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  1. HAICAIS EM MANOEL DE BARROS

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    Profª Drª Nery Reiner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo, voltado para a criação poética de Manoel de Barros, é focalizar o conceito da obra de arte como jogo. Escolhemos Manoel de Barros, porque o lúdico, a brincadeira e o humor estão sempre presentes em sua obra. A escolha dos dados, o encaixe de palavras escolhidas a dedo, no eixo paradigmático, formam um caleidoscópio, mostrando novas estruturas, deixando explícito o desejo de brincar com os elementos linguísticos e da natureza. Para este trabalho, escolhemos, para análise, pequenos poemas semelhantes aos haicais japoneses e outros menores ainda, com dois ou até um verso apenas. Contaremos, nesta pesquisa, com a ajuda de teóricos como Johan Huizinga, Ezra Pound, Octavio Paz, Lévi-Strauss, Olga Savary e Alfredo Bosi.

  2. The first federal budget under Prime Minister Justin Trudeau: Addressing social determinants of health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A challenging budget environment during the Harper years has meant that crucial investments in the social determinants of health (SDHs) have increasingly been neglected. The tabling of what is widely considered a more progressive budget with expansionary fiscal elements under the new Prime Minister, Justin Trudeau, raises the question as to what extent this budget invests in policy areas that are crucial for achieving a more equitable distribution in the social determinants of health, as promised in the Liberal party platform. In this commentary, we argue that the first Liberal budget represents a step in the right direction, but that this first step needs to be followed up with a sustained commitment to address the pervasive (and unfair) social inequalities that are the root cause of persistent health inequities in Canada. We conclude that the first Trudeau budget, while moving in the right direction, does not fully embody the sustained policy changes needed to effectively address SDHs, including a more expansive role for the federal government in the redistribution of income and wealth. PMID:27526222

  3. The so-called «Itinerario de Barro». Questions of authenticity and interpretation

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    Carmen FERNÁNDEZ OCHOA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authenticity of the so-called Itinerario de Barro has been proven thanks to the use of the thermoluminescence technique on the four fired clay tablets. Controversy around Itinerario de Barro has existed since it was first published almost one century ago, and the verification of its authenticity has been the basis to offer an outline of the identification hypothesis of mansiones. This source is reinterpreted here in the framework of the road network in Northern and Western Spain, and the problems that are still rela- ted thereto are mentioned.

  4. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Island: Local extinction rates since the 1930's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island ...

  5. A Poética de Manoel de Barros: uma sabedoria da terra

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    Ligia Savio

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se refiere a la obra poética poética del brasileiro Manoel de Barros (1916. Su objetivo es presentar algunas características de su poesía en referencia a los libros Gramática Expositiva do Cháo e Concerto a céu aberto para solos de ave. El análisis está refrendado con entrevistas al autor consideradas como epitextos de carácter metafórico complementarios a su obra.El ejercicio poético de Barros es inseparable a su palabra fuertemente arraigada en la vidaNeste trabalho, analisam-se dois livros do poeta brasileiro Manoel de Barros imagens de extrema sensorialidade, volta-se para a terra e para a natureza, espaço onde o homem redescobre o sentido de tudo e encontra um novo lugar para si mesmo. Manoel de Barros incorpora a seu fazer poético recursos contemporâneos e , em golpes de pura intertextualidade, traz para seus poemas a presença tanto de criadores da tradição artística européia quanto de autores renomados da Língua PortuguesaThis article deals with the poetic work of the brazilian author Manoel de Barros (1916. His aim is to present some characteristics of his poesóa in reference to the books Grammatical Expositiva do Cháo and Concerto a céu aberto para solos de ave. The analysis is authenticated with interviews to the author considered as epithets of metaphorical character supplementary to his work. Barros’ poetic exercise is inseparable to his declaration strongly rooted in life

  6. Influence of household cooking methods on amino acids and minerals of Barrosã-PDO veal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Anabela F; Alfaia, Cristina M M; Partidário, Ana M C P C; Lemos, José P C; Prates, José A M

    2015-01-01

    The effect of commonly household cooking methods (boiling, microwaving and grilling) on amino acid and mineral (Fe, Mg, K and Zn) contents was investigated in the longissimus lumborum muscle of Barrosã-PDO veal. Fifteen Barrosã purebred calves at 7-8 months of age and an average weight of 177±37 kg were slaughtered. Cooking had a strong effect (P100%), in particular for leucine. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed for iron and zinc retentions among the cooking methods, while the retention of magnesium and potassium was strongly affected, mainly after boiling. Our findings indicate that the different cooking methods clearly affect the chemical composition and nutritional value of meat, which may have a strong impact on the intake of essential nutrients. PMID:25280361

  7. MORTALITY DIFFERENTIAL, LABOR TAXATION AND GROWTH: WHAT DO WE LEARN FROM THE BARRO-BECKER MODEL?

    OpenAIRE

    Seegmuller, Thomas; Bosi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the seminal paper on endogenous fertility by Barro and Becker (1989) taking into account households' heterogeneity in terms of capital endowments, mortality differential and cost per surviving child. Focusing on an endogenous growth version, we show at first that there exists a unique balanced growth path (BGP) where the population growth rates of all dynasties are identical. Then, we study the long-run effects of shocks on mortality rates (such as epidemics), mortality differentia...

  8. Artefatos de gênero na arte do barro: masculinidades e femininidades

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    MATOS SÔNIA MISSAGIA DE

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo sobre gênero na produção artística de peças de cerâmica em algumas comunidades de artesãos do Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, onde tradicionalmente apenas as mulheres chamadas "paneleiras" praticavam esse ofício, que era transmitido de mãe para filha. Naquela região, assim que a arte do barro se tornou uma fonte alternativa de renda, vários homens decidiram entrar para o ofício. A entrada de homens na arte do barro provocou reconfigurações nas relações de gênero. Um ponto muito importante a ser observado aqui é que apesar de tradicionalmente transmitida por mulheres e pela ação feminina, a arte do barro tem incorporado valores de masculinidade: ao se aproximarem de um ofício tradicionalmente feminino, os homens passaram a retirar dele recursos simbólicos de representação de masculinidade.

  9. Flujo de barro del arroyo del Comedero, Jujuy: caracterización, causas y efectos

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    Maria A González

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El 12 de Enero de 2010 un flujo de barro afectó un predio de esparcimiento con piletas de aguas termales en la localidad de Termas de Reyes, provincia de Jujuy. Este evento dejó 87 heridos y produjo grandes daños materiales. Las lluvias fueron las desencadenantes del movimiento del material a través de la quebrada del arroyo del Comedero. El depósito del flujo estuvo constituido por casi el 70% de grava, 20% de arena y 10% de limo arcilla y transportó trozos de materia orgánica y bloques mayores a 1 m³. Debido a la plasticidad del material, se lo clasificó como flujo de barro. La velocidad del movimiento se calculó usando un método empírico, coincidiendo su resultado con otros obtenidos en eventos cercanos. El volumen fue medido directamente en el campo, y calculado a través de ecuaciones enunciadas para flujos similares. Según los registros históricos de los depósitos de diferentes eventos ocurridos en la quebrada del arroyo del Comedero, esta se ubica en un rango de probabilidad muy alta de que se produzcan flujos. Con respecto a la clasificación de la magnitud del flujo de barro sobre el río Reyes, este pertenece a la clase con consecuencias potenciales de destrucción parcial de poblados, infraestructura de rutas y puentes, y bloqueo de quebradas. Los datos de velocidad, volumen y frecuencia calculados en este trabajo, que forman parte de la Carta de Peligrosidad Geológica Salta del SEGEMAR, son necesarios para el mapeo de peligrosidad, la programación de obras de infraestructura y la planificación territorial.

  10. Rb-Sr measurements on metamorphic rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barro Alto Complex comprises a highly deformed and metamorphosed association of plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks exposed in a 150 x 25 Km boomerang-like strip in Central Goias, Brazil. It is the southernmost tip of an extensive yet discontinuous belt of granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks which include the Niquelandia and Cana Brava complexes to the north. Two rock associations are distinguished within the granulite belt. The first one comprises a sequence of fine-grained mafic granulite, hypersthene-quartz-feldspar granulite, garnet quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and magnetite-rich iron formation. The second association comprises medium-to coarse-grained mafic rocks. The medium-grade rocks of the western/northern portion (Barro Alto Complex) comprise both layered mafic rocks and a volcanic-sedimentary sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions. The fine-grained amphibolite form the basal part of the Juscelandia meta volcanic-sedimentary sequence. A geochronologic investigation by the Rb-Sr method has been carried out mainly on felsic rocks from the granulite belt and gneisses of the Juscelandia sequence. The analytical results for the Juscelandia sequence are presented. Isotope results for rocks from different outcrops along the gneiss layer near Juscelandia are also presented. In conclusion, Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that the Barro Alto rocks have undergone at least one important metamorphic event during Middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Juscelandia sequence, as well as the underlying gabbro-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. (author)

  11. Petrochemistry and tectonic significance of Lower Cretaceous Barros Arana Formation basalts, southernmost Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, C. R.; Mohseni, P. P.; Fuenzalida, P. R.

    The Lower Cretaceous Barros Arana Formation (Albian, hornblende KAr age of 104 Ma), in the Magallanes region of Chile, consists of a sequence of spilitized clinopyroxene- and amphibole-bearing mafic dikes and lavas, and volcaniclastic breccias, occurring within the sedimentary infill of the Rocas Verdes marginal basin and its eastward extension onto the Cretaceous continental platform. Although the original alkali and alkaline earth element concentrations of the basaltic lavas and dikes have been altered by spilitization, the presence of relict pargasitic amphibole phenocrysts, the absence of orthopyroxene, and high LREE contents and LREE/HREE ratios imply mildly alkaline affinities for these basalts. Their low TiO 2 and HFSE (Zr, Nb, Ta, and Hf) contents and high LREE/HFSE ratios suggest affinities with convergent plate boundary arc magmas. The Barros Arana basalts are interpreted as mafic members of the mildly alkaline shoshonitic rock suite of subduction-related arcs. They may have formed as subduction geometry began to undergo the changes (flattening) that ultimately led to the initiation of the closure, deformation, and uplift of the Rocas Verdes basin by the late or post-Albian. The low initial 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7031) and high initial 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.51277) of the basalts indicate that a generally extensional tectonic regime east of the main calc-alkaline arc allowed eruption of these mafic shoshonites without interaction with continental crust (in contrast to the contemporaneous plutons of the Patagonian batholith).

  12. [The socialization of medicine in the era of São Paulo Governor Adhemar de Barros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Fabio de Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    The article analyzes how the process of the professionalization of physicians in São Paulo related to healthcare policy under the administration of São Paulo governor Adhemar de Barros (1947-1951) during a period of broad change in the realm of health known by São Paulo physicians as the "socialization of medicine." Medical professionalism confronted certain ambivalences under this populist administration, including doctors' struggle to achieve pay equal to that of state public attorneys; the establishment of a state health department; and some contradictory ties between the area of health under Adhemar and the professional ideology and organization of medicine in São Paulo. The article undertakes a more in-depth analysis of the ideological manifestations of important leaders in the state's medical community. PMID:25388442

  13. Modeling lactation curves of “Barrosã” beef cattle with Wood’s model

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    Virgilio Cardoso Alves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the lactation curve properties of primiparous and multiparous Barrosã cows, using two different milking systems. A data set with 2518 daily milk yields of 15 primiparous (107 test day records by lactation and 11 multiparous (83 test day records by lactation cows was individually fitted with the Wood’s model by the application of a non linear procedure. Milk yield measurements were recorded using a weigh-suckle-weigh technique in half of the cows and the rest of the cows were hand milking. Average daily milk yield of primiparous and multiparous suckled cows were 4.9 and 5.2 kg, respectively, while correspondent scores on milked cows were lower (2.4 and 3.0 kg. All 26 fitted lactations followed the typical curve shape with high goodness of fit. ANOVA on Wood’s parameters indicated that milked cows have a peak yield of 3.5 and 4.6 kg reached at lactation day 23 and 16, for primiparous and multiparous, respectively. On the other hand, suckled cows reached their peak of lactation later (56-63 d and the peak yield (5.3-5.7 kg was greater than milked cows. The absence of the calf and the cow’s difficulty in adapting to the hand-milking can explain differences between milked and suckled cows. Barrosã cows, in their traditional production system, have lactation yields of 805 and 843 kg in parities 1 and 2, respectively.

  14. Uma didática da invenção: re-envisioning the material world in the poetry of Manoel de Barros.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David Peter Woodhead

    2016-01-01

    The poetry of Manoel de Barros has often been characterized as part of a regional canon. This characterization belies its importance not only within the confines of the Brazilian canon, but as a contribution to C20 literature in general. Barros's poetry explores themes which are crucially important to navigating our existence in the modern world, and this thesis focuses on his engagement with the natural and material world. Drawing on theories from post-modern critical thinking and eco-critic...

  15. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island Are Infected with Feline Immunodeficiency Virus but Not Other Common Feline and Canine Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Samuel P.; Kays, Roland W.; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A.; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Pa...

  16. Stochastically driven adult–recruit associations of tree species on Barro Colorado Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getzin, Stephan; Wiegand, Thorsten; Hubbell, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial placement of recruits around adult conspecifics represents the accumulated outcome of several pattern-forming processes and mechanisms such as primary and secondary seed dispersal, habitat associations or Janzen–Connell effects. Studying the adult–recruit relationship should therefore allow the derivation of specific hypotheses on the processes shaping population and community dynamics. We analysed adult–recruit associations for 65 tree species taken from six censuses of the 50 ha neotropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. We used point pattern analysis to test, at a range of neighbourhood scales, for spatial independence between recruits and adults, to assess the strength and type of departure from independence, and its relationship with species properties. Positive associations expected to prevail due to dispersal limitation occurred only in 16% of all cases; instead a majority of species showed spatial independence (≈73%). Independence described the placement of recruits around conspecific adults in good approximation, although we found weak and noisy signals of species properties related to seed dispersal. We hypothesize that spatial mechanisms with strong stochastic components such as animal seed dispersal overpower the pattern-forming effects of dispersal limitation, density dependence and habitat association, or that some of the pattern-forming processes cancel out each other. PMID:25030984

  17. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation. PMID:27024937

  18. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

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    J. Mascaro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a mainland tropical forest – Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI – and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 98% of BCI (~1500 ha using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.77, RMSE = 29 Mg C ha−1, P < 0.0001. We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, bedrock, soil texture, and forest age. Collectively, these variables explained 14% of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33% at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes, where erosion rates tend to exceed weathering rates, compared to gentle slopes, where weathering in place produces deep, oxic soils. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80–130 years old averaging ~15% less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old. If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with satellite monitoring.

  19. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  20. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. PMID:19256443

  1. Ocelots on Barro Colorado Island are infected with feline immunodeficiency virus but not other common feline and canine viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Samuel P; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; TerWee, Julie A; Troyer, Jennifer L; VandeWoude, Sue

    2008-07-01

    Transmission of pathogens from domestic animals to wildlife populations (spill-over) has precipitated local wildlife extinctions in multiple geographic locations. Identifying such events before they cause population declines requires differentiating spillover from endemic disease, a challenge complicated by a lack of baseline data from wildlife populations that are isolated from domestic animals. We tested sera collected from 12 ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) native to Barro Colorado Island, Panama, which is free of domestic animals, for antibodies to feline herpes virus, feline calicivirus, feline corona virus, feline panleukopenia virus, canine distemper virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), typically a species-specific infection. Samples also were tested for feline leukemia virus antigens. Positive tests results were only observed for FIV; 50% of the ocelots were positive. We hypothesize that isolation of this population has prevented introduction of pathogens typically attributed to contact with domestic animals. The high density of ocelots on Barro Colorado Island may contribute to a high prevalence of FIV infection, as would be expected with increased contact rates among conspecifics in a geographically restricted population. PMID:18689668

  2. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mares

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis, a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot’s parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult’s increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 779-787. Epub 2008 June 30.Los desplazamientos del ámbito hogareño de mamíferos subadultos previos a la dispersión natal rara vez han sido documentados. Sin embargo, los eventos que llevan a un animal subadulto a abandonar una parte de su ámbito natal

  3. Um Economista no labirinto: um obituário de Antônio Barros de Castro

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    Luiz Carlos Delorme Prado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Barros de Castro participated actively for 40 years in the academic life and public debate on development policies. This insightful intellectual belonged to a generation of professors that influenced both the academic debate and Brazilian society's interpretations of its problems and alternatives. Castro stood out for his meticulous analysis of the problems he studied and for his critical acumen, having spearheaded various debates on the country's economic problems and the strategy to overcome them. According to his interpretation, Brazil was a case of interrupted economic "catch-up", and a major portion of his research work focused on the discussion of alternatives for the country to resume its path to sustained growth. The current article aims to discuss some of the principal themes and studies developed by Castro during his long and successful academic career, as an overview of the economist's contributions.

  4. Rb-Sr geochronology from Barro Alto Complex, Goias: metamorphism evidence of high degree and continental collision around 1300 Ma ago in Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation carried out on rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, yielded iso chronic ages of 1266 +- 17 Ma, for felsic rocks from the granulite belt and 1330 +- 67 Ma, for gneisses belonging to the Juscelandia Sequence. Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that Barro Alto rocks have undergone an important metamorphic event during middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event, volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Juscelandia Sequence, as well as the underlying gabbros-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. Deformation and metamorphism took place during the collision of two continental blocks, which resulted in a southeastward directed thrust complex, allowing the exposure of granulite slices from the middle-lower crust of the overthrusted block. (author)

  5. Análisis de las variables que afectan el desarrollo de microorganismos filamentosos en sistemas de barros activados para el tratamiento de efluentes de la industria alimenticia

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras, Edgardo

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo general Realizar un estudio comparativo de los parámetros cinéticos y estequiométricos que caracterizan el desarrollo de un microorganismo filamentoso y uno floculante con el objeto de hallar las condiciones operativas que permitan controlar la aparición de bulking debido al desarrollo excesivo de microorganismos filamentosos en sistemas de tratamiento de efluentes de la industria procesadora de vegetales por barros activados. A tal efecto se utilizará Sphaerotilus natans como mi...

  6. Competências Profissionais: Um Estudo com Gestores do Varejo de Moda do “Barro Preto” - Belo Horizonte (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai, Érika Fortes Perdigão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe and analyze how the managerial competences are configured and managed in the retail sector of Barro Preto’s fashion district in managers and other sales team members’ perception. In order to accomplish this, we took into account Paiva’s competence model (Paiva, 2007. The field research was characterized as a descriptive case study, with a qualitative approach. The data were collected through documentation survey and analysis and by interviews. The subjects were chosen using accessibility and convenience criteria. The data collected were organized, processed and analyzed by the technique of content analysis. Subsequently, the demographic and functional data of respondents were presented. For most of the inverviewees, the notion of competence is linked to action; they are aware that managers occupy a middle ground in the organizational hierarchy and that they work in an environment known by ambiguity, contradictions and demands. So, to be competent managers, interviewees attested the need for academic training, while considering the importance of experience. This study suggests the importance of informal learning in the managers’ competences training and development, especially through the figure of the "model manager"; in other words, the one that is considered the mirror to the other members of the sales team. Finally, limitations of this study and suggestions for further research were pointed out.

  7. Genetic, spatial, and social relationships among adults in a group of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) from Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Katharine; Nolin, David A; Ellis, Kelsey; Lozier, Jeffrey; Sandel, Brody; Lacey, Eileen A

    2016-04-01

    Kinship plays an important role in the social behavior of many primate species, including patterns of intra-group affiliation and cooperation. Within social groups, kinship is strongly affected by dispersal patterns, with the degree of relatedness among group-mates expected to decrease as the tendency to disperse increases. In primate species characterized by bisexual dispersal, relatedness among adult group-mates is predicted to be low, with social interactions shaped largely by factors other than kinship. To date, however, few studies have examined the role of kinship in social interactions in bisexually dispersing species. Accordingly, we collected genetic, spatial and behavioral data on all adult members (three males, six females) in a group of free-ranging mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) - a bisexually dispersing species of atelid primate - from Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. Analyses of microsatellite variation revealed that relatedness was greater among adult males in this group (mean pairwise relatedness = 0.32 for males versus 0.09 for females). Relatedness among individuals, however, was not associated with either spatial proximity or frequency of social interactions. Instead, sex was a better predictor of both of these aspects of social behavior. While relatedness among adults had no discernible effect on the intra-group social interactions documented in this study, we postulate that kinship may facilitate affiliative and cooperative behaviors among male group-mates when interacting competitively with neighboring howler groups over access to food or potential mates. PMID:26935548

  8. Séries monotípicas da bacia de Taubaté: 2 - Dourada e barro de telha Monotypical series of Taubate basin: 2. Dourada and barro de telha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco da Costa Verdade

    1962-01-01

    Full Text Available Na bacia de Taubaté, o Rio Paraíba e seus afluentes formam ampla rêde de planícies aluviais, onde se localizam solos intensamente agricultados. Nessa área de oscilação meândrico, o rio e alguns afluentes escavam e depositam sedimentos arenosos de acordo com os fenômenos de rio maduro. Sôbre essa camada as inundações, posteriormente, decantam sedimentos mais argilosos, formando a série monotípica denominada Dourada. Nos outros afluentes, com exceção da borda do ribeirão, essa série, em geral, ocupa tôda a várzea. Êsse solo, com características morfológicas simples, horizontes A-C, tem uma camada com acúmulo de matéria orgânica e depois os estratos diferenciados pelos ciclos de deposição fluvial. A série Dourada é de textura argiloso, com dominância de côres ocres e presença, em todas as camadas, de mica branca (muscovita visível a ôlho nu. Tem altos teores de potássio trocável e potencial, mas pobreza nos demais elementos. Sua estrutura é subangular forte, desenvolvendo estrutura em adobe nas épocas da sêca, porém, os agregados são instáveis à água. A constituição da fração coloidal indica a presença da caulinita, goethita e pequena quantidade de quartzo de tamanho coloidal. A série Barro de Telha ocorre longe do rio, em área onde a carga das águas de inundação está bostonte selecionada no sentido de partículas finas. O perfil A-C ébastante argiloso, não apresentando mica visível a ôlho nu. As camadas estão gieizadas, com tonalidades gríseas. Sua composição química indica alto potencial para o elemento potássio e muito baixo para outros catíons nutrientes de plantas. A fertilidade é baixa, exceto para o potássio. A fração argila apresenta caulinita e um mineral com estrutura de mica, havendo quartzo em uma camada. Ambos os solos são considerados do grande grupo de solo Aluvião, da ordem azonal.The flood-plain of Paraíba River and its tributaries form a system of alluvial

  9. Efectos reales del dinero anticipado y no anticipado: la metodología de Barro en un modelo de vectores autorregresivos y multicointegración para la economía mexicana, 1980-1999

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Antonio Rodríguez Ramos

    2005-01-01

    En este trabajo se prueba la hipótesis de Barro mediante un modelo de vectores autorregresivos y multicointegración para la economía mexicana. La hipótesis de Barro se basa en los postulados de expectativas racionales, los cuales señalan que una expansión monetaria no tiene efectos reales a menos que sea sorpresa. Sin embargo, en función de los resultados, tanto la oferta de dinero anticipada como la no-anticipada tienen efectos reales en la economía mexicana. En este caso, el din...

  10. Lutzomyia sand fly diversity and rates of infection by Wolbachia and an exotic Leishmania species on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Azpurua

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in the genus Lutzomyia are the predominant vectors of the protozoan disease leishmaniasis in the New World. Within the watershed of the Panama Canal, the cutaneous form of leishmaniasis is a continuous health threat for residents, tourists and members of an international research community. Here we report the results of screening a tropical forest assemblage of sand fly species for infection by both Leishmania and a microbe that can potentially serve in vector population control, the cytoplasmically transmitted rickettsia, Wolbachia pipientis. Knowing accurately which Lutzomyia species are present, what their evolutionary relationships are, and how they are infected by strains of both Leishmania and Wolbachia is of critical value for building strategies to mitigate the impact of this disease in humans. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We collected, sorted and then used DNA sequences to determine the diversity and probable phylogenetic relationships of the Phlebotominae occurring in the understory of Barro Colorado Island in the Republic of Panama. Sequence from CO1, the DNA barcoding gene, supported 18 morphology-based species determinations while revealing the presence of two possible "cryptic" species, one (Lu. sp. nr vespertilionis within the Vespertilionis group, the other (Lu. gomezi within the Lutzomyia-cruciata series. Using ITS-1 and "minicircle" primers we detected Leishmania DNA in 43.3% of Lu. trapidoi, 26.3% of Lu. gomezi individuals and in 0% of the other 18 sand fly species. Identical ITS-1 sequence was obtained from the Leishmania infecting Lu. trapidoi and Lu. gomezi, sequence which was 93% similar to Leishmania (viannia naiffi in GenBank, a species previously unknown in Panama, but recognized as a type of cutaneous leishmaniasis vectored broadly across northern and central South America. Distinct strains of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia were detected in three of 20

  11. The magmatic and metamorphic evolution of zircons from the Barro Alto Complex (Goias State, Central region, Brazil), using backscattered electrons and chemical analysis by electron microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zircon is a mineral much used in U-Pb geochronology because it is considered a closed system and has fairly high quantities of U and Th. In this paper, we study Barro Alto Complex (Goias, Brazil) zircons by backscattered electrons (BSE) imaging and spatial scanning profiles by wavelength dispersive spectrometer of Hf, Y and U. The BSE images and the profiles show variations in the internal structures and composition of zircon crystals that reflect the magmatic and metamorphic processes in the host rocks. Magmatic features are still observed, but metamorphic processes are registered in different textures on the zircons crystals; some are less affected because they are more resistant. The medium to high grade regional metamorphism of the Brasiliano Cycle is registered in all studied crystals and it may indicate an open-system geochemistry, that consequently affected the U-Pb isotopic system. (author)

  12. A indústria cerâmica vermelha de Campos dos Goitacazes e a inclusão social das artesãs da baixada campista através do projeto Caminhos de Barro The red ceramic industry in Campos dos Goitacazes and the social inclusion of artisans from Baixada Campista through the Caminhos de Barro project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Ramos

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Parque industrial de Campos dos Goytacazes é formado por mais de cem cerâmicas, absorvendo, segundo informações do próprio segmento, cerca de 5000 funcionários. Este tipo de trabalho, de um modo geral, emprega pessoas capazes de suportar serviços pesados, excluindo desta forma mulheres, idosos e portadores de deficiência. O Projeto Caminhos de Barro, implantado pela Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF, no ano de 2000, tem como finalidade capacitar, na arte cerâmica artesanal, essas comunidades excluídas do processo industrial de produção de tijolos e telhas. O presente trabalho tem como primícia contribuir para uma melhora na tecnologia adotada, pela primeira geração de artesãs formada na Oficina Caminhos de Barro, adequando a matéria prima utilizada à nova atividade através de mapeamento, classificação e caracterização dos materiais da região na forma in natura, ocupando-se, igualmente do seu comportamento após a queima. A mesma análise técnica utilizada para caracterização e adequação dos produtos industrializados pelas industrias cerâmicas mostrou-se também adequada para o artesanato. A matéria prima estudada, em principio, apresentou as qualidades necessárias ao trabalho artesanal como pode ser observado pelos produtos obtidos levando a um menor grau de perda. Porém a criação de um padrão mais adequado de matéria prima a ser utilizado na arte cerâmica da baixada campista demandará, portanto, mais tempo, recursos e estudo, pois as propriedades desejadas de cada artefato tais como: cor, permeabilidade e acabamento podem estar associados a pequenas variações físicas e mineralógicas.The industrial park of the Campos dos Goytacazes is formed for more than one hundred ceramics, absorbing, by mean information of the proper segment, about 5000 employees. This type of work in a general way uses capable person to support heavy services excluding: women, deficient and old person

  13. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S.H. Costa, Paula A. Lopes, Marta Estevão, Susana V. Martins, Susana P. Alves, Rui M.A. Pinto, Hugo Pissarra, Jorge J. Correia, Mário Pinho, Carlos M.G.A. Fontes, José A.M. Prates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA, trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA. In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis.

  14. Brasil, visão do que fomos, do que somos e do que devemos ser: a causa Luso- Brasileira em João de Barros, 1912-1922

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Luciana Lilian de

    2014-01-01

    Esta dissertação de doutoramento visou recuperar o percurso do reconhecido escritor-cidadão, poeta, pedagogo, publicista e republicano português João de Barros (1881-1960), enquanto protagonista da campanha pela aproximação cultural luso-brasileira, nos anos de 1912 a 1922. Para situarmos melhor tal campanha, é importante destacar que houve um marcante debate de ideias sobre as relações luso-brasileiras, estimulado por grupos de intelectuais em ambas as margens do Atlântico, sobretudo, nas du...

  15. Seasonal and Inter-annual Variation in Wood Production in Tropical Trees on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, is Related to Local Climate and Species Functional Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, K.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Kellner, J. R.; Wright, S. J.; Condit, R.; Detto, M.; Tribble, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forest carbon budgets play a major role in global carbon dynamics, but the responses of tropical forests to current and future inter-annual climatic variation remains highly uncertain. Better predictions of future tropical forest carbon fluxes require an improved understanding of how different species of tropical trees respond to changes in climate at seasonal and inter-annual temporal scales. We installed dendrometer bands on a size-stratified sample of 2000 trees in old growth forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, a moist lowland forest that experiences an annual dry season of approximately four months. Tree diameters were measured at the beginning and end of the rainy season since 2008. Additionally, we recorded the canopy illumination level, canopy intactness, and liana coverage of all trees during each census. We used linear mixed-effects models to evaluate how tree growth was related to seasonal and interannual variation in local climate, tree condition, and species identity, and how species identity effects related to tree functional traits. Climatic variables considered included precipitation, solar radiation, soil moisture, and climatological water deficit, and were all calculated from high-quality on-site measurements. Functional traits considered included wood density, maximum adult stature, deciduousness, and drought tolerance. We found that annual wood production was positively related to water availability, with higher growth in wetter years. Species varied in their response to seasonal water availability, with some species showing more pronounced reduction of growth during the dry season when water availability is limited. Interspecific variation in seasonal and interannual growth patterns was related to life-history strategies and species functional traits. The finding of higher growth in wetter years is consistent with previous tree ring studies conducted on a small subset of species with reliable annual rings. Together with previous

  16. Análisis tipológico de las estructuras de las construcciones rurales tradicionales de barro. La casa de corral en el Páramo de León (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rego Sanmartín, Teresa

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditional rural buildings reflect the building techniques inherited from ancestors, where materials mastery is proved. In this job we analyse the structure of one of the most relevant Spanish traditional agrarian building: the "casa de corral"(yard house. Thirty seven "corrales" (yards of the vernacular earthen construction in the "Páramo de León"(León, Spain were analysed. It was necessary think up an analysis method, which we called "round analysis method". Generally. radial cross sections of the yard have a main space between two earth walls bearing over stone foundation, which support floor framing, the roof framing, roof sheathing and arabic curved tiles. A gantry is usually built inward the yard, on a stone baseLas construcciones rurales tradicionales suelen reflejar el buen hacer de quienes han heredado las técnicas de sus antepasados, demostrando un dominio admirable de los materiales. En este trabajo nos centramos en el análisis estructural de uno de los edificios más emblemáticos de las construcciones agrarias tradicionales peninsulares: la casa de corral. Se analizaron 37 de estos edificios, uniformemente repartidos por la comarca del Páramo de León (España. pertenecientes a la denominada construcción de barro rural tradicional contemporánea. Para llevar a cabo el estudio fue necesario idear el denominado método giratorio de análisis. en virtud del cual se realizan sucesivos cortes radiales al corral. Esto nos permitió establecer las características constructivas más relevantes de dichos edificios. En general. las secciones radiales del corral suelen contar con un volumen principal de gruesos muros de carga a base de tapial sobre cimiento de piedra. sustentando los forjados y la estructura de cubierta, cuya impermeabilidad se logra mediante teja árabe. dispuesta sobre enlabiado de madera o sobre rama entretejida. Hacia el interior del corral se suele construir el corredor porticado, cuyos soportes transmiten las

  17. U/Pb zircon ages and model ages (Sm/Nd) of ortho gneisses and meta mafic enclaves of the Barro Vermelho area (state of Pernambuco, Brazil), Alto Moxoto terrain, Borborema province, northeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Barro Vermelho area is located in the border between municipalities of Custodia and Sertania - PE, Pajeu-Paraiba Fold Belt, Borborema Province. Geological mapping at 1/25.000 scale allowed to distinguish two metamorphic domains respectively built up of orthoderivated rocks and paraderivated ones. The orthoderivated domain is formed mainly by augen gneisses more or less migmatized of granitic, monzogranitic, granodioritic, tonalitic and quartz-dioritic composition inside of which are found metamafic enclaves of leucogabbros, gabbronorites, gabbros/diorites, and anorthosites, apart from banded amphibolites, with a small occurrence of Fe-Ti ore enclosed by some of these enclaves. In addition, inserted in the orthogneisses are found also others enclaves and intrusions (some apparently concordant and others certainly discordant in relation to the prominent foliation of the area, Sn) of metric to hectometric dimensions, built up of amphibolites/metadiorites, metaplite, calcissilicate rocks of mafic ultramafic protholiths, weakly deformed granites and diorites, and two hectometric bodies of olivine diabase to troctolite. Field relations and similarities in terms of composition, texture and lithogeochemistry allowed to place the lithotypes of the orthoderivated domain in the following groups, considering them in a relative sequence of events from the older to the newest ones: anorthositic-gabbros xenoliths; tonalite (protolith of the orthogneisse of equal composition); enclaves/ dikes of amphibolites/metadiorites, synplutonic in relation to tonalite and comagmatic to the xenoliths; granitic orthogneisses formed from migmatization of tonalite; enclaves/dikes of amphibolites/metadiorite, synplutonic in relation to migmatization of tonalites; granites and diorites late to post migmatization; and olivine diabase to troctolite post the last tectonic-metamorphic event recorded in the area. Concordia diagrams U/Pb with colinear regression of three zircon fractions to

  18. Programa piloto para pacientes beneficiarios de Fonasa, que padecen Esclerosis Multiple: Tratamiento con Inmunomoduladores en el Sistema Público de Salud de Chile. Informe del primer año, 10 de julio 2008-30 de Junio 2009 Pilot national treatment program for Multiple Sclerosis patients belonging to the public health care system of Chile (FONASA) with immunomodulating disease-modifying therapies: First year report from July 2008 to June 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Nogales-Gaete; Rodrigo Aracena C; Paula Agurto M; Sergio Cepeda Z; Claudia Figueroa; Carola González E; Dolores Tohá T; Soledad del Campo U; Rodrigo Salinas R; Verónica Medina U; David Sáez M; Rene Meza E; Alfonso Riquelme G; Gonzalo Arcos-Bustos; María Cristina Martínez T

    2010-01-01

    Introducción El presente documento corresponde al informe del primer año de trabajo operativo del "Programa piloto de tratamiento con inmunomoduladores, para pacientes beneficiarios de Fonasa1, que padecen esclerosis múltiple (EM)", elaborado por el equipo del centro de referencia nacional, para este programa, con sede en el Servicio de Neurología del Complejo Asistencial Barros Luco (CABL) del SSMS2. Dado su origen no incluye antecedentes del proceso de gestión ni toma de decisiones del nive...

  19. Liolaemus silvanae (Donoso Barros & Cei, 1971) (Iguania: Liolaemidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala, Cristian Simón; Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2001-01-01

    República Argentina, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Dep. Río Chico (48° 34' S 71° 25' W), Estancia La Justita, Meseta Lago Strobel, 1100 msnm. Dos adultos (un macho y una hembra). MACN 31916- 31917. Johnson, Casañas & Piagazzi cols., 10 de Diciembre de 1985.

  20. The butterflies of Barro Colorado Islands, Panama: Local extinction since the 1930s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, H.; Segar, Simon T.; Srygley, R. B.; Aiello, A.; Warren, A. D.; Delgado, F.; Coronado, J.; Lezcano, J.; Arizala, A.; Rivera, M.; Perez, F.; Bobadilla, R.; Lopez, Y.; Ramirez, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0136623. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant ostatní: USB Postdoc project(CZ) CZ1.07/2.3.00/30.0006 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tropical rain-forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0136623

  1. Time-varying disaster risk models: An empirical assessment of the Rietz-Barro hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irarrazabal, Alfonso; Parra-Alvarez, Juan Carlos

    in long run simulations. The model is solved using a two step projection-based method that allows us to find the equilibrium consumption-wealth ratio and dividend-yield for different values of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution. By fixing the elasticity of substitution to one, the first......This paper revisits the fit of disaster risk models where a representative agent has recursive preferences and the probability of a macroeconomic disaster changes over time. We calibrate the model as in Wachter (2013) and perform two sets of tests to assess the empirical performance of the model...... experiment indicates that the overall fit of the model is adequate. However, we find that the amount of aggregate stock market volatility that the model can generate is sensible to the method used to solve the model. We also find that the model generates near unit root interest rates and a puzzling ranking...

  2. Liolaemus silvanae (Donoso Barros & Cei, 1971) (Iguania: liolaemidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Abdala, Cristian Simón; Díaz Gómez, Juan Manuel

    2001-01-01

    República Argentina, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Dep. Río Chico (48° 34' S 71° 25' W), Estancia La Justita, Meseta Lago Strobel, 1100 msnm. Dos adultos (un macho y una hembra). MACN 31916- 31917. Johnson, Casañas & Piagazzi cols., 10 de Diciembre de 1985.

  3. EL VALOR DE RESTITUCIÓN DE LA MAQUETA. UNA MAQUETA DE BARRO PARA RECONSTRUIR Arg-e-Bam

    OpenAIRE

    Úbeda Blanco, Marta

    2012-01-01

    El presente artículo pretende señalar la vigencia de la importancia del uso de las maquetas tridimensionales en el ejercicio de la profesión de la arquitectura, confirmándose en la evidencia de que a pesar de larápida evolución de las técnicas de representación de la arquitectura -sobre todo las realizadas con medios informáticos- los grandes estudios actuales siguen realizando maquetas en todos y cada uno de los procesos creativos y representativos de sus obras. Además se pretende la comprob...

  4. AS MULHERES DO BARRO: Um registro etnomatemático das mulheres artesãs de Arraias (Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Marques Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de una investigación doctoral realizada en el Programa de Graduados de la Facultad de Educación de la Universidad de Brasilia. Se trata de una investigación etnográfica con dos mujeres artesanas del municipio de Arraias, el estado de Tocantins, los últimos representantes de los conocimientos tradicionales. La vida de estos dos damas se enredan en la misma narrativa, aprendieron el arte de la cerámica con sus madres, algunos a la escuela e incluso sin el conocimiento académico matemático desarrollado una técnica depurada en la preparación de los platos que revelan conceptos etnomatemáticos, refiriéndonos a un proceso cognitivo en las proporciones establecidas entre diferentes objetos de cerámica ganar un nuevo entorno, un nuevo sentido de la medida, lo que permite proponer un diálogo con la universidad establecida por la reconexión de conocimiento.

  5. RESIDÊNCIA DO SENHOR ANTÔNIO: HABITAÇÃO DE TAIPA E BARRO, LUGARES DE MEMÓRIA E MEMÓRIA DE LUGARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Ney Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of edified heritage best known in Brazil is represented by the big houses and others elitist buildings that goes from the colonial and imperial epoch and, in same cases, even to projects in the beginning of the twentieth century. This way, the legitimization of this notion of heritage has an important role in the process of self affirmation of the individuals, presenting as instruments of affirmation of a project of power, at the same time that it obscures and makes silence about the memory of others social groups. In this article we work with the oral history according to the Michael Pollak’s concept that gives voice to the memories of subaltern groups and makes with that the voices of subterranean memories can be heard, this way doing that the subaltern groups can be heard and having their memories preserved. The article was written using the data obtained in a rural community called Barreiro do Café, located in the municipality of São Raimundo Nonato, state of Piauí, in the Northeastern region of Brazil. These data, obtained from a research that is in the interface of Archaeology and History, demonstrate the need of widening the notion of heritage with the purpose of represent the memory of subaltern groups in the northeastern region of Brazil because they represent the regional memory that, in many times is forgotten by the authorities.

  6. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, Elise

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral. PMID:25914272

  7. 75 FR 26987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Wisconsin Historical Society, Museum Division, Madison, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... been placed with or near the human remains at the time of death or later during the death rite or..., human remains were removed from a grave near Luco Creek (47-FD-0242), Fond du Lac, Fond du Lac...

  8. Determination of lead in clay enameled by X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection and by Scanning Electron Microscopy; Determinacion de plomo en esmaltado de barro por Fluorescencia de rayos X en reflexion total y Microscopia Electronica de Barrido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarazua O, G.; Carapia M, L. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    This work has the objective of determining lead free in the glazed commercial stewing pans using the X-ray fluorescence technique in Total reflection (FRX) and the observation and semiquantitative determination of lead by Analytical Scanning Electron Microscopy (ASEM). (Author)

  9. Perfil colorímetrico y de pigmentos de aceites de oliva producidos en la zona oleícola de Tierra de Barros (Badajoz), como contribución a su caracterización

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes de Mendoza, Manuel; Marín Expósito, Julia; Martínez Cano, Manuel; Miguel Gordillo, Concepción de; Sánchez Casas, Jacinto; Osorio Bueno, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    El color del aceite de oliva, así como el contenido en pigmentos clorofílicos y carotenoides está influenciado por el estado de madurez de los frutos, la variedad de aceituna y el proceso de extracción del aceite. A medida que la fecha de recolección de la aceituna avanza, se producen descensos en los contenidos de pigmentos, así como cambios en las coordenadas colorimétricas, en aceites de oliva obtenidos en laboratorio mediante Sistema Abencor. El análisis estadístico realizado revela que p...

  10. Análisis comparativo estructural y ultraestructural de la eliminación del barro dentinario por láser de Er YAG y un agente quelante (EDTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Basal, Roxana Lía

    2014-01-01

    Los distintos procedimientos que se realizan en la preparación quirúrgica del conducto radicular, modifican la superficie dentinaria expuesta, a fin de lograr su acondicionamiento como paso previo a la obturación. En el presente trabajo se realizó un estudio prospectivo transversal para comparar la acción de un agente quelante (EDTA) y el láser (Er YAG), en el tratamiento de la superficie dentinaria del conducto radicular, aplicados a piezas dentarias extraídas y tratadas endodónticamente. Se...

  11. Gestión del urbanismo y administración urbana: los pies de barro en el despliegue territorial del neoliberalismo en Chile. / Management planning and urban management: feet of clay in the territorial deployment of neoliberalism in Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaete Feres, Héctor

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el abordaje eficiente de los problemas urbanos requiere enfrentar un asunto central pero rezagado de los procesos de modernización impulsados en el marco del modelo económico neoliberal vigente: la ineficiencia en la administración y gestión del desarrollo territorial. Ambas constituyen lastres que afectan el desempeño del sistema económico y el logro de los objetivos del país en calidad de vida para las personas. El artículo busca relevar, revisar el estado del arte y proponer líneas de trabajo hacia soluciones./Management of urbanism and urban administration. The Mud Feet in the Territorial Deployment of the Neoliberalism in Chile.In Chile, the efficient boarding of the urban problems requires to face a central but left behind subject of the impelled processes of modernization in the frame of the effective neoliberal economic model: inefficiency in the administration and management of the territorial development. Both constitute ballasts that affect the performance of the economic system and the profit of the objectives of the country in quality of life for the people. I articulate looks for to release, to review the state-of-the-art and to propose lines of work towards solutions.

  12. The non-Euclidean revolution

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    1986-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...

  13. The non-Euclidean revolution with an introduction by H.S.M. Coxeter

    CERN Document Server

    Trudeau, Richard J

    2001-01-01

    How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America.

  14. FEDERALISME, LIBERALISME I CONSENS SOLAPAT. EL CAS CANADENC

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Sanjaume-Calvet

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the forms of legitimation of Canadian federalism in relation to the Rawlsian notion of overlapping consensus as applied to federalism by Wayne Norman. From the works of Dimitrios Karmis and Alain-G. Gagnon, the paper presents three types of federalism: universalist, communitarian and utilitarian, which are discussed in relation to the constitutional situation after the repatriation of the Constitution in 1982 and the Trudeau model. These three approaches to federalism are ...

  15. Caballos de Poseidón. Barcos de juncos y "hippoi" en el sur de la Península ibérica y el litoral atlántico norteafricano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mederos Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente conocemos la presencia de embarcaciones de junco en Menorca, Cádiz, Larache (Marruecos y Tenerife. Estos barcos, queparecen indicar una marina indígena, se asocian a cauces fluviales navegables como el río Guadiaro en Laja Alta (Jimena de la Frontera,Cádiz y el río Lucos en Larache o a zonas costeras insulares como el Barranco de Macarella (Menorca o La Baranda (El Sauzal, Tenerife. Coexisten barcos grandes en Laja Alta y embarcaciones pequeñas, que no superan los 3 m., en el río Lucos y Tenerife, aunque usan vela. En dos de los casos, Laja Alta y La Baranda, se asocian con barcos de posible procedencia foránea, que en Tenerife se trata de 4 o 5 hippoi, procedentes quizás de Gadir.

  16. Exchange enhanced paramagnetism of rare-earth (yttrium)-transition metal compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The magnetic susceptibilities, χ, of R-M and R-M-B exchange enhanced paramagnets where R = Y, La, Lu and M= Co, Ni are analysed. As a general feature, there is a T2 dependence of χ values at T < 10 K, while for T > T* a Curie-Weiss behavior is shown. The experimental data are discussed in correlation with band structure calculations. The pressure dependence of LuCo2 magnetic susceptibility is also analysed

  17. Site effects of the Roio basin, L’Aquila

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, E.; CETE Méditerranée, Service Risque Sismique, Nice, France; Duval, A.M.; CETE Méditerranée (Centre d'Etudes Techniques de l’Equipement), Laboratoire régional des ponts et chaussées, Nice, France; Régnier, J.; CETE Méditerranée, Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées (LCPC), Nice, France; Azzara, R. M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Bergamaschi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Bordoni, P.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Cara, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Cultrera, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Di Giulio, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Milana, G.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Roma1, Roma, Italia; Salichon, J.; OCA, UMR Géoazur, Sophia-Antipolis, France

    2011-01-01

    During the microzonation studies of the April 6th, 2009 L’Aquila earthquake, we observed local seismic amplifications in the Roio area—a plane separated from L’Aquila city center by mount Luco. Six portable, digital instruments were deployed across the plain from 15 April to mid-May 2009. This array recorded 152 aftershocks. We analyzed the ground motion from these events to determine relative site amplification within the plain and on surrounding ridges. Horizontal over vertic...

  18. HÖFF / Kaisa Karu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karu, Kaisa

    2008-01-01

    Haapsalu õudusfilmide festivalil HÕFF linastuvaid filme - "Ajaroimad" ("Los Cronocrimenes"; režii Nacho Vigalondo), "Mudapoiss" ("El nino de barro"; Jorge Algora), "Orbudekodu" (El orfanato"; Juan Antonio Bayona)

  19. Research Networks: a fundamental value-added for scientific communication / Redes de investigación: un valor agregado fundamental para la comunicación científica

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson López López

    2012-01-01

    This edition of Universitas Psychologica has a special value because it is the result of a collaborative work with a research group from the Universidad de La Frontera led by Ricardo Perez Luco, Jaime Alfaro and Beatriz Paes from Chile, who organized the “First International Seminar of Juvenile Justice. Be and Ought to be of the public policy” a meeting that brought together world leading researchers in order to investigate an emerging and critical problem in our societies, such as the juveni...

