alaska. Implications for Future Exploration Les deux types d'huile du versant septentrional de l'Alaska. Implications pour l'exploration future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magoon L. B.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Forty oil samples from across the North Slope of Alaska have been analyzed by the US Bureau of Mines and the Us Geological Survey. Results of these analyses suggest two separate genetic oil types. The first type, the Simpson-Umiat oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Cretaceous and Quaternary age and includes oils from seeps in the Skull Cliff, Cape Simpson, Manning Point, and Ungoon Point areas; the Wolf Creek test well 3, and the Umiat oil field. These are higher gravity, low-sulfur oils with no, or slight, odd-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratios greater than 1. 5. The second type, the Barrow-Prudhoe oil type, occurs in reservoir rocks of Carboniferous to Cretataceous age and includes ails from South Barrow gas field, Prudhoe Bay oil field, and the Fish Creek test well 1. Physical properties of Barrow-Prudhoe oils are variable, but in general the oils are medium-gravity, high-sulfur oils with a slight even-numbered n-alkane predominance and pristane to phytane ratio of less thon 1. 5. The two types are believed to originated from different source rocks; the Barrow-Prudhoe type may have originated from a carbonate or other iron-deficient source rock, and the Simpson-Umiat type from asiliciclastic source rock. Occurrences of fine two oil types, when outlined on a map, indicate atleast two exploration fairways. The fairway for the Barrow-Prudhoe type is along the Barrow arch, and the fairway, for the Simpson-Umiat type is the area of the best reservoir development for the Nanushuk Group. Quarante échantillons d'huile prélevés à travers le versant septentrional de l'Alaska ont été analysés par l'US Bureau of Mines et l'US Geological Survey. Les résultats de ces analyses suggèrent deux types séparés d'huile. Le premier, le type d'huile Simpson-Umiat, se trouve dans des roches magasins du Crétacé au Quaternaire et comprend des huiles des suintements des régions de la falaise Skull, du cap Simpson, de Point

  19. Landscape Level Analyses of Vegetation Cover in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botting, T.; Hollister, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) studies have been conducted to identify vegetation changes due to warming. However, knowledge gaps remain. For example, most of these studies are conducted at the plot level, not the landscape level, potentially masking larger scale impacts of climate change. An Arctic Systems Science (ARCSS) grid was established in Atqasuk, Alaska and Barrow, Alaska in the mid 1990's. In 2010, approximately 100 untreated vegetation plots were implemented at each grid site. These vegetation plots are 1 meter squared, spaced 100 meters apart, and span 1 kilometer squared. Each vegetation plot represents 100 square meters along the grid. This project will focus on how vegetation cover has changed at the landscape level, using the point frame method, from 2010 to 2013. Preliminary data analysis indicates that in Atqasuk, graminoids, deciduous shrubs, and evergreen shrubs show increased cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes, forbs and lichens. In Barrow, graminoids, lichens and forbs have shown an increase in cover, while little change has occurred with bryophytes and deciduous shrubs. At both sites, graminoids represent the greatest increase in cover of all growth forms analyzed. This study will be the foundation for later work, with the purpose of predicting what ARCSS grid vegetation community compositions will be in the future. These expectations will be based on anticipated warming data from ITEX passively warmed vegetation plots. This will be the first time that ITEX vegetation warming research is applied to landscape level research in Barrow and Atqasuk.

  20. The effect of immunization against GnRF on nutrient requirements of male pigs: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunshea, F R; Allison, J R D; Bertram, M; Boler, D D; Brossard, L; Campbell, R; Crane, J P; Hennessy, D P; Huber, L; de Lange, C; Ferguson, N; Matzat, P; McKeith, F; Moraes, P J U; Mullan, B P; Noblet, J; Quiniou, N; Tokach, M

    2013-11-01

    In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked

  1. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.. Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg, SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg and SW3 (110 to 130 kg and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3. Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01. Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1, 48.78% (SW2, and 48.76% (SW3. Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05. Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%, compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%. Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05.

  2. Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

    2013-09-01

    Ractopamine is a β-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation.

  3. Behaviour, heart rate, and heart rate variability in pigs exposed to novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Zupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, we investigated behavioural responses and determined parameters of heart rate variability (HRV to elucidate a relative activation of autonomic nervous system (ANS during baseline (10 min and in response to potentially stressful situations (10 min in two pig breeds and sexes. Gilts (n = 21 and barrows (n = 9 of the Landrace × Yorkshire (LY; n = 15 and Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc (LYLD; n = 15 breeds were subjected to a novel object test (NOT and a novel arena test (NAT. Basal ANS state differed in pigs across breeds but not sexes. Landrace × Yorkshire pigs had a significantly lower basal heart rate (HR and low-frequency band (LF with a higher root mean square of successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD and high-frequency band (HF than LYLD pigs. In the NOT, despite having similar cardiac responses, gilts had a longer duration of contact with a novel object, higher lying and standing duration, and a lower duration of walking compared with barrows. In the NAT, we found similar behaviour across sexes but a different degree of ANS state, with barrows having a significantly higher increase in LF/HF (power of the low frequency component divided by the power of the high-frequency band compared with gilts. Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc pigs showed longer duration of contact with a novel object in the NOT accompanied by less lying and standing than LY pigs in both tests. No difference in ANS activation between breeds was found in the NOT. In the NAT, HR increased more from baseline to testing in LY pigs than in LYLD pigs. There is a complex and often contradictory nature of relationships between behaviour and cardiac responses to novelty in pigs of different breeds and sexes.

  4. On the causes of trends in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Shilong; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Yilong; Ciais, Philippe; Yao, Yitong; Peng, Shushi; Chevallier, Frédéric; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Janssens, Ivan A; Peñuelas, Josep; Sitch, Stephen; Wang, Tao

    2018-02-01

    No consensus has yet been reached on the major factors driving the observed increase in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO 2 in the northern latitudes. In this study, we used atmospheric CO 2 records from 26 northern hemisphere stations with a temporal coverage longer than 15 years, and an atmospheric transport model prescribed with net biome productivity (NBP) from an ensemble of nine terrestrial ecosystem models, to attribute change in the seasonal amplitude of atmospheric CO 2 . We found significant (p 50°N), consistent with previous observations that the amplitude increased faster at Barrow (Arctic) than at Mauna Loa (subtropics). The multi-model ensemble mean (MMEM) shows that the response of ecosystem carbon cycling to rising CO 2 concentration (eCO 2 ) and climate change are dominant drivers of the increase in AMP P -T and AMP T -P in the high latitudes. At the Barrow station, the observed increase of AMP P -T and AMP T -P over the last 33 years is explained by eCO 2 (39% and 42%) almost equally than by climate change (32% and 35%). The increased carbon losses during the months with a net carbon release in response to eCO 2 are associated with higher ecosystem respiration due to the increase in carbon storage caused by eCO 2 during carbon uptake period. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes (10% for AMP P -T and 11% for AMP T -P ) and the impacts of land-use change (marginally significant 3% for AMP P -T and 4% for AMP T -P ) also contributed to the CO 2 measured at Barrow, highlighting the role of these factors in regulating seasonal changes in the global carbon cycle. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The impact of heterogeneous surface temperatures on the 2-m air temperature over the Arctic Ocean under clear skies in spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tetzlaff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of spatial surface temperature changes over the Arctic Ocean on the 2-m air temperature variability is estimated using backward trajectories based on ERA-Interim and JRA25 wind fields. They are initiated at Alert, Barrow and at the Tara drifting station. Three different methods are used. The first one compares mean ice surface temperatures along the trajectories to the observed 2-m air temperatures at the stations. The second one correlates the observed temperatures to air temperatures obtained using a simple Lagrangian box model that only includes the effect of sensible heat fluxes. For the third method, mean sensible heat fluxes from the model are correlated with the difference of the air temperatures at the model starting point and the observed temperatures at the stations. The calculations are based on MODIS ice surface temperatures and four different sets of ice concentration derived from SSM/I (Special Sensor Microwave Imager and AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS data. Under nearly cloud-free conditions, up to 90% of the 2-m air temperature variance can be explained for Alert, and 70% for Barrow, using these methods. The differences are attributed to the different ice conditions, which are characterized by high ice concentration around Alert and lower ice concentration near Barrow. These results are robust for the different sets of reanalyses and ice concentration data. Trajectories based on 10-m wind fields from both reanalyses show large spatial differences in the Central Arctic, leading to differences in the correlations between modeled and observed 2-m air temperatures. They are most pronounced at Tara, where explained variances amount to 70% using JRA and 80% using ERA. The results also suggest that near-surface temperatures at a given site are influenced by the variability of surface temperatures in a domain of about 200 km radius around the site.

  6. Flow Patterns in the Eastern Chukchi Sea: 2010-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, Phyllis; Kachel, Nancy; Ladd, Carol; Woodgate, Rebecca

    2018-02-01

    From 2010 to 2015, moorings were deployed on the northern Chukchi Sea at nine sites. Deployment duration varied from 5 years at a site off Icy Cape to 1 year at a site north of Hanna Shoal. In addition, 39 satellite-tracked drifters (drogue depth 25-30 m) were deployed in the region during 2012-2015. The goals of this manuscript are to describe currents in the Chukchi Sea and their relationship to ice and winds. The north-south pressure gradient results in, on average, a northward flow over the Chukchi shelf, which is modified by local winds. The volume transport near Icy Cape (˜0.4 Sv) was ˜40% of flow through Bering Strait and varied seasonally, accounting for >50% of summer and ˜20% of winter transport in Bering Strait. Current direction was strongly influenced by bathymetry, with northward flow through the Central Channel and eastward flow south of Hanna Shoal. The latter joined the coastal flow exiting the shelf via Barrow Canyon. Drifter trajectories indicated the transit from Bering Strait to the mouth of Barrow Canyon took ˜90 days during the ice-free season. Most (˜70%) of the drifters turned westward at the mouth of Barrow Canyon and continued westward in the Chukchi Slope Current. This slope flow was largely confined to the upper 300 m, and although it existed year-round, it was strongest in spring and summer. Drifter trajectories indicated that the Chukchi Slope Current extends as far west as the mouth of Herald Canyon. The remaining ˜30% of the drifters turned eastward or were intercepted by sea ice.

  7. Time Series of Transport and Currents on the Chukchi Shelf: 2010 - 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabeno, P. J.; Ladd, C. A.; Mordy, C. W.; Sullivan, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Starting in 2010, NOAA/EcoFOCI in partnership with BOEM, has measured currents and water properties at multiple mooring sites on the Chukchi shelf and slope. Observations began at three sites (C1, C2, C3) off Icy Cape in 2010 and expanded in 2013 to include three sites around Barrow Canyon and two sites northeast of Hanna Shoal. In 2014, a mooring was deployed on the slope (1000 m) northeast of Hanna Shoal. A near-continuous velocity record exists at C2 from August 2010 - September 2015. These velocity data are combined with 40 satellite-tracked drifter trajectories (drogue depth 30 m) and hydrographic transects (2010 - 2015) to examine flow patterns and transport on the eastern Chukchi shelf. Six primary hydrographic transects extending from Pt. Hope (DBO3) to Barrow Canyon (DBO5) were occupied most years. Transport past Icy Cape accounts for 40% of the transport through Bering Strait. Maximum monthly-mean transport (>0.8 Sv) is in July with low interannual variability, while the lowest monthly transports are in December - April with high interannual variability. Currents are significantly correlated with alongshore winds. Satellite-tracked drifters deployed near Bering Strait show onshelf flow at Central Channel. Drifters deployed along the Icy Cape line are transported northeastward, converging to a narrow flow, and mainly exit the shelf through Barrow Canyon. The drifters then travel westward along the slope. In summer, drifters and hydrographic sections delineate the pathways of the nutrient-poor Alaska Coastal Current, and the nutrient-rich water to the west (Bering Sea water and Anadyr water). These data were collected mainly as part of three BOEM funded projects (CHAOZ, CHAOZ-Extension and ArcWEST).

  8. The “Criollo Negro de la Costa Ecuatoriana” pigs: effect of sex and rearing system on performance, carcass and meat traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, M.A.; Peláez, F.R.; Martínez, A.L.; Avilés, C.; Peña, F.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rearing system (confinement, C vs semi-confinement, SC) and sex (barrows vs females) on growth performance, carcass traits and meat quality of “Criollo negro de la costa ecuatoriana” pigs. A total of 32 pigs, 16 barrows and 16 gilts were used. The average daily gain (0.30 kg/day vs 0.22 kg/day), slaughter weight (51.4 kg vs 43.1 kg), morphometric parameters and weights for the most valuable meat cuts were higher in C pigs than in SC pigs, whereas hot and cold carcass yields were higher in SC pigs than in C pigs. The loin and sirloin percentages from C pigs were lower and higher compared with those SC pigs, respectively. Carcass of C pigs showed higher percentage of fat and lower percentage of lean and bone that SC pigs. The rearing system had scarce effects on meat quality traits and mineral composition. Meat from C pigs showed lower scores for color, brightness, and unctuousness, and higher for metallist taste, juiciness and persistence of flavor than SC pigs. Few sensory attributes of cooking chops were affected by sex. Metallist taste was higher in barrows, while brightness and lard flavor were higher in females. It can be concluded that the rearing system had a significant effect on most of the productive and carcass traits, whereas its effect was limited on the meat traits. Sex had little influence on most of the traits studied. (Author)

  9. Source identification of short-lived air pollutants in the Arctic using statistical analysis of measurement data and particle dispersion model output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hirdman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the IPY project POLARCAT (Polar Study using Aircraft, Remote Sensing, Surface Measurements and Models, of Climate Chemistry, Aerosols and Transport, this paper studies the sources of equivalent black carbon (EBC, sulphate, light-scattering aerosols and ozone measured at the Arctic stations Zeppelin, Alert, Barrow and Summit during the years 2000–2007. These species are important pollutants and climate forcing agents, and sulphate and EBC are main components of Arctic haze. To determine where these substances originate, the measurement data were combined with calculations using FLEXPART, a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The climatology of atmospheric transport from surrounding regions on a twenty-day time scale modelled by FLEXPART shows that the stations Zeppelin, Alert and Barrow are highly sensitive to surface emissions in the Arctic and to emissions in high-latitude Eurasia in winter. Emission sensitivities over southern Asia and southern North America are small throughout the year. The high-altitude station Summit is an order of magnitude less sensitive to surface emissions in the Arctic whereas emissions in the southern parts of the Northern Hemisphere continents are more influential relative to the other stations. Our results show that for EBC and sulphate measured at Zeppelin, Alert and Barrow, northern Eurasia is the dominant source region. For sulphate, Eastern Europe and the metal smelting industry in Norilsk are particularly important. For EBC, boreal forest fires also contribute in summer. No evidence for any substantial contribution to EBC from sources in southern Asia is found. European air masses are associated with low ozone concentrations in winter due to titration by nitric oxides, but are associated with high ozone concentrations in summer due to photochemical ozone formation. There is also a strong influence of ozone depletion events in the Arctic boundary layer on measured ozone concentrations in spring

  10. A polymorphism in the stearoyl-CoA desaturase gene promoter influences monounsaturated fatty acid content of Duroc × Iberian hams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriquez-Rodriguez, E.; Tor, M.; Pena, R.N.; Estany, J.

    2015-07-01

    Data on 74 dry-cured hams from Duroc × Iberian pigs were used to examine whether the tag polymorphism AY487830:g.2228T>C in the promoter region of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase [SCD] gene affect fat desaturation and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) as previously described in purebred Duroc hams. Samples were taken from sliced trays of dry-cured hams marketed as Jamón Ibérico de cebo, which were randomly purchased from the same supplier in different stores of the same supermarket chain. Genomic DNA was isolated from each sample to genotype for SCD and gender. Also, a sample of two slices was used to determine fat content and fatty acid (FA) composition by gas chromatography. The effect of the genotype (TT and CT) and gender (barrows and gilts) was estimated under a Bayesian setting. Results showed that the SCD polymorphism was associated to fat composition but not to fat content, with TT hams showing increased C18:1n-7, C18:1n-9, C20:1n-9 and MUFA (probability between 0.92-0.98) and decreased C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6 and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) (probability between 0.91-0.99) as compared to the CT. As a result, the TT hams had more MUFA (0.95%) and a higher MUFA/PUFA ratio (0.43) than the CT. Barrows had more saturated FA (SFA) and less PUFA than gilts. No differences in MUFA content were found between genders. The SCD polymorphism had a greater impact on MUFA than using hams from barrows instead of gilts. It is concluded that the SCD polymorphism is a good tool to increase MUFA and MUFA/PUFA ratio in Duroc crossbred dry-cured hams. (Author)

  11. Source attribution of Arctic black carbon constrained by aircraft and surface measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun-Wei; Martin, Randall V.; Morrow, Andrew; Sharma, Sangeeta; Huang, Lin; Leaitch, W. Richard; Burkart, Julia; Schulz, Hannes; Zanatta, Marco; Willis, Megan D.; Henze, Daven K.; Lee, Colin J.; Herber, Andreas B.; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2017-10-01

    Black carbon (BC) contributes to Arctic warming, yet sources of Arctic BC and their geographic contributions remain uncertain. We interpret a series of recent airborne (NETCARE 2015; PAMARCMiP 2009 and 2011 campaigns) and ground-based measurements (at Alert, Barrow and Ny-Ålesund) from multiple methods (thermal, laser incandescence and light absorption) with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model and its adjoint to attribute the sources of Arctic BC. This is the first comparison with a chemical transport model of refractory BC (rBC) measurements at Alert. The springtime airborne measurements performed by the NETCARE campaign in 2015 and the PAMARCMiP campaigns in 2009 and 2011 offer BC vertical profiles extending to above 6 km across the Arctic and include profiles above Arctic ground monitoring stations. Our simulations with the addition of seasonally varying domestic heating and of gas flaring emissions are consistent with ground-based measurements of BC concentrations at Alert and Barrow in winter and spring (rRMSE stations in summer, especially at Barrow.Our adjoint simulations indicate pronounced spatial heterogeneity in the contribution of emissions to the Arctic BC column concentrations, with noteworthy contributions from emissions in eastern China (15 %) and western Siberia (6.5 %). Although uncertain, gas flaring emissions from oilfields in western Siberia could have a striking impact (13 %) on Arctic BC loadings in January, comparable to the total influence of continental Europe and North America (6.5 % each in January). Emissions from as far as the Indo-Gangetic Plain could have a substantial influence (6.3 % annually) on Arctic BC as well.

  12. Inter-annual Variability in Tundra Phenology Captured with Digital Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, M.; Vargas, S. A.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2012-12-01

    The need to improve multi-scale phenological monitoring of arctic terrestrial ecosystems has been a persistent research challenge. Although there has been a range of advances in remote sensing capacities over the past decade, these present costly, and sometimes logistically challenging and technically demanding solutions for arctic terrestrial ecosystems. In this poster and undergraduate research project, we demonstrate how seasonal and inter-annual variability in landscape phenology can be derived for multiple tundra ecosystems using a low-cost and low-tech kite aerial photography (KAP) system that has been developed as a contribution to the US Arctic Observing Network. Seasonal landscape phenology was observed over the Networked Info-Mechanical Systems (NIMS) grids (2 x 50 meters) located in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska using imagery acquired with KAP and analyzed for a range of greenness indices. Preliminary results showed that the 2G-RB greenness index correlated the best with NDVI values calculated from ground based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. 2012 had the highest 2G-RB greenness index values for both Barrow and Atqasuk sites, which correlated well with NDVI values acquired from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Wet vegetation types showed the most interannual variability at the Atqasuk site based on the 2G-RB greenness index while in Barrow the moist vegetation types showed the most interannual variability. These results show that vegetation indices similar to those acquired from hyperspectral remote sensing platforms can be derived using low-cost and low-tech techniques. Further analysis using these same techniques is required in order to link relatively small scale vegetation dynamics measured with KAP with those documented at large scales using satellite imagery.

  13. Environmental Variability, Bowhead Whale Distributions, and Inupiat Subsistence Whaling in the Coastal Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashjian, C. J.; Campbell, R. G.; George, J. C.; Moore, S. E.; Okkonen, S. R.; Sherr, B. F.; Sherr, E. B.

    2006-12-01

    The annual migration of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) past Barrow, Alaska has provided subsistence hunting opportunities to Native whalers for centuries. Bowheads regularly feed along the Arctic coast near Barrow in autumn, presumably to utilize recurrent aggregations of their zooplankton prey (e.g., copepods, euphausiids). Oceanographic field-sampling on the narrow continental shelf near Barrow and in Elson Lagoon was conducted during mid-August to mid-September of 2005 and 2006 to describe the different water mass types and plankton communities, to identify exchange of water and material between the shelf and lagoon and offshore, and to identify biological and physical mechanisms of plankton aggregation. High spatial resolution profiles of temperature, salinity, fluorescence, optical backscatter, and C-DOM were collected using an Acrobat undulating towed vehicle in the lagoon and across the shelf from near-shore to the ~150 m isobath. Discrete sampling for nutrients, chlorophyll a, and phytoplankton, and microzooplankton and mesozooplankton abundance and composition was conducted in distinct water types and across frontal boundaries identified from the high-resolution data. The distributions of bowhead whales were documented using aerial surveys. Inter-annual and shorter-term (days to weeks) variability in the distribution of water masses and intrinsic biological properties was observed. Distinct hydrographic and biological-chemical regions were located across the shelf that may contribute to the formation of bowhead whale prey aggregations. The lagoon system is an important interface between the ocean and land and may be critical to the formation of nearshore bowhead whale prey aggregations. Results from the field sampling will be coupled to biological-physical modeling and retrospective analyses to understand the response of this complex environment-whale-human system to climate variability.

  14. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  15. BOOK REVIEW: The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, B. A.

    2005-07-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music—a new type of `cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson,\\endcolumn hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature’s code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one’s mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  16. Aplikace nedestruktivních archeologických metod na Katedře archeologie v Plzni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Baierl

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive archaeological approaches and methods have become an inseparable part of archaeological monument survey. They are also frequently used at the Department of Archaeology in Plzen. Here, over the past years, they have been applied in a number of cases. These include non-destructive documentation works on barrow burial and hill top sites, or the Middle Age and Modern settlements in forested areas Other significant activities have been carried out by means of geophysical surveys or aerial photography and remote sensing of Earth.

  17. Collecting Research-Grade Data With Volunteers: A Case Study from Montana's Wilderness to the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Collecting Research-Grade Data With Volunteers: A Case Study from Montana's Wilderness Waterways to the SeaKautz, M (1), Barrows, A (2)(1) Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation. Bozeman, Montana, United States - mike@adventureandscience.org(2) College of the Atlantic. Bar Harbor, Maine, United States - abby.barrows@coa.eduSince World War II, global plastic production and consumption has increased dramatically. Plastics released into the environment may break down into smaller pieces through physical, biological and chemical processes. These small particles, referred to as microplastics, are less than 5mm in size and are a pollutant of emerging concern in both marine and freshwater environments. Since 2013, researcher Abigail Barrows and ASC have been conducting a global survey of microplastic distribution by utilizing the outdoor skills of adventurers. ASC recruits, trains and manages volunteers with specialized skills (surfers, long-distance open-ocean rowers, sailors, hikers, mountaineers, kayakers and others) to collect marine and freshwater samples from remote environments. Of the nearly 1500 samples collected worldwide to date (from areas as remote as the edge of Antarctica and the wilderness of Alaska) 90% contain microplastic, with an average of 8 pieces/1L of water. Samples are also in preparation for micro-Raman spectroscopy to determine source materials. In 2016 and 2017 the survey is focusing on freshwater around the globe. In the United States samples are being collected from the length of the 4th longest river system in the world, the Missouri-Mississippi. ASC has adventurous citizen scientists sampling in the mountain headwaters near Yellowstone National Park to the delta of the Mississippi River near New Orleans. This citizen-driven observation allows research at a geographic scale simply not possible through traditional methods. ASC works closely with Barrows and other researchers to develop water sampling protocols that allow volunteers to

  18. Sources of springtime surface black carbon in the Arctic: an adjoint analysis for April 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Qi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantify source contributions to springtime (April 2008 surface black carbon (BC in the Arctic by interpreting surface observations of BC at five receptor sites (Denali, Barrow, Alert, Zeppelin, and Summit using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem and its adjoint. Contributions to BC at Barrow, Alert, and Zeppelin are dominated by Asian anthropogenic sources (40–43 % before 18 April and by Siberian open biomass burning emissions (29–41 % afterward. In contrast, Summit, a mostly free tropospheric site, has predominantly an Asian anthropogenic source contribution (24–68 %, with an average of 45 %. We compute the adjoint sensitivity of BC concentrations at the five sites during a pollution episode (20–25 April to global emissions from 1 March to 25 April. The associated contributions are the combined results of these sensitivities and BC emissions. Local and regional anthropogenic sources in Alaska are the largest anthropogenic sources of BC at Denali (63 % of total anthropogenic contributions, and natural gas flaring emissions in the western extreme north of Russia (WENR are the largest anthropogenic sources of BC at Zeppelin (26 % and Alert (13 %. We find that long-range transport of emissions from Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei (also known as Jing–Jin–Ji, the biggest urbanized region in northern China, contribute significantly (∼ 10 % to surface BC across the Arctic. On average, it takes ∼ 12 days for Asian anthropogenic emissions and Siberian biomass burning emissions to reach the Arctic lower troposphere, supporting earlier studies. Natural gas flaring emissions from the WENR reach Zeppelin in about a week. We find that episodic transport events dominate BC at Denali (87 %, a site outside the Arctic front, which is a strong transport barrier. The relative contribution of these events to surface BC within the polar dome is much smaller (∼ 50 % at Barrow and Zeppelin and ∼ 10 % at

  19. Different atmospheric parameters influence on spectral UV radiation (measurements and modelling)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubarova, N.Y. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Meteorological Observatory; Krotkov, N.A. [Maryland Univ., MD (United States). JCESS/Meteorology Dept.; Geogdzhaev, I.V.; Bushnev, S.V.; Kondranin, T.V. [SUMGF/MIPT, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The ultraviolet (UV) radiation plays a vital role in the biophysical processes despite its small portion in the total solar flux. UV radiation is subject to large variations at the Earth surface depending greatly on solar elevation, ozone and cloud amount, aerosols and surface albedo. The analysis of atmospheric parameters influence is based on the spectral archive data of three spectral instruments: NSF spectroradiometer (Barrow network) (NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network 1991-1992,1992), spectrophotometer (SUVS-M) of Central Aerological Observatory CAO, spectroradiometer of Meteorological Observatory of the Moscow State University (MO MSU) and model simulations based on delta-Eddington approximation

  20. Assessment of p-y Curves from Numerical Methods for a non-Slender Monopile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.; Hansen, Mette

    In current design the stiff large diameter monopile is a widely used solution as foundation of offshore wind turbines. Winds and waves subject the monopile to considerable lateral loads. The current design guidances apply the p-y curve method with formulations for the curves based on slender piles....... However, the behaviour of the stiff monopiles during lateral loading is not fully understood. In this paper case study from Barrow Offshore Wind Farm is used in a 3D finite element model. The analysis forms a basis for extraction of p-y curves which are used in an evaluation of the traditional curves....... Different extraction methods are described and discussed....

  1. Assessment of p-y Curves from Numerical Methods for a non-Slender Monopile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Wolf, Torben K.

    2013-01-01

    In current design the stiff large diameter monopile is a widely used solution as foundation of offshore wind turbines. Winds and waves subject the monopile to considerable lateral loads. The current design guidances apply the p-y curve method with formulations for the curves based on slender piles....... However, the behaviour of the stiff monopiles during lateral loading is not fully understood. In this paper case study from Barrow Offshore Wind Farm is used in a 3D finite element model. The analysis forms a basis for extraction of p-y curves which are used in an evaluation of the traditional curves....... Different extraction methods are described and discussed....

  2. Implications of Women in the Infantry: Will This Improve Combat Efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    with women in the infantry, such as paternal instincts of men with traditional Western values, medical issues, billeting/ privacy in an expeditionary...both males and females in the CF. A female combat arms soldier confirmed that she was kept from patrols most likely because she had kids , and a...4. 8 Goldman v. Weinberger, 475 U.S. 503 (1986). 9 “SASC Testimony.VOB,” YouTube video, 16:27, General Robert H. Barrow, 27th Commandant of the

  3. Sur trois pointes de javelot en fer d'un tumulus du Maroc Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Souville

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un tumulus du Maroc oriental, formé d'une enceinte circulaire avec des bastions accolés, ont été recueillies trois pointes de javelot en fer. Celles-ci présentent une ornementation élaborée et inhabituelle; la pointe a été retournée Intentionnellement.Three heads of iron javelin came from an oriental morrocan barrow formed by a circular enclosure. They presented an elaborated unusual ornament; the sharp end was deliberately turned over.

  4. Sur trois pointes de javelot en fer d'un tumulus du Maroc Oriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Souville

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Dans un tumulus du Maroc oriental, formé d'une enceinte circulaire avec des bastions accolés, ont été recueillies trois pointes de javelot en fer. Celles-ci présentent une ornementation élaborée et inhabituelle; la pointe a été retournée intentionnellement.Three fieads of iron javelin came from an oriental morrocan barrow formed by a circular enclosure. They presented an elaborated unusual ornament; the sharp end was deliberately turned over

  5. On the use of prior information in modelling metabolic utilization of energy in growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jørgensen, Henry; Fernández, José Adalberto

    2011-01-01

    Construction of models that provide a realistic representation of metabolic utilization of energy in growing animals tend to be over-parameterized because data generated from individual metabolic studies are often sparse. In the Bayesian framework prior information can enter the data analysis......) curves, resulting from a metabolism study on growing pigs of high genetic potential. A total of 17 crossbred pigs of three genders (barrows, boars and gilts) were used. Pigs were fed four diets based on barley, wheat and soybean meal supplemented with crystalline amino acids to meet Danish nutrient...

  6. The Artful Universe Expanded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, B A

    2005-01-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great beauty. (book review)

  7. Sources of springtime surface black carbon in the Arctic: an adjoint analysis for April 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Ling; Li, Qinbin; Henze, Daven K.; Tseng, Hsien-Liang; He, Cenlin

    2017-08-01

    We quantify source contributions to springtime (April 2008) surface black carbon (BC) in the Arctic by interpreting surface observations of BC at five receptor sites (Denali, Barrow, Alert, Zeppelin, and Summit) using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint. Contributions to BC at Barrow, Alert, and Zeppelin are dominated by Asian anthropogenic sources (40-43 %) before 18 April and by Siberian open biomass burning emissions (29-41 %) afterward. In contrast, Summit, a mostly free tropospheric site, has predominantly an Asian anthropogenic source contribution (24-68 %, with an average of 45 %). We compute the adjoint sensitivity of BC concentrations at the five sites during a pollution episode (20-25 April) to global emissions from 1 March to 25 April. The associated contributions are the combined results of these sensitivities and BC emissions. Local and regional anthropogenic sources in Alaska are the largest anthropogenic sources of BC at Denali (63 % of total anthropogenic contributions), and natural gas flaring emissions in the western extreme north of Russia (WENR) are the largest anthropogenic sources of BC at Zeppelin (26 %) and Alert (13 %). We find that long-range transport of emissions from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (also known as Jing-Jin-Ji), the biggest urbanized region in northern China, contribute significantly (˜ 10 %) to surface BC across the Arctic. On average, it takes ˜ 12 days for Asian anthropogenic emissions and Siberian biomass burning emissions to reach the Arctic lower troposphere, supporting earlier studies. Natural gas flaring emissions from the WENR reach Zeppelin in about a week. We find that episodic transport events dominate BC at Denali (87 %), a site outside the Arctic front, which is a strong transport barrier. The relative contribution of these events to surface BC within the polar dome is much smaller (˜ 50 % at Barrow and Zeppelin and ˜ 10 % at Alert). The large contributions from Asian anthropogenic

  8. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  9. “Who We Are Now”: Iñupiaq Youth On the Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Hearne

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers Andrew Okpeaha MacLean’s 2011 feature film On the Ice, about Iñupiaq youth in Barrow, Alaska, in the context of Arctic and Indigenous cinemas and the American western. Reading the film through Inuit and Iñupiaq concepts and engaging with the film’s depictions of cultural syncretism, Indigenous hip hop, Iñupiaq hunting culture, and film genres, the essay argues that Iñupiaq sovereignty of the camera, as an adaptive aesthetic practice, strengthens the work and the value of traditional knowledge in a connected world.