  20. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources. PMID:24638041

  1. Straightforward fabrication of stable white LEDs by embedding of inorganic UV-LEDs into bulk polymerized polymethyl-methacrylate doped with organic dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Martino, Daniela; Beverina, Luca; Sassi, Mauro; Brovelli, Sergio; Tubino, Riccardo; Meinardi, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    Stable white-emitting down-converted LEDs are straightforwardly prepared by bulk polymerization of an organic dye doped polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) shell directly on top of a highly efficient commercial blue-emitting InGaN LED. Our optimized polymerization procedure allows for extending the form factor of achievable luminescence converter (LUCO) material beyond the conventional thin film form and to directly produce devices with light bulb design. The selected organic dyes, the blue-emitting Coumarin 30 and a red-emitting diketopyrrolopyrrole derivative, exhibit high compatibility with the free radical polymerization reaction of the PMMA matrix and ensure high stability of the final hybrid device. The control of both the thickness of the PMMA shell and the concentration of the dopant dyes allow for fine tuning of the emission color of the LUCO LED and to obtain white light with CIE chromatic coordinates x = 0.32 and y = 0.33, with rendering index as high as 80. This simple and versatile procedure is not dye-exclusive and is therefore extendable to other molecular systems for color-tunable efficient solid-state lighting sources.

  2. La Grande dépression américaine et la neutralité de la monnaie : un test économétrique

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, Daniel; Bergeron, Pierre

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, the neutrality hypothesis is tested for the U.S. Great Depression. Neutrality is generally rejected by the data even when banking failures are excluded from the available information set in generating the anticipated rate of growth of money series. Hence our results are contrary to those of Barro (1977, 1978) and Barro and Rush (1980) for the Post War years. They confirm those of Mishkin (1982). Dans ce texte, nous utilisons des données de la période de l’entre-deux-guerres aux...

  3. Eliminación del plomo por curado casero

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Sánchez Luisa; López-Carrillo Lizbeth; Ríos Camilo

    1999-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar el curado ácido como medida preventiva para reducir el contenido de plomo en vasijas de barro vidriadas. Material y métodos. En 27 vasijas de barro procedentes de cuatro estados de México se determinó, mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica, el nivel de plomo residual, después de cuatro lavados con ácido acético al 3%. Resultados. El contenido de plomo en el ácido acético utilizado para lavar las vasijas disminuyó proporcionalmente con el número de lavados, aunque ...

  4. Prefácio a «Violência nas escolas e bullying: Reflexões sobre indisciplina, violência e bullying escolar»

    OpenAIRE

    César, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Prefácio para o livro de Nazaré Barros com o título Violência nas escolas e bullying: Reflexões sobre indisciplina, violência e bullying escolar. Este livro baseia-se na dissertação de mestrado que desenvolveu e que eu orientei.

  5. Translation Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandepitte, Sonia; Mousten, Birthe; Maylath, Bruce;

    2014-01-01

    After Kiraly (2000) introduced the collaborative form of translation in classrooms, Pavlovic (2007), Kenny (2008), and Huertas Barros (2011) provided empirical evidence that testifies to the impact of collaborative learning. This chapter sets out to describe the collaborative forms of learning at...

  6. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian Society" (de Barros, Milhomen); and "India: Hope for a…

  7. PhD-project Robust and Agile Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.

    2013-01-01

    The PhD research by Lanah Evers is a collaborative research project between TNO, the Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA) and the Erasmus University of Rotterdam and aims to develop robust and agile planning methods for military operations. This PhD research is supervised by Dr. A. Barros (TNO), who i

  8. CUEVA LAPA [Material gráfico

    OpenAIRE

    Fundación para la Etnografía y el Desarrollo de la Artesanía Canaria

    1990-01-01

    4 ESTANCIAS, 2 INTERCONECTADAS, 1 DEPENDIENTE Y LA COCINA. LAS PAREDES SON ESCORIA COMPACTADAS RECUBIERTAS DE BARRO Y ENNCALADAS. AUN QUEDAN ALGUNAS PUERTAS CON SUS CERRADURAS ORIGINALES. POR FUERA TIENE POYOS ADOSADOS A LAS PAREDES, UNA ORNCINA, POCETA Y LAVADERO, TODO PICADO EN LA ROCA. LA COCINA TIENE UNA ABERTURA EN LA PARTE SUPERIOR (VENTILACION).

  9. El Niño and other determinants of butterfly migrations in a Neotropical wet forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    What factors regulate insect populations and their movement in the tropics? We censused butterflies flying across the Panama Canal at Barro Colorado Island (BCI) for 16 years to address two questions. What environmental factors determine the date on which the number of migrating butterflies peaked...

  10. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  11. Numerical Analysis of the Deformation of an Embankment Reinforced using a Geogrid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Micka, Michal; Jíra, J.; Jírová, J.

    Stirlingshire : Civil-Comp Press, 2009 - (Topping, B.; Costa Neves, L.; Barros, R.), s. 321-332 ISBN 978-1-905088-31-7. [International conference on Civil, structural and environmental engineering computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira (PT), 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : geogrid * reinforced * embankment Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  12. Adamah, a Golem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Judensnaider

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Não sei de onde surgiu o rumor ou como a lenda sobre Adamah, a Golem, se espalhou. Como refazer o trajeto do mágico relato de uma boneca de barro que, por forças ocultas e secretas, ganhou vida e quase virou gente?

  13. Self‐reported food and drug allergy in Maputo, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Lunet, N; Falcão, H; Sousa, M; Bay, N.; Barros, H.

    2005-01-01

    Public Health. 2005 Jul;119(7):587-9. Self-reported food and drug allergy in Maputo, Mozambique. Lunet N, Falcão H, Sousa M, Bay N, Barros H. SourceDepartment of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Porto Medical School, Portugal. PMID: 15925673 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE

  14. Seed predation and defleshing in the agouti-dispersed palm Astrocaryum standleyanum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.A.; Elschot, K.; Verkerk, P.J.; Wright, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    The agouti (Dasyprocta punctata) meticulously defleshes Astrocaryum standleyanum palm seeds before scatter hoarding. On Barro Colorado Island, Panama, we experimentally tested three hypotheses on how this behaviour could reduce seed predation to the mutual benefit of the tree and the rodent. The fir

  15. Announcements and Credibility of Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    An infinitely repeated monetary policy game à la Barro and Gordon (1983) is considered. Before the game starts the government announces a policy rule. If there is a slight probability that government is honest and a slight probability that the government makes mistakes, then a sufficiently patient...

  16. Announcements and credibility of monetary policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    1996-01-01

    An infinitely repeated monetary policy game à la Barro and Gordon is considered. Before the game starts the government announces a policy rule. If there is a slight probability that government is honest and a slight probability that the government makes mistakes, then a sufficiently patient gover...

  17. A Survey Tool for Assessing Student Expectations Early in a Semester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl R.B. Schmitt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality learning is fostered when faculty members are aware of and address student expectations for course learning activities and assessments. However, faculty often have difficulty identifying and addressing student expectations given variations in students’ backgrounds, experiences, and beliefs about education. Prior research has described significant discrepancies between student and faculty expectations that result from cultural backgrounds (1, technological expertise (2, and ‘teaching dimensions’ as described by Trudeau and Barnes (4. Such studies illustrate the need for tools to identify and index student expectations, which can be used to facilitate a dialogue between instructor and students. Here we present the results of our work to develop, refine, and deploy such a tool.

  18. Canadians, nuclear weapons, and the Cold War security dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation provides a history of Canadian ideas about nuclear weapons from the late 1950s until the end of the Trudeau era in 1984. Throughout this period, Canadians reacted to the insecurity they felt in the world around them by expressing many conflicting, often irreconcilable views about a range of nuclear weapon issues, including Canada's acquisition of nuclear warheads in 1963, the U.S. ABM program in the 1960s and early 1970s, the role of Canadian nuclear technology in the development of India's first nuclear explosion, and the Trudeau government's decision to allow the U.S. military to test cruise missiles in northern Canada The dissertation concludes with an examination of the emergence of a broadly-based, increasingly mainstream and influential anti-nuclear movement in the early 1980s, the clearest manifestation of the insecurity Canadians experienced at the time. .The nuclear debates examined in this dissertation reveal that Canadians were divided over nuclear weapons, nuclear strategy, the arms race, proliferation, and arms control and disarmament. In particular, they came to fundamentally different conclusions about how Canada's nuclear weapon policies, and its support for the nuclear policies of its alliances, would contribute to international stability and order. Some believed that their security rested on the maintenance of a strong Western nuclear deterrent and supported Canada contributing to its credibility; others believed that the constant modernisation of nuclear arsenals fuelled by the superpower arms race posed a serious threat to their security. This conceptual dilemma-the security through nuclear strength argument versus the fear that the quest for security through quantitative and qualitative improvements of nuclear stockpiles increased the likelihood of nuclear war-left Canadians divided over the value and utility of nuclear weapons and the strategies developed around them. At the same time, Canadians' ideas about nuclear weapons

  19. Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.

  20. ¡Tierra de cristeros!

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hurtado, Juan Francisco; Meyer, Jean,; Padilla, María Esther Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Juan Francisco Hernández Hurtado, nació el 16 de Junio de 1916. Hijo de Nicanor Hernández y de Amada Hurtado. Originario del Rancho El Muerto. Jurisdicción de Santa María del Valle. Era miembro de una familia compuesta por 9 hijos, siete hombres y dos mujeres. Sus hermanos cuentan que de niño se distinguió por su capacidad intelectual. A la edad de siete años aprendió a leer con la ayuda de unas primas. También a la edad de siete años aprendió a trabajar el barro, fabricaba pitos de barro, l...

  1. Optimality, Rational Expectations and Time Inconsistency Applied to Inflation Targeting Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius-Corneliu Marinas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the characteristics of an inflation targeting strategy, using the Barro-Gordon model specific tools. This paper uses the initial Barro-Gordon concepts of inflationary social costs and benefits, adding a new dimension generated by the cost of output deviating from the potential level. The main contribution of this paper is the exhaustive study of the time inconsistency problem generated by the very existence of a policymaker-established inflation rate. The mathematic simulation of a model allowed a complete analysis of several parameters’ influence (parameters such as the optimal rate of inflation, the discount rate, the importance structure of inflationary social cost on the applicable range of the target inflation rate, range that guarantees that the policymakers have no incentive to break their own rules, or at least this incentive is somewhat inferior to the future cost of doing so.

  2. Disease: H00638 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00638 Ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia cleft-palate syndrome (EEC syndrome) Ectro...dactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant genetic disorder. ...todermal dysplasia affecting skin, hair, and nails, and cleft lip with or without cleft... Costa VD, Verde RB, Barros DS Do you know this syndrome? Ectrodactyly - ectodermal dysplasia - cleft lip/pa...n MM Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft palate (EEC syndrome). Report o

  3. Does the Time-Consistency Problem Explain the Behavior of Inflation in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter N. Ireland

    1998-01-01

    This paper derives the restrictions imposed by Barro and Gordon's theory of time-consistent monetary policy on a bivariate time-series model for inflation and unemployment and tests those restrictions using quarterly US data from 1960 through 1997. The results show that the data are consistent with the theory's implications for the long-run behavior of the two variables, indicating that the theory can explain inflation's initial rise and subsequent fall over the past four decades. The results...

  4. Institutions and Economic Performance: Cross-Country Tests Using Alternative Institutional Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Knack, Stephen; Keefer, Philip

    1995-01-01

    This paper compares more direct measures of the institutional environment with both the instability proxies used by Barro (1991) and the Gastil indices, by comparing their effects both on growth and private investment. The results provide substantial support for the position that the institutional roots of growth and convergence are significant. The marked improvement that these new variables represent over existing proxies also suggests that there are substantial returns to future research...

  5. DECENTRALIZATION, GROWTH AND OPTIMAL GOVERNMENT SIZE IN THE ITALIAN REGIONAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Di Liddo; Cosimo Magazzino; Francesco Porcelli

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to empirically assess the existence of the BARS curve (Barro, Armey, Rahn, and Scully), as well as the relationship between public expenditure and decentralization, for Italian regions in the 1997-2009 period. Using panel data methodologies, we inspect the nexus between Regional government size (measured by the share of public expenditure on GDP) and the economic growth rate. The main results are twofold. First, when the degree of decentralization is reasonably low (b...

  6. Towards new maps of global human values, based on World Values Survey (6) data

    OpenAIRE

    Tausch, Arno

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a new approach to the study of global values, based on a statistical analysis of the freely available data from the World Values Survey, 6th wave of global opinion surveys, which has now been made public. In accordance with economic approaches, we contradict the mainstream of the hitherto published global value analyses in sociology (Ronald F. Inglehart) and we think that family values (Schumpeter) and religious values (Barro) can be an important positive asset for socie...

  7. Regional Labor Markets, Network Externalities and Migration: The Case of German Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years after German reunification, the facts about slow regional convergence have born out the prediction of Barro (1991), except that migration out of East Germany has not slowed down. I document that in particular the 18-29 year old are leaving East Germany, and that the emigration has accelerated in recent years. To understand these patterns, I provide an extension of the standard labor search model by allowing for migration and network externalities. In that theory, two equilibria ...

  8. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets r...

  9. Impactos da implantação de um Sistema de Gestão da Qualidade Baseado em Norma ISO na Cultura de Laboratório no Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia – INT

    OpenAIRE

    Nilço Mauro da Silva Moura; Isabel de Sá Costa; Denise Medeiros Ribeiro Salles

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the effects of implementation of ISO IEC ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025in the culture laboratory of the National Institute of Technology and examines how thisinfluences their deployment management model. As analytical model, we used the BrazilianCultural Action Model formulated by Barros and Prates (1996). The model reflected all itscomplexity in the four defined positions: concentration of power; position of spectator;personalist; avoid conflict. The main focus of the study wa...

  10. Beyond the quantum formalism: consequences of a neural-oscillator model to quantum cognition

    CERN Document Server

    de Barros, J Acacio

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a neural oscillator model of stimulus response theory that exhibits quantum-like behavior. We then show that without adding any additional assumptions, a quantum model constructed to fit observable pairwise correlations has no predictive power over the unknown triple moment, obtainable through the activation of multiple oscillators. We compare this with the results obtained in de Barros (2013), where a criteria of rationality gives optimal ranges for the triple moment.

  11. Multiple Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in the Southern Cone of Latin America: A Population-based Study in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, Adolfo L; Irazola, Vilma E.; Calandrelli, Matias; Elorriaga, Natalia; Gutierrez, Laura; Lanas, Fernando; Manfredi, Jose A; Mores, Nora; Olivera, Hector; Poggio, Rosana; Ponzo, Jacqueline; Seron, Pamela; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Lydia A. Bazzano; He, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death, and its mortality is increasing in Latin America. However, population-based data on cardiovascular disease risk factors are sparse in these countries. Methods A total of 7,524 men and women, aged 35 to 74 years old, were recruited between February 2010 and December 2011 from randomly selected samples in 4 cities (Bariloche and Marcos Paz, Argentina; Temuco, Chile; and Pando-Barros Blancos, Uruguay) in the Southern Cone of Latin Amer...

  12. Regional convergence and divergence in Latin American:A state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Mauricio Cuervo González

    2004-01-01

    Barro &Sala-i-Martin (1995)growth s model has been a theoretical reference to Latin American studies on regional convergence.This article analyses around twenty research works published about Bolivia,Brazil,Colombia,Chile,Mexico and Peru during the last decade.It evaluates theoretical,methodological and empirical implementation of the model and proposes new researching questions to progress on knowledge s production.

  13. Microscale response of sediment variables to benthic disturbance in the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Mohandass, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Sheelu, G.; Raghukumar, C.

    the biochemical parameters.Discussion Sedimentary bacteria live in a physically and chemically complex environment. Despite theirpreminent role in the production of nutritionally valuable biomas and in the turnover oforganic carbon (Deming and Barros,1993),studies...Mediterranean,and the Norwegian sea (Khripounoff et al.,1980; Danovaro et al.,1995b). After disturbance,the concentrations of protein and lipid in particular were much lower byhalf,making this region a nutritionally deficient area. This was further reflected in thedecrease...

  14. Fear of Floating and Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Demosthenes N. Tambakis

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the welfare implications of financial stability and inflation stabilization as distinct monetary policy objectives. Introducing asymmetric aversion to exchange rate depreciation in the Barro-Gordon model mitigates inflation bias due to credibility problems. The net welfare impact of fear of floating depends on the economy's recent track record, the credibility of monetary policy, and the central bank's discount factor. It is shown that fear of floating is more appropriate f...

  15. Factors controlling superelastic damping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heller, Luděk; Šittner, Petr; Landa, Michal

    Porto: FEUP, 2010 - (Barros, R.; Preaumont, A.), s. 453-469 ISBN 978-989-96697-0-3. [S(3)T 2010, Smart Structural Systems Technologies. Porto (PT), 06.04.2010-09.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys, * superelastic damping * thermomechanical testing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  16. The influence of different forms of government spending on distribution and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Commendatore, Pasquale; Panico, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the influence of different types of government expenditure on growth. It widens that proposed by the literature which follows the lines set by Barro (1990) because it adds the changes working through the demand side, generated by the variations in the distribution of the net income of the economy, to those working through the supply side, generated by the variations in factor productivity. The analysis considers a government sector with a balanced budget and an autonomou...

  17. Capital formation and economic growth under central planning and transition: a theoretical and empirical analysis, ca. 1920-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Foldvari; Bas van Leeuwen; Dimitry Didenko

    2013-01-01

    According to the consensus view it was physical capital accumulation that primarily drove economic growth during the early socialist period. Growth models incorporating both human and physical capital accumulation (Caballe and Santos 1993, Barro and Sala-i-Martin 2004) lead to the conclusion that a high physical/human capital ratio can cause a lower economic growth in the long-run. In this paper we show theoretically and empirically that according to the logic of the socialist planner, it was...

  18. Growth Expectation

    OpenAIRE

    Ippei Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, changes in expectations about the future have been thought to be significant sources of economic fluctuations, as argued by Pigou (1926). Although creating such an expectation-driven cycle (the Pigou cycle) in equilibrium business cycle models was considered to be a difficult challenge, as pointed out by Barro and King (1984), recently, several researchers have succeeded in producing the Pigou cycle by balancing the tension between the wealth effect and the substitution effec...

  19. The Impact of EMU on Inflation Expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Heinemann, Friedrich; Ullrich, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the monetary regime change from the Bundesbank to the ECB in 1999 on inflation expectations. In the theoretical part, the Barro-Gordon model is used to derive the potential effect of a new central bank on inflation, inflation expectations and forecast errors. The econometric investigation is based on a flexible specification of expectation formation which allows both for rational and adaptive elements. Data on inflation expectations originate from the ZEW Fin...

  20. Non-linear auto-parametric vibrations in civil engineering systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří

    Stirlingshire, Scotland: Saxe-Coburg publications, 2009 - (Topping, B.; Costa, L.; Barros, R.), s. 293-317 ISBN 978-1-874672-42-5 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710902; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : non-linear vibration * auto-parametric systems * dynamic stability Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  1. Unionised Labour Market, Unemployment Allowances, Productive Public Expenditure and Endogenous Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Chandril; Gupta, Manash Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with special focus on the role of unionized labour market and on the interaction between the tax financed productive public expenditure and unemployment benefit policy of the government. We incorporate a ‘Managerial’ labour union in an otherwise identical Barro (1990) model; and use both ‘Efficient Bargaining’ model and ‘Right to Manage’ model to solve the negotiation problem between a labour union and an employers’ association. Proper...

  2. Taxation Versus Spending as the Fiscal Instrument for Demand Management: A Disequilibrium Welfare Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rankin, Neil

    1985-01-01

    The microeconomic foundations provided by the 'disequilibrium' macro-modelling approach of Barro-Grossman-Malinvaud are used to compare the performance of government spending and taxation as instruments of fiscal demand management in achieving a welfare optimum. Spending is successively treated as 'waste', 'consumption' and 'investment'. In all cases, when bond-financed deficits are permitted, spending should be set with regard only to the full employment situation, leaving taxation as the in...

  3. Large-deflection-theory analysis of the effect of web initial curvature on the ultimate strength of steel plate girder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kala, J.; Kala, Z.; Melcher, J.; Škaloud, Miroslav

    Kippen : Civil-Comp Press, 2009 - (Topping, B.; Neves, L.; Barros, R.), s. 250-253 ISBN 978-1-905088-30-0. ISSN 1759-3433. [Conf. on civil, structural and environmental engineering computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira (PT), 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/08/0275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : thin-wall * imperfections * ANSYS Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering

  4. Regional convergence and divergence in Latin American:A state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mauricio Cuervo González

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Barro &Sala-i-Martin (1995growth ’s model has been a theoretical reference to Latin American studies on regional convergence.This article analyses around twenty research works published about Bolivia,Brazil,Colombia,Chile,Mexico and Peru during the last decade.It evaluates theoretical,methodological and empirical implementation of the model and proposes new researching questions to progress on knowledge ’s production.

  5. Two-Parameter Fracture Analysis of Wedge Splitting Test Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seitl, Stanislav; Dymáček, Petr; Klusák, Jan; Řoutil, L.; Veselý, V.

    Stirlingshire : Civil -Comp Press, 2009 - (Topping, B.; Costa Neves, L.; Barros, R.), paper 192 ISBN 978-1-905088-31-7. ISSN 1759-3433. [International Conference on Civil , Structural and Enviromental Engineering Computing /12./. Funchal, Madeira (PT), 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB200410901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : fracture mechanics * concrete * wedge splitting test * T-stress * numerical Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  6. Reflexos negros em olhos brancos:a academia na africanização dos candomblés

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Giobellina Brumana

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on an aspect of erudite theoretical production on subaltern religious production, considering some key academic works in the constitution of a theology of Candomblé: from Verger to Elbein, from Elbein to Vogel, Silva Mello & Pessoa de Barros, and, finally, the limits of the dream of re- Africanization that are imposed by the reality of cult centers and their agents, as documented by Vagner Silva.

  7. Reflexos negros em olhos brancos:a academia na africanização dos candomblés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Giobellina Brumana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on an aspect of erudite theoretical production on subaltern religious production, considering some key academic works in the constitution of a theology of Candomblé: from Verger to Elbein, from Elbein to Vogel, Silva Mello & Pessoa de Barros, and, finally, the limits of the dream of re- Africanization that are imposed by the reality of cult centers and their agents, as documented by Vagner Silva.

  8. School Attainment and Knowledge in Arab Countries

    OpenAIRE

    driouchi, ahmed

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with school attainment in the Arab economies. It is based on descriptive statistical analyses on Barro and Lee data for the period 1950-2010. The opportunities lost with the low level of school attainment and the corresponding time trends in Arab countries are discussed. The relatively slow speed of recovery in schooling could already be expressed by the lowest knowledge performances achieved by the economies of North Africa, Sudan and Yemen.

  9. Crecimiento relativo del producto per capita de los municipios de la Republica Mexicana, 1988-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Gomez-Zaldivar; Ernesto Laguna; Berenice Martinez; Marco Mosqueda

    2010-01-01

    Analizamos la hipotesis de convergencia en el producto per capita para el caso de los municipios de Mexico en el periodo 1988- 2004. El analisis emplea la metodologia de Barro y Sala-i-Martin (1992) usada en la mayoria de los estudios empiricos que utilizan datos de seccion cruzada. Los resultados sugieren evidencia a favor de la hipotesis de convergencia entre municipios para el periodo estudiado, lo cual difiere con lo encontrado en estudios similares a niveles estatal y regional. Ademas id...

  10. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) among elderly Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Barros IMC; Alcântara TS; Mesquita AR; Bispo ML; Rocha CE; Moreira VP; Lyra Junior DP

    2014-01-01

    Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS), Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) in a group of elderly ...

  11. Schwarz DD method for analysis of geocomposites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Jakl, Ondřej; Starý, Jiří; Krečmer, Karel

    Stirlingshire : Civil - Comp Press, 2009 - (Topping, B.; Costa Neves, L.; Barros, R.), s. 1-12 ISBN 978-1-905088-31-7. [International Conference on Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Computing/12./. Funchal (PT), 01.09.2009-04.09.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/1830 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : homogenization * finite elements * additive Schwarz preconditioning Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  12. Public Spending in a Model of Endogenous Growth with Habit Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel A. Gómez

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces habit-forming preferences in a Barro-type endogenous growth model with productive public services. Government expenditure, which may be subject to congestion, is financed by distortionary income taxation. Different from the standard time-separable model, the presence of habits makes the economy feature transitional dynamics, which are solved in closed form. Setting the income tax so as to equate the elasticity of public services in production is shown to maximiz...

  13. Measuring and Explaining Government Inefficiency in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    van de Sijpe, Nicolas; Rayp, Glenn

    2005-01-01

    We show the relevance of government expenditure inefficiency using the Barro (1990) model. We estimate government inefficiency for 52 developing countries using a data envelopment analysis. The estimated inefficiencies are subsequently used in a general to specific approach in order to identify their determinants. We find the government expenditure inefficiency is primarily determined by governance and political variables, and structural country variables. Economic policy determinants apparen...

  14. Productive government expenditure and fiscal sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Arai, Real

    2008-01-01

    We consider an overlapping generations model in which public spending directly contributes to grow up productivity as Barro (1990) and a government comforts the constant spending-GDP and debtspending ratio rules. We analyse policy effects on fiscal sustainability, growth rate and welfare. This paper gives some remarks as follows: First, we demonstrate that when spending-GDP ratio rises it may be more sustainable fiscal policy. Second, we show analytically that if higher spending-GDP ratio is ...

  15. Productive Government Expenditure and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Irmen, Andreas; Kuehnel, Johanna

    2008-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive survey of the recent literature on the link between productive government expenditure and economic growth. Starting with the seminal paper of Robert Barro (1990) we show that an understanding of the core results of the ensuing contributions can be gained from the study of their respective Euler equations. We argue that the existing literature incorporates many relevant aspects, however, policy recommen- dations tend to hinge on several knife-edge assumptions. Theref...

  16. Título em inglês

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Marçalo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the inherited ideas about what a Word is, in terms of linguistic description, following the greco-roman tradition. We analyze also some linguistic ideas of authors from XIX-XX century (Vendryès, Saussure and we trace the way the first Portuguese grammars handled this question (João de Barros, Melo Bacelar, Lobato.

  17. Impôt, déficit et croissance économique : un réexamen de la courbe de Laffer

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Minea; Patrick Villieu

    2009-01-01

    Since the Barro (1990) model, the theoretical literature emphasizes the existence of an inverted-U curve between taxes and economic growth, in the spirit of the “Laffer curve”. Nevertheless, empirical evidence does not seem to support this result. We show that this dilemma disappears once we extend the analysis to the presence of fiscal deficits. Thus, accounting for the effect of deficits in the relation between taxes and growth allows reconciling the data with the theoretical conclusions in...

  18. Redistribution to Rent Seekers, Foreign Aid and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Roland Hodler

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of redistribution of public funds to rent seekers. Therefore, it introduces redistribution to rent seeking agents into Barro's (1990) endogenous growth model with a productive public sector. It shows that the growth rate decreases in the share of the public funds that is redistributed. The public sector's relative sizes that maximize growth and welfare become also smaller in presence of redistribution. Further, if foreign aid is added to the model, the rel...

  19. The Growth Effects of Education in Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Paradiso, Antonio; Kumar, Saten; Rao, B. Bhaskara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we estimate the growth effects of human capital with country-specific time series data for Australia. Previous empirical studies, based on international data, have been inconclusive, in terms of the extent of the contribution of human capital to growth. We extend the Solow (1956) growth model by using educational attainment as a measure of human capital, as developed by Barro and Lee (2010). The extended Solow (1956) model performs well after allowing for the presence of structu...

  20. The Political Economy of Dynamic Elections: A Survey and Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    John Duggan; Cesar Martinelli

    2015-01-01

    We survey and synthesize the political economy literature on dynamic elections in the two traditional settings, spatial preferences and rent-seeking, under perfect and imperfect monitoring of politicians’ actions. We define the notion of stationary electoral equilibrium, which encompasses previous approaches to equilibrium in dynamic elections since the pioneering work of Barro (1973), Ferejohn (1986), and Banks and Sundaram (1998). We show that repeated elections mitigate the commitment pr...

  1. The Political Economy of Dynamic Elections: A Survey and Some New Results

    OpenAIRE

    César Martinelli; John Duggan

    2014-01-01

    We survey and synthesize the political economy literature on dynamic elections in the two traditional settings, spatial preferences and rent-seeking, under perfect and imperfect monitoring of politicians actions. We define the notion of stationary electoral equilibrium, which encompasses previous approaches to equilibrium in dynamic elections since the pioneering work of Barro (1973), Ferejohn (1986), and Banks and Sundaram (1998). We show that repeated elections mitigate the commitment probl...

  2. Variable Rare Disasters: An Exactly Solved Framework for Ten Puzzles in Macro-Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Gabaix

    2008-01-01

    This paper incorporates a time-varying intensity of disasters in the Rietz-Barro hypothesis that risk premia result from the possibility of rare, large disasters. During a disaster, an asset's fundamental value falls by a time-varying amount. This in turn generates time-varying risk premia and thus volatile asset prices and return predictability. Using the recent technique of linearity-generating processes (Gabaix 2007), the model is tractable, and all prices are exactly solved in closed form...

  3. Investigation of a method for predicting AUV derivatives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Barros, E.A. de; Pascoal, A.; Desa, E.S.

    and also for torpedoes and missiles. Among them, the shape proposed by Myring (1976) has been chosen extensively for calculations and experimental validation. This shape was adopted in AUVs such as the REMUS (Prestero, 2001) and the MAYA (de Barros et al...., 2004). The Myring geometry affords the designer practical advantages related to the availability of inner space for carrying equipment while keeping the more streamlined characteristics outside, as compared to torpedo shapes. This geometry is therefore...

  4. Evaluation of the vitro antioxidant activity of three Lamiaceae oten use in Portuguese folk medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C.F.R.

    2009-01-01

    Resumo publicado do poster apresentado no Euro Food Chem XV, 5 a 8 de Julho, Copenhaga, Dinamarca Several ethnobotanical surveys conducted in this Portuguese region have highlighted the use of three particular Lamiaceae. This poster reports the first approach to the antioxidant potential evaluation of these Lamiaceae species often used in Portuguese folk medicine. FCT, Bolsa de L. Barros (SFRH/BPD/4609/2008)

  5. Fault-based PSHA of an active tectonic region characterized by low deformation rates: the case of the Lower Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Kris; Vleminckx, Bart; Camelbeeck, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Rhine Graben (LRG) is one of the few regions in intraplate NW Europe where seismic activity can be linked to active faults, yet probabilistic seismic hazard assessments of this region have hitherto been based on area-source models, in which the LRG is modeled as a single or a small number of seismotectonic zones with uniform seismicity. While fault-based PSHA has become common practice in more active regions of the world (e.g., California, Japan, New Zealand, Italy), knowledge of active faults has been lagging behind in other regions, due to incomplete tectonic inventory, low level of seismicity, lack of systematic fault parameterization, or a combination thereof. The past few years, efforts are increasingly being directed to the inclusion of fault sources in PSHA in these regions as well, in order to predict hazard on a more physically sound basis. In Europe, the EC project SHARE ("Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe", http://www.share-eu.org/) represented an important step forward in this regard. In the frame of this project, we previously compiled the first parameterized fault model for the LRG that can be applied in PSHA. We defined 15 fault sources based on major stepovers, bifurcations, gaps, and important changes in strike, dip direction or slip rate. Based on the available data, we were able to place reasonable bounds on the parameters required for time-independent PSHA: length, width, strike, dip, rake, slip rate, and maximum magnitude. With long-term slip rates remaining below 0.1 mm/yr, the LRG can be classified as a low-deformation-rate structure. Information on recurrence interval and elapsed time since the last major earthquake is lacking for most faults, impeding time-dependent PSHA. We consider different models to construct the magnitude-frequency distribution (MFD) of each fault: a slip-rate constrained form of the classical truncated Gutenberg-Richter MFD (Anderson & Luco, 1983) versus a characteristic MFD following Youngs

  6. The rise and fall of refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper described the rise and fall of refineries in Montreal. Well before Calgary, Montreal was the hub of activity for oil refineries because Montreal was the principle consuming market for petroleum products in Canada. The location was good, particularly since the soil was clay which helped prevent soil infiltration of petroleum. The first refinery in Montreal was constructed in 1916 by Esso, followed by Texaco in 1921 and Gulf in 1931. Initially oil was shipped by boat to the Port of Montreal from Saudi Arabia. Later, the petroleum came mostly from Venezuela. At the beginning of the 1980s many refineries were closed because they became obsolete and upgrading them would have been too costly. Only 3 refineries remain in Quebec, of which 2 are in Montreal. They are owned by Shell and PetroCanada. The third refinery in Quebec is in St-Romuald and is owned by UltraMar. One of the major contributing factors to the decline of the refining industry in Montreal was the decision in 1984 by former Prime Minister Trudeau to force Canadian provinces to purchase their petroleum from Alberta. This caused the petrochemical industry to locate in Sarnia in Ontario, leaving the Montreal refining centre to become obsolete. 3 figs

  7. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saïl, K., E-mail: sailkari7@yahoo.com; Bassou, G. [Université Djillali Liabès, Laboratoire de Microscopie, Microanalyse de la Matière et Spectroscopie Moléculaire (L2MSM), Faculté des Sciences Exactes (Algeria); Gafour, M. H. [Centre Universitaire Ahmed Zabana de Rélizane, Institut des Sciences Exactes et Sciences de la Nature et de la Vie, Département de Chimie (Algeria); Miloua, F. [Université Djillali Liabès, Laboratoire de Microscopie, Microanalyse de la Matière et Spectroscopie Moléculaire (L2MSM), Faculté des Sciences Exactes (Algeria)

    2015-12-15

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E{sub gap}, V{sub oc}, and V{sub bi}) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (E{sub ex}), the maximal absorption wavelength (λ{sub max}), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  8. PBE-DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saïl, K.; Bassou, G.; Gafour, M. H.; Miloua, F.

    2015-12-01

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units ( n = 1-11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6-31 G( d, p) level of theory and the Perdew-Burke-Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, E gap, V oc, and V bi) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies ( E ex), the maximal absorption wavelength (λmax), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs.

  9. PBE–DFT theoretical study of organic photovoltaic materials based on thiophene with 1D and 2D periodic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjugated organic systems such as thiophene are interesting topics in the field of organic solar cells. We theoretically investigate π-conjugated polymers constituted by n units (n = 1–11) based on the thiophene (Tn) molecule. The computations of the geometries and electronic structures of these compounds are performed using the density functional theory (DFT) at the 6–31 G(d, p) level of theory and the Perdew–Burke–Eenzerhof (PBE) formulation of the generalized gradient approximation with periodic boundary conditions (PBCs) in one (1D) and two (2D) dimensions. Moreover, the electronic properties (HOCO, LUCO, Egap, Voc, and Vbi) are determined from 1D and 2D PBC to understand the effect of the number of rings in polythiophene. The absorption properties—excitation energies (Eex), the maximal absorption wavelength (λmax), oscillator strengths, and light harvesting—efficiency are studied using the time-dependent DFT method. Our studies show that changing the number of thiophene units can effectively modulate the electronic and optical properties. On the other hand, our work demonstrates the efficiency of theoretical calculation in the PBCs

  10. Modeling Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Derivatives Revisited. Multiregression Models Are Not Inferior Ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several quantitative structure-activity studies for this data set containing 107 HEPT derivatives have been performed since 1997, using the same set of molecules by (more or less) different classes of molecular descriptors. Multivariate Regression (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed and in each study the authors concluded that ANN models are superior to MR ones. We re-calculated multivariate regression models for this set of molecules using the same set of descriptors, and compared our results with the previous ones. Two main reasons for overestimation of the quality of the ANN models in previous studies comparing with MR models are: (1) wrong calculation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated (CV) correlation coefficient for MR models in Luco et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37 392-401 (1997), and (2) incorrect estimation/interpretation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated and predictive performance and power of ANN models. More precise and fairer comparison of fit and LOO CV statistical parameters shows that MR models are more stable. In addition, MR models are much simpler than ANN ones. For real testing the predictive performance of both classes of models we need more HEPT derivatives, because all ANN models that presented results for external set of molecules used experimental values in optimization of modeling procedure and model parameters

  11. Modeling Anti-HIV Activity of HEPT Derivatives Revisited. Multiregression Models Are Not Inferior Ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bašic, Ivan; Nadramija, Damir; Flajšlik, Mario; Amić, Dragan; Lučić, Bono

    2007-12-01

    Several quantitative structure-activity studies for this data set containing 107 HEPT derivatives have been performed since 1997, using the same set of molecules by (more or less) different classes of molecular descriptors. Multivariate Regression (MR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) models were developed and in each study the authors concluded that ANN models are superior to MR ones. We re-calculated multivariate regression models for this set of molecules using the same set of descriptors, and compared our results with the previous ones. Two main reasons for overestimation of the quality of the ANN models in previous studies comparing with MR models are: (1) wrong calculation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated (CV) correlation coefficient for MR models in Luco et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 37 392-401 (1997), and (2) incorrect estimation/interpretation of leave-one-out (LOO) cross-validated and predictive performance and power of ANN models. More precise and fairer comparison of fit and LOO CV statistical parameters shows that MR models are more stable. In addition, MR models are much simpler than ANN ones. For real testing the predictive performance of both classes of models we need more HEPT derivatives, because all ANN models that presented results for external set of molecules used experimental values in optimization of modeling procedure and model parameters.

  12. Study of the system: Lu(NO3)3-Rb2CO3-H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction in the Lu(NO3)3-Rb2CO3-H2O system at 25 deg C and molar relation (R)CO32-:Lu3+=0.5-20 is studied by the method of residual concentrations. From the data on chemical analysis it follows that depending on the R value three compounds are consequently formed in the system: Lu2(CO3)3x3H2O(1) (R=0.5-20); Rb(Lu(CO3)2)x2H2O(2) (R=2.5-5.0); Rb3(Lu(CO3)3))x6H2O(3) (R=3-10). The first two compounds are the precipitates, and the latter is the well-soluble salt. Thermal decomposition of compound 2 proceeds through stages of step-by-step dehydration in the 20-200 deg C interval and decarbonization (200-520 deg C) with Rb2OxLu2O3 formation

  13. Fatores de risco clínicos e ultra-sonográficos relacionados à litíase vesicular assintomática em mulheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Adilson Cunha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar variáveis clínicas e ultra-sonográficas, como presença ou ausência de barro biliar, espessura da parede e medida transversal da vesícula biliar, idade, paridade, presença ou ausência de diabetes mellitus associadas a litíase vesicular assintomática, bem como determinar a sua prevalência em pacientes submetidas ao exame ultra-sonográfico. MATERAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas, em estudo prospectivo, 265 pacientes do sexo feminino, atendidas na Escola de Ultra-sonografia e Reciclagem Médica de Ribeirão Preto, durante o período de janeiro a setembro de 2001. RESULTADOS: Evidenciou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa relacionada à litíase da vesícula biliar e espessura da parede da vesícula biliar, barro biliar, diâmetro transverso da vesícula biliar, faixa etária, paridade, passando de 4,1% nas nulíparas para 39,1% nas multíparas e diabéticas. A prevalência de litíase na vesícula biliar em pacientes assintomáticas foi de 14,7%. CONCLUSÃO: A litíase vesicular assintomática em mulheres ocorre principalmente com o decorrer da idade e da paridade. Os achados ultra-sonográficos mais freqüentemente encontrados foram presença de barro biliar e de espessamento da parede da vesícula biliar.

  14. Niveles de plomo en la población de alto riesgo y su entorno en San Ignacio, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, México Lead levels in high-risk populations and the surrounding environment in San Ignacio, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, México

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Manzanares-Acuña; Héctor René Vega-Carrillo; Miguel Ángel Salas-Luévano; Víctor Martín Hernández-Dávila; Consuelo Letechipía-de León; Rómulo Bañuelos-Valenzuela

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la concentración de plomo en la sangre de niños y mujeres, en periodo de lactancia o embarazadas, de la comunidad de San Ignacio, Fresnillo, en Zacatecas, así como en matrices de suelo, plantas, ceniza y barro vidriado, para determinar la exposición que genera una empresa recicladora de metales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de diciembre de 2004 al mes de abril de 2005. El Pb en sangre se midió por voltamperometría de redisolución anódica, mientras que se util...

  15. The Economics of BitCoin Price Formation

    OpenAIRE

    CIAIAN PAVEL; Rajcaniova, Miroslava; KANCS D'ARTIS

    2015-01-01

    This is the first article that studies BitCoin price formation by considering both the traditional determinants of currency price, e.g., market forces of supply and demand, and digital currencies specific factors, e.g., BitCoin attractiveness for investors and users. The conceptual framework is based on the Barro (1979) model, from which we derive testable hypotheses. Using daily data for five years (2009–2015) and applying time-series analytical mechanisms, we find that market forces and Bit...

  16. Genetic diversity measures of local European beef cattle breeds for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Albano

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was undertaken to determine the genetic structure, evolutionary relationships, and the genetic diversity among 18 local cattle breeds from Spain, Portugal, and France using 16 microsatellites. Heterozygosities, estimates of Fst, genetic distances, multivariate and diversity analyses, and assignment tests were performed. Heterozygosities ranged from 0.54 in the Pirenaica breed to 0.72 in the Barrosã breed. Seven percent of the total genetic variability can be attributed to differences among breeds (mean Fst = 0.07; P

  17. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Xavier RA; Barros KV; Andrade IS; Palomino Z; Casarini, DE; Flor Silveira VL

    2016-01-01

    Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty...

  18. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália;

    2007-01-01

    asked to subjectively classify the aesthetic results of 30 photographed cases submitted to breast cancer conservative treatment according to the four-point Harris scale. It was pre-established that if at least two-thirds [Cardoso MJ, Cardoso J, Santos AC, Barros H, Oliveira MC. Interobserver agreement...... observer and the consensus, for computer evaluation obtained by the different participants and between software and consensus was calculated using multiple kappa (k) and weighted kappa (wk) statistics. In the subjective assessment, first-round consensus was achieved in 17 (57%) cases. Overall interobserver...

  19. Effects of Sea Level Rise on Economy of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Novackova, Monika; TOL, Richard S.J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first ex post study of the economic impact of sea level rise. We apply two econometric approaches to estimate the past effects of sea level rise on the economy of the USA, viz. Barro type growth regressions adjusted for spatial patterns and a matching estimator. Unit of analysis is 3063 counties of the USA. We fit growth regressions for 13 time periods and we estimated numerous varieties and robustness tests for both growth regressions and matching estimator. Although there is s...

  20. Sistema constructivo «Quincha Prefabricada»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Gutiérrez, Aníbal

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available «Prefabricated cane lathing» basically involves the use of frames of sawn timber, filled with round wattle, cane and strips of bamboo, all plaited together so that they can be placed and fixed in the frame without nails being required. Once these panels have been assembled and fixed in place to provide walls, they are covered with a mixture of mud and straw forming a primary layer, and finally, they are given a top layer using such material as mud, cement, plaster and other substances, depending on preferences, costs and climatic or other conditions to which the wall is to be exposed, or on the preferences of the user. A light roof is used for roofing, based on a wooden support structure and a covering made of cane and a mud cast packed with straw. For regions of high rainfall, planks of asbestos and cement, zinc or other materials are fixed over the mud cast.La «Quincha Prefabricada» consiste básicamente en el empleo de bastidores de madera aserrada, rellenados con cañizo redondo, caña brava, tiras de bambú, todos ellos colocados en el bastidor en forma trenzada para su auto fijación sin necesidad de usar clavos; estos paneles, después de ser montados y fijados en sitio constituyendo paredes, son revocados con barro mezclado con paja, formando una primera capa; y, finalmente, reciben una última capa de revoque utilizándose materiales como el barro, cemento, yeso u otros, dependiendo de las preferencias, costos, de las condiciones climatológicas u otras a las que estará expuesta la pared o de las preferencias del usuario. Como techado se emplea un techo liviano a base de una estructura portante de madera y cobertura de caña y torta de barro con paja. Para zonas de alta precipitación pluvial se fija, sobre la torta de barro, planchas de asbesto-cemento, planchas de zinc u otras.

  1. Comparação de vários materiais de cobertura através de índices de conforto térmico Comparison of various roof coating materials through thermal comfort indexes

    OpenAIRE

    K.B. Sevegnani; H. Ghelfi Filho; I.J.O. da Silva

    1994-01-01

    O comportamento térmico de diferentes materiais de cobertura foi estudado através dos índices de conforto. Para as condições de verão, estudou-se o efeito do índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU) e da Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR) no interior de abrigos. As telhas de fibra transparente, alumínio e zinco foram os mais recentes materiais inseridos neste projeto. Além delas, foram estudados os comportamentos das telhas de barro, cimento amianto e térmica. Para a avaliação dos índices de...

  2. O desenvolvimento da Nazaré através do marketing territorial e do branding

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Inês Isabel das Neves

    2015-01-01

    O Marketing Territorial é considerado um instrumento estratégico, cuja principal finalidade é melhorar a competitividade e o desenvolvimento do território, através da sua promoção e comunicação. Este instrumento estratégico pretende desenvolver um território, garantindo-lhe uma nova imagem, mantendo características de valor e “apagando” velhos conceitos ou preconceitos que possam existir por parte tanto dos residentes como dos visitantes (Barros, Gama, 2010). A presente investigação focar-...

  3. A new species of Microglanis(Siluriformes: Pseudopimelodidae from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Goiás State, Central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Akio Shibatta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Microglanis is described from the upper rio Tocantins basin, Barro Alto, Goiás State, Brazil. This species is distinguished from the others by presenting a unique color pattern, consisting of round spots in the flank between the larger dark brown blotches. Moreover, it can be distinguished by the combination of the following features: caudal fin emarginate, the upper lobe slightly larger than the lower, lateral line relatively long, reaching vertical through posterior margin of the pelvic fin, and light stripe on supra-occipital region absent or very narrow and with irregular shape.

  4. Tax Smoothing with Stochastic Interest Rates: A Re-assessment of Clinton's Fiscal Legacy

    OpenAIRE

    Huw Lloyd-Ellis; Shiqiang Zhang; Xiaodong Zhu

    2001-01-01

    The return to sound fiscal policy after the high budget deficits of the 1980s and early 1990s has been hailed by many as the Clinton administration's most important achievement. In this article, we evaluate post-war, US fiscal policy using an extension of Barro's (1979) tax-smoothing model, generalized to allow for stochastic variation in interest rates and growth rates. We show that the evolution of the US debt-GDP ratio has been remarkably consistent with the tax-smoothing paradigm, even du...

  5. Investigação sobre a passagem transplacentária de microfilárias de Wuchereria bancrofti em recém-nascidos de mães microfilarêmicas Investigation on the transplacental transfer of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilariae in newborns of microfilaremic mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luiza Pires; Rita Santos Ferreira; Sérgio Araújo; Roberta Albuquerque; José Remigio Neto; Adeildo Simões da Silva; Gerusa Dreyer

    1991-01-01

    A ocorrência de microfilárias circulantes de Wuchereria bancrofti foi pesquisada em 304 gestantes da Unidade Mista Prof. Barros Lima e do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco pelo Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães. A microfilaremia materna foi investigada pela filtração de sangue venoso, sendo encontrados 13 casos positivos (4,2%). A pesquisa de microfilárias no sangue do cordão umbilical de suas crianças foi negativa (6/13), assim como no sangue periférico destas até...