  10. Nursing--a new tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, D N

    1989-01-01

    This year's recipient of the prestigious Christiane Reimann Award, the "Nobel Prize of Nursing", was Dame Nita Barrow, Ambassador to the UN from Barbados, who was recognized for her distinguished accomplishments in nursing and health care over decades and continents. She was also the keynote speaker at ICN's 19th Quadrennial Congress in Seoul, Korea, 28 May-2 June 1989, described by Korean Prime Minister Kang Young Hoon in his address at the opening ceremonies as the "festival of peace and friendship for nurses the world over". Below, her keynote address.

  11. The Marines in Vietnam 1954-1973: An Anthology and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Colonel Robert H. Barrow, and two battalions of the of traJfft.EMU~a fo VIPL See. PN*4"p Ish jEiew hes Uwe -- st Vietnamese Army Division. esd sal. uht ...southern I Corps became more extensive, NSA Da widened to include a milk plant operated by Foremost Nang established Naval Support Activity Detachment, Dairy...Products, which in addition to milk , provided Sa Huynh. Since Sa Huynh waz at the southern bound- all U. S. servicemen in I Corps with cottage cheese

  12. Jargonial-Obfuscation(J-O) DISambiguation Elimination via Siegel-Baez Cognition Category-Semantics(C-S) in Siegel FUZZYICS=CATEGORYICS (Son of TRIZ)/(F=C) Tabular List-Format Dichotomy Truth-Table Matrix Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Carl Ludwig; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig

    2011-03-01

    NOT "philosophy" per se but raising serious salient Arnol'd [Huygens and Barrow, Newton and Hooke(96)] questions begged is Rota empiricism Husserl VS. Frege maths-objects Dichotomy controversy: Hill-Haddock[Husserl or Frege?(00)]as manifestly-demonstrated by Hintikka[B.U.]-Critchey[Derrida Deconstruction Ethics(78)] deconstruction; Altshuler TRIZ; Siegel F=C/C-S; Siegel-Baez(UCR) Cognition C-S = "Category-theory ``+'' Cognitive-Semantics[Wierzbica-Langacker-Lakoff-Nunez[Where Maths Comes From(00)]-Fauconnier-Turner[Blending(98)]-Coulson[Semantic-Leaps (00)

  13. Islamic Economic Revolution of the Century

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Dr.Niaz Ahmed

    2007-01-01

    Our world is facing lot of challenges with no solution in sight.The main cause of all these ills is the POVERTY.The problem of poverty has given rise ot many other problems such as the problem of taxes, terrorism ,drug abuse.In this article I will describe the solution for these problems. 1. Do not barrow the money which cannot be returned with interest and in time.Issue bonds which can be used by everybody rich or poor and and are not debt so there is no question of interest.Take...

  14. Is the Strong Anthropic Principle too weak?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoli, A.; Rampone, S.

    1999-01-01

    The authors discuss Carter's formula about the mankind evolution probability following the derivation proposed by Barrow and Tipler. The authors stress the relation between the existence of billions galaxies and the evolution of at least one intelligent life, whose living time is not trivial, all over the Universe. The authors show that the existence probability and the lifetime of a civilization depend not only on the evolutionary critical steps, but also on the number of places where the life can arise. In the light of these results, are proposed a stronger version of Anthropic Principle

  15. Potential sea salt aerosol sources from frost flowers in the pan-Arctic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Li [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Now at Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California USA; Russell, Lynn M. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla California USA; Burrows, Susannah M. [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-09-23

    In order to better represent observed wintertime aerosol concentrations at Barrow, Alaska, we implemented an observationally-based parameterization for estimating sea salt production from frost flowers in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In this work, we evaluate the potential influence of this sea salt source on the pan-Arctic (60ºN-90ºN) climate. Results show that frost flower salt emissions substantially increase the modeled surface sea salt aerosol concentration in the winter months when new sea ice and frost flowers are present. The parameterization reproduces both the magnitude and seasonal variation of the observed submicron sea salt aerosol concentration at surface in Barrow during winter much better than the standard CESM simulation without a frost-flower salt particle source. Adding these frost flower salt particle emissions increases aerosol optical depth by 10% and results in a small cooling at surface. The increase in salt particle mass concentrations of a factor of 8 provides nearly two times the cloud condensation nuclei concentration, as well as 10% increases in cloud droplet number and 40% increases in liquid water content near coastal regions adjacent to continents. These cloud changes reduce longwave cloud forcing by 3% and cause a small surface warming, increasing the downward longwave flux at the surface by 2 W m-2 in the pan-Arctic under the present-day climate.

  16. Neutral detergent fiber increases endogenous ileal losses but has no effect on ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariscal-Landín, Gerardo; Reis de Souza, Tércia Cesária; Bayardo Uribe, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) on endogenous amino acids and protein ileal losses; and also apparent ileal digestibility (AID), and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids and crude protein. Sixteen barrows were fed four protein-free diets containing graded NDF levels in Experiment 1. NDF was a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and corn leaves (SBCL). Twenty-four barrows were fed diets with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) or casein as protein sources and SBCL or corncobs (CC) as NDF sources in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1, a linear increase (P protein ileal losses was observed with increased NDF levels, except for arginine, histidine, methionine and proline. In Experiment 2, protein (P Protein and NDF sources significantly affected (P protein, which was higher in casein diets (92.8%) and CC diets (92.7%). NDF source had no effect (P > 0.05) on SID of amino acids. Overall, this study showed that NDF increased endogenous amino acid and protein ileal losses, but did not affect ileal digestibility of amino acids. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Source Contributions to Wintertime Elemental and Organic Carbon in the Western Arctic Based on Radiocarbon and Tracer Apportionment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, T E; Robinson, E M; Usenko, S; Sheesley, R J

    2015-10-06

    To quantify the contributions of fossil and biomass sources to the wintertime Arctic aerosol burden source apportionment is reported for elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC) fractions of six PM10 samples collected during a wintertime (2012-2013) campaign in Barrow, AK. Radiocarbon apportionment of EC indicates that fossil sources contribute an average of 68 ± 9% (0.01-0.07 μg m(-3)) in midwinter decreasing to 49 ± 6% (0.02 μg m(-3)) in late winter. The mean contribution of fossil sources to OC for the campaign was stable at 38 ± 8% (0.04-0.32 μg m(-3)). Samples were also analyzed for organic tracers, including levoglucosan, for use in a chemical mass balance (CMB) source apportionment model. The CMB model was able to apportion 24-53% and 99% of the OC and EC burdens, respectively, during the campaign, with fossil OC contributions ranging from 25 to 74% (0.02-0.09 μg m(-3)) and fossil EC contributions ranging from 73 to 94% (0.03-0.07 μg m(-3)). Back trajectories identified two major wintertime source regions to Barrow: the Russian and North American Arctic. Atmospheric lifetimes of levoglucosan, ranging from 50 to 320 h, revealed variability in wintertime atmospheric processing of this biomass burning tracer. This study allows for unambiguous apportionment of EC to fossil fuel and biomass combustion sources and intercomparison with CMB modeling.

  18. Effect of sex, dietary glycerol or dietary fat during late fattening, on fatty acid composition and positional distribution of fatty acids within the triglyceride in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, J; Cambero, M I; Cámara, L; Loriente, C; Mateos, G G; López-Bote, C J

    2015-11-01

    The effect of sex, source of saturated fat (lard v. palm oil) and glycerol inclusion in the fattening diet on composition and fatty acid positional distribution in the triglyceride molecule was studied in pigs from 78 to 110 kg BW. Average daily gain and carcass characteristics, including ham and loin weight, were not affected by dietary treatment but sex affected backfat depth (P acid (SFA) concentrations were greater in barrows than in gilts. In contrast, the concentration of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C20:3n-9 and C20:4n-6 in the intramuscular fat (IMF) was higher (P acids (MUFA) concentration in the IMF. The proportion of SFA in the subcutaneous fat (SF) was higher in barrows than in gilts (P fat did not affect total SFA or PUFA concentrations of the IMF but the subcutaneous total MUFA concentration tended to be higher (P = 0.079) in pigs fed lard than in pigs fed palm oil. Dietary glycerol increased total MUFA and C18:1n-9 concentration in the IMF and increased total MUFA and decreased C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and total PUFA concentrations in the SF. The data indicate that altering the fatty acid composition of the triglyceride molecule at the 2-position, by dietary intervention during the fattening phase, is very limited.

  19. Drivers of inorganic carbon dynamics in first-year sea ice: A model study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Sebastien; Vancoppenolle, Martin; Delille, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sea ice is an active source or a sink for carbon dioxide (CO2), although to what extent is not clear. Here, we analyze CO2 dynamics within sea ice using a one-dimensional halothermodynamic sea ice model including gas physics and carbon biogeochemistry. The ice-ocean fluxes, and vertical transport...... included. The model is evaluated using observations from a 6 month field study at Point Barrow, Alaska, and an ice-tank experi- ment. At Barrow, results show that the DIC budget is mainly driven by physical processes, wheras brine-air CO2 fluxes, ikaite formation, and net primary production, are secondary...... factors. In terms of ice-atmosphere CO2 exchanges, sea ice is a net CO2 source and sink in winter and summer, respectively. The formulation of the ice-atmosphere CO2 flux impacts the simulated near-surface CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), but not the DIC budget. Because the simulated ice-atmosphere CO2 fluxes...

  20. My World Is Your World: Web Portal Design For Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, C.; Cody, R. P.; Gaylord, A. G.; Kassin, A.; Manley, W. F.; Score, R.; Tweedie, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    In the environmental sciences, researchers are increasingly relying on automated sensors as necessary components of their work. There are many software packages available that will help users download data from internet-connected data loggers; process, store, document, and analyze the data; or provide web-based geoportals for visualization and sharing of both spatial and time-series data. However, few (if any) software packages provide a complete, end-to-end system that will meet all of the needs of any given research group. Such systems often need to be designed and built as needed. Our group specializes in creating such systems. Our portals provide rapid data discovery and contextualization, and promote collaboration. We work at multiple scales, from a small lab working at a single site in the Chihuahuan desert (SEL-Jornada), to a community portal for environmental data from Barrow, Alaska (Barrow Area Information Database Information Management System [BAID-IMS]), to a project-tracking system for US Arctic research efforts (Arctic Research Mapping Application/Arctic Observing Viewer [ARMAP/AON]). Here, we share our experiences of creating scalable systems and improving practices that address both user community and research needs.

  1. Sobriety and alcohol use among rural Alaska Native elders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica C. Skewes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although notable health disparities related to alcohol use persist among Alaska Native people living in rural communities, there is a paucity of research examining drinking behaviour in particular segments of this population, including elders. One explanation for this is the distrust of behavioural health research in general and alcohol research in particular following the legacy of the Barrow Alcohol Study, still regarded as a notable example of ethics violations in cross-cultural research. Objective: The present study reports findings from one of the first research studies asking directly about alcohol abuse among rural Alaska Natives (AN since the study in Barrow took place in 1979. Design: We report findings regarding self-reported alcohol use included in an elder needs assessment conducted with 134 Alaska Native elders from 5 rural villages off the road system in Alaska. Data were collected in partnership between academic researchers and community members in accordance with the principles of Community-Based Participatory Research. Results: Findings showed very high rates of sobriety and low rates of alcohol use, contradicting stereotypes of widespread alcohol abuse among AN. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed. Conclusions: This research represents one step forward in mending academic–community relationships in rural Alaska to further research on alcohol use and related health disparities.

  2. The distribution of Δ{sup 14}C in Korea from 2010 to 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.H., E-mail: junghun@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no. Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, W. [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no. Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Xu, X. [Keck/CCAMS Lab, 3327 Croul Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Park, G.; Sung, K.S.; Sung, Kilho; Lee, Jong-geol; Nakanishi, T.; Park, Hyo-Seok [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM), 124 Gwahang-no. Yuseong, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Δ{sup 14}C values of leaves of a deciduous tree record to those of atmospheric CO{sub 2} within error and were used to map out Δ{sup 14}C distribution in Korea. We collected ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba Linnaeus, a deciduous tree) leaf samples in mid-June to early July from 2009 to 2013 in Korea to obtain the regional distribution of Δ{sup 14}C. Commonly CO{sub 2} emitted from fossil fuel consumption dilutes atmospheric {sup 14}C, while operations and accidents at nuclear power plants can increase it. The distribution maps of Δ{sup 14}C from 2010 to 2013 in Korea shows that Δ{sup 14}C values in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Korea are lower than those of the other parts of Korea, which is consistent with the population and industry patterns. Decrease rates of annually averaged Δ{sup 14}C values in Korea over the study period are larger than those of Pt. Barrow, Alaska, USA (71.3°N, 156.5°W), so the difference between them and those of Pt. Barrow, Alaska, USA became larger annually. This may be due to the increase in fossil fuel consumption in Korea and China. The decrease rate between 2010 and 2011 was smaller than in other years. This could be the effect of the Fukushima power plant accident which occurred in March 11, 2011, but further study is needed to clarify it.

  3. Wind-forcing of volume transport through Lancaster Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Ingrid; Hamilton, James; Prinsenberg, Simon; Pettipas, Roger

    2012-11-01

    Volume and freshwater transport through Lancaster Sound are estimated from mooring measurements collected in eastern Barrow Strait for 13 years between 1998 and 2011. Estimates from 2006 to 2011 confirm the relationship between surface wind and volume transport derived from data collected between 1998 and 2006. Volume transport through Barrow Strait along the Northwest Passage is significantly correlated with northeastward winds in the Beaufort Sea, parallel to the western coasts of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, at monthly to interannual time scales. The location and wind direction for which there is maximum correlation are consistent with the flow being driven by a sea level difference between opposite ends of the Passage, and the difference being determined by setup caused by alongshore winds in the Beaufort Sea. Monthly alongshore wind anomalies account for 43% of the variance of the transport anomalies (p 0.05). The annual cycles of the total volume transport and its part attributed to the Beaufort Sea wind both have peaks in the summer and are lowest in the autumn. Correlations of the volume transport anomaly with ice velocity anomalies are lower than with surface wind anomalies.

  4. Mesoscale distribution and functional diversity of picoeukaryotes in the first-year sea ice of the Canadian Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwosz, Kasia; Wiktor, Józef Maria; Niemi, Andrea; Tatarek, Agnieszka; Michel, Christine

    2013-08-01

    Sea ice, a characteristic feature of polar waters, is home to diverse microbial communities. Sea-ice picoeukaryotes (unicellular eukaryotes with cell size Arctic first-year sea ice. Here, we investigated the abundance of all picoeukaryotes, and of 11 groups (chlorophytes, cryptophytes, bolidophytes, haptophytes, Pavlovaphyceae, Phaeocystis spp., pedinellales, stramenopiles groups MAST-1, MAST-2 and MAST-6 and Syndiniales Group II) at 13 first-year sea-ice stations localized in Barrow Strait and in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. We applied Catalyzed Reporter Deposition-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization to identify selected groups at a single cell level. Pavlovaphyceae and stramenopiles from groups MAST-2 and MAST-6 were for the first time reported from sea ice. Total numbers of picoeukaryotes were significantly higher in the vicinity of Cornwallis Island than in Barrow Strait. Similar trend was observed for all the groups except for haptophytes. Chlorophytes and cryptophytes were the dominant plastidic, and MAST-2 most numerous aplastidic of all the groups investigated. Numbers of total picoeukaryotes, chlorophytes and MAST-2 stramenopiles were positively correlated with the thickness of snow cover. All studied algal and MAST groups fed on bacteria. Presence of picoeukaryotes from various trophic groups (mixotrophs, phagotrophic and parasitic heterotrophs) indicates the diverse ecological roles picoeukaryotes have in sea ice. Yet, >50% of total sea-ice picoeukaryote cells remained unidentified, highlighting the need for further study of functional and phylogenetic sea-ice diversity, to elucidate the risks posed by ongoing Arctic changes.

  5. Effects of lipid form and source on digestibility of fat and fatty acids in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z C; Su, Y B; Bi, X H; Wang, Q Y; Wang, J; Zhao, J B; Liu, L; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Lai, C H

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of source (corn DDGS, rice bran, or soybean) or form of oil (extracted or intact) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) and fatty acids. The study determined and compared the ATTD or TTTD of AEE and fatty acids in extracted corn oil, rice oil, and soybean oil with intact oil in corn DDGS, full-fat rice bran, and full-fat soybean. Seventy-eight barrows (initial BW = 47.2 ± 3.9 kg; Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire) were allotted to 1 of 13 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with 6 barrows in each dietary treatment. The 13 experimental diets included 1 cornstarch-soybean meal basal diet (AEE, 0.56%) and 3 diets containing 6% extracted oils (corn oil, rice oil, and soybean oil) and 9 diets supplemented with 3 levels of corn DDGS (17%, 34%, and 51%), full-fat rice bran (14%, 28%, and 42%), and full-fat soybean (12%, 24%, and 36%). These diets provided about 2%, 4%, and 6% intact oil, respectively. The barrows were housed in individual metabolism crates and were fed the assigned test diets at 4% of initial BW per day. A 5-d total collection of feces followed a 7-d diet adaptation period. The ATTD of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TTTD were calculated using regression methods. The ATTD of AEE were greater ( acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), oleic acid (C18:1), linoleic acid (C18:2), and linolenic acid (C18:3). However, a source by form interaction ( fat soybean. In conclusion, lipids that are extracted have a greater digestibility compared with intact lipids, and this is especially true regarding saturated fatty acids. The ATTD of AEE in 2 forms of rice oil (intact oil and extracted oil) was less than the values in corn oil and soybean oil. The TTTD of AEE in corn DDGS and full-fat soybeans were greater than in full-fat rice bran.

  6. Geology and physiography of the continental margin north of Alaska and implications for the origin of the Canada Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantz, Arthur; Eittreim, Stephen L.; Whitney, O.T.

    1979-01-01

    The continental margin north of Alaska is of Atlantic type. It began to form probably in Early Jurassic time but possibly in middle Early Cretaceous time, when the oceanic Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean is thought to have opened by rifting about a pole of rotation near the Mackenzie Delta. Offsets of the rift along two fracture zones are thought to have divided the Alaskan margin into three sectors of contrasting structure and stratigraphy. In the Barter Island sector on the east and the Chukchi sector on the west the rift was closer to the present northern Alaska mainland than in the Barrow sector, which lies between them. In the Barter Island and Chukchi sectors the continental shelf is underlain by prisms of clastic sedimentary rocks that are inferred to include thick sections of Jurassic and Neocomian (lower Lower Cretaceous) strata of southern provenance. In the intervening Barrow sector the shelf is underlain by relatively thin sections of Jurassic and Neocomian strata derived from northern sources that now lie beneath the outer continental shelf. The rifted continental margin is overlain by a prograded prism of Albian (upper Lower Cretaceous) to Tertiary clastic sedimentary rocks that comprises the continental terrace of the western Beaufort and northern Chukchi Seas. On the south the prism is bounded by Barrow arch, which is a hingeline between the northward-tilted basement surface beneath the continental shelf of the western Beaufort Sea and the southward-tilted Arctic Platform of northern Alaska. The Arctic platform is overlain by shelf clastic and carbonate strata of Mississippian to Cretaceous age, and by Jurassic and Cretaceous clastic strata of the Colville foredeep. Both the Arctic platform and Colville foredeep sequences extend from northern Alaska beneath the northern Chukchi Sea. At Herald fault zone in the central Chukchi Sea they are overthrust by more strongly deformed Cretaceous to Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of Herald arch, which trends

  7. United States Naval Academy Polar Science Program; Undergraduate Research and Outreach in Polar Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    The United States Naval Academy (USNA) Polar Science Program (PSP), has been very active completing its own field campaign out of Barrow, AK, sent students to the South Pole, participated in STEM activities and educated over 100 future Naval Officers about the Polar Regions. Each activity is uniquely different, but has the similar undertone of sharing the recent rapid changes in the Cryosphere to a wide range of audiences. There is further room for development and growth through future field campaigns and new collaborations. The Naval Academy Ice Experiment (NAICEX) 2013 was based out of the old Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) in Barrow, AK. In joint collaboration with the University of Delaware, University of Washington, and Naval Research Laboratory we successfully took multiple measurements for over a week on the fast ice just offshore. Five undergraduate students from USNA, as well as 3 graduate students from University of Delaware participated, as well as multiple professors and instructors from each institution. Data collected during the experiment will be used in capstone courses and thesis research. There was also an outreach component to the experiment, where local students from Barrow H.S. have been assigned to the USNA ice observations project for their own high school course work. Local students will be analyzing data that will contribute into the larger research effort at USNA through coordinated remote efforts and participation in future field experiments. The USNA STEM office is one of the most robust in the entire country. The USNA PSP is active within this program by developing polar specific modules that are integrated varying length outreach opportunities from a few hours to week long camps. USNA PSP also engages in educator training that is held at the Naval Academy each summer. Through this program of educating the educators, the far reaching levels of awareness are multiplied exponentially. Also, the USNA Oceanography Department has

  8. Produção de suínos inteiros com ou sem a suplementação de aminoácidos: desempenho e custo de alimento Production of entire male pigs with or without the supplementation of amino acids: performance and feed cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauber Valentim Porolnik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho e o custo do alimento de suínos machos castrados e inteiros suplementados ou não com aminoácidos. Foram utilizados 48 animais com peso vivo inicial de 38,8±0,2kg, distribuídos num delineamento de blocos ao acaso em três tratamentos, sendo machos castrados (MC, machos inteiros (MI e MI suplementados com 5% de aminoácidos (MI+5%AA. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre o peso vivo e o ganho de peso dos suínos. O consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e o custo do alimento diferiram (PAn experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance and feed cost of barrows and boars fed or not with amino acid supplemented diets. Forty-eight animals were used with initial weight of 38.8±0.2kg distributed in a randomized block design with three treatments, being barrows males (CM, boars males (IM and IM supplemented with 5% of amino acids (IM+5% AA. The treatment had no effect on body weight and weight gain. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost were different (P<0.05 among treatments. Average feed intake was of 2.43kg, and the intake observed on CM (P<0.05 was higher at 5.5 and 5.2% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Feed conversion ratio was of 2.28, and the CM showed the worse conversion (P<0.05 at 6.2 and 11.6% in relation to IM and IM+5%AA, respectively. Average feed cost was of R$ 1,82kg-1, being higher (P<0.05 for the CM in relation to IM and IM+5%AA. The sex category (barrows or boars and amino acid supplementation did not affect body weight and weight gain, but alter feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost.

  9. Effect of Lysine to Digestible Energy Ratio on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Cho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was performed to investigate the effects of lysine (Lys to DE ratio on growth performance, and carcass characterics in finishing barrows. Ninety six cross-bred finishing barrows ((Landrace×Yorkshire ×Duroc, average BW 58.25±0.48 kg were assigned as a randomized complete block design by 2 energy levels and 4 Lys:DE ratios on the basis of BW to one of 8 treatments with 3 replications with 4 animals per pen. The levels of DE and Lys:DE ratio for each treatment were i DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, ii DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, iii DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, iv DE 3.35 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE, v DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.5 g Lys/Mcal DE, vi DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 1.8 g Lys/Mcal DE, vii DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.1 g Lys/Mcal DE, viii DE 3.60 Mcal/kg, 2.4 g Lys/Mcal DE. During finishing period from 58 kg to 103 kg of BW, increased energy density in the diet increased (p<0.05 ADG and gain:feed ratio, but did not influence ADFI. As Lys:DE ratio was increased, ADG, ADFI and gain:feed ratio were improved in finishing barrows (p<0.05. There were positive interactions (p<0.05 between carcass weight, grade, and backfat thickness and energy density and Lys level (p<0.05. In conclusion, data from our current study suggest that maximum yields including ADG, gain:feed ratio, carcass weight and grade can be achieved by administrating finishing pigs with an ideal Lys:DE ratio, Lys 2.1 g/DE Mcal.

  10. The composition of dietary fat alters the transcriptional profile of pathways associated with lipid metabolism in the liver and adipose tissue in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, T A; Gabler, N K; Patience, J F

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the of effect chemical composition of dietary fat on transcription of genes involved in lipid metabolism in adipose tissue and the liver via transcriptional profiling in growing pigs. A total of 48 Genetiporc 6.0 × Genetiporc F25 (PIC, Inc., Hendersonville, TN) barrows (initial BW of 44.1 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments. Each experimental diet included 95% of a corn-soybean meal basal diet and 5% cornstarch (control; CNTR), animal-vegetable blend (AV), coconut oil (COCO), corn oil (COIL), fish oil (FO), or tallow (TAL). Pigs were sacrificed on d 10 (final BW of 51.2 ± 1.7 kg) to collect tissues. Expression normalization across samples was performed by calculating a delta cycle threshold (ΔCt) value using . Delta delta cycle threshold (ΔΔCt) values were expressed relative to the CNTR treatment. In adipose tissue, adding dietary fat, regardless of the source, decreased the mRNA abundance of compared with the CNTR ( = 0.014). Pigs fed a COIL-based diet tended to have greater adipose tissue expression of ( = 0.071) than pigs fed the other dietary fat sources tested. Abundance of mRNA was greater in adipose tissue of barrows a fed COIL-based diet than barrows fed CNTR or FO-based diets ( = 0.047). In the liver, adding dietary fat, regardless of source, increased the mRNA abundance of , , , , , and ( ≤ 0.020) and tended to increase the abundance of ( = 0.071) and ( = 0.086) compared with the CNTR. Pigs fed a TAL-based diet had greater hepatic transcription of than pigs fed CNTR-, COCO-, or FO-based diets ( = 0.013). Hepatic transcription of tended to be greater in pigs fed COCO than in pigs fed other dietary fat sources ( = 0.074). Dietary omega-3 fatty acid content tended to negatively correlate with mRNA abundance of ( = 0.065) in adipose tissue and ( = 0.063) in the liver. Dietary fat SFA content was negatively correlated with in the liver ( ≤ 0.039). Dietary fat MUFA content tended to be

  11. Thermodynamic properties of SeS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, M.D.

    1977-12-01

    Mass-spectrometry and Knudsen effusion experiments were used to study the equilibrium partial pressure of SeS formed by reaction of S/sub 2/ and Se/sub 2/ which were produced by thermally decomposing a mixture of In/sub 2/S/sub 3/ and In/sub 2/Se/sub 3/ in a Knudsen effusion cell. The heat of formation of SeS(g) was determined by the second law method to be -0.6 +- 3 kcal/mole. The entropy of formation of SeS(g) was calculated from spectrographic data in Ahmed and Barrow to be 1.5 cal/degree-mole at 298/sup 0/K.

  12. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, C.C.

    1975-01-01

    A study, begun in 1971, has been undertaken to determine the environmental factors which affect the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation. A sampling technique was developed on Amchitka Island to allow the rapid acquisition of data on species presence and frequency across areas disturbed at various times and in various ways. Attempts were made to sample across all examples of aspect, slope steepness and exposure. The data were analyzed and we concluded that there was no directional secondary succession on the Amchitka tundra, although there was vigorous recovery on organic soils. The study led to recommendations which resulted in a smaller effort than planned to reclaim damaged areas by seeding and fertilizing at a considerable financial saving and without further biological perturbation. Because of the increasing activity on tundra landscape, whether for energy production, or military or other reasons, we are expanding our sampling to other tundra areas. Immediate plans include sampling at Adak Island and Barrow, Alaska. (U.S.)

  13. Who coined the term “status gelasticus”? We did

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-tze Ng

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu-tze NgDivision of Pediatric Neurology, Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, USAIn a recent review article on gelastic seizures and hypothalamic hamartoma, Tellez-Zenteno and colleagues used the term, “status gelasticus” mostly correctly but referenced completely incorrectly the origins of the definition of this rare but becoming increasingly known phenomenon. This mistake followed upon an unusual oversight of quoting another author who had simply used the term and most certainly did not make any attempts to define it. We had initially published a case report of a 30-month-old boy who underwent successful emergent transcallosal resection of his hypothalamic hamartoma for status gelasticus which lasted six weeks!3 In this report, we made clear mention that we labeled his “history of near-continuous gelastic seizures” as status gelasticus.

  14. Farewell to reality how modern physics has betrayed the search for scientific truth

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2013-01-01

    From acclaimed science author Jim Baggott, a pointed critique of modern theoretical physics. In this stunning new volume, Jim Baggott argues that there is no observational or experimental evidence for many of the ideas of modern theoretical physics: super-symmetric particles,super strings, the multiverse, the holographic principle,or the anthropic cosmological principle. These theories are not only untrue, it is not even science. It is fairy-tale physics: fantastical, bizarre and often outrageous, perhaps even confidence-trickery. This book provides a much-needed antidote. Informed,comprehensive, and balanced, it offers lay readers the latest ideas about the nature of physical reality while clearly distinguishing between fact and fantasy. With its engaging portraits of many central figures of modern physics, including Paul Davies, John Barrow, Brian Greene, Stephen Hawking, and Leonard Susskind, it promises to be essential reading for all readers interested in what we know and don’t know about the nature of...

  15. Comparison of Resource and Energy Yield Assessment Procedures 2011-2015: What have we learned and what needs to be done?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Nielsen, Morten; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    studies for medium- to large-scale offshore wind farms in the Irish Sea. A total of 157 submissions were received, 97 land-based and 60 offshore, and all four exercises were analysed and presented previously by DTU Wind Energy. Results are summarised here for each of seven specific steps in the resource...... and energy yield assessment procedure: Site wind observation, long-term extrapolation, vertical extrapolation, horizontal extrapolation, wake modelling, technical losses estimation, uncertainty estimation and calculation. For each step and each wind farm a summary is given of the magnitude of the effects......, the spread of the predictions, the methodologies used, and some general, qualitative conclusions. For one offshore wind farm, Barrow, the predicted yield was found to be 104% of the observed yield, with a spread of predictions of 3%. Based on the results of the four case studies and the statistics...

  16. Effects of Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula and allicin mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal microbial shedding, immune response and meat quality in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, R X; Park, J W; Lee, D W; Kim, I H

    2017-12-01

    A 12-week trial with 120 [(Landrace×Yorkshire)×Duroc] pigs (45.65 ± 1.93 kg) was conducted to evaluate the effects of Astragalus membranaceus, Codonopsis pilosula and allicin mixture (HM) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, faecal microbial shedding, immune response and meat quality in finishing pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of three treatments with 0, 0.025% (HM1) and 0.05% (HM2) HM supplementation in a randomized complete block design according to sex and BW. Each treatment contained 10 replications with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts) per pen. Dietary HM resulted in a higher G:F (p immune response and meat quality. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Remote Under-Ice Roving in Alaska with the Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berisford, D. F.; Leichty, J.; Klesh, A.; Hand, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Buoyant Rover for Under-Ice Exploration (BRUIE) is two-wheeled robot capable of roving in two-dimensional space in the under-ice environment. The rover has positive buoyancy, allowing it to stick to the ice underside and operate using similar control principles as those used for traditional above-ground rovers. Recently added capability allows the rover to operate without a tether, communicating with a nearby above-ice ground station, which can relay data to a remote command center for remote operation. Additional upgrades include a dissolved methane sensor and improved capability for escape from entrapment in soft ice pockets. The system has been tested in thermokarst lakes near Barrow, Alaska, and data from onboard video and methane sensors gives scientific insight to the formation and distribution of trapped methane pockets in the lake ice. Here we present the updated design and preliminary data from deployments in the fall seasons of 2012 and 2013.