  6. Ultrastructural description of Euglena pailasensis (Euglenozoa) from Rincón de la Vieja volcano, Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Ethel P.; Vargas, Maribel; Mora, Marielos M.; Ortega Rodríguez, José María; Serrano Delgado, Aurelio; Freer, Enrique; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-01-01

    The euglenoids are unicellular eukaryotic flagellates living in a diversity of soils and aquatic environments and ecosystems. This study describes the ultrastructure of an euglenoid isolated from the surface of a boiling mud pool with temperatures ranging from 38 to 98°C and pH 2 - 4. The hot mud pool is located in Area de Pailas de Barro, Las Pailas, Rincón de la Vieja Volcano, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The morphological characterization of the Euglena pailasensis was performed by SEM and TEM....

  7. Corn market integration in porfirian Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Dobado González, Rafael; Gustavo A. Marrero

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with a polemic and relevant aspect of the economic history of Porfirian Mexico: the integration of agricultural domestic markets. Since corn was the staple product of the commercial agricultural sector and also the main subsistence crop, it is the protagonist of this story. Panel techniques, similar to those used by Barro and Sala-i-Martín (1992), are applied to a price convergence model. Our analysis reveals that Mexico was not an exception in the international panorama of m...

  8. Children and the Wealth of Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Cordoba

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses calibrated versions of the Barro-Becker model to compute measures of well-being for 142 countries between 1970 and 2005. In the model, individuals are altruistic toward their descendants: they enjoy the well-being of their children. We derive a model based measure of effective "quantity of life," the effective life span of an individual. It depends positively on life expectancy, degree of altruism and number of children, and negatively on the rate of time discounting. Our calc...

  9. Comparison of rainforest butterfly assemblages across three biogeographical regions using standardized protocols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Eastwood, R.; Sam, L.; Lohman, D. J.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Treuer, T.; Miller, T.; Weiblen, G. D.; Pierce, N. E.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Sakchoowong, W.; Kongnoo, P.; Osorio-Arenas, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2011), s. 17-28. ISSN 0022-4324 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0816749; International Foundation for Science (US) D/4986-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Barro Colorado Islands * Center for Tropical Forest Science * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  10. Calidad de vida, coping y apoyo social en mujeres con cáncer de mama: estudio del impacto psicosocial de los tratamientos y de la supervivencia

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Carreiro, Joana Filipa

    2013-01-01

    [ES]El cáncer de mama es el tipo de tumor maligno más frecuente en las mujeres de todo el mundo (Ferlay et al., 2007; Bastos, Barros y Lunet, 2007; Fernandes, 2009; ACS, 2011a; Ferlay et al., 2011), por este motivo, esta patología continúa revelándose como una de las enfermedades más temidas por la humanidad, debido, sobre todo, al impacto negativo y a las consecuencias físicas, psicológicas, emocionales, sociales y económicas que este acontecimiento genera en la vida de las mujeres, así como...

  11. Compositional Effects in Italian Primary Schools: An Exploratory Analysis of INVALSI SNV Data and Suggestions for Further Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracco-Giudici, Marco; Vidoni, Daniele; Rosati, Rossana

    The EU2020 strategy, which aims at turning "the EU into a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion", heavily relies on the human capital of its citizens. As a solid strand of literature posits, formal education is crucial for the development of individual human capital (among others: Barro & Lee 2001; Hanushek & Kimko 2000; Hanushek & Woessmann 2007; 2010). Indeed, one of the 5 headline targets of the strategy attains to reducing the share of early school leavers to less than 10% and ensuring that at least 40% of the younger generation reaches a tertiary degree.

  12. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  13. The effects of strength training on cognitive performance in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Smolarek AC; Ferreira LH; Mascarenhas LP; McAnulty SR; Varela KD; Dangui MC; Barros MP; Utter AC; Souza-Junior TP

    2016-01-01

    André de Camargo Smolarek,1,2 Luis Henrique Boiko Ferreira,1,2 Luis Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas,1 Steven R McAnulty,3 Karla Daniele Varela,4 Mônica C Dangui,4 Marcelo Paes de Barros,5 Alan C Utter,3 Tácito P Souza-Junior2,3 1Department of Physical Education, Biochemistry of the Exercise Laboratory, Centro Oeste University State, Irati, Parana, 2Research Group on Metabolism, Nutrition and Strength Training, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Pa...

  14. Economic Growth, Entrepreneurship and the Business Environment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mthuli Ncube

    2005-01-01

    Research on causes of underdevelopment traps and economic growth can be traced back to the work of Young (1928), Rosenstein-Rodan (1943) and Nurkse (1953). The seminal work of Kormendi and Meguire (1985), Grier and Tullock (1998), Barro (1991), Abramovitz (1986) and Baumol (1986), revived the debate on causes of economic growth. Later work by Quah (1997), Salai-I-Martin (1987,2004) has sought to identify the factors driving economic growth across various regions around the world in a manner t...

  15. OPTIMAL SIZE OF GOVERNMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EU-27

    OpenAIRE

    Magazzino, Cosimo; Forte, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Using time-series techniques and panels data, the paper analyses for the EU countries in the period 1970-2009 the existence and shape of the “BARS curve” (Barro, Armey, Rahn, and Scully), connecting the size of Government (measured by the share of public expenditure on GDP) to the rate of economic growth. Individual countries research has been conducted for 12 countries for whom enough time series were available, while panel analysis has been performed both for EU-27 and for subgroups, distin...

  16. Optimal Size Government and Economic Growth in EU Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Forte Francesco; Magazzino Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    Using time-series and panel data methodologies, the paper analyzes the existence and shape of the «BARS curve» (Barro, Armey, Rahn, and Scully) for EU countries in the period 1970-2009, connecting the size of Government (measured by the share of public expenditure on GDP) to the rate of economic growth. Individual countries research has been conducted for twelve EU countries for which enough data were available, while panel analysis has been performed both for EU-27 and for some sub-groups, d...

  17. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    OpenAIRE

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez; M. Reyes Bueno Moreno

    2012-01-01

    La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008). En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de...

  18. Literature survey, bibliographic analysis and a taxonomic catalogue of subterranean fauna from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Reboleira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A bibliographic analysis of the hypogean biological studies in Portugal is made, compiling 138 publications related to the subterranean invertebrate fauna, since its begining in 1870 until November 2012.A catalogue of hypogean endemic taxa is provided, listing 27 troglobionts and 63 stygobionts, described to be obligate hypogean and endemic from mainland Portugal (Macaronesian archipelagos excluded.The first impetus on troglobiont studies was provided by the prospections of Barros Machado during 1940’s and by an expedition of Lindberg in the spring of 1961; and the major information about stygobiont species was provided by the former Instituto de Zoologia “Dr. Augusto Nobre” from Porto University.

  19. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 1 | Número 1

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1983-01-01

    - Palabras preliminares - Cuota Societaria - Visitas - Reunión de Comunicaciones de Interés General - Nómina de asociados - Trabajos de Herpetología presentados en la Illa. Reunión Iberoamericana de Conservación y Zoología de Vertebrados, Buenos Aires, 15-19/XI/82 - Redescubrimiento de los Sintipos de Liolaemus anomalus, Koslowsky,1896: Comentarios sobre la distribución de la especie por Jorge D. Williams y José M. Cei - Sinonimia del género Pelusaurus, Donoso-Barros con Liola...

  20. DaMatta and Ribeiro: Similarities and differences in translation into english of terms and expression of anthropology subarea in the works Carnivals, Rogues and Heroes and The Brazilian People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Serpa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the translation process into English of terms and expressions in the works written respectively by the anthropologists Roberto Da Matta and Darcy Ribeiro and in their respective translation. Our research project draws on Corpus-Based Translation Studies (Baker, 1995, 1996, 2000; Camargo, 2007, Corpus Linguistics (Berber Sardinha, 2004 and on some concepts of Terminology (Barros, 2004. Results show that terms do not present univocity within the language related to Brazilian Anthropology.The translated terms also reflect a cultural change due to the options chosen by the respective translators for the target language.

  1. The impact of obesity in the kinematic parameters of gait in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Silva-Hamu TCD; Formiga CKMR; Gervásio FM; Ribeiro DM; Christofoletti G; Barros JF

    2013-01-01

    Tânia Cristina Dias da Silva-Hamu,1 Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto Formiga,1 Flávia Martins Gervásio,1 Darlan Martins Ribeiro,2 Gustavo Christofoletti,3 Jônatas de França Barros4 1Physical Therapy Department of the State University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, ²Dr Henrique Santillo Readaptation and Rehabilitation Center, Goiânia, Goiás, 3Physical Therapy Department of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grand...

  2. Generadores de ruido antiguos

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Velázquez C.

    2006-01-01

    En el artículo se informa sobre un grupo de artefactos arqueológicos singulares hechos de varios materiales como piedra, hueso, madera, metal y barro que pudieron ser usados como herramientas sonoras, pero no son muy conocidos ni se habían estudiado formalmente. Su función y uso originales se desconocen, pero los artefactos sonoros que se han examinado directamente pueden producir sonidos extraordinarios que se asemejan a los de algunos animales y de fenómenos de la naturaleza como el viento....

  3. Las disparidades económicas regionales en Colombia, 1926-1995

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Bonet Moru00F3n; Adolfo Meisel Roca

    2000-01-01

    En los años noventas, la convergencia económica regional ha sido tema de diversos trabajos en Colombia, bajo la influencia del trabajo pionero de Robert Barro y Xavier Sala-i-Martin (1990). El primer trabajo en aplicar este tipo de análisis fue el de Mauricio Cárdenas (Cárdenas et. al.,1993). Cárdenas concluyó que Colombia, entre 1950 y 1989, fue un caso exitoso de convergencia regional y calculó una tasa de convergencia tipo  absoluta de 4% por año, duplicando las tasas estimadas en ...

  4. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  5. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DE PELLAEA OVATA (DESV.) WEATH. (PTERIDACEAE-PTERIDOPHYTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Herrera-Soriano; María de la Luz Arreguín-Sánchez; Salomón Rojas-Velasco; Luis Álvaro Lepe-Becerra

    2011-01-01

    Se describe el ciclo de vida de Pellaea ovata (Desv.) Weath. Los especímenes fueron colectados en un bosque mesófilo de montaña en San Bartolo Tutotepec, estado de Hidalgo, México. Las esporas fueron sembradas en frascos de vidrio con cerámica (barro molido), piedra de río, tela de mosquitero y dos medios de cultivo (tierra y maquique), todo previamente esterilizado y cerrado con plástico y alambre de cobre. El ciclo fue isospórico con desarrollo del protalo tipo Adiantum. En la fase cordada ...

  6. Les potentiels non gravitationnels et la structure de l'espace-temps

    CERN Document Server

    Belabbas, A

    2006-12-01

    The subject of this dissertation consists in analyzing a recent proposition, advanced by C.C.Barros, in which the non gravitational interactions can affect the space-time metric as in gravity. In fact, in the context of the Schwarzschild solution, the hydrogen atom is described in a completely new way : instead of following the usual approach to describe the electron under the Coulomb potential by using the minimal coupling, the "proton-electron" interaction is rather incorporated in the metric. In this context, we reproduce in this dissertation the same equations as predicted in Dirac theory for the weak potential approximation. Contrary to the statement made by Barros, claiming that he brought an insignificant correction to the electron levels, at the end of our analysis, we assert that this new approach has the merit of reproducing the relativistic spectrum as known in the Dirac theory. These spectacular results incite us to wonder about the role of the Principle of Equivalence in the foundations of the ge...

  7. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  8. Evolution and revolution: the formation of today's American Thoracic Society, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John F; Du Melle, Fran; Hopewell, Philip C

    2012-11-15

    The American Thoracic Society (ATS), the preeminent professional organization in the field of respiratory, critical care, and sleep medicine, is now 107 years old. For the most part, the Society's administrative and medical-scientific interests evolved in an orderly fashion, but two "revolutions" took place that should be remembered. What ultimately metamorphosed into the ATS in 1960 began in 1905 as the 34-member American Sanatorium Association, which in 1915 became the medical section of the National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis (NASPT). In 1918, the NASPT became the National Tuberculosis Association and in 1939, the ASA became the American Trudeau Society, cosmetic revisions having no effect on either the medical section-parent relationship or the one-disease orientation of both organizations. After World War II, the narrow focus of the ATS on tuberculosis was progressively enlarged through coalescence of several factors that transformed the practice of pulmonary medicine: the growth of intensive care units and pulmonary function laboratories and the advent of fiberoptic bronchoscopy; the rise of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer coincident with the withering of tuberculosis; and the arrival of pulmonary physician-scientists who sought enrichment through a professional society. The newcomers found a home in the ATS, but it was slow to fulfill their needs for scientific communication and administrative responsibility. The first revolution, the formation of Scientific Assemblies, got the job done quickly and well, as described in Part 1 of this perspective. The second revolution, separation from the American Lung Association, is described in Part 2. PMID:22822021

  9. Research Networks: a fundamental value-added for scientific communication / Redes de investigación: un valor agregado fundamental para la comunicación científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson López López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This edition of Universitas Psychologica has a special value because it is the result of a collaborative work with a research group from the Universidad de La Frontera led by Ricardo Perez Luco, Jaime Alfaro and Beatriz Paes from Chile, who organized the “First International Seminar of Juvenile Justice. Be and Ought to be of the public policy” a meeting that brought together world leading researchers in order to investigate an emerging and critical problem in our societies, such as the juvenile justice. We accep their proposals after agreeing the compliance of our demands of peer review and think that we are a trusted international academic channel. The first 14 articles of this edition were the result of an exhaustive peer-review evaluation, which have guaranteed quality. We hope readers will recognize the building of the theme proposed. This edition contains articles from universities and institutions of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, The United States, Spain, Italy, France and Mexico.Moreover, I would like to mention the importance of our panorama section in which we are publishing interviews with world leading academics such as Professor Mario Bunge, one of the most influential living philosophers of our time (authorof the Treaty of Philosophy 1974-1989 “one of the most ambitious projects of modern philosophy” and of numerous, influential and provocative books on multiple topics of the contemporary society; and recently with Kenneth Gergen, a theorist who has significantly substantiated the social constructivist psychology and critical perspectives associated with this. There are also interviews with psychologistswho have made contributions to psychology, as Fernando González Rey. Universitas will continue publishing these types of articles for discussion and reflection, as well as a quality research, and we invite our readers and authors to evaluate the presentation of this kind of contributions.

  10. Large tree species richness is associated with topography, forest structure and spectral heterogeneity in a neotropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, G. A.; Wolf, J. A.; Gillespie, T.; Meyer, V.; Hubbell, S. P.; Santo, F. E.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Large tropical canopy trees contain the majority of forest biomass in addition to being the primary producers in the forest ecosystem in terms of both food and structural habitat. The spatial distributions of large tropical trees are non-randomly distributed across environmental gradients in light, water and nutrients. These environmental gradients are a result of the biophysical processes related to topography and three-dimensional forest structure. In this study we examine large (>10 cm) diameter tree species richness across Barro Colorado Nature Monument in a tropical moist forest in Panama using active and passive remote sensing. Airborne light detection and ranging and high-resolution satellite imagery were used to quantify spectral heterogeneity, sub-canopy topography and vertical canopy structure across existing vegetation plots to model the extent to which remote sensing variables can be used to explain variation in large tree species richness. Plant species richness data was calculated from the stem mapped 50-ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island in addition to 8 large tree plots across the Barro Colorado Nature Monument at 1.0 ha and 0.25 ha spatial scales. We investigated four statistical models to predict large tree species richness including spectral, topographic, vertical canopy structure and a combined ';global' model which includes all remote sensing derived variables. The models demonstrate that remote sensing derived variables can capture a significant fraction (R2= 0.54 and 0.36) of observed variation in tree species richness across the 1.0 and 0.25 ha spatial scales respectively. A selection of remote sensing derived predictor variables. A) World View-2 satellite imagery in RGB/true color. B) False color image of the principal component analysis. C) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). D) Simple Ratio Index. E) Quickbird satellite imagery in RGB/true color. F) False color image of the principal component analysis. G) NDVI. H

  11. Study of thermal behavior of the adobe with the simulator DOE 2.1E; Estudio de comportamiento termico del adobe con el simulador DOE 2.1E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Anibal; Gallegos, Ricardo; Bojorquez, Gonzalo [Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A thermal analysis of the envelope of one of the most used housing models for low income groups, as those offered by the Mexican Government is presented in this report. The building's thermal gain in walls was determined, using: concrete block, brick and adobe; and considering concrete of roofing, concrete floors, windows and doors equal in all the cases. The objective of this study is to know the contribution to the building's thermal load of each one of the materials applied. The calculation was conducted using the Doe 2.1E thermal simulator software, using meteorological data for the city of El Centro, California, USA. This was so, because there is no reliable weather data for the city of Mexicali, B.C., where the housing units are. Because of geographical proximity between of these cities the same data was used. The properties for each one of the three building materials were taken from specialized bibliography. It was determined that the housing built with adobe walls has thermal advantages over the units built with concrete block and brick. The adobe unit has a lower thermal load of 13% over the concrete block, and of 3.44% over the clay brick unit. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis termico de la envolvente de uno de los modelos de casas mas utilizados en la construccion de viviendas de interes social en Mexico. Se determino la ganancia, termica del edificio por muros, aplicando: bloque de concreto, ladrillo de barro y adobe. Se considero techo, piso, ventanas y puertas iguales en todos los casos. El objetivo del estudio es conocer la distribucion de la carga termica segun los materiales aplicados. El calculo se realizo con el simulador termico DOE 2.1E con datos meteorologicos de la ciudad de El Centro, California, E. U., por no contar con datos de Mexicali, B. C.: debido a la proximidad y similitud topografica entre ambas ciudades se uso la misma informacion. Las propiedades aplicadas para cada uno de los tres materiales fueron tomadas de

  12. The exploitation of sludge from aggregate plants in the manufacture of porous fired clay bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamorro-Trenado, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aggregates (gravel and sand are, after water, the Earth’s second most used natural resource, representing about 50% of all consumed mineral resources. Aggregate production generates a large quantity of waste from the aggregate washing process. This waste is made up of suspended solids – sludge – which has a great environmental impact. It is deposited in huge troughs because of the impossibility of discharging it directly into rivers. Many plants have incorporated decanters and filter presses to separate the solid from the liquid fraction. This paper evaluates the possibility of exploiting the solid fraction (i.e. sludge in the manufacture of fired clay bricks. The added value of these bricks is, on the one hand, the exploitation of sludge as a currently useless waste product, and on the other, the use of this sludge to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of conventional fired clay bricks.Los áridos son la segunda materia prima más consumida en la Tierra después del agua, representando alrededor del 50% de todos los recursos minerales consumidos. El proceso de elaboración de estos áridos genera una gran cantidad de residuos procedentes de su lavado. Se trata de partículas sólidas en suspensión – lodos – de gran impacto ambiental, que se depositan en grandes charcas ante la imposibilidad de verterlos directamente al rio. Muchas empresas han incorporado decantadores y filtros de prensa para separar la fracción solida de la líquida. El presente trabajo evalúa la posibilidad de utilizar la fracción sólida, es decir el barro, para la fabricación de piezas cerámicas. El valor añadido de estas piezas es por un lado el aprovechamiento del barro como producto residual, que en estos momentos es desechable, y por otro, conseguir que este barro mejore las propiedades físico-mecánicas de la cerámica convencional.

  13. Efecto del pulido radicular en la adhesión dentinaria: estudio al microscopio electrónico de barrido (MEB Effects of the root planning in the dentin adhesión: a SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Valenzuela Aránguiz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Para analizar al MEB las características micromorfológicas de la adhesión dentinaria en superficies radiculares expuestas a enfermedad periodontal y tratadas con pulido radicular, se utilizaron 30 dientes, separados en tres grupos: Grupo 1: Dientes con enfermedad periodontal tratados solo con pulido radicular. Grupo 2: Dientes con enfermedad periodontal tratados con pulido radicular y sometidas a grabado con ácido fosfórico al 34% por dos minutos. Grupo 3: Dientes con enfermedad periodontal tratados con pulido radicular, en las cuales se realizó todo el protocolo adhesivo para confeccionar resinas compuestas. Resultados. Grupo 1: Se observó una capa de barro dentinario en toda la superficie. Grupo 2: Presentaba una irregular capa de barro dentinario. Grupo 3: Se observó una seudocapa híbrida de 15,9 µm de grosor, pero no se evidenció la presencia de tags de resina. Conclusiones. La adhesión en raíces con enfermedad periodontal y tratadas con pulido radicular se realiza sobre barro dentinario que no es removido por la acción del ácido fosfórico, no formándose capa híbrida ni tags de resina, por lo tanto creemos que la adhesión como concepto propiamente tal no existe en estos tejidos.The aim of this in vitro study was to analize some characteristics of dentinary adhesion over root surfaces exposed to periodontal disease an treated with root planning by observing the samples at SEM. 30 teeth were classified in three groups. Group 1: Teeth with periodontal disease treated only by root planning. Group 2: Teeth with periodontal disease treated by root planning and 34% fosforic acid etching. Group 3: Teeth with periodontal disease treated by root planning at and an adhesive composite restoration. Results: Group 1 presented a thick smear layer over all the treated surface. Group 2 presented an irregular adhesive layer. Group 3 showed a 15.9 µm thick layer that looks as an hybrid layer, composite tags were not found in this group

  14. “Uma nova e grande Lusitânia”

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Zília Osório de

    2013-01-01

    Pela pena de homens de letras de Portugal e do Brasil, a aproximação cultural entre os dois países tornou-se um ideal pelo qual valia a pena lutar e que encontrou espaço adequado nas recentes sociedades republicanas de aquém e além-Atlântico. João de Barros e Olavo Bilac foram os arautos deste projecto que, exaltando os laços de uma comum identidade – história, tradição, cultura, raça – e neles se fundamentando, salvaguardadas as respectivas independências, pretendia criar, em conjunto com An...

  15. A luso-brasilidade e o projeto da revista Atlântida

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, Lucia Maria Paschoal

    2013-01-01

    O artigo examina os primeiros números da revista Atlântida, o mais expressivo veículo de divulgação de um projeto político-cultural, intentado no início do século passado, em defesa da formação de uma comunidade luso-brasileira. Dirigida no Rio de Janeiro por Paulo Barreto, o popular João do Rio, e em Lisboa por João de Barros, a Atlântida circulou mensalmente entre 1915 e 1920. Ao lado da permanente reflexão doutrinária acerca da conveniência do estreitamento das relações entre Brasil e Port...

  16. EL ROL DE LA SALUD EN EL PROCESO DE CRECIMIENTO ECONÓMICO: UNA REVISIÓN DE LA LITERATURA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Daniel Monterubbianesi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo realiza un análisis de la consideración en la literatura de la salud como determinante del crecimiento económico. Las contribuciones existentes pueden agruparse en tres enfoques. Por un lado, modelos teóricos de crecimiento en los que se incorpora al status de salud como factor clave en el proceso de crecimiento. Por otro lado, modelos de contabilidad del crecimiento en los cuales se considera la contribución de cada factor de producción, entre los que se incluye al status de salud, a cambios en el ingreso. Por último, un tercer enfoque se funda en las regresiones "a la Barro", en las que se regresa la tasa de crecimiento respecto a un amplio grupo de variables, entre las que se incluye al status de salud.

  17. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether regime types and institutional reforms have differential growth effects...... in monarchies and republics. A set of Barro-type regressions show that there are no significant growth differences between the two regime types and that the effects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but that those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong "valley......-of-tears" effect of large reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  18. Economic Growth and Institutional Reform in Modern Monarchies and Republics: A Historical Cross-Country Perspective 1820-2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    Standard theoretical arguments suggest that republics ought to grow faster than monarchies and experience lower transitional costs following reforms. We employ a panel of 27 countries observed from 1820-2000 to explore whether institutional reforms have differential growth effects in monarchies and...... republics. A set of Barro-type regressions show that there are no significant growth differences between the two regime types and that the effects of incremental reforms do not differ between them, but that those of large-scale reforms do. Specifically, we find a strong "valley-of-tears" effect of large...... reforms in republics while monarchies benefit from such reforms in the ten-year perspective adopted here. We offer some tentative thoughts on the underlying mechanisms responsible for the results....

  19. Aproximación a la historia ambiental de la minería en Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfonso Avellaneda Cusaría

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se proponen tres fases de la historia ambiental de la minería en Boyacá. Una Primera,previo la llegada del elemento hispánico, caracterizada por la explotación de arcilla y piedra para construcción de viviendas y explotación de carbón para cocción de cerámicas;una Segunda de explotación de arcilla para la fabricación de adobe, ladrillo, teja de barro y su cocción con carbón y una Tercera caracterizada por la industrialización de la caliza para la fabricación de cemento; explotación intensa del mineral de hierro y del carbón para fabricación del acero,explotaciónde arcillas y arenas para la industria de la construcción.

  20. experimentação em fotografia (1950-964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Etcheverry

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to introduce the Brazilian photographers Geraldo de Barros and José Oiticica Filho and their work. Set between the late 1940s and 1964 - the year of Oticica Filho's death - the article discusses the history of Brazilian photography and how it relates to the history of art, as well as the issue of abstraction. By doing so, it shows how the history of modern Brazilian photography interacts with the concrete and neoconcrete art movements. In addition, the author offers a critical review of the texts written about these two photographers and their images as a means to determine their importance beyond the field of photography.

  1. Hematology values of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís C. Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hematological results are reported for 13 giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla and 13 collared anteaters (Tamandua tetradactyla. Animals were captive-reared adults held at the Fundação Parque Zoológico de São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil and Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil, and were considered healthy on physical examination. Examined parameters included red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total plasmatic protein and differential leukocyte counts. Also, a survey for hemoparasites was done and none was observed in thin blood smears. The results were generally similar to those previously reported in the exiguous literature for these species, providing further reference data for the interpretation of laboratory results besides health monitoring, assisting early disease diagnosis and providing relevant information for conservation programs for these species.

  2. Nutrition and epigenetic mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Carolina Reis Ribeiro Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho complementar (Monografia) realizado no âmbito da Unidade Curricular Estágio da Licenciatura em Ciências da Nutrição da Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, sob orientação de Drª Renata Barros (Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto) e coorientação de Drª Karine Sena (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte) e Prof.ª Doutora Karla Rodrigues (Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte)

  3. Fiscal Deficit, National Saving and Sustainability of Economic Growth in Emerging Economies: A Dynamic GMM Panel Data Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscemi Antonino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The neoclassical growth models argued that the movement to steady states; technology, exogenous rate of savings, population growth and technical progress stimulate higher growth levels (Solow 1956. Contrary to the neoclassical argument, endogenous growth model argues that, in the theory of endogenous growth, government play a significant role in promoting accumulation of knowledge, research and development, public investment, human capital development, law and order can generate growth both in the short and long run. Moreover, they assumed technical progress as endogenous variable for growth (Barro 1995. This study analyze the effects of fiscal deficit on sustainability of economic growth and provided new empirical evidence on the effects of fiscal deficit on saving and sustainability of economic growth based on the assumption of endogenous growth model. We estimated using the reduced form of GMM method for dynamic panels covers 1990-2009 for three emerging countries that includes China, India and South Africa.

  4. Treinta días persiguiendo la muerte: miseria, dolor y obras de caridad en Bogotá de 1918, desolada por la epidemia de gripa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Para finales de la segunda década del siglo xx, Bogotá tiene poco que mostrar. Está detenida en el tiempo, sumergida en una rutina en la que las lluvias casi siempre le ganan a los días de sol y el barro salpica todo, tanto a la gente elegante como a la gente sencilla, que visten lo mejor de sus prendas para presentarse en calles, almacenes y templos. La rutina menuda de hombres y mujeres y la rutina trascendente de políticos y escritores en diarios y revistas, fue sustituida, de repente, por la de la muerte. Nada similar para comparar tenían en su memoria esos bogotanos que en los meses de octubre y noviembre de 1918 tuvieron que vivir en su ciudad una pesadilla causada por una gripa que de igual modo hacía estragos en muchos otros lugares del mundo.

  5. CARACTERÍSTICAS, DINÁMICA Y CAUSAS DEL MOVIMIENTO EN MASA DEL BARRIO EL SOCORRO (31 DE MAYO DE 2008) EN MEDELLÍN CHARACTERISTICS, DYNAMICS AND CAUSES OF THE MOMENT IN MAS OF THE DISTRICT EL SOCORRO (MAY 31, 2008) IN MEDELLÍN

    OpenAIRE

    Édier Aristizábal

    2008-01-01

    El presente artículo describe las causas y dinámica del movimiento en masa del día 31 de mayo de 2008 en la parte alta del barrio San Pedro, sector Las Peñitas del municipio de Medellín, el cual dejó un saldo trágico de 27 personas muertas y 16 lesionadas, además de la destrucción de 20 viviendas del barrio El Socorro. Sumado a Rosellón (1927), Media Luna (1954), Santo Domingo (1974), Villatina (1987) y El Barro (2005), corresponde a uno de los eventos más trágicos que han golpeado el valle d...

  6. Atratividade setorial. Uma aplicação ao comércio a Retalho de Material Ótico.

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Amândio Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Mestrado em Finanças Empresariais. Orientadores: Professor Doutor Joaquim Gonçalves Antunes; Doutor Samuel Ferreira de Barros. Com a presente investigação pretende-se dar um contributo no desenvolvimento do setor do comércio a retalho de material ótico, através da aplicação prática da metodologia de análise da atratividade, sobretudo numa época em que a crise financeira faz sentir os seus efeitos e o poder de compra é ténue, a par de uma basta oferta nacional e de um aumento do número de e...

  7. Cross-continental comparisons of butterfly assemblages in tropical rainforests: implications for biological monitoring

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Basset, Y.; Eastwood, R.; Sam, L.; Lohman, D. J.; Novotný, Vojtěch; Treuer, T.; Miller, S. E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Pierce, N. E.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Sakchoowong, W.; Kongnoo, P.; Osorio-Arenas, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2013), s. 223-233. ISSN 1752-458X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115; GA ČR GAP505/10/0673; GA MŠk ME09082; GA MŠk LC06073 Grant ostatní: US National Science Foundarion(US) DEB 0816749; International Foundarion for Science Grant(CZ) D/4986-1 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Barro Colorado Island * biological monitoring * Center for Tropical Forest Science Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.937, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1752-4598.2012.00205.x/pdf

  8. A figuração pós-moderna: Marta Brum, de Anjos da Noite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pucci Jr.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Através da análise da personagem Marta Brum, de Anjos da Noite (Wilson Barros, 1987, expõem-se características do que pode ser denominado "cinema pós-moderno". Conceitos de Baudrillard e Lyotard são examinados a fim de esclarecer o que seria o pós-modernismo cinematográfico: uma estética que problematiza a referencialidade e que se pauta pela idéias de performance e jogo. O filme analisado seria um exemplar dentre vários que, desde meados dos anos oitenta, seguiram a mesma estética no cinema nacional.

  9. Edificio ex Estación de FF CC y actual sede del Gobierno, Región del Bío-Bío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Palacios Barra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Del período de la arquitectura Modernista, el edificio de la ex Estación de Ferrocarriles de Concepción, construído el año 1941, es obra del arquitecto Luis Herreros. De proporciones nobles y fachada austera, la distribución y concepción urbanística de la obra, compone un volumen horizontal de 4 pisos que logra un equilibrio a nivel de conjunto, con un eje vertical de una pronunciada torre de 24 m de altura. Este hito, constituye un importante referente urbano ubicado en la perspectiva de la ex calle Comercio, hoy Barros Arana y próximo Eje Bicentenario de Concepción, la más importante vía comercial de la ciudad.

  10. Monitoring wild animal communities with arrays of motion sensitive camera traps

    CERN Document Server

    Kays, Roland; Kranstauber, Bart; Jansen, Patrick A; Carbone, Chris; Rowcliffe, Marcus J; Fountain, Tony; Eggert, Jay; He, Zhihai

    2010-01-01

    Studying animal movement and distribution is of critical importance to addressing environmental challenges including invasive species, infectious diseases, climate and land-use change. Motion sensitive camera traps offer a visual sensor to record the presence of a broad range of species providing location -specific information on movement and behavior. Modern digital camera traps that record video present new analytical opportunities, but also new data management challenges. This paper describes our experience with a terrestrial animal monitoring system at Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Our camera network captured the spatio-temporal dynamics of terrestrial bird and mammal activity at the site - data relevant to immediate science questions, and long-term conservation issues. We believe that the experience gained and lessons learned during our year long deployment and testing of the camera traps as well as the developed solutions are applicable to broader sensor network applications and are valuable for the ad...

  11. Geologic studies on the Rio Una region (Iguape - Sao Paulo County), Brazil, for the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the project was the geological and seismological characterization of 230 Km2 along the coastal region between the Barro Branco and Jureia massifs in order to pinpoint one or more local areas showing adequate geological, morphological and geotechnical conditions suitable for construction of nuclear power plants. Results of the investigations, as well as the methodology used for determination of main interesting areas are presented. The best areas for construction are believed to be situated along the coast where Precambrian basement rocks crop out close to the shoreline. The Tertiary-Quaternary sedimentary cover reaches a thickness of 50 or more meters and the character of the sediments does not allow direct emplacement of foundations for heavy-weight constructions. Historical analysis of seismic activity of the region, as well as the study of faults and fracture zones identified in the area demonstrate the absence of active faults such as defined by internationally accepted safety criteria. (Author)

  12. Indirect interactions among tropical tree species through shared rodent seed predators: a novel mechanism of tree species coexistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzon-Lopez, Carol X; Ballesteros-Mejia, Liliana; Ordoñez, Alejandro; Bohlman, Stephanie A; Olff, Han; Jansen, Patrick A

    2015-08-01

    The coexistence of numerous tree species in tropical forests is commonly explained by negative dependence of recruitment on the conspecific seed and tree density due to specialist natural enemies that attack seeds and seedlings ('Janzen-Connell' effects). Less known is whether guilds of shared seed predators can induce a negative dependence of recruitment on the density of different species of the same plant functional group. We studied 54 plots in tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, with contrasting mature tree densities of three coexisting large seeded tree species with shared seed predators. Levels of seed predation were far better explained by incorporating seed densities of all three focal species than by conspecific seed density alone. Both positive and negative density dependencies were observed for different species combinations. Thus, indirect interactions via shared seed predators can either promote or reduce the coexistence of different plant functional groups in tropical forest. PMID:25939379

  13. Regional Convergence in Knowledge-based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Fattahi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the world economies are rapidly moving towards being more Knowledge-based Economy (KBE and supporting the force of knowledge as a vital component of economic growth. This recent acceleration in the transition to Knowledge-based Economy in the world, has affected regional economic performance. In this paper, we surveyed the regional convergence in Knowledge-based Economy for selected Asia and pacific countries. We used a growth model in Barro and Sala-i-Martin framework (1995 for the period of 1995-2009. It includes a panel data set consisting of the annual growth rate of GDP per capita for selected Asia and pacific countries and a group of indicators that define the situation of Knowledge-based Economy in countries. The empirical results indicate that the absolute and the conditional convergence are not rejected for selected countries. The investigation on robustness of the model results confirms the existence of regional convergence for studied countries.

  14. Estado y Sociedad en Chile, 1891-1931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PABLO RUBIO APIOLAZA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de las producciones historiográficas nacionales, la caracterización del Estado como un espacio autónomo de relaciones sociales, de reproducción del poder y de generación de un proyecto de inclusión (o represión social han sido por lo general escasos. Los trabajos de Cavarozzi, Carmagnani, Barros y Vergara, Urzúa Valenzuela, y la ya clásica propuesta interpretativa de Mario Góngora, entre otros, constituyen notables excepciones donde lo que ha primado es una forma de historia política de cuño tradicional, interesada por el análisis de las fuerzas partidarias, de los rasgos institucionales y jurídicos, y del régimen político de gobierno, antes que profundizar sobre los rasgos propios del Estado.

  15. Presentación - Minga-Mutirão de Revistas de Teología latinoamericanas - A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro

    OpenAIRE

    José Maria Vigil

    2013-01-01

    KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASÍndice del número colectivo Minga-Mutirão de Revistas Latinoamericanas de Teología 2013, «A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro»VIGIL, José Maria. Presentación. BARROS, Marcelo; VIGIL, José Maria. Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas. SUSIN, Luiz Carlos, Secretario Executivo do Foro Mundial de Teologia e Libertação, Porto Alegre, Brasi...

  16. Nova marca de oleiro na Citânia de Sanfins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio JALHAY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Na campanha de escavaçoes de 1949 da Citânia de Sanfins, quando se procedia á exploraçao da zona ondeapareceran as casa marcadas na nossa planta topográfica comos números 52 a 60, colheram-se num dia nove fragmentos duma pequena vasilha de barro, de pasta parda tendendo para cor de rosa, ordo notavelmene saliente, ornado na sua face superior com cinco sulcos concéntricos em toda a volta, bojo bastante pronunciado com igual ornamantaçao de sulcos em número de três, mais largos e mais profundos qu os do bordo, e sem asa.

  17. Productividad y tamaño óptimo del gobierno en México (1930-1998).

    OpenAIRE

    Román E. Romero Villarreal

    2000-01-01

    La “regla de Barro” para el tamaño óptimo del gobierno, es decir, el modelo de Barro-Karras para analizar la productividad del gobierno en el caso de México, se detectó un cambio estructural en las ecuaciones empleadas para la estimación; el período de 1930-1998 fue dividido en tres subperíodos: 1930-1964, 1965-1979 y 1980-1998. La productividad marginal de los gastos y servicios del gobierno es cero para los períodos de 1930-1964 y 1980-1998, y es positiva para el período de 19651979. En con...

  18. Malófagos (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera em aves cativas no sudeste do Brasil Chewing lice (Phthiraptera, Amblycera, Ischnocera on captive birds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salete Oliveira da Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram identificadas 12 espécies de malófagos no Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba e Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. Ciconiphilus pectiniventris em Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. em Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. em Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. e Goniocotes parviceps em Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis em Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae e Heptapsogaster sp. em Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus em Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus em Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. em Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae e Colpocephalum pectinatum em Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. As relações parasito hospedeiros em Strigiformes são novas no Brasil.Twelve chewing lice species were identified in Parque Zoológico Municipal Quinzinho de Barros, Sorocaba and Fundação Jardim Zoológico, Rio de Janeiro. The parasites found were: Ciconiphilus pectiniventris in Cygnus atratus (Anseriformes, Anatidae; Kurodaia sp. in Buteo albicaudatus (Falconiformes, Accipitridae; Degeeriella sp. in Falco sparverius (Falconiformes, Falconidae; Colpocephalum sp. and Goniocotes parviceps in Pavo cristatus (Galliformes, Phasianidae; Goniodes pavonis in Rhea americana (Rheiformes, Rheidae; Colpocephalum cristatae and Heptapsogaster sp. in Cariama cristata (Gruiformes, Cariamidae; Austrophilopterus cancellosus in Ramphastos dicolorus (Piciformes, Ramphastidae; Strigiphilus crucigerus in Otus choliba (Strigiformes, Strigidae; Kurodaia sp. in Rhinoptynx clamator (Strigiformes, Strigidae and Colpocephalum pectinatum in Speotyto cunicularia (Strigiformes, Strigidae. The host-lice relationships are new in Strigiformes in Brazil.

  19. What is the cause of the decline in maternal mortality in India? Evidence from time series and cross-sectional analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Jaleel, Abdul C P

    2014-05-01

    Summary Studies on the causes of maternal mortality in India have focused on institutional deliveries, and the association of socioeconomic and demographic factors with the decline in maternal mortality has not been sufficiently investigated. By using both time series and cross-sectional data, this paper examines the factors associated with the decline in maternal mortality in India. Relative effects estimated by OLS regression analysis reveal that per capita state net domestic product (-1.49611, pIndia. The Barro-regression estimate reveals that improvements in economic and demographic conditions such as growth in state income (β=0.35020, pIndia than institutional deliveries (β=0.00305). The negative β-coefficient (β=-0.69578, peffect of the initial maternal mortality ratio on change in maternal mortality ratio in the Barro-regression model, indicates a greater decline in maternal mortality ratio in laggard states compared with advanced states. Overall, comparing the estimates of relative effects, the socioeconomic and demographic factors have a stronger statistically significant association with the maternal mortality ratio than institutional deliveries. Interestingly, the weak association between 'increase in institutional deliveries' and 'decline in maternal mortality ratio' suggests that merely increasing deliveries alone will not help in ensuring maternal survival in India. Quality of services provided by the health facility, birth preparedness and avoiding delay in reaching health facility are also important. Deliveries in health facilities will not necessarily translate into increased survival chances of mothers unless women receive full antenatal care services and delays in reaching health facility are avoided. PMID:24148881

  20. Comparação de vários materiais de cobertura através de índices de conforto térmico Comparison of various roof coating materials through thermal comfort indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Sevegnani

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O comportamento térmico de diferentes materiais de cobertura foi estudado através dos índices de conforto. Para as condições de verão, estudou-se o efeito do índice de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU e da Carga Térmica Radiante (CTR no interior de abrigos. As telhas de fibra transparente, alumínio e zinco foram os mais recentes materiais inseridos neste projeto. Além delas, foram estudados os comportamentos das telhas de barro, cimento amianto e térmica. Para a avaliação dos índices de conforto foram registrados: temperatura máxima e mínima, velocidade do vento, umidade relativa e temperatura de globo negro. Concluiu-se que: a telha de barro continuou sendo a mais eficiente e a telha de fibra transparente a de menor eficiência térmica e as demais apresentaram um comportamento intermediário.The thermal behaviour of different roof coating materials was studied through the thermal comfort index. For summer condictions the effect of the Globe and Humidity Index (ITGU and the Radiant Thermal Load (CTR were used to study the interior of shelters. Fiberglass, aluminum and zinc tiles were more recently introduced in this project. Other tested materials were clay, asbestos, cement and thermal tiles. To evaluate the comfort index the following measurements were performed: maximum and minimum temperatures, wind velocity, relative humidity and "black globe" temperature. The conclusions were: clay tiles continue being the most efficient and fiberglass tiles the least thermal efficient, and other tiles had an intermediate behaviour.

  1. A quantification of predation rates, indirect positive effects on plants, and foraging variation of the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Dyer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available While a clear consensus is emerging that predators can play a major role in shaping terrestrial communities, basic natural history observations and simple quantifications of predation rates in complex terrestrial systems are lacking. The potential indirect effect of a large predatory ant, Paraponera clavata Fabricius (Formicidae: Ponerinae, on herbivores was determined on rainforest trees at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica and Barro Colorado Island in Panama. Prey and other food brought back to nests by 75 colonies of P. clavata were quantified, taking into account temporal, seasonal, and microhabitat variation for both foraging activity and composition of foraging booty. The dispersion and density of ant colonies and combined density with the mean amounts of prey retrieval were used to calculate rates of predation per hectare in the two forests. In addition, herbivory was measured on trees containing P. clavata and on trees where the ants were not foraging. Colonies at La Selva brought back significantly more nectar plus prey than those at Barro Colorado Island, but foraging patterns were similar in the two forests. At both forests, the ants were more active at night, and there was no significant seasonal or colonial variation in consumption of nectar, composition of foraging booty, and overall activity of the colonies. At La Selva, trees containing P. clavata colonies had the same levels of folivory as nearest neighbor trees without P. clavata but had significantly lower folivory than randomly selected trees. Predation by this ant was high in both forests, despite its omnivorous diet. This insect predator is part of potentially important top-down controls in these wet and moist forests.

  2. Empirical Evidence of Fiscal Policy Impact on Endogenous Models of Economic Growth - the Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olta Milova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to Mankiw (2000, fiscal policy in major macroeconomic models adversely affects the behavior of private agents as consumers and firms and they affect economic growth through investment and savings decisions. Increasing government spending will increase the aggregate demand for goods and services and money demand in the money market leading to an increase of interest rates while markets tend towards equilibrium. The increased interest rates affect negatively the level of private investment. To assess the effect of fiscal policy on economic growth generally are used the endogenous growth models, which include technological progress as an integrated part of this model. These models were called endogenous because they were taking into account long-term economic growth and were using endogenous mechanisms to explain its main source which is the technological progress. Endogenous growth models developed by Barro (1990, Mendosa, Milesi-Ferreti and Asea (1997 or even by other economists, predict that the fiscal policy can affect the level of product and the long run economic growth. This conclusion is analysed in the theory of Barro (1990, which extends the model by including the fiscal policy. The Barro’s model is the model used in this paper to analyse the effect of the fiscal policy on economic growth in the case of Albania. The empirical work shows that all the variables, except inflation which according to theoretical expectations should have a negative effect, affect positively the economic growth. This positive relation between these variables can be explained by investments in infrastructure and other priority sectors that the government has done during all this period.

  3. An Open-Source Strategy for Documenting Events: The Case Study of the 42nd Canadian Federal Election on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Ruest

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the tools, approaches, collaboration, and findings of the Web Archives for Historical Research Group around the capture and analysis of about 4 million tweets during the 2015 Canadian Federal Election. We hope that national libraries and other heritage institutions will find our model useful as they consider how to capture, preserve, and analyze ongoing events using Twitter. While Twitter is not a representative sample of broader society - Pew research shows in their study of US users that it skews young, college-educated, and affluent (above $50,000 household income – Twitter still represents an exponential increase in the amount of information generated, retained, and preserved from 'everyday' people. Therefore, when historians study the 2015 federal election, Twitter will be a prime source.On August 3, 2015, the team initiated both a Search API and Stream API collection with twarc, a tool developed by Ed Summers, using the hashtag #elxn42. The hashtag referred to the election being Canada's 42nd general federal election (hence 'election 42' or elxn42. Data collection ceased on November 5, 2015, the day after Justin Trudeau was sworn in as the 42nd Prime Minister of Canada. We collected for a total of 102 days, 13 hours and 50 minutes. To analyze the data set, we took advantage of a number of command line tools, utilities that are available within twarc, twarc-report, and jq. In accordance with the Twitter Developer Agreement & Policy, and after ethical deliberations discussed below, we made the tweet IDs and other derivative data available in a data repository. This allows other people to use our dataset, cite our dataset, and enhance their own research projects by drawing on #elxn42 tweets. Our analytics included: breaking tweet text down by day to track change over time; client analysis, allowing us to see how the scale of mobile devices affected medium interactions; URL analysis, comparing both to Archive

  4. Immigration in two federations: Canada and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, J

    1988-03-01

    The need for increasingly widespread application of a policy or program, settlement, and multiculturalism is urgent in both Canada and Australia. For both countries there is a clear pattern of coalescence and divergence and the distinct growth of immigration as a federal function. While Australia has strengthened federal functions in a area of increasingly geo-political need, Canada is moving towards a looser model of federalism. By 1918 both countries were strengthening their federal functions in immigration as discussions within the British Empire on the recommendations of the 1917 Dominions Royal Commission took root. Both countries were interested in agricultural immigration and land settlement. The Great Depression caused a major reduction in population growth rates. From 1933-1948 Canada had a poor record of providing sanctuary for Jews. In Australia, however, Jewish voluntary agencies were aiding the reception of refugees by 1937. The 1st permanent embodiment of commonwealth jurisdiction over immigration was the establishment of an Immigration Branch within the Department of Interior around 1938. Australia needed extra population for defense. The major structural link between government and the immigrant communities was through the Good Neighbor Movement, which began on a nationwide basis in 1950. Both Canada and Australia are major receiving countries for refugees. In 1973 Australia reached the position of effective, practical nondiscrimination achieved by Canada in 1967. Prime Minister Trudeau's policy was multiculturalism within a framework of bilingualism. By 1978 Australia had a new federalism policy, which in all areas concerned with immigrants, refugees and ethnicity, rationalized resources allocation and imposed a political philosophy. The foci of multiculturalism in Australia are 1) community languages; 2) creation of a tolerant, non-discriminatory society; and 3) equity and participation. In 1978 Australia specified population replacement and

  5. A Study of Characteristics of Canadafs Multicultural Policy as A Third Type and the Causes for Its Introduction%加拿大多元文化政策的特点及其成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建波

    2012-01-01

    According to the approach to the relationship between a language and the ethnic culture, the world/ s current muhicuhural policies are divided into three types: several languages vs muhicuhuralism, single language vs muhicuhuralism and bilingualism vs muhiculturalism. Canada' s policy of muhiculturalism within bilingual framework falls into the third category. Its content features are a reflection of Canada's complex ethnic relations and challenging political problems. The muhicuhural policy of the Canadian version should be regarded as a strategic national policy , based on the political philosophy of Canadian federal Liberal premier Trudeau, in response to the challenge of political separatist movement in Quebec and with a purpose of finally resolving this political problem. The roles of immigrant ethnic groups and indigenous peoples to promote the introduction of Canada's muhicuhural policy should not be exaggerated.%根据对语言与文化之间关系的不同处理方式,世界上现行的多元文化政策大致分为三种类型:多元对多元、一元对多元和二元对多元。加拿大双语框架下的多元文化政策即属第三种类型,它特别的类型特征折射出加拿大复杂的族群关系和政治难题。加拿大版本的多元文化政策是加拿大联邦自由党总理特鲁多基于自己的政治理念、为应对魁北克政治分离主义的挑战并谋求最终化解这一政治难题而出台的战略国策。移民族群和原住民在加拿大多元文化政策的出台中所起的有限促动作用,不宜过分夸大。

  6. SMACS, Probabilistic Seismic Analysis Chain with Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: The SMACS (Seismic Methodology Analysis Chain with Statistics) system of computer programs is one of the major computational tools of the U.S. NRC Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). SMACS is comprised of the core program SMAX, which performs the SSI response analyses, five pre- processing programs, and two post-processors. The pre-processing programs include: GLAY and CLAN, which generate the nominal impedance matrices and wave scattering vectors for surface-founded structures; INSSIN, which projects the dynamic properties of structures to the foundation in the form of modal participation factors and mass matrices; SAPPAC, which projects the dynamic and pseudo-static properties of multiply-supported piping systems to the support locations, and LNGEN, which can be used to generate the multiplication factors to be applied to the nominal soil, structural, and subsystem properties for each of the response calculations in accounting for random variations of these properties. The post-processors are: PRESTO, which performs statistical operations on the raw data from the response vectors that SMAX produces to calculate best fit lognormal distributions for each response location, and CHANGO, which manipulates the data produced by PRESTO to produce other results of interest to the user. Also included is the computer program SAP4 (a modified version of the University of California, Berkeley SAPIV program), a general linear structural analysis program used for eigenvalue extractions and pseudo-static mode calculations of the models of major structures and subsystems. SAP4 is used to prepare input to the INSSIN and SAPPAC preprocessing programs. The GLAY and CLAN programs were originally developed by J.E. Luco (UCSD) and H.L. Wong (USC). 2 - Method of solution: SMACS performs repeated deterministic analyses, each analysis simulating an earthquake occurrence. Uncertainty is accounted for by performing many such analyses

  7. THE MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES IN THE FLUVIO-LACUSTRINE SUCCESSION OF THE PLIO-PLEISTOCENE MUGELLO BASIN (TUSCANY, ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCO BENVENUTI

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available New geologic studies on the fluvio-lacustrine Mugello Basin (Florence, Italy stimulated a revision of the continental molluscan assemblages known since the last century. The fluvio-lacustrine succession has been subdivided in four synthems composed of fluvio-lacustrine (Torrente Ensa synthem, STE and alluvial deposits (Scarperia, Luco di Mugello and Sagginale synthems. Two progressive angular unconformities in the STE allowed to distinguish three depositional sequences (S1, S2 and S3 composed of fan-delta gravels and sands, lacustrine silty clays (S1 and S2 and alluvial-fan gravels and sands (S3. Molluscs have been collected in various localities where S1 and S2 fan-delta and lacustrine deposits are exposed. The paleoecologic analysis of the molluscan assemblages is in accordance with the fluvio-lacustrine environment inferred from facies analysis. Different types of humid habitats, ranging from swamps, ponds, to channel-related environments (banks, leeves etc., and open woody habitats have been recognized. The presence of Villafranchian extinct taxa such as Prososthenia oblonga, Emmericia cf. umbra and Tournouerina belnensis is in general agreement with the vertebrate fauna collected in the fluvio-lacustrine deposits since the last century and referred to the Tasso and Farneta faunal units (Late Villafranchian. A detailed integrated analysis of a 15 m thick gravelly-silty facies section of the S2 sequence reveals alternating depositional conditions in the subaerial portion of the fan deltas. Following a relative rise of base-level (i.e the lake level flood-channels were disactivated with the formation of a floodplain-like environment dominated by fine-grained deposition, where localized poorly-drained areas created favourable habitats for molluscan taxa loving humid conditions. The sourrounding zones were characterized by open forests inhabited by terrestrial taxa. Low-magnitude, overland flows mixed the molluscan faunas of the different

  8. Red and blue shift of liquid water's excited states: A many body perturbation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In the present paper, accurate optical absorption spectrum of liquid H2O is calculated in the energy range of 5-20 eV to probe the nature of water's excited states by means of many body perturbation approach. Main features of recent inelastic X-ray measurements are well reproduced, such as a bound excitonic peak at 7.9 eV with a shoulder at 9.4 eV as well as the absorption maximum at 13.9 eV, followed by a broad shoulder at 18.4 eV. The spectrum is dominated by excitonic effects impacting the structures of the spectrum at low and higher energy regimes mixed by single particle effects at high energies. The exciton distribution of the low-energy states, in particular of S1, is highly anisotropic and localized mostly on one water molecule. The S1 state is essentially a HOCO-LUCO (highest occupied crystal orbital - lowest unoccupied crystal orbital) transition and of intra-molecular type, showing a localized valence character. Once the excitation energy is increased, a significant change in the character of the electronically excited states occurs, characterized through emergence of multiple quasi-particle peaks at 7.9 eV in the quasi-particle (QP) transition profile and in the occurring delocalized exciton density distribution, spread over many more water molecules. The exciton delocalization following a change of the character of excited states at around 7.9 eV causes the blue shift of the first absorption band with respect to water monomer S1. However, due to reduction of the electronic band gap from gas to liquid phase, following enhanced screening upon condensation, the localized S1 state of liquid water is red-shifted with respect to S1 state of water monomer. For higher excitations, near vertical ionization energy (11 eV), quasi-free electrons emerge, in agreement with the conduction band electron picture. Furthermore, the occurring red and blue shift of the excited states are independent of the coupling of resonant and anti-resonant contributions to the

  9. Niveles de plomo en la población de alto riesgo y su entorno en San Ignacio, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, México Lead levels in high-risk populations and the surrounding environment in San Ignacio, Fresnillo, Zacatecas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Manzanares-Acuña

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la concentración de plomo en la sangre de niños y mujeres, en periodo de lactancia o embarazadas, de la comunidad de San Ignacio, Fresnillo, en Zacatecas, así como en matrices de suelo, plantas, ceniza y barro vidriado, para determinar la exposición que genera una empresa recicladora de metales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de diciembre de 2004 al mes de abril de 2005. El Pb en sangre se midió por voltamperometría de redisolución anódica, mientras que se utilizó energía dispersa de fluorescencia por rayos X para las otras matrices. RESULTADOS: Con base en los criterios de la Norma Oficial Mexicana (NOM se encontró que 90% de los menores está en la categoría I, 5% se encuentra en la categoría II y el otro 5% se ubica en la categoría III. El suelo de los terrenos aledaños a la recicladora tiene en promedio 4 940 µg/g, en un intervalo de 73 a 84 238 µg/g. Las mayores concentraciones se localizan en los puntos más cercanos a la empresa. El suelo de San Ignacio tiene en promedio 109 µg/g. Se encontraron valores altos en el barro vidriado y la concentración del Pb en las plantas es superior a los 300 µg/g. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que la mayoría de los niños analizados presenta niveles de plomo en sangre que la Norma Mexicana señala como aceptables, varios estudios indican que existen efectos nocivos aun a concentraciones bajas. Los terrenos aledaños a la empresa están contaminados, y en esa medida los alimentos que ahí se producen, al ser consumidos, son una fuente de contaminación, que se agudiza con el uso de barro vidriado.OBJECTIVE:To determine the lead concentration in the blood of children and nursing or pregnant women from San Ignacio, Fresnillo, in Zacatecas, Mexico as well as in soil, plants, ash and lead-glazed pottery, in order to determine exposure due to a metal-recycling facility. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out from December 2004 to April 2005. Lead in

  10. Epidemiologia do óbito fetal em população de baixa renda Epidemiology of fetal death in a low income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. A. de Aquino

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A morte fetal não é uma entidade rara e, em países em desenvolvimento, suas causas mais prevalentes continuam sendo passíveis de controle e/ou tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar causas de morte fetal em uma população brasileira. Foi um estudo descritivo realizado no Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, em São Paulo. Foram estudadas 122 gestantes com diagnóstico de óbito fetal e idade gestacional de vinte semanas ou mais. Os procedimentos estatísticos utilizados foram média e desvio-padrão. As principais causas de morte identificadas foram hipertensão arterial e infecções e em um quarto dos casos a causa não foi determinada. Concluiu-se que uma proporção importante de óbitos era prevenível e que houve taxa significativa de causas não-identificadas. Os resultados deste estudo poderão ser úteis para orientação de programas de prevenção primária, principalmente quanto à assistência pré-natal.Fetal death may not be considered an unusual event and, in developing countries, the most prevalent causes could be possibly controlled and/or treated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate causes of fetal death in a Brazilian population. This is a descriptive study performed at the Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros in São Paulo. The study subjects were 122 pregnant women with diagnosis of fetal death and gestation age of 20 or more weeks. The statistical procedures used were means and standard deviation. The main causes of the fetal death were hypertensive disorders and infections and, for a quarter of the cases, they were not identified at all. It is concluded that an important percentage of fetal deaths would have been prevented and that there was a significant number of unidentified causes. Results of the present study might be useful to orientate a primary prevention health program, specially concerning antenatal care.

  11. Brazilian daycares: weighing the risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, D

    1994-10-01

    The number of day care centers in Brazil has doubled over the last few years; with this increase has come a rise in the numbers of cases of communicable disease, particularly pneumonia (the main cause of child mortality in Brazil). A study by Dr. Walter V.C. da Fonseca states that a day care child is 5 times more likely to contact pneumonia. However, since the income earned by women in Brazil today is necessary to meet basic needs, children must be left at home with relatives or sent to day care. Most of the centers taking in children under 6 years of age are urban; they care for, on average, 125-200 children. These children are usually from low income families who live on the outskirts of cities; free day care is only provided to working mothers. There are 3 social factors involved: the greater number of single-parent families, more households supported solely by the mother, and an economic crisis that has hit the poor particularly hard. Financial and administrative responsibility for these centers varies. The centers provide meals, baths, rest, education (including some special education services), and health care (doctors, dentists, and nurses). Some accept abandoned children, who are cared for until they are adopted. However, new studies indicate that the centers represent the primary risk factor for respiratory illnesses and were, until recently, the principal causes of diarrhea and child mortality. An ongoing comparative study by da Fonseca is analyzing the incidence rates of respiratory and infectious diseases among 400 children attending a nursery in Fortaleza in comparison to those for 400 cared for at home by family. Doctor Aluiso Barros, in another study, is observing 1000 children in 40 nurseries in Campinas. For 8 weeks, data was collected on the health, socioeconomic situation, medical history, and family medical history of each child. The nurseries were examined and information was collected regarding the number of diseases reported each month, their

  12. Predicting spatial variations of tree species richness in tropical forests from high-resolution remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Geoffrey A; Wolf, Jeffrey A; Saatchi, Sassan S; Gillespie, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    There is an increasing interest in identifying theories, empirical data sets, and remote-sensing metrics that can quantify tropical forest alpha diversity at a landscape scale. Quantifying patterns of tree species richness in the field is time consuming, especially in regions with over 100 tree species/ha. We examine species richness in a 50-ha plot in Barro Colorado Island in Panama and test if biophysical measurements of canopy reflectance from high-resolution satellite imagery and detailed vertical forest structure and topography from light detection and ranging (lidar) are associated with species richness across four tree size classes (>1, 1-10, >10, and >20 cm dbh) and three spatial scales (1, 0.25, and 0.04 ha). We use the 2010 tree inventory, including 204,757 individuals belonging to 301 species of freestanding woody plants or 166 ± 1.5 species/ha (mean ± SE), to compare with remote-sensing data. All remote-sensing metrics became less correlated with species richness as spatial resolution decreased from 1.0 ha to 0.04 ha and tree size increased from 1 cm to 20 cm dbh. When all stems with dbh > 1 cm in 1-ha plots were compared to remote-sensing metrics, standard deviation in canopy reflectance explained 13% of the variance in species richness. The standard deviations of canopy height and the topographic wetness index (TWI) derived from lidar were the best metrics to explain the spatial variance in species richness (15% and 24%, respectively). Using multiple regression models, we made predictions of species richness across Barro Colorado Island (BCI) at the 1-ha spatial scale for different tree size classes. We predicted variation in tree species richness among all plants (adjusted r² = 0.35) and trees with dbh > 10 cm (adjusted r² = 0.25). However, the best model results were for understory trees and shrubs (dbh 1-10 cm) (adjusted r² = 0.52) that comprise the majority of species richness in tropical forests. Our results indicate that high

  13. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  14. A preparação de material terminológico em língua inglesa por meio de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais Preparation of terminological material in english by means of computational linguistic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista da Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é demonstrar, por meio de análise quantitativa e qualitativa, a eficácia de ferramentas linguístico-computacionais na seleção de terminologia para a produção de material terminológico. Serão apresentadas duas ferramentas linguístico-computacionais (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile e, também, sugestões para que o ensino de termos ofereça resultados práticos. A fundamentação teórico-metodológica recorreu a Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation, (2003 e Sinclair (2004. O corpus da pesquisa foi constituído exclusivamente de material escrito na língua inglesa em diversas áreas de especialidade. Os procedimentos de preparação de material terminológico são exemplificados a partir de uma das áreas de especialidades utilizadas nos corpora de pesquisa, as Redes Neurais Artificiais. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a utilização do Wordsmith Tools juntamente com o VocabProfile pode fornecer dados importantes para a pesquisa linguistica.This paper aims to demonstrate by means of quantitative and qualitative analyses the effectiveness of the linguistic computational tools in selecting terminology for the production of terminological material. Two linguistic computational tools will be introduced (WordSmith Tools e VocabProfile and also suggestions so as the teaching of terms may offer practical results. The theoretical-methodological approach relies on Barros (2004; Berber Sardinha (2000; 2005; Biderman (2001; Cabré (2007; Cobb (2007; Nation (2003 and Sinclair (2004. The research corpus was made solely of written material in English in several specialty languages. The procedures regarding terminological material preparation are exemplified with one of the specialty fields used in the research corpus, the Artificial Neural Networks. The obtained results indicate that the use of Wordsmith Tools in conjunction with VocabProfile might provide useful data for

  15. Leaf cellulose density as the key determinant of inter- and intra-specific variation in leaf fracture toughness in a species-rich tropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Kaoru; Wright, S Joseph; Westbrook, Jared W

    2016-06-01

    Leaves as the main photosynthetic organ of plants must be well protected against various hazards to achieve their optimal lifespans. Yet, within-species variation and the material basis of leaf strength have been explored for very few species. Here, we present a large dataset of leaf fracture toughness from a species-rich humid tropical forest on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, reporting both among- and within-species variation in relation to light environment (sun-lit canopy versus shaded understorey) and ontogeny (seedlings versus adults). In this dataset encompassing 281 free-standing woody species and 428 species-light combinations, lamina fracture toughness varied ca 10 times. A central objective of our study was to identify generalizable patterns in the structural and material basis for interspecific variation in leaf lamina fracture toughness. The leaf lamina is a heterogeneous structure in which strong materials in cell walls, such as cellulose and lignin, contribute disproportionately to fracture toughness. We found significant increases in leaf fracture toughness from shade to sun and from seedling leaves to adult leaves. Both within and across species, leaf fracture toughness increased with total bulk density (dry biomass per unit volume) and cellulose mass concentration, but decreased with mass concentrations of lignin and hemicelluose. These bivariate relationships shift between light environments, but leaf cellulose density (cellulose mass per unit leaf volume) exhibits a common relationship with lamina fracture toughness between light environments and through ontogeny. Hence, leaf cellulose density is probably a universal predictor of leaf fracture toughness. PMID:27274796

  16. Assessment of pedotransfer functions for estimating soil water retention curves for the amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil water retention curve (SWRC is essential for understanding and modeling hydraulic processes in the soil. However, direct determination of the SWRC is time consuming and costly. In addition, it requires a large number of samples, due to the high spatial and temporal variability of soil hydraulic properties. An alternative is the use of models, called pedotransfer functions (PTFs, which estimate the SWRC from easy-to-measure properties. The aim of this paper was to test the accuracy of 16 point or parametric PTFs reported in the literature on different soils from the south and southeast of the State of Pará, Brazil. The PTFs tested were proposed by Pidgeon (1972, Lal (1979, Aina & Periaswamy (1985, Arruda et al. (1987, Dijkerman (1988, Vereecken et al. (1989, Batjes (1996, van den Berg et al. (1997, Tomasella et al. (2000, Hodnett & Tomasella (2002, Oliveira et al. (2002, and Barros (2010. We used a database that includes soil texture (sand, silt, and clay, bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil pH, cation exchange capacity, and the SWRC. Most of the PTFs tested did not show good performance in estimating the SWRC. The parametric PTFs, however, performed better than the point PTFs in assessing the SWRC in the tested region. Among the parametric PTFs, those proposed by Tomasella et al. (2000 achieved the best accuracy in estimating the empirical parameters of the van Genuchten (1980 model, especially when tested in the top soil layer.

  17. The ionizing photon production efficiency of compact z~0.3 Lyman continuum leakers and comparison with high redshift galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Schaerer, D; Verhamme, A; Orlitova, I; Thuan, T X; Worseck, G; Guseva, N

    2016-01-01

    We have recently discovered five Lyman continuum leaking galaxies at z~0.3, selected for their compactness, intense star-formation, and high [OIII]/[OII] ratio (Izotov et al. 2016ab). Here we derive their ionizing photon production efficiency, a fundamental quantity for inferring the number of photons available to reionize the Universe, for the first time for galaxies with confirmed strong Lyman continuum escape (fesc~6-13%). We find an ionizing photon production per unit UV luminosity, which is a factor 2-6 times higher than the canonical value when reported to their observed UV luminosity. After correction for extinction this value is close to the canonical value. The properties of our five Lyman continuum leakers are found to be very similar to those of the confirmed z=3.218 leaker Ion2 from de Barros et al. (2016) and very similar to those of typical star-forming galaxies at z>~6. Our results suggest that UV bright galaxies at high-z such as Lyman break galaxies can be Lyman continuum leakers and that the...

  18. Impactos da implantação de um Sistema de Gestão da Qualidade Baseado em Norma ISO na Cultura de Laboratório no Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia – INT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilço Mauro da Silva Moura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the effects of implementation of ISO IEC ABNT NBR ISO/IEC 17025in the culture laboratory of the National Institute of Technology and examines how thisinfluences their deployment management model. As analytical model, we used the BrazilianCultural Action Model formulated by Barros and Prates (1996. The model reflected all itscomplexity in the four defined positions: concentration of power; position of spectator;personalist; avoid conflict. The main focus of the study was the influence of organizationculture in favor or prejudice to the implementation and maintenance of the Standard, as wellas their consequences in the final results; the field research confirmed the importance ofrelations between the manager and senior management and between the manager and his teamin this effort. We used descriptive study with qualitative approach and strategy case study,using interviews and direct observations. The study subjects were professionals responsiblefor laboratories in INT, with more than ten years of experience in managing laboratories andparticipating in the implementation of ISO 17025.

  19. Classe social: conceitos e esquemas operacionais em pesquisa em saude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.

  20. Tardigrada from a sub-Andean forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) with the description of Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisi, Oscar; Londoño, Rosana; Quiroga, Sigmer

    2014-01-01

    Currently only 32 species of limno-terrestrial tardigrades have been reported in the literature for Colombia. Our study focused on both heterotardigrades and eutardigrades, which were extracted from eight samples of bryophytes and lichens collected in a sub-Andean forest transect in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Fourteen species were found, six of which are new records for Colombia: Echiniscus madonnae Michalczyk & Kaczmarek, 2006, Echiniscus virginicus Riggin, 1962, Milnesium krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007, Doryphoribius amazzonicus Lisi, 2011, Isohypsibius sattleri (Richters, 1902) and Diphascon higginsi Binda, 1971; and one new to science. Itaquascon pilatoi sp. nov., is characterized by having smooth cuticle, no eyes, buccal tube almost as long as the pharyngeal tube, well developed, obvious stylet furcae with long branches, slender claws, no lunules and no cuticular bars on the legs. The new species differs from I. umbellinae Barros, 1939, the most similar species, in having the stylet supports inserted precisely at the border between buccal and pharyngeal tube, more slender claws and more pronounced length differential between the external and internal claws of each leg. The total number of Colombian limno-terrestrial tardigrade species is raised to 37.  PMID:25082056

  1. Shrinkage, abrasion, erosion and sorption of clay plasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minke, G.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available At the Buildung Research Institute (FEB, Faculty of Architecture, University of Kassel, Germany, in the last years several hundred tests were made to study the characteristics of different loam mortars in respect of their linear shrinkage, absorption of humidity and their resistance against abrasion and erosion. In order to get data about abrasion and erosion new test methods and special apparatusses were developed. The mortars tested, chosen from the market, showed extremely varying test results.

    En el Laboratorio de Construcciones Experimentales (FEB de la Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad de Kassel, Alemania, fueron testeados cientos de diferentes pruebas de revoque de barro para estudiar su contracción durante el secado, su absorción de humedad y su resistencia contra abrasión, erosión y absorción. Para recibir datos sobre abrasión y erosión, nuevas aparatos y metodos fueron desarrollados. Los resultados de los revoques comprados en el mercado muestran gran diferencias en los valores.

  2. Mantled howler monkey spatial foraging decisions reflect spatial and temporal knowledge of resource distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mariah E

    2016-03-01

    An animal's ability to find and relocate food items is directly related to its survival and reproductive success. This study evaluates how mantled howler monkeys make spatial foraging decisions in the wild. Specifically, discrete choice models and agent-based simulations are used to test whether mantled howler monkeys on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, integrate spatial information in order to maximize new leaf flush and fruit gain while minimizing distance traveled. Several heuristic models of decision making are also tested as possible alternative strategies (movement to core home range areas instead of individual trees, travel along a sensory gradient, movement along arboreal pathway networks without a predetermined destination, straight-line travel in a randomly chosen direction, and random walks). Results indicate that although leaves are the single most abundant item in the mantled howler monkey diet, long-distance travel bouts target the areas with the highest concentrations of mature fruits. Observed travel patterns yielded larger estimated quantities of fruit in shorter distances traveled than all alternative foraging strategies. Thus, this study both provides novel information regarding how primates select travel paths and suggests that a highly folivorous primate integrates knowledge of spatiotemporal resource distributions in highly efficient foraging strategies. PMID:26597923

  3. Sandstone caves on Venezuelan tepuis: Return to pseudokarst?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, R.; Lánczos, T.; Gregor, M.; Schlögl, J.; Šmída, B.; Liščák, P.; Brewer-Carías, Ch.; Vlček, L.

    2011-09-01

    Venezuelan table mountains (tepuis) host the largest arenite caves in the world. The most frequently used explanation of their origin so far was the "arenization" theory, involving dissolution of quartz cement around the sand grains and subsequent removing of the released grains by water. New research in the two largest arenite cave systems - Churi-Tepui System in Chimanta Massif and Ojos de Cristal System in Roraima Tepui showed that quartz dissolution plays only a minor role in their speleogenesis. Arenites forming the tepuis are not only quartzites but they display a wide range of lithification and breakdown, including also loose sands and sandstones. Speleogenetic processes are mostly concentrated on the beds of unlithified sands which escaped from diagenesis by being sealed by the surrounding perfectly lithified quartzites. Only the so-called "finger-flow" pillars testify to confined diagenetic fluids which flowed in narrow channels, leaving the surrounding arenite uncemented. Another factor which influenced the cave-forming processes by about 30% was lateritization. It affects beds formed of arkosic sandstones and greywackes which show strong dissolution of micas, feldspars and clay minerals, turning then to laterite ("Barro Rojo"). The main prerequisite to rank caves among karst phenomena is dissolution. As the dissolution of silicate minerals other than quartz appears to play not only a volumetrically important role but even a trigger role, these arenitic caves may be ranked as karst.

  4. The Happy Gardener: on populism, democracy and specters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Melo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present text aims to retake several aspects and debates concerning the relation between populism and democracy. We will expound the main ideas by authors such as Margaret Canovan, Benjamín Arditi and Sebastián Barros in order to rethink the bonds between both terms. We will try not to take populism and democracy as antithetical poles in communitary political associations, since we are interested in pointing out how the ideas of shadow and specter have been crucial in the thought of these authors. Along with this reflection we seek to revisit several discursive keys of the experience of first Peronism in twentieth-century Argentina, just to investigate the ways in which the logic of Peronist populism rethought democracy and set it as a central element of the identity that it claimed to embody. Thus, we think that may be interesting not just to think populism as a specter of democracy but also to think democracy as a specter of populism.

  5. Sobre una pequeña colección de lagartos del género Liolaemus (Tropiduridae proveniente del extremo suroeste de Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent, Raymond F.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available El Sr. Luis F. Pacheco A. del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de La Paz (colección boliviana de Fauna = CBF tuvo la gentileza de mandarme una Pequeña colección de lagartos de la Reserva Eduardo Avaroa. Como se podía prever, esta colección es de gran interés y demuestra afinidades faunísticas con el extremo noroeste de Argentina como también con el norte de Chile. En efecto, contiene ejemplares de Liolaemus orientalis chlorostictus Laurent, recientemente descrito para el noroeste de la Provincia de Jujuy. También hay un solo especimen de L. dorbignyi Koslowski cuya procedencia parece bastante lejos de sus localidades conocidas más setentrionalmente (Huaitiquina y Chani en Argentina (1. Dos ejemplares de una forma nueva, vecina de L. jamesi (Boulenger y L. aymararum Veloso et al. demuestran afinidades chilenas y la posibilidad de intercambio ya comprobado en localidades como Huaitiquina donde L. dorhignyi entra en Chile, el volcán Socompa donde L. nigriceps (Philippi y L. constanzae Donoso Barros entran en Argentina y el paso San Francisco, donde L. andinus Koslowski entra en Chile. En fin, la especie más común en este material es otra novedad del grupo andinus - multicolor: bien diferente del geográficamente vecino multicolor por la presencia de poros preanales en las hembras.

  6. Transition and growth: What was taught and what happened

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerović Božidar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates why the transition process is taking more time than predicted and why many countries are still far away from the projected goal: a developed market economy. Analyzing the causes and re-examining the endogenous character of the transition progress, the authors conclude that the majority of reforms were implemented at a pace conditional on the initial, pre-transition conditions. The results obtained show a significant impact on the economic and institutional heritage of a country, which lasts much longer than was predicted on the eve of the reform process: initial conditions strongly and significantly affect the speed of transition throughout the entire observed period (1989-2007. They also affect the performance of a country: in the first years the transition progress may affect growth in a positive way, but later it becomes insignificant. This can explain some growth peculiarities previously remarked when transition countries were analyzed by means of long-run growth models. Using Barro and Levine-Renelt models the authors show that despite somewhat better results for the second decade of transition many peculiar patterns remain, which could temporarily block poorer transition economies in their attempts to catch up and cause unnecessary losses since transition policies were not properly adjusted to the initial conditions.

  7. Life history trade-offs in tropical trees and lianas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Benjamin; Wright, S Joseph; Muller-Landau, Helene C; Kitajima, Kaoru; Hernandéz, Andrés

    2006-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that tropical trees partition forest light environments through a life history trade-off between juvenile growth and survival; however, the generality of this trade-off across life stages and functional groups has been questioned. We quantified trade-offs between growth and survival for trees and lianas on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama using first-year seedlings of 22 liana and 31 tree species and saplings (10 mm dbh < 39 mm) of 30 tree species. Lianas showed trade-offs similar to those of trees, with both groups exhibiting broadly overlapping ranges in survival and relative growth rates as seedlings. Life history strategies at the seedling stage were highly correlated with those at the sapling stage among tree species, with all species showing an increase in survival with size. Only one of 30 tree species demonstrated a statistically significant ontogenetic shift, having a relatively lower survival rate at the sapling stage than expected. Our results indicate that similar life history trade-offs apply across two functional groups (lianas and trees), and that life history strategies are largely conserved across seedling and sapling life-stages for most tropical tree species. PMID:16761606

  8. Fine scale spatial genetic structure in Pouteria reticulata (Engl. Eyma (Sapotaceae, a dioecious, vertebrate dispersed tropical rain forest tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Schroeder

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dioecious tropical tree species often have small flowers and fleshy fruits indicative of small-insect pollination and vertebrate seed dispersal. We hypothesize that seed mediated gene flow should be exceed pollen-mediated gene flow in such species, leading to weak patterns of fine scale spatial genetic structure (SGS. In the present study, we characterize novel microsatellite DNA markers and test for SGS in sapling (N=100 and adult trees (N=99 of the dioecious canopy tree Pouteria reticulata (Sapotaceae in a 50 ha forest dynamics plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. The five genetic markers contained between five and 15 alleles per locus, totaling 51 alleles in the sample population. Significant SGS at local spatial scales (<100m was detected in the sapling (dbh≈1cm and adult (dbh≥20cm size classes, but was stronger in the former (sapling Sp=0.010±0.004, adult Sp=0.006±0.002, suggesting demographic thinning. The degree of SGS was lower than the value expected for non-vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.029, but similar to the average value for vertebrate dispersed tropical trees (Sp=0.009 affirming the dispersal potential of vertebrate dispersed tropical trees in faunally intact forests.

  9. Estimation of the distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae) using high-resolution remote sensing imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Azofeifa, Arturo; Rivard, Benoit; Wright, Joseph; Feng, Ji-Lu; Li, Peijun; Chong, Mei Mei; Bohlman, Stephanie A

    2011-01-01

    Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments. PMID:22163825

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

    2012-05-01

    The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

  11. Quasiconvex optimization and location theory

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Gromicho, Jaoquim António

    1998-01-01

    grams of which the objective is given by the ratio of a convex by a positive (over a convex domain) concave function. As observed by Sniedovich (Ref. [102, 103]) most of the properties of fractional pro­ grams could be found in other programs, given that the objective function could be written as a particular composition of functions. He called this new field C­ programming, standing for composite concave programming. In his seminal book on dynamic programming (Ref. [104]), Sniedovich shows how the study of such com­ positions can help tackling non-separable dynamic programs that otherwise would defeat solution. Barros and Frenk (Ref. [9]) developed a cutting plane algorithm capable of optimizing C-programs. More recently, this algorithm has been used by Carrizosa and Plastria to solve a global optimization problem in facility location (Ref. [16]). The distinction between global optimization problems (Ref. [54]) and generalized convex problems can sometimes be hard to establish. That is exactly the reason ...

  12. Large eddy simulation study of spanwise spacing effects on secondary flows in turbulent channel flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbarimiyanmahaleh, Mohammad; Anderson, William

    2015-11-01

    The structure of turbulent flow over a complex topography composed of streamwise-aligned rows of cones with varying spanwise spacing, s is studied with large-eddy simulation (LES). Similar to the experimental study of Vanderwel and Ganapathisubramani, 2015: J. Fluid Mech., we investigate the relationship between secondary flow and s, for 0 . 25 2 , domain-scale rollers freely exist. These had previously been called ``turbulent secondary flows'' (Willingham et al., 2014: Phys. Fluids; Barros and Christensen, 2014: J. Fluid Mech.; Anderson et al., 2015: J. Fluid Mech.), but closer inspection of the statistics indicates these are a turbulent tertiary flow: they only remain ``anchored'' to the conical roughness elements for s / δ > 2 . For s / δ tertiary flows are prevented from occupying the domain by virtue of proximity to adjacent, counter-rotating tertiary flows. Turbulent secondary flows are associated with the conical roughness elements. These turbulent secondary flows emanate from individual conical topographic elements and set the roughness sublayer depth. The turbulent secondary flows remain intact for large and small spacing. For s / δ tertiary flow is not present. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Sci. Research, Young Inv. Program (PM: Dr. R. Ponnoppan and Ms. E. Montomery) under Grant # FA9550-14-1-0394. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.

  13. UV-to-FIR analysis of Spitzer/IRAC sources in the Extended Groth Strip II: Photometric redshifts, Stellar masses and Star formation rates

    CERN Document Server

    Barro, Guillermo; Gallego, Jesus; Ashby, Matthew L N; Kajisawa, Masaru; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Villar, Victor; Yamada, Toru; Zamorano, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Based on the ultraviolet to far-infrared photometry already compiled and presented in a companion paper (Barro et al. 2011a, Paper I), we present a detailed SED analysis of nearly 80,000 IRAC 3.6+4.5 micron selected galaxies in the Extended Groth Strip. We estimate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates separately for each galaxy in this large sample. The catalog includes 76,936 sources with [3.6] < 23.75 (85% completeness level of the IRAC survey) over 0.48 square degrees. The typical photometric redshift accuracy is Delta z/(1+z)=0.034, with a catastrophic outlier fraction of just 2%. We quantify the systematics introduced by the use of different stellar population synthesis libraries and IMFs in the calculation of stellar masses. We find systematic offsets ranging from 0.1 to 0.4 dex, with a typical scatter of 0.3 dex. We also provide UV- and IR-based SFRs for all sample galaxies, based on several sets of dust emission templates and SFR indicators. We evaluate the systematic dif...

  14. Estimation of the Distribution of Tabebuia guayacan (Bignoniaceae Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery

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    Mei Mei Chong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Species identification and characterization in tropical environments is an emerging field in tropical remote sensing. Significant efforts are currently aimed at the detection of tree species, of levels of forest successional stages, and the extent of liana occurrence at the top of canopies. In this paper we describe our use of high resolution imagery from the Quickbird Satellite to estimate the flowering population of Tabebuia guayacan trees at Barro Colorado Island (BCI, in Panama. The imagery was acquired on 29 April 2002 and 21 March 2004. Spectral Angle Mapping via a One-Class Support Vector machine was used to detect the presence of 422 and 557 flowering tress in the April 2002 and March 2004 imagery. Of these, 273 flowering trees are common to both dates. This study presents a new perspective on the effectiveness of high resolution remote sensing for monitoring a phenological response and its use as a tool for potential conservation and management of natural resources in tropical environments.

  15. Dynamic interactions between hydrogeological and exposure parameters in daily dose prediction under uncertainty and temporal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Dynamic parametric interaction in daily dose prediction under uncertainty. • Importance of temporal dynamics associated with the dose. • Different dose experienced by different population cohorts as a function of time. • Relevance of uncertainty reduction in the input parameters shows temporal dynamism. -- Abstract: We study the time dependent interaction between hydrogeological and exposure parameters in daily dose predictions due to exposure of humans to groundwater contamination. Dose predictions are treated stochastically to account for an incomplete hydrogeological and geochemical field characterization, and an incomplete knowledge of the physiological response. We used a nested Monte Carlo framework to account for uncertainty and variability arising from both hydrogeological and exposure variables. Our interest is in the temporal dynamics of the total dose and their effects on parametric uncertainty reduction. We illustrate the approach to a HCH (lindane) pollution problem at the Ebro River, Spain. The temporal distribution of lindane in the river water can have a strong impact in the evaluation of risk. The total dose displays a non-linear effect on different population cohorts, indicating the need to account for population variability. We then expand the concept of Comparative Information Yield Curves developed earlier (see de Barros et al. [29]) to evaluate parametric uncertainty reduction under temporally variable exposure dose. Results show that the importance of parametric uncertainty reduction varies according to the temporal dynamics of the lindane plume. The approach could be used for any chemical to aid decision makers to better allocate resources towards reducing uncertainty

  16. Sol-gel preparation of a di-ureasil electrolyte doped with lithium perchlorate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) synthesized by the sol-gel process and designated as di-ureasils have been prepared through the incorporation of lithium perchlorate, LiClO4, into the d-U(2000) organic-inorganic hybrid network. Electrolytes with lithium salt compositions of n (where n indicates the number of oxyethylene units per Li+ ion) between ∞ and 0.5 were characterized by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry at a gold microelectrode, thermal analysis and Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectroscopy. The conductivity results obtained suggest that this system offers a quite significant improvement over previously characterized analogues doped with lithium triflate [S.C. Nunes, V. de Zea Bermudez, D. Ostrovskii, M.M. Silva, S. Barros, M.J. Smith, R.A. Sa Ferreira, L.D. Carlos, J. Rocha, E. Morales, J. Electrochem. Soc. 152 (2) (2005), A429]. 'Free' perchlorate ions, detected in all the samples examined, are identified as the main charge carriers in the sample that yields the highest room temperature conductivity (n = 20). In the di-ureasils with n ≤ 10 ionic association is favoured and the ionic conductivity drops

  17. Moving beyond abundance distributions: neutral theory and spatial patterns in a tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Felix; Huth, Andreas; Wiegand, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the relative importance of different processes that determine the spatial distribution of species and the dynamics in highly diverse plant communities remains a challenging question in ecology. Previous modelling approaches often focused on single aggregated forest diversity patterns that convey limited information on the underlying dynamic processes. Here, we use recent advances in inference for stochastic simulation models to evaluate the ability of a spatially explicit and spatially continuous neutral model to quantitatively predict six spatial and non-spatial patterns observed at the 50 ha tropical forest plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. The patterns capture different aspects of forest dynamics and biodiversity structure, such as annual mortality rate, species richness, species abundance distribution, beta-diversity and the species–area relationship (SAR). The model correctly predicted each pattern independently and up to five patterns simultaneously. However, the model was unable to match the SAR and beta-diversity simultaneously. Our study moves previous theory towards a dynamic spatial theory of biodiversity and demonstrates the value of spatial data to identify ecological processes. This opens up new avenues to evaluate the consequences of additional process for community assembly and dynamics. PMID:25631991

  18. ARQUEOLOGÍA EN UNA PLAZA METROPOLITANA: RECOLETA, BUENOS AIRES (Archaeology in a metropolitan place: Recoleta, Buenos Aires

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    Mónica Carminati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Una de las plazas más elegantes de Buenos Aires, ubicada en el barrio de mayores ingresos económicos y símbolo de un sector social elevado, demostró al ser excavada e historiada un origen totalmente diferente: zona marginal de pobres casas de barro y madera, una vivienda con tierras de cultivo en las afueras de la ciudad que fue pasando de mano en mano entre familias inglesas, hasta que el crecimiento de la ciudad tras la epidemia de la fiebre amarilla lleva a la concentración de la riqueza en ese lugar. Un hallazgo casual, un pozo que se hundió por casualidad, abrió la puerta para redescubrir el origen de la zona. ENGLISH: We dug one of the most fancy parks of Buenos Aires, in the middle of the most healthy area of the city. The opportunity came when the inner wall of a pit covered by asphalt was demolished by an old tree. And the kind of history we found was of poverty, rural population and settlement of marginalized people. The review of its history and material culture opened our minds to a completely different kind of neighborhood that what it is now.

  19. Les Interactions Fondamentales et la Structure de l'Espace-temps

    CERN Document Server

    Belabbas, Abdelmoumene

    2014-01-01

    In the light of intriguing results of C.C.Barros, we investigate in this thesis the possibilities of geometrical interpretation of all the fundamental interactions in order to unify them. More exactly we try to supply a unified geometrical description for gravitation and electromagnetism. The analysis of Huei's standard approach of Linear Gravity, in which the Einstein equations can be written in the same form of the Maxwell ones, revealed the existence of some imperfections. In fact, the relation between the scalar potential and the electric-type field is not valid except in the harmonic gauge, the Lorentz-type force is obtained with a time independence restriction and an undesired factor 4 appears in the magnetic-type part. A subtle gauge conditions allows us to eliminate these imperfections and to revisit the Linear Gravity in a way to get a strong similarity with electromagnetism. In the linear case, we showed that Maxwell's equations could be derived from an electromagnetic version of the Einstein ones, ...

  20. Identification of Novel Gammaherpesviruses in Ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and Bobcats (Lynx rufus) in Panama and Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Caitlin C; Sweanor, Linda L; Wilson-Henjum, Grete; Kays, Roland W; Moreno, Ricardo; VandeWoude, Sue; Troyer, Ryan M

    2015-10-01

    Gammaherpesviruses (GHVs) have been identified in many species and are often associated with disease. Recently, we characterized three novel felid GHVs in domestic cats (Felis catus), bobcats (Lynx rufus), and pumas (Puma concolor). We investigated whether free-ranging ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) and bobcats are infected with additional GHVs. We screened DNA samples from ocelots on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and bobcats in western Colorado, US, by using a degenerate nested PCR that targets the GHV glycoprotein B gene. We identified a novel GHV glycoprotein B sequence in two ocelots and a second novel sequence in a bobcat, which is distinct from the previously characterized bobcat GHV (Lynx rufus GHV 1). Utilizing additional degenerate and virus-specific PCRs, we extended these sequences to include 3.4 kilobases of the GHV glycoprotein B and DNA polymerase genes. These sequences identify the first GHV detected in ocelots and the second GHV in bobcats. These viruses were provisionally named L. pardalis GHV 1 and Lynx rufus GHV 2, respectively. The viruses are most closely related to recently identified GHVs of the Percavirus genus found in domestic cats (F. catus GHV 1) and bobcats (L. rufus GHV 1), suggesting that a cluster of felid GHVs exists within the Percavirus genus. PMID:26280877

  1. Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx)/Orographic Precipitation Processes Study Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A. P. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Petersen, W. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States); Wilson, A. M. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Three Microwave Radiometers (two 3-channel and one 2-channel) were deployed in the Southern Appalachian Mountains in western North Carolina as part of the Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx), which was the first National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation (GV) field campaign after the launch of the GPM Core Satellite (Barros et al. 2014). The radiometers were used along with other instrumentation to estimate the liquid water content of low-level clouds and fog. Specifically, data from the radiometers were collected to help, with other instrumentation, to characterize fog formation, evolution, and dissipation in the region (by monitoring the liquid water path in the column) and observe the effect of that fog on the precipitation regime. Data were collected at three locations in the Southern Appalachians, specifically western North Carolina: a valley in the inner mountain region, a valley in the open mountain pass region, and a ridge in the inner region. This project contributes to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility mission by providing in situ observations designed to improve the understanding of clouds and precipitation processes in complex terrain. The end goal is to use this improved understanding of physical processes to improve remote-sensing algorithms and representations of orographic precipitation microphysics in climate and earth system models.

  2. Modelling and simulation of natural gas sweetening and dehydration process; Modelagem e simulacao dos processos de adocamento e desidratacao de gas natural ou associado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Adao de Mattos; Moraes, Elenise Bannwart de; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Sweetening consists in removing gases, H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} and dehydration is for water. It is important to remove these contaminants, which is normally made through absorption: amines for H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2}, and triethyleneglycol for water. For the study of these processes, the use of process commercial simulators is welcome. For the quality data acquisition many cares must be taken, such as, the good choice of the thermodynamic model and the suitable choice of the method for calculating of the equipment. In the amines process, where the absorption occurs with the chemical reaction in electrolyte environment, the model is fundamental. This work presents a methodology to analyze the different equilibrium models for sweetening and dehydration processes and selects the best one after the comparison with experimental data. It was introduced a new methodology for the efficiency calculation developed by Barros and Wolf, which is used for the simulation with phase equilibrium based method. The influence of the efficiency is more evident on the sweetening process than on the dehydration. Sensibility analyses were carried out in order to optimize the absorber and the regenerator, separately. With these optimized conditions, both processes were presented with recycle, focusing the reuse of the solvent. (author)

  3. Long-term data reveal a population decline of the tropical lizard Anolis apletophallus, and a negative affect of el nino years on population growth rate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Stapley

    Full Text Available Climate change threatens biodiversity worldwide, however predicting how particular species will respond is difficult because climate varies spatially, complex factors regulate population abundance, and species vary in their susceptibility to climate change. Studies need to incorporate these factors with long-term data in order to link climate change to population abundance. We used 40 years of lizard abundance data and local climate data from Barro Colorado Island to ask how climate, total lizard abundance and cohort-specific abundance have changed over time, and how total and cohort-specific abundance relate to climate variables including those predicted to make the species vulnerable to climate change (i.e. temperatures exceeding preferred body temperature. We documented a decrease in lizard abundance over the last 40 years, and changes in the local climate. Population growth rate was related to the previous years' southern oscillation index; increasing following cooler-wetter, la niña years, decreasing following warmer-drier, el nino years. Within-year recruitment was negatively related to rainfall and minimum temperature. This study simultaneously identified climatic factors driving long-term population fluctuations and climate variables influencing short-term annual recruitment, both of which may be contributing to the population decline and influence the population's future persistence.

  4. Suicide risk in cocaine addicts with a current depressive episode: Feelings and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Neubüser Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Original Article 78 S uicide ri S k in cocaine addict S with a current depre SS ive epi S ode : feeling S and experience S Caroline Neubüser Rocha 1 Daniélle Bernardi Silveira 2 Roger Santos Camargo 3 Simone Fernandes 4 Maristela Ferigolo 5 Helena Maria Tannhauser Barros 6 Death by suicide is now the third most frequent cause of death in the population 15-44 years old. This self-inflicted death has meaning that requires understanding and attention. The objective of this study was to understand the experiences and feelings of cocaine users within the relationship of addiction and suicide. This is a qualitative study conducted from August 2012 to February 2013. The 18 individuals who met criteria for a depressive episode responded to the semi-structured interview for suicide risk, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. During the analysis of the narrated content, there were three categories established: previous history, previous suicide attempts, and depression. The results were evaluated seeking to reflect and understand the experiences exposed by users. This study helps to understand the meaning of the experiences and feelings of crack/cocaine users who are at the risk for suicide.

  5. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI among elderly Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros IMC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI in a group of elderly Brazilians.Methods: The study participants were individuals between 60 and 90 years old, of both sexes, with different levels of education and income. Fifteen of 81 pictograms from the USP-DI were presented to the elderly subjects, individually, without subtitles and in random order, so that the participants’ understanding of the pictograms could be evaluated.Results: The study included 116 participants. Only one of the selected pictograms reached the comprehension criterion established by the International Organization for Standardization 3864. With regard to the relationship between understanding and sociodemographic characteristics, age, wage income, and level of education were all found to be significantly associated with participants’ understanding of some of the pictograms.Conclusion: Most of the USP-DI pictograms evaluated were not well understood by the elderly Brazilians. This finding indicates that such pictograms need to be culturally adapted for the Brazilian context if they are to serve their purpose effectively in this country. Keywords: pictograms, understanding, elderly, Brazil

  6. A POETICIDADE DAS COISAS SIMPLES REVELADA EM O FAZEDOR DE AMANHECER

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    Sandra Regina Tornquist

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar o livro O fazedor de amanhecer, de Manoel de Barros, que integra o acervo do Programa Nacional da Biblioteca Escolar (PNBE/2010 e cuja poesia se constrói por meio da revelação daquilo que tende a ser rejeitado ou ignorado pela percepção humana. Na obra, seres como grilos, moscas e sapos ganham importância, assumindo lugar de destaque. Desenvolvido com base na análise descritiva, por meio de pesquisa bibliográfica, o estudo apresenta, num primeiro momento, considerações sobre a importância da leitura na vida do ser humano, passando a enfocar, em seguida, peculiaridades da poesia, que propicia ao leitor uma experiência diferenciada, atingindo o imaginário, através das imagens poéticas. Com base nessa reflexão teórica, é focado o texto poético da obra, com vistas a revelar como o simples e muitas vezes julgado sem importância torna-se rico em poeticidade através da linguagem, possibilitando ao leitor a criação de uma nova visão acerca do seu entorno.