  18. Australian regulatory changes open crudes to export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, R.A.

    1988-01-18

    Since the price collapse of 1986, the Australian Government has been deregulating its domestic crude oils, which since the late 1960s, have been allocated solely to Australian refiners at set prices, and where no crude oil was exported. This arrangement is now being dismantled, and has allowed export since 1983, with modest free-market sales since 1985. Much of the exported crude is currently from older, established fields, but with a number of new fields that have come into production recently, some of the newer streams are beginning to find their way to many distant parts of the refining world. There are five important Australian crude oils either now being, or likely to be, exported: Barrow Island and Gippsland crudes, which are produced from fields discovered in 1960s; and Jabiru, Jackson blend, and Northwest Shelf condensate, all coming to production during the last 5 years. This article discusses each of these oils.

  19. Effect of pantothenic acid level in the diet of the finishing heavy pig on carcass and meat quality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Santoro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of vitamin B5 dietary level on carcass and meat quality characteristics in the heavy pig. To this aim, 42 pigs, 21 gilts and 21 barrows, of similar weight and age, evenly divided into 3 groups of 14 subjects each, were fed, from approx. 95 kg live weight (lw till slaughtering (around 165 kg lw, the same basal diet containing either 10 (control, C, or 60 (T1, or 110 ppm (T2 pantothenic acid. At increasing dietary levels of vitamin B5, only numerical improvements of lean meat and lean cuts percentages were observed, whereas total adipose cuts, backfat and jowl percentages decreased (P<0.05. Ham characteristics and meat quality traits, such as colour, pH, intramuscular fat and protein contents, were not affected by the dietary treatment.

  20. Trouble at the world's nuclear dustbin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adkins, J.

    1984-01-01

    Radioactive discharges from the Windscale nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in England's lake district temporarily closed 15 miles of shoreline and continues to raise safety questions in this recreational area. The plant receives high-level radioactive wastes and spent fuel from 36 power plants around the world for reprocessing. The site is also a storage point for 1550 tons of oxide waste waiting for additional reprocessing capacity. Pipelines carry 2.2 million gallons of low-level wastes into the Irish Sea each day. Five hundred pounds of weapons grade plutonium also entered the sea from a World War II munitions depot. Accidents have also contributed to the radioactive debris that has accumulated on sandy beaches. Pressure from Greenpeace and the Barrow Action Group helped to expedite an extensive cleanup program, but activity on the beaches is still highly restricted. British Nuclear Fuels remains undaunted by its negative public relations problems. 4 figures

  1. A microwave technique for mapping ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Germain, K.M. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Remote Sensing Div.; Cavalieri, D.J. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1997-07-01

    A technique for deriving ice temperature in the Arctic seasonal sea ice zone from passive microwave radiances has been developed. The algorithm operates on brightness temperatures derived from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and uses ice concentration and type from a previously developed thin ice algorithm to estimate the surface emissivity. Comparisons of the microwave derived temperatures with estimates derived from infrared imagery of the Bering Strait yield a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and an RMS difference of 2.1 K when coastal and cloud contaminated pixels are removed. SSM/I temperatures were also compared with a time series of air temperature observations from Gambell on St. Lawrence Island and from Point Barrow, AK weather stations. These comparisons indicate that the relationship between the air temperature and the ice temperature depends on ice type.

  2. Exocrine pancreatic secretion is stimulated in piglets fed Fish oil compared with those fed Coconut Oil or Lard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Engberg, Ricarda M.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of feeding diets containing fat sources with different fatty acid composition (fish oil, coconut oil or lard, 10 g/100 g diet) on exocrine pancreatic secretion in piglets after weaning. A total of 16 barrows were weaned at 4 wk of age; 3 d later...... the coconut oil or lard diets. The output [U/(h. kg(0.75))] of lipase was higher in piglets fed fish oil than in piglets fed lard or coconut oil. The output of colipase was greater in piglets fed fish oil and coconut oil than in those fed lard. The dietary treatments did not affect the output of carboxylester...... hydrolase. The output of trypsin was significantly lower in piglets fed lard than in piglets fed fish oil or coconut oil diets and the output of carboxypeptidase B was greater in those fed the fish oil diet. Protein, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase A, elastase and amylase outputs did not differ among...

  3. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, C.C.

    1976-01-01

    A study, begun in 1971, continues to document the environmental factors which affect the recovery of damaged tundra landscapes. A measurement technique was developed on Amchitka Island to allow the rapid acquisition of data on species presence and frequency across areas disturbed at various times and in various ways. Samples across all examples of aspect, slope steepness and exposure are taken. Studies now include Adak Island and the Point Barrow area. We have concluded that there was no directional secondary succession on the Aleutian tundra, although there was vigorous recovery on organic soils. Our study led to recommendations which resulted in less intensive reclamation management at a considerable financial saving and without further biological perturbation. Because of the increasing activity on tundra landscapes, for energy extraction, transportation or production, military or other reasons, we have expanded our sampling to other tundra areas where landscape disruption is occurring or is predicted.

  4. ALLOMETRIC GROWTH OF PRIMAL CUTS AND TISSUES IN THE PIG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Siewerdt

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from 82 purebred and crossbred Large White and Duroc barrows and gilts were used to describe the growth of carcass primal cuts, of tissues, and of several organs. Pigs were allowed ad libitum to a conventional diet, which contained com and soybean meal. Pigs were weighted weekly and were slaughtered when attained a liveweight over 90kg. An allometric pattern of growth was assumed. Within the observed range of liveweight, the carcass grew slower than the whole animal. An increase of carcass weight corresponds to a similar increase of lean, but also corresponds to a larger increase of fat tissues. A suggestion to slaughter pigs near to 90kg of liveweight is presented, in order to obtain leaner carcasses.

  5. Boundary conditions for the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winicour, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A review of the treatment of boundaries in general relativity is presented with the emphasis on application to the formulations of Einstein's equations used in numerical relativity. At present, it is known how to treat boundaries in the harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations and a tetrad formulation of the Einstein-Bianchi system. However, a universal approach valid for other formulations is not in hand. In particular, there is no satisfactory boundary theory for the 3+1 formulations which have been highly successful in binary black hole simulation. I discuss the underlying problems that make the initial-boundary-value problem much more complicated than the Cauchy problem. I review the progress that has been made and the important open questions that remain. Science is a differential equation. Religion is a boundary condition. (Alan Turing, quoted in J D Barrow, 'Theories of Everything') (topical review)

  6. Regional shoreline change and coastal erosion hazards in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Ann E.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Erikson, Li H.; Harden, E. Lynne; Wallendorf, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Historical shoreline positions along the mainland Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska were digitized and analyzed to determine the long-term rate of change. Average shoreline change rates and ranges from 1947 to the mid-2000s were determined every 50 meters between Barrow and Demarcation Point, at the U.S.-Canadian border. Results show that shoreline change rates are highly variable along the coast, with an average regional shoreline change rate of-2.0 m/yr and localized rates of up to -19 m/yr. The highest erosion rates were observed at headlands, points, and associated with breached thermokarst lakes. Areas of accretion were limited, and generally associated with spit extension and minor beach accretion. In general, erosion rates increase from east to west, with overall higher rates east of Harrison Bay.

  7. Landscape topography structures the soil microbiome in arctic polygonal tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taş, Neslihan; Prestat, Emmanuel; Wang, Shi; Wu, Yuxin; Ulrich, Craig; Kneafsey, Timothy; Tringe, Susannah G.; Torn, Margaret S.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Jansson, Janet K.

    2018-02-22

    Global temperature increases are resulting in thaw of permafrost soil in the arctic with increased emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Soil microorganisms are responsible for degradation of the trapped organic carbon (C) in permafrost and emission of GHG as it thaws. However, environmental factors governing microbial degradation of soil C and GHG emissions are poorly understood. Here we determined the functional potential of soil microbiomes in arctic tundra across a cryoperturbed polygonal landscape in Barrow, Alaska. Using a combination of metagenome sequencing and gas flux measurements, we found that the soil microbiome composition, diversity and functional potential varied across the polygon transect and that specific microbes and functional genes were correlated to GHG measurements. Several draft genomes of novel species were obtained with genes encoding enzymes involved in cycling of complex organic compounds. These results have larger implications for prediction of the influence of the soil microbiome on soil C flux from arctic regions undergoing environmental change.

  8. Effect of lairage time, behaviour and gender on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokmanovic, Marija; Ivanovic, Jelena; Janjic, Jelena; Boskovic, Marija; Laudanovic, Milica; Pantic, Srdjan; Baltic, Milan Z

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of lairage time (short vs. long), behavior (aggressive vs. non-aggressive) and gender (gilts, barrows and boars) on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs (n = 100). In the group with short lairage, aggressive behavior of gilts and boars was observed. At exsanguination, blood samples were collected and levels of blood lactate and plasma cortisol were determined. Post mortem pH value, temperature, drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality class were determined on the muscle Longissimus dorsi. Higher blood lactate concentration (P color (P Aggressiveness affected meat temperature, as aggressive pigs had higher meat temperature (P aggressive pigs. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Snow Dunes: A Controlling Factor of Melt Pond Distribution on Arctic Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrich, Chris; Eicken, Hajo; Polashenski, Christopher M.; Sturm, Matthew; Harbeck, Jeremy P.; Perovich, Donald K.; Finnegan, David C.

    2012-01-01

    The location of snow dunes over the course of the ice-growth season 2007/08 was mapped on level landfast first-year sea ice near Barrow, Alaska. Landfast ice formed in mid-December and exhibited essentially homogeneous snow depths of 4-6 cm in mid-January; by early February distinct snow dunes were observed. Despite additional snowfall and wind redistribution throughout the season, the location of the dunes was fixed by March, and these locations were highly correlated with the distribution of meltwater ponds at the beginning of June. Our observations, including ground-based light detection and ranging system (lidar) measurements, show that melt ponds initially form in the interstices between snow dunes, and that the outline of the melt ponds is controlled by snow depth contours. The resulting preferential surface ablation of ponded ice creates the surface topography that later determines the melt pond evolution.

  10. Sword of the early sarmatian period from the Ik-Zay interfluve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izmaylov Iskander L

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A sword discovered in 2001 as a stray find in the area of Chaply village (Aznakayevsky District of the Tatarstan Republic is analyzed in the article. The sword is kept at Aznakayevsky Local History Museum. The shape of its guard and blade allowed the author to suggest its Sarmatian origin. Similar artifacts of Sarmatian culture suggest dating the sword by the late 4th - late 3rd cc. A.D., i.e. by the Prohorovo (Early Sarmatian period. This find is unique for the entire South-Eastern Tatarstan and was discovered far to the north of the main distribution area of the Sarmatian artifacts. It provides grounds for inclusion of this territory into the Prohorovo cultural area and should promote a more thorough study of artifacts at interfluves of minor rivers – the Kama tributaries – in order to identify and research barrows.

  11. Annual changes in the song of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetus in Disko Bay, Western Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Lee

    studies recording sound from the Davis Strait population (Richardson et al 1995, Richardson and Finley 1989). Songs have been recorded from bowhead whales during their spring migration off Point Barrow when the whales were returning from their breeding grounds and swimming towards their feeding areas......presented by Outi at: Acoustic Communication by Animals, 2nd International Conference, August 12-15, 2008, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USAAnnual changes in the song of the bowhead whale Balaena mysticetusin Disko Bay, Western GreenlandOuti Tervo and Mads F. Christoffersen, Arctic...... of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, DenmarkBowhead whale Balaena mysticetus acoustic behaviour has been a target of several investigations, primarily from recordings of the Bering Sea population near Alaska (Ljungblad et al 1980, Clark and Johnson 1984, Cummings and Holliday 1987) with a few...

  12. Standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids in eight genotypes of soft winter wheat fed to growing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfelder, P; Mosenthin, R; Spindler, H K

    2015-01-01

    , Event, Tommi, and Adler. The 8 genotypes were grown under identical environmental conditions on the same site, and they were harvested and processed under the same conditions. Nine barrows with an initial BW of 32 ± 2 kg were surgically fitted with simple ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a row......–column design with 9 pigs and 8 periods of 6 d each. Wheat was the sole dietary source of CP and AA. Among the 8 wheat genotypes, contents of CP ranged from 10.9 to 13.3% (as-fed basis), whereas contents of total nonstarch polysaccharides ranged from 8.0 to 9.4% (as-fed basis). The SID of CP in the 8 genotypes...

  13. Impact of fermentation and addition of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on microbial population and on digestibility of dried distillers grains with solubles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    of cellulase and xylanase (CelXyl). Microbial population during fermentation of the treatments was determined and apparent ileal and total tract digestibility were measured on eight barrows surgically fitted with a simple T-shaped cannula at the distal ileum and fed the four treatments according to a double......-Latin square design. Microbial activity of the three fermented DDGS treatments was relatively low with lactic acid bacteria counts between 8.8 and 8.9 log cfu/g and lactic acid concentrations between 60.2 and 70.5 mmol/kg. The addition of CelXyl to DDGS resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of non...

  14. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P lipid content was greater (P lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  15. Current Magnitude and Mechanisms of Groundwater Discharge in the Arctic: Case Study from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Natasha T; Paytan, Adina; Kessler, John D; Sparrow, Katy J; Garcia-Tigreros Kodovska, Fenix; Lecher, Alanna L; Murray, Joseph; Tulaczyk, Slawomir M

    2015-10-20

    To better understand groundwater-surface water dynamics in high latitude areas, we conducted a field study at three sites in Alaska with varying permafrost coverage. The natural groundwater tracer ((222)Rn, radon) was used to evaluate groundwater discharge, and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was used to examine subsurface mixing dynamics. Different controls govern groundwater discharge at these sites. In areas with sporadic permafrost (Kasitsna Bay), the major driver of submarine groundwater discharge is tidal pumping, due to the large tidal oscillations, whereas at Point Barrow, a site with continuous permafrost and small tidal amplitudes, fluxes are mostly affected by seasonal permafrost thawing. Extended areas of low resistivity in the subsurface alongshore combined with high radon in surface water suggests that groundwater-surface water interactions might enhance heat transport into deeper permafrost layers promoting permafrost thawing, thereby enhancing groundwater discharge.

  16. Black Hole Entropy for Two Higher Derivative Theories of Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Sebastiani

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The dark energy issue is attracting the attention of an increasing number of physicists all over the world. Among the possible alternatives to explain what as been named the “Mystery of the Millennium” are the so-called Modified Theories of Gravity. A crucial test for such models is represented by the existence and (if this is the case the properties of their black hole solutions. Nowadays, to our knowledge, only two non-trivial, static, spherically symmetric, solutions with vanishing cosmological constant are known by Barrow & Clifton (2005 and Deser, Sarioglu & Tekin (2008. The aim of the paper is to discuss some features of such solutions, with emphasis on their thermodynamic properties such as entropy and temperature.

  17. Large CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from polygonal tundra during spring thaw in northern Alaska: Spring Pulse Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raz-Yaseef, Naama [Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA; Torn, Margaret S. [Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA; Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley California USA; Wu, Yuxin [Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA; Billesbach, Dave P. [Biological Systems Engineering Department, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln Nebraska USA; Liljedahl, Anna K. [Water and Environmental Research Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska USA; Kneafsey, Timothy J. [Climate and Ecosystem Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley California USA; Romanovsky, Vladimir E. [Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks Alaska USA; Cook, David R. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont Illinois USA; Wullschleger, Stan D. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Tennessee USA

    2017-01-10

    The few prethaw observations of tundra carbon fluxes suggest that there may be large spring releases, but little Is lmown about the scale and underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon. To address these questions, we combined ecosystem eddy flux measurements from two towers near Barrow, Alaska, with mechanistic soil-core thawing experiment During a 2week period prior to snowmelt In 2014, large fluxes were measured, reducing net summer uptake of CO2 by 46% and adding 6% to cumulative CH4 emissions. Emission pulses were linked to unique rain-on-snow events enhancing soli cracking. Controlled laboratory experiment revealed that as surface Ice thaws, an immediate, large pulse of trapped gases Is emitted. These results suggest that the Arctic C02 and CH4 spring pulse is a delayed release of biogenic gas production from the previous fall and that the pulse can be large enough to offset a significant fraction of the moderate Arctic tundra carbon sink.

  18. Microclimate Influence on Bird Arrival Behavior Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, R. [Radford Univ., VA (United States); O’Brien, S. [Radford Univ., VA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Using our own prototype sensor arrays that were deployed to collect microclimate data, we were able to visualize distinct differences in temperature, wind speed, and humidity over very small ranges of distance. We collected data across four polygons within the Barrow Environmental Observatory site. Our prototype microclimate arrays were based on an Arduino microcontroller, DS18B20 temperature sensors, DHT11 relative humidity/temperature sensors, and Vernier anemometers. Data were obtained in a small grid pattern with four sensors spaced 60 cm apart along the x-axis, and moved at 60 cm increments along a y-line across a polygon. Overlaying bird nest location with such data has allowed us to better answer our research question, “How do Arctic birds choose where to nest to maximize fitness in harsh Arctic environments?”

  19. AmeriFlux Measurement Component (AMC) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichl, Ken [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, Sebastien C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    An AMC system was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility North Slope of Alaska (NSA) Barrow site, also known as NSA C1 at the ARM Data Archive, in August 2012. A second AMC system was installed at the third ARM Mobile Facility deployment at Oliktok Point, also known as NSA M1. This in situ system consists of 12 combination soil temperature and volumetric water content (VWC) reflectometers and one set of upwelling and downwelling photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) sensors, all deployed within the fetch of the Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System. Soil temperature and VWC sensors placed at two depths (10 and 30 cm below the vegetation layer) at six locations (or microsites) allow soil property inhomogeneity to be monitored across a landscape.

  20. Stonehenge's Greater Cursus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Paul; Mooers, Howard D.

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological investigations have emphasized relationships between solar and lunar phenomena and architectural features of prehistoric sites located on the Stonehenge ritual landscape. However, no over-riding landscape design has been identified to explain the purpose of placing hundreds of Neolithic through Iron Age burial sites upon the landscape. Our research and analysis shows the mid-4th millennium BC (mid-Neolithic) landscape represents an 'above, so below' cosmo-geographical relationship. Type, shape, size and orientation of specific elements (such as long barrows, henges, cursus and topography) created a hierotopy representing the Winter Hexagon asterism, Milky Way, ecliptic and other stellar features. The resulting pattern of ritual sites represents translocation of the astronomical Otherworld - the Spirit World - onto the plain. Results of the analysis create a new paradigm of purpose for the built landscape circa 3500 BC, and identifies the reason why Stonehenge is located where it is with respect to other contemorary monuments.

  1. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract supplementation on growth performance, digestibility, blood profile, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Kim, In H

    2014-06-01

    A total of 105 growing pigs (24.91 ± 1.06 kg) were used in a 6-week trial to investigate the effects of including Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall extract and poplar propolis ethanol extract (SPE) in the diet on growth performance, digestibility, blood profiles, fecal microbiota and fecal noxious gas emissions. Pigs were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments (seven pens/treatment, five pigs/pen) according to initial body weight and sex (two gilts and three barrows). Treatments consisted of a corn soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.05 or 0.10% SPE. There was a significant linear improvement (P  0.05) affected by SPE supplementation in the diets. In conclusion, results indicate that dietary SPE supplementation can improve growth performance, digestibility and fecal microbiota, and decrease fecal gas emissions in growing pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Growth performance and oxidative status in piglets supplemented with verbascoside and teupolioside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastorelli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred forty piglets, half female and half barrows, 8.1 ± 1.40 kg LW, were divided into 6 experimental groups and fed ad libitum with a diet supplemented with the following levels of antioxidants: 0 (CON + = positive control added with 100 mg lincomicine/kg, 5 (LT = low teupolioside or LV = low verbascoside, 10 (HT = high teupolioside; HV = high verbascoside; LT+LV mg/kg of diet for 56 days. Body weight and feed intake were recorded on d0, 14 and 56 of the trial. Ten piglets from each group were selected and blood collected by anterior vena cava puncture at 0, 14 and 56 d for reactive oxygen metabolite (ROMs determination. HV showed final weight higher than the other groups (P<0.05, and oxidative stability was improved by both integrations of verbascoside. These results support the view that Verbascoside influences the growth performances and oxidative status of piglets.

  3. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes. A reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the middle and southeast Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mourik, Jan; Doorenbosch, Marieke

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of heath lands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records . Paleoecological analyses of these records enable to reconstruct the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation, in addition on the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded on degraded forest soils and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the Late Neolithic, the Bronze Age and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the Early Middle Ages. After 1000 AD two events affected the heaths. At first deforestation for the sale of wood resulted in the first regional extension of sand drifting and heath degradation. After that the introduction of the deep stable economy and heath sods digging resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation and the second extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century the heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into 'new' arable fields and forests and due to deep ploughing most soil archives were destroyed. Since 1980 AD, the remaining relicts of the ancestral heaths are

  4. Science Partnerships for a Sustainable Arctic: the Marine Mammal Nexus (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    Marine mammals are both icons of Arctic marine ecosystems and fundamental to Native subsistence nutrition and culture. Eight species are endemic to the Pacific Arctic, including the polar bear, walrus, ice seals (4 species), beluga and bowhead whales. Studies of walrus and bowheads have been conducted over the past 30 years, to estimate population size and elucidate patterns of movement and abundance. With regard to the three pillars of the SEARCH program, these long-term OBSERVATIONS provide a foundation for research seeking to UNDERSTAND and RESPOND to the effects of rapid climate change on the marine ecosystem. Specifically, research on the coastal ecosystem near Barrow, Alaska focuses on late-summer feeding habitat for bowheads in an area where whales are hunted in autumn. This work is a partnership among agency, academic and local scientists and the residents of Barrow, all of whom seek to better UNDERSTAND how recent dramatic changes in sea ice, winds and offshore industrial activities influence whale movements and behavior. In regard to RESPONDING to climate change, the nascent Sea Ice for Walrus Outlook (SIWO) is a science partnership that projects sea ice and wind conditions for five villages in the Bering Strait region. The objective of the SIWO is to provide information on physical conditions in the marine environment at spatial and temporal scales relevant to walrus hunters. Marine mammals are a strong and dynamic nexus for partnerships among scientists, Arctic residents, resource managers and the general public - as such, they are essential elements to any science plan for a sustainable Arctic.

  5. Low apparent quantum yield in Arctic plants suggests that terrestrial biosphere models will over estimate carbon assimilation at high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) by terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) rely on accurate model representation of photosynthesis. In the Arctic, TBM uncertainty over GPP is the dominant driver of an uncertain Arctic carbon cycle. Previously we have shown that TBMs underestimate light saturated photosynthesis due to poor model representation of maximum carboxylation capacity and maximum electron transport. Here we extend this work to investigate model representation of the response of photosynthesis to irradiance. TBMs use an empirical relationship, typically a non-rectangular hyperbola, to estimate potential electron transport rate from incident irradiance. The key model inputs used to parameterize this formulation are; absorptance, quantum yield, and a curvature factor. TBMs show a high divergence in the response of photosynthesis to irradiance driven in part by variation in these parameters. In addition, most existing measurements used to parameterize TBMs have been made within a narrow temperature range (20-30°C) and the scarcity of data collected at low temperature has been highlighted as an important driver of model uncertainty at high latitudes. To address this issue we measured photosynthetic light response curves at 5 and 15°C and the leaf optical properties of six species growing on the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Barrow, Alaska. We determined leaf absorbtance, the convexity term, and apparent quantum yield. Our key finding was that measured apparent quantum yield was lower than model estimates, particularly at 5°C. Our results show that TBMs that rely on relatively high theoretical estimates of apparent quantum yield will likely overestimate carbon assimilation at low temperature and low irradiance.

  6. Ice911 Research: A Reversible Localized Geo-Engineering Technique to Mitigate Climate Change Effects: Field Testing, Instrumentation and Climate Modeling Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, L. A.; Sholtz, A.; Chetty, S.; Manzara, A.; Johnson, D.; Christodoulou, E.; Decca, R.; Walter, P.; Katuri, K.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Ivanova, D.; Mlaker, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    This work uses ecologically benign surface treatment of silica-based materials in carefully selected, limited areas to reduce polar ice melt by reflecting energy from summertime polar sun to attempt to slow ice loss due to the Ice-Albedo Feedback Effect. Application of Ice911's materials can be accomplished within a season, at a comparatively low cost, and with far less secondary environmental impact than many other proposed geo-engineering solutions. Field testing, instrumentation, safety testing, data-handling and modeling results will be presented. The albedo modification has been tested over a number of melt seasons with an evolving array of instrumentation, at multiple sites and on progressively larger scales, most recently in a small artificial pond in Minnesota and in a lake in Barrow, Alaska's BEO (Barrow Experimental Observatory) area. The test data show that the glass bubbles can provide an effective material for increasing albedo, significantly reducing the melting rate of ice. Using NCAR's CESM package the environmental impact of the approach of surface albedo modification was studied. During two separate runs, region-wide Arctic albedo modification as well as more targeted localized treatments were modeled and compared. The parameters of a surface snow layer are used as a proxy to simulate Ice911's high-albedo materials, and the modification is started in January over selected ice/snow regions in the Arctic. Preliminary results show promising possibilities of enhancements in surface albedo, sea ice area and sea-ice concentration, as well as temperature reductions of .5 to 3 degree Kelvin in the Arctic, and global average temperature reductions of .5 to 1 degrees.

  7. Feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Kipper, M; Hauschild, L; Rivest, J

    2016-07-01

    The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies was studied in 35 barrows and 35 females (average initial BW of 30.4 ± 2.2 kg) over 84 d. Five different feeding programs were evaluated, namely a conventional 3-phase program in which pigs were fed with a constant blend of diet A (high nutrient density) and diet B (low nutrient density) and 4 daily phase-feeding programs in which pigs were fed daily with a blend meeting 110, 100, 90, or 80% of the individual Lys requirements. Electronic feeder systems automatically recorded the visits to the feeder, the time of the meals, and the amount of feed consumed per meal. The trial lasted 84 d and the database contained 59,701 feeder visits. The recorded database was used to calculate the number of meals per day, feeding time per meal (min), intervals between meals (min), feed intake per meal (g), and feed consumption rate (feed intake divided by feeding time per meal, expressed in g/min) of each animal. The feeding pattern was predominantly diurnal (73% of the feeder visits). Number of meals, duration of meals, time between meals, feed consumed per meal, and feed consumption rate were not affected by the feeding programs. The females ingested 19% less feed per meal and had a 6% lower feed consumption rate in comparison with the barrows ( feeding behavior was not correlated with diet composition. However, feed efficiency was negatively correlated with amount of feed consumed per meal ( = -0.38, feed consumption rate ( = -0.44, Feed consumption rate was also negatively correlated with protein efficiency ( = -0.44, feed consumption rate and number of meals per day are the variables related most closely to pig production performance results. Current results indicate that using precision feeding as an approach to reduce Lys intake does not interfere with the feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs.

  8. Cosmic-Ray Moisture Probe on North Slope of Alaska Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desilets, Darin [Hydroinnova LLC

    2016-06-15

    In September of 2014 a wide-area snow monitoring device was installed at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Barrow, Alaska Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility site. The device is special in that it uses measurements of cosmic-ray neutrons as a proxy for snow water equivalent (SWE) depth. A unique characteristic of the technology is that it integrates over a wide area (as much as 40 ha), in contrast to conventional ground-based technologies, which essentially give point samples. Conventional point-scale technologies are problematic in the Arctic, both because extreme weather conditions are taxing on equipment, and because point measurements can fail to accurately characterize the average SWE over a larger area, even when excellent precision is obtained. The sensor installed in Barrow is, by far, the northernmost of a constellation of sites that makeup the U.S. COsmic ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS). The sensor is used for SWE measurements in winter and soil moisture measurements in summer. The ability of this type of sensor to operate in the Arctic had not been verified until now. The cosmic-ray sensor was installed on a tripod located approximately 150 m south of the ARM User Facility (Figure 1), and within boundaries of land managed by the ARM Facility. The sensor consists of both “bare” and “moderated” channels, where the moderated channel is the primary output used to calculate SWE. A QDL2100 data logger with pressure sensor was located inside of the User Facility, and a Campbell CS215 temperature and humidity sensor was attached to a rail on the upper deck of the User Facility, to enable near-real-time absolute humidity corrections to the data. The cosmic-ray sensors are connected to the data logger using an armored Cat5e cable that lies on top of the tundra. Data are retrieved hourly via Iridium satellite link.

  9. Mathematical Modelling of Arctic Polygonal Tundra with Ecosys: 1. Microtopography Determines How Active Layer Depths Respond to Changes in Temperature and Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R. F.; Mekonnen, Z. A.; Riley, W. J.; Wainwright, H. M.; Graham, D.; Torn, M. S.

    2017-12-01

    Microtopographic variation that develops among features (troughs, rims, and centers) within polygonal landforms of coastal arctic tundra strongly affects movement of surface water and snow and thereby affects soil water contents (θ) and active layer depth (ALD). Spatial variation in ALD among these features may exceed interannual variation in ALD caused by changes in climate and so needs to be represented in projections of changes in arctic ALD. In this study, increases in near-surface θ with decreasing surface elevation among polygon features at the Barrow Experimental Observatory (BEO) were modeled from topographic effects on redistribution of surface water and snow and from lateral water exchange with a subsurface water table during a model run from 1981 to 2015. These increases in θ caused increases in thermal conductivity that in turn caused increases in soil heat fluxes and hence in ALD of up to 15 cm with lower versus higher surface elevation which were consistent with increases measured at BEO. The modeled effects of θ caused interannual variation in maximum ALD that compared well with measurements from 1985 to 2015 at the Barrow Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) site (R2 = 0.61, RMSE = 0.03 m). For higher polygon features, interannual variation in ALD was more closely associated with annual precipitation than mean annual temperature, indicating that soil wetting from increases in precipitation may hasten permafrost degradation beyond that caused by soil warming from increases in air temperature. This degradation may be more rapid if increases in precipitation cause sustained wetting in higher features.

  10. Coarse mode aerosols in the High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baibakov, K.; O'Neill, N. T.; Chaubey, J. P.; Saha, A.; Duck, T. J.; Eloranta, E. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fine mode (submicron) aerosols in the Arctic have received a fair amount of scientific attention in terms of smoke intrusions during the polar summer and Arctic haze pollution during the polar winter. Relatively little is known about coarse mode (supermicron) aerosols, notably dust, volcanic ash and sea salt. Asian dust is a regular springtime event whose optical and radiative forcing effects have been fairly well documented at the lower latitudes over North America but rarely reported for the Arctic. Volcanic ash, whose socio-economic importance has grown dramatically since the fear of its effects on aircraft engines resulted in the virtual shutdown of European civil aviation in the spring of 2010 has rarely been reported in the Arctic in spite of the likely probability that ash from Iceland and the Aleutian Islands makes its way into the Arctic and possibly the high Arctic. Little is known about Arctic sea salt aerosols and we are not aware of any literature on the optical measurement of these aerosols. In this work we present preliminary results of the combined sunphotometry-lidar analysis at two High Arctic stations in North America: PEARL (80°N, 86°W) for 2007-2011 and Barrow (71°N,156°W) for 2011-2014. The multi-years datasets were analyzed to single out potential coarse mode incursions and study their optical characteristics. In particular, CIMEL sunphotometers provided coarse mode optical depths as well as information on particle size and refractive index. Lidar measurements from High Spectral Resolution lidars (AHSRL at PEARL and NSHSRL at Barrow) yielded vertically resolved aerosol profiles and gave an indication of particle shape and size from the depolarization ratio and color ratio profiles. Additionally, we employed supplementary analyses of HYSPLIT backtrajectories, OMI aerosol index, and NAAPS (Navy Aerosol Analysis and Prediction System) outputs to study the spatial context of given events.