  7. Caracterización química de los extractos colorantes de siete especies forestales y del fijador natural, utilizado en 19 comunidades indígenas de Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Riveros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó la caracterización química de las sustancias colorantes provenientes de las 07 especies y del fijador natural identificadas en la primera parte de la investigación, y que son utilizados como materia prima para el teñido de telas y artesanías por 19 comunidades indígenas de la Región Ucayali. Estas especies son: Trichilia maynasiana, Trichilia poeppigiana, Swietenia macrophylla, Buchenavia parvifolia, Terminalia oblonga,  Terminalia sp., y Picramnia juniniana. Los tintes y cortezas de estas especies sometidas a un tamizaje fitoquímico presentaron mayormente taninos, lactonas y flavonoides, en diferentes concentraciones, como principales metabolitos, mientras que la especie Picramia juniniana “ami”, de coloración lila, presento básicamente quinonas. En la arcilla empleada como fijador, denominada greda, barro especial o “mano”, se encontraron 32 elementos químicos con predominancia de silicio y aluminio con un pH ácido, mientras que el fijador reacciona con el tinte formando complejos denominados quelatos los cuales fijan el color sobre las fibras naturales.

  8. Optimal Government Spending and Taxation in Three-Sector Endogenous Growth Model: the Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrab Kiarsi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature on taxation and growth has stressed the optimality of a zero long-run taxation on all accumulative factors of production. For a given path of government spending, the optimal tax plan requires the government to build up a positive stock of public wealth in the short run; in the long-run, government spending can be financed with the income accruing from the management of the portfolio of public assets, rather than resorting to distortion taxation. In this study, following Barro (1990 and based on Corsetti and Roubini (1996 work that is explained and extended, we study the size of government productive in endogenous growth models. By describing competitive equilibrium and characteristics of equilibrium market in balanced- growth path, we determine the optimal government spending and optimal tax rates on physical capital and human capital. After determining balanced-growth path that along which human and physical capital growth at the same rate, we have determined optimal government spending and optimal tax rates by consider the effect of government spending, that specified in system and have a role of explanatory on productivity of human capital and physical capital in Iran.

  9. Recursos disponibles para la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de futbolistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarena Lorenzo Fern\\u00E1ndez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La retirada deportiva es a menudo una etapa de crisis que requiere exigencias y ciertos ajustes a nivel ocupacional, financiero, social y psicológico (Cury, Ferreira y Leite de Barros, 2008. En línea con las contribuciones recientes al tema de la retirada deportiva y la posterior empleabilidad, el presente trabajo pretende analizar de modo descriptivo los recursos disponibles para hacer frente a la inserción sociolaboral tras la retirada deportiva de los jugadores profesionales de un club de fútbol. Para ello se ha elaborado el Cuestionario para el Diagnóstico de la Empleabilidad en Deportistas de Élite. Los resultados indican que para hacer frente de forma adaptativa a la retirada deportiva los futbolistas del club necesitan instaurar una conciencia de futuro, planificar su retirada deportiva, ahorrar y formarse, y por otro lado, se debe fortalecer el capital humano acumulado, apoyo social percibido y habilidades, estrategias y capacidades adquiridas tras la práctica deportiva.

  10. “Tratado” e Exercício de ser criança: a infância entre versos, rimas e tintas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penha Lucilda de Souza Silvestre

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The work of art, in general, consists of a significant event, considering the reader can experience different fictional worlds, as well as retrieve and articulate the intertextual networks in the act of reading. Thus, there is the possibility of rethinking one’s own experience as well as the social conditions in which the child is inserted. In this sense , our objective is to perform a journey through the poetic universe from the reading of the texts Exercício de ser criança (1999, by Manoel de Barros, and Um pequeno tratado de brinquedos para meninos quietos (2009, by Selma Maria Kuasne, associating the m to the paintings by Candido Portinari, ‘Boys flying kites’ (1932, ‘Children playing’ (1938 and ‘Boys playing’ (1955. Indeed, these pictures enable us to rethink how the representation and the constitution of childhood in art are conceived and to under stand them in the weaving of poetry and painting, as well as the act of playing, in a dialectical process.

  11. When can species abundance data reveal non-neutrality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hammal, Omar; Alonso, David; Etienne, Rampal S; Cornell, Stephen J

    2015-03-01

    Species abundance distributions (SAD) are probably ecology's most well-known empirical pattern, and over the last decades many models have been proposed to explain their shape. There is no consensus over which model is correct, because the degree to which different processes can be discerned from SAD patterns has not yet been rigorously quantified. We present a power calculation to quantify our ability to detect deviations from neutrality using species abundance data. We study non-neutral stochastic community models, and show that the presence of non-neutral processes is detectable if sample size is large enough and/or the amplitude of the effect is strong enough. Our framework can be used for any candidate community model that can be simulated on a computer, and determines both the sampling effort required to distinguish between alternative processes, and a range for the strength of non-neutral processes in communities whose patterns are statistically consistent with neutral theory. We find that even data sets of the scale of the 50 Ha forest plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, are unlikely to be large enough to detect deviations from neutrality caused by competitive interactions alone, though the presence of multiple non-neutral processes with contrasting effects on abundance distributions may be detectable. PMID:25793889

  12. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  13. PEASANT AND SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE ON PLANOSOLS AS A SOURCE OF MATERIALS IN THE MAKING OF NON-INDUSTRIAL POTTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiana Lira Cabral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ethnopedological studies have mainly focused on agricultural land uses and associated practices. Nevertheless, peasant and indigenous populations use soil and land resources for a number of additional purposes, including pottery. In the present study, we describe and analyze folk knowledge related to the use of soils in non-industrial pottery making by peasant potters, in the municipality of Altinho, Pernambuco State, semiarid region at Brazil. Ethnoscientific techniques were used to record local knowledge, with an emphasis on describing the soil materials recognized by the potters, the properties they used to identify those soil materials, and the criteria employed by them to differentiate and relate such materials. The potters recognized three categories of soil materials: “terra” (earth, “barro” (clay and, “piçarro” (soft rock. The multi-layered arrangement of these materials within the soil profiles was similar to the arrangement of the soil horizon described by formal pedologists. “Barro vermelho” (red clay was considered by potters as the principal ceramic resource. The potters followed morphological and utilitarian criteria in distinguishing the different soil materials. Soils from all of these sites were sodium-affected Alfisols and correspond to Typic Albaqualf and Typic Natraqualf in the Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 2010.

  14. Las disparidades económicas regionales en Colombia, 1926-1995

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    Jaime Bonet Moru00F3n

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En los años noventas, la convergencia económica regional ha sido tema de diversos trabajos en Colombia, bajo la influencia del trabajo pionero de Robert Barro y Xavier Sala-i-Martin (1990. El primer trabajo en aplicar este tipo de análisis fue el de Mauricio Cárdenas (Cárdenas et. al.,1993. Cárdenas concluyó que Colombia, entre 1950 y 1989, fue un caso exitoso de convergencia regional y calculó una tasa de convergencia tipo  absoluta de 4% por año, duplicando las tasas estimadas en los estudios internacionales. Otros autores han controvertido la idea de la convergencia en Colombia y han encontrado que en el país persisten las diferencias inter-departamentales (Meisel, 1993; Mora y Salazar, 1994; Rocha y Vivas, 1998; y Birchenall y Murcia, 1997. En este documento se estudia la evolución de las disparidades económicas regionales desde 1926 a 1995. En un primer período, 1926- 1960, dado la carencia de información sobre PIB departamental, se utilizan los datos correspondientes a los depósitos bancarios departamentales como proxy del nivel de ingreso departamental. En el período siguiente, 1960-1995, se trabaja con la información existente sobre PIB departamental

  15. TAMAÑO ÓPTIMO DEL GASTO PÚBLICO COLOMBIANO: UNA APROXIMACIÓN DESDE LA TEORÍA DEL CRECIMIENTO ENDÓGENO

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    Camilo Alvis

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo tiene como propósito hacer una estimación econométrica del modelo de gasto público y crecimiento económico de Barro (1990. La estimación se realizó mediante el método generalizado de los momentos (GMM para la economía colombiana durante el período 1950-2010. Los resultados obtenidos sugieren que el tamaño óptimo del gasto público se sobrepasó al empezar la década de los noventa. Además, se encontró que el tamaño del gasto público que maximiza la tasa de crecimiento del PIB per cápita depende inversamente del grado relativo de aversión al riesgo y que la elasticidad de sustitución intertemporal es baja para el período analizado

  16. Epigeic soil arthropod abundance under different agricultural land uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Bote, J. L.; Romero, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    The study of soil arthropods can provide valuable information how ecosystems respond to different management practices. The objective was to assess the total abundance, richness, and composition of epiedaphic arthropods in different agrosystems from southwestern Spain. Six sites with different agricultural uses were selected: olive grove, vineyards, olive grove with vineyards, wheat fields, fallows (150-300 m long), and abandoned vineyards. Crops were managed in extensive. Field margins were used as reference habitats. At the seven sites a total of 30 pitfall traps were arranged in a 10 × 3 grid. Traps were arranged to short (SD, 1 m), medium (MD, 6 m) and large (LD, 11 m) distance to the field margins in the middle of selected plots. Pitfall traps captured a total of 11,992 edaphic arthropods belonging to 11 different taxa. Soil fauna was numerically dominated by Formicidae (26.60%), Coleoptera (19.77%), and Aranae (16.76%). The higher number of soil arthropods were captured in the field margins followed by the abandoned vineyard. Significant differences were found between sites for total abundance, and zones. However, no significant differences for total abundance were found between months (April-July). Richness and diversity was highest in field margins and abandoned vineyards. Significant differences were found for these variables between sites. Our results suggest that agricultural intensification affects soil arthropods in Tierra de Barros area, a taxonomic group with an important role in the functioning of agricultural ecosystems. (Author) 32 refs.

  17. Portugal in the Works of Bartolomé Jiménez Patón (1569-1640

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    Jaume Garau

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout his works, Bartolomé Jiménez Patón mentions Portugal and some of its writers on a number of occasions. In the books that have been recovered of his Comentarios de erudición (1621, he cites authors such as Fernando López de Castañeda or Joao de Barros, who are associated with the popular vogue of the period for portentous works, of which the Spanish Humanist was so fond of. A large number of his commentaries concerning Portugal center on justifying dynastic unity, based on his interpretation of the history of Gregorio López Madera, who he admired so much, which has as its background the image of Hispania. To a certain extent, the new government of Olivares would try to carry out this policy. Of no less interest is his description of the city of Lisbon in which he presents the idea of ‘exemplariness’, a notion he has in common with other descriptions by Mateo Alemán, Cervantes or Tirso, although in Patón’s, such exemplariness appears in contrast with the picturesque depiction of the rogues of the Rua Nova.

  18. El jardinero feliz: sobre populismo, democracia y espectros

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    Julián A. Melo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Este texto tiene por finalidad rescatar diversos aspectos y debates en torno a la relación entre populismo y democracia. En ese sentido, expondremos los principales rasgos de las teorizaciones de autores como Margaret Canovan, Benjamín Arditi y Sebastián Barros para repensar los lazos entre aquellos dos términos. En un esfuerzo por no tomar a populismo y democracia como polos antitéticos en las formaciones políticas comunitarias, nos interesa resaltar el modo en que la idea de sombra y la de espectro han tenido centralidad en las concepciones de nuestros autores. Junto a esta reflexión, pretendemos retomar diversos núcleos discursivos de la experiencia del primer peronismo en la Argentina de mediados del siglo XX para indagar los modos en que la lógica del populismo peronista resignificó la democracia colocándola como elemento central de la identidad que se decía encarnar. Así, creemos que puede resultar interesante pensar no solo al populismo como espectro de la democracia sino también a la democracia como espectro del populismo.

  19. Uma Forma Inédita, em «Terra Sigillata» Hispânica, no Museu Nacional de Arqueologia e Etnologia de Lisboa

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    María García Pereira MAIA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Un jarro de «terra sigillata» conservado en el museo nacional de Lisboa posee algunas características no dadas todavía a conocer. No tiene decoración. Presenta una sola asa y mide unos quince centímetros de altura con la boca en forma de labio muy conspicuo. Es de pasta color rosa, de grano muy fino y muchas impurezas. El barniz de color bermejo acastañado conserva un buen brillo, delgado y de poca adherencia. La forma de la boca de dicho ejemplar no es frecuente en las piezas romanas de barro cocido. Cronológicamente presenta afinidades con ejemplares hispánicos que apuntan en torno al siglo II d. C.ABSTRACT: The A. presents what she believes to be a new form of Hispanic «Sigillata», from rhe Roman «Villa» of Torre de Palma (Alentejo, Portugal and kept in the Museu Nacional de Arqueologia e Etnologia of Lisbon. It is a plain one-handled jar, which main characteristic is a circus round the mouth, rather uncummon either on «Sigillata» or on wraph wear. On the basis of some formal similitudes with Hispanic Form 20, mouthes found on glass-ware from the I I century on, and of the quality of the slip, the A. suggests, as a mere hypothesis, a chronology not far from the I I century a.D.

  20. Mass determination of K2-19b and K2-19c from radial velocities and transit timing variations

    CERN Document Server

    Nespral, D; Deeg, H J; Borsato, L; Fridlund, M C V; Barragan, O; Grziwa, S; Korth, J; Cabrera, J; Csizmadia, Sz; Nowak, G; Kuutma, T; Saario, J; Eigmuller, P; Erikson, A; Guenther, E W; Hatzes, A P; Rodriguez, P Montanes; Palle, E; Patzold, M; Prieto-Arranz, J; Rauer, H; Sebastian, D

    2016-01-01

    We present FIES@NOT and HARPS-N@TNG radial velocity follow-up observations of K2-19, a compact planetary system hosting three planets, of which the two larger ones, namely K2-19b and K2-19c, are close to the 3:2 mean motion resonance. The masses of these larger planets have previously been derived from transit timing only. An analysis considering only the radial velocity measurements is able to detect only K2-19b, the largest and more massive planet in the system, with a mass of $71.7\\pm6.3$ M${_\\oplus}$. We also used the TRADES code to simultaneously model both our RV measurements and the existing transit-timing measurements. We derived a mass of K2-19b of $59.5^{+7.2}_{-11.4}$ M${_\\oplus}$ and of K2-19c of $9.7^{+3.9}_{-2.0}$ M${_\\oplus}$. A prior K2-19b mass estimated by Barros 2015, based exclusively on transit timing measurements, is only consistent with our combined TTV and RV analysis, but not with our analysis based purely on RV measurements. K2-19b supports the suspicion that planet masses and densit...

  1. Cenas urbanas de mobilidade e de desterritorialização nas canções de O Rappa = Urban scenes of mobility and geographical displacement in the songs by ”O Rappa”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães, Carlos Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As vivências e as experiências com o tempo e com o espaço são invocadas também para a caracterização da contemporaneidade urbana. Atualmente, a complexidade da vida nas cidades aponta para a inconveniência de abordagens polarizadas e dualistas. Há uma tendência de qualificação de agendas que se desenham e se nomeiam valendo-se da ambiguidade e da pluralidade expressional. Essas reflexões podem abrir rotas de compreensão para se lidar com a concomitância de aspectos antagônicos da cidade do Rio de Janeiro. Em relação à favela, observa-se que as condições de vida variaram muito ao longo da própria história e seu potencial de alteridade se manteve sempre alto. Imagens ambíguas do Rio de Janeiro são mostradas nas canções do grupo O Rappa, no seu último álbum, Sete Vezes, especialmente nas composições Meu mundo é o barro e Monstro invisível.

  2. Impactos del desarrollo inmobiliario en localidades costeras del Área Metropolitana de Valparaíso, Chile./ Impact of real estate development of four coastal villages of Valparaiso Metropolitan Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Arriagada Luco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo es un extracto de la investigación “Impacto del Desarrollo inmobiliario y turístico de pequeñas localidades balneario del litoral central chileno: localización de departamentos y resort, gentrificación urbano costera y nuevas demografías residenciales”,cuyo objetivo fue “estudiar el impacto que tiene el crecimiento del sector turístico-inmobiliario, sus efectos en la valorización del suelo urbano y recambio socio demográfico o inmigración queoperan en dos zonas de expansión del área metropolitana de Valparaíso, su eje Norte conformado por la intercomuna desde Concón hasta Maitencillo y Zapallar y su eje sur conformado por la región de Algarrobo Norte-Mirasol. La metodología aplicada combino elprocesamiento de datos cuantitativos secundarios de CASEN, Censo y otros con el levantamiento de entrevistas a expertos urbanistas como asimismo a vecinos de las zonas observadas y el registro en terreno de efectos visibles en áreas de influencia de una serie demegaproyectos ubicados dentro de las cuatro pequeñas ciudades o casos elegidos. En este artículo se hace revisión en particular si los casos analizados muestran indicios de recambio socio económico de la población residente con base en datos del Censo y CASEN, y se elabora un análisis agregado de entrevistas a urbanistas chilenos sobre desafíos del proceso a la planificación urbana y de entrevistas a vecinos residentes y comerciantes antiguos de las localidades respecto a los impactos positivos y negativos percibidos del desarrollo inmobiliario observado./This article is part of the project results 2012 "Impact of real estate and tourism developmentof small towns Chilean central coastal resort: location of departments and resort, coastal urban gentrification and new residential demographics" awarded by the University of Chile to theProject postulated by Professor Camilo Arriagada Luco. The objective was "to study the impact of the growth in tourism

  3. Conduta obstétrica no óbito fetal Obstetrical management of fetal death

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    Márcia M A de Aquino

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de 80 a 90% dos fetos mortos poderem ser eliminados espontaneamente após duas a três semanas do óbito, a indução do parto tem sido a conduta mais utilizada. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os resultados da indução de parto em casos de óbito fetal intra-útero com idade gestacional a partir de 20 semanas. Foi um estudo clínico descritivo realizado no Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, em São Paulo. Foram analisadas 122 gestantes com esse diagnóstico quanto às características sociodemográficas, causas de óbito fetal, antecedentes obstétricos e características do parto (forma de indução, via de parto, complicações. Os procedimentos estatísticos utilizados foram cálculo da média e desvio-padrão e chi². As principais causas identificadas de morte fetal foram hipertensão arterial e infecções. A droga mais utilizada para a indução do parto foi o misoprostol (37,7%, seguido da ocitocina (19,7%. Em 27% dos casos o trabalho de parto iniciou espontaneamente. O tempo médio de indução foi de 3 horas. A maior parte teve parto vaginal e em 9,1% a cesárea foi realizada. Concluiu-se que a indução de parto de feto morto é segura e eficaz, independentemente do método utilizado. O misoprostol, utilizado por via vaginal, é especialmente útil nos casos de colo desfavorável, por seu efeito modificador sobre ele.Although 80 to 90% of all dead fetuses may be spontaneously eliminated after two to three weeks from death, labor induction has been the mostly used management. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the results of labor induction for pregnancies with fetal death and gestation age above 20 weeks. It was a descriptive clinical study which was performed at the Hospital e Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros in São Paulo, Brazil. One hundred and twenty-two pregnancies with fetal death were evaluated regarding their social and demographic characteristics, causes of fetal death, previous

  4. Characterization of ancient construction materials (mud walls and adobe in the churches at Cisneros, Villada and Boada de Campos (Palencia

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    Sánchez Hernández, R.

    2000-03-01

    introducción en las fábricas de grandes cantidades de agua. Los tapiales de la torre de Cisneros son, composicional y texturalmente, muy similares entre sí, lo que indica que, a pesar de sus grandes dimensiones, se cuidó la homogeneidad de los materiales. Estos tapiales guardan una notable similitud con los de la iglesia de Villada. La materia prima original es barro con algunos aditivos (escombro, cenizas, huesos, etc. y algunos restos de cal empleada como estabilizante. Aunque la proporción de arcilla es muy elevada no se han detectado arcillas hinchables, de lo que se deduce que una vez construido el tapial no se habrían producido importantes cambios de volumen por variaciones de humedad de las fábricas. Las características del adobe de la torre de Boada son lógicamente diferentes de las de los tapiales estando constituido por un barro menos arenoso, más arcilloso, con una elevada proporción de paja que no tienen los tapiales y sin adiciones de ladrillos, huesos, etc.

  5. Presentación - Minga-Mutirão de Revistas de Teología latinoamericanas - A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro

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    José Maria Vigil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available KOINONIA/ASETTMINGA/MUTIRÃO DE REVISTAS DE TEOLOGIA LATINO-AMERICANASÍndice del número colectivo Minga-Mutirão de Revistas Latinoamericanas de Teología 2013, «A los 40 años de la Teología de la Liberación: balance y futuro»VIGIL, José Maria. Presentación. BARROS, Marcelo; VIGIL, José Maria. Anunciaron su muerte, ¡pero está bien viva! Teología de la Liberación 40 años: balance y perspectivas. SUSIN, Luiz Carlos, Secretario Executivo do Foro Mundial de Teologia e Libertação, Porto Alegre, Brasil, Teologia da Libertação: de onde viemos, para onde vamos? ALMEIDA, Antonio José de, Teologia da Libertação e transições eclesiasis pendentes para o futuro. ARAGÃO, Gilbraz, Recife, Brasil, A Libertação se desdobra em diálogo. Teologia da Libertação e pluralismo religioso. BARROS, Marcelo, Recife, Brasil, Para una teología bolivariana de la Liberación. Teología de la Liberación y Patria Grande hoy. SCHIAVO, Luigi, San José, Costa Rica, Tiempos oscuros, tiempos de monstruos. Teología de la Liberación y nuevos desafíos culturales. OSORIO, Sergio, Bogotá, Colombia, Una nueva dimensión epistemológica para la teología. La Teología de la Liberación y el desafío epistemológico. RODRIGUES SILVA Marcos, Coordenador da Comissão de Teologia Afro da ASETT, Teologia Afro (ou Negra da Libertação: balanço e perspectivas. TOMICHÁ, Roberto, Cochabamba, Bolivia, Teologías de la liberación indígenas. VÉLEZ, Consuelo, Coordinadora de la Comisión de Teología Feminista de la ASETT, Universidad Xaveriana, Bogotá, Colombia, Teología feminista latinoamericana de la Liberación: balance y futuro. KERBER, Guillermo: Teología de la liberación y movimiento ecuménico. CASTILLO, Jorge, panameño profesor de teología en la Universidad de Nijmegen, Holanda, Teología de la liberación y «cristianismo mundial». VIGIL, José María, Panamá, Panamá, Teología de la Liberación en camino hacia nuevos paradigmas.

  6. Lenguas, territorialidad y etnicidad en la correspondencia de Valentín Saygüeque hacia 1880 Languages, territoriality and ethnicity: Valentín Saygüeque's Letters since 1880

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Esteban Vezub

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre 1860 y 1881 Saygüeque contó con secretarios letrados. Desde sus toldos del sur del Neuquén intercambió cartas con otros caciques, autoridades y comerciantes de Argentina, Chile y Araucanía. Se transcribe y analiza un manuscrito conservado en el Archivo General de la Nación, dirigido al gobernador de la Patagonia Álvaro Barros en 1880, en el contexto de las campañas militares argentinas. Saygüeque detallaba la nómina de caciques y capitanejos supuestamente subordinados a su "Gobernación Indígena de las Manzanas". Se adicionan datos sobre los idiomas a los cuales pertenecen los nombres de los caciques enumerados, sobre los vínculos de parentesco, y sobre la localización de las jefaturas incluidas en la lista. Se pone a prueba la metodología onomástica de la etnografía tradicional de mediados del siglo XX, a los fines de precisar sus aportes y sus limitaciones en el reconocimiento del rol del parentesco, los usos de las lenguas, la territorialidad, y los procesos de forzamiento político de la etnicidad. Se interpreta la "Gobernación Indígena de las Manzanas" como un proyecto inconcluso, una confederación pluriétnica de caciques y parientes bajo jefatura de Saygüeque, quien exhibía la amplitud de sus alianzas, la diversidad, y la elaboración paralela de lo "manzanero" como forma local de una identidad genérica, asociada con lo mapuche o indígena durante la segunda mitad del siglo XIX.Between 1860 and 1881 Saygüeque counted on the assistance of literate secretaries. From his toldos in southern Neuquén he exchanged letters with other chiefs, authorities, and traders from Argentina, Chile, and Araucanía. In this paper, a manuscript preserved in the Archivo General de la Nación, sent to Álvaro Barros, the governor of Patagonia in 1880 in the context of the Argentine military campaigns, is transcribed and analysed. Saygüeque enumerated the list of caciques and capitanejos supposedly subordinate to his "Gobernaci

  7. Los ídolos calcolíticos de «La PijOtilia» (Badajoz

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    Víctor HURTADO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: En el yacimiento de «La Pijotilla» (Badajoz, entre Solana de los Barros y Talavera la Real, se ha recogido abundante material arqueológico, de superficie, por la familia Domínguez de Entrín Alto. De esta colección, hemos seleccionado aquellas piezas de mayor interés, como son los ídolos, y los hemos dividido por tipos. En ellos se encuentra un variado muestrario: betilos, placas, falanges decoradas, planos-oculados, antropomorfos, bicónicos (tolvas, los llamados alcachofas o pinas, figuras zoomorfas y otras de difícil encuadre tipológico. Los más importantes son los ídolos con tema oculado y los antropomorfos. Los primeros se caracterizan por su forma rectangular o trapezoidal y sección plana. En el anverso, ojos circulares, cejas pobladas y tatuaje facial. En el reverso, líneas en zig-zag. Es un tipo abundante y, por el momento, su aparición se limita a la cuenca media del Guadiana. Los antropomorfos están fabricados de mármol, los primeros en la península realizados con este material. Los encontramos masculinos y femeninos. Presentan los mismos elementos que los óculados, lo cual, les hace diferentes de los cicládidos. Su número también es abundante en comparación con las piezas aparecidas hasta ahora en nuestra península. En conjunto, el yacimiento se relaciona más con materiales portugueses pero con unas características propias. Corresponde al Calcolítico tardío y su estudio sería muy interesante para conocer este momento en la cuenca del Guadiana.ABSTRACT: In the settlement of «La Pijotilla», located between Solana de los Barros and Talavera la Real, it has been collected, on the surface, a fair number of archeological materials by the Dominguez's family. From this collection, we have chosen those pieces of most interest, such as the idols. They have been divided into different types so there is a great variety among them: stone baetyls, idol-plaques, phalanges with decoration, eye-flat idols

  8. Cambios históricos en el aporte terrígeno de la cuenca del Río de la Plata sobre la plataforma interna Uruguaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Analía; Tudurí, Adriana; Pérez, Laura; Cuña, Caroline; Muniz, Pablo; Lopes Figueira, Rubens; Michaelovitch de Mahiques, Michel; Alves de Lima Ferreira, Paulo; Pittauerová, Daniela; Hanebuth, Till; García Rodríguez, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    B 13813-4. También se determinó una mayor acumulación de sedimentos a través del tiempo en el cinturón de barro del Río de la Plata (plataforma continental adyacente), comparado con aquel registrado en la Barra del Indio (límite entre zona intermedia y externa del estuario). Estas diferencias podrían estar relacionadas con la influencia del Río de la Plata, el cual genera un ambiente altamente dinámico sobre la Barra del Indio y un ambiente más estable sobre el cinturón de barro en la plataforma continental.

  9. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  10. Volcanic stratigraphy of intermediate to acidic rocks in southern Paraná Magmatic Province, Brazil

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    Liza Angélica Polo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first map in detail scale for an area covered by Palmas type volcanic rocks in the south border of the eocretaceous Paraná Magmatic Province, south Brazil. The study of the structural features coupled with petrography and geochemistry made it possible to separate these rocks into three main volcanic sequences and recognize their stratigraphy. The older Caxias do Sul sequence rests directly over the first low-Ti basalt flows (Gramado type, and corresponds to the stacking of lobated lava flows, laminar flows and lava domes, mostly emitted as continuous eruptions; only the latest eruptions are intercalated with thin sandstone deposits. These rocks have dacitic composition (~ 68 wt% SiO2 with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and subordinate pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite immersed in glassy or devitrified matrix. A second volcanic sequence, named Barros Cassal, is composed of several lava flows of basaltic andesite, andesitic and dacitic composition (~ 54; ~ 57 and ~ 63 wt% SiO2 , respectively, with microphenocrysts of plagioclase, pyroxenes and Ti-magnetite. The frequent intercalation of sandstone between the flows attests to the intermittent behaviour of this event. The upper sequence, Santa Maria, is made up of more silica-rich (~ 70 wt% SiO2 rocks occurring as laminar flows, lobated flows and lava-domes. These rocks have rhyolitic composition with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and Ti-magnetite set in a glassy or devitrified matrix with microlites. The structures and textures of all three silicic sequences favor the interpretation that they had a predominantly effusive character, which is thought to be a reflection of the remarkably high temperatures of the lavas (~ 1,000 ºC.

  11. LEITURA DA PROSA POÉTICA CONTEMPORÂNEA

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    Flávia Brochetto Ramos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir do momento em que a infância passa a ser vista como uma fase da vida, a criança começa a receber bens culturais específicos, entre eles uma literatura própria. Nas primeiras obras destinadas ao público infantil, o infante era apenas receptor do texto e quase não aparecia como personagem, porém, com a consolidação do gênero, a criança alcança o lugar de protagonista. Neste texto, investiga-se o modo como duas obras contemporâneas se constroem (Os bolsos do mundo, de Fabiana Tasca, 2003 e Exercício de ser criança, de Manoel de Barros, 1999, a fim de analisar a proposta de leitura que subjaz às mesmas. Tais obras, pela palavra e ilustração, veiculam conteúdos que respeitam os anseios e as perspectivas da criança e expressam, respectivamente, a fantasia do público mirim, que concebe espaços do mundo como bolso que esconde seres, e a relação da menina com seu irmão apontando sonhos inerentes à infância. As duas narrativas, por meio da visualidade e da palavra, privilegiam a interação dos pequenos com o texto e sinalizam a emancipação do leitor e da própria literatura infantil, que assume estatuto de arte.

  12. Managing refractory glaucoma with a fixed combination of bimatoprost (0.03% and timolol (0.5%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moataz E Gheith

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Moataz E Gheith, Jason R Mayer, Ghada A Siam, Daniela S Monteiro de Barros,  Tricia L Thomas, L Jay KatzFrom the Glaucoma Service Department of Wills Eye Institute, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Glaucoma is a chronic progressive optic neuropathy characterized by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells, which manifests clinically with loss of optic disc neuroretinal rim tissue, defects in the retinal nerve fiber layer, and deficits on functional visual field testing. The goal of glaucoma treatment is to reduce the intraocular pressure to a level that prevents or minimizes the progressive loss of vision. The current standard of management for the newly diagnosed primary open angle glaucoma (PAOG patient is to start topical medication. Available topical medications include: beta-adrenergic antagonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, carbonic anhydraze inhibitors, prostaglandin analogues and miotics. In some patients, IOP is not adequately controlled by monotherapy. In those refractory patients, where more efficacy is required, shifting to another medication or adding a second medication is indicated. The complimentary action between two drugs serves as the basis for combination medications. One avenue of delivering a second medication is through a fixed combination medication that has the advantage of providing two medicines within one drop. Bimatoprost/timolol represents a new fixed combination which is clinically and statistically more effective than either of its active constituents for patients with refractory glaucoma. As regard the safety of the combination, there were no signs or symptoms of intolerance and the incidence of conjunctival hyperemia was clinically and statistically significantly less than each of the two components separately. Bimatoprost/timolol fixed combination offers cost and time savings, which may enhance compliance; also reducing the amount of preservative applied to the eye, will improve

  13. Las damas de Shanghai. Doris Lessing visita a Elizabeth Costello

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    Izaguirre, Marian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available África. El ancestral país de los zimbabwe. una granja de tres mil acres. Lo primero que existe son las paredes de barro y los techos de paja que se levantan provisionalmente y que luego se convierten en un hogar que hay que rehacer cada año después de las lluvias torrenciales. una niña deambula por las selvas y sabanas, sola con su fusil y un perro. Y luego esa niña se convierte en la joven oficinista de un bufete de abogados de Salisbury. El mundo de los colonos blancos. Vienen después el marxismo y los matrimonios fallidos. Y más tarde la huida a Europa. Inglaterra. Dos baúles, un hijo y 150 libras. El feminismo y la lucha política. La vida es como esa granja de Zimbabwe que hay que reconstruir cada año. La mujer de accidentada vida que nació en Persia y vivió en África se convierte en una escritora reconocida. Viaja. Asiste a congresos. Lucha para erradicar las desigualdades, es enérgica, vehemente, incansable. Ahora es una mujer de ochenta y ocho años que cuida de su hijo Peter y que combate (todavía en diferentes lizas: la ecología, la defensa de los animales, la lucha contra las guerras, las invasiones… Y se enfrenta a todo (incluso al terrible esfuerzo que trae consigo la concesión del Premio nobel con una vehemencia lúcida, la que produce haber entrado y salido con pasión y coherencia de los grandes ismos del siglo xx.

  14. A sustentabilidade urbana analisada através do estudo de implantação de corredores verdes em dois logradouros da cidade de Cruz Alta/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Camargo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O contexto urbano em que vivemos atualmente tem o compromisso de romper paradigmas passados onde se acreditava que a natureza existia exclusivamente para servir ao homem. Hoje sabemos o papel que o meio ambiente exerce sobre o planejamento urbano, pois em tempos de globalização onde a selva de concreto cresce em níveis exponenciais, as infraestruturas verdes de uma cidade caminham em direção oposta a isso, criando zonas de amortecimento climático, áreas de escoamento das águas pluviais, acolhimento da fauna, espaços de lazer e contemplação, dentre inúmeros outros benefícios físicos e sociais. Levando em consideração esses critérios, realizou-se uma pesquisa qualitativa que tinha como objetivo principal realizar estudos que confirmassem a possibilidade da implantação de infraestruturas verdes planejadas na cidade de Cruz Alta. Para isso, foram avaliadas diversas ruas da cidade que teriam potencial para abranger o estudo, sendo que as duas eleitas para o desenvolvimento do projeto foi a Rua Mariz e Barros e a Avenida General Câmara. A partir daí, foi feito um levantamento rigoroso de ambas, considerando diversas propriedades como: dimensões do passeio público e do leito carroçável, arborização existente, posicionamento da rede elétrica, fluxo de veículos, percurso populacional, entre outros. A pesquisa serviu para criar discussões iniciais e embasamento para que se possa, a partir de então, desenvolver projetos para a efetivação desse conceito, onde serão estabelecidos critérios para a qualificação das áreas verdes já existentes em Cruz Alta.

  15. Awareness and knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines in young women after first delivery in São Paulo, Brazil - a cross-sectional study

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    Aoki Aline L

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success of HPV vaccination programs will require awareness regarding HPV associated diseases and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccines, and factors associated with HPV awareness among young women after birth of the first child. Methods This analysis is part of a cross-sectional study carried out at Hospital Maternidade Leonor Mendes de Barros, a large public maternity hospital in Sao Paulo. Primiparous women (15-24 years who gave birth in that maternity hospital were included. A questionnaire that included questions concerning knowledge of HPV, cervical cancer, and vaccines was applied. To estimate the association of HPV awareness with selected factors, prevalence ratios (PR were estimated using a generalized linear model (GLM. Results Three hundred and one primiparous women were included; 37% of them reported that they "had ever heard about HPV", but only 19% and 7%, respectively, knew that HPV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI and that it can cause cervical cancer. Seventy-four percent of interviewees mentioned the preventive character of vaccines and all participants affirmed that they would accept HPV vaccination after delivery. In the multivariate analysis, only increasing age (P for trend = 0.021 and previous STI (P Conclusions This survey indicated that knowledge about the association between HPV and cervical cancer among primiparous young women is low. Therefore, these young low-income primiparous women could benefit greatly from educational interventions to encourage primary and secondary cervical cancer prevention programs.

  16. Topographic controls on overland flow generation in a forest - An ensemble tree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Martin; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2011-10-01

    SummaryOverland flow is an important hydrological pathway in many forests of the humid tropics. Its generation is subject to topographic controls at differing spatial scales. Our objective was to identify such controls on the occurrence of overland flow in a lowland tropical rainforest. To this end, we installed 95 overland flow detectors (OFDs) in four nested subcatchments of the Lutzito catchment on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, and monitored the frequency of overland flow occurrence during 18 rainfall events at each OFD location temporal frequency. For each such location, we derived three non-digital terrain attributes and 17 digital ones, of which 15 were based on Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of three different resolutions. These attributes then served as input into a Random Forest ensemble tree model to elucidate the importance and partial and joint dependencies of topographic controls for overland flow occurrence. Lutzito features a high median temporal frequency in overland flow occurrence of 0.421 among OFD locations. However, spatial temporal frequencies of overland flow occurrence vary strongly among these locations and the subcatchments of Lutzito catchment. This variability is best explained by (1) microtopography, (2) coarse terrain sloping and (3) various measures of distance-to-channel, with the contribution of all other terrain attributes being small. Microtopographic features such as concentrated flowlines and wash areas produce highest temporal frequencies, whereas the occurrence of overland flow drops sharply for flow distances and terrain sloping beyond certain threshold values. Our study contributes to understanding both the spatial controls on overland flow generation and the limitations of terrain attributes for the spatially explicit prediction of overland flow frequencies.

  17. The Plutón Diorítico Moat: Mildly alkaline monzonitic magmatism in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Guillot, M.; Escayola, M.; Acevedo, R.; Pimentel, M.; Seraphim, G.; Proenza, J.; Schalamuk, I.

    2009-12-01

    The Plutón Diorítico Moat (Moat Dioritic Pluton, PDM) is the largest of several isolated Cretaceous plutons exposed in the Fuegian Andes of Argentina. It is made of a large variety of rock types ranging from ultramafic bodies (pyroxenites and hornblendites) to syenites. The petrological diversity is thought to have been originated by fractional crystallization of a mantle-derived magma combined with minor assimilation of continental crust (AFC). Its geochemical characteristics indicate a mildly-alkaline monzonitic affinity, contrasting with the typical calc-alkaline plutons of the Southern Patagonian Batholith (PB) to the south, in the Chilean archipelago. The PDM original magma is arc-related and its crystallization, as indicated by the Rb-Sr mineral isochron age of 115 ± 3 Ma, is coeval with some plutons of the PB. Therefore a similar tectonic regime is assumed for the emplacement of these plutonic bodies, both south and north of the Beagle channel. Differences in magma sources and degree of partial melting are inferred to account for the contrasting lithological and geochemical characteristics of the PB and PDM. The data suggest that the original magmas of the PDM were generated at greater depths in the mantle, by a smaller degree of partial melting, compared with the PB. The Barros Arana basalts, exposed to the north in Chile, forming a back-arc volcanic complex, display the same mildly-alkaline shoshonitic affinity, and are considered in this study as the volcanic equivalents of the PDM. All the plutons in the Argentinean Fuegian Andes display similar lithological and geochemical characteristics and are, therefore, grouped in this work under the name of Magmatismo Potásico Fueguino ( Fuegian Potassic Magmatism).

  18. Soil Hydrologic Response and Nutrient Movement in Three Small Tropical Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, N. H.; Hamann, H. B.; Stallard, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    The movement of water over and through soils by storm-generated flowpaths in tropical forests not only mediates nutrient movement and physical weathering, but also potentially influences vegetation growth and dynamics with seasonally dry or saturated soil conditions. However, few small-scale catchment studies (10-1000ha) have produced a comprehensive, standardized dataset on soil hydrologic properties among tropical forest catchments, due in part to complexities within tropical systems, and to inconsistencies in methods, data collection, and/or analyses. In response, this study has utilized the global, standardized network of forest dynamics plots of the Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) for the rapid assessment of soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the water chemistry from storm-generated flowpaths. Ks measurements at varying depths help in testing Elsenbeer's (2001) functional classification continuum of tropical forest soilscapes and resulting hydrologic flowpaths. In Barro Colorado Island, Panama, Ks decreased rapidly with soil depth where horizontal surface and near-surface flowpaths were most prevalent. Ks measurements in Yasuni National Park, Ecuador indicated limited vertical movement of water at depths >15cm due to an impermeable soil layer. Ks measurements from Lambir Hills National Park, Malaysia, represented both ends of the continuum due to variability in soil type and lithology. In relation to soil hydrology and hydrological flowpaths, runoff chemistry at Yasuni reveals a general pattern of increased nutrient export as water moves through the canopy and over the soil surface, with concentrations of K+ increasing significantly in throughfall, and concentrations of both K+, and NO3- remaining high in overland flow. The results from the composite overland flow samples may indicate a more open nutrient cycle in tropical forest environments than has been suggested from earlier studies using radioactively labeled isotopes.

  19. Landslides in the Andes and the need to communicate on an interandean level on landslide mapping and research Deslizamientos en los Andes y la necesidad de comunicar a nivel interandino sobre el mapeo y la investigación de deslizamientos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald L Hermanns

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Landslides in the Andes are some of the highest natural threats to society with single events killing up to several thousand people. Landslide mapping and landslide research became a more widely spread discipline in geosciences in the Andean countries. However efforts today by far do not match the threat and both more investigations and more mapping activities are needed to support decision makers in land use planning. In this communication we discussed five key issues that we suggest to focus on in upcoming years: Impact of climatic change on landslides occurrence, landslides susceptibility and hazard maps, prediction of megalandslides, seismically triggered landslides, and temporal spatial distribution of mud and debris flows potential.Los deslizamientos en los Andes son unas de las mayores amenazas naturales a la sociedad, con eventos individuales que han causado la muerte de varios miles de personas. El mapeo e investigación de deslizamientos se convirtió en una disciplina ampliamente difundida en los países andinos. Sin embargo, los esfuerzos actuales no se corresponden aún con la amenaza, y más investigaciones y mapeo son necesarios para apoyar a los tomadores de decisiones en la planificación de usos del suelo. En esta comunicación se discuten cinco temas clave en los que se sugiere poner el foco en los próximos años: el impacto del cambio climático en la ocurrencia de deslizamientos, mapas de peligro y susceptibilidad a deslizamientos, predicción de megadeslizamientos, deslizamientos disparados sísmicamente, y la potencial distribución espacio-temporal de flujos de barro y detritos.

  20. Tropical forest structure characterization using airborne lidar data: an individual tree level approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, A.; Saatchi, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Fine scale tropical forest structure characterization has been performed by means of field measurements techniques that record both the specie and the diameter at the breast height (dbh) for every tree within a given area. Due to dense and complex vegetation, additional important ecological variables (e.g. the tree height and crown size) are usually not measured because they are hardly recognized from the ground. The poor knowledge on the 3D tropical forest structure has been a major limitation for the understanding of different ecological issues such as the spatial distribution of carbon stocks, regeneration and competition dynamics and light penetration gradient assessments. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an active remote sensing technique that provides georeferenced distance measurements between the aircraft and the surface. It provides an unstructured 3D point cloud that is a high-resolution model of the forest. This study presents the first approach for tropical forest characterization at a fine scale using remote sensing data. The multi-modal lidar point cloud is decomposed into 3D clusters that correspond to single trees by means of a technique called Adaptive Mean Shift Segmentation (AMS3D). The ability of the corresponding individual tree metrics (tree height, crown area and crown volume) for the estimation of above ground biomass (agb) over the 50 ha CTFS plot in Barro Colorado Island is here assessed. We conclude that our approach is able to map the agb spatial distribution with an error of nearly 12% (RMSE=28 Mg ha-1) compared with field-based estimates over 1ha plots.

  1. Persistence of Neighborhood Demographic Influences over Long Phylogenetic Distances May Help Drive Post-Speciation Adaptation in Tropical Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Christopher; Harms, Kyle E.; Wiegand, Thorsten; Punchi-Manage, Ruwan; Gilbert, Gregory S.; Erickson, David; Kress, W. John; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Gunatilleke, C. V. Savitri; Gunatilleke, I. A. U. Nimal

    2016-01-01

    Studies of forest dynamics plots (FDPs) have revealed a variety of negative density-dependent (NDD) demographic interactions, especially among conspecific trees. These interactions can affect growth rate, recruitment and mortality, and they play a central role in the maintenance of species diversity in these complex ecosystems. Here we use an equal area annulus (EAA) point-pattern method to comprehensively analyze data from two tropical FDPs, Barro Colorado Island in Panama and Sinharaja in Sri Lanka. We show that these NDD interactions also influence the continued evolutionary diversification of even distantly related tree species in these FDPs. We examine the details of a wide range of these interactions between individual trees and the trees that surround them. All these interactions, and their cumulative effects, are strongest among conspecific focal and surrounding tree species in both FDPs. They diminish in magnitude with increasing phylogenetic distance between heterospecific focal and surrounding trees, but do not disappear or change the pattern of their dependence on size, density, frequency or physical distance even among the most distantly related trees. The phylogenetic persistence of all these effects provides evidence that interactions between tree species that share an ecosystem may continue to promote adaptive divergence even after the species’ gene pools have become separated. Adaptive divergence among taxa would operate in stark contrast to an alternative possibility that has previously been suggested, that distantly related species with dispersal-limited distributions and confronted with unpredictable neighbors will tend to converge on common strategies of resource use. In addition, we have also uncovered a positive density-dependent effect: growth rates of large trees are boosted in the presence of a smaller basal area of surrounding trees. We also show that many of the NDD interactions switch sign rapidly as focal trees grow in size, and that

  2. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469]. PMID:19786177

  3. How Much to Commit to an Exchange Rate Rule? Balancing Credibility and Flexibility How Much to Commit to an Exchange Rate Rule? Balancing Credibility and Flexibility

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    Nissan Liviatan

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available How Much to Commit to an Exchange Rate Rule? Balancing Credibility and Flexibility There are different ways in which policy-makers back their commitment to a fixed exchange rate. A regime where countries can devalue unilaterally represents a weaker commitment than one where a devaluation needs to be agreed upon with other parties (e.g. the European monetary system. Full dollarization, understood here as full replacement of the domestic currency by the U.S. dollar, is an extreme commitment to a fixed exchange rate. Indeed, it is a especial case of a fixed exchange rate.The central message of this paper is that the cost of reneging is a key reason holding policymakers back from making strong commitments on their exchange rate policy. The stronger the commitment to an exchange rate rule, the more costly it is to deviate from it. The paper develops a Barro-Gordon type model in which the policymaker has to decide the degree of commitment under uncertainty.It is shown that, even for policy makers that have a strong preference for maintaining the fixed exchange rate, there are circunstances under which they will choose to devalue. This will happen when the economy is hit by an adverse shock and the costs of adhering to the fixed exchange rate are larger than those associated with devaluing.The model provides useful insights to understand why many high inflation economies have not adopted full dollarizarion as a way to stabilize prices. Our emphasis on the cost of reneging stands in contrast with most existing works, which single out the desire to rely on seigniorage as the main motive for stopping short of full dollarization. Strong commitments will only be made once there is a good chance that the policy maker will not renege, and by then they might not be necessary. We illustrate the main points of the paper with examples from Latin American countries.

  4. [Ultrastructural description of Euglena pailasensis (Euglenozoa) from Rincón de la Vieja volcano, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Ethel; Vargas, Maribel; Mora, Marielos; Ortega, José Maria; Serrano, Aurelio; Freer, Enrique; Sittenfeld, Ana

    2004-03-01

    The euglenoids are unicellular eukaryotic flagellates living in a diversity of soils and aquatic environments and ecosystems. This study describes the ultrastructure of an euglenoid isolated from the surface of a boiling mud pool with temperatures ranging from 38 to 98 degrees C and pH 2 - 4. The hot mud pool is located in Area de Pailas de Barro, Las Pailas, Rincón de la Vieja Volcano, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. The morphological characterization of the Euglena pailasensis was performed by SEM and TEM. It was determined that, although the euglenoid was obtained from an extreme volcanic environment, the general morphology corresponds to that of a typical member of Euglena of 30-45 microm long and 8-10 microm wide, with membrane, pellicle, chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleus, pigments and other cytoplasmic organelles. E. pailasensis is delimited by a membrane and by 40 to 90 pellicle strips. It was observed up to 5 elongated chloroplasts per cell. The chloroplast contains several osmiophilic globules and a pyrenoid penetrated by few thylakoid pairs. The nutritious material is reserved in numerous small paramylon grains located at the center of the cell, mitocondria are characterized by the presence of crests in radial disposition toward the interior of the lumen. It was also observed around the external surface "pili" like filaments originating from the pellicle strips. There is no evidence for the presence of flagella in the ampulla (reservoir/canal area), a fact confirmed by negative staining, and a difference regarding other species of Euglena. The observed ultrastructural characteristics are not sufficient to explain the adaptation of this species to acid and hot environments. PMID:17357397

  5. Geospatial observations on biodiversity and biogeochemistry of a tropical forest rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jeffrey Arien

    Understanding the links between biodiversity and biogeochemistry in a spatial context within tropical forest plant communities is an unresolved problem. High plant diversity -- phylogenetic, functional, and genetic -- often characteristic of tropical forests, is poorly understood in the context of soils. I collected and georeferenced a large sample of surface soil cores (n=625, 6.25 cm diameter x 10 cm depth) from the Barro Colorado Island (BCI) 50 ha (0.5 km2) Forest Dynamics Plot (FDP), Republic of Panama (9.15 N, 79.8 W) -- described in Chapter One. In Chapter Two, I tested a commonly made assumption in research on plot scales in tropical forests, that abiotic controls entirely explain plot scale soil heterogeneity. To do this, I analyzed a high spatial resolution and multiple spatial scale (multiscale) set of topography features from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), a bedrock map, and the geospatial soil chemical observations to test if abiotic controls (erosion, hydrology, bedrock) were sufficient to explain soil heterogeneity in the BCI tree community. In Chapter Three, I evaluate whether spatial variation in soil organic matter (SOM) and patterns of correlation with rock-derived nutrients are consistent with plants changing soils through litterfall. In Chapter Four, I document the first use of high-throughput DNA sequencing data for observing plant species roots in a tropical forest rhizosphere. The main findings of my dissertation are that at the plot scale in a tropical forest soil chemical heterogeneity was weakly related to abiotic controls and rock-derived macronutrients vary in association strength with soil organic matter in a manner consistent with plants exerting strong biotic controls on the spatial heterogeneity of soil calcium. Furthermore, that research is needed to understand plant nutrient cycling within the context of tropical forest plant communities.

  6. Persistence of Neighborhood Demographic Influences over Long Phylogenetic Distances May Help Drive Post-Speciation Adaptation in Tropical Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wills

    Full Text Available Studies of forest dynamics plots (FDPs have revealed a variety of negative density-dependent (NDD demographic interactions, especially among conspecific trees. These interactions can affect growth rate, recruitment and mortality, and they play a central role in the maintenance of species diversity in these complex ecosystems. Here we use an equal area annulus (EAA point-pattern method to comprehensively analyze data from two tropical FDPs, Barro Colorado Island in Panama and Sinharaja in Sri Lanka. We show that these NDD interactions also influence the continued evolutionary diversification of even distantly related tree species in these FDPs. We examine the details of a wide range of these interactions between individual trees and the trees that surround them. All these interactions, and their cumulative effects, are strongest among conspecific focal and surrounding tree species in both FDPs. They diminish in magnitude with increasing phylogenetic distance between heterospecific focal and surrounding trees, but do not disappear or change the pattern of their dependence on size, density, frequency or physical distance even among the most distantly related trees. The phylogenetic persistence of all these effects provides evidence that interactions between tree species that share an ecosystem may continue to promote adaptive divergence even after the species' gene pools have become separated. Adaptive divergence among taxa would operate in stark contrast to an alternative possibility that has previously been suggested, that distantly related species with dispersal-limited distributions and confronted with unpredictable neighbors will tend to converge on common strategies of resource use. In addition, we have also uncovered a positive density-dependent effect: growth rates of large trees are boosted in the presence of a smaller basal area of surrounding trees. We also show that many of the NDD interactions switch sign rapidly as focal trees grow in

  7. Prevalence of DF508, G551D, G542X, and R553X mutations among cystic fibrosis patients in the North of Brazil

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    Araújo F.G. de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is the most common genetic disease among Caucasians and is rare among sub-Saharan Africans. The Brazilian population is not ethnically homogeneous but it is the result of three-way ethnic admixture of Europeans, Africans and Amerindians in varying proportions, depending on the region. In the present study, we investigated 33 patients who had been diagnosed and are currently under treatment for CF at the University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Belém, Pará State. The molecular analysis for G542X, G551D and R553X mutations was performed by PCR followed by RFLP using BstNI, HincII and MboI, respectively, in polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. ThedeltaF508 mutation (a deletion of 3 bp was only analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and stained with AgNO3. Each sample was analyzed for regions of interest in the CFTR gene using amplified by PCR and specific primers. The deltaF508 and G551D mutations presented frequencies of 22.7 and 3%, respectively. In 74.3% of the remaining patients, none of the mutations investigated was found. The present study characterized in a sample of patients with an established clinical diagnosis of CF (asthma, repeated bronchopneumonia, disorders of nutritional status, etc. the most frequent mutation ( deltaF508 in the North region of Brazil and is also the first report of the G551D mutation. In spite of the wide spectrum of CF mutations and the heterogeneous ethnic origin of the Amazon population, the molecular diagnosis is a helpful additional tool for the diagnosis and treatment of CF patients.

  8. ANÁLISE BIOCLIMÁTICA DO MUNICÍPIO DE CARAGUATATUBA DE SÃO PAULO DE 1998 A 2006

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    Luiz Antonio Perrone Ferreira de Brito

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O litoral norte do estado de São Paulo é uma região com cerca de 300 mil habitantes, tendo como principal atividade econômica oturismo. O porto de São Sebastião aumentou sua capacidade de embarque nos últimos dez anos e em Caraguatatuba será implantadauma base de exploração de gás natural em 2007. Em função de todas estas mudanças e o incremento da atividade turística houve umcrescimento acentuado do meio urbano. Além disso, esta região apresenta valores elevados da temperatura do ar, acima dos 250C namaior parte do ano, assim como da umidade relativa do ar, acima dos 80% devido à proximidade da mata atlântica ainda existente naserra do mar. O sistema construtivo utilizado na região é baseado na alvenaria de tijolos de barro e estrutura de concreto armado,inadequados ao clima. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer um levantamento dos dados de temperatura do ar e de umidade relativa entreos anos de 1998 e 2006, e através das cartas bioclimáticas de Givone, determinar as estratégias construtivas para a região de maneiraque o conforto térmico e a eficiência energética das edificações sejam preservados. Pretende-se editar uma cartilha contendo osprincipais resultados deste estudo e a mesma poderá servir de orientação aos profissionais da região ligados a engenharia e arquitetura.

  9. Pb-Pb and U-Pb zircon ages of archean syntetocnic granites of the Carajas metallogenic province, northern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Carajas Metallogenic Province is located in the southeastern Amazonian Craton. It has been divided in two domains, the southernmost comprises the Rio Maria region and the northernmost corresponds to Caraj region (Souza et al. 1996). The former domain is made up of Archean greenstone sequences (2,97 Ga), TTG (2,9 Ga) and calc-alkaline granitoids (2,87 Ga) (Macambira and Lafon 1995, Leite et al. 1999, Althoff et al. 2000). The Carajas block is constituted of minor mafic granulites (3,00 Ga) and quartzofeldspathic gneisses (2,81 Ga), metavolcanosedimentary sequences (2,76 Ga) and granites (2,76 to 2,56 Ga) (Machado et al. 1991; Huhn et al. 1999, Pidgeon et al. 2000). Widespread anorogenic A-type granites are found in both areas (Docegeo 1988; Dall'Agnol et al. 1994). In the last two decades several authors (Lindenamyer et al. 1994, Barros and Barbey 1998, Huhn et al. 1999 and others) have emphasized the role of the Archean granite magmatism in the tectonicthermal evolution in the Carajas Province. In this paper we discuss the tectonic significance of the Pb- Pb and U-Pb ages obtained in some granitoids from the Carajas region. The Estrela Granite Complex and the granitoids located to the north of Parauapebas were dated by Pb- Pb evaporation zircon method (cf. Kober 1987). Data are presented considering 2σ∼. The Pb corrections have been done in the basis of the evolution model of Pb in double stage (cf. Stacey and Kramers 1975). U-Pb zircon method (cf. Krogh 1973, Stacey and Kramers 1975, Parrish 1987, Ludwuig 1999), recently put on routine in the Para-Iso laboratories, was employed to date the granite from the Serra do Rabo area. Analyses were carried on the Finnigan Mat 262 spectrometer (au)

  10. Quarto Duplo (Chambre Double

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    Michelle Agnes Magalhães

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A composição na minha trajetória representa uma síntese de experiências diversas. Foi juntando extremidades opostas, a teoria musical e a pesquisa de um lado, a improvisação como pianista do outro, que a vontade de reunir reflexão e prática encontrou na composição a sua forma de expressão. Minha formação se deu inicialmente em um curso de inverno no Festival de Londrina com Hans J. Koellreutter em 1994. Em seguida, tive uma longa passagem pela universidade (bacharelado em composição na Unicamp, mestrado na mesma universidade. A pesquisa de doutorado sobre Luigi Nono (USP me ajudou a entrar em contato com a forma de abordagem intuitiva e baseada no som do compositor italiano, que também seria tão importante no meu trabalho. Sobre meus professores, numerosos diálogos me foram necessários - toda uma constelação de eventos para uma única págica de música bem-sucedida. Entre esses encontros, que tiveram um papel pedagógico fundamental - muito embora alguns deles tenham sido breves em forma de workshop ou conversa, estão as aulas de J. A. Mannis, Almeida Prado, Livio Tragtenberg, Fernando Iazzetta, Silvio Ferraz, Salvatore Sciarrino, Chaya Czernowin, Pierluigi Billone, Franck Bedrossian, Tristan Murail, Stefano Gervasoni, Michael Jarrell e Philippe Manoury. Minha experiência com o grupo de improvisação Abaetetuba, e em duo com Celio Barros e Florentin Ginot, constituiu meu grande laboratório prático, desenvolvendo escuta e resposta em forma de sons, que considero como uma importante etapa de gestação do meu projeto artístico.

  11. Growth strategies of tropical tree species: disentangling light and size effects.

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    Nadja Rüger

    Full Text Available An understanding of the drivers of tree growth at the species level is required to predict likely changes of carbon stocks and biodiversity when environmental conditions change. Especially in species-rich tropical forests, it is largely unknown how species differ in their response of growth to resource availability and individual size. We use a hierarchical bayesian approach to quantify the impact of light availability and tree diameter on growth of 274 woody species in a 50-ha long-term forest census plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Light reaching each individual tree was estimated from yearly vertical censuses of canopy density. The hierarchical bayesian approach allowed accounting for different sources of error, such as negative growth observations, and including rare species correctly weighted by their abundance. All species grew faster at higher light. Exponents of a power function relating growth to light were mostly between 0 and 1. This indicates that nearly all species exhibit a decelerating increase of growth with light. In contrast, estimated growth rates at standardized conditions (5 cm dbh, 5% light varied over a 9-fold range and reflect strong growth-strategy differentiation between the species. As a consequence, growth rankings of the species at low (2% and high light (20% were highly correlated. Rare species tended to grow faster and showed a greater sensitivity to light than abundant species. Overall, tree size was less important for growth than light and about half the species were predicted to grow faster in diameter when bigger or smaller, respectively. Together light availability and tree diameter only explained on average 12% of the variation in growth rates. Thus, other factors such as soil characteristics, herbivory, or pathogens may contribute considerably to shaping tree growth in the tropics.

  12. Analysis of the slaughterhouses in Galicia (NW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugallo, Pastora M Bello; Andrade, Laura Cristóbal; de la Torre, María Agrelo; López, Rosa Torres

    2014-05-15

    In the last five years, slaughterhouses in Galicia have been producing more than 350,000 tonnes of carcass per year (Ministry of Environmental and Marine and Rural Media (MARM), 2013). The main environmental problems derived from this economic activity are the high consumption of water, the generation of waste water with a high organic load and the intensive use of energy (electricity and fuel) (European Commission, 2005). In this region of Spain, there are seventy-one slaughterhouses but only 10 to 15% of them have a carcass production capacity exceeding 50 tonnes per day (Casares et al., 2006), consequently needing an environmental permit according to the requirements set by the IPPC (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control) Directive (European Commission, 2008). The slaughterhouses can be specialized in one livestock type, such as pigs, cattle, sheep, goats or rabbits, or they can be polyvalent. In 2009, the most important meat productions were from porcine, poultry and bovine, as they represented 96% of total production in Spain (AICE, 2011). This paper presents a general view of this important sub-sector (according to the Spanish CNAE, National Classification of Economical Activities) of the food and drinking industry in Galicia. The work considers general information about the activity, an exhaustive description of the industrial process (including preliminary operations, processing, final and auxiliary operations), environmental aspects about consumption and emission levels, and finally a proposal of technique candidates to be BAT (best available techniques) for each process stage. This structure has permitted to obtain an inventory of pollution prevention and control techniques, as well as qualitative data of incomes and outcomes of consumptions and emissions respectively. The methodology, which has already been used in previous works (Barros et al., 2008), has been proved to be appropriate to optimize the process considering environmental factors as

  13. Size-class effect contributes to tree species assembly through influencing dispersal in tropical forests.

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    Yue-Hua Hu

    Full Text Available We have investigated the processes of community assembly using size classes of trees. Specifically our work examined (1 whether point process models incorporating an effect of size-class produce more realistic summary outcomes than do models without this effect; (2 which of three selected models incorporating, respectively environmental effects, dispersal and the joint-effect of both of these, is most useful in explaining species-area relationships (SARs and point dispersion patterns. For this evaluation we used tree species data from the 50-ha forest dynamics plot in Barro Colorado Island, Panama and the comparable 20 ha plot at Bubeng, Southwest China. Our results demonstrated that incorporating an size-class effect dramatically improved the SAR estimation at both the plots when the dispersal only model was used. The joint effect model produced similar improvement but only for the 50-ha plot in Panama. The point patterns results were not improved by incorporation of size-class effects using any of the three models. Our results indicate that dispersal is likely to be a key process determining both SARs and point patterns. The environment-only model and joint-effects model were effective at the species level and the community level, respectively. We conclude that it is critical to use multiple summary characteristics when modelling spatial patterns at the species and community levels if a comprehensive understanding of the ecological processes that shape species' distributions is sought; without this results may have inherent biases. By influencing dispersal, the effect of size-class contributes to species assembly and enhances our understanding of species coexistence.

  14. Soil nutrient-landscape relationships in a lowland tropical rainforest in Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthold, F.K.; Stallard, R.F.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Soils play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles as spatially distributed sources and sinks of nutrients. Any spatial patterns depend on soil forming processes, our understanding of which is still limited, especially in regards to tropical rainforests. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of landscape properties, with an emphasis on the geometry of the land surface, on the spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, and to test the suitability of soil-landscape modeling as an appropriate technique to predict the spatial variability of exchangeable K and Mg in a humid tropical forest in Panama. We used a design-based, stratified sampling scheme to collect soil samples at 108 sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stratifying variables are lithology, vegetation and topography. Topographic variables were generated from high-resolution digital elevation models with a grid size of 5 m. We took samples from five depths down to 1 m, and analyzed for total and exchangeable K and Mg. We used simple explorative data analysis techniques to elucidate the importance of lithology for soil total and exchangeable K and Mg. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were adopted to investigate importance of topography, lithology and vegetation for the spatial distribution of exchangeable K and Mg and with the intention to develop models that regionalize the point observations using digital terrain data as explanatory variables. Our results suggest that topography and vegetation do not control the spatial distribution of the selected soil chemical properties at a landscape scale and lithology is important to some degree. Exchangeable K is distributed equally across the study area indicating that other than landscape processes, e.g. biogeochemical processes, are responsible for its spatial distribution. Lithology contributes to the spatial variation of exchangeable Mg but controlling variables could not be detected. The spatial variation of soil total K

  15. Late Mesozoic to Paleogene stratigraphy of the Salar de Atacama Basin, Antofagasta, Northern Chile: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpodozis, Constantino; Arriagada, César; Basso, Matilde; Roperch, Pierrick; Cobbold, Peter; Reich, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The Salar de Atacama basin, the largest "pre-Andean" basin in Northern Chile, was formed in the early Late Cretaceous as a consequence of the tectonic closure and inversion of the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Tarapacá back arc basin. Inversion led to uplift of the Cordillera de Domeyko (CD), a thick-skinned basement range bounded by a system of reverse faults and blind thrusts with alternating vergence along strike. The almost 6000-m-thick, upper Cretaceous to lower Paleocene sequences (Purilactis Group) infilling the Salar de Atacama basin reflects rapid local subsidence to the east of the CD. Its oldest outcropping unit (Tonel Formation) comprises more than 1000 m of continental red sandstones and evaporites, which began to accumulate as syntectonic growth strata during the initial stages of CD uplift. Tonel strata are capped by almost 3000 m of sandstones and conglomerates of western provenance, representing the sedimentary response to renewed pulses of tectonic shortening, which were deposited in alluvial fan, fluvial and eolian settings together with minor lacustrine mudstone (Purilactis Formation). These are covered by 500 m of coarse, proximal alluvial fan conglomerates (Barros Arana Formation). The top of the Purilactis Group consists of Maastrichtian-Danian alkaline lava and minor welded tuffs and red beds (Cerro Totola Formation: 70-64 Ma K/Ar) deposited during an interval of tectonic quiescence when the El Molino-Yacoraite Late Cretaceous sea covered large tracts of the nearby Altiplano-Puna domain. Limestones interbedded with the Totola volcanics indicate that this marine incursion advanced westwards to reach the eastern CD slope. CD shortening in the Late Cretaceous was accompanied by volcanism and continental sedimentation in fault bounded basins associated to strike slip along the north Chilean magmatic arc to the west of the CD domain, indicating that oblique plate convergence prevailed during the Late Cretaceous. Oblique convergence seems to have

  16. Tracing the Sources of Atmospheric Phosphorus Deposition to a Tropical Rain Forest in Panama Using Stable Oxygen Isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, A; Turner, B L; Goren, T; Berry, A; Angert, A

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric dust deposition can be a significant source of phosphorus (P) in some tropical forests, so information on the origins and solubility of atmospheric P is needed to understand and predict patterns of forest productivity under future climate scenarios. We characterized atmospheric dust P across a seasonal cycle in a tropical lowland rain forest on Barro Colorado Nature Monument (BCNM), Republic of Panama. We traced P sources by combining remote sensing imagery with the first measurements of stable oxygen isotopes in soluble inorganic phosphate (δ(18)OP) in dust. In addition, we measured soluble inorganic and organic P concentrations in fine (1 μm) aerosol fractions and used this data to estimate the contribution of P inputs from dust deposition to the forest P budget. Aerosol dry mass was greater in the dry season (December to April, 5.6-15.7 μg m(-3)) than the wet season (May to November, 3.1-7.1 μg m(-3)). In contrast, soluble P concentrations in the aerosols were lower in the dry season (980-1880 μg P g(-1)) than the wet season (1170-3380 μg P g(-1)). The δ(18)OP of dry-season aerosols resembled that of nearby forest soils (∼19.5‰), suggesting a local origin. In the wet season, when the Trans-Atlantic Saharan dust belt moves north close to Panama, the δ(18)OP of aerosols was considerably lower (∼15.5‰), suggesting a significant contribution of long-distance dust P transport. Using satellite retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the P concentrations in aerosols we sampled in periods when Saharan dust was evident we estimate that the monthly P input from long distance dust transport during the period with highest Saharan dust deposition is 88 ± 31 g P ha(-1) month(-1), equivalent to between 10 and 29% of the P in monthly litter fall in nearby forests. These findings have important implications for our understanding of modern nutrient budgets and the productivity of tropical forests in the region under future climate scenarios. PMID

  17. Biodegradation Waste of the Stations Service by Rhodococcus erythropolis ohp-al-gp.

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    Oscar Héctor Pucci

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The strain Rhodococcus erythropolis ohp-al-gp was isolated from turbine oil contaminated soil from northern San Cruz province, Argentina. Because of its potential in bioremediation, the aim was to know the abilities for degradation of pure compounds and mixtures of hydrocarbons, as well as degradation in the presence and absence of diesel nitrogen measured by gas chromatography.The strain possesses the ability to use diesel, kerosene, lubricating oil, pristane, hexane, heptane, octane, pentadecane and hexadecane. R. erythropolis ohp-al-gp has excellent potential for bioremediation of hydrocarbons, which are conflictives as lubricating oils, their potential use in removing mud from washing engines or gas stations would be its most important application. The degradation rate in optimal culture conditions, gives it an additional advantage. It also has a low degradation in the absence of nitrogen, a frequent limiting factor in Patagonian soils. BIODEGRADACIÓN DE RESIDUOS DE ESTACIONES DE SERVICIO Y LAVADEROS INDUSTRIALES POR LA CEPA Rhodococcus erythropolis ohp-al-gp. La cepa Rhodococcus erythropolis ohp-al-gp fue aislada de un suelo contaminado con aceite de turbinas de la zona norte de la provincia de San Cruz, Argentina. Dado su potencial en la bioremediación, el objetivo del trabajo fue conocer las habilidades para la degradación de compuestos puros y mezclas de hidrocarburos, como también degradación en presencia y ausencia de nitrógeno de gasoil medido por cromatografía gaseosa. La cepa posee la capacidad de utilización de los siguientes hidrocarburos:gasoil, kerosene, aceite lubricante, pristano, hexano, heptano, octano, pentadecano y hexadecano. La cepa R. erythropolis ohp-algp presenta un excelente potencial de biorremediación de hidrocarburos conflictivos como son los aceites lubricantes, su posible empleo en la eliminación de barros provenientes de lavados de motores o de estaciones de servicio sería su aplicaci

  18. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the paleoproterozoic Silvania magmatic arc in the neoproproterozoic Brasilia Belt, Goias, Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brasilia Belt is a large Neoproterozoic orogen formed along the western margin of the Sao Francisco/Congo Craton in central Brazil. It comprises: (i) a thick Meso-Neoproterozoic metasedimentary/sedimentary pile with eastward tectonic vergence; (ii) a large Neoproterozoic juvenile arc in the west (Goias Magmatic Arc); and (iii) a micro-continent (or exotic sialic terrain) formed by Archean rock units (the Crixas -Goias granitegreenstones) and associated Proterozoic formations (Almeida et al. 1981, Fuck et al. 1993,1994, Pimentel et al. 2000a, b). The sialic basement on which the Brasilia Belt sediments were deposited is poorly understood, despite being well exposed in some areas of Goias and Tocantins. Gneiss and volcano-sedimentary units form most of this basement. Early studies have suggested that these rock units are dominantly Archean ( Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984). However, recent Sm- Nd isotopic studies have indicated that most of them are Paleoproterozoic (Sato 1998, Pimentel et al. 1999a, 2000b). Granite gneiss to the south and east of the Barro Alto mafic-ultramafic layered complex has been dated at 2128+/- 15 Ma (Correia et al. 1997). Calc-alkaline granite gneiss from Almas-Dianopolis is dated at ca. 2.2-2.45 Ga old (U-Pb SHRIMP on zircon and titanite, Cruz et al. 2000). The latter is probably the western extension of Paleoproterozoic rocks which underlie the San Francisco Craton to the east of the northern part of the Brasilia Belt. In central Goias, a large part of the Brasilia Belt is underlain by high-grade metamorphic rocks known as the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex, together with surrounding greenschist to amphibolite facies Mesoto Neoproterozoic cover metasediments of the Araxa group. These rocks represent the main constituent of the internal zone of the Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994, Pimentel et al. 2000b). Between the Araxa Group, and the easternmost part of the Anapolis-Itaucu Complex a volcano-sedimentary association known as Silvania

  19. Reseñas de Libros

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    Héctor Vega Deloya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Arizpe, Lourdes, Culturas en movimiento: Interactividad cultural y procesos globales. México, Cámara de los diputados LIX Legislatura, UNAM, CRIM, Editorial Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 2006, 368 pp.Páginas 203-206Héctor Vega DeloyaCárcel Ortí, Vicente, La Iglesia y la transición española. Valencia, Edicep C. B., 2003, 342 pp.Páginas 206-207Gonzalo Ruiz BidónChaput, Marie-Claude (éd., De l´anarquisme aux courants alternatifs (XIX-XXIe siècles. Régards 9, París, Publidix, Université de Paris X-Nanterre, 2006, 460 pp.Páginas 208-210Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezChuse, Loren, Mujer y flamenco. Sevilla, Signatura Ediciones, 2007, 228 pp.Páginas 210-212Gema León RavinaCores Trasmonte, Baldomero; Luis Porteiro Garea, A Coruña, TresCtres, 2005, 260 pp.Páginas 212-213Israel Sanmartín BarrosDíez Torre, Alejandro R., Trabajan para la eternidad. Colectividades de Trabajo y Ayuda Mutua durante la Guerra Civil en Aragón. Madrid, La Malatesta Editorial, Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 2009, 540 pp.Páginas 213-216José Luis Gutiérrez MolinaGonin, Jean Marc; Guez, Olivier, La caída del Muro de Berlín, Madrid, Alianza Editorial, 2009, 367 pp.Páginas 216-217Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezHardy, Jane, Poland´s new capitalism, London, Pluto Press, 2009, 258 pp.Páginas 217-218Daniel Alcalde GüelfoKaplan, Robert D., Por tierra, mar y aire. Las huellas globales del ejército americano. Barcelona, Ediciones B, 2008, 542 pp.Páginas 218-220David Molina RabadánMartínez, Jesús Manuel, Salvador Allende. Oviedo, Ediciones Nobel, 2009, 402 pp.Páginas 220-223Juan Gustavo Núñez OlguínTravaglio, Marco, La scomparsa dei fatti. Milano, Collana Pamphlet, Il Sagiatore, 2006, 316 pp.Páginas 223-225Flavia PascarielloZertal, Idith; Eldar, Akiva, Lords of the Land: The War for Israeli´s Settlements in The Occupied Territories, 1967-2007. Nueva York, Nation Books, 2009, 531 pp.Páginas 225-227Javier Lión Bustillo

  20. Absorção de nutrientes pela batatinha Nutritional studies with the potato plant

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    H. Gargantini

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available A marcha da absorção dos elementos nutritivos essenciais pela batatinha (Solanum tuberosum L. foi estudada em plantas cultivadas em vasos de barro, interna, mente vidrados, e com capacidade para 10 quilos de terra. Em cada 10 dias, durante todo o ciclo vegetativo, eram colhidas plantas e analisados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S. Tôdas as plantas receberam os mesmos cuidados em tratos culturais, fitossanitários e água. Propiciaram-se, ainda, iguais condições de fertilidade, dando-se a todos os vasos adubação completa, inclusive com os micronutrientes necessários ao bom desenvolvimento e produção da batata. Os resultados obtidos mostram que a batata absorve em grande quantidade o nitrogênio e o potássio, sendo o último em maior proporção. Dos outros elementos estudados, o fósforo, o cálcio, o magnésio e enxôfre, são absorvidos em pequenas quantidades, não ultrapassando nenhum dêles 16 kg/ha. Os dados mostram ainda que as quantidades totais necessárias de nitrogênio, potássio, magnésio e enxôfre são absorvidas pela cultura, até completar 50 dias após a germinação, enquanto o fósforo e o cálcio são requeridos desde o inicio até o final do ciclo vegetativo da planta.Nutritional studies were carried out with potted potato plants, aiming at determining the absorption rate and uptake of essential nutrients in relation to age of the crop. The experimental plants were grown in pots containing 10 kg of soil. Cultural practices, water, and fertility conditions (including addition of minor elements were uniform for all pots. Samples composed of an adequate number of plants (according to age were harvested at ten-day intervals during the entire vegetative cycle of the crop and analysed for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S. The results obtained indicated that the potato plant absorbs a large amount of nitrogen, followed by potassium. Phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur are absorbed in small quantities, not more than 16 kg

  1. A cidade como lugar de conflito: as práticas de violência e civilização no cotidiano de Senador Pompeu – CE (1901-1930 = The city as a place of conflict: the practice of violence and civilization in daily life in Senador Pompeu - CE (1901-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Lucas Pereira de

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensar as práticas de violência e civilização nas cidades e como elas se deram no decorrer do percurso histórico são essenciais para refletirmos a sociedade na qual habitamos, seus desejos, conflitos, medos e aspirações. Desta feita, na tentativa de compreender suas relações é que se insere esta pesquisa, na busca por analisar o cotidiano (CERTEAU, por hora violento e por hora civilizado da cidade de Senador Pompeu/CE, cidade do sertão cearense, nas primeiras três décadas do século XX. Este ensaio faz parte de inquietações da dissertação de Mestrado em curso. Buscaremos refletir até que ponto o processo de civilização (ELIAS, através da normatização do Estado (leis/convenções/normas, auxiliou ou não redução dos instintos violentos (DA MATTA dos indivíduos na sociedade e na transformação de seus hábitos e costumes (THOMPSON. Essencialmente utilizamos como fonte para esta pesquisa as Ações Criminais encontradas no Fórum Dr. Francisco Barros Gomes em Senador Pompeu-CE. Utilizaremos também os Códigos de Posturas, Código Penal, Livros de Protocolos, Tombos, Atas de julgamentos e os Jornais de veiculação do recorte temporal. Apoiados numa relação de interdisciplinaridade entre história, sociologia e direito, buscamos discutir e problematizar o fenômeno da violência dentro do cotidiano de práticas da cidade de Senador Pompeu-CE. Dessa forma, historiadores dentro de suas possibilidades, sempre buscam trabalhar com questões que os inquietam e com os anseios da sociedade em que faz parte, na busca por identificar, traduzir e resignificar as ações dos homens no tempo.

  2. The effects of land abandonment and long-term afforestation practices on the organic carbon and lignin content of a Mediteranean soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijsiger, Romy; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Campo, Julian; Cammeraat, Erik

    2016-04-01

    /010) of the Generalitat Valenciana for funding. Finally, authors want to thank to Chiara Cerli and Joke Westerveld for their help in the laboratory work and for discussion. References FAO (2015a) The Spanish Afforestation program. An International Review of Forestry and Forest Products. Unasylva, 12(1). Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5386e/x5386e02.htm#TopOfPage Pérez-Cruzado, C., Sande, B., Omil, B., Rovira, P., Martin-Pastor, M., Barros, N., ... & Merino, A. (2014). Organic matter properties in soils afforested with Pinus radiata. Plant and soil, 374(1-2), 381-398.

  3. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on age-related cognitive decline in long-term-care institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira TCG

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Liliane Dias E Dias De Macedo,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço Diniz,1 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodgeneration and Infection, Biological Sciences Institute, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Pará, Belém, Brazil Abstract: The aim of the present report was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of multisensory and cognitive stimulation on improving cognition in elderly persons living in long-term-care institutions (institutionalized [I] or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized [NI]. We compared neuropsychological performance using language and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores before and after 24 and 48 stimulation sessions. The two groups were matched by age and years of schooling. Small groups of ten or fewer volunteers underwent the stimulation program, twice a week, over 6 months (48 sessions in total. Sessions were based on language and memory exercises, as well as visual, olfactory, auditory, and ludic stimulation, including music, singing, and dance. Both groups were assessed at the beginning (before stimulation, in the middle (after 24 sessions, and at the end (after 48 sessions of the stimulation program. Although the NI group showed higher performance in all tasks in all time windows compared with I subjects, both groups improved their performance after stimulation. In addition, the improvement was significantly higher in the I group than the NI group. Language tests seem to be more efficient than the MMSE to detect early changes in cognitive status. The results suggest the impoverished environment of long-term-care institutions may contribute to lower cognitive scores before stimulation and the higher improvement rate of this group after stimulation. In conclusion

  4. Spatial variation of water and element fluxes in throughfall of a tropical lowland forest, Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggenhauser, Matthias; Messmer, Tobias; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Quantity and chemical quality of throughfall fluxes are influenced by incident precipitation, interception loss, dry deposition and canopy exchange processes. During the passage through the canopy, water and nutrient fluxes are spatially redistributed resulting in a heterogeneous input of water and dissolved nutrients into the soil. Furthermore, different tree species influence the deposition of aerosols and canopy exchange processes differently. In this study, we quantified (i) the spatial variation of throughfall water and element fluxes and (ii) the influence of fig trees (Ficus insipida Willd.). The study was conducted in a tropical lowland forest in Panama (Barro Colorado Island 9° 10 N and 79° 50' W). Mean annual rainfall and temperature are 2600 mm and 27° C, respectively. We sampled twelve pairs of plots, each involving a F. insipida plot (F) and a reference plot without F. insipida (R). Each plot was equipped with nine throughfall samplers, totalling 216 samplers, which were individually sampled in May, June and July 2012. We determined water volumes and concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, Na, NH4+, NO3-, TN, Cl-, and organic C (TOC). Number of collectors needed to reach a standard error of 10% were calculated according to the methods of J.P Kimmins and B. Lawrence & I.J. Fernandez. The weekly average water was 87 mm and those of the studied elements 661 mg/m2 (TOC), K (545), Cl (367), TN (131), Na (111), Ca (98), NH4+ (77), Mg (48), NO3-(16). The highest variation in throughfall fluxes occurred for NO3-(R) (coefficient of variation, CV = 94%) and Ca(F)(80) and the lowest variation for H2O(F,R)(22) and TN(R)(37). The largest difference in the spatial variation between F and R plots occurred for NH4+ (CV(F) % - CV(R) % = 19), Ca (17), K (-7) and NO3- (-23). To reach a standard error of the mean below 10%, most collectors are needed for NO3-(R)(98),Ca(F)(77), K(R) (73), Mg(F) (72). Mean throughfall fluxes of Ca, K and NO3-were significantly (p < 0.05) different

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of local-scale tree soil associations in a lowland moist tropical forest.

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    Laura A Schreeg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Local plant-soil associations are commonly studied at the species-level, while associations at the level of nodes within a phylogeny have been less well explored. Understanding associations within a phylogenetic context, however, can improve our ability to make predictions across systems and can advance our understanding of the role of evolutionary history in structuring communities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we quantified evolutionary signal in plant-soil associations using a DNA sequence-based community phylogeny and several soil variables (e.g., extractable phosphorus, aluminum and manganese, pH, and slope as a proxy for soil water. We used published plant distributional data from the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Republic of Panamá. Our results suggest some groups of closely related species do share similar soil associations. Most notably, the node shared by Myrtaceae and Vochysiaceae was associated with high levels of aluminum, a potentially toxic element. The node shared by Apocynaceae was associated with high extractable phosphorus, a nutrient that could be limiting on a taxon specific level. The node shared by the large group of Laurales and Magnoliales was associated with both low extractable phosphorus and with steeper slope. Despite significant node-specific associations, this study detected little to no phylogeny-wide signal. We consider the majority of the 'traits' (i.e., soil variables evaluated to fall within the category of ecological traits. We suggest that, given this category of traits, phylogeny-wide signal might not be expected while node-specific signals can still indicate phylogenetic structure with respect to the variable of interest. CONCLUSIONS: Within the BCI forest dynamics plot, distributions of some plant taxa are associated with local-scale differences in soil variables when evaluated at individual nodes within the phylogenetic tree, but they are not detectable by phylogeny

  6. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adilson Costa,1,2 Elisangela Samartin Pegas Pereira,1 Elvira Cancio Assumpção,1 Felipe Borba Calixto dos Santos,1 Fernanda Sayuri Ota,1 Margareth de Oliveira Pereira,1 Maria Carolina Fidelis,1 Raquel Fávaro,1 Stephanie Selma Barros Langen,1 Lúcia Helena Favaro de Arruda,1 Eva Nydal Abildgaard3 1Department of Dermatology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 2KOLderma Clinical Trials Institute, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Pfizer Consumer Healthcare, Nutritional Sciences, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin.Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet marine protein (105 mg, vitamin C (27 mg, grape seed extract (13.75 mg, zinc (2 mg, and tomato extract (14.38 mg in the improvement of skin aging in men.Methods: This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images.Results: Forty-one subjects (87% completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05. The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05, dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001, and

  7. Habitat selection by fish in an artificial reef in Ilha Grande Bay, Brazil

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    Daniel Shimada Brotto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of artificial structures as a shelter for fishes was evaluated aiming to assess increase in fish abundance in Ilha Grande Bay at Southeast Brazilian coast (Lat: 22°8'-23°5' S; Long. 44º05’-44º40’W. Five different types of structures, made of clay tiles, with an increase range on size and complexity were tested to assess their efficiency. Fish were counted in each type of structure from May-1996 to April-1997 by underwater observation made with snorkelling. According to the pattern of concentration in the structures, two groups of fishes were identified. One comprised by E. guaza, M. rubra, R. randalli, S. hispidus, Sphoeroides sp and Haemulun sp showed affinity for hard bottom, irregular profile and an increase in abundance on the more complex and biggest structures. The other comprised by Chylomicterus sp, Gerres spp, Anchoa sp, Diapterus sp, Oligoplites sp and D. radiale did not present clear preference for hard bottom.O uso de estruturas artificiais como abrigos por peixes, foi avaliado objetivando o incremento da abundância de peixes na baía da Ilha Grande na costa da região sudeste brasileira. Cinco diferentes tipos de estruturas, feitas de telhas de barro, de crescentes tamanhos e complexidades foram testadas para avaliar sua eficiência como abrigos de peixes. Os peixes associados a cada tipo de estrutura foram contados, semanalmente de maio/1996 a abril/1997, através de observações subaquáticas realizadas por mergulho livre. De acordo com os padrões de abundância, dois grupos de peixes foram identificados. O primeiro formado por E. guaza, Chylomicterus sp, Sphoeroides sp M. rubra, R. randalli, S. hispidus, e Haemulun sp apresentou afinidade por fundos duros de relevo irregular cuja abundância proporcional ao tamanho e complexidade das estruturas, e o outro formado por S. Flaviventris, Scorpaena sp, Diapterus sp, Gerres spp, Anchoa sp, Oligoplites sp, e D. radiale que não apresentou ocorrência associada com as

  8. 省际区域入境旅游的边界效应——以北部湾为例%A Quantitative Evaluation on the Border Effect for Inbound Tourism of Provincial Border Regions: A Case Study of Beibu Gulf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱莲; 魏小安

    2011-01-01

    北部湾区域旅游合作加快了环北部湾的广西、广东与海南三省区入境旅游的发展.该文以1999-2008年为样本数据,运用Barro回归方程及引力模型对北部湾三省区的入境旅游人数进行定量分析,发现省级行政区边界对区域旅游合作存在明显的边界效应,并影响区域旅游发展的进程.研究表明:在1998-2003年、2004-2008年两个时段,广西与广东之间的边界效应始终存在,且呈上升趋势;广西与海南之间的边界效应逐渐减弱;广东与海南之间的边界效应不显著;而广西与广东的边界效应增速明显高于广西与海南之间的边界效应增速.边界效应的形成机理可以从历史条件、发展水平、交通设施、制度创新4方面予以诠释.%Regional tourism cooperation of the Beibu Gulf is advancing the development of inbound tourism among Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan. By using the methods of Barro and gravity mode, the quantitative measurement of the development of inbound tourism between Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan is made from 1998 to 2008, which reveals that the provincial border exerts great border effect on the integration of regional tourism. Further regression analysis indicates that the border effect between Guangxi and Guangdong is increasing in the years from 1998 to 2003 and 2004 to 2008; the border effect is gradually reduced between Guangxi and Hainan and is not indistinctive between Guangdong and Hainan; and the border effect between Guangxi and Guangdong is obviously higher than that between Guangxi and Hainar. The mechanism of the border effect should be discussed from historical conditions, development level, transportation infrastructure, and institutional innovation.

  9. Evolution of the Urban Heat Island of the city of Bologna (Italy) in the last 30 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Francesca; Gaspari, Nicola; Piana, Stefano; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) phenomenon is the air temperature difference between the urban area and the surrounding agricultural area of a city, due to the anthropic activities and different surfaces typical of the town. This phenomenon has been documented for many cities with different population, topography and climate (Chandler, 1962 and Oke, 1982 among the first), and has been quantified in many areas (see as an example for Italy Agnese et al, 2008). Many causes contribute to the UHI, such as different heat capacities of vegetated surfaces as compared to buildings and paving materials; different absorption due to canopy geometry; anthropogenic heat sources and so on. (for example see Camilloni and Barros, 1997) What is not so easy to find in literature is the study of the evolution of this phenomenon with time. UHI could be improved by changes in the town behaviour (increase in car traffic or winter-heating/summer-cooling), reduced by the enlargement of the suburb area, arriving to include the rural meteorological stations, or mitigated by the general growth of air temperature due to global warming. In this work, results from the analysis of two 30 years time series air temperature data are presented. The first data set comes from an agrometeorological station sited in the Botanical garden of the University of Bologna, in the centre of the town (44° 30' 05"N, 11° 21' 18" E). The second agrometeorological station is sited in the experimental farm of the University of Bologna in Cadriano (44° 33' 03" N, 11° 24' 36" E), 9 km from the first and outside of the town boundaries. Both data series range from 1978 to 2007 and are measured by mechanical thermoigrometers. Detailed information about instruments and data treatment are available in Matzneller et al. (2009). Results show an increasing trend in both stations for air maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperatures, more evident in the rural data. The mean UHI is of about 1.3 ± 0.7 °C as an average on the 30

  10. Border Effect and Its Temporal-spatial Evolution in the Process of Regional Integration in Shenzhen%深圳关内关外一体化过程中的边界效应及时空演变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宇川; 冯健

    2011-01-01

    采用Barro回归方程结合重力模型,利用2000-2008年的数据,对深圳市关内关外的边界效应进行了实证分析.通过邹检验发现,深圳市关内关外的经济水平存在结构性差异,即存在边界效应.而通过对分时段的统计分析以及深圳市各个区的区位熵考察,发现其边界效应呈现先增强、后减弱的演变情况.文中从地理因素、制度因素和发展模式等方面阐释了边界效应及其演变的原因.%Economic development in China has achieved unparalleled success. In Shenzhen, however, the districts of the special economic zone (SEZ) and those outside the zone have still been separated in terms of economic development. Under such circumstances, the article reviews the literature of border effect and aims at the research on the following questions: is there any border effect between the districts of SEZ and those outside SEZ in Shenzhen? If it exists, how has it evolved temporally and spatially in the recent decade? and what factors have been influencing its evolution? With the data from 2000 to 2008, this paper uses Barro regression and Gravity model to analyze the border effect in the municipality. According to Chou breakpoint test, structural alteration is discovered from the samples outside and inside the SEZ, indicating that there exists noticeable border effect between the two kinds of districts. Furthermore, statistics data and the location quotient show that the border effect increased significantly and then decreased slightly from 2000 to 2008. The authors consider that the reasons of the evolution of border effect could be briefly summarized from geographical and institutional factors, and development model. The regional integration would be helpful for coordinated and harmonious development of Shenzhen.

  11. Letramento para a construção da cidadania

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    Adelma Barros-Mendes

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Neste texto são apresentados resultados parciais do projeto de pesquisa intitulado “Os gêneros textuais e sua didática: uma prática reflexiva para o ensino-aprendizagem da língua materna”, que vem sendo desenvolvido desde agosto de 2006, em uma escola Agrícola. O projeto tem por objetivo fomentar um ensino reflexivo de língua, considerando a realidade de usos pelos alunos, culminando com a formação de sujeitos leitores e produtores proficientes de textos orais e escritos. O lócus da pesquisa é uma escola com um perfil particular em relação às demais escolas estaduais. Trata-se de uma escola situada a 17 km, da cidade de Macapá-AP, gerenciada pela igreja católica. Os sujeitos envolvidos são crianças e adolescentes com baixo nível de letramento, na maioria filhos de pais analfabetos. Nos dois anos e meio de atividade, já se identificou o perfil dos sujeitos envolvidos e de suas famílias, bem como desenvolveu-se uma série de atividades com vistas ao objetivo pretendido que é o de ampliar as capacidades de leitura e escrita desses sujeitos. Como resultado parcial da pesquisa, verificou-se uma grande progressão dos alunos, comprovando que o trabalho com os gêneros textuais, a partir de Seqüências Didáticas, é produtivo e eficaz. Como pressuposto teórico, seguiu-se o conceito bakhtiniano de gêneros de discurso, retomado e desenvolvido por Schneuwly (2004 em um quadro da psicologia vygotskiana e da Didática das Línguas, que fornece uma concepção sobre o ensino e aprendizagem da língua materna numa perspectiva sócio-histórica. Dentro dessa perspectiva são também mobilizados os conceitos de transposição didática, a partir de Chevallard (1985 e didatização de objetos de ensino Barros-Mendes (2005. Como princípio de pesquisa, considerou-se a perspectiva da Linguística Aplicada de Moita Lopes (1996 que trabalha a construção do conhecimento

  12. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

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    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  13. Beneficial effects of multisensory and cognitive stimulation in institutionalized elderly: 12-months follow-up

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    Dias de Macedo LD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Liliane Dias E Dias de Macedo,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 João Bento-Torres,1,2 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Daniel Clive Anthony,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodegeneration and Infection, Institute of Biological Sciences, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Federal University of Pará, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Para, Belem, Para, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UKAbstract: We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI. In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old. Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly

  14. Protective effect of soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diets on allergic airway inflammation

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    Navarro-Xavier RA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Roberta Araujo Navarro-Xavier,1 Karina Vieira de Barros,1 Iracema Senna de Andrade,1 Zaira Palomino,2 Dulce Elena Casarini,2 Vera Lucia Flor Silveira3 1Departamento de Fisiologia, 2Departamento de Medicina, 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Diadema, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The increased prevalence of asthma and allergic diseases in westernized societies has been associated with increased intake of diets rich in n-6 fatty acids (FAs and poor in n-3 FAs. This study aimed to analyze the prophylactic effects of treatment with a soybean oil-rich diet (rich in n-6 or fish oil (rich in n-3 in an allergic airway inflammation model on lung inflammation score, leukocyte migration, T-helper cell (Th-2 (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5 and Th1 (interferon [IFN]-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α cytokines, lipoxin A4, nitric oxide, bradykinin, and corticosterone levels in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL or lungs. Methods: Male Wistar rats fed with soybean oil- or fish oil-rich diet or standard rat chow were sensitized twice with ovalbumin–alumen and challenged twice with ovalbumin aerosol. The BAL and lungs were examined 24 hours later. Results: Both diets, rich in n-6 or n-3 FAs, impaired the allergic lung inflammation and reduced leukocyte migration, eosinophil and neutrophil percentages, and IL-4/IL-5/bradykinin levels in BAL and/or lungs, as well as increased the nitric oxide levels in BAL. The soybean oil-rich diet additionally increased the levels of lipoxin A4 and corticosterone in the lungs. Conclusion: Data presented demonstrated that the n-6 FA-rich diet had protective effect upon allergic airway inflammation and was as anti-inflammatory as the n-3 FA-rich diet, although through different mechanisms, suggesting that both diets could be considered as complementary therapy or a prophylactic alternative for allergic airway inflammation. Keywords: asthma, nitric oxide, n-6 fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, cytokines

  15. Planossolos e Gleissolos Utilizados na Fabricação de Cerâmica Artesanal no Semiárido de Minas Gerais

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    Diana Ferreira de Freitas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento etnopedológico tem fornecido informações importantes sobre o modo de vida das populações rurais a respeito de suas tradições ancestrais, como a arte de elaborar peças artesanais a partir do barro advindo de solos com características próprias a esse uso. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar física, química e mineralogicamente Planossolos e Gleissolos explorados para a produção de artefatos de cerâmica artesanal em Minas Gerais. Nos barreiros, foram coletados dois perfis de Planossolos (P1 e P2 e um Gleissolo (P3 usados como matéria-prima na produção artesanal de cerâmica. Foram realizadas análises físicas e químicas, limites de liquidez (LL e plasticidade (LP, índice de plasticidade (IP e de atividade coloidal (IA, além da mineralogia da fração argila. Os horizontes selecionados pelos ceramistas para a fabricação de cerâmica artesanal (BA, Btg e BCg, do P1; Btg1 e Btg2, do P2; e C2g e C3g, do P3 apresentaram os maiores teores de argila e silte, IP e IA, importantes para a qualidade final da cerâmica. O horizonte Cg do perfil P1 possui potencial de ser utilizado para a produção artesanal, em virtude do seu IP, superior aos dos horizontes normalmente usados, além dos teores de argila, silte e areia fina e suas características mineralógicas. A proporção ideal das frações areia, silte e argila e a porcentagem de matéria orgânica na definição de um bom material para cerâmica são difíceis de estabelecer e variam principalmente em razão de aspectos quantitativos e qualitativos da argila nos solos.