  11. Tropospheric BrO column densities in the Arctic derived from satellite: retrieval and comparison to ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sihler

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available During polar spring, halogen radicals like bromine monoxide (BrO play an important role in the chemistry of tropospheric ozone destruction. Satellite measurements of the BrO distribution have become a particularly useful tool to investigate this probably natural phenomenon, but the separation of stratospheric and tropospheric partial columns of BrO is challenging. In this study, an algorithm was developed to retrieve tropospheric vertical column densities of BrO from data of high-resolution spectroscopic satellite instruments such as the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2. Unlike recently published approaches, the presented algorithm is capable of separating the fraction of BrO in the activated troposphere from the total BrO column solely based on remotely measured properties. The presented algorithm furthermore allows to estimate a realistic measurement error of the tropospheric BrO column. The sensitivity of each satellite pixel to BrO in the boundary layer is quantified using the measured UV radiance and the column density of the oxygen collision complex O4. A comparison of the sensitivities with CALIPSO LIDAR observations demonstrates that clouds shielding near-surface trace-gas columns can be reliably detected even over ice and snow. Retrieved tropospheric BrO columns are then compared to ground-based BrO measurements from two Arctic field campaigns in the Amundsen Gulf and at Barrow in 2008 and 2009, respectively. Our algorithm was found to be capable of retrieving enhanced near-surface BrO during both campaigns in good agreement with ground-based data. Some differences between ground-based and satellite measurements observed at Barrow can be explained by both elevated and shallow surface layers of BrO. The observations strongly suggest that surface release processes are the dominating source of BrO and that boundary layer meteorology influences the vertical distribution.

  12. The Importance of Asia as a Source of Black Carbon to the Arctic Constrained by Aircraft and Surface Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Martin, R.; Morrow, A.; Sharma, S.; Huang, L.; Leaitch, W. R.; Burkart, J.; Schulz, H.; Zanatta, M.; Willis, M. D.; Henze, D. K.; Lee, C. J.; Herber, A. B.; Abbatt, J.

    2017-12-01

    The contribution of Asian sources to Arctic black carbon (BC) remains uncertain. We interpret a series of recent airborne (NETCARE 2015, PAMARCMiP 2009 and 2011 campaigns) and ground-based measurements (at Alert, Barrow and Ny-Ålesund) from multiple methods (thermal, laser incandescence and light absorption) with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model and its adjoint to attribute the sources of Arctic BC. Our simulations with the addition of seasonally varying domestic heating and of gas flaring emissions are consistent with ground-based measurements of BC concentrations at Alert and Barrow to within 13% in winter and spring, and with airborne measurements to within 17 % except for an underestimation in the middle troposphere (500-700 hPa). Sensitivity simulations suggest that anthropogenic emissions from eastern and southern Asia have the largest impact on the Arctic BC column burden both in spring (56 %) and annually (37 %), with the largest contribution in the middle troposphere (400-700 hPa). Anthropogenic emissions from northern Asia are the primary source of the Arctic surface BC ( 40% annually). Our adjoint simulations indicate noteworthy contributions from emissions in eastern China (15 %) and western Siberia (6.5 %) to the Arctic BC loadings on an annual average. Emissions from as south as the Indo-Gangetic Plain have a substantial impact (6.3 % annually) on Arctic BC as well. The Tarim oilfield in western China stands out as the second most influential grid cell with an annual contribution of 2.6 %. Gas flaring emissions from oilfields in western Siberia have a striking impact (13 %) on Arctic BC loadings in January, comparable to the total influence of continental Europe and North America (6.5 % each in January).

  13. Trophic transfer of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) within an Arctic marine food web from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.F.; O'Hara, T.M.; Fisk, A.T.; Borgaa, K.; Solomon, K.R.; Muir, D.C.G.

    2003-01-01

    The trophic status and biomagnification of persistent OCs within the near-shore Beaufort-Chukchi Seas food web from Barrow, AK is discussed. - Stable isotope values (δ 13 C, δ 15 N) and concentrations of persistent organochlorine contaminants (OCs) were determined to evaluate the near-shore marine trophic status of biota and biomagnification of OCs from the southern Beaufort-Chukchi Seas (1999-2000) near Barrow, AK. The biota examined included zooplankton (Calanus spp.), fish species such as arctic cod (Boreogadus saida), arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus), pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha), and fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), along with marine mammals, including bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus), beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas), ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus). The isotopically derived trophic position of biota from the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas marine food web, avian fauna excluded, is similar to other coastal food webs in the Arctic. Concentrations of OCs in marine mammals were significantly greater than in fish and corresponded with determined trophic level. In general, OCs with the greatest food web magnification factors (FWMFs) were those either formed due to biotransformation (e.g. p,p'-DDE, oxychlordane) or considered recalcitrant (e.g. β-HCH, 2,4,5-Cl substituted PCBs) in most biota, whereas concentrations of OCs that are considered to be readily eliminated (e.g. γ-HCH) did not correlate with trophic level. Differences in physical-chemical properties of OCs, feeding strategy and possible biotransformation were reflected in the variable biomagnification between fish and marine mammals. The FWMFs in the Beaufort-Chukchi Seas region were consistent with reported values in the Canadian Arctic and temperate food webs, but were statistically different than FWMFs from the Barents and White Seas, indicating that the spatial variability of OC contamination in top-level marine Arctic predators is

  14. Sarmatian Burials Near the Astanino Village in the Eastern Crimea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kropotov Viktor Valeryevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article contains the materials of two Sarmatian burials that had been studied in 1966-1967 years by the Kerch expedition of Institute of Archeology of Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (the chief of expedition – A.M. Leskov in the Astanino village in the Eastern Crimea. These burials had been made on small depth in embankments of barrows of the bronze epoch, therefore it is not possible to track contours of funeral constructions. The dead were laid on their backs, heads turned to the North and the North-West. The utensils buried in the same tombs included two ceramic gray-clay pelikes, two gray-clay bowls, a red-gloss vessel, a red-clay pottery, a set of glass and cornelian beads, and the Egyptian faience beads. These things allow to exactly date the investigated complexes within the second half of the 1st century BC – the beginnings of the 1st century AD. The main distinctive characteristics of Early-Sarmatian burials of Northern Pontic region consist in the use of already existing barrows for burial places, orientations of the dead in the Northern sector, the insignificant depth of burials. Therefore published monuments should be also referred to them. A small number of such complexes with their distribution on the quite big territory between the Don and Dnepr rivers testify to the low density of the nomadic population at that time. The antique sources of the end of the 2nd – 1st centuries BC mention the presence of Roxolani in the given region. The described complexes supplement our poor knowledge of Sarmatian antiquities of the Eastern Crimea and specify the direct contacts of nomads of Northern Pontic region to the antique centers, in immediate proximity from which they had been located.

  15. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and {sup 40}K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content.

  16. THE EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND SEX ON PORK QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjeta Furman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of genotype and sex on the most important factors for technological meat quality were analyzed. In the experiment 63 gilts and 57 barrows of three different boar genotypes (44, 54 and 74 were included. Slaughter was carried out in two groups, the first was about 100 kg and the second group was about 125 kg of live weight. After the slaughter colour of meat, pH value, drip loss and conductivity were measured and intramuscular fat was defined in laboratory. Statistical analysis of data was done with statistical package SAS/STAT with last square method where procedure for general linear models (GLM was used. The effects were genotype, sex and carcass weight as regression. The results showed that barrows had significant higher content of intramuscular fat than gilts at 100 kg (p=0.0019 and 125 kg (p<0.0001 of live weight, respectively. In other traits sex did not have an influence. Genotype had no effect on intramuscular fat content. Genotype 74 had darker meat (lower value L* in both groups. Genotype 44 had significant higher value a* and value b*. There were no differences between genotype in pH and conductivity in the first group. In the second group genotype 44 had lower pH value as genotype 54 (p=0.0345 and genotype 74 (p=0.0188 and higher conductivity (p=0.0004 and p=0.0001 on m. longissimus dorsi. On m. semimembranossus genotype 54 had higher pH than genotype 44 (p=0.0160 and lower than genotype 74 (p=0.0148. Drip loss on both muscles was higher in genotype 44 in the first group and higher than genotype 74 in the second group.

  17. Alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and benthic invertebrates of the northern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H. Rodger; Taylor, Karen A.

    2017-10-01

    The Hanna Shoal region represents an important northern gateway for transport and deposition in the Chukchi Sea. This study determined the concentration and distribution of organic contaminants (aliphatic hydrocarbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs) in surface sediments from 34 sites across Hanna Shoal. Up to 31 total PAHs, including parent and alkyl homologues were detected with total concentrations ranging from a low of 168 ng g-1 the western flank of Hanna Shoal (station H34) to 1147 ng g-1 at station in Barrow Canyon (station BarC5). Alkyl PAHs were more abundant than parent structures and accounted for 53-64% of the summed concentrations suggesting overall at background levels (< 1600 ng g-1) in sediments. Alkane (C15-C33) hydrocarbons ranged from 4.3 μg g-1 on the southern flank of Hanna shoal to 31 μg g-1 at a northern station. Sediments were often dominated by short chain (C15-C22) alkanes with overall terrestrial aquatic ratios (TAR) for the region averaging 0.20. Based on the ratio of Fl/(Fl+ Py) and BaF/(Baf+BeP) verses (BA/BA+Ch) in sediments, PAHs are largely derived from petrogenic sources with minor amounts of mixed combustion sources. A diversity of PAHs were detected in the northern whelk Neptunea heros foot muscle with total concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 1.5 μg g-1 dry tissue wt. Larger (and presumably older) animals showed higher levels of PAH per unit muscle tissue, suggesting that animals may bioaccumulate PAHs over time, with low but increasing concentrations also present in internal and external eggs. Alkane hydrocarbons were also higher in whelks with distributions similar to that seen in sediments. The mussel Muscularus discors collected in Barrow Canyon showed constrained distributions and substantially lower concentrations of both PAHs and alkanes than the surrounding surface sediments.

  18. Productivity and Cost Analysis of Forest Harvesting Operation in Matang Mangrove Forest, Perak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Empawi Tindit

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Matang Mangrove Forest is under systematic management since 1902 and still considered as the best managed mangrove forest in the world. This research was conducted to measure the time and productivity of forest harvesting operation and also to analyze the cost and revenue of mangrove forest harvesting operation at Matang mangrove forest. This project had been carried out in cooperation with Seri Sepetang Enterprise, one of the harvesting licenses in Kuala Sepetang, Perak. Data collections were taken in every station starting from standing tree until to the Kiln-Drying jetty. The data then calculated by using the formulas of productivity and cost analysis. As the result, the productivity for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are 1.84 tan/hour, 3.82 tan/hour and 4.64 tan/hour respectively. The cost for each operation of 9 tan log volume for felling, bucking and debarking, the manual skidding using wheel-barrow and the water transportation are RM 56.88, RM 10.80 and RM 36.72 respectively. As the revenue, the company paid RM 260 per 9 tan of log for the in-forest operation (felling, manual skidding and loading to the ship and pay RM 80 per 9 tan for the water transportation, and they gained the net profit of RM 192.32 and RM 43.28 respectively. The average of forest harvesting operation is twice operation in a day (equal with 2 x 9-ton volume of log production a day, so they will gain a double profit. In conclusion, the forest harvesting operation is sustainably managed for supplying the raw material of charcoal industries in Matang mangrove forest. Since, they work manually and spend much energy in this forest harvesting operation, so for further study it recommends to conduct the ergonomics evaluation during forest harvesting operation at Matang Mangrove Forest.

  19. Energy and Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibilities of Chinese Distillers Dried Grains, Produced from Different Regions and Grains Fed to Growing Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Xue

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestibility of crude protein (CP, amino acids and energy in three Chinese corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS, one rice DDGS, one American corn DDGS and one American high protein distillers dried grains (HP-DDG. In Exp. 1, the apparent ileal digestibility (AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID of CP and amino acids in the six samples were determined using cannulated barrows (initial BW: 43.3±1.7 kg. In Exp. 2, the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content of these six samples were determined using crossbred barrows (initial BW: 46.0±2.5 kg. The results of the two experiments indicated that Chinese corn DDGS is generally similar to American DDGS in chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME. However, Chinese DDGS had a lower Lys concentration (0.50% vs. 0.74% and SID Lys (52.3% vs. 57.0%, p<0.01. The DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS were 3,427 and 3,306 kcal/kg, respectively. Rice DDGS had a similar DE and ME (3,363 and 3,228 kcal/kg but higher Lys concentration (0.64% vs. 0.50% to corn DDGS, while the SID of Lys was quite low (61.8%, p<0.01. HP-DDG had high value of SID of Lys, DE and ME (79.8%, 3,899 and 3,746 kcal/kg. In conclusion, except for a lower Lys concentrations and availability, the chemical composition, digestibility of amino acids, DE and ME values in Chinese corn DDGS are similar to American corn DDGS. Additionally, the rice DDGS had lower Lys content and digestible Lys values than that in corn DDGS. Thirdly, HP-DDG has higher levels of digestible amino acids and energy than DDGS.

  20. Procedures for evaluating pork carcass and cut composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemens, A.L.H.

    1989-01-01

    Five studies were completed to investigate various production and evaluation procedures related to pork carcass composition and meat quality. A comparison of market hog characteristics of pigs selected by feeder pig frame size or current USDA feeder pig standards was made. In general, feeder pig frame size did differentiate between carcass skeletal traits (i.e., carcass length, radius length). However, frame sizing did not improve on current feeder pig grades in discriminating between carcass composition characteristics. Liquid scintillation of potassium-40 was used to estimate pork carcass composition of 124 boars barrows and gilts, ranging from 23 to 114 kg live weight. Pigs were counted live, slaughtered and one side of the carcass was counted. The side was then ground and sampled for percent protein, fat and moisture. Carcass weight and 40 K determined potassium of the carcass explain more of the variation in carcass composition than live animal traits. Carcass measurements were used to determine value and percentages of fat standardized lean, protein, fat and moisture in the carcass using 265 barrow and gilt carcasses. In a separate study, belly composition was estimated from carcass and belly parameters (n = 338). Ribbed carcasses measurements were almost always superior to unribbed carcass measurements when estimating carcass or belly composition. Tenth rib fat depth was the most useful single variable for predicting belly fat, protein, moisture and lean. Some precision and accuracy were lost when using parameters from unribbed carcasses to estimate carcass or belly composition as compared to including parameters from ribbed carcasses. The sensory and nutritive value of cooked pork center loin chops and roasts were investigated. Levels of fat cover and internal temperature did not greatly affect cholesterol content

  1. Effects of the ratio of unsaturated fatty acid to saturated fatty acid on the growth performance, carcass and meat quality of finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wandee Tartrakoon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects on finishing pigs (80–100 kg BW fed diets supplemented with oil sources containing different ratios of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids (UFA:SFA ratio were evaluated in 15 barrows and 15 gilts (Duroc × Large White × Landrace. Three experimental diets were evaluated using a randomized complete block design, with broken rice, soybean meal and rice bran as the main feedstuffs in the control diet. Diets 2 and 3 consisted of the control diet supplemented with 3% oil, with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1, respectively. Overall, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05 found in the average daily gain (ADG of the pigs fed the treatment diets; however, the pigs fed the control diet and diet 3 had better (P  0.05 among the treatment groups with regard to the carcass quality of the pigs; however, it was found that the gilts had greater (P < 0.01 loin eye areas than the barrows fed diets 2 and 3 and the loin eye area of pig fed diet 2 was the largest (P < 0.05. In the case of the meat quality parameters, it was clearly found that the pigs fed the control diet had a greater (P < 0.05 lightness (L∗ in the meat colour, and the lowest cooking loss was found in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with fat containing the UFA:SFA ratio of 5:1. Overall, the dietary treatment did not significantly affect the drip loss, thawing loss and shear force of the pork. In conclusion, the supplementation of oil with UFA:SFA ratios of 2.5:1 and 5:1 has the potential to improve pork quality.

  2. Requirement for digestible calcium by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different dietary concentrations of phosphorus as indicated by growth performance, bone ash concentration, and calcium and phosphorus balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vega, J C; Walk, C L; Murphy, M R; Stein, H H

    2016-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the requirement for standardized total tract digestible (STTD) Ca by 25 to 50 kg pigs at different concentrations of STTD P. Twenty corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated with diets containing 4 concentrations of STTD P (0.15, 0.31, 0.39, or 0.47%) and 5 concentrations of STTD Ca (0.13, 0.27, 0.42, 0.57, or 0.72%). Diets were mixed in 1 batch and were used in both experiments. In Exp. 1, 240 pigs (initial average BW: 24.70 ± 1.27 kg) were randomly allotted to the 20 diets in 6 blocks with 1 pen per diet in each block using a 4 × 5 factorial design. There was 1 gilt and 1 barrow in each pen. At the conclusion of the 28 d experiment, all barrows were euthanized and the right femur was collected. Results indicated that there were interactions ( urine samples were collected. Results indicated that the predicted maximum retention of Ca in the body at STTD P concentrations of 0.15, 0.31, 0.39, and 0.47% were 4.7, 7.1, 8.6, and 10.2 g/d at STTD Ca concentrations of 0.77, 0.96, 1.06, and 1.15%, respectively, which correspond to STTD Ca:STTD P ratios of 5.13:1, 3.10:1, 2.72:1, and 2.45:1. These observations indicate that if STTD P meets or exceeds the requirement, the STTD Ca:STTD P ratio needed to maximize ADG and G:F by 25 to 50 kg pigs is between 1.16:1 and 1.43:1. However, a greater ratio may be needed to maximize bone ash or Ca retention.

  3. Characterization of energy and performance of swine fed a novel corn-soybean extruded product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Katherine M; Thaler, Robert C; Baidoo, Sam K; Levesque, Crystal L; Bott, Rebecca C

    2015-01-01

    A novel extruded product was characterized with a metabolism and lactation trial to establish the product's energy content, and its effects on lactating sow performance. The product was composed of a 60:40 corn-soybean blend, which was then extruded. This product containing the co-extruded 60:40 corn-soybean blend was commercially developed and is used extensively in swine diets in southwest Minnesota. GE of dietary treatments were determined by isoperibol bomb calorimetry. Twelve barrows (59.9 ± 1.4 kg), were used to determine the digestible and metabolizable energy of the extruded product. DE of treatments was determined by subtracting fecal energy from GE provided to barrows by each respective treatment. ME was determined by subtracting urinary energy from calculated digestible energy. Sixty-three sows were used for the lactation trial. Three dietary treatments were utilized: CONTROL (an industry standard diet); PRODUCT (contained the product, vitamins and minerals); OIL (matched the lysine:ME ratio of PRODUCT by addition of soy oil). Sow weight, backfat thickness at the right and left last ribs, body condition score, number of piglets, and litter weights were recorded on the date of farrowing (d 0), (d 9), and at weaning. Blood and milk samples were obtained at weaning, and blood was analyzed for plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), milk was analyzed for total protein and fat content. On a dry-matter basis, the test diet provided 3,908 kcal/kg DE and 3,833 kcal/kg ME, which was significantly greater than the basal diet, which provided 3,633 kcal/kg DE and 3,567 kcal/kg ME (P extruded product was higher in energy content than traditional feedstuffs, it resulted in the same lactational sow performance. Thus, the co-extruded corn-soybean product is a reasonable inclusion in sow lactation diets.

  4. Habitat selection by two beluga whale populations in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna D W Hauser

    Full Text Available There has been extensive sea ice loss in the Chukchi and Beaufort seas where two beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas populations occur between July-November. Our goal was to develop population-specific beluga habitat selection models that quantify relative use of sea ice and bathymetric features related to oceanographic processes, which can provide context to the importance of changing sea ice conditions. We established habitat selection models that incorporated daily sea ice measures (sea ice concentration, proximity to ice edge and dense ice and bathymetric features (slope, depth, proximity to the continental slope, Barrow Canyon, and shore to establish quantitative estimates of habitat use for the Eastern Chukchi Sea ('Chukchi' and Eastern Beaufort Sea ('Beaufort' populations. We applied 'used v. available' resource selection functions to locations of 65 whales tagged from 1993-2012, revealing large variations in seasonal habitat selection that were distinct between sex and population groups. Chukchi whales of both sexes were predicted to use areas in close proximity to Barrow Canyon (typically <200 km as well as the continental slope in summer, although deeper water and denser ice were stronger predictors for males than females. Habitat selection differed more between sexes for Beaufort belugas. Beaufort males selected higher ice concentrations (≥40% than females (0-40% in July-August. Proximity to shore (<200 km strongly predicted summer habitat of Beaufort females, while distance to the ice edge was important for male habitat selection, especially during westward migration in September. Overall, our results indicate that sea ice variables were rarely the primary drivers of beluga summer-fall habitat selection. While diminished sea ice may indirectly affect belugas through changes in the ecosystem, associations with bathymetric features that affect prey availability seemed key to habitat selection during summer and fall. These results

  5. Effect of oregano essential oil and benzoic acid supplementation to a low-protein diet on meat quality, fatty acid composition, and lipid stability of longissimus thoracis muscle in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chuanshang; Zhang, Xiaming; Xia, Mao; Liu, Zuhong; Wei, Hongkui; Deng, Zhao; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Siwen; Peng, Jian

    2017-08-31

    Consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing appropriately high concentration of intramuscular fat (IMF) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The supplementation of feed with antioxidants decreases degradation of lipids in muscles thereby enhances nutritional and sensory properties of meat. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding oregano essential oil (OEO) and benzoic acid (BA) to low-protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on meat quality, sensory profile, fatty acid composition, and lipid oxidation of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in pigs. In Exp. 1, 21 barrows were housed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 1 of 3 diets. The three diets were normal protein diet (NPD), medium protein diet (MPD) and low protein diet (LPD) with 1% and 2% less than NPD, respectively. In Exp. 2, 36 barrows were randomly divided into three experimental groups, namely, NPD, LPD, and identical LPD supplemented with blends of OEO (250 mg/kg feed) and BA (1000 mg/kg feed) (LPOB) groups. No significant effects of diets on meat quality were observed in Exp. 1. The b* 45min , tenderness, and IMF content in LPD muscle were higher than those in NPD and LPOB muscle. The LT muscle in LPD group contained a higher percentage of oleic acid (C18:1n-9) and a lower percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) than those in NPD group. Dietary LPOB improved oxidative stability, total superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase but decreased drip loss in LT muscle. These findings suggest that growing-finishing pigs fed with a low-protein, amino acid-supplemented diet show a high content of intramuscular fat in the longissimus thoracis muscle. Dietary LPOB enhances the anti-oxidative status by improving antioxidative capacity but deteriorates the sensory attributes by decreasing IMF content of meat.

  6. Effects of Coated Compound Proteases on Apparent Total Tract Digestibility of Nutrients and Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids for Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of coated compound proteases (CC protease on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nitrogen (N and energy, and apparent ileal digestibility (AID of amino acids (AA and nutrients in diets for pigs. In Exp. 1, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.14±1.71 kg were housed in individual metabolism crates and allotted into 2 treatments with 6 piglets per treatment according to weight in a randomized complete block design. The 2 diets were corn-soybean meal basal diets with (0.2 g/kg or without CC protease supplementation. The CC protease supplementation increased (p<0.05 the digestible and metabolizable N and energy values and the digestibility and retention rate of N in the diet. The ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 in the diet supplemented with CC protease. In Exp. 2, 12 crossbred barrows (initial body weight: 20.79±1.94 kg, fitted with T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were blocked by body weight into 2 groups with 6 pigs each. The diets were the same as those in Exp. 1. The CC protease increased (p<0.05 the AID of crude protein and some essential AA including arginine, isoleucine and leucine. The AID and ATTD of energy and nutrients had been improved (p<0.05 by supplemental CC protease, but the hindgut digestibility of nutrients was unaffected. Overall, the CC protease improved the ATTD of N and energy and AID of some indispensible AA and nutrients in the corn-soybean meal diet for pigs. Therefore, the CC protease supplement could improve the utilization of protein in the corn-soybean meal diet and thus contribute to lower N excretion to the environment.

  7. Polar bear use of a persistent food subsidy: insights from non-invasive genetic sampling in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Elizabeth; Herreman, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Remains of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) harvested by Iñupiat whalers are deposited in bone piles along the coast of Alaska and have become persistent and reliable food sources for polar bears (Ursus maritimus). The importance of bone piles to individuals and the population, the patterns of use, and the number, sex, and age of bears using these resources are poorly understood. We implemented barbed-wire hair snaring to obtain genetic identities from bears using the Point Barrow bone pile in winter 2010–11. Eighty-three percent of genotyped samples produced individual and sex identification. We identified 97 bears from 200 samples. Using genetic mark–recapture techniques, we estimated that 228 bears used the bone pile during November to February, which would represent approximately 15% of the Southern Beaufort Sea polar bear subpopulation, if all bears were from this subpopulation. We found that polar bears of all age and sex classes simultaneously used the bone pile. More males than females used the bone pile, and males predominated in February, likely because 1/3 of adult females would be denning during this period. On average, bears spent 10 days at the bone pile (median  =  5 days); the probability that an individual bear remained at the bone pile from week to week was 63% for females and 45% for males. Most bears in the sample were detected visiting the bone pile once or twice. We found some evidence of matrilineal fidelity to the bone pile, but the group of animals visiting the bone pile did not differ genetically from the Southern Beaufort Sea subpopulation, nor did patterns of relatedness. We demonstrate that bowhead whale bone piles may be an influential food subsidy for polar bears in the Barrow region in autumn and winter for all sex and age classes.

  8. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  9. A Comparison of Fish and Invertebrate Catch from Two Small Demersal Beam Trawls in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenfield, L.; Iken, K.; Norcross, B.

    2016-02-01

    Both the US and Canada have conducted multi-year sampling of seafloor fauna in the Beaufort Sea using small demersal beam trawls. During the BOEM US-Canada Transboundary Fish and Lower Trophic Communities program 2012-2014, US researchers collected benthic fish and invertebrates from Pt. Barrow to the Mackenzie River mouth and Canadian scientists collected this information in the Beaufort Regional Environmental Assessment from the international border to Amundsen Gulf. Here, we compare the resulting benthic invertebrate and fish communities sampled in 2013 using the US 3-m plumb-staff beam trawl with those obtained from the Canadian beam trawl, which had larger mesh. Samples were collected at 42 locations along 6 shelf-to-slope transects (136.7 °W-146.1°W) at depths ranging from 20 to 1000 m near and west of the Mackenzie River outflow with both beam trawls. Differences in standardized catch per unit effort between gears were examined using nonparametric analyses. Based on our findings, catches between the two beam trawls can be considered indistinguishable in terms of the abundance, biomass, and overall community composition captured. Further analysis revealed that depth was a significant factor in catch composition of benthic fauna. There were no significant differences in fish sizes or taxa captured between the gears. Thus, direct comparisons of data collected from both programs can be made. This information improves our ability to examine fish and benthic invertebrate communities across the entire Beaufort Sea from Pt. Barrow in the west to Amundson Gulf in the east by allowing direct comparison between two distinct research programs.

  10. Effects of Unsaturated Microtopography on Nitrate Concentrations in Tundra Ecosystems: Examples from Polygonal Terrain and Degraded Peat Plateaus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikoop, J. M.; Arendt, C. A.; Newman, B. D.; Charsley-Groffman, L.; Perkins, G.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    Under the auspices of the Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment - Arctic, we have been studying hydrogeochemical signals in Alaskan tundra ecosystems underlain by continuous permafrost (Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO)) and discontinuous permafrost (Seward Peninsula). The Barrow site comprises largely saturated tundra associated with the low gradient Arctic Coastal Plain. Polygonal microtopography, however, can result in slightly raised areas that are unsaturated. In these areas we have previously demonstrated production and accumulation of nitrate, which, based on nitrate isotopic analysis, derives from microbial degradation. Our Seward Peninsula site is located in a much steeper and generally well-drained watershed. In lower-gradient areas at the top and bottom of the watershed, however, the tundra is generally saturated, likely because of the presence of underlying discontinuous permafrost inhibiting infiltration. These settings also contain microtopographic features, though in the form of degraded peat plateaus surrounded by wet graminoid sag ponds. Despite being very different microtopographic features in a very different setting with distinct vegetation, qualitatively similar nitrate accumulation patterns as seen in polygonal terrain were observed. The highest nitrate pore water concentration observed in an unsaturated peat plateau was approximately 5 mg/L, whereas subsurface pore water concentrations in surrounding sag ponds were generally below the limit of detection. Nitrate isotopes indicate this nitrate results from microbial mineralization and nitrification based on comparison to the nitrate isotopic composition of reduced nitrogen sources in the environment and the oxygen isotope composition of site pore water. Nitrate concentrations were most similar to those found in low-center polygon rims and flat-centered polygon centers at the BEO, but were significantly lower than the maximum concentrations seen in the highest and driest polygonal features

  11. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.; Cadeddu, Maria

    2016-01-01

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m-2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m-2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m-2. These results are compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.

  12. Comparative population structure of cavity-nesting sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, John M.; Eadie, John M.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.; Christensen, Thomas K.; Berdeen, James; Taylor, Eric J.; Boyd, Sean; Einarsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    A growing collection of mtDNA genetic information from waterfowl species across North America suggests that larger-bodied cavity-nesting species exhibit greater levels of population differentiation than smaller-bodied congeners. Although little is known about nest-cavity availability for these species, one hypothesis to explain differences in population structure is reduced dispersal tendency of larger-bodied cavity-nesting species due to limited abundance of large cavities. To investigate this hypothesis, we examined population structure of three cavity-nesting waterfowl species distributed across much of North America: Barrow's Goldeneye (Bucephala islandica), Common Goldeneye (B. clangula), and Bufflehead (B. albeola). We compared patterns of population structure using both variation in mtDNA control-region sequences and band-recovery data for the same species and geographic regions. Results were highly congruent between data types, showing structured population patterns for Barrow's and Common Goldeneye but not for Bufflehead. Consistent with our prediction, the smallest cavity-nesting species, the Bufflehead, exhibited the lowest level of population differentiation due to increased dispersal and gene flow. Results provide evidence for discrete Old and New World populations of Common Goldeneye and for differentiation of regional groups of both goldeneye species in Alaska, the Pacific Northwest, and the eastern coast of North America. Results presented here will aid management objectives that require an understanding of population delineation and migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas. Comparative studies such as this one highlight factors that may drive patterns of genetic diversity and population trends.

  13. Efeito do genótipo halotano, da ractopamina e do sexo do animal na qualidade da carne suína Effect of halothane genotype, ractopamine and sex on pork meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Bridi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição de ractopamina na ração sobre a qualidade da carne de suínos dos genótipos halotano homozigoto dominante (HalNN e heterozigoto (HalNn. Durante o experimento (21 dias, 24 suínos machos castrados e 12 fêmeas (metade de cada genótipo com peso médio inicial de 72,6 kg de PV foram avaliados segundo delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial 2 x 2 x 2 (dois genótipos halotano; duas rações: controle e com adição de 10 ppm de ractopamina; e dois sexos: machos castrados e fêmeas. A análise do DNA genômico foi realizada por intermédio das técnicas de PCR-RLPC. A avaliação da qualidade da carne foi realizada no músculo Longissimus dorsi e o pH da carne foi medido 45 minutos (pH inicial e 24 horas após o abate (pH final. Avaliaram-se a perda de água por gotejamento durante o degelo e a cocção, a cor da carne, o grau de marmoreio e a maciez objetiva. Não houve interação genótipo ´ ractopamina para as características de qualidade da carne avaliadas. Nenhum animal do genótipo homozigoto dominante apresentou carne PSE (textura mole, cor pálida e com pouca água, ao passo que os suínos do genótipo heterozigoto apresentaram carne com 33,3% de PSE. O uso de 10 ppm de ractopamina na ração não afetou os parâmetros de qualidade da carne. Os animais do genótipo HalNn apresentaram carne com qualidade inferior à dos suínos HalNN. O pH final foi menor e a incidência de carne PSE foi maior nos suínos machos castrados que nas fêmeas.The effect of adding dietary ractopamine on meat quality of dominant homozygote (HalNN and heterozygote (HalNn halothane animal genotypes was evaluated in this trial. During the experiment (21days, it was used 24 barrows and 12 gilts (half of each halothane genotype averaging 72.6 kg initial BW. The experiment was analyzed as a randomized block with a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (two halothane

  14. Early diagenesis and trace element accumulation in North American Arctic margin sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Zou Zou A.; Gobeil, Charles; Goñi, Miguel A.; Macdonald, Robie W.