  16. Efeito do tamanho do vaso e da época de corte de plantas de trigo no estudo da ação dos nutrientes N, P e K Effect of pot size and harvesting time on the evaluation of fertilizer response por wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermano Gargantini

    1973-01-01

    Full Text Available Em casa de vegetação, utilizando vasos de barro com capacidade para 0,6, 6 e 10 kg, pesquisou-se a influência das épocas de corte, para estudo da ação do nitrogênio, do fósforo e do potássio, no desenvolvimento e produção do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.. O vaso de maior capacidade serviu de base para as comparações com os de menores volumes. As colheitas foram efetuadas aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias (produção de grãos. Foi utilizado um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, nos quais empregaram-se os tratamentos: N0P0K0, N0P1K1, N1P0K1. N1P1K0, e N1P1K1. Os dados obtidos permitiram observar que em vasos de 0,6 kg é possível estudar a ação do nitrogênio e do fósforo, colhendo-sc as plantas aos 60 dias. Em vasos de 6 kg pode-se estudar o efeito do fósforo já aos 30 dias após a germinação, e o do nitrogênio e o do potássio, somente a partir dos 60 dias. Nos vasos de 10 kg observou-se que tanto na colheita do material verde como na de grão, as respostas aos nutrientes foram excelentes.This work was realized with wheat as test plant in greenhouse conditions. Pots of 0.6, 6 and 10 kg capacity were used and the wheat was harvested at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after germination. The evaluation of fertilizer response was based on the production of the 10 kg capacity pots, harvested at 120 days after germination. At this time a clear response to nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was obtained. With pots of 0.6 kg capacity, it was possible to study phosphorus and nitrogen by harvesting at 60 days after germination. With Mitscherlich pots (6 kg capacity it was possible to study phosphorus by harvesting at 30 days, and nitrogen by harvesting 60 days after germination. Response to potassium fertilizer was observed only where plants were harvested 90 days after germination.

  17. Cytogenetic data on six leafcutter ants of the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae): insights into chromosome evolution and taxonomic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Luísa Antônia Campos; de Aguiar, Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso; Mariano, Cléa dos Santos Ferreira; Andrade-Souza, Vanderly; Costa, Marco Antonio; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Pompolo, Silvia das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cytogenetic data for the genus Acromyrmex Mayr, 1865 are available, to date, for a few species from Brazil and Uruguay, which have uniform chromosome numbers (2n = 38). The recent cytogenetic data of Acromyrmex striatus (Roger, 1863), including its banding patterns, showed a distinct karyotype (2n = 22), similar to earlier studied Atta Fabricius, 1804 species. Karyological data are still scarce for the leafcutter ants and many gaps are still present for a proper understanding of this group. Therefore, this study aimed at increasing cytogenetic knowledge of the genus through the characterization of other six species: Acromyrmex balzani (Emery, 1890), Acromyrmex coronatus Fabricius, 1804, Acromyrmex disciger (Mayr, 1887), Acromyrmex echinatior (Forel, 1899), Acromyrmex niger (Smith, 1858) and Acromyrmex rugosus (Smith, 1858), all of which were collected in Minas Gerais – Brazil, except for Acromyrmex echinatior which was collected in Barro Colorado – Panama. The number and morphology of the chromosomes were studied and the following banding techniques were applied: C-banding, fluorochromes CMA3 and DAPI, as well as the detection of 45S rDNA using FISH technique. All the six species had the same chromosome number observed for already studied species, i.e. 2n = 38. Acromyrmex balzani had a different karyotype compared with other species mainly due to the first metacentric pair. The heterochromatin distribution also showed interspecific variation. Nevertheless, all the studied species had a pair of bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair. The fluorochrome CMA3 visualized bands in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair for all the six species, while Acromyrmex rugosus and Acromyrmex niger also demonstrated in the other chromosomes. The AT-rich regions with differential staining using DAPI were not observed. 45S ribosomal genes were identified by FISH in the short arm of the first subtelocentric pair in Acromyrmex coronatus, Acromyrmex

  18. Effects of the 100-year most severe El Niño driven drought on above and below ground CO2 exchanges in a seasonal tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detto, M.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; Davies, S. J.; Rubio Ramos, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The role of environmental drivers in regulating carbon exchanges, such as the combined effects of different meteorological and hydrological factors, are still poorly understood in many tropical forests. For example, Central American tropical forests are characterized by a distinct dry season with large atmospheric evaporative demand, driven by solar radiations and sustained winds. In contrast, during the wet seasons, cloudiness results in lower radiation inputs but higher diffuse fraction, and higher water availability. Our site, Barro Colorado Island, located in Gatun Lake, Central Panama, averages 2800 mm of annual precipitation, with a pronounced dry season in Jan-Apr. Forest age varies between 100 and >400 yr. In July 2012, an eddy covariance system was installed on a 41 m tower on the top plateau of the island. In the current year (2015) the island is experiencing the most severe El Niño driven drought on record (precipitation is measured since 1921). The eddy covariance measurements show that carbon and water fluxes are strongly influenced by hydrological conditions. Prolonged dry spells during the dry season limit both above ground fluxes (ET and GPP) and below ground processes (root and microbial activities). Light use efficiency is about 30% lower during the dry season and evapotranspiration can be as 40% below potential. These decreases in ecosystem functions are driven primarily by a combination of structural (reduction in leaf area) and physiological (stomata regulation) adaptation. Similarly, soil effluxes respond strongly to hydrological conditions. In the dry season, lower soil respiration rates are spaced out by rare rain events generating large pulses. In contrast, during the wet season, frequent rain events suppress soil CO2effluxes, because of reduced diffusivity and oxygen depletion. Diurnal variation of soil respiration also suggested a potential translocation of photosynthates from leaf to roots to increase nutrient uptake during the dry

  19. The impact of obesity in the kinematic parameters of gait in young women

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    Silva-Hamu TCD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tânia Cristina Dias da Silva-Hamu,1 Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto Formiga,1 Flávia Martins Gervásio,1 Darlan Martins Ribeiro,2 Gustavo Christofoletti,3 Jônatas de França Barros4 1Physical Therapy Department of the State University of Goiás, Goiânia, Goiás, ²Dr Henrique Santillo Readaptation and Rehabilitation Center, Goiânia, Goiás, 3Physical Therapy Department of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, 4Department of Physical Education of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in the population, particularly in women. Obesity has an impact on the musculoskeletal system, leading to knee and ankle overexertion, difficulty with balance, and functional disability. The aim of this study was to identify changes in kinematic parameters of gait in obese young women. Methods: A case-control study with 24 obese women (mean age 35.20 ± 9.9 years and mean body mass index of 31.85 ± 2.94 kg/m² and 24 eutrophic women (mean age of 36.33 ± 11.14 and mean body mass index of 21.82 ± 1.58 kg/m². The gait of women was evaluated by the system Vicon Motus® 9.2. The linear parameters of speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths were studied, as well as the angular parameters of knee and ankle. Results: There was a decrease in linear gait parameters (P < 0.001, speed, cadence, right and left step, and stride lengths. In regard to the angular parameters of the knee and ankle, there were also differences between the analyses (P < 0.001. At the knee joint, obese women have delayed onset of the second wave of flexion, exacerbating such movement in order to compensate. In regard to the ankle, both groups showed curves of normal plantar flexion and dorsiflexion, but there was a delay in the path graph in the ankle of obese women indicating a reduced range of motion and possible over-exertion of the pretibial

  20. Temperaturas superficiais de telhas e sua relação com o ambiente térmico Superficial temperatures of tiles and the relation with thermal environment

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    Carlos A. de P. Sampaio

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo a análise de temperaturas de telhas de barro, de fibrocimento com pintura branca na face superior e de aço zincado e sua relação com o ambiente térmico, quantificando também os Índices de Temperatura e Umidade (ITU, de Temperatura de Globo e Umidade (ITGU e Carga Térmica de Radiação (CTR. As análises foram realizadas em modelos de edificações e na área não sombreada. Os resultados mostraram que as telhas cerâmicas e de fibrocimento apresentaram comportamentos térmicos semelhantes, sendo que a opção pela telha de fibrocimento de 5 mm, pintada de branca na sua face superior, é vantajosa economicamente. As telhas metálicas superaram os 53 °C na sua superfície e foram piores no conforto térmico comparado com as outras telhas. O ITGU foi superior na indicação do conforto térmico em relação ao ITU, principalmente no verão. Houve redução significativa da CTR pelas telhas em relação à área não sombreada.The objective of this study was the analysis of temperatures of clay tiles, galvanized steel tiles and fiber-cement tiles with white painting on the roof and his relation with the thermal environment, in winter and summer conditions. The experiment was carried out in models of constructions quantifying the internal and extern temperatures from the tiles (TS, Temperature and humidity index (THI, Black Globe and Humidity (BGHI and Thermal Load of Radiation (TLR were employed for the characterization of the thermal environmental. The measured were performed inside and outside the housing. The results showed that the ceramic tiles and the fiber-cement tiles presented similar thermal behaviors and the choice of fiber-cement tiles of 5 mm with white painting on the roof is economically advantageous. The metal tiles were the ones that most heated up surpassing 53ºC in his surface and the worst regarding to the thermal comfort compared with the other tiles. The THI was not accurate for

  1. Sixteen weeks of resistance training can decrease the risk of metabolic syndrome in healthy postmenopausal women

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    Conceição MS

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Miguel Soares Conceição,1 Valéria Bonganha,1 Felipe Cassaro Vechin,2 Ricardo Paes de Barros Berton,1 Manoel Emílio Lixandrão,1 Felipe Romano Damas Nogueira,1 Giovana Vergínia de Souza,1 Mara Patricia Traina Chacon-Mikahil,1 Cleiton Augusto Libardi2 1Exercise Physiology Laboratory, School of Physical Education, State University of Campinas, Campinas, 2Laboratory of Neuromuscular Adaptation to Strength Training, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Background: The postmenopausal phase has been considered an aggravating factor for developing metabolic syndrome. Notwithstanding, no studies have as yet investigated the effects of resistance training on metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Thus, the purpose of this study was to verify whether resistance training could reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to a resistance training protocol (n = 10, 53.40 ± 3.95 years, 64.58 ± 9.22 kg or a control group (n = 10, 53.0 ± 5.7 years, 64.03 ± 5.03 kg. In the resistance training protocol, ten exercises were performed, with 3 × 8–10 maximal repetitions three times per week, and the load was increased every week. Two-way analysis of variance was used to evaluate specific metabolic syndrome Z-score, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, waist circumference, blood pressure, strength, and body composition. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The main results demonstrated a significant decrease of metabolic syndrome Z-score when the postmenopausal women performed resistance training (P = 0.0162. Moreover, we observed decreases in fasting blood glucose for the resistance training group (P = 0.001, and also significant improvements in lean body mass (P = 0.042, 2.46%, reduction of body fat percentage (P = 0.001, −6.75% and noticeable increases in

  2. Postural control in children with typical development and children with profound hearing loss

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    Monteiro de Sousa AM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aneliza Maria Monteiro de Sousa,1 Jônatas de França Barros,2 Brígido Martins de Sousa Neto31Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Federal District, Brazil; 2Department of Physical Education at the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil; 3University Center UNIEURO, Brasilia, Federal District, BrazilPurpose: To describe the behavior of the postural control in children with profound sensorineural hearing loss and compare the results of experimental tests with hearing children aged 7 to 10 years.Patients and methods: This is a cross-sectional study where 100 children were divided into experimental and control groups. We used a force platform, AccuSway Plus, where the tests were conducted under the experimental conditions: open base, eyes open (OBEO; open base, eyes closed (OBEC; closed base, eyes open (CBEO; closed base, eyes closed (CBEC. The body sway velocity (V of the center of pressure, the displacement in the anteroposterior direction (COPap and mediolateral (COPml of the center of pressure were the parameters to evaluate the postural control. For statistical analysis we used the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test, with a significance level of 5%.Results: In comparisons of variables between the groups, the experimental group outperformed by at least 75% of the control group values. In terms of global trends, the experimental group shows higher values of body oscillations in all experimental conditions and variables evaluated. Children with hearing loss had poorer balance performance compared to the group of hearing. The inferential analysis revealed a statistically significant difference in the balance between deaf and hearing children in the OBEC experimental condition in relation to the COPml parameter (P = 0.04. There were no statistically significant differences in comparisons between the sexes when the groups were analyzed separately. The prevalence of unknown etiology

  3. 小兴安岭凉水典型阔叶红松林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of a typical mixed broad-leaved-Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in Liangshui Nature Reserve, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽娜; 金光泽

    2012-01-01

    The mixed broadleaved-Korean pine {Pinus koraiensis) forest (MBKF) represents the climax vegetation type of the eastern mountainous area of Northeast China. It is divided into three categories according to community structure and species composition, including southern MBKF, typical MBKF, and northern MBKF. To monitor long-term dynamics of the typical MBKF, we established a 9-ha plot following the field protocol of the 50 ha plot in Panama (Barro Colorado Island, BCI) in 2005 in Liangshui National Nature Reserve of Heilongjiang Province. All free-standing plant species with DBH (diameter at breast height) =1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species in the plot. In the 2010 census, we documented 48 woody species with 21,355 individuals, belonging to 34 genera and 20 families. Most of the species belong to the Changbai Mountain plant flora, with a minor subtropical plant species component. The DBH distribution of all individuals showed a reversed "J" type, indicating well regenerated for the community. The DBH distribution for the canopy, sub-canopy, and middle layers and the understory layer showed the reversed "J" and "L" distributions, respectively. The DBH pattern of the nine dominant species can be classified into three categories: approximate normal, reversed "J", and "L" distribution. Spatial pattern analysis showed that the major tree species were aggregated, and aggregation intensity decreased as DBH increased. Further analysis showed that spatial distribution was closely related to topography and varied with DBH classes. For example, the distribution of Pinus koraiensis and Tilia amurensis was significantly affected by topography (P < 0.05); however, the distribution of Abies nephrolepis, Acer ukurunduense, and Ulmus laciniata correlated significantly with topography at diameter classes of I (DBH < 10 cm) and II (10 cm < DBH < 30 cm). The distribution of Betula costata and Acer tegmentosum was also significantly correlated with topography at a

  4. Cartografia de solos à escala da exploração agrícola: aplicação a um ensaio de olival Detailed soil mapping: a case study for an olive grove trial

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    C. Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo visa mostrar: (i as limitações da Carta de Solos de Portugal para uso a escalas superiores a 1:50.000; (ii a importância do conhecimento sobre os solos duma exploração agrícola como factor de produtividade; (iii um exemplo de estudo de solos, abrangendo uma área de 35 ha, dos quais 27 ha são ensaios de um "Olival Novo" da Direcção Regional de Agricultura do Alentejo no concelho de Moura (Lameirões. Procedeu-se a uma amostragem regular na escala 1:7.500, que envolveu 55 sondagens manuais e 24 sondagens mecânicas servindo estas para a caracterização analítica do solo. Verifica-se uma grande diversidade de solos, tendo-se identificado 22 famílias da Classificação dos Solos de Portugal (CSP 1974 e 26 unidades-solo da “World Reference Base for Soil Resources” (WRBSR 2006. Para atingir cerca de 50% dos 35 ha cartografados são necessárias pelo menos 5 famílias da CSP (Bac, Bc, Vc', Vcx, Bca ou 5 unidades da WRBSR (VR.ha(ca, VR.ha(eu, RG.ha(ca, CM.vr(ca,cr, LV.ha(skp,cr, legendas em anexo. Apesar do menor detalhe da sua escala, a Carta dos Solos de Portugal (1:50.000 reflecte a grande variedade de solos na área em estudo assinalando 8 famílias. Contudo, as famílias referidas como mais abundantes (Sr, Vc e Vcm, respectivamente LV.ha(cr, RG.ha(ca e LV.vr(cr não correspondem às que são identificadas neste trabalho: Barros Pardos (Bac e Bc e Solos Calcários Vermelhos Para-Barros (Vc', ou seja, VR.ha(ca, VR.ha(eu e CM.vr(ca,cr. Esta discrepância revela que a Carta de Solos de Portugal subavalia a qualidade de alguns solos desta área, e evidencia as limitações do seu uso para objectivos que exigem escalas superiores. Apesar da grande maioria dos solos do "Olival Novo" apresentar elevada capacidade de troca catiónica (>20 cmol(+ kg -1 existem também solos com algumas limitações importantes, em especial por elevada compactação, risco de saturação prolongada com água, elevado teor de calcário (CaCO3>250 g

  5. Comparison between natural Rain drop size distributions and corresponding models near equilibrium state during warm rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: Rain Drop Size Distribution, Breakup, coalescence, disdrometer The study of the vertical evolution of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) during rainfall, from the freezing level isotherm to ground level, is a key to improving our understanding of the microphysics of rain. In numerous domains such as remote sensing, telecommunications, soil erosion, and the study of the rain's efficiency in 'washing' the atmosphere, the DSD plays an important role. Among the different processes affecting the evolution of DSD, breakup and coalescence are two of the most significant. Models of coalescence and breakup lead to equilibrium of the raindrop size distribution (DSD) after a fall through sufficient vertical height. At equilibrium, the DSD no longer evolves, and its shape is unique whatever the rain rate or LWC. This implies that the DSD is known, to within a multiplication constant. These models based on experimental measurements have been developed over the past 40 years. The Low and List (1982a,b) parameterization (hereinafter LL82) and the Greg M. McFarquhar (2004) model are both based on the same laboratory experiments, which lead to an equilibrium drop size distribution (EDSD) with two or three peaks, and an exponential tail with a slope of approximately Λ=65 cm-1. Numerous measurements using disdrometer collected in different climatic areas: Paris, France (Mars to October 2000), Iowa-City (April to October 2002), and Djougou (Benin June to September 2006) corresponding to 537 hours of rain period have shown that for high rain rates, close to a state of equilibrium, this slope lies between Λ=20 - 22 cm-1. This latter value is corroborated by others measurements found in the literature (Hu & Srivastava, 1995). Hu & Srivastava suggested that the Low and List parameterization may overestimate the effects of the breakup process. This hypothesis is in adequation with recent laboratory experiments (A.P. Barros 2008) in which the authors conclude that the number of

  6. 东灵山4种落叶阔叶次生林的物种组成与群落结构%Species composition and community structure of four deciduous broadleaved secondary forest in Dongling Mountain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亮; 刘海丰; 白帆; 祝燕; 李广起; 李文超; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    植被的群落构成是决定森林演替方向的重要因素之一.辽东栎林(Quercus wutaishanica forest,QWF)、棘皮桦林(Betula dahurica forest,BDF)、胡桃楸林(Juglans mandshurica forest,JMF)与杂木林(mixed forest,MF)是东灵山地区4种典型的暖温带落叶阔叶次生林.为了更好地了解东灵山地区暖温带落叶阔叶次生林植被动态,我们对该4种林型的物种组成与群落结构进行了综合分析.参照巴拿马(Barro Colorado Island,BCI)50 ha热带雨林样地的技术规范,于2009年在北京东灵山地区以上4个林型中各建立了一块1 ha样地,对样地中所有胸径大于1 cm的木本个体进行了坐标定位和调查.结果表明,QWF样地有22种,属于20科20属;BDF样地共22种,属于16科18属;JMF样地30种,隶属于21科23属;MF样地19种,隶属于14科15属.从物种多度、平均胸径、胸高断面积和重要值等指标来看,各群落具有比较明显的优势种:4个样地所有树种的径级分布均旱倒"J"型,具有良好的更新层;共有树种的径级分布在不同样地有所不同,如辽东栎在QWF样地呈偏态分布,在BDF样地则为倒"J"型分布,而棘皮桦在QWF和BDF样地都呈正态分布,但是径级分布有所差异,表明径级结构与群落类型有密切关系.%The following are typical communities in the secondary deciduous broad-leaved forests in the Dongling Mountain area: Quercus wutaishanica forest (QWF), Betula dahurica forest (BDF), luglans mandshurica forest (JMF) and mixed forest (MF). Comprehensive research on species composition and community structure of these four forest types will contribute to a more thorough knowledge of the successional dynamics and ecological functions in warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forests. Following the field protocol of the 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama, one l-ha plot was established in each of these forest types in Dongling Mountain in 2009. In these plots, all free-standing trees ≥1

  7. Species composition and community structure of the Donglingshan forest dynamic plot in a warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest, China%东灵山暖温带落叶阔叶次生林动态监测样地:物种组成与群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海丰; 李亮; 桑卫国

    2011-01-01

    Community structure is one of the key features in the process of vegetation succession.Warm temperate mixed deciduous broad-leaved secondary forest is the main forest vegetation type in China's warm temperate zone.In order to better study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, we established the Donglingshan 20-ha forest plot (DLS plot) in 2009 and 2010 using the same protocol as the well-established plot on Barro Colorado Island in Panama.In the plot, all free-standing woody plants with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified to species.Here, we address preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, and size-class, vertical, and spatial structure of the DLS plot.These datasets will serve as baseline information accessible to a wide range of future studies.We tagged a total of 52,136 genotype individuals (103,284 individuals including branches of genotype individuals), belonging to 58 species, 33 genera and 18 families.All of these tree species were deciduous.Floristic characteristics of the community suggested a temperate flora, including some subtropical and tropical elements.There were very obvious dominant species in the plot.Five species comprised 61% of all individuals, and 20 species comprised 92% of all individuals, while the other 38 species comprised only 8% of all individuals.Vertical structure was composed of an overstory layer (19 species), midstory layer (18 species), and a shrub layer (21 species).The DBH size-class structure of all species in the plot generally fitted a "reverse J" distribution, indicating good regeneration across the community.The size-class structure of the main species in the overstory layer showed a bimodal or nearly normal distribution, while the most abundant species in the midstory and shrub layers showed "reverse J" or even "L" distributions.Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant species varied with size-class and

  8. Resistência de alguns vírus à ação oligodinâmica da prata Resistence of some viruses to the silver oligodynamic action

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    J. Guilherme Lacorte

    1959-10-01

    Full Text Available Tentamos verificar, em algumas experiências, a ação oligodinâmica da prata sôbre os vírus da coriomeningite linfocitária benigna, amostra WE, da poliomielite, amostra MEF1, e da vacina, amostra do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, como o haviamos feito com o vírus da gripe, amostras PR8 e DL/Rio. Nas provas usamos recipientes de barro, recobertos de fina camada de prata na parede interna, ou aquêles em que a prata, sob a forma de pó se misturava ao próprio barro. Esses recipientes são denominados, no comércio, moringas esterilizantes. Colocou-se, no seu interior, a emulsão a 10% do tecido cerebral contendo o vírus da coriomeningite linfocitária ou da poliomielite, verificando-se o seu poder patogênico para camundongos, em intervalos regulares, pela injeção intracerebral de 0,03 ml do material. Os resultados, que podem ser vistos nos Quadros 1 e 2, indicam que aquêles virus resistem à ação oligodinâmica da prata. No caso do vírus da vacina, a diluição foi colocada, da mesma maneira, nos referidos recipientes. O vírus apresentou, também, completa resistência, conforme se vê nas figuras de 1, 2 e 3. Experiências testemunhas feitas com Micrococcus pyogenes e Escherichia coli, cujas suspensões foram igualmente colocadas nas moringas esterilizantes, revelaram que as bactérias não sobreviviam além de 20 horas. Frizamos, na publicação sôbre vírus da gripe, que o referido fenômeno é importante porque sabemos que o efieto oligodinâmico se observa sôbre microorganismos como bactérias, protozoários e outros seres vivos, alterando as suas propriedades ou matando-os sendo, portanto, interessante sob o ponto de vista biológico. O fenômeno pode ainda ser aplicado para o isolamento de vírus, quando em contaminação com bactérias.We have tried to verify, in some experiments, the silver oligodynamic action upon the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, WE strain the poliomyelitis virus, MEF1 strain, and the vaccinia virus

  9. Flight activity and colony strength in the stingless bee Melipona bicolor bicolor (Apidae, Meliponinae A influência do estado da colônia na atividade de vôo do meliponíneo Melipona bicolor bicolor Lepeletier (Apidae, Meliponinae

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    S. D. HILÁRIO

    2000-05-01

    cria construídas. Foram realizadas 855 observações durante 5 minutos, a cada meia hora, das 8 às 18 horas, quando era contado o número total de abelhas que entravam e saíam, o número de abelhas que chegava com barro, pólen e resina, além do número que saía com detritos das colméias naquele período. Foram também registradas a temperatura e a umidade relativa do ar. A atividade externa total, assim como a coleta de pólen, foi máxima nas primeiras horas da manhã, principalmente nas colônias fortes. Colônias fracas deslocaram a atividade máxima para as 12 horas, aproximadamente. A coleta de pólen declinou gradualmente, enquanto a coleta de barro e de resina se elevou; a eliminação de detritos foi maior no início da manhã e no final da tarde. A atividade de vôo esteve positivamente correlacionada com a umidade relativa do ar, sendo ótima para colônias fortes na faixa entre 80%-89% de umidade relativa, e para as mais fracas entre 70%-79%. Quanto à temperatura, o limite mínimo observado para saída das abelhas foi de 11°C; com temperaturas ótimas entre 17°C e 22°C. Os resultados evidenciam que o estado geral da colônia influencia as diferentes estratégias de coleta de alimento, e que essas abelhas devem estar adaptadas a ambientes de alta umidade relativa como a Mata Atlântica.

  10. Comportamiento de los suelos para la confección de adobes

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    Barrios, Gastón

    1986-02-01

    sea preciso reemplazar las recomendaciones existentes para la construcción con este material, producto casi exclusivo de la experiencia de algunos constructores que en el pasado han tenido éxito al trabajar con él, por una norma, que no sólo límite, sino que más que eso, establezca pautas que permitan construir en adobe con la seguridad necesaria, aprovechando las cualidades inherentes del mismo, el empleo de aditivos y naturalmente proponga pautas para el diseño y cálculo de sus estructuras con un respaldo empírico adecuado. Dando un primer paso al respecto, es que hemos experimentado, en probetas RILEM, el comportamiento de algunas de las respuestas del mortero de barro seco, al variar factores como son la arcilla, el limo, la arena y la cantidad de agua de amasado. Los resultados de este estudio, pueden resumirse en las siguientes cuatro recomendaciones básicas: 1. Emplear suelos con razón limo-arcilla cercano a uno y la sumatoria entre 35 y 45% del total. 2. El contenido de arena del suelo debe encontrarse entre un 55% y un 65%. 3. La cantidad óptima para el agua de amasado depende de las propiedades mismas del suelo y de la tecnología empleada. En nuestro caso, dicho óptimo se encuentra en el límite líquido, más un tercio del índice de plasticidad de los suelos. Cabe hacer notar el alto nivel de significación de este factor en todas las variables estudiadas y sería de gran ventaja poder controlar su contenido, sin embargo, a niveles artesanales; esto no ha sido posible. 4. Para que el barro una vez seco, alcance características mecánicas satisfactorias y uniformes, es preciso que: i Se proceda al macerado del suelo en estado saturado de 48 a 72 horas. i i Antes del llenado de los moldes, proceder a un intenso amasado de la pasta, para así evitar que las láminas de arcilla se ordenen según atracciones eléctricas.

  11. Adoção de Cidadãos Presos e Formação de Professores para a Prisão: Ações de Fraternidade Política e Direitos, aproximando a extensão universitária da ASCES e da UFPE no agreste pernambucano. Adoption of inmates and teacher training for prison: Actions of political fraternity and human rights approaching university extension to ASCES and UFPE in the rural area of Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordão, Maria Perpétua S. D.

    2014-08-01

    na preocupação com a formação de valores civilizatórios que tenham como base a dignidade das pessoas livres ou encarceradas. O referencial teórico que subsidia o trabalho tem, como autores principais: Paulo Freire, Hannah Arendt e Barros. This study aims to analyze how two extension projects - Legal Adoption of Inmates (ASCES and Teacher Training for Penitentiary System (UFPE - enable coordinated actions of citizenship and human rights in a prison facility located in the ‘agreste’ region of Pernambuco state, Brazil, since 2001 (ASCES and 2009 (UFPE. The work was articulated based on the participation of ASCES teachers in the Research Group of UFPE-CNPq, and on the perception of how the integration of institutional activities could improve results and include a larger number of teachers, students, and beneficiaries - prisoners and educators of the penitentiary system. The actions involving broad participation of civil society were carried out fortnightly at the prison unit; the works are presented in the form of training meetings with teachers, lectures, and discussions with inmates, as well as in activities mediated by playful elements such as images, photographs, films, documentaries, music, and poetry. Students from the two institutions are integrated without competition; teachers receive continuing education; and recreational activities with the inmates break their prison routine and encourage them to remain in the classroom, reducing evasion. The activity is used as internship workload for the ASCES students and as supplementary activities for students of Pedagogy. These activities also allow the two institutions to contribute for improving the quality of education in prison; motivate the interaction of students from different institutions, including students form institutions that do not belong to the projects, attracting the participation of many volunteers and alumni from the ASCES and the Faculty of Philosophy, Sciences and Languages of Caruaru

  12. Marine echinoderms as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistant bacteria

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    Catarina Marinho

    2014-06-01

    (Marinho et al., 2013. Erythromycin and tetracycline are widely used in human therapy, and this may have contributed to the increasing resistance to these antibiotics (Hummel et al., 2007, Barros et al., 2011. It also highlights the lack of antibiotic efficiency in medicine, doing with resistance dissemination. Also, several genes associated with antimicrobial resistance were already found in antimicrobial-resistant enterococci from echinoderms: tet(M/tet(L, erm(A/erm(B, vat(D/vat(E, aac(6’-aph(2'' and aph(3'-IIIa genes were detected in tetracycline, erythromycin, quinupristin-dalfopristin, gentamicin and kanamycin-resistant isolates, respectively (Marinho et al., 2013. Despite of the small number of Escherichia coli isolates from echinoderms samples, they displayed an antibiotic-resistant phenotype to: tetracycline, streptomycin, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. E. coli isolates from echinoderms tetracycline-resistant had tet(A and tet(B genes present in their genome. Besides, the aadA gene was detected in all E. coli streptomycin-resistant strains isolated from echinoderms (Marinho et al., 2013. According to some results, enterococci and E. coli displaying phenotype and resistance genes to some antibiotics that were already documented in marine animals, humans, wastewaters and numerous wildlife animals (Marinho et al., 2013, Barros et al., 2011, Sousa et al., 2011, Foti et al., 2009. Echinoderms are coastal animals and, consequently, it is possible that sewage discharges at the ocean may represent the main source of antibiotic-resistant bacteria deriving from several habitats. Indirect effects in micro-systems from the antibiotic disturbance are largely unknown; however, it is expected that such disorder might have significant long-term effects on the rate and stability of the ecosystem. Nevertheless, the consumption of exotic food is an example of a potential pathway for human contact with marine echinoderms microbiota, which may contain antibiotic

  13. Detecting tropical forest biomass dynamics from repeated airborne lidar measurements

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    V. Meyer

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Reducing uncertainty of terrestrial carbon cycle depends strongly on the accurate estimation of changes of global forest carbon stock. However, this is a challenging problem from either ground surveys or remote sensing techniques in tropical forests. Here, we examine the feasibility of estimating changes of tropical forest biomass from two airborne lidar measurements of forest height acquired about 10 yr apart over Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama. We used the forest inventory data from the 50 ha Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS plot collected every 5 yr during the study period to calibrate the estimation. We compared two approaches for detecting changes in forest aboveground biomass (AGB: (1 relating changes in lidar height metrics from two sensors directly to changes in ground-estimated biomass; and (2 estimating biomass from each lidar sensor and then computing changes in biomass from the difference of two biomass estimates, using two models, namely one model based on five relative height metrics and the other based only on mean canopy height (MCH. We performed the analysis at different spatial scales from 0.04 ha to 10 ha. Method (1 had large uncertainty in directly detecting biomass changes at scales smaller than 10 ha, but provided detailed information about changes of forest structure. The magnitude of error associated with both the mean biomass stock and mean biomass change declined with increasing spatial scales. Method (2 was accurate at the 1 ha scale to estimate AGB stocks (R2 = 0.7 and RMSEmean = 27.6 Mg ha−1. However, to predict biomass changes, errors became comparable to ground estimates only at a spatial scale of about 10 ha or more. Biomass changes were in the same direction at the spatial scale of 1 ha in 60 to 64% of the subplots, corresponding to p values of respectively 0.1 and 0.033. Large errors in estimating biomass changes from lidar data resulted from the uncertainty in detecting changes at 1 ha from ground

  14. Datation par thermoluminescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis 1953, de nombreux chercheurs se sont intéressés à la datation par thermoluminescence de minéraux anciennement brûlés ou cuits. Dans ce travail, après avoir rappelé quelques principes physiques de la thermoluminescence, on présente cette méthode de datation en mettant l'accent sur le mécanisme thermoluminescent dans une poterie. Ainsi la dose d'irradiation reçue par le matériau étant proportionnelle au temps écoulé depuis le 'zéro archéologique', il est possible de déterminer 'la dose archéologique' et d'en déduire l'âge de l'échantillon après avoir calculé la dose d'irradiation annuelle. La réalisation pratique d'un tel ensemble de mesure est cependant très ardue. Dans un prochain article, E. A. Decamps et A. Roman montreront des résultats relatifs à la thermoluminescence d'échantillons de quartz naturels, purs et dopés et la mise au point d'une nouvelle méthode de datation. Desde 1953, muchos investigadores se han interesado en la datación por termoluminiscencia de minerales antiguamente quemados o cocidos. Dentro de este trabajo, luego de haber recordado algunos principios físicos de la termoluminiscencia, se presenta este método de datación poniendo mayor atención en el mecanismo termoluminescente en una vasija de metal o de barro. Siendo proporcional la dosis de irradiación recibida al tiempo transcurrido desde el 'cero arqueológico', es posible determinar 'la dosis arqueológica', y deducir la edad de la muestra luego de haber calculado la dosis de irradiación anual. La realización práctica de un trabajo de tal dimensión es sin embargo muy ardua. En un próximo artículo, E. A. Decamps y A. Román presentarán los resultados relativos a la termoluminiscencia de muestras de cuarzo naturales, puras y dopadas y la elaboración de un nuevo método de datación. Since 1953, a number of scientists have been concerned with the use of thermoluminescence for the dating of burned or fired minerals

  15. Changes in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Abundance and Community Structure in Response to the Long-Term Manipulation of Inorganic Nutrients in a Lowland Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldrake, Merlin; Rosenstock, Nicholas; Tanner, Ed

    2014-05-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is considered primarily mutualistic. In exchange for up to 30% of plants' total photosynthate, AM provide improved access to mineral nutrients. While there is evidence that AM fungi provide nitrogen, potassium and other nutrients to their host plants, most research has focused on their effect on plant phosphorus uptake. Pot experiments have shown, and field experiments have provided further support, that nutrient availability (primarily P, but also N) is inversely correlated with mycorrhizal colonization, indicating plant control over carbon losses to AM fungi. Yet pot experiments have also shown that some fungal species are more mutualistic than others and that AM colonization may cause decreased plant growth, suggesting that plant control is not absolute. AMF communities are diverse, and it is poorly understood how factors such as adaptation to local soil environment, fungal-plant compatibility, and plant nutrient status combine to shape AMF community structure. We conducted a study to examine the relative effects of N, P, and K addition on the AMF community in a plant species rich tropical forest, given the long-held belief that AMF are primarily involved in plant P uptake, particularly on weathered tropical soils. Our study site is the Barro Colorado Nature Monument in Panama. It is a 13 year-old factorial N, P, and K addition experiment (40 m x 40m plots; n=4) in an AMF dominated, old (>200 yr), secondary, tropical forest. Previous research has shown co-limitation by N, P, and K, but the strongest plant growth responses were obtained with K additions. We analyzed the AMF community using 454 pyrosequencing of the ribosomal small subunit (SSU) on both soils and the roots of the 6 dominant AMF tree species. Additionally, we used the AMF-specific neutral lipid fatty acid (NLFA) biomarker as a measure of AMF biomass. Both AMF biomass and community structure were altered by nutrient additions. AMF biomass in soil was reduced

  16. Edificio industrial, en Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer y Dark, Arquitectos

    1963-11-01

    consecuencia la construcción de grandes centrales eléctricas. La central «A» es uno de los varios edificios que constituyen el grupo suministrador de energía y agua potable a Kuwait; dispone de cuatro turboalternadores, y se ha estudiado, para el interior, una presión y movimiento del aire, suficiente para contrarrestar la acción del exterior e impedir la entrada de la arena que arrastran las tempestades frecuentes. En cuanto al aspecto de sus fachadas, se ha pretendido conseguir que armonicen con los edificios circundantes. La línea arquitectónica es audaz e irregular, buscando variedad de perfiles y diversos juegos de luces y sombras, que recuerden las construcciones indígenas de barro, con formas puras y elementales, pero quebradas y redondeadas por la acción del tiempo. El color en los interiores ha sido estudiado para dar la impresión de frescura; en el exterior sólo se han pintado las zonas que podían reflejar molestamente los rayos solares. El conjunto resulta agradable, dentro de su sencillez, cual corresponde a una instalación de tipo industrial, y no faltan detalles de buen gusto y de preocupación por la gente que ha, de permanecer allí algunas horas del día, como ocurre con el balcón de las oficinas, que mira al mar, y el estanque y zonas verdes del parque de entrada.

  17. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  18. Features of deep cave sediments: their influence on fossil preservation

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    Cobo, R.

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse how physical and chemical deep-cave sediment features preserve the morphological and geochemical characteristics of paleontological materials. Detrital sediment chemistry and clast size are fundamental because they provide a soft, impervious and plastic environment in which fossil remains are transported with minimal erosion. Sediment mineralogy provides a carbonate- and phosphate-buffered environment in which molecules of biological origin hydrolyze slower than in open-air environments or even at cave entrance sites. Because permafrost did not develop in the Iberian Peninsula (at least at the altitudes of inhabited caves, sediment desiccation never took place. In addition, sediment -pores were not aerated, which protected fossil remains from air (oxygen-linked weathering. The annual-temperature variation inside sediment was negligible, which contributed to amino acid racemization dating. Collagen amino acid and amino acid racemization analysis of cave bear and man samples from cave sediments dated from different Oxygen Isotope Stages (4": Sidrón, Amutxate, Troskaeta, El Toll, Coro Tracito, Ekain, Lezetxiki, La Pasada, Eirós; 5": Reguerillo and Arrikrutz; 6"-7": Sima de los Huesos demonstrate that important amounts of almost intact collagen still remain in teeth dentine. Fossil DNA search seems to be very promising.En este trabajo se analiza el papel que juegan las características físicas y químicas de los sedimentos de galerías profundas de cuevas en la preservación de los caracteres morfológicos y paleobiomoleculares del material paleontológico incluido en dichos sedimentos. Los aspectos geoquímicos y de tamaño de grano del sedimento son críticos: las características generan un medio blando, plástico e impermeable que permite el transporte -mecánico sin grave deterioro del material (en coladas de barro; las características químicas mineralogía del sediment* proporcionan un ambiente con tampón fosfatado

  19. Effect of homeopathic treatment used in commercial boar semen diluent on sperm viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Assunpção

    2012-09-01

    maintain acrossome integrity for prolonged periods of cooling over 48 hours. The use of Pulsatilla was effective in maintaining high sperm mitochondria activity up to 24 hours from harvesting. Conclusion: Homeopathic medications can be used in artificial insemination in order to improve the quality of cooled and stored pig semen [1]. Keywords: homeopathy, swine semen, sperm viability. Reference [1] Soto, F. R. M.; Vuaden, E. R.; Coelho, C. P.; Bonamin, L. V.; Azevedo, S. S. A.; Benites, N. R.; Barros, F. R. O.; Goissis, M. D.; Assumpção, M. E. O. D.; Visintin, J. A.; Marques, M. G. Effects of the utilization of homeopathic elements in commercial diluent on swine sperm viability. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.—Animal. 47:205–209, 2011.

  20. USGS contributions to earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D.; Caribbean Project Team, U.; Partners, C.