    2017-04-01

    Concentrations of redox-sensitive elements (S, Mn, Mo, U, Cd, Re) were analyzed in a set of 27 sediment cores collected along the North American Arctic margin (NAAM) from the North Bering Sea to Davis Strait via the Canadian Archipelago. Sedimentary distributions and accumulation rates of the elements were used to evaluate early diagenesis in sediments along this section and to estimate the importance of this margin as a sink for key elements in the polar and global oceans. Distributions of Mn, total S and reduced inorganic S demonstrated that diagenetic conditions and thus sedimentary carbon turnover in the NAAM is organized regionally: undetectable or very thin layers (<0.5 cm) of surface Mn enrichment occurred in the Bering-Chukchi shelves; thin layers (1-5 cm) of surface Mn enrichment occurred in Barrow Canyon and Lancaster Sound; and thick layers (5-20 cm) of surface Mn enrichment occurred in the Beaufort Shelf, Canadian Archipelago, and Davis Strait. Inventories of authigenic S below the Mn-rich layer decreased about fivefold from Bering-Chukchi shelf and Barrow Canyon to Lancaster Sound and more than ten-fold from Bering-Chukchi shelf to Beaufort Shelf, Canadian Archipelago and Davis Strait. The Mn, total S and reduced inorganic S distributions imply strong organic carbon (OC) flux and metabolism in the Bering-Chukchi shelves, lower aerobic OC metabolism in Barrow Canyon and Lancaster Sound, and deep O2 penetration and much lower OC metabolism in the Beaufort Shelf, Canadian Archipelago, and Davis Strait. Accumulation rates of authigenic S, Mo, Cd, Re, and U displayed marked spatial variability along the NAAM reflecting the range in sedimentary redox conditions. Strong relationships between the accumulation rates and vertical carbon flux, estimated from regional primary production values and water depth at the coring sites, indicate that the primary driver in the regional patterns is the supply of labile carbon to the seabed. Thus, high primary production

  15. Source attribution of Arctic black carbon constrained by aircraft and surface measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-W. Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black carbon (BC contributes to Arctic warming, yet sources of Arctic BC and their geographic contributions remain uncertain. We interpret a series of recent airborne (NETCARE 2015; PAMARCMiP 2009 and 2011 campaigns and ground-based measurements (at Alert, Barrow and Ny-Ålesund from multiple methods (thermal, laser incandescence and light absorption with the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model and its adjoint to attribute the sources of Arctic BC. This is the first comparison with a chemical transport model of refractory BC (rBC measurements at Alert. The springtime airborne measurements performed by the NETCARE campaign in 2015 and the PAMARCMiP campaigns in 2009 and 2011 offer BC vertical profiles extending to above 6 km across the Arctic and include profiles above Arctic ground monitoring stations. Our simulations with the addition of seasonally varying domestic heating and of gas flaring emissions are consistent with ground-based measurements of BC concentrations at Alert and Barrow in winter and spring (rRMSE  < 13 % and with airborne measurements of the BC vertical profile across the Arctic (rRMSE  = 17 % except for an underestimation in the middle troposphere (500–700 hPa.Sensitivity simulations suggest that anthropogenic emissions in eastern and southern Asia have the largest effect on the Arctic BC column burden both in spring (56 % and annually (37 %, with the largest contribution in the middle troposphere (400–700 hPa. Anthropogenic emissions from northern Asia contribute considerable BC (27 % in spring and 43 % annually to the lower troposphere (below 900 hPa. Biomass burning contributes 20 % to the Arctic BC column annually.At the Arctic surface, anthropogenic emissions from northern Asia (40–45 % and eastern and southern Asia (20–40 % are the largest BC contributors in winter and spring, followed by Europe (16–36 %. Biomass burning from North America is the most important

  16. Effects of ractopamine and gender on performance and carcass quality of swine with different halothane genotypes / Efeito da ractopamina e do gênero no desempenho e na carcaça de suínos de diferentes genótipos halotano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Hideaki Hoshi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the ractopamine effect on performance and carcass quality of swine carriers of the dominant homozygote and heterozygote halothane genotypes. It were used 24 barrows and 12 gilts, half of each genotype. The experimental design used was a randomized block under a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement comprising two halothane genotypes (dominant homozygote and heterozygote, two rations (one containing 10 ppm of ractopamine and another without ractopamine and two genders (barrows and gilts. It were evaluated the performance, carcass and the economic viability of the ractopamine use. All the binary interactions evaluated were not significant as there was no difference among the dominant homozygote and heterozygote genotypes on the performance and carcass quality characteristics, except to the variable ration consumption (P Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da ractopamina sobre o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça de suínos dos genótipos halotano homozigoto dominante e heterozigoto, 24 machos castrados e 12 fêmeas, sendo metade de cada genótipo, foram submetidos aos tratamentos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados em arranjo fatorial 2x2x 2, sendo dois genótipos halotano (homozigoto dominante e heterozigoto, duas rações (controle sem adição de ractopamina e com 10 ppm de ractopamina e dois gênero (machos castrados e fêmeas. Avaliou-se o desempenho, a carcaça e a viabilidade econômica do uso da ractopamina. Todas as interações binárias avaliadas não foram significativas como também não houve diferença entre genótipos homozigoto dominante e heterozigotos para as características de desempenho e de qualidade da carcaça, exceto para a variável consumo de ração (p < 0,05, onde os suínos heterozigotos consumiram mais ração. Não foram observados efeitos para o fator ractopamina para todas as variáveis avaliadas. Conclui que o desempenho e as caracter

  17. Global source identification of Arctic air pollution using statistical analysis of particle dispersion model output and measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirdman, D. A.; Burkhart, J. F.; Eckhardt, S.; Sodemann, H.; Stohl, A.

    2008-12-01

    Arctic air pollution has received renewed interest recently because of its contribution to climate change in the Arctic. Nevertheless, its sources are still not known with sufficient accuracy. Most of our understanding of Arctic air pollution sources is based on model simulations, analysis of air pollution episodes or, at best, statistical analysis of air mass back-trajectories. Here, we present a new approach, namely combining the output of a Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART, with measurement data from Arctic air pollution monitoring sites (Alert, Barrow, Summit, Zeppelin). This approach is similar to existing statistical methods for analyzing back-trajectories in conjunction with air pollution monitoring data. However, it has the advantage that the underlying model calculations also take into account turbulence and convection in the atmosphere, which are ignored by ordinary trajectory calculations. FLEXPART is run 20 days backward in time from each of the stations and every three hours, for several years. With every calculation, a so-called potential emission sensitivity (PES) field is obtained, which identifies where the measured air mass has come into contact with the Earth's surface. It quantitatively measures the sensitivity of the signal obtained at the station, to emissions occurring at or near the surface. By combining these PES fields with measured concentrations of several trace species e.g., carbon monoxide, sulphate, black carbon, and ozone. By performing a statistical analysis, we identify where the measured species most likely originate. Statistical analyses are performed both for average concentrations as well as the 10th and 90th percentiles of the measured frequency distribution. We implement a bootstrap resampling procedure to verify the statistical significance of the patterns observed in our retrieved PES maps. Some of our findings are: carbon monoxide and sulphate measured at Zeppelin originate from the Eurasian continent

  18. The impact of ancestral heath management on soils and landscapes: a reconstruction based on paleoecological analyses of soil records in the central and southeastern Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbosch, Marieke; van Mourik, Jan M.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of heathlands during the Holocene has been registered in various soil records. Paleoecological analyses of these records enable reconstruction of the changing economic and cultural management of heaths and the consequences for landscape and soils. Heaths are characteristic components of cultural landscape mosaics on sandy soils in the Netherlands. The natural habitat of heather species was moorland. At first, natural events like forest fires and storms caused small-scale forest degradation; in addition on that, the forest degradation accelerated due to cultural activities like forest grazing, wood cutting, and shifting cultivation. Heather plants invaded degraded forest soils, and heaths developed. People learned to use the heaths for economic and cultural purposes. The impact of the heath management on landscape and soils was registered in soil records of barrows, drift sand sequences, and plaggic Anthrosols. Based on pollen diagrams of such records we could reconstruct that heaths were developed and used for cattle grazing before the Bronze Age. During the late Neolithic, the Bronze Age, and Iron Age, people created the barrow landscape on the ancestral heaths. After the Iron Age, people probably continued with cattle grazing on the heaths and plaggic agriculture until the early Middle Ages. Severe forest degradation by the production of charcoal for melting iron during the Iron Age till the 6th-7th century and during the 11th-13th century for the trade of wood resulted in extensive sand drifting, a threat to the valuable heaths. The introduction of the deep, stable economy and heath sods digging in the course of the 18th century resulted in acceleration of the rise of plaggic horizons, severe heath degradation, and again extension of sand drifting. At the end of the 19th century heath lost its economic value due to the introduction of chemical fertilizers. The heaths were transformed into "new" arable fields and forests, and due to deep ploughing

  19. Cenogramas, análisis bioclimático y muestreo en faunas de mamíferos: implicaciones para la aplicación de métodos de análisis paleoecológico

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    Hernández Fernández, M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyzed the problems derived from the potential species loss associated to the taphonomic processes occurring in fossil sites. We seek to resolve the possible utility of cenograms and bioclimatic analysis as methodologies applicable in Paleoecology. Supposedly, if species are deleted in a community, significant changes in its structure might appear, which would make these paleoecological techniques dysfunctional. The analysis has been carried out with the data of two modern mammalian communities, Barrow (Alaska and Jaipur (India, on which we have deleted species randomly. Our results have allowed us to conclude that these methodologies are useful in Paleoecology, since they are functional with a satisfactory level of confidence, as long as the species loss is not excessively elevated (for communities with 20-40% of the original species.En este trabajo hemos analizado la problemática derivada de la posible pérdida de especies asociada a los procesos tafonómicos que se dan en los yacimientos de fósiles, para determinar la posible utilidad de los cenogramas y el análisis bioclimático como metodologías aplicables en Paleoecología. Podría suponerse que si eliminamos especies en una comunidad se podrían producir cambios significativos en su estructura que convertirían en no funcionales a estas metodologías. El análisis se ha llevado a cabo con los datos de dos comunidades de mamíferos actuales, Barrow (Alaska y Jaipur (India, de las que hemos eliminado progresivamente especies de forma aleatoria. Los resultados obtenidos nos han permitido concluir que tanto los cenogramas como el análisis bioclimático son útiles en Paleoecología, ya que son funcionales con un nivel de confianza adecuado, siempre y cuando la pérdida de especies no sea excesivamente elevada (en comunidades con un 20-40% de las especies originales.

  20. Feed preference of weaned pigs fed diets containing soybean meal, Brassica napus canola meal, or Brassica juncea canola meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landero, Jose L; Wang, Li Fang; Beltranena, Eduardo; Bench, Clover J; Zijlstra, Ruurd T

    2018-03-06

    Brassica napus and Brassica juncea canola meal (CM) may replace soybean meal (SBM) in pig diets, but differ in fiber, glucosinolates content and profile. Preference of weaned pigs provided double-choice selections to diets containing 20% SBM, B. napus CM, or B. juncea CM was evaluated in two studies. In experiment 1, 216 pigs (9.4 ± 1.6 kg initial BW) were housed in 27 pens of 8 pigs (four gilts and four barrows). In experiment 2, 144 pigs (8.9 ± 1.1 kg) were housed in 36 pens of 4 pigs (two gilts and two barrows). Pigs were offered three dietary choices: B. napus CM with SBM as reference (B. napus CM [SBM]), B. juncea CM with SBM as reference (B. juncea CM [SBM]), and B. juncea CM with B. napus CM as reference (B. juncea CM [B. napus CM]) in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square. Diets were formulated to provide 2.4 Mcal NE/kg and 4.5 g standardized ileal digestible Lys/Mcal NE and were balanced using canola oil and crystalline AA. Each pair of diets was offered in two self-feeders per pen as mash (experiment 1) or pellets (experiment 2) during three test-periods of 4-d, followed by a 3-d non-test period when a common diet was offered in both feeders. Feeders with different diets were rotated daily among pens during preference periods for both experiments, and feeder positions (right or left) were switched daily in experiment 2. Prior to the study and between periods, pigs were fed non-test diets containing SBM (experiment 1) or without test feedstuffs (experiment 2). Overall in both experiments, pigs preferred (P 0.05) growth performance in both experiments, except for greater G:F (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets than pigs fed the B. napus CM [SBM] or B. juncea CM [SBM] diets in experiment 1. In conclusion, weaned pigs preferred SBM over CM diets when given a choice, and preferred B. napus over the B. juncea diet that contained more total glucosinolates especially gluconapin. Weaned pigs fed the B. juncea CM [B. napus CM] diets in the

  1. Phosphorus utilization response of pigs and broiler chickens to diets supplemented with antimicrobials and phytase

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    Katherine McCormick

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the phosphorus (P utilization responses of pigs and broiler chickens to dietary supplementation with antimicrobials and phytase and to determine if P digestibility response to phytase is affected by supplementation with antimicrobials. Experiment 1 used 4 diets (a basal negative control formulated to contain 0.41% total P and 0.71% calcium [Ca] without added antimicrobials, basal negative control with added carbadox, basal negative control with added tylosin, or basal negative control with added virginiamycin and six 18-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per diet. There was no effect of antimicrobials on P and Ca digestibility or retention. Carbadox supplementation increased (P < 0.05 digestibility and retention of gross energy (GE and supplementation with tylosin increased (P < 0.05 N retention relative to the basal negative control diet. Experiment 2 used eight 19-kg barrows in individual metabolism crates per treatment and 9 dietary treatments arranged in a 3 × 3 factorial of antimicrobials (none, tylosin, or virginiamycin and phytase (0, 500, or 1,500 FTU/kg. Phytase addition to the diets linearly increased (P < 0.05 apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, nitrogen (N and GE. Supplementation with antimicrobials did not affect apparent total tract digestibility or retention of P, Ca, N or GE. There were linear effects (P < 0.01 of phytase on Ca utilization in diets that were not supplemented with antimicrobials but only tendencies (P < 0.10 in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin. Phytase linearly improved (P < 0.05 N utilization in diets supplemented with tylosin or virginiamycin but not in diets without added antimicrobials. Experiment 3 was a broiler chicken experiment with the same experimental design as Exp. 2 but feeding 8 birds per cage and 10 replicate cages per diet. Antimicrobial supplementation improved (P < 0.05 feed efficiency and

  2. Changes in vegetation phenology are not reflected in atmospheric CO2and13C/12C seasonality.

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    Gonsamo, Alemu; D'Odorico, Petra; Chen, Jing M; Wu, Chaoyang; Buchmann, Nina

    2017-10-01

    Northern terrestrial ecosystems have shown global warming-induced advances in start, delays in end, and thus increased lengths of growing season and gross photosynthesis in recent decades. The tradeoffs between seasonal dynamics of two opposing fluxes, CO 2 uptake through photosynthesis and release through respiration, determine the influence of the terrestrial ecosystem on the atmospheric CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality. Here, we use four CO 2 observation stations in the Northern Hemisphere, namely Alert, La Jolla, Point Barrow, and Mauna Loa Observatory, to determine how changes in vegetation productivity and phenology, respiration, and air temperature affect both the atmospheric CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality. Since the 1960s, the only significant long-term trend of CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality was observed at the northern most station, Alert, where the spring CO 2 drawdown dates advanced by 0.65 ± 0.55 days yr -1 , contributing to a nonsignificant increase in length of the CO 2 uptake period (0.74 ± 0.67 days yr -1 ). For Point Barrow station, vegetation phenology changes in well-watered ecosystems such as the Canadian and western Siberian wetlands contributed the most to 13 C/ 12 C seasonality while the CO 2 seasonality was primarily linked to nontree vegetation. Our results indicate significant increase in the Northern Hemisphere soil respiration. This means, increased respiration of 13 C depleted plant materials cancels out the 12 C gain from enhanced vegetation activities during the start and end of growing season. These findings suggest therefore that parallel warming-induced increases both in photosynthesis and respiration contribute to the long-term stability of CO 2 and 13 C/ 12 C seasonality under changing climate and vegetation activity. The summer photosynthesis and the soil respiration in the dormant seasons have become more vigorous which lead to increased peak-to-through CO 2 amplitude. As the relative magnitude of the increased

  3. The Metabolizable Energy Value, Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids in Soybean Meal, Soy Protein Concentrate and Fermented Soybean Meal, and the Application of These Products in Early-weaned Piglets

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    H. Y. Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the metabolizable energy (ME value, standardized ileal digestibility (SID of amino acids (AA of soybean meal (SBM, soy protein concentrate (SPC and fermented soybean meal (FSBM, and the application of these products in early-weaned piglets. In Exp. 1, four barrows with initial body weight (BW of 14.2±1.4 kg were used in a 4×4 Latin square design. The diet 1 contained corn as the only energy source. The other three diets replaced 25% of corn in diet 1 with one of the three soybean products, and the digestable energy (DE and ME contents were determined by difference. In Exp. 2, four barrows (initial BW of 18.2±1.5 kg were fitted with ileal T-cannulas and allotted to a 4×4 Latin square design. Three cornstarch-based diets were formulated using each of the soybean products as the sole source of AA. A nitrogen-free diet was also formulated to measure endogenous losses of AA. In Exp. 3, ninety six piglets (initial BW of 5.6±0.9 kg weaned at 21±2 d were blocked by weight and assigned to one of three treatments for a 21-d growth performance study. The control diet was based on corn and SBM, the two treatments’ diets contained either 10% SPC or FSBM and were formulated to same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal. The results showed that the ME content of SPC was greater than SBM (p<0.05. The SID of most AA in SPC was greater than the SID of AA in SBM (p<0.05. For the essential AA, the SID of histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine and threonine in FSBM were greater than in SBM (p<0.05. Even though they were fed same SID lysine to ME ratio of 3.6 g/Mcal diets, pigs fed SPC and FSBM diets had greater weight gain, G:F (p<0.05 and better fecal score (p<0.05 than pigs fed SBM diet. In conclusion, SPC showed a higher ME content and SID of AA than the SBM. SID of some essential AA in FSBM was higher than SBM and was similar with SPC. But the lower antigenic proteins and anti-nutritional factors content in SPC

  4. Local Community Verification of Coastal Erosion Risks in the Arctic: Insights from Alaska's North Slope

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    Brady, M.

    2016-12-01

    During his historic trip to Alaska in 2015, U.S. President Barack Obama announced a collaborative effort to update maps of the Arctic region in anticipation of increased maritime access and resource development and to support climate resilience. Included in this effort is development of an Arctic-wide satellite-based digital elevation model (DEM) to provide a baseline to monitor landscape change such as coastal erosion. Focusing in Alaska's North Slope, an objective of this study is to transform emerging Arctic environment spatial data products including the new DEM into information that can support local level planning and decision-making in the face of extreme coastal erosion and related environmental threats. In pursuit of this, in 2016, 4 workshops were held in three North Slope villages highly exposed to coastal erosion. The first workshop with approximately 10 managers in Barrow solicited feedback on an erosion risk database developed in a previous research stage and installed onto the North Slope's planning Web portal. The database includes a physical risk indicator based on factors such as historical erosion and effects of sea ice loss summarized at asset locations. After a demonstration of the database, participants discussed usability aspects such as data reliability. The focus of the mapping workshops in Barrow and two smaller villages Wainwright and Kaktovik was to verify and expand the risk database by interactively mapping erosion observations and community asset impacts. Using coded stickers and paper maps of the shoreline showing USGS erosion rates, a total of 50 participants provided feedback on erosion data accuracy. Approximately 25 of the total 50 participants were elders and hunters who also provided in-depth community risk information. The workshop with managers confirmed physical risk factors used in the risk database, and revealed that the information may be relied upon to support some development decisions and better engage developers about

  5. Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive bromine events probed by bromine monoxide MAX-DOAS

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    W. R. Simpson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br− to reactive bromine species (Br atoms and bromine monoxide, BrO that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive bromine events, the BRomine, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik, Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead formed pushing one instrument package ∼ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik. Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive bromine source. When these three sites were separated by ∼ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ∼ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ∼ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive bromine via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when

  6. Phosphorus digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in corn, corn coproducts, and bakery meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, O J; Liu, Y; Stein, H H

    2013-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P and the concentration of DE and ME in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, 84 barrows (initial BW: 13.7±2.3 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 14 diets with 6 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. Seven diets were formulated to contain corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or corn germ meal as the sole source of P. Seven additional diets were similar to the initial 7 diets with the exception that 600 units of microbial phytase was included in each diet. The STTD of P was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, and the STTD of P was also greater (Pbakery meal than in corn and hominy feed. Addition of phytase increased (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal but not in corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, or DDGS. In Exp. 2, 56 barrows (initial BW: 14.6±2.2 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and allotted to 7 diets with 8 replicate pigs per diet in a randomized complete block design. A corn-based diet consisting of 97.5% corn and vitamins and minerals was formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by mixing corn and DDGS, corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, or corn germ meal, and 2 diets were based on hominy feed or bakery meal. The concentration of ME was 3,891, 3,675, 3,655, 3,694, 4,400, 3,169, and 3,150 kcal/kg DM in corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, DDGS, corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, respectively. The ME (DM basis) in corn was greater (Pbakery meal, corn gluten feed, and corn germ meal, but less (Pbakery meal, and DDGS was greater (Pbakery meal, and corn germ meal, but phytase can be included in diets containing corn, hominy feed, bakery meal, and corn germ meal to improve P digestibility. The ME in corn gluten meal is greater than

  7. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

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    G. Bisht

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0. Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively. The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ∼ 10 cm shallower and  ∼ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ∼ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and

  8. Determination and Prediction of Digestible and Metabolizable Energy from the Chemical Composition of Chinese Corn Gluten Feed Fed to Finishing Pigs

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    T. T. Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to determine the digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME contents of corn gluten feed (CGF for finishing pigs and to develop equations predicting the DE and ME content from the chemical composition of the CGF samples, as well as validate the accuracy of the prediction equations. In Exp. 1, ten CGF samples from seven provinces of China were collected and fed to 66 finishing barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial body weight (BW of 51.9±5.5 kg. The pigs were assigned to 11 diets comprising one basal diet and 10 CGF test diets with six pigs fed each diet. The basal diet contained corn (76%, dehulled soybean meal (21% and premix (3%. The ten test diets were formulated by substituting 25% of the corn and dehulled soybean meal with CGF and contained corn (57%, dehulled soybean meal (15.75%, CGF (24.25% and premix (3%. In Exp. 2, two additional CGF sources were collected as validation samples to test the accuracy of the prediction equations. In this experiment, 18 barrows (Duroc×Landrace×Yorkshire with an initial BW of 61.1±4.0 kg were randomly allotted to be fed either the basal diet or two CGF containing diets which had a similar composition as used in Exp. 1. The DE and ME of CGF ranged from 10.37 to 12.85 MJ/kg of dry matter (DM and 9.53 to 12.49 MJ/kg of DM, respectively. Through stepwise regression analysis, several prediction equations of DE and ME were generated. The best fit equations were: DE, MJ/kg of DM = 18.30–0.13 neutral detergent fiber–0.22 ether extract, with R2 = 0.95, residual standard deviation (RSD = 0.21 and p<0.01; and ME, MJ/kg of DM = 12.82+0.11 Starch–0.26 acid detergent fiber, with R2 = 0.94, RSD = 0.20 and p<0.01. These results indicate that the DE and ME content of CGF varied substantially but the DE and ME for finishing pigs can be accurately predicted from equations based on nutritional analysis.

  9. Arctic Tundra Vegetation Functional Types Based on Photosynthetic Physiology and Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, Karl Fred; Gamon, John A.; Tweedie, Craig E.; Campbell, Petya K. Entcheva; Landis, David R.; Middleton, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Non-vascular plants (lichens and mosses) are significant components of tundra landscapes and may respond to climate change differently from vascular plants affecting ecosystem carbon balance. Remote sensing provides critical tools for monitoring plant cover types, as optical signals provide a way to scale from plot measurements to regional estimates of biophysical properties, for which spatial-temporal patterns may be analyzed. Gas exchange measurements were collected for pure patches of key vegetation functional types (lichens, mosses, and vascular plants) in sedge tundra at Barrow, AK. These functional types were found to have three significantly different values of light use efficiency (LUE) with values of 0.013 plus or minus 0.0002, 0.0018 plus or minus 0.0002, and 0.0012 plus or minus 0.0001 mol C mol (exp -1) absorbed quanta for vascular plants, mosses and lichens, respectively. Discriminant analysis of the spectra reflectance of these patches identified five spectral bands that separated each of these vegetation functional types as well as nongreen material (bare soil, standing water, and dead leaves). These results were tested along a 100 m transect where midsummer spectral reflectance and vegetation coverage were measured at one meter intervals. Along the transect, area-averaged canopy LUE estimated from coverage fractions of the three functional types varied widely, even over short distances. The patch-level statistical discriminant functions applied to in situ hyperspectral reflectance data collected along the transect successfully unmixed cover fractions of the vegetation functional types. The unmixing functions, developed from the transect data, were applied to 30 m spatial resolution Earth Observing-1 Hyperion imaging spectrometer data to examine variability in distribution of the vegetation functional types for an area near Barrow, AK. Spatial variability of LUE was derived from the observed functional type distributions. Across this landscape, a

  10. The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebmeier, J. M.; Moore, S. E.; Cooper, L. W.; Frey, K. E.; Pickart, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean is experiencing major reductions in seasonal sea ice extent and increases in sea surface temperatures. One of the key uncertainties in this region is how the marine ecosystem will respond to seasonal shifts in the timing of spring sea ice retreat and/or delays in fall sea ice formation. Variations in upper ocean water hydrography, planktonic production, pelagic-benthic coupling and sediment carbon cycling are all influenced by sea ice and temperature changes. Climate changes are likely to result in shifts in species composition and abundance, northward range expansions, and changes in lower trophic level productivity that can directly cascade and affect the life cycles of higher trophic level organisms. Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators have been re-occupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walrus and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a "Distributed Biological Observatory" (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a

  11. Water body distributions across scales: a comparison of three Arctic wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, S.; Heim, B.; Abnizova, A.; Boike, J.

    2012-12-01

    Water bodies are ubiquitous features in Arctic wetlands, ranging from very small polygonal ponds to very large thermokarst lakes. Ponds, i.e. waters with a surface area smaller than 1 ha, have been recognized as hotspots of biological activity and greenhouse gas emissions. Regional and global models, however, cannot resolve ponds due to the coarse resolution. The aims of this study were to identify common characteristics of Arctic wetlands regarding (1) water body size and abundance, and (2) Landsat subpixel fraction of water cover. We mapped water bodies in three Arctic wetlands, i.e. Polar Bear Pass on Bathurst Island in the Canadian High Arctic, Samoylov Island in the Lena River Delta in Siberia, Russia, and Barrow Peninsula on the Alaska Coastal Plain. High-resolution (0.3 to 4 m) water body maps were overlain on to Landsat albedo maps to extract the proportion of open water within a Landsat mixed pixel. At all three sites ponds occupied 95% of the total number of surface waters. Surface waters smaller than 0.1 ha, which cannot be detected with Landsat data, still contributed 60% and higher to the total number. All study areas showed similar rates of decline in water body abundance with increasing water surface area (Fig. 1). Previous studies have fitted abundance-size distributions of water bodies to the Pareto distribution, which appears linear on a log-log plot. Our data, however, shows paretian behavior only in the upper tail of the distribution so that the Pareto distribution strongly overestimates small water bodies. Landsat albedo increased with decreasing proportion of open water cover per Landsat pixel. Linear regressions for albedo values with a subpixel water cover between 100% and less than 5% showed r-square values larger than 0.8, which constitutes a better performance than other more complex unmixing methods. In conclusion, all three wetlands showed similar properties regarding size-abundance data of water bodies, scaling errors, and retrieval of

  12. Monitoring Freeze Thaw Transitions in Arctic Soils using Complex Resistivity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.; Ulrich, C.; Dafflon, B.; Wullschleger, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Arctic region, which is a sensitive system that has emerged as a focal point for climate change studies, is characterized by a large amount of stored carbon and a rapidly changing landscape. Seasonal freeze-thaw transitions in the Arctic alter subsurface biogeochemical processes that control greenhouse gas fluxes from the subsurface. Our ability to monitor freeze thaw cycles and associated biogeochemical transformations is critical to the development of process rich ecosystem models, which are in turn important for gaining a predictive understanding of Arctic terrestrial system evolution and feedbacks with climate. In this study, we conducted both laboratory and field investigations to explore the use of the complex resistivity method to monitor freeze thaw transitions of arctic soil in Barrow, AK. In the lab studies, freeze thaw transitions were induced on soil samples having different average carbon content through exposing the arctic soil to temperature controlled environments at +4 oC and -20 oC. Complex resistivity and temperature measurements were collected using electrical and temperature sensors installed along the soil columns. During the laboratory experiments, resistivity gradually changed over two orders of magnitude as the temperature was increased or decreased between -20 oC and 0 oC. Electrical phase responses at 1 Hz showed a dramatic and immediate response to the onset of freeze and thaw. Unlike the resistivity response, the phase response was found to be exclusively related to unfrozen water in the soil matrix, suggesting that this geophysical attribute can be used as a proxy for the monitoring of the onset and progression of the freeze-thaw transitions. Spectral electrical responses contained additional information about the controls of soil grain size distribution on the freeze thaw dynamics. Based on the demonstrated sensitivity of complex resistivity signals to the freeze thaw transitions, field complex resistivity data were collected over

  13. Digestibility of energy, amino acids, and phosphorus in a novel source of soy protein concentrate and in soybean meal fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M S; Stein, H H

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in a new source of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 9 barrows (initial BW: 13.08 ± 1.98 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. A nitrogen-free diet and 2 diets that contained corn starch and SPC or SBM as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated. Each period lasted 7 d, and ileal digesta were collected on d 6 and 7 of each period. The SID for Ile, Leu, Phe, Pro, and Tyr was greater ( urine samples were collected using the marker to marker method with 5-d adaptation and 5-d collection periods. The DE and ME in SPC and SBM were calculated using the difference procedure. Results indicated that the ATTD of GE was lower ( < 0.05) in SBM than in corn and the DE and ME in SPC were greater ( < 0.01) than in corn and SBM. In Exp. 3, 40 barrows (initial BW: 14.12 ± 2.08 kg) were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to 4 diets in a randomized complete block design with 10 pigs per diet. Two diets were based on SPC or SBM as the sole source of P. Two additional diets were formulated by adding microbial phytase to diets that were otherwise similar to the 2 initial diets. Feces were collected for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period and values for ATTD and STTD of P were calculated. No differences were observed in ATTD and STTD of P between SPC and SBM, but the ATTD and STTD of P of both SPC and SBM were greater ( < 0.01) if microbial phytase was added to the diets. In conclusion, the concentrations of DE and ME are greater in SPC than in SBM, but the SID of most AA and the STTD of P are not different between SPC and SBM.

  14. Impacts of microtopographic snow redistribution and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states in an Arctic polygonal ground ecosystem: a case study using ELM-3D v1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Gautam; Riley, William J.; Wainwright, Haruko M.; Dafflon, Baptiste; Yuan, Fengming; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.

    2018-01-01

    Microtopographic features, such as polygonal ground, are characteristic sources of landscape heterogeneity in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Here, we analyze the effects of snow redistribution (SR) and lateral subsurface processes on hydrologic and thermal states at a polygonal tundra site near Barrow, Alaska. We extended the land model integrated in the E3SM to redistribute incoming snow by accounting for microtopography and incorporated subsurface lateral transport of water and energy (ELM-3D v1.0). Multiple 10-year-long simulations were performed for a transect across a polygonal tundra landscape at the Barrow Environmental Observatory in Alaska to isolate the impact of SR and subsurface process representation. When SR was included, model predictions better agreed (higher R2, lower bias and RMSE) with observed differences in snow depth between polygonal rims and centers. The model was also able to accurately reproduce observed soil temperature vertical profiles in the polygon rims and centers (overall bias, RMSE, and R2 of 0.59 °C, 1.82 °C, and 0.99, respectively). The spatial heterogeneity of snow depth during the winter due to SR generated surface soil temperature heterogeneity that propagated in depth and time and led to ˜ 10 cm shallower and ˜ 5 cm deeper maximum annual thaw depths under the polygon rims and centers, respectively. Additionally, SR led to spatial heterogeneity in surface energy fluxes and soil moisture during the summer. Excluding lateral subsurface hydrologic and thermal processes led to small effects on mean states but an overestimation of spatial variability in soil moisture and soil temperature as subsurface liquid pressure and thermal gradients were artificially prevented from spatially dissipating over time. The effect of lateral subsurface processes on maximum thaw depths was modest, with mean absolute differences of ˜ 3 cm. Our integration of three-dimensional subsurface hydrologic and thermal subsurface dynamics in the E3SM

  15. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Center in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Lucero, D. A.; Cahill, C. F.; Roesler, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated High Arctic research and testing center at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a US High Arctic Center (USHARC) with an approach to partner stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Center at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: access via land, sea and air; coastal and terrestrial ecologies; controlled airspaces across land and ocean; medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip and

  16. Large scale magnetic fields from torsion modes and massive photon inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia de Andrade, L. C.

    2017-10-01

    Previously, Barrow and Tsagas (2008 Phys. Rev. D 77 107302) showed that a slower decay of magnetic fields are present in open Friedmann universes, with traditional Maxwell equations. In their paper magnetic fields of the order of B˜ 10-33~G , which are far below the value required to seed galactic dynamos, were obtained. In this paper, galactic dynamo seeds of the order of B˜ 10-23~G are obtained from massive electrodynamics in an Einstein-Cartan-Proca expanding universe of de Sitter type. Slow decay of magnetic fields in photon-torsion coupling in quantum electrodynamics (Garcia de Andrade 2011 Phys. Lett. B 468 28) have been recently shown by the author Garcia de Andrade (2012 Phys. Lett. B 711 143) to also not be able to seed galactic dynamos. Torsion modes are constrained by the field equations. Spacetime torsion is shown to be explicitly responsible for the slow decay of a cosmic magnetic field. In the absence of massive photon torsion coupling the magnetic field decay is of the order B˜ t-\\frac{3{2}} , when torsion turns on B˜ t-1.2 . The pure massive-photon-torsion contribution amplifies the magnetic field by B_torsion˜ t0.1 which characterizes an extremely slow magnetic dynamo action due to purely torsion gravitational effects. Recently Barrow, Tsagas and Yamamoto (2012 Phys. Rev. D 86 023535) have obtained superadiabatic amplification of B-fields in Friedmann open cosmology which lies within {10-20~G} and 10-12~G which falls very comfortably within the limits to seed galactic dynamos. The are other simple solutions where a B-field decays as B˜ a-1 , a relatively weak photon-torsion coupling approximation. These solutions are obtained for de Sitter and Friedmann metrics. Numerical values as displayed in this new version of the paper specifically for GUT phases of inflation with and without massive photons; without photons we obtain the well known value of GR which is B_GUT˜ 1048~G while for the values with massive photons one obtains B_GUT/γ˜ 10

  17. The Need and Opportunity for an Integrated Research, Development and Testing Station in the Alaskan High Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, J. O.; Ivey, M.; Helsel, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Cahill, C. F.; Bendure, A.; Lucero, D. A.; Roesler, E. L.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation will make the case for development of a permanent integrated research and testing station at Oliktok Point, Alaska; taking advantage of existing assets and infrastructure, controlled airspace, an active UAS program and local partnerships. Arctic research stations provide critical monitoring and research on climate change for conditions and trends in the Arctic. The US Chair of the Arctic Council has increased awareness of gaps in our understanding of Artic systems, scarce monitoring, lack of infrastructure and readiness for emergency response. Less sea ice brings competition for commercial shipping and resource extraction. Search and rescue, pollution mitigation and safe navigation need real-time, wide-area monitoring to respond to events. Multi-national responses for international traffic will drive a greater security presence to protect citizens and sovereign interests. To address research and technology gaps, there is a national need for a High Arctic Station with an approach that partners stakeholders from science, safety and security to develop comprehensive solutions. The Station should offer year-round use, logistic support and access to varied ecological settings; phased adaptation to changing needs; and support testing of technologies such as multiple autonomous platforms, renewable energies and microgrids, and sensors in Arctic settings. We propose an Arctic Station at Oliktok Point, Alaska. Combined with the Toolik Field Station and Barrow Environmental Observatory, they form a US network of Arctic Stations. An Oliktok Point Station can provide complementary and unique assets that include: ocean access, and coastal and terrestrial systems; road access; controlled airspaces on land and ocean; nearby air facilities, medical and logistic support; atmospheric observations from an adjacent ARM facility; connections to Barrow and Toolik; fiber-optic communications; University of Alaska Fairbanks UAS Test Facility partnership; and an airstrip

  18. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp in the diet of finishing swines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Watanabe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of inclusion of citrus pulp in the diet of finishing pigs. In the first trial, 16 Topigs barrows with 80.5±4.7 kg of initial BW were used to evaluate the digestibility of citrus pulp. Having 18.85% of neutral detergent fiber and 41.18% of neutral detergent soluble fiber, citrus pulp showed as a feasible alternative ingredient to be added in the diets of feed restricted finishing pigs. Second trial tested the use of 0, 10, 20, 30% of citrus pulp in the diets of 36-feed-restricted barrows with initial BW of 83.7±5.1 kg. A quadratic trend (P0.05, but a quadratic trend existed on cholesterol serological content.No primeiro ensaio foram utilizados 16 suínos machos castrados da linhagem Topigs, com peso inicial de 80,5±4,7 kg, para a avaliação biológica da polpa cítrica. Por apresentar 18,85% de fibra em detergente neutro e 41,18% de fibra solúvel em detergente neutro, a polpa cítrica mostrou-se como um ingrediente viável a ser utilizado em programas de restrição alimentar qualitativa. No segundo ensaio foram utilizados 36 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial de 83,7±5,1 kg, recebendo rações com níveis de 0, 10, 20 e 30% de polpa cítrica. Os animais foram abatidos com peso próximo de 130 kg, sendo avaliados quanto ao desempenho e parâmetros séricos. Houve resposta quadrática (P0,05 dos níveis de polpa cítrica sobre a uréia e triacilgliceróis, porém houve resposta quadrática (P<0,05 para o colesterol em função dos níveis de polpa cítrica.

  19. The PISCES Project: How Teacher-Scientist Partners can Enhance Elementary Science Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, C.; Oechel, W.

    2003-12-01

    The PISCES Project (Partnerships Involving the Scientific Community in Elementary Schools www.sdsa.org/pisces) is an innovative program that brings high quality standards-based elementary science curriculum and hands-on laboratory materials into San Diego County's classrooms. The project is funded by the NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education (GK-12) program. The project was designed and is administered through cooperation among faculty at San Diego State University and the Science Department of the San Diego County Office of Education. Undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in science programs in San Diego area universities including San Diego State University, California State University San Marcos, and University of California San Diego partner with elementary school teachers. Through this partnership, the scientist brings scientific expertise to the classroom while the teacher delivers the lesson using current pedagogic methods. This is accomplished during a 3 month partnership in which the scientist joins the teacher in the classroom a few days each week to complete professional kit-based curriculum such as that available from FOSS (Full Option Science System) and STC (Science and Technology for Children). The teachers remain in the program for two years during which they have continuous access to the kit-based curriculum as well as two to three partnership cycles. Teachers receive assistance outside of the classroom as well attending professional development institutes three times a year to establish and maintain effective science teaching methods. The San Diego Science Alliance and other community and industry supporters provide the additionalfunding necessary to provide this teacher professional development Currenty, PISCES is present in over 40 schools and is able to provide partnerships to over 100 classrooms each year. In addition to the work done in San Diego, the project has expanded to Barrow, Alaska with plans to expand to La Paz

  20. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Fatty acid profiles and iodine value correlations between 4 carcass fat depots from pigs fed varied combinations of ractopamine and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, B R; Hinson, R B; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N; Allee, G L

    2011-11-01

    A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high: 3,537, medium: 3,369, and low: 3,317 kcal/kg of ME) to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine and various dietary energy levels on the fatty acid profile of 4 carcass fat depots (jowl, belly, subcutaneous loin, and intramuscular) and the predictive relationships of calculated iodine value (IV) between these 4 fat depots. Carcasses were sampled for fat tissues at the anterior tip of the jowl, posterior to the sternum on the belly edge, three-quarters the distance around the LM (subcutaneous fat; SC), and within the LM (intramuscular fat; IMF). Feeding ractopamine diets reduced (P ractopamine diets increased (P ractopamine diets shifted the fatty acid profile from SFA to MUFA in the SC depot. Feeding ractopamine diets did not change belly fat profiles, thus avoiding the potential negative effect of softening belly fat, which is detrimental to processing value. The IV of one fat depot may not be a good indication of IV of other fat depots because of weak correlation coefficients and the apparent influence of dietary treatment.

  2. Performance, carcass and meat quality of pigs fed diets with antioxidants and ractopamina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Abrami Monteiro Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was evaluated the effects of the use of additives antioxidants associated or not with ractopamine in feed for finishing pigs. Were used 51 crossbred pigs, 27 barrows and 24 females with initial weight of 83.38 kg. Three experimental treatments were established based on the inclusion of two complexes to feed: complex 1 (4g de vitamin E + 1g de vitamin C/kg of product and complex 2 (0.2g de ractopamine + 4g de vitamin E + 2g de vitamin C/kg of product, defining the ration control (free of complexes, ration control + complex 1 (0.1% and ration control + complex 2 (0.05%. The experimental design was blocked randomically, presenting a factorial model 3x2 (3 treatments and 2 sexes. Were observed difference (P<0.05 for daily feed intake, feed, hot and cold carcass weight to the treatment with ractopamine. The values of vitamin E in meat were higher (P <0.05 in muscle of animals in groups receiving the vitamin. There was a difference (P <0.05 in the values of oxidation and marbling in the treatments with antioxidant. The inclusion of ractopamine, with the antioxidants, resulted in improvement in performance and carcass characteristics, and supplementation with the antioxidant, alone, showed improvement in parameters related to meat quality

  3. A multivariate approach to determine the factors affecting response level of growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in finishing pigs fed ractopamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeu, M A; Rodrigues, L A; Cavalcanti, L F L; Fontes, D O; Toral, F L B

    2017-04-01

    The effect of ractopamine (RAC) supplementation on growth, carcass, and meat quality traits of finishing pigs was studied using a meta-analytical approach. The database was composed of 57 studies published from 2004 to 2016. The dependent variables extracted for the meta-analysis included final BW, ADG, ADFI, feed:gain ratio, HCW, dressing percentage, carcass length, lean yield, back fat thickness, loin muscle area, loin depth, postmortem pH, meat brightness, redness, and yellowness. The studies were grouped by similarity in 3 clusters (C1, C2, and C3) by hierarchical clustering on principle components. The main differences observed between clusters were those of animal initial weight, which increased from C1 through C3. Linear mixed models were used to analyze the data, where studies were assumed as random effect, whereas the total amount of RAC in the diet, cluster, and sex category were considered fixed effects. The interactions between cluster and sex category (barrows, gilts, and mixed sex) and RAC level were also evaluated. Dietary RAC was effective in improving final weight ( Ractopamine supplementation did not influence the pork quality.

  4. Effects of ractopamine hydrochloride and immunological castration in pigs. Part 2: belly quality characteristics and fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Cristina COSTA E SILVA

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of immunocastration and ractopamine in the diet on the belly quality were investigated from two crossbred pigs under different conditions of production, diet, management, and slaughter arranged in factorial design using two levels of addition of ractopamine in the diet, 0 and 7.5 ppm, and three genders (gilts, immunocastrated and barrows. The quality of bellies were analyzed for chemical composition, pH, meat and fat color, backfat thickness and fatty acid profile of the fat. The addition of ractopamine showed no significant influence on pH, color and chemical composition in two crossbred pigs. The immunocastrated had thicker belly backfat compared to the bellies of the gilts. The contents of fatty acids polyunsaturated, linoleic, linoleic, arachidonic, total omega 3 and omega 6 were higher for immunocastrated pigs, as well as presenting values greater than 0.4 for the PUFA:SFA ratio, thus, providing bellies with better nutritional quality. The bellies of the gilts and immunocastrated pigs had higher concentrations of iodine value, indicative of higher unsaturated fat content. The results indicated that the addition of ractopamine and immunocastration had little influence on the quality of bellies as well as in their fatty acid profiles, suggesting the continuity of implementation of these techniques.

  5. Dietary ractopamine influences sarcoplasmic proteome profile of pork Longissimus thoracis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Li, Shuting; Beach, Carol M; Silva, Teofilo J P; Silveira, Expedito T F; Bohrer, Benjamin M; Boler, Dustin D

    2015-05-01

    Dietary ractopamine improves pork leanness, whereas its effect on sarcoplasmic proteome has not been characterized. Therefore, the influence of ractopamine on sarcoplasmic proteome of post-mortem pork Longissimus thoracis muscle was examined. Longissimus thoracis samples were collected from carcasses (24 h post-mortem) of purebred Berkshire barrows (n=9) managed in mixed-sex pens and fed finishing diets containing ractopamine (RAC; 7.4 mg/kg for 14 days followed by 10.0 mg/kg for 14 days) or without ractopamine for 28 days (CON). Sarcoplasmic proteome was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Nine protein spots were differentially abundant between RAC and CON groups. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and phosphoglucomutase-1 were over-abundant in CON, whereas serum albumin, carbonic anhydrase 3, L-lactate dehydrogenase A chain, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A, and myosin light chain 1/3 were over-abundant in RAC. These results suggest that ractopamine influences the abundance of enzymes involved in glycolytic metabolism, and the differential abundance of glycolytic enzymes could potentially influence the conversion of muscle to meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat quality in pigs fed diets with gradual ractopamine supplementation and nutritional adjustments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects that gradual ractopamine supplementation in diets with nutritional adjustments on pig meat. Were used 80 finishing crossbred barrows in a randomized block design with a 2×5 factorial arrangement (two diets: with and without nutritional adjustment; five levels of ractopamine supplementation: 5-5, 10-10, 20-20, 5-10 and 10-20 ppm in the 14 initial and 14 final study days, four replicates with two animals by experimental unit. Higher shear force values (P<0.05 were obtained using the 5-5 and 10-20 ppm ractopamine supplementation plans in the diets without nutritional adjustment. With nutritionally adjusted diets, the 5-10 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan yielded higher shear force values (P<0.05. Water retention capacity was higher (P<0.05 for animals fed adjusted diets and 5-5 and 10-20 ppm of actopamine plans. In the 10-20 ppm of ractopamine supplementation plan, meat pH was higher (P<0.05 for diets without nutritional adjustment, whereas in the 20-20 ppm of supplementation plan, pH was higher for adjusted diets.

  7. Effect of corn dried distillers grains with solubles, conjugated linoleic acid, and ractopamine (paylean) on growth performance and fat characteristics of late finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeu, D; Wiegand, B R; Evans, H L; Rickard, J W; Gerlemann, G D; Hinson, R B; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Boyd, R D; Allee, G L

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was performed to evaluate effects of dietary ractopamine, CLA, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth and carcass and fat quality of finishing pigs. This study was conducted as a split-split plot arrangement in a generalized randomized block design. In total 1,102 crossbred barrows and gilts (initial BW = 100.4 kg, SD = 3.7 kg; pic 337 × c22) were randomly assigned to 1 of 8 dietary treatments that consisted of 2 diet sources [corn-soybean meal (corn-soy) and corn-soy + 20% DDGS], 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg), and 2 levels of CLA (0% and 0.6%). The pen was the experimental unit, with 6 replications per treatment for a total of 48 pens with 23 pigs per pen. Pigs had ad libitum access to water and feed during the 27-d experimental period. Ractopamine addition improved (p ractopamine. Feeding CLA resulted in improved (p ractopamine, and CLA. Iodine value (iv) increased (p ractopamine, whereas a decrease (p ractopamine, indicating that effects of dietary ractopamine depend on the fatty acid profile of the diet. These results indicate that feeding ractopamine and CLA could improve growth and carcass measures and that CLA was effective in diminishing some of the negative effects, especially on IV, caused by DDGS.

  8. Arctic oil exploration Former mayor says yes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleak, J. Sr.

    Alaska's coastal plain can sustain both wilderness values and oil production, says Jeslie Kaleak, Sr., former mayor of North Slope Borough in Borrow, Alaska. Kaleak is director is Barrow Operations for North Slope Regional Corporation. Nevertheless, Kaleak contends, [open quotes]the people in the Lower 48 want to keep us from developing this land because of some preconceived notion of the land as a wilderness paradise.[close quotes] Kaleak insists that the Inupiaq people, American Indians inhabiting the Northern Slope region, have provided for their families for thousands of years by turning to the natural environment. Their decision to support oil development is no different. Kaleak contends that the mineral and oil wealth of the North Slope has allowed the Inupiaq people to improve their standard of living drastically. Oil development on the coastal plain, Kaleak contends, could provide similar economic benefits. [open quotes]We cannot define our lives by the vision of distant people who view the North Slope as one great outdoor Disneyland where...all resources remain off limits to us,[close quotes] Kaleak concludes.

  9. Sustainability in a Hospital-Based Biobank and University-Based DNA Biorepository: Strategic Roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschbacher, Jennifer; Bowser, Robert; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability in the biobanking community has recently become an important and oft-discussed issue as biorepositories struggle to balance limited external funding and complex cost recovery models with high operating costs and the desire to provide the highest quality materials and services to the research community. A multi-faceted view of biobanking sustainability requires consideration of operational and social sustainability in addition to the historical focus exclusively on financial sustainability. Planning and implementing this three pillar model creates a well-rounded biorepository that meets the needs of all the major stakeholders: the funders, the patients/depositors, and the researcher recipients. Often the creation of a detailed business plan is the first step to develop goals and objectives that lead down a path towards sustainability. The definition of sustainability and the complexity of a sustainable business plan may differ for each biorepository. The DNASU Plasmid Repository at Arizona State University stores and distributes DNA plasmids to researchers worldwide, and the Biobank Core Facility at St. Joseph's Hospital and Barrow Neurological Institute consents patients and collects, stores, and distributes human tissue and blood samples. We will discuss these two biorepositories, their similar and different approaches to sustainability and business planning, their challenges in creating and implementing their sustainability plan, and their responses to some of these challenges. From these experiences, the biobanks share lessons learned about planning for sustainability that are applicable to all biorepositories. PMID:26697909

  10. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Yevgeny; Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T; Platov, Gennady A; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C; Nurser, A J George

    2016-01-01

    Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state-of-the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin.

  11. Arctic pathways of Pacific Water: Arctic Ocean Model Intercomparison experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Michael; Proshutinsky, Andrey; Gerdes, Rüdiger; de Cuevas, Beverly; Golubeva, Elena; Kauker, Frank; Nguyen, An T.; Platov, Gennady A.; Wadley, Martin; Watanabe, Eiji; Coward, Andrew C.; Nurser, A. J. George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pacific Water (PW) enters the Arctic Ocean through Bering Strait and brings in heat, fresh water, and nutrients from the northern Bering Sea. The circulation of PW in the central Arctic Ocean is only partially understood due to the lack of observations. In this paper, pathways of PW are investigated using simulations with six state‐of‐the art regional and global Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs). In the simulations, PW is tracked by a passive tracer, released in Bering Strait. Simulated PW spreads from the Bering Strait region in three major branches. One of them starts in the Barrow Canyon, bringing PW along the continental slope of Alaska into the Canadian Straits and then into Baffin Bay. The second begins in the vicinity of the Herald Canyon and transports PW along the continental slope of the East Siberian Sea into the Transpolar Drift, and then through Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea. The third branch begins near the Herald Shoal and the central Chukchi shelf and brings PW into the Beaufort Gyre. In the models, the wind, acting via Ekman pumping, drives the seasonal and interannual variability of PW in the Canadian Basin of the Arctic Ocean. The wind affects the simulated PW pathways by changing the vertical shear of the relative vorticity of the ocean flow in the Canada Basin. PMID:27818853

  12. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  13. Syndromes and Disorders Associated with Omphalocele (III: Single Gene Disorders, Neural Tube Defects, Diaphragmatic Defects and Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Omphalocele can be associated with single gene disorders, neural tube defects, diaphragmatic defects, fetal valproate syndrome, and syndromes of unknown etiology. This article provides a comprehensive review of omphalocele-related disorders: otopalatodigital syndrome type II; Melnick–Needles syndrome; Rieger syndrome; neural tube defects; Meckel syndrome; Shprintzen–Goldberg omphalocele syndrome; lethal omphalocele-cleft palate syndrome; cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome; fetal valproate syndrome; Marshall–Smith syndrome; fibrochondrogenesis; hydrolethalus syndrome; Fryns syndrome; omphalocele, diaphragmatic defects, radial anomalies and various internal malformations; diaphragmatic defects, limb deficiencies and ossification defects of skull; Donnai–Barrow syndrome; CHARGE syndrome; Goltz syndrome; Carpenter syndrome; Toriello–Carey syndrome; familial omphalocele; Cornelia de Lange syndrome; C syndrome; Elejalde syndrome; Malpuech syndrome; cervical ribs, Sprengel anomaly, anal atresia and urethral obstruction; hydrocephalus with associated malformations; Kennerknecht syndrome; lymphedema, atrial septal defect and facial changes; and craniosynostosis- mental retardation syndrome of Lin and Gettig. Perinatal identification of omphalocele should alert one to the possibility of omphalocele-related disorders and familial inheritance and prompt a thorough genetic counseling for these disorders.

  14. Creating a 21st Century Community through the Teacher Research Experience (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, E.; Beine, H. J.

    2009-12-01

    In the spring of 2009, I participated in PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a Teacher Research Experience (TRE) funded by the National Science Foundation and managed by the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States. I assisted in hands-on research being performed by scientists with OASIS (Ocean, Atmosphere, Sea Ice and Snowpack) during their field campaign in Barrow, Alaska. Although I was in the field for only 3 weeks, it was merely a beginning to a transformation that took place not only in me, but also among all of those involved. The PolarTREC program embodies the principles fundamental to the 21st Century skill-set that we want our students to possess. The job market is changing for graduates, and education is striving to provide students with the skills necessary to thrive in the future. To ensure the success of students the International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) has defined 21st Century Skills. They are incorporated into many educational standards (such as the Arizona Educational Technology Standards) and they are practiced by the teachers, researchers, students and the PolarTREC community. They are: Creativity and Innovation Communication and Collaboration Research and Information Literacy Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making Digital Citizenship Technology Operations and Concepts

  15. Applications of ERTS-1 imagery to terrestrial and marine environmental analyses in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D. M.; Mckim, H. L.; Crowder, W. K.; Haugen, R. K.; Gatto, L. W.; Marlar, T. L.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery provides a means of distinguishing and monitoring estuarine surface water circulation patterns and changes in the relative sediment load of discharging rivers on a regional basis. It also will aid local fishing industries by augmenting currently available hydrologic and navigation charts. The interpretation of geologic and vegetation features resulted in preparation of improved surficial geology, vegetation and permafrost terrain maps at a scale of 1:1 million utilizing ERTS-1 band 7 imagery. This information will be further utilized in a route and site selection study for the Nome to Kobuk Road in central Alaska. Large river icings along the proposed Alaska pipeline route have been monitored. Sea ice deformation and drift northeast of Point Barrow, Alaska has been measured and shorefast ice accumulation and ablation along the west coast of Alaska is being mapped for the spring and early summer seasons. These data will be used for route and site selection, regional environmental analysis, identification and inventory of natural resources, land use planning, and in land use regulation and management.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF CATTLE CARCASSES SLAUGHTERED IN SINOP-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Arruda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of classification and typication of cattle carcasses has been a great reference in the meat selection concept with the highest degree of quality, using characteristic grouping of parameters that differ according to sex, maturity, weight, conformation and finish. The referent study was to evaluate the characteristics of cattle carcasses slaughtered in a period of drought in the north of Mato Grosso, specifically in the city of Sinop, during the month of August 2015 were evaluated in 2250 cattle carcasses of animals of various classes and maturities, which mostly were female 77.15%, followed by non-castrated males and barrows with 16.93% and 5.91% respectively. Analyzing the class of uncastrated male animals, it can be seen that the non castration gave an early slaughter. The weight gain, and in finish shaping, as advanced maturity, and character had differences (P <0.05. Figures show that young animals with a nutritional management can have both gains as adult animals.

  17. Determination of the net energy content of canola meal from Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow fed to growing pigs using indirect calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jung Min; Adewole, Deborah; Nyachoti, Martin

    2014-07-01

    The net energy (NE) content of canola meals (CM; i.e. Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow) in growing pigs was determined using an indirect calorimetry chamber or published prediction equations. The study was conducted as a completely randomized design (n=6), with (i) a basal diet and (ii) 2 diets containing 700 g/kg of the basal diet and 300 g/kg of either of the two varieties of CM. A total of 18 growing barrows were housed in metabolism crates for the determination of digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy. Thereafter, pigs were transferred to the indirect calorimetry chamber to determine heat production (HP). The NE contents of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow determined with the direct determination technique and prediction equations were 9.8 versus 10.3 MJ/kg dry matter (DM) and 10.2 versus 10.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively. Retained energy (RE) and fasting heat production (FHP) of diets containing Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were 5.5 versus 5.7 MJ/kg and 4.3 versus 4.5 MJ/kg, respectively, when measured with the direct determination technique and prediction equations. The NE contents of Brassica napus yellow and Brassica juncea yellow were determined to be 8.8 and 9.8 MJ/kg DM, respectively, using the direct determination technique. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Carbon dioxide sources from Alaska driven by increasing early winter respiration from Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Benmergui, Joshua; Luus, Kristina A.; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Daube, Bruce C.; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Henderson, John M.; Karion, Anna; Miller, John B.; Miller, Scot M.; Parazoo, Nicholas C.; Randerson, James T.; Sweeney, Colm; Tans, Pieter; Thoning, Kirk; Veraverbeke, Sander; Miller, Charles E.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2017-05-01

    High-latitude ecosystems have the capacity to release large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere in response to increasing temperatures, representing a potentially significant positive feedback within the climate system. Here, we combine aircraft and tower observations of atmospheric CO2 with remote sensing data and meteorological products to derive temporally and spatially resolved year-round CO2 fluxes across Alaska during 2012-2014. We find that tundra ecosystems were a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere annually, with especially high rates of respiration during early winter (October through December). Long-term records at Barrow, AK, suggest that CO2 emission rates from North Slope tundra have increased during the October through December period by 73% ± 11% since 1975, and are correlated with rising summer temperatures. Together, these results imply increasing early winter respiration and net annual emission of CO2 in Alaska, in response to climate warming. Our results provide evidence that the decadal-scale increase in the amplitude of the CO2 seasonal cycle may be linked with increasing biogenic emissions in the Arctic, following the growing season. Early winter respiration was not well simulated by the Earth System Models used to forecast future carbon fluxes in recent climate assessments. Therefore, these assessments may underestimate the carbon release from Arctic soils in response to a warming climate.

  19. Relationship between mean body surface temperature measured by use of infrared thermography and ambient temperature in clinically normal pigs and pigs inoculated with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughmiller, J A; Spire, M F; Dritz, S S; Fenwick, B W; Hosni, M H; Hogge, S B

    2001-05-01

    To determine the relationship between ambient temperature and mean body surface temperature (MBST) measured by use of infrared thermography (IRT) and to evaluate the ability of IRT to detect febrile responses in pigs following inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. 28 crossbred barrows. Pigs (n = 4) were subjected to ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 32 C in an environmental chamber. Infrared thermographs were obtained, and regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between ambient temperature and MBST. The remaining pigs were assigned to groups in an unbalanced randomized complete block design (6 A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated febrile pigs [increase in rectal temperature > or = 1.67 C], 6 A pleuropneumoniae-inoculated nonfebrile pigs [increase in rectal temperature temperatures were obtained for the period from 2 hours before to 18 hours after inoculation, and results were analyzed by use of repeated-measures ANOVA. A significant linear relationship was observed between ambient temperature and MBST (slope, 0.40 C). For inoculated febrile pigs, a treatment X method interaction was evident for rectal temperature and MBST, whereas inoculated nonfebrile pigs only had increased rectal temperatures, compared with noninoculated pigs. A method X time interaction resulted from the longer interval after inoculation until detection of an increase in MBST by use of IRT. Infrared thermography can be adjusted to account for ambient temperature and used to detect changes in MBST and radiant heat production attributable to a febrile response in pigs.

  20. Decadal changes of surface elevation over permafrost area estimated using reflected GPS signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Larson, Kristine M.

    2018-02-01

    Conventional benchmark-based survey and Global Positioning System (GPS) have been used to measure surface elevation changes over permafrost areas, usually once or a few times a year. Here we use reflected GPS signals to measure temporal changes of ground surface elevation due to dynamics of the active layer and near-surface permafrost. Applying the GPS interferometric reflectometry technique to the multipath signal-to-noise ratio data collected by a continuously operating GPS receiver mounted deep in permafrost in Barrow, Alaska, we can retrieve the vertical distance between the antenna and reflecting surface. Using this unique kind of observables, we obtain daily changes of surface elevation during July and August from 2004 to 2015. Our results show distinct temporal variations at three timescales: regular thaw settlement within each summer, strong interannual variability that is characterized by a sub-decadal subsidence trend followed by a brief uplift trend, and a secular subsidence trend of 0.26 ± 0.02 cm year-1 during 2004 and 2015. This method provides a new way to fully utilize data from continuously operating GPS sites in cold regions for studying dynamics of the frozen ground consistently and sustainably over a long time.

  1. Limitations of ractopamine to affect adipose tissue metabolism in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C Y; Grant, A L; Kim, K H; Ji, S Q; Hancock, D L; Anderson, D B; Mills, S E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the temporal effect of ractopamine (Rac), a phenethanolamine, on adipose lipogenic enzyme activity and gene expression, 20 crossbred barrows were fed Rac (20 mg/kg of diet) for 0, 1, 8, or 24 d before slaughter (105 +/- 1 kg). Ractopamine had no effect (P > .05) on the activity of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase or malic enzyme in either the middle or outer layers of subcutaneous adipose tissue. Similarly, mRNA abundance for acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase and the glucose transport proteins Glut 1 and Glut 4 were not affected by Rac in either adipose depot. Despite the inability of Rac to affect adipose tissue metabolism, Rac increased nitrogen retention, longissimus muscle area, and alpha-actin gene expression in skeletal muscle. Results indicate that Rac was not a functional beta-adrenergic agonist toward adipose tissue in this study. We suggest that the response to Rac in adipose tissue is masked by a combination of factors including tissue insensitivity, Rac-dose limitation, inherent partial agonism of Rac, and beta-adrenoceptor down-regulation.