    2007-05-01

    USGS Caribbean Project Team: Lind Gee, Gary Gyure, John Derr, Jack Odum, John McMillan, David Carver, Jim Allen, Susan Rhea, Don Anderson, Harley Benz Caribbean Partners: Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade-PRSN, Juan Payero ISU-UASD,DR, Eduardo Camacho - UPAN, Panama, Lloyd Lynch - SRU,Gonzalo Cruz - UNAH,Honduras, Margaret Wiggins-Grandison - Jamaica, Judy Thomas - CERO Barbados, Sylvan McIntyre - NADMA Grenada, E. Bermingham - STRI. The magnitude-9 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, increased global awareness of the destructive hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis. In response to this tragedy, the US government undertook a collaborative project to improve earthquake and tsunami monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions, in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Seismically active areas of the Caribbean Sea region pose a tsunami risk for Caribbean islands, coastal areas along the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic seaboard of North America. Nearly 100 tsunamis have been reported for the Caribbean region in the past 500 years, including 14 tsunamis reported in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Smithsonian Institute, the National Oceanic and Aeronautic Administration (NOAA), and several partner institutions in the Caribbean region. This presentation focuses on the deployment of nine broadband seismic stations to monitor earthquake activity in the Caribbean region that are affiliated with the Global Seismograph Network (GSN). By the end of 2006, five stations were transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Service (NEIS), and regional partners through Puerto Rico seismograph network (PRSN) Earthworm systems. The following stations are currently operating: SDDR - Sabaneta Dam Dominican Republic, BBGH - Gun Hill Barbados, GRGR - Grenville, Grenada, BCIP - Barro Colorado, Panama, TGUH - Tegucigalpa

  1. Análisis de la transmitancia térmica y resistencia al impacto de los muros de quincha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuitiño, G.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wattle construction is a mixed technique used on walls and that belong to the frameworks family. It is constructed with a structural frame (wood or bamboo filled in with a mixture of clay mud in a plastic state and vegetable fiber. In this paper thermal transmittance and soft shock resistance had been studied, thermal transmittance had been measured with wattle samples of 0.10 m thickness, and result in 2.64 W/m2K and with the addition of expanded polystyrene sheet of 5 mm thicknees inside the panel, the transmittance was 2.02 W/m2K. These values are batter than a brick wall of 0.20 m thick with a finish plaster on both sides of the wall, whose value is 4.13 W/m2K. For impact resistance, panels were constructed and tested to soft shock, on 1:1 scale. The permanent deformation in all cases was less than 3.6 mm required by the current standard. This implies that there was no appreciable deformations suffered enclosures providing security to a home. It’s concludes that has a good thermal and structural behavior, plus the characteristics of being economical and appropriate for selfconstruction, make feasible to implement as a massive scale.La quincha es una técnica mixta de muros perteneciente a la familia de los entramados. Compuesta de una armazón estructural (madera o bambú rellena con barro en estado plástico con añadido de fibras vegetales. Se determinó que la transmitancia térmica de un panel de quincha de 0,10 m de espesor, dando como resultado 2,64 W/m2K y con el agregado de una placa de poliestireno expandido de 5 mm de espesor en el interior el panel, la transmitancia es 2,02 W/m2K. Estos valores son comparables al de un muro de ladrillo de 0,20 m de espesor y revocado en ambas caras, cuyo valor es 4,13 W/ m2K. Para la resistencia al impacto, se construyeron paneles en escala 1:1 y se ensayaron al choque blando. Las deformaciones permanentes fue en todos los casos menor de 3,6 mm requerido por la Norma vigente. Esto implica que no

  2. 植物DNA条形码促进系统发育群落生态学发展%Plant DNA barcodes promote the development of phylogenetic community ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴男才; 张金龙; 米湘成; 葛学军

    2011-01-01

    There is a dynamic interplay between ecology and evolution within community ecology.Phylogenetic community ecology describes the intraspecific and interspecific relationships within a community, aiming to reveal the processes driving community assembly at multiple scales.Previous research has highlighted the role of phylogenetic and historical biogeographical data in explaining current patterns of global biodiversity.The success of using DNA barcoding in the construction of tropical forest community phylogenies highlights the usefulness and challenges of long-term research on community ecology and phylogenetics based on forest dynamic plots.In this paper, we illustrate the feasibility of a synthesis between community ecology and evolutionary biology in order to resolve particular ecological issues on community phylogenetic structure, community niche structure, biogeography, and trait evolution.We summarize progress on the development of a plant DNA barcoding system, and introduce the usage of a combination of DNA markers (rbcL+natK+trnH-psbA) for fast species discrimination and community phylogenetic reconstruction.We also explore the utilization of well-resolved phylogenies to understand community ecology.We discuss the limitations of core plant DNA barcodes (rbcL+matK) when identifying congeners,and propose an improved sequencing strategy suitable for studies at the community level.We expect that plant DNA barcodes will prove very useful for the study of species diversity, mechanisms of biodiversity maintenance, phylogenetic beta diversity and functional trait evolution.%系统发育群落生态学是近年兴起的一个重要牛态学研究分支,它以群落生态学为基础并引入了系统发育的分析方法,全面动态地反映了群落中物种内和物种间的相互作用关系,揭示了群落格局形成的生态学过程,研究了生物多样性的形成及维持机制.巴拿马BCI(Barro Colorado Island)样地的成功例子说明,在固定样地

  3. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, Wayne N; Rung, Alessandra; Kotrba, Marion

    2012-01-01

    The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis): Planinasus aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8'N, 74°08.8'W)), Planinasus neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1'N, 79°50.8'W)), Planinasus kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°08.9'W)), Planinasus miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2'S, 44°21.8'W)), Planinasus tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9'N, 60°39'W)), Planinasus xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2'S, 76°8.9'W)), Planinasus argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6'S, 71°16.9'W; 250 m)), Planinasus insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4'N, 70°42.1'W, 680 m)), Planinasus nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9'N, 58°13.1'W)), Planinasus atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6'S, 43°16.4'W)), Planinasus atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95'S, 63°33.15'W; 4-500 m)), P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8'N, 61°18.6'W)), Planinasus mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1'N, 92°07.4'W)), Planinasus nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5'S, 46°11.2'W)), Planinasus obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7'S, 71°23.3'W; 550 m)). In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for Planinasus kotrbaesp. n., the

  4. A revision of the genus Planinasus Cresson (Diptera, Periscelididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Mathis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The genus Planinasus Cresson is revised and includes 18 extant and one fossil species. We clarify the status of the three previously described species and describe 15 new species as follows (type locality in parenthesis: P. aenigmaticus (Colombia. Bogota: Bogota (04°35.8`N, 74°08.8`W, P. neotropicus (Panama. Canal Zone: Barro Colorado Island (09°09.1`N, 79°50.8`W, P. kotrbae (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°08.9`W, P. miradorus (Brazil. Maranhão: Parque Estadual Mirador, Base da Geraldina (06°22.2`S, 44°21.8`W, P. tobagoensis (Trinidad and Tobago. Tobago. St. John: Parlatuvier (11°17.9`N, 60°39`W, P. xanthops (Ecuador. Orellana: Rio Tiputini Biodiversity Station (0°38.2`S, 76°8.9`W, P. argentifacies (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Pakitza (11°56.6`S, 71°16.9`W; 250 m, P. insulanus (Dominican Republic. La Vega: near Jarabacoa, Salto Guasara (19°04.4`N, 70°42.1`W, 680 m, P. nigritarsus (Guyana. Conservation of Ecological Interactions and Biotic Associations (CEIBA; ca. 40 km S Georgetown; 06°29.9`N, 58°13.1`W, P. atriclypeus (Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Rio de Janeiro, Floresta da Tijuca (22°57.6`S, 43°16.4`W, P. atrifrons (Bolivia. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista (4-6 km SSE; Hotel Flora y Fauna; 17°29.95`S, 63°33.15`W; 4-500 m, P. flavicoxalis (West Indies. Dominica. St. David: 1.6 km N of junction of roads to Rosalie and Castle Bruce (15°23.8`N, 61°18.6`W, P. mcalpineorum (Mexico. Chiapas: Cacahoatan (7 km N; 15°04.1`N, 92°07.4`W, P. nigrifacies (Brazil. São Paulo: Mogi das Cruzes, Serra do Itapeti (23°31.5`S, 46°11.2`W, P. obscuripennis (Peru. Madre de Dios: Río Manu, Erika (near Salvación; 12°50.7`S, 71°23.3`W; 550 m. In addition to external characters, we also describe and illustrate structures of the male terminalia and for P. kotrbae sp. n., the internal female reproductive organs. Detailed locality data and distribution maps for all species are provided. For perspective and

  5. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redactie KITLV

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available David Scott; Conscripts of Modernity: The Tragedy of Colonial Enlightenment (Shalina Puri Rebecca J. Scott; Degrees of Freedom: Louisiana and Cuba after Slavery (Olivia Maria Gomes da Cunha Patrick Bellegarde-Smith (ed.; Fragments of Bone: Neo-African Religions in a New World (Dianne M. Stewart Londa Schiebinger; Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World (J.D. La Fleur F. Abiola Irele, Simon Gikandi (eds.;The Cambridge History of African and Caribbean Literature (A. James Arnold Sean X. Goudie; Creole America: The West Indies and the Formation of Literature and Culture in the New Republic (J. Bradford Anderson Doris Garraway; The Libertine Colony: Creolization in the Early French Caribbean (Charles Forsdick Adélékè Adéèkó; The Slave’s Rebellion: Fiction, History, Orature (Owen Robinson J. Brooks Bouson; Jamaica Kincaid: Writing Memory, Writing Back to the Mother (Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert Gary Wilder; The French Imperial Nation-State: Negritude and Colonial Humanism between the Two World Wars (Nick Nesbitt Fernando Picó; History of Puerto Rico: A Panorama of its People (Francisco A. Scarano Peter E. Siegel (ed.; Ancient Borinquen: Archaeology and Ethnohistory of Native Puerto Rico (William F. Keegan Magali Roy-Féquière; Women, Creole Identity, and Intellectual Life in Early Twentieth-Century Puerto Rico (Yolanda Martínez-San Miguel Katherine E. Browne; Creole Economics: Caribbean Cunning under the French Flag (David Beriss Louis A. Pérez, Jr; To Die in Cuba: Suicide and Society (Matt D. Childs John Lawrence Tone; War and Genocide in Cuba, 1895-1898 (Gillian McGillivray Frank Argote-Freyre; Fulgencio Batista: From Revolutionary to Strongman (Javier Figueroa-De Cárdenas Juanita de Barros, Audra Diptee, David V. Trotman (eds.; Beyond Fragmentation: Perspectives on Caribbean History (Bernard Moitt Matthew Mulcahy; Hurricanes and Society in the British Greater

  6. Análise comparativa do ambiente de aviários de postura com diferentes sistemas de acondicionamento Comparative analysis of the environment of poultry sheds with different systems of acclimatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Vitorasso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As tipologias dos galpões de galinhas poedeiras e os materiais utilizados principalmente na cobertura são determinantes para uma condição térmica apropriada com vistas à produção. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar diferenças no ambiente interno de dois galpões de poedeiras, utilizando monitoramento e posterior comparação estatística das variáveis do ambiente. A análise dos dados não evidenciou maior conforto térmico no galpão recoberto com telhas de barro, em razão da ausência de lanternim que dificultou a renovação do ar por "efeito chaminé". A concentração de amônia medida no interior de ambas as instalações ficou dentro do limite de conforto. O índice de temperatura e umidade do galpão recoberto com telhas de cerâmica apresentou valores maiores que do galpão recoberto com telha de cimento amianto, mesmo se verificando temperaturas de superfície menores nas telhas de cerâmica, evidenciando os efeitos positivos do lanternim na instalação. Com base nos resultados desta pesquisa, recomendam-se, para a região de Bastos, SP, que os aviários para galinhas de postura sejam construídos com lanternim e prolongamento do beiral e que sejam recobertos com telhas de cerâmica.Poulty house typology and the materials used (mainly for roofing are the determining factors for an appropriate thermal condition aiming at production. In this context, the main point of this paper was to identify differences in the internal environment of two poultry houses, using monitoring and afterwards using statistics for comparing the environmental variables. The data analyzed did not show evidence of better thermal comfort for the house which was covered with ceramic roofing tile, because this house did not have ridged vents, making the hot air exit from the house difficult by the "chimney effect". The ammonia concentration measured inside both houses was within the comfort limit. The temperature and humidity index

  7. Nesting biology of four species of Trypoxylon (Trypargilum (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae in Chaco Serrano woodland, Central Argentina

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    Mariana L Musicante

    2010-12-01

    orientation of the trap in the field. Spiders in the family Araneidae were the most frequently collected prey. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4: 1177-1188. Epub 2010 December 01.En este trabajo se estudia la biología de la nidificación de cuatro especies de Trypoxylon (Trypargilum recolectadas a partir de 91 nidos-trampa en el Bosque Chaqueño Serrano de Córdoba, Argentina. La arquitectura de los nidos fue similar para las cuatro especies: celdas de cría ubicadas linealmente, una detrás de la otra separadas por tabiques de barro, como es habitual en otras especies del subgénero Trypargilum. El 48% de los nidos presentó celda vestibular, mientras que sólo dos nidos presentaron celdas intercalares. El ancho de los tabiques y el largo de las celdas de cría difirió entre las especies y estuvo relacionado con el tamaño de las avispas que emergieron. Así mismo, el diámetro del nido-trampa estuvo directamente relacionado con el tamaño corporal promedio de las especies de mayor y menor tamaño. La mortalidad debida a parasitoides (Eulophidae; Melittobia sp. fue similar para las cuatro especies, mientras que la causada por cleptoparásitos (Chrysididae fue mayor en T. lactitarse. No fue posible relacionar la presencia de celda vestibular con la mortalidad debida a enemigos naturales para ninguna de las especies. La familia de arañas más frecuentemente utilizada como presa fue Araneidae.

  8. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Álvarez Rey, Leandro (Estudio preliminar, recopilación y edición, Diego Martínez Barrio. Palabra de republicano. Sevilla, Ayuntamiento de Sevilla-Instituto de la Cultura y las Artes, 2007, 1.046 pp.Páginas 177-179Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaBancalari Molina, Alejandro, Orbe romano e Imperio Global. La romanización desde Augusto a Caracalla. Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 2007, 330 pp.Páginas 179-182Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezBernal-Meza, Raúl y Saha, Suranjit (comps., Economía mundial y desarrollo regional. Buenos Aires, GEL, 2005, 403 pp.Páginas 182-184David Molina RabadánDavis, Mike, Planeta de Ciudades Miseria. Madrid, Foca Editorial, 2007, 283 pp.Páginas 184-185Daniel Alcalde GüelfoElguero Olavide, Ignacio, Los niños de los Chiripitifláuticos: retrato generacional de los nacidos en los 60. Madrid, La Esfera de los Libros, 2006, 672 pp.Páginas 185-189Daniel Francisco Álvarez EspinosaEstulin, Daniel, Los secretos del Club Bilderberg. Editorial Planeta, Barcelona, 2006, 304 pp.Páginas 190-191Mª del Rocío Piñeiro ÁlvarezFernández Bessa, Cristina et al., Frontera Sur. Nuevas políticas de gestión y externalización del control de la inmigración en Europa. Bilbao, Virus Editorial, 2008, 272 pp.Páginas 191-192Manuel Baraja EscuderoGonzález Clavero, Mariano; Pelaz Pérez, José Vidal; Pérez López, Pablo, Castilla y León en democracia. Partido, elecciones y personal político. 1977-2007. Salamanca, Junta de Castilla y León, 2007, 345 pp.Páginas 192-194Francisco de Paula Villatoro SánchezKhanna, Parag, El segundo mundo. Barcelona, Paidós, 2008, 570 pp.Páginas 194-196David Molina RabadánSanmartín Barros, Israel, Entre dos siglos. Globalización y pensamiento único. Madrid, Ediciones Akal, 2007, 334 pp.Páginas 196-198Joaquín Piñeiro BlancaToscano Gil, Francisco, Autonomía y potestad normativa local. Granada, Comares. 2007, 202 pp.Páginas 198-200José Joaquín Fernández AllesVV.AA., Ernesto

  9. Bondades ecológicas del búfalo de agua: camino hacia la certificación

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    Gerardo Barboza Jiménez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available El búfalo de agua (Bubalus bubalis es un animal rumiante de la familia Bovidae que por sus atributos naturales hace unos cinco milenios pasó de ser salvaje a doméstico, con muy buen suceso, pues ofrece grandes y variados beneficios. Es uno de los animales domésticos más importantes, de uso antiguo, de gran importancia en el presente y futuro de la humanidad.La fuerza del búfalo trasciende a su capacidad de halar o arrastrar y remonta a muchas especies de interés económico por su aporte de alimento y trabajo, pues además de carne, leche, trabajo y excrementos, el búfalo es una especie novedosa de uso en el turismo rural, y por sus características naturales, rusticidad y adaptabilidad es utilizado en el control del crecimiento excesivo de vegetación en humedales; por todo eso, hay quienes se refieren al búfalo como una “especie sin igual”. Algunos científicos han empezado a recomendar el búfalo doméstico como un medio de bajo costo para controlar y prevenir el crecimiento incontrolado de plantas en humedales naturales (animalesextincion.es, 2009; se ha realizado incluso en áreas silvestres protegidas, a favor de la naturaleza. Los búfalos, al comerse la vegetación, permiten recuperar espejos de agua y generan condiciones heterogéneas de barro expuesto, ambos necesarios para ser utilizados por aves acuáticas y otras especies silvestres de flora y fauna.Se reconocen beneficios ecológicos, sociales y económicos de ese manejo, pues por un lado los búfalos ayudan en la conservación de sitios de interés ambiental y científico y por otro, los productores locales dueños del hato, obtienen ganancias con la participación de sus animales en el manejo de humedales.El pastoreo se ha practicado en algunos humedales en todos los continentes y gracias a ese manejo, algunos sitios naturales sostuvieron, lograron obtener o tienen el día de hoy, el rango de humedal de importancia internacional, asignado por la convención mundial de

  10. Reseñas de Libros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Piñeiro Blanca

    2009-12-01

    ngel del Arco BlancoSantana, Juan M., Paradigmas historiográficos contemporáneos. Barquisimeto, Fundación Buria, 2005, 196 pp.Páginas 223-225Israel Sanmartín BarrosSerafí Bernat i Martí, Joan; Gimeno i Bosch, Celestí (ed., Migración e interculturalidad. De lo global a lo local. Castellón de la Plana, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universitat Jaume I, 2006, 281 pp.Páginas 225-227Alejandro Román AntequeraVali, Nasr, The Shia Revival: How Conflicts Within Islam Will Shape the Future. New York, W.W. Norton, 2006, 304 pp.Páginas 227-229Carlos L. Yordan

  11. Pensar con el ojo, pensar con la mano = Thinking with your eye, thinking with your hand

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    Juan Manuel Sánchez de la Chica

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDefiniendo Asís Cabrero la arquitectura como un arte visual-utilitario, se remonta a los orígenes de la especie para explicar cuáles son elementos de la consciencia que intervienen en la obra del hombre. La táctica de supervivencia humana se basa en una técnica voluntaria, variable, personal e inventiva, en contraste con el instinto de los demás seres de la naturaleza. A este animal rapaz, cuyo pensamiento está determinado por su sentido de la vista, se le añade la inteligencia que proviene de la habilidad de la mano para fabricar herramientas. Este animal de órganos intercambiables es capaz de especializarse con cada una de las herramientas que construye para igualarse a cada uno de los animales especializados. Así, el hombre construye herramientas para hacer frente a una naturaleza variable y cambiante, ya sea un cuchillo, un hacha o un refugio.Siendo la arquitectura causa del sentir óptico, es principalmente el pensamiento útil de la mano el que interviene en la elaboración de la arquitectura. Para Cabrero, la materia se convierte en material a través de la herramienta, para ser aparejado, para poder construir. Son las herramientas las que evolucionan a lo largo de la historia, permaneciendo la materia siempre igual en la naturaleza. Asís Cabrero investiga cinco arquitecturas primitivas relacionadas con cinco materias primeras. Así, estudia la estructura cupular, el dintel, el entramado, la estructura laminar y la estructura desmontable en relación con el uso racional del barro, la piedra, la madera, el ramaje y la piel.La diversa disponibilidad material en la trayectoria profesional de Asís Cabrero, desde el aislamiento de la posguerra a la apertura de los años sesenta, hace que podamos establecer diferentes edades en la obra de Francisco de Asís Cabrero según el material y las herramientas que utiliza.Palabras claveFrancisco Cabrero, arquitectura, instrumentos, material, estructura, herramientas

  12. BUSCA TERMINOLÓGICA PARA PESQUISA INTERDISCIPLINAR NOS CAMPOS DA GESTÃO, DO DESIGN E DO MARKETING

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    FERNANDES, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Atendimento, e na imagem positiva que é diferente do que as pessoas estavam acostumadas. De acordo com Camargos e Dias (2003 apud Thompson Jr. e Strickland III, 2000, pode-se definir estratégia como sendo um “conjunto de mudanças competitivas e abordagens comerciais que os gerentes executam para atingir o melhor desempenho da empresa. ” Junto a esse conceito, encontra-se o Marketing, que é utilizado como uma estratégia das empresas para serem bem vistas no mercado e por ele, chamar a atenção de seus clientes. Ele faz a ligação da empresa/produto com o cliente, visando chamar a atenção para o que está sendo oferecido. Podemos observar isso com a observação feita durante II Simpósio de Excelência em Gestão e Tecnologia – SEGeT’2005, onde foi descrito que “O marketing é uma das ferramentas da administração de empresas e dos negócios, e é fortemente conhecido e aplicado, na maioria das vezes, em processos de troca, com o fim de lucro. ” Além da proeminência do Marketing e da necessidade de uma Gestão que seja estratégica, o que veio para ajudar no processo comunicacional denomina-se como Design Gráfico que tem como objetivos: criar e desenvolver projetos tanto empresarial, como social, utilizando os meios gráficos para a resolução de problemas. O termo Design nasceu junto com a revolução industrial que ocorreu na Inglaterra quando houve uma revolução no modo de produção e começou, séculos mais tarde, a dar origem aos produtos com projetos específicos em grande escala (Fordismo. Barros (2013 em seu artigo sobre o que é Design Gráfico, documenta que “A ICOGRADA (Internacional Council of Grafic Design Associations afirma que o Design Gráfico é uma atividade técnica de análise, organização e métodos de apresentação de soluções visuais para problemas de comunicação. ” Com isso pode-se notar que há uma interdisciplinaridade necessária na tríade: Gestão Estratégica, Marketing e Design Gráfico - principalmente

  13. Materia y Pobreza = Matter and Poverty

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    María Teresa Muñoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa acumulación material es uno de los signos más identificables de la pobreza. El pobre vive apegado a la tierra, esa es su única posesión y a partir de ella construirá sus refugios, sus habitaciones, sus utensilios. Las construcciones de arcilla, de barro, moldeadas con gran abundancia de materia  se encuentran en los poblados primitivos, pero cualquier situación marcada por la extrema pobreza lo estará también por las acumulaciones de material. Resulta inimaginable una situación de pobreza que no implique la acumulación de materia y esto es particularmente evidente en las sociedades desarrolladas, donde un mendigo es reconocible por su montaña de ropas, calzado o enseres de todo tipo.Resulta, sin embargo, significativo que en los discursos de los ideólogos de la modernidad, la identificación de ésta con el advenimiento de una sociedad sin clases venga acompañada de una apelación a la pobreza, una nueva pobreza fría y sobria, propia de una habitación humana abierta y transparente, casi desnuda, e igualitaria para todos los hombres sin distinción de clases sociales. Así, la pobreza moderna estaría ligada al material, a los nuevos materiales, pero no es una condición impuesta, sino elegida, o al menos aceptada como inevitable por el nuevo hombre.La convivencia entre una pobreza de la acumulación material y una pobreza de ascetismo y renuncia es un hecho tanto en los discursos como en las obras de las vanguardias del siglo XX. La acumulación de materia informe y trabajada manualmente tiene lugar al mismo tiempo que la exhibición de la desnudez y la frialdad de los materiales producidos por la industria.  Y en ambos casos, se apela a la pobreza como última referencia para las obras que tratan de ser una expresión fiel de las aspiraciones de su época.Palabras clavemateria, pobreza, material, acumulación, modernidad, sociedadAbstractAccumulation of matter is one of the most recognizable signs of poverty. The poor

  14. Anemia, hipovitaminose A e insegurança alimentar em crianças de municípios de Baixo Índice de Desenvolvimento Humano do Nordeste do Brasil Anemia, hypovitaminosis A and food insecurity in children of municipalities with Low Human Development Index in the Brazilian Northeast

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    Juliana Souza Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinar a prevalência de anemia e hipovitaminose A e analisar a associação da (insegurança alimentar com os níveis de hemoglobina e retinol sérico de menores de 5 anos. Estudo transversal, realizado com 501 e 458 famílias em Gameleira e São João do Tigre, respectivamente. A avaliação da (insegurança alimentar foi realizada através da Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar. Os níveis de hemoglobina e retinol sérico foram classificados de acordo com a OMS. Foram analisadas as associações com os indicadores socioeconômicos, habitação e biológicos sobre os níveis de hemoglobina e retinol sérico. As prevalências de anemia e hipovitaminose A foram mais elevadas em Gameleira quando comparadas com São João do Tigre. A (insegurança alimentar moderada e grave das famílias foi de 75% em Gameleira e 64% em São João do Tigre. Na análise de regressão para os níveis de hemoglobina em Gameleira foram identificadas como significantes: escolaridade materna, renda familiar per capita, não possuir TV colorida, água de consumo sem tratamento, piso de barro e idade abaixo de 24 meses, enquanto para São João do Tigre o modelo final ficou resumido à falta de motocicleta e idade da criança. Quanto aos teores de retinol sérico, o modelo final de variáveis associadas ficou sendo renda per capita e sexo para Gameleira, e ausência de telefone celular e de esgotamento sanitário para São João do Tigre. A situação nutricional dessas populações, com prevalências semelhantes de insegurança alimentar, pode apresentar grandes diferenciações, sobretudo na prevalência de carências nutricionais específicas, especialmente, em relação aos fatores determinantes.The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and vitamin A deficiency and to analyze the association of food insecurity with hemoglobin levels and serum retinol in children under 5 years of age. This was a cross-sectional study with 501

  15. Aluviones históricos en Antofagasta y su relación con eventos El Niño/Oscilación del Sur

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    Gabriel Vargas

    2000-12-01

    systematic increase of regional and global anomalies of the temperature of the air, and positive anomalies of the sea surface temperature were observed (between 1925 and 1942 -or 1947-, and from 1977 onwardsLa costa del Desierto de Atacama está sometida a un clima de extrema aridez caracterizado, en la ciudad de Antofagasta, por un promedio de precipitaciones anuales de 4 mm (1904-1998. Sin embargo, la ocurrencia esporádica de precipitaciones intensas junto con la ubicación geomorfológica de la ciudad, la hacen susceptible de ser afectada por flujos de barro y detritos ('aluviones'. La ocurrencia de aluviones durante el siglo XX fue abordada a partir del estudio de crónicas de periódicos (desde 1916, registros instrumentales de precipitación (desde 1904 y la observación de secciones de depósitos aluviales con contenido de restos históricos de origen antrópico (principalmente después de 1900. Junto con ésto, la relación con eventos El Niño se estudió a partir de la comparación de datos de crónicas históricas, datos de Indice de Oscilación del Sur (IOS, y datos de precipitaciones en Antofagasta. Entre 1916 y 1999, la ciudad fue afectada por inundaciones o aluviones en siete oportunidades : en 1925, 1930, dos veces en 1940, 1982, 1987 y 1991, de los cuales los más importantes ocurrieron en 1940 y 1991. En todas las oportunidades las lluvias ocurrieron durante el invierno de la fase de desarrollo de eventos El Niño (ENOS, de intensidad muy fuerte o moderada, y formaron parte de sistemas frontales provenientes desde el sur que afectaron, además, a gran parte del norte de Chile. El carácter convectivo de las tormentas es responsable de la gran variabilidad espacial que han mostrado las precipitaciones en distintas zonas de la costa, durante un mismo evento lluvioso. A partir de la comparación de datos de precipitación anual en Antofagasta con tendencias de escala global y regional de la temperatura del aire y de la superficie del océano, se sugiere una

  16. Evolución geológico-geomorfológica cuaternaria del tramo superior del valle del río Laja

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    Ricardo Thiele

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available La historia geológica del Cuaternario en el tramo superior del valle del río Laja corresponde a una compleja interrelación entre volcanismo, procesos de remoción en masa y sedimentarios aluvio-fluviales. El valle fue modelado inicialmente por la acción glaciaria del Pleistoceno inferior en rocas de las formaciones terciarias Cura-Mallín y Trapa-Trapa, además de rocas plutónicas, sobre las cuales se disponen en discordancia cuatro grandes unidades cuaternarias; el cono poligénico de Quilleco, una secuencia de rocas volcánicas pleistocenas, el volcán Antuco y el deposito de avalancha volcánica de Antuco. Los depósitos del cono poligénico de Quilleco representan a facies mixtas volcano-sedimentarias intermedias y distales de los estratovolcanes que originaron las secuencia de rocas volcánicas pleistocenas con las cuales engranan lateralmente. El volcán Antuco corresponde a un estratovolcán mixto y compuesto, de composición basáltica y andesítico-basáltica, cuya actividad se inició ca. 130.000 a A.P. La primera etapa de su desarrollo (Antuco 1 culminó 9.700± 600 a A.P. con el colapso gravitacional lateral del edificio, que originó la gran avalancha volcánica de Antuco, cuyos materiales represaron el desagüe natural del lago del Laja y de sus quebradas afluentes. El colapso gravitacional fue el resultado de una actividad eruptiva freatomagmática de tipo Bandai-San la que produjo, casi simultáneamente, flujos piroclásticos turbulentos, de tipo de oleadas de base húmeda, compuestos de cenizas basálticas negras cuyos depósitos primarios se han denominado Arenas Negras de Trupán-Laja. El volcán actual (Antuco 2 incluye un cono principal de lavas y escorias y la emisión de, al menos, tres flujos piroclásticos importantes de poco espesor, localmente separados por depósitos de corrientes de barro y coluvios. Posteriormente, debido a la ruptura del represamiento del lago del Laja, las cenizas negras fueron removidas

  17. Private adaptation strategies and implementation in flood risk management: why people do nothing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiorgos, Konstantinos; Thaler, Thomas; Maris, Fotios; Paparrizos, Spyros; Fuchs, Sven

    2015-04-01

    implementation. This paper examines the private adaptation capacity and willingness in two different catchments in the Mediterranean. The catchments Evros and Rafina in Greece were affected by flood events during the past 20 years. However, even in case of extreme events, the vulnerability of the (social) system to stress is considerably low due to social networks, economic settings as well as institutional and political factors, and consequently the speed of return to the equilibrium steady state, defined as the prevailing livelihood conditions, is fast. In other words, even if the magnitude of a hazardous event is high, the vulnerability is considerably low due to multiple compensation mechanisms installed in the Greek society, ranging from spreading risk to a larger community to governmental compensation and private donation. Therefore, ex-post recovery following an event is well-organised, and the initial systems state is re-established immediately or with only little delay. Therefore, affected citizens simply do not care much about being affected by floods, will be able to prevent those damages. There are no incentives for the affected population to react pro-active by e.g. investing in local structural protection or any other management strategy. Key words: vulnerability; private adaptation; structural protection; risk management; floods; Greece References: Bohle H-G (2001) Vulnerability and criticality: Perspectives from social geography. IHDP Update 02/2001:3-5 Chambers R (1989) Vulnerability, coping and policy. IDS Bulletin 20 (2):1-7 Field CB, Barros V, Stocker TF, Dahe Q, Dokken DJ, Plattner G-K, Ebi KL, Allen SK, Mastrandrea MD, Tignor M, Mach KJ, Midgley PM (2012) Managing the risks of extreme events and disasters to advance climate change adaptation. Special report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Fuchs S (2009) Susceptibility versus resilience to mountain hazards in Austria - Paradigms of vulnerability

  18. Colecistectomia laparoscópica: experiência em 500 casos, enfatizando as vantagens da colecistocolangiografia e da ligadura do ducto e artéria cística utilizando fio de náilon Advantages of cholecystocholangiography and ligature of the cystic duct and artery with nylon suture: analysis of 500 laparoscopic cholecystectomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Perim

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados clínicos de quinhentos pacientes submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica (CL, com o emprego da colecistocolangiografia intra-operatória e da ligadura do ducto cístico e da artéria cística utilizando- se fio de náilon em vez de clipes metálicos. A maioria (79,4% dos pacientes era do sexo feminino. A média de idade foi de 48,2 anos. Colecistite crônica ocorreu em 424 casos, colecistite aguda em 68, câncer da vesícula em quatro, colecistite alitiásica em três e um paciente apresentava pólipo de vesícula biliar. Coledocolitíase foi detectada em vinte (4% pacientes. O tempo médio de cirurgia foi de 84 minutos. A permanência hospitalar foi de um a dois dias para 93,4% dos pacientes. A mortalidade foi de 0,4%. Conversão se fez necessária em 39 (7,8% casos, principalmente por coledocolitíase (15 pacientes e colecistite aguda (14 pacientes. Complicações importantes ocorreram em 12 (2,4% casos, incluindo uma (0,2% lesão de colédoco. A co1ecistocolangiografia foi satisfatória em 80,5% e inconclusiva em 19,5% dos pacientes. A co1ecistoco1angiografia é uma excelente opção técnica na CL, principalmente nos pacientes com colecistite crônica. Todavia, nos casos com obstrução flagrante do ducto cístico, ou quando a vesícu1a contém barro biliar, é preferível utilizar a colangiografia transcística. Na CL, a ligadura do ducto e da artéria cística com clipes está associada a maiores riscos de coleperitônio e hemorragia, pela soltura dos clipes, além de originar expressivo custo monetário, quando se leva em consideração o grande número de CL realizadas anualmente. Ao contrário dos clipes, a ligadura do ducto e da artéria cística com fio de náilon apresenta absoluta segurança e significativa economia financeira.The authors present the results of 500 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC, employing intraoperative cholecystocholangiography and the ligature of the gallbladder pedicle

  19. Investigações sobre doenças de Psittacideos

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    Genesio Pacheco

    1932-08-01

    course of this study is characterized under the name of Salmonella nocardi. The author believes that in the epizooty from which Nocard isolated his bacterium there was association of the virus-disease inducing the epizooty of that epoch in Paris with the bacterial disease, as must have happened in Argentina, where the disease was transmitted to man, and Santillan, according to Barros, isolated from the sick parrots bacteria of the genus Salmonella. The diseases of the two groups, that due to virus and that due to bacteria, are differentiated: Virus-diseases - Evolution: rapid, nearly always followed by death. Symptoms: sadness, profuse diarrhoea, of whitish stools, at times enterorrhagia, complete inappetency, adynamia, indifference, prolonged coma. Clinical forms: acute and subacute. Lesions: Foci of necrosis in liver and spleen without cellular reaction around the focus, yellow liver, multiple serositis. Presence of protoplasmic or nuclear granulations. Bacteriology: Complete lack or inconstant presence of bacteria in the organs and blood. Infectiousness of the organs and blood after filtration: positive. Bacterial diseases - Varies from one week to a month or more, not always fatal. Sadness, partial inappetency, tremblings, intensive thirst, mucous or mucosanguineous diarrhoea, lack of adynamia (reacts to stimulations and moves well at any time of the disease, though showing little disposition to locomotion, soiling of feathers. Frustrate, acute, subacute and chronic. Hepatic and intestinal cogestion, foci of necrosis in liver, spleen and lung with cellular reaction around the focus. Lack of granulations. Constant presence of bacteria in the organs and blood. Negative. The analysis of the litterature shows that the characteristic features of the diseases in parrots referred to parrot psittacosis, more frequently approach the bacterial diseases here described of these animals, a hypothesis which is reinforced by the observation of the greater frequency of infections...

  20. Characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer in the Chos Malal site (Province of Neuquen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The site of Chos Malal is located on the north of the Province of Neuquen (Argentina).Cordillera del Viento is a mountain located 30 km northward, it is 90 km long, with average heights of 2800 m and with intense winds.This region has the adequate characteristics to be one of the best zones of the Norpatagonia for the exploitation of wind resources.Nevertheless, the existing wind speed data of the place is disconcerting.The biggest amount of information proceeds from the old weather station of the 'Secretaria de Agricultura y Ganaderia de la Nacion Argentina' Office and from the National Weather Service 'Servicio Meteorologico Nacional de Argentina' (SMN). Results from this data (1941-1960 period) shows that the mean annual wind speed is only 2.8 m/s.This value is conservative, probably due to the method employed on the measurement, which consisted of the estimation through the Beaufort scale, or the over-estimation error of the calms, as the one detected by Barros for the South of Patagonia.Due to this discordance, it was decided to evaluate the resource with modern instrumental. Afterwards, automatic weather stations were installed (Davis model Monitor II and Wizard) at the airport of Chos Malal (S 37 26 49; W 70 13 53; 852 m msl) with sensors at 2.5m, 10m and 18m above ground level.With this data (period 2000-2004) this study was oriented to characterize some aspects of the atmospheric boundary layer, the air turbulence and the relation between average wind speed and gusts.The annual average velocity (2000-2004) was 3.78 m/s, 35% greater than meteorological statistics from SMN (1941-1950 and 1951-1960 decades). The maximum velocity was 7.35 m/s, almost twice the average wind speed. With the measured data at 10 m, the Weibull distribution was calculated, using the form factor K = 1.2; and the scale factor C = 3.95. Also the wind rose was calculated, where the maximum frequency was produced at WNW.During 5 days of November of 2001, simultaneous observations at 2

  1. Epidemiología molecular de la fiebre amarilla en Colombia: análisis filogenético

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    Jorge Boshell

    2004-03-01

    fragmentos de 569 pb correspondiente a la región de unión de los genes E/ NS1, (7,8 los cuales fueron purificados y secuenciados en un secuenciador automático Abiprism 310 (Applied Biosystem; las secuencias generadas se alinearon con el programa CLUSTAL W donde además se generaron los árboles filogenéticos que posteriormente se visualizaron en el programa Treview.

    Los análisis preliminares indican un porcentaje de homología cercano al 97% entre las cepas analizadas, lo cual refleja la estabilidad genética del virus a través del tiempo, y nos permite pensar que los brotes recientemente ocurridos obedecen al incremento de la actividad selvática del virus, con el humano como huésped accidental al intervenir con su ecosistema, más que a la reintroducción de nuevas cepas de mayor virulencia (9-12.

     

    REFERENCIAS

    1. GROOT H, BOSHELL J. Dengue, dengue hemorrágico y fiebre amarilla. En: CHALEM F, ESCANDÓN JE, CAMPOS J, ESGUERRA R, editores. Medicina interna. Bogotá. Doyma Andina S.A.; 1992: 1389-1395.

    2. MONATH TP. Yellow fever: an update. Lancet Inf Dis 2001; 1:11-20.

    3. TESH R. Viral hemorrhagic fevers of South America. Biomédica 2002; 22:287-295.

    4. BARROS MLB, BOECKEN G. Jungle yellow fever in the central amazon. Lancet 1996; 348:969-970.

    5. GROOT H, MORALES A, ROMERO M

  2. Explained: Why many surveys of distant galaxies miss 90% of their targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    the nucleus jumps from the first excited level to the fundamental, or ground, level). This light is emitted in the ultraviolet, at 121.6 nm. The Lyman-alpha line is the first in the so-called Lyman series, named after its discoverer, Theodore Lyman. The Balmer series, named after Johann Balmer, also corresponds to light emitted by excited hydrogen. In this case, the electron falls into the first excited level. The first line in this series is the H-alpha line, emitted at 656.3 nm. As most hydrogen atoms present in a galaxy are in the ground level, Lyman-alpha light is more efficiently absorbed than H-alpha light, which requires atoms having an electron in the second level. As this is very uncommon in the cold interstellar hydrogen permeating galaxies, the gas is almost perfectly transparent to H-alpha light. [2] A narrowband filter is an optical filter designed to let pass only a narrow bandwidth of light, centred on a specific wavelength. Traditional narrowband filters include those centred on the lines of the Balmer series, such as H-alpha. [3] Because the Universe expands, the light of a distant object is redshifted by an amount depending on its distance. This means its light is moved towards longer wavelengths. A redshift of 2.2 - corresponding to galaxies whose light has taken approximately 10 billion years to reach us - means that the light is stretched by a factor 3.2. Thus the Lyman-alpha light is now seen at about 390 nm, near the visible domain, and can be observed with the FORS instrument on ESO's VLT, while the H-alpha line is moved towards 2.1 microns, in the near-infrared. It can thus be observed with the HAWK-I instrument on the VLT. More information This research was presented in a paper to appear in Nature ("Escape of about five per cent of Lyman-a photons from high-redshift star-forming galaxies", by M. Hayes et al.). The team is composed of Matthew Hayes, Daniel Schaerer, and Stéphane de Barros (Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Gen

  3. Iron Deficiency and Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children With First Attack of Seizure and on Healthy Control Group: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razieh FALLAH

    2014-07-01

    ;78(1:65-72.Johnston MV. Iron deficiency, febrile seizures and brain development. Indian Pediatr 2012;49(1:13-4.Idro R, Gwer S, Williams TN, Otieno T, Uyoga S, Fegan G, Kager PA, Maitland K, Kirkham F, Neville BG, Newton CR. Iron deficiency and acute seizures: results from children living in rural Kenya and a meta-analysis. PLoS One 2010 16; 5(11:e14001.Carvalho AG, Lira PI, Barros Mde F, Aléssio ML, Lima Mde C, Carbonneau MA, Berger J, Léger CL. Diagnosis of iron deficiency anemia in children of Northeast Brazil. Rev Saude Publica. 2010; 44(3:513-9.Kumari PL, Nair MK, Nair SM, Kailas L, Geetha S. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for simple febrile seizures—a case control study. Indian Pediatr 2012; 49(1:17-9.Van Vranken M. Evaluation of microcytosis. Am Fam Physician 2010; 82(9:1117-22.Morales-Ruán Mdel C, Villalpando S, García-Guerra A, Shamah-Levy T, Robledo-Pérez R, Avila-Arcos MA, Rivera JA. Iron, zinc, copper and magnesium nutritional status in Mexican children aged 1 to 11 years. Salud Publica Mex 2012; 54(2:125-34.Modaresi M, Mahmoudian T, Yaghini O, Kelishadi R, Golestani H, Tavasoli A, et al. Is Iron Insufficiency Associated With Febrile Seizure? Experience in an Iranian Hospital. J Compr Ped 2012; 3(1:21-4.Zareifar S, Hosseinzadeh HR, Cohan N. Association between iron status and febrile seizures in children. Seizure 2012; 21(8:603-5.Akbayram S, Cemek M, Büyükben A, Aymelek F, Karaman S, Yilmaz F, Dogan M, Caksen H. Major and minor bio-element status in children with febrile seizure. Bratisl Lek Listy 2012; 113 (7:421-3.Vaswani RK, Dharaskar PG, Kulkarni S, Ghosh K. Iron deficiency as a risk factor for first febrile seizure. Indian 2010; 47(5:437-9.Sherjil A, us Saeed Z, Shehzad S, Amjad R. Iron deficiency anaemia--a risk factor for febrile seizures in children. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. 2010; 22(3:71-3.Naveed-ur-Rehman, Billoo AG. Association between iron deficiency anemia and febrile seizures. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2005; 15(6:338-40.Hartfield DS, Tan J

  4. Etnopedologia e transferência de conhecimento: diálogos entre os saberes indígena e técnico na Terra Indígena Malacacheta, Roraima Ethnopedology and knowledge transfer: dialogue between indians and soil scientists in the Malacacheta Indian Territory, Roraima, Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Frutuoso do Vale Jr.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento indígena sobre a pedodiversidade é o objeto principal da etnopedologia. Nesse sentido, a tradição agrícola e cultural dos índios Uapixana, do tronco lingüístico Aruaque, em Roraima, constitui relevante acervo imaterial de valor etnocientífico, sendo valorizada pela Universidade Federal de Roraima em seus cursos superiores de Educação Indígena no Estado. Neste trabalho confrontou-se a experiência etnopedológica dos índios Uapixana com o Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, durante o levantamento de solos da Terra Indígena (TI Malacacheta. O sistema de classificação etnopedológica existente na comunidade indígena Uapixana da TI Malacacheta identifica e separa todos os principais compartimentos ambientais de ocorrência na área, permitindo relacionar aspectos de simples percepção e identificação (cor, textura, profundidade, vegetação com aspectos cognoscíveis (uso, tipo de cultivo, vocação, etc.. Os índios Uapixana identificam e classificam oito tipos básicos de solos, que ocorrem individualmente ou formando associações: Imii Wyzda'u (Terra Amarelada, Imii Wyza'u (Terra Vermelha, Imii Pudiidiu (Terra Preta, Imii Pudiidiza'u (Terra Roxa, Katy Bara Pudiidiu (Barro Arenoso, Imii Kaxidia'u (Estopa Preta, Imii Katy Bara Pudiidiu Naik Baraka'u (Terra Arenosa Preta e Branca e Imii Wyzadaza'u Rik Pudiidiu (Miscelânea de Terra Amarela, Roxa e afloramentos de rocha, abordando características morfológicas, físicas e químicas e as principais limitações quanto ao uso agrícola. Há relação evidente entre a dimensão do saber etnopedológico o saber etnoecológico, em sentido amplo. A experiência etnopedológica representa, assim, a extensão de uma abrangente cadeia de inter-relações homem-meio, dentro do princípio universal da ecologia humana da paisagem. O diálogo etnopedológico travado entre a comunidade indígena e os pedólogos trouxe contribuições muito relevantes e mutuamente

  5. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    and Lo K 2010 Global surface temperature change Rev. Geophys. 48 RG4004 Hansen J and Sato M 2004 Greenhouse gas growth rates Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 101 16109-14 Hansen J, Sato M, Kharecha P and von Schuckmann K 2011 Earth's energy imbalance and implications Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11 13421-49 Hansen J, Sato M, Ruedy R, Lacis A and Oinas V 2000 Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 97 9875-80 Hansen J et al 2007 Dangerous human-made interference with climate: a GISS modelE study Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7 2287-312 Hansen J et al 2008 Target atmospheric CO2: where should humanity aim? Open Atmos. Sci. 2 217-31 Harris N L et al 2012 Baseline map of carbon emissions from deforestation in tropical regions Science 336 1573-6 Heimann M and Reichstein M 2008 Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks Nature 451 289-92 Hofmann D, Barnes J, O'Niel M, Trudeau M and Neely R 2009 Increase in background stratospheric aerosol observed with lidar at Mauna Loa Observatory and Boulder, Colorado Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L15808 Holton J R et al 1995 Stratosphere-troposphere exchange Rev. Geophys. 33 403-39 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2000 Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) ed N Nakicenovic et al (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p 599 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2001 Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis ed J T Houghton et al (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p 881 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis ed S Solomon et al (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) p 996 Keeling C D, Whorf T P, Wahlen M and van der Plicht J 1973 Interannual extremes in the rate of rise of atmospheric carbon dioxide since 1980 Nature 375 666-70 Knorr W 2009 Is the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions increasing? Geophys. Res. Lett. 36 L21710 Koven C D et al 2011 Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerte global

  6. The use of new technologies in Cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Bruno da Silva

    2010-03-01

    élites de posicionamento (GPS para a localização de residências, o uso de coletas de DNA para comparações futuras, as bases de dados institucionais e governamentais são fontes de informações que abreviam, minimizam gastos e dão maior confiabilidade aos estudos de muito longa duração.Tem-se visto antigos trabalhos realizados há décadas sendo submetidos a novas avaliações estatísticas com o desenvolvimento de novas teorias e descobertas. Neste número da revista brasileira em promoção da saúde, acompanhamos o nascimento de uma nova coorte(14, que acompanhará a evolução dos determinantes de saúde de população de uma grande comunidade do Nordeste do Brasil.REFERÊNCIAS1. Morabia A, Guthold R. Wilhelm Weinberg’s 1913Large Retrospective Cohort Study: a rediscovery. Am JEpidemiol. 2007;165(7:727-33.2. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:90.3. Dawber TR, Meadors GF, Moore Jr. FE. Epidemiologicalapproaches to heart disease: the Framingham Study.Am J Public Health Nations Health. 1951;41(3:279-81.4. Fonseca MGU, Peres F, Firmo JOA, Uchoa E.,Percepção de risco: maneiras de pensar e agirno manejo de agrotóxicos. Ciênc saúde coletiva[periódico na Internet]. 2007 Mar [acesso em 2010Maio 26]; 12(1:39-50. Disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-81232007000100009&lng=en&nrm=iso. doi: 10.1590/S1413-81232007000100009.5. Victora CG, Barros FC. Cohort profile: the 1982Pelotas (Brazil birth cohort study. Int J Epidemiol.2006;35(2:237-42.6. Armenian HK (editor. Applications of the case-controlmethod. Epidemiol Rev. 1994;16:1-164.7. Samet JM, Muñoz A. Evolution of the cohort study.Epidemiol Rev. 1998;20(1:1-14.8. Doll R. Cohort studies: history of the method. II.Retrospective cohort studies. Soz Praventivmed.2001;46(3:152-60. Erratum in: Soz Praventivmed2002;47(2:909. Lima-Costa MF, Barreto SM. Tipos de

  7. Evaristo García Piedrahita: el salubrista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rico

    2006-03-01

    los pacientes.»... «No dudamos que el conocimiento de los métodos empíricos nos conducirá a la adopción de nuevos métodos racionales para combatir los síntomas alarmantes del envenenamiento por mordeduras de reptiles.» Su trabajo sobre «El Plátano» (Importancia del estudio del plátano en Colombia y particularmente en el Cauca, 1898 es sencillamente espectacular como se diría hoy. Es una obra en la cual se ven las múltiples facetas del Dr. Evaristo como médico, historiador, botánico, químico, nutricionista, comerciante, investigador, y «chef de cuisine». Desde el punto de vista de la botánica describe los diferentes caracteres del plátano, sus orígenes y controversias, las opiniones del sabio Humboldt sobre su riqueza alimenticia y extensión de su cultivo en las Américas y otros continentes. Explica con gran detalle cómo se cultiva el plátano y se detiene con brillantez en la «bromatología del plátano», su composición química y su consumo como alimento para los niños de pecho (harina de plátano, para los adultos en diversas formas y como medicamento para muchos males del estómago, la disentería, diarreas, gastralgias y dispepsias. «En el Valle del Cauca se sirve diariamente el sancocho, plato alimenticio y de buen caldo cuando está bien preparado. Para hacer un buen sancocho, se pone a hervir en dos o tres litros de agua, un trozo de hueso espongioso de res y pedazos de carne gorda, que en su conjunto pesen de 400 a 500 gramos. Poco a poco y a fuego lento, el agua caliente reblandece la carne en la olla de barro; se le agrega entonces el plátano hecho pedazos con la pulpa de los dedos y después de haber lavado el fruto desnudo en agua fría para quitarle la mancha astringente de la cáscara; se añaden además trozos de yuca y de uyama o zapallo. Se le pone desde el principio la sal, en cantidad suficiente para darle sabor al caldo y algunos otros condimentos excitantes, como las cebollas, perejil o culantro. Se cuida de remover

  8. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia - Dissertações Defendidas 2002 - Mestrado - Instituto de Geociências - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    mais graves problemas urbanos, sendo um dos principais responsáveis pelo comprometimento da qualidade ambiental em diversas áreas densamente ocupadas. Conforme os espaços urbanos são edificados sem um planejamento que considere a manutenção e/ou criação de mecanismos que gerem amenidades ambientais (por exemplo, áreas verdes e estabelecimento de padrões de ocupação do solo que favoreçam a circulação intra-urbana do ar, mais a população desses locais estará exposta à situações que causem prejuízos a sua saúde. Contudo, propor alternativas é assumir a necessidade de romper não somente com modelos produtivos impactantes, como também com estilos de vida. Costuma-se destacar como um dos grandes desafios para implementação de medidas que visam a melhoria da qualidade ambiental em áreas urbanas, o fato de que por 201 Anuário do Instituto de Geociências - UFRJ Volume 25 / 2002 ser um espaço construído, intervenções seriam extremamente difíceis de serem realizadas. Todavia, esse argumento possui falhas, pois o espaço urbano não é estático, principalmente nas grandes metrópoles. O dinamismo do desenho urbano é uma característica do próprio sistema capitalista que na sua busca pela ampliação acumulada de capital, modifica formas e funções de espaços, gerando fluxos e criando condições de vida diferenciadas de acordo com a situação econômica de cada grupo. É dentro desse contexto socialmente complexo, caracterizado por choques de interesses, que se analisa no presente estudo a qualidade do ar no Município do Rio de Janeiro, ressaltando todas as suas implicações na saúde da população carioca e identificando os principais fatores geoecológicos responsáveis pela distribuição das concentrações de material particulado. Autor: Rafael Silva de Barros Orientador: Carla Bernadete Madureira Título: Estimativa de parâmetros físicos-químicos da água com suporte de sensoriamento remoto – estudo de caso: Baía