  2. Arctic Clouds Infrared Imaging Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J. A. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Infrared Cloud Imager (ICI), a passive thermal imaging system, was deployed at the North Slope of Alaska site in Barrow, Alaska, from July 2012 to July 2014 for measuring spatial-temporal cloud statistics. Thermal imaging of the sky from the ground provides high radiometric contrast during night and polar winter when visible sensors and downward-viewing thermal sensors experience low contrast. In addition to demonstrating successful operation in the Arctic for an extended period and providing data for Arctic cloud studies, a primary objective of this deployment was to validate novel instrument calibration algorithms that will allow more compact ICI instruments to be deployed without the added expense, weight, size, and operational difficulty of a large-aperture onboard blackbody calibration source. This objective was successfully completed with a comparison of the two-year data set calibrated with and without the onboard blackbody. The two different calibration methods produced daily-average cloud amount data sets with correlation coefficient = 0.99, mean difference = 0.0029 (i.e., 0.29% cloudiness), and a difference standard deviation = 0.054. Finally, the ICI instrument generally detected more thin clouds than reported by other ARM cloud products available as of late 2015.

  3. Apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and the nutritive value of the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika for growing-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PERTTILÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both digestibility and performance experiments were carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of triticale for growing-finishing pigs.In experiment 1,the apparent ileal and faecal digestibility of nutrients in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv.Viiviand two triticale (Tritico secale cultivars, Moreno and Ulrika, were measured using six cannulated barrows with a body weight (BWof 82-107 kg.In experiment 2,132 pigs were used over 25-100 kg BW to study the effects of replacing barley in a barley-soyabean meal-based diet with graded amounts of triticale cv.Moreno (25,50,75,or 100% and cv.Ulrika (50 or 100%.The apparent ileal and faecal digestibilities of dry matter and organic matter were higher for both triticale cultivars than for barley (P 0.05.The apparent ileal digestibility of lysine averaged 65.6, 70.8, and 70.5% for barley and triticale cv.Moreno and Ulrika,respectively.The net energy content of triticales (11.5 MJ kg-1 DMwas 0.4 MJ kg -1 DM higher than that of barley.The replacement of barley with the triticale cultivars Moreno and Ulrika exerted a positive quadratic effect on daily weight gain and the feed conversion ratio of pigs from 50 to 100 kg and from 25 to 100 kg BW (P

  4. Ancient Item Spoilage Ritual Used in Nomadic Burial Rite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beisenov Arman Z.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the findings of items in ancient burials which were intentionally spoiled prior to deposition in graves. This tradition was widely spread both in terms of chronology and geography, and therefore cannot be attributed to any individual cultures or regions. The authors present new information on the ritual obtained during an investigation of Borsyk burial mound of the Middle Sarmatian period located in West Kazakhstan. The central grave of barrow 6 contained a heavily damaged bronze cauldron. The grave was looted in antiquity. Individual scattered bones of a human skeleton and minor gold foil adornments from the ceremonial dress of a nobleman were discovered in the grave. The authors suggest that the cauldron was intentionally deformed by the participants of an ancient mortuary and memorial ritual. According to the principal hypothesis concerning the essence of this ritual, spoilage of the items was related to the idea of assign the items with “different” and “transcendent” properties, which resulted from the necessity of burying the owner. Cauldrons played an important role in the life of steppe leaders. The authors assume a sacral nature of the use of cauldrons in the culture of steppe peoples associated with feasts, battles, and sacred hunting. Perhaps, there was a tradition of burying cauldrons together with their owners after spoiling the items in view of the concept of the other world and the role of a heroic leader therein.

  5. Amino acid digestibility by weanling pigs of processed ingredients originating from soybeans, 00-rapeseeds, or a fermented mixture of plant ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, D M D L; Liu, Y; Bruun, T S; Stein, H H

    2017-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA in 4 sources of processed soybean products, in conventional dehulled soybean meal (SBM-CV), in conventional 00-rapeseed expellers (RSE), and in a fermented coproduct mixture (FCM) that contained rapeseed meal, wheat, soy molasses, and potato peel fed to weanling pigs. The 4 processed soybean products included 2 sources of enzyme-treated soybean meal (ESBM-1 and ESBM-2), extruded soybean meal, and soy protein concentrate (SPC). Twenty-seven weanling barrows (9.29 ± 0.58 kg initial BW) were surgically equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Pigs were randomly allotted to three 9 × 5 Youden squares with 9 pigs and five 7-d periods in each square. Seven cornstarch-based diets were prepared using each of the protein sources as the sole source of CP and AA. A N-free diet was prepared to calculate basal endogenous losses of CP and AA, and this diet was fed to 2 groups of pigs, which resulted in a total of 9 dietary treatments. Results indicate that the SID of CP was greater ( soybean products, but the SID of total dispensable AA in ESBM-1 was greater ( soybean meal (SBM) products. The SID of most AA in RSE and the SID of all AA in FCM were less ( soybean products.

  6. Effect of replacing a soy diet with Vicia faba and Pisum sativum on performance, meat and fat traits of Cinta Senese pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sirtori

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of diets containing genetically modified organism-free legumes as a replacement of soybean on the basis of performance, carcass composition and quality of local pig meat (Cinta Senese. Twenty-four Cinta Senese barrows were divided into 3 dietary groups and were each fed with a diet containing different protein sources: soybean meal (SOY, Vicia faba (FABA and Pisum sativum (PEA (8 pigs for each group. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric and contained approximately 14.5% crude protein and 14.8 MJ/kg of digestible energy (on dry matter. Each group was reared outdoors in a paddock of 3500 m2. In vivo performances were not different among groups. At slaughter, differences in subcutaneous fat thickness appeared only in the outer layer, at the last thoracic vertebra level, which was lowest in the PEA group. No differences were found in the sample joint composition. With regard to the chemico-physical traits of meat and fat, the FABA group had the highest values of redness in lean and backfat, while the PEA group showed higher moisture and lower fat content in meat compared to the SOY group. Differences in the fatty acid profile of backfat were found only for the C16:1 percentage that was higher in FABA than SOY pigs. In conclusion, Vicia faba and Pisum sativum could be a good alternative to soybean in the growing-fattening of Cinta Senese pigs.

  7. Studies of environmental radioactivity in Cumbria. Part 5. The magnitude and mechanism of enrichment of seaspray with actinides in West Cumbria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, J.D.; Lally, A.E.; Burton, P.J.; Kilworth, D.R.; Pratley, F.A.

    1982-03-01

    As part of a programme to investigate the transfer to land of radionuclides discharged to the sea from British Nuclear Fuels Ltd, Sellafield, sea spray was collected at several sites between the Solway Firth and Barrow. Samples of seawater and materials from the foreshore were also collected. The samples were analysed for 137 Cs, 238 Pu, 239+240 Pu and 241 Am. It was demonstrated that, in winds up to 10m sec -1 , actinides in sea spray are derived from sediment suspended in seawater in the surf zone. At Eskmeals, in an on-shore wind of 6m sec -1 , 98 per cent of the plutonium and 93 per cent of the sea spray collected on the beach were injected into the atmosphere in the surf zone. Enrichment factors for plutonium in sea spray ranged from 70 to 800 relative to filtered seawater and from 3 to 66 for unfiltered water. Large enrichment factors were also observed for 241 Am but 137 Cs was only slightly enriched in spray. Laboratory experiments were also performed in which spray was generated by bubbling air through vigorously stirred seawater collected from the surf zone on the Cumbrian coast. Similar enrichment factors were obtained. (author)

  8. Fatigue, psychosocial adaptation and quality of life one year after traumatic brain injury and suspected traumatic axonal injury; evaluations of patients and relatives: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson, Eva; Skoglund, Thomas; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S

    2013-09-01

    To describe fatigue and its relationship to cognition, psychosocial adjustment, quality of life (QoL), work status and relative's experiences 12 months after suspected traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Eighteen patients were assessed with the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS), the Barrow Neurological Institute Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS), the European Questionnaire 5 Dimensions health-related quality of life, the Glasgow Coma Outcome Scale Extended, and the European Brain Injury Questionnaire (EBIQ) (patient and relative). Return to work was registered. At 1 year, fatigue still caused great problems in daily life. Although fatigue and cognition (BNIS) did not correlate, the more fatigued patients subjectively experienced significantly more cognitive dysfunction. Although D-FIS and QoL did not correlate, most patients reported that feelings of tiredness and dullness related to having lower QoL. However, lower QoL was associated with cognitive and attention disability (BNIS), subjective perception of executive dysfunction, lack of motivation, and mood disturbances (EBIQ). Neither fatigue nor cognition associated with return to work. The general consequences of TAI showed good agreement between patients' and relatives' experiences. The patient's subjective experience of the impact of TAI seems to be most essential, as it is the objective reality that the patient responds to, and this should therefore be assessed and treated.

  9. Patient satisfaction with cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasfi Ehab I

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Measuring the patient satisfaction is a very important issue that will help very much in improving the service provided to patients and improve the level of satisfaction. Aim To evaluate patient satisfaction with the cataract surgery service and identify any areas for improvement, determination of patient satisfaction with referral, out-patient consultation, pre-assessment clinic, surgery and post-operative care, also to report patients' comments relating to improvement in service provision. Methodology A retrospective study was undertaken for 150 patients underwent cataract surgery at Barrow General Hospital, UK, the survey sample was by postal questionnaires. We collected our data from the theatre lists for a period of 4 month. Results This study included 150 patients; the response rate was (72% 108 patients, Most patients were referred from their general practitioner 86.1%, 93 (86.1% patients were happy with the time interval from seeing their GP to eye clinic. In the eye out patient department many factors significantly affected the level of patient satisfaction, in general the more information provided for the patient the more the satisfaction. Conclusion Patient satisfaction is on important health outcome old understanding both the domains of satisfaction as well as their relative importance to patients is necessary to improve the overall quality of patient care. Meeting the doctor, presenting all relevant information and giving printed information are very important factors in improving the patient's satisfaction with cataract surgery.

  10. Terrestrial biosphere models underestimate photosynthetic capacity and CO2 assimilation in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alistair; Serbin, Shawn P; Ely, Kim S; Sloan, Victoria L; Wullschleger, Stan D

    2017-12-01

    Terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) are highly sensitive to model representation of photosynthesis, in particular the parameters maximum carboxylation rate and maximum electron transport rate at 25°C (V c,max.25 and J max.25 , respectively). Many TBMs do not include representation of Arctic plants, and those that do rely on understanding and parameterization from temperate species. We measured photosynthetic CO 2 response curves and leaf nitrogen (N) content in species representing the dominant vascular plant functional types found on the coastal tundra near Barrow, Alaska. The activation energies associated with the temperature response functions of V c,max and J max were 17% lower than commonly used values. When scaled to 25°C, V c,max.25 and J max.25 were two- to five-fold higher than the values used to parameterize current TBMs. This high photosynthetic capacity was attributable to a high leaf N content and the high fraction of N invested in Rubisco. Leaf-level modeling demonstrated that current parameterization of TBMs resulted in a two-fold underestimation of the capacity for leaf-level CO 2 assimilation in Arctic vegetation. This study highlights the poor representation of Arctic photosynthesis in TBMs, and provides the critical data necessary to improve our ability to project the response of the Arctic to global environmental change. No claim to original US Government works. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( marketing time changed growth performance.

  12. A Robust Retrieval of Water Vapor Column In Dry Arctic Conditions Using the Rotating Shadowband Spectroradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiedron, P.; Michalsky, J.; Schmid, B.; Slater, D.; Berndt, J.; Harrison, L.; Racette, P.; Westwater, E.; Han, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A method to retrieve water vapor column using the 940-nm water vapor absorption band in dry Arctic conditions is presented. The retrievals with this method are stable with respect to uncertainties in instrument radiometric calibration, air pressure, solar source function, and aerosols. The water vapor column was retrieved with this method using spectra obtained with the rotating shadowband spectroradiometer (RSS) that was deployed during an intensive observation period near Barrow, Alaska, in March 1999. A line-by-line radiative transfer model was used to compute water vapor transmittance. The retrievals with this method are compared with retrievals obtained from three independent measurements with microwave radiometers. All four measurements show the same pattern of temporal variations. The RSS results agree most closely with retrievals obtained with the millimeter-wave imaging radiometer (MIR) at its 183 GHz +/- 7 double-side band channel. Their correlation over a period of 7 days when water vapor column varied between 0.75 mm and 3.6 mm (according to RSS) is 0.968 with MIR readings 0.12 mm higher on average.

  13. Use of the spectrophotometric color method for the determination of the age of skin lesions on the pig carcass and its relationship with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, M; Conte, S; Lessard, M; Deschêne, K; Benoit-Biancamano, M O; Celeste, C; Martelli, G; Sardi, L; Guay, F; Faucitano, L

    2017-09-01

    The presence of lesions on the pig carcass is an indicator of poor animal welfare and has economic impact as it downgrades the carcass value. The assessment of the age of lesions on the carcass may help identify risk factors and ultimately prevent their occurrence. The aim of this study was to assess the age of lesions on pig carcasses through spectrophotometric color evaluation and to relate the results with gene expression and histological and histochemical parameters. A total of 96 barrows were mixed 4 times over 3 d before slaughter and 80 lesions were selected after skin lesion observations to define 4 age categories: spectrophotometer. Delta values (Δ) were calculated as the difference between the value of the lesion and the value of the control for all measures, except for the histological analysis. Results indicated that visual color observation was not sufficiently accurate to discriminate lesions by time of infliction ( > 0.10), while the spectrophotometer ΔL* and Δa* values variation allowed the identification of 25 h old lesions ( 25 h old lesions; < 0.05). To conclude, the spectrophotometric color assessment of the carcass lesions at slaughter appears to be a reliable method to discriminate between fresh and older lesions on the carcass at the abattoir.

  14. Shelf-Basin Exchange over the Continental Slope of the Chukchi Sea 2003/04 vs. 2016/17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenchow, A.; Elmer, C.; Badiey, M.; Eickmeier, J.; Ryan, P.

    2017-12-01

    The US Navy faces the "New Arctic" as a challenge to predict acoustic propagation from deep to shallow waters, because a less ice-covered Arctic Ocean is more dynamic and creates new and more complex sound channels. We here present context and preliminary results from the Canada Basin Acoustic Propagation Experiment (CANAPE) and focus on the Chukchi Sea between 100-m and 800-m isobaths. We explore temperature and density fields using ocean survey and mooring data that we collected in 2016 and 2017. We compare these "new" data to observations from prior decades.Remote sensing (SSMI and Sentinel-1) of sea ice, winds, and ocean hydrography all document change in large scale ocean forcing in our study area about 150 km west of Barrow, Alaska. The "new" surface forcing impacts both ocean dynamics and sound propagation over the Chukchi Slope. More specifically, we find warm water intrusions at 80-m depth near the 1026 kg/m3 density surface at 160 W longitude. Spatial extend and structure of this water varies both along and across the continental with eddy trains dispersing offshore. Temperature and sound speed signals exceed 1 C and 5 m/s, respectively, and have not been observed before. We note, that our study area is generally ice-covered in November, but was free of ice in 2016.

  15. Natural resources endowment and economic growth: The West African Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Jalloh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the nexus between natural resource endowment and economic growth using a sample of West African countries. The study adopted a Barrow-type growth model to analyse the impact of natural resource wealth on economic growth. A dynamic panel estimation technique was employed using relevant data from West African Countries. The results from the panel regressions indicate that natural resource endowments have very minimal impact in terms of promoting economic growth in West Africa, more so in resource rich countries. In terms of relative effects, the results indicate that a 10% increase in natural resource export reduces growth in income per capita by approximately 0.4%. Part of the factors explaining this finding amongst others; include high corruption in the public sector as well as the frequency of civil conflicts in resource rich economies of West Africa. For the natural resources of the region to fully benefit its citizens, these countries require , urgently, to improve management of natural resource export revenues and to apply effective policy measures to eradicate/ mitigate incidences of rampant corruption in the public sector.

  16. Chemical characterization of individual particles and residuals of cloud droplets and ice crystals collected on board research aircraft in the ISDAC 2008 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiranuma, N.; Brooks, S. D.; Moffet, R. C.; Glen, A.; Laskin, A.; Gilles, M. K.; Liu, P.; MacDonald, A. M.; Strapp, J. W.; McFarquhar, G. M.

    2013-06-01

    Ambient particles and the dry residuals of mixed-phase cloud droplets and ice crystals were collected during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) near Barrow, Alaska, in spring of 2008. The collected particles were analyzed using Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy coupled with Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to identify physico-chemical properties that differentiate cloud-nucleating particles from the total aerosol population. A wide range of individually mixed components was identified in the ambient particles and residuals including organic carbon compounds, inorganics, carbonates, and black carbon. Our results show that cloud droplet residuals differ from the ambient particles in both size and composition, suggesting that both properties may impact the cloud-nucleating ability of aerosols in mixed-phase clouds. The percentage of residual particles which contained carbonates (47%) was almost four times higher than those in ambient samples. Residual populations were also enhanced in sea salt and black carbon and reduced in organic compounds relative to the ambient particles. Further, our measurements suggest that chemical processing of aerosols may improve their cloud-nucleating ability. Comparison of results for various time periods within ISDAC suggests that the number and composition of cloud-nucleating particles over Alaska can be influenced by episodic events bringing aerosols from both the local vicinity and as far away as Siberia.

  17. Growth performance, carcass quality, fresh belly characteristics, and commercial bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or not fed an antibiotic or antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, J E; Bohrer, B M; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2018-02-01

    The objective was to compare growth performance, belly characteristics, and bacon slicing yields of growing-finishing pigs fed a subtherapeutic dose of an antibiotic, a natural antimicrobial, or a diet containing no antibiotics or antimicrobials. Barrows and gilts (96 each, initial BW: 27.52±3.98kg) were housed in 48 pens (8 replications per treatment) in a 2×3 factorial randomized complete block design. Pens were assigned 1 of 3 diets: antibiotic free, oregano or tylosin phosphate. Pigs were slaughtered at an average BW of 127.31±10.18kg. There were no differences among dietary treatments for growth performance (P≥0.06), carcass cutability (P≥0.42), loin quality (P≥0.28), fresh belly dimensional characteristics (P≥0.11), IV (P≥0.87) or bacon processing characteristics (P≥0.07). Given the lack of differences in meat quality from pigs fed diets without antibiotics, the implementation of VFD in the United States should not result in changes in pork quality. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Operator/contractor relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.; Kidwell, C.K.; Unger, V.E.; Fercho, E.; Helmer, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    In May 1988, Shell Western E and P Inc. (SWEPI) and partners Elf Aquitaine Petroleum and Conoco Inc. signed a letter of intent with Canadian Marine Drilling Ltd. (Canmar) for provision of exploratory drilling and marine services on leases in OCS Lease Sale 109 in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska. The 5450 blocks offered in the remote sale area west of Point Barrow ranged from 3 to 240 miles (5 to 380 km) offshore in water depths from 26 to 263 feet (8 to 80 m). The principal interest tracts were at least 75 miles (120 km) offshore and north of 70 degrees N latitude. The remoteness and total lack of any oilfield infrastructure required considerable planning and coordination between Operator and Contractor in order to carry out the three-year drilling program efficiently and safely in an environmentally harsh and, at the same time, sensitive area. SWEPI and Canmar developed a close working relationship from the start of the project through a number of participative approaches to the problems that had to be solved. This paper reports that these included strong reliance on operational planning meetings, post-season analyses, and an overall emphasis on the teamwork required of both parties to carry out the first-ever drilling program in the Chukchi Sea. This approach led to a very successful operation for both parties and emphasizes the positive benefits achievable when Operator and Contractor work as a team

  19. Extracting sea ice surface characteristics using spectral unmixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, A.; Stroeve, J.

    2016-12-01

    The surface of the Arctic Ocean is a mixture of bare sea ice, snow covered sea ice, melt ponds, leads and open ocean. The composition of this mixture changes throughout the summer melt season. The mixture of surface types influences albedo at a range of scales, from local to global. The spatial variability of surface types often occurs at a scale smaller than the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery, resulting in a "mixed-pixel" problem. Therefore, it is important to quantify the fractions of surface types in each pixel. Multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis (MESMA) allows fractional area of surface types to be estimated. In this paper we explore classifying RS imagery collected over the Arctic Ocean into surface types using a spectral mixture analysis. MESMA is only as good as the endmembers. We use a library of spectra collected in-situ at Barrow, Resolute and the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean over bare and snow covered sea ice, melt ponds, and leads as our endmembers. The separability of spectra is first examined. For the spectral unmixing, we follow a similar approach to the MEM/MODSCAG algorithm for snow covered area. Endmember spectra for each of the four surface types are selected to find the best linear combination of spectra. The algorithm is tested on MODIS imagery for selected dates throughout the 2007 melt season. The approach is validated using high-resolution Quickbird imagery collected at the same time as the MODIS images.

  20. Effects of Transport Duration and Environmental Conditions in Winter or Summer on the Concentrations of Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Proteins in the Plasma of Market-Weight Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirthgen, Elisa; Goumon, Sébastien; Kunze, Martin; Walz, Christina; Spitschak, Marion; Tuchscherer, Armin; Brown, Jennifer; Höflich, Christine; Faucitano, Luigi; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    In previous work using market-weight pigs, we had demonstrated that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) are regulated during shipment characterized by changing conditions of stress due to loading or unloading, transportation, lairage, and slaughter. In addition, we found in a previous study that IGFBP-2 concentrations were lower in pigs transported for longer periods of time. Therefore, we performed a more detailed study on the effects of transport duration and season on the plasma concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in adult pigs. For the study, exsanguination blood was collected from 240 market-weight barrows that were transported for 6, 12, or 18 h in January or July. IGF-I and -II were detected using commercial ELISAs whereas IGFBPs were quantified by quantitative Western ligand blotting. In addition, established markers of stress and metabolism were studied in the animals. The results show that plasma concentrations of IGFBP-3 were significantly reduced after 18 h of transport compared to shorter transport durations (6 and 12 h; p   0.05). However, low-density lipoprotein concentrations decreased after 18 h compared to 6 h of transport ( p  animal-based indicators of psycho-social or metabolic stress in pigs.

  1. Nephila clavata L Koch, the Joro Spider of East Asia, newly recorded from North America (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Richard Hoebeke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nephila clavata L Koch, known as the Joro spider and native to East Asia (Japan, China, Korea, and Taiwan, is newly reported from North America. Specimens from several locations in northeast Georgia were collected from around residential properties in Barrow, Jackson, and Madison counties in late October and early November 2014. These are the first confirmed records of the species in the New World. Our collections, along with confirmed images provided by private citizens, suggest that the Joro spider is established in northeast Georgia. Genomic sequence data for the COI gene obtained from two specimens conforms to published sequences for N. clavata, providing additional confirmation of species identity. Known collection records are listed and mapped using geocoding. Our observations are summarized along with published background information on biology in Asia and we hypothesize on the invasion history and mode of introduction into North America. Recognition features are given and photographic images of the male and female are provided to aid in their differentiation from the one native species of the genus (Nephila clavipes in North America.

  2. Desain Konseptual Penangkap Tandan Buah Sawit dan Pemanfaatan Energi Potensialnya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Hermawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil palm harvesting, falling fruit bunches have a considerable potential energy, which can be captured and used to power the wheelbarrow in evacuating the fruit bunches. This study was conducted to measure the engineering characteristics of fruit bunches harvesting, determine the best fruit bunches catchment platform material, analyze the potential energy of falling fresh fruit bunch, and design a conceptual design of the catchment platform and evacuation machine. Measurements of the characteristics of the harvesting were done in an oil palm plantation. Four types of fruit catchment platform materials were tested, namely: steel plate, wood board, expanded steel plate and rubber sheet. The results showed that, bunches fell at a distance between 0.6 m to 1.4 m from the tree. Fruit bunches weight was in the range of 16 kg to 32 kg. The rubber catchment platform was superior to the other materials in reducing the scattered loose fruits and bruised fruits. Potential energy of falling fruit bunches were in the range of 0.44-4.44 kJ. Theoretical traveling distance of the wheel barrow powered by the captured potential energy was in the range of 2.27 m - 22.98 m. Based on the data obtained, a conceptual design of catchment platform and evacuation machine was designed.

  3. Revised Cretaceous and Tertiary stratigraphic nomenclature in the Colville Basin, Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mull, Charles G.; Houseknecht, David W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    A revised stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for Cretaceous and Tertiary geologic units of the central and western North Slope of Alaska. This revised nomenclature is a simplified and broadly applicable scheme suitable for a suite of digital geologic quadrangle maps being prepared jointly by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Alaska Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys and Division of Oil and Gas. This revised nomenclature scheme is a simplification of a complex stratigraphic terminology that developed piecemeal during five decades of geologic investigations of the North Slope. It is based on helicopter-supported geologic field investigations incorporating information from high-resolution aerial photography, satellite imagery, paleontology, reflection seismic records, and sequence stratigraphic concepts. This revised nomenclature proposes the abandonment of the Colville Group; demotion of the Nanushuk Group to formation status; abandonment of six formations (Kukpowruk, Tuktu, Grandstand, Corwin, Chandler, and Ninuluk); revision of four formations (Sagavanirktok, Prince Creek, Schrader Bluff, and Seabee); elevation of the Tuluvak Tongue of the Prince Creek Formation to formation status; revision of two members (Franklin Bluffs Member and Sagwon Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation); abandonment of eight members or tongues (Kogosukruk, Rogers Creek, Barrow Trail, Sentinel Hill, Ayiyak, Shale Wall, Niakogon, and Killik); and definition of one new member (White Hills Member of the Sagavanirktok Formation).

  4. Hobbes on natural philosophy as "True Physics" and mixed mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marcus P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I offer an alternative account of the relationship of Hobbesian geometry to natural philosophy by arguing that mixed mathematics provided Hobbes with a model for thinking about it. In mixed mathematics, one may borrow causal principles from one science and use them in another science without there being a deductive relationship between those two sciences. Natural philosophy for Hobbes is mixed because an explanation may combine observations from experience (the 'that') with causal principles from geometry (the 'why'). My argument shows that Hobbesian natural philosophy relies upon suppositions that bodies plausibly behave according to these borrowed causal principles from geometry, acknowledging that bodies in the world may not actually behave this way. First, I consider Hobbes's relation to Aristotelian mixed mathematics and to Isaac Barrow's broadening of mixed mathematics in Mathematical Lectures (1683). I show that for Hobbes maker's knowledge from geometry provides the 'why' in mixed-mathematical explanations. Next, I examine two explanations from De corpore Part IV: (1) the explanation of sense in De corpore 25.1-2; and (2) the explanation of the swelling of parts of the body when they become warm in De corpore 27.3. In both explanations, I show Hobbes borrowing and citing geometrical principles and mixing these principles with appeals to experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian; Wu Zhongxue

    2010-01-01

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  6. Recovery of opthalmoplegia associated with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistulas after transvenous cavernous sinus packing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv Xianli; Jiang Chuhan; Li Youxiang; Yang Xinjian [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China); Wu Zhongxue, E-mail: ttyyzjb@sina.co [Beijing Neurosurgical institute, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, 6, Tiantan Xili, Chongwen, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Background: We report the recovery of ophthalmoplegia in 11 patients with cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (CSDAVF) after sinus packing at follow-up. Methods: Of 18 patients with CSDAVF treated with transvenous cavernous sinus packing between August 2002 and December 2007 at Beijing Tiantan Hospital, there were 9 patients with initial CNIII or CNVI dysfunction and 2 patients with CNVI dysfunction immediately after cavernous sinus packing selected and reevaluated. Results: Of 11 patients with CNIII or CNVI palsy, recovery was complete in 10. In 1 patient, complete CNVI palsy was unchanged because the CSDAVF was not cured. There were 6 men and 5 women with a mean age of 52.9 years. In 5 patients, CNVI palsy was associated with chemosis, proptosis and pulsatile tinnitus. Timing of treatment after onset of symptoms was from 4 to 35 days in 9 patients. All CSDAVFs were Barrow type D. Mean follow-up after treatment was 17.7 months (range, 2-54 months). Conclusion: CSDAVF-induced CNIII or CNVI palsies can be cured after cavernous sinus packing transvenously in most patients.

  7. Reduction of garbage in the diet of nonbreeding glaucous gulls corresponding to a change in waste management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Powell, Abby N.

    2011-01-01

    Glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus) are major predators in the Arctic and may benefit from human development. We studied use of garbage by glaucous gulls in Barrow, Alaska, in 2007, when municipal waste was disposed of in a landfill, and in 2008, when it was incinerated. In both years, diet samples from breeding adult gulls contained less garbage than those from loafing nonbreeding gulls (mostly subadults of less than four years), possibly because the breeding colony was more distant than many loafing sites from the landfills. Although breeding gull samples showed no change, garbage in regurgitated pellets and food remains of nonbreeding gulls was significantly less prevalent in 2008 than in 2007 (28% vs. 43% occurrence in diet samples), and this reduction could be explained by the switch from landfill to waste incineration. Yet garbage remained a substantial part of nonbreeding gull diet after the management change. Other aspects of waste management, such as storage prior to disposal, may also be important in limiting scavengers’ access to garbage and thus reducing the indirect impact of human development on prey species of conservation concern.

  8. Effects of diets differing in protein source and technical treatment on digestibility, performance and visceral and biochemical parameters of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, Wendy; Berk, Andreas; Böschen, Verena; Dänicke, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the experiment on 100 cross-bred barrows was to compare commercial diets for fattening pigs based on either soya bean meal (SBM) imported from non-European countries with diets based on a mixture of locally produced rape seed meal, distillers' dried grains with solubles and soya beans as main protein sources. In addition, these both types of diets were processed by two different technical feed treatments, i.e. coarse grinding without hydrothermal treatment or fine grinding and pelleting. With only few exceptions, nutrients of the diet without SBM were more digestible (p digestibility with the exception of crude fibre. Higher feed intake of animals that fed diets without SBM (p digestibility was not reflected in a decreased feed-to-gain ratio (FGR), but fine grinding and pelleting reduced FGR (p animals that received coarsely ground feed (p Animals that fed finely ground and pelleted feed had higher slaughter and relative liver weights and higher blood cholesterol concentrations (p = 0.040). The urea concentrations of blood were lower (p = 0.019) after feeding diets without SBM. In conclusion, SBM imported from non-European countries can be replaced by alternative local protein sources without compromising digestibility or performances of animals. Although fine grinding and thermal treatment particularly seemed to be advantageous for digestibility and performance, the possible risk of development of stomach lesions should be considered.

  9. Airborne lidar measurements of surface ozone depletion over Arctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Seabrook

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A differential absorption lidar (DIAL for measurement of atmospheric ozone concentration was operated aboard the Polar 5 research aircraft in order to study the depletion of ozone over Arctic sea ice. The lidar measurements during a flight over the sea ice north of Barrow, Alaska, on 3 April 2011 found a surface boundary layer depletion of ozone over a range of 300 km. The photochemical destruction of surface level ozone was strongest at the most northern point of the flight, and steadily decreased towards land. All the observed ozone-depleted air throughout the flight occurred within 300 m of the sea ice surface. A back-trajectory analysis of the air measured throughout the flight indicated that the ozone-depleted air originated from over the ice. Air at the surface that was not depleted in ozone had originated from over land. An investigation into the altitude history of the ozone-depleted air suggests a strong inverse correlation between measured ozone concentration and the amount of time the air directly interacted with the sea ice.

  10. La domesticación del paisaje durante la Edad del Bronce gallego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez Fernández, Fidel

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a set of Bronze Age domestic sites from inner part of Galicia. Through them a specific model of settlement and site formation is proposed which is very helpful in the study of the social landscape of this period in the prehistory of Nort-west Iberia. Evidence of other phenomena, which includes barrows and funerary sites and rock art, is also considered, and contributes to the formation of the social landscape.

    Partiendo del estudio de un conjunto de hábitats de una zona de Galicia se define un nuevo tipo de yacimiento habitacional. Esta definición sirve de base para una revisión del paisaje social de la Edad del Bronce en el Noroeste, en la cual se realizan algunas consideraciones sobre fenómenos que no se incluyen en el mundo de los hábitats (enterramientos y grabados rupestres, pero que, evidentemente, contribuyen a formar el conjunto del paisaje social.

  11. Long-term outcome of percutaneous balloon compression for trigeminal neuralgia patients elder than 80 years: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Xiang; Wang, Hao; Deng, Shanghua; Chen, Yinggao; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Wenhua

    2017-09-01

    This article evaluates the long-term outcome of percutaneous balloon compression (PBC) for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) patients elder than 80 years. A total of 138 elderly patients aged above 80 years with primary TN, who were admitted to Neurosurgery Department, Hangzhou First People's Hospital from January 2007 to December 2011 for PBC treatment, were retrospectively analyzed in this study. The postoperative cure rate of immediate pain was 98.6% (Barrow Neurological Institute [BNI] classes I, II); according to the follow-up, the pain cure rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years after surgery were 93.5%, 90.4%, 84.7%, 80.4%, and 72.9%, respectively. In our group, postoperative diplopia was reported in 1 case, masticatory muscle weakness in 3 cases, and herpes labialis in 19 cases. A total of 100% of pain-cured patients exhibited facial numbness and facial hypoesthesia. No serious complications occurred in this group of patients. PBC is an effective and safe procedure for TN treatment and can be employed as the preferred regimen for elderly TN patients aged above 80 years in poorer physical condition.

  12. An investigation into the hazards associated with the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Interim results are presented from an investigation into the potential hazard from maritime transport of spent reactor fuel. From a review of official safety studies the most severe accident is identified as a prolonged shipboard fire of 9 hours or more. According to studies performed for the International Atomic Energy Agency by the Batelle Laboratories such a fire could fail all fuel elements and release volatile radionuclides such as caesium to the environment. The consequences of such an accident are investigated for a release to the Irish Sea from a fire damaged vessel. Consequences are analysed for a release to the continental shelf waters following sinking, and also for an atmospheric release close to a conurbation. The port of Barrow is taken as an example. The report concludes that either of these events could have catastrophic consequences: the Irish Sea might have to be closed to fisheries and in the case of an atmospheric release large scale evacuation would be necessary to prevent loss of life. (author)

  13. Casein Supplementation Does Not Affect the Estimates of True Total Tract Digestibility of Phosphorus in Soybean Meal for Growing Pigs Determined by the Regression Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight barrows with an average initial body weight of 25.5±0.3 kg were assigned to 6 dietary treatments arranged in a 3×2 factorial of 3 graded levels of P at 1.42, 2.07, or 2.72 g/kg, and 2 levels of casein at 0 or 50 g/kg to compare the estimates of true total tract digestibility (TTTD of P in soybean meal (SBM for pigs fed diets with or without casein supplementation. The SBM is the only source of P in diets without casein, and in the diet with added casein, 1.0 to 2.4 g/kg of total dietary P was supplied by SBM as dietary level of SBM increased. The experiment consisted of a 5-d adjustment period and a 5-d total collection period with ferric oxide as a maker to indicate the initiation and termination of fecal collection. There were interactive effects of casein supplementation and total dietary P level on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD and retention of P (p0.05. In summary, our results demonstrate that the estimates of TTTD of P in SBM for pigs were not affected by constant casein inclusion in the basal diets.

  14. The quest for longitude. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrewes, W. J. H.

    Contents: Introduction (W. J. H. Andrewes). Opening address at the Longitude Symposium (J. R. Knowles). La Salle: when ignorance was death (A. Cooke). Finding the point at sea (D. S. Landes). Longitude in the context of: mathematics (B. Chandler); navigation (W. F. J. Mörzer Bruyns); cartography (N. J. W. Thrower); the history of science (M. S. Mahoney). Early attempts to find longitude. The longitude problem: the navigator's story (A. Stimson). Longitude and the satellites of Jupiter (A. Van Helden). The longitude timekeepers of Christiaan Huygens (J. H. Leopold). In the wake of the act, but mainly before (A. J. Turner). Cranks and opportunists: "nutty" solutions to the longitude problem (O. Gingerich). The lunar-distance method of measuring longitude (D. Howse). John Harrison: 'John Harrison, clockmaker at Barrow; near Barton upon Humber; Lincolnshire': the wooden clocks, 1713 - 1730 (A. L. King). Even Newton could be wrong: the story of Harrison's first three sea clocks (W. J. H. Andrewes). The timekeeper that won the longitude prize (A. G. Randall). The scandalous neglect of Harrison's regulator science (M. Burgess). Perfecting the marine timekeeper. Ferdinand Berthoud and Pierre Le Roy: judgement in the twentieth century of a quarrel dating from the eighteenth century (C. Cardinal). Thomas Mudge and the longitude: a reason to excel (D. Penney). Arnold and Earnshaw: the practicable solution (J. Betts). The James Arthur lecture: Lecture introduction: James Arthur, pioneer collector and benefactor (R. C. Cheney). Watchmaking in the twenty-first century: the renaissance of the mechanic (G. Daniels). Appendices. Bibliography.

  15. The Puzzling Origin of the Acquaintance between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L. Hamilton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have puzzled over the origin of the relationship between Charlotte Lennox and Thomas Birch. That the two shared a cordial professional relationship in 1759 is not surprising, but it is unclear how and when Birch obtained the poem "The Dream, an ode by Miss Ramsey of 15" (ca. 1744-45 for his manuscript collection. Possibly Edward Cave, publisher of The Gentleman’s Magazine, or other professional associates such as Samuel Johnson or Samuel Richardson supplied it. But archival evidence indicates that Lady Isabella Finch, Lennox’s earliest patroness, was in contact with Birch in 1749, raising the question of whether she could have given Birch the poem. However, a different type of connection between Lennox and Birch is suggested by Lennox’s first novel, The Life of Harriot Stuart, written by Herself (1750, which mentions William Chillingworth, Isaac Barrow, and John Tillotson as theological influences. Lennox may have known of these three seventeenth-century divines through Birch’s biographical work on them.

  16. Project management of the build of the shore test facility for the prototype of PWR II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarkson, D.T.

    1987-01-01

    The PWR II is a new design of nuclear steam raising plant for the Royal Navy's submarines. It features improved engineering for safety, increased power, increased shock resistance, reduced noise transmission to sea and reduced manning requirement. It is to be tested in a new prototype testing facility, the Shore Test Facility, which is a section of submarine hull containing a prototype of the nuclear steam raising plant and its support system. It is installed at the Vulcan Naval Reactor Test establishment at Dounreay in Scotland. The function of the establishment is to test new designs of core and reactor plant, validate the mathematical models used in their design, develop improved methods of operation and maintenance of the plant and test new items of equipment. The Shore Test Facility was built in large sections at Barrow-in-Furness and transported to Scotland. The project management for the construction of the Shore Test Facility is explained. It involves personnel from the Royal Navy, and a large number of people working for the contractors involved in the buildings, transportation, operation and maintenance of the Facility. (U.K.)

  17. Molecular Halogens Above the Arctic Snowpack: Emissions, Diurnal Variations, and Recycling Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyuan; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2017-11-01

    Elevated levels of reactive bromine and chlorine species in the springtime Arctic boundary layer contribute to ozone depletion and mercury oxidation, as well as reactions with volatile organic compounds. Recent laboratory and field studies have revealed that snowpack photochemistry leads to Br2 and Cl2 production, the mechanisms of which remain poorly understood. In this work, we use a photochemical box model, with a simplified snow module, to examine the halogen chemistry occurring during the March 2012 Bromine, Ozone, and Mercury Experiment (BROMEX) near Utqiaġvik (Barrow), Alaska. Elevated daytime Br2 levels (e.g., 6-30 parts per trillion (ppt) at around local noon) reported in previous studies and in this work may be explained by Br + BrNO2/BrONO2 reactions under conditions of depleted O3 (production of Cl2 via multiphase reaction with Cl-. In the late afternoon, photolysis alone cannot explain the rapid decrease of Cl2 observed in the Arctic boundary layer. Heterogeneous reactions of Cl2 on aerosol particles and surface snowpack are suggested to play a key role in atmospheric Cl2 removal and possible BrCl production. Given the importance of the snowpack in the multiphase chemistry of the Arctic boundary layer, future measurements should focus on vertically resolved measurements of NOx and reactive halogens, as well as simultaneous particulate and snow halide measurements, to further evaluate and isolate the halogen production and vertical propagation mechanisms through one-dimensional modeling.

  18. Effect of glycerin on digestibility of diets for pigs determined with different methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiomar Helena Verussa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glycerin is a by-product from the biodiesel chain whose energy value can be beneficial to pig diets. In this study, eight barrows were distributed individually into metabolic cages in a completely randomized block design. The animals were fed diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% glycerin from soybean oil and subjected to the methods of total feces and urine collection and chromic oxide marker. We determined the digestibility coefficients (DC; the dietary levels of digestible dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE, an neutral detergent fiber (NDF; digestible energy (DE; metabolizable energy (ME; and these last two variables corrected for the nitrogen content (DEn and MEn. Digestible OM values increased linearly with glycerin inclusion in the diets. The digestible CP of the diets showed an inversely proportional relationship with glycerin inclusion levels. Digestible MM decreased linearly when determined by the total collection method and quadratically when determined by the marker method. There was a linear increase in the digestible and metabolizable coefficients of energy, DE, DEn, ME and MEn of the diets as the glycerin inclusion level was increased. Inclusion of up to 15% glycerin obtained from soybean oil production increased the digestible fractions of organic matter and energy of the diets.

  19. Digestibility of the cottonseed meal with or without addition of protease and phytase enzymes in swine diet - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v34i3.12360

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Mouhaupt Marques Ludke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the digestibility of cottonseed meal with or without addition of enzymes (phytase and protease for growing pigs. It was used 18 barrows, housed in metabolism cages, distributed in a completely randomized design, standardizing body weight (bw with average of 25.8 ± 3.6 kg, with three treatments and six repetitions. The treatments consisted of a reference diet based on corn and soybean meal, the second treatment with replacement of 30% of the reference diet by cottonseed meal without enzymes, and the third with 30% of the reference diet replaced by cottonseed meal with added enzymes. Was determined the digestible protein, digestible energy, digestibility of dry matter, energy and protein. It was also registered the balance of nitrogen and phosphorus. The use of cottonseed meal with the addition of enzymes in diets for growing pigs has no effect on the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy and crude protein, but improved the absorption of phosphorus, consequently reducing its excretion in the feces. There was no improvement in nitrogen balance in the diets containing cottonseed meal with enzymes.

  20. NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TILAPIA FILLETING WASTE MEAL FOR SWINE IN THE NURSERY PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDSON RICHART

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional composition of tilapia filleting waste meal (TFWM for pigs in the initial phase. In the first experiment, the chemical composition and the values of digestible and metabolizable energy of TFWM were determined using 10 pigs (15.10 ± 0.74 kg, distributed in cages for metabolic research (2 treatments X 5 replicates. The TFWM replaced 20% of the reference diet based on corn and soybean meal. In the second experiment, the ileal digestibility coefficients of amino acids present in TFWM were determined, using chromic oxide as a marker, through the method of sacrifice, using 10 pigs (15.00 ± 0.27 kg, distributed in cages for metabolic research (2 treatments X 5 replicates. Treatments consisted of a basal diet and one without protein. In the third experiment, the performance of pigs fed diets containing different concentrations of TFWM (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% was evaluated. Forty pigs (15.00 ± 0.87 kg, distributed in pairs in nursery pens (5 treatments X 4 replicates were used. The values of digestible and metabolizable energy corresponded to 3,632 and 3,260 kcal/kg, respectively. Inclusion of up to 10% TFWM in the diet of barrows from 15 to 30 kg did not affect the average daily gain and feed conversion of the animals.

  1. Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigor, Ignatius [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Johnson, Jim [Applied Physics Lab, University of Washington; Motz, Emily [National Ice Center; Bisic, Aaron [National Ice Center

    2017-06-30

    Our ability to understand and predict weather and climate requires an accurate observing network. One of the pillars of this network is the observation of the fundamental meteorological parameters: temperature, air pressure, and wind. We plan to assess our ability to measure these parameters for the polar regions during the Arctic Observing Experiment (AOX, Figure 1) to support the International Arctic Buoy Programme (IABP), Arctic Observing Network (AON), International Program for Antarctic Buoys (IPAB), and Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS). Accurate temperature measurements are also necessary to validate and improve satellite measurements of surface temperature across the Arctic. Support for research associated with the campaign is provided by the National Science Foundation, and by other US agencies contributing to the US Interagency Arctic Buoy Program. In addition to the support provided by the U.S Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow and the National Science Foundation (NSF), the U.S. IABP is supported by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Ice Center (NIC), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the Office of Naval Research (ONR).

  2. A state of non-specific tension in living matter? Stress in Australian animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, S Don

    2017-04-01

    Evidence of stress responses in Australian animals is reviewed through a series of case studies involving desert frogs and lizards, small carnivorous marsupials, desert wallabies, a dwarf kangaroo species, the quokka wallaby and a small nectarivorous bird. An operational definition of stress as "the physiological resultant of demands that exceed an animal's homeostatic capacities" is used to identify instances of stress responses in the field, and to gauge their intensity. Clear evidence of stress responses is found in small dasyurid marsupial carnivores, and desert agamid lizards, both of which are semelparous. Other instances of seasonal stress responses include the Rottnest Island quokka, the Barrow Island euro kangaroo and a small nectarivorous bird, the Silvereye. The review also highlights the high level of physiological adaptation of some desert wallabies, such as the Spectacled hare wallaby, which is able to maintain physiological homeostasis in the field when challenged by conditions of extreme drought. The importance of thermal and hygric refugia for the long-term survival or rock wallabies, which apparently lack any hormonal control of renal function, is also highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary starch types affect liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chen; Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Guanghong; Gao, Feng

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different starch types on liver nutrient metabolism of finishing pigs. In all ninety barrows were randomly allocated to three diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing purified waxy maize starch (WMS), non-waxy maize starch (NMS) and pea starch (PS) (the amylose to amylopectin ratios were 0·07, 0·19 and 0·28, respectively). After 28 d of treatments, two per pen (close to the average body weight of the pen) were weighed individually, slaughtered and liver samples were collected. Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet decreased the activities of glycogen phosphorylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 in liver (P0·05). Compared with the WMS diet, the PS diet reduced the expressions of glutamate dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 in liver (Pinsulin receptor, and increased the expressions of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β-1 in liver compared with the WMS diet (Pinsulin/PI3K/protein kinase B signalling pathway in liver of finishing pigs.

  4. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  5. Dietary L-arginine supplementation increases muscle gain and reduces body fat mass in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Xinguo; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Huang, Ruilin; Tang, Wenjie; Shinzato, Izuru; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2009-05-01

    Obesity in humans is a major public health crisis worldwide. In addition, livestock species exhibit excessive subcutaneous fat at market weight. However, there are currently few means of reducing adiposity in mammals. This study was conducted with a swine model to test the hypothesis that dietary L-arginine supplementation may increase muscle gain and decrease fat deposition. Twenty-four 110-day-old barrows were assigned randomly into two treatments, representing supplementation with 1.0% L-arginine or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) to a corn- and soybean meal-based diet. Growth performance was measured based on weight gain and food intake. After a 60-day period of supplementation, carcass and muscle composition were measured. Serum triglyceride concentration was 20% lower (P gain by 6.5% and carcass skeletal-muscle content by 5.5%, while decreasing (P muscle protein, glycogen, and fat contents by 4.8, 42, and 70%, respectively, as well as muscle pH at 45 min post-mortem by 0.32, while reducing muscle lactate content by 37%. These results support our hypothesis that dietary arginine supplementation beneficially promotes muscle gain and reduces body fat accretion in growing-finishing pigs. The findings have a positive impact on development of novel therapeutics to treat human obesity and enhance swine lean-tissue growth.

  6. Sport-related anxiety: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford JL

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Jessica L Ford, Kenneth Ildefonso, Megan L Jones, Monna Arvinen-Barrow Department of Kinesiology, Integrative Health Care & Performance Unit, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, USA Abstract: To date, much research has been devoted to understanding how anxiety can affect sport performance, both in practice and in competitive settings. It is well known that sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety, and that practicing and employing a range of psychological strategies can be beneficial in anxiety management. Equally, growing evidence also suggests that anxiety can play a role in sport injury prevention, occurrence, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The purpose of this paper is to provide current insights into sport-related anxiety. More specifically, it will provide the reader with definitions and theoretical conceptualizations of sport-related anxiety. This will be followed by making a case for considering the term "performance" to be broader than activities associated with sport-related performance in practice and competition, by including performance activities associated with sport injury prevention, rehabilitation, and the return to sport process. The paper will then highlight the importance of recognizing early signs and symptoms of anxiety, and the potential need for referral. Finally, the conclusions will emphasize the need for appropriate, client-specific, and practitioner competent care for athletes experiencing sport-related anxiety. Keywords: anxiety, sport, performance, injury, sport medicine professional, sport psychology, mental health

  7. Closing the Mass Budget between Bering Strait and the Arctic Basin: The Chukchi Slope Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, W. B.; Pickart, R. S.

    2016-02-01

    After passing through Bering Strait, Pacific-origin water flows across the Chukchi Sea in different branches that ultimately exit the shelf and provide heat, freshwater, and nutrients to the interior basin. It is important, therefore, to understand where and by what mechanisms the water is fluxed offshore. We have compiled all known shipboard hydrographic sections occupied across the Chukchi shelfbreak and slope that include direct velocity measurements (shipboard ADCP or lowered ADCP). In all, there are 46 sections occupied during the months of May-October from 2002 to 2014, spanning the region from Barrow Canyon to approximately 168°W. The data reveal the presence of a surface-intensified, westward-flowing current over the continental slope, situated offshore of the eastward-flowing shelfbreak jet. We call this feature the Chukchi slope current, which exists under all wind conditions. Using these data plus previously published transport values in Bering Strait and the Beaufort shelfbreak jet, we attempt to close the mass budget of the Chukchi shelf. The mean heat transport of the Chukchi slope current during the summer months is estimated, which has the potential to melt a substantial amount of pack-ice in the Canada Basin and influence the geographical distribution of the ice melt.

  8. Soil moisture control over autumn season methane flux, Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Sturtevant

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimates of annual budgets of methane (CH4 efflux in arctic regions are severely constrained by the paucity of non-summer measurements. Moreover, the incomplete understanding of the ecosystem-level sensitivity of CH4 emissions to changes in tundra moisture makes prediction of future CH4 release from the Arctic extremely difficult. This study addresses some of these research gaps by presenting an analysis of eddy covariance and chamber measurements of CH4 efflux and supporting environmental variables during the autumn season and associated beginning of soil freeze-up at our large-scale water manipulation site near Barrow, Alaska (the Biocomplexity Experiment. We found that the autumn season CH4 emission is significant (accounting for 21–25% of the average growing season emission, and that this emission is mostly controlled by the fraction of inundated landscape, atmospheric turbulence, and the decline in unfrozen water during the period of soil freezing. Drainage decreased autumn CH4 emission by a factor of 2.4 compared to our flooded treatment. Flooding slowed the soil freezing process which has implications for extending elevated CH4 emissions longer into the winter season.

  9. About One of Burials of Novotitorovka Culture From the Territory of Kuban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya A. Balabanova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial complex and the skull of the Novotitorovka culture from burial no. 35 of the Ovalny burial mound, Kalininsky district of the Krasnodar region. The burial itself was non-inventory, but it was synchronous with burial no. 26. Both burials were excavated from the level of the ancient surface and covered by the same barrow. The bones from the studied burial belonged to a young man, who died at the age of 20-25. His craniological type is characterized by meso-dolichocrania, ellipsoidal vertical norm, the average width of forehead, wide and low face, orthognathy-like in a vertical plane and slightly profiled at the level of low eye sockets. The face is also characterized by narrow and sharply protruding nasal bones. The article also deals with the possible relationship between the tribes of the Novotitorovka culture and the Azov-Black Sea sites of Catacomb culture. This conclusion is based on the results of intergroup comparison by the method of canonical analysis. The studied skull of the Novotitorovka culture has a morphological complex that characterizes the groups of burials of the Catacomb culture localized on the terraces of the Ingul river and on the terraces of the Don river left bank. This conclusion calls into question the archaeologists’ hypothesis on the connection of the the Novotitorovka culture with the tribes of the Novosvobodnenskaya culture and the Maykop culture.

  10. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  11. Textiles from Scythian burial complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fialko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Black Sea steppes were excavated more than three thousand Scythian burial mounds. In the studied burials were discovered large quantities of artifacts, but leather and textile items are preserved only in a few cases. Some ideas about Scythian costume are found in the works of Greek authors. In this regard, extremely important is the funerary complex dated with the 4th century BC, discovered in barrow Vishnevaja Moghila (Zaporizhia region, Ukraine. In the crypt, which remained undisturbed over time, was found a burial of a Scythian girl. The unique condition of preservation of the textiles and leather findings allowed reconstructing the entire costume of the Scythian. It consisted of six layers of clothing. Various pieces of clothing were made from different materials: white linen cloth, orange satin fabric, reddish-brown fur, black cloth, fur, red skin. This discovery is one of a kind in the Northern Black Sea region, which is currently a reference example of female costume of early nomads of the region.

  12. Comparisons of Arctic In-Situ Snow and Ice Data with Airborne Passive Microwave Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, T.; Cavalien, D. J.; Gasiewski, A.; Sturm, M.; Klein, M.; Maslanik, J.; Stroeve, J.; Heinrichs, J.; Holmgren, J.; Irisov, V.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the AMSR-E sea ice validation campaign in March 2003, aircraft flights over the Arctic sea ice were coordinated with ground measurements of snow and sea ice properties. The surface-based measurements were in the vicinity of Barrow, AK, and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. The NASA P-3 aircraft was equipped with the NOAA ETL PSR microwave radiometer that has the same frequencies as the AMSR-E sensor. The goal was to validate the standard AMSR-E products ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice. Ground measurements are the only way to validate these parameters. The higher spatial resolution of the PSR instrument (between 30 and 500 m, depending on altitude) enables a better comparison between ground measurements and microwave data because of the expected smaller spatial variability. Maps of PSR data can then be used for further down-scaling to AMSR-E pixel areas. Initial results show a good qualitative agreement between the in-situ snow depths and the PSR data. Detailed studies are underway and latest results will be presented.

  13. Physical controls on the storage of methane in land fast sea ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Jiayun; Tison, Jean Louis; Carnat, Gauthier

    2014-01-01

    regulated the storage of CH4 in sea ice: bubble formation and sea ice permeability. Gas bubble formation from solubility changes had favoured the accumulation of CH4 in the ice at the beginning of ice growth. CH4 retention in sea ice was then twice as efficient as that of salt; this also explains...... the overall higher CH4 concentrations in brine than in the under-ice water. As sea ice thickened, gas bubble formation became less efficient so that CH4 was then mainly trapped in the dissolved state. The increase of sea ice permeability during ice melt marks the end of CH4 storage.......We report on methane (CH4) dynamics in landfast sea ice, brine and under-ice seawater at Barrow in 2009. The CH4 concentrations in under-ice water ranged between 25.9 and 116.4 nmol L−1sw, indicating a superaturation of 700 to 3100% relative to the atmosphere. In comparison, the CH4 concentrations...

  14. Field Exploration of Methane Seep Near Atqasuk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katey Walter, Dennis Witmer, Gwen Holdmann

    2008-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) in natural gas is a major energy source in the U.S., and is used extensively on Alaska's North Slope, including the oilfields in Prudhoe Bay, the community of Barrow, and the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Smaller villages, however, are dependent on imported diesel fuel for both power and heating, resulting in some of the highest energy costs in the U.S. and crippling local economies. Numerous CH{sub 4} gas seeps have been observed on wetlands near Atqasuk, Alaska (in the NPRA), and initial measurements have indicated flow rates of 3,000-5,000 ft{sup 3} day{sup -1} (60-100 kg CH{sub 4} day{sup -1}). Gas samples collected in 1996 indicated biogenic origin, although more recent sampling indicated a mixture of biogenic and thermogenic gas. In this study, we (1) quantified the amount of CH{sub 4} generated by several seeps and evaluated their potential use as an unconventional gas source for the village of Atqasuk; (2) collected gas and analyzed its composition from multiple seeps several miles apart to see if the source is the same, or if gas is being generated locally from isolated biogenic sources; and (3) assessed the potential magnitude of natural CH{sub 4} gas seeps for future use in climate change modeling.

  15. FIBRA MUSCULAR, DESEMPENHO E A QUALIDADE DA CARCAÇA DE QUATRO GRUPOS GENÉTICOS DE SUÍNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIAN CRISTINA BOROSKY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the performance and carcass quality of pigs from four genetic lines and to correlate these data with the number and diameter of muscle fibers. A total of48 pigs were used and distributed into four treatments: high-lean commercial crossbred line; prolificacy commercial crossbred line; (Landrace X Large White crossbred animals; and undefined genetic line. The experimental design consisted of a complete randomized design with a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement (4 genetic lines and 2 genders. Daily weight gain, daily feed intake and the feed conversion were evaluated. At slaughtering, the carcasses were evaluated and the number and the diameter of the muscle fibers of longissimus dorsi were assessed. The high-lean commercial line presented the greatestnumber of muscle cells (P<0.05 while the Landrace x Large White crossbred line presented the greater diameter (P<0.05. High-lean commercial line showed a better performance and carcass characteristics compared with the undefined genetic line (P<0.05 and the barrows presented the lowest results (P<0.05. The increment inthe muscle fiber number affected positively the performance and carcass characteristics of pigs.

  16. Review of BNFL's operational experience of wet type flasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.S.

    2004-01-01

    BNFL International Transport's operational experience includes shipping 6000te of spent fuel from Japan to Sellafield, through its dedicated terminal at Barrow, and to Cogema La Hague. This fuel was shipped under the PNTL (Pacific Nuclear Transport Ltd) banner for which BNFL is responsible. PNTL owned and operated a fleet of 5 ships for Japanese business and a fleet of 80 wet and 58 dry flasks, for the transport of Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent fuel, from both Pressurised Water Reactors (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactors (BWR). ''Wet'' or ''dry'' flask is the common terminology used to distinguish between spent fuel flasks transporting fuel where the fuel is immersed in water, or spent fuel flasks that have been drained of water and dried. This paper concentrates on the wet type of flask utilised to transport fuel to Sellafield, that is the Excellox type (including similar type NTL derivatives). It aims to provide a summary of operational experience during handling at power stations, shipment, unloading at reprocessors and from scheduled maintenance

  17. Effects of dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y J; Gao, T; Li, J L; Zhang, L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different dietary starch types on early postmortem muscle energy metabolism in finishing pigs. Ninety barrows (68.0±2.0kg) were randomly allotted to three experimental diets with five replicates of six pigs, containing pure waxy maize starch (WMS), nonwaxy maize starch (NMS), and pea starch (PS) (amylose/amylopectin were 0.07, 0.19 and 0.28 respectively). Compared with the WMS diet, pigs fed the PS diet exhibited greater creatine kinase activity, higher adenosine triphosphate and adenosine diphosphate contents, lower phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosine monophosphate and glycogen contents, and lower glycolytic potential (P<0.05). Moreover, the PS diet led to reduced percentage of bound hexokinase activity, decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (P<0.05) and increased level of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (P<0.05). In conclusion, diet with high amylose content might promote PCr degradation and inhibit the rate of glycolysis, followed by attenuation of early postmortem glycolysis in finishing pigs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Free-range rearing of pigs during the winter: adaptations in muscle fiber characteristics and effects on adipose tissue composition and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, G; Guex, G; Herzog, W

    2004-04-01

    This research aimed to determine whether outdoor free-range rearing during the winter (average ambient temperature of 5 degrees C) vs. indoor housing (22 degrees C) affects meat quality, muscle metabolic traits, and muscle fiber characteristics. Forty Large White gilts and barrows were blocked by weight within each gender (20 per gender) and allotted randomly into two groups of pigs, with one reared indoors (IN) in individual pens (2.6 m2) and the other reared outdoors (OUT) from December to March in a 0.92-ha pasture. Both groups had free access to the same grower-finisher diet from 23 to 105 kg. At slaughter, adipose (backfat [BF] and omental fat [OF]) and muscle tissues (longissimus muscle [LM], rectus femoris [RF], and semitendinosus [ST]) were obtained from the right side of each carcass. Muscle fibers were stained and classified on the basis of stain reaction as slow-oxidative (SO), fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG), and fast glycolytic (FG); fiber area and distribution were determined. Also assessed were carcass characteristics, initial and ultimate pH, L*a*b* values, drip loss percent, glycolytic potential (GP), and intramuscular lipid content, as well as the fatty acid profile of each muscle and adipose tissue. The OUT pigs had lower (P 0.63) affect the intramuscular lipid content of the ST, but intramuscular lipid content was lower (P meat quality traits.

  19. Effect of g.2728g > A and g.3996t > C polymorphisms at the leptin gene locus on microstructure and physicochemical properties of longissimus lumborum muscle of Polish Landrace pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Dorota; Kaczor, Urszula

    2011-01-01

    The influence ofHindIII (g.2728G > A) and Bg/II (g.3996 T > C) polymorphisms at the leptin gene locus on muscle fibre characteristics and meat quality of longissimus lumborum muscle was studied in 146 barrows of the Polish Landrace breed. Leptin gene polymorphism was identified by PCR-RFLP. Fibre type percentage, fibre diameter and the following technological parameters ofmeat were also determined: pH45, pH24, L*a*b* colour, drip loss, water holding capacity, shear force and intramuscular fat content. Polymorphism was not detected in the locus studied in the Landrace pig herd analysed with the Bg/II restriction enzyme (g.3996 T > C). For the HindIII enzyme (g.2728G > A), there was a high frequency of GG homozygotes (0.78) and G allele (0.89), but the AA genotype was not present. Moreover, the genotypes ofleptin gene RFLP-HindIII polymorphism had no effect on intramuscular fat content and muscle fibre type percentage, but had a significant effect on muscle fibre size. Heterozygous GA fatteners had a significantly larger (P meat quality parameters were comparable among the examined genotypes except for water holding capacity (which was the lowest for the GG genotype) and colour lightness (L*) (which was the lightest for GA genotype). Moreover, regardless of genotype, large differences were observed between each animal in the distribution of intramuscular fat.

  20. Effects of xylanase supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood parameters, fecal microbiota, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Ruixia; Li, Tianshui; Kim, Inho

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of xylanase supplementation on nutrient digestibility, growth performance, blood parameters, fecal microflora shedding, fecal score and fecal noxious gas emission of weaning pigs fed corn-soybean meal based diet. A total of 150 weaning pigs with an average initial body weight (BW) of 7.85 ± 0.93 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments based on BW and sex (10 replicate pens with five pigs, two gilts and three barrows) were used in this 42-day trial. Dietary treatments were: (1) CON, basal diet; (2) X1, basal diet +0.005% xylanase; (2) X2, basal diet +0.01% xylanase. The xylanase supplementation linearly increased (P < 0.05) average daily gain (ADG), and gain : feed ratio (G:F) from days 29 to 42 and the in overall period, dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility, and fecal Lactobacilli counts, and linearly decreased (P < 0.05) blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission. Additionally, at weeks 5 and 6, there was a linear decrease in fecal score with xylanase supplementation. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, shifted microbiota by increasing fecal Lactobacillus counts, decreased BUN concentration, fecal score, and fecal NH 3 and H 2 S emission in weaning pigs. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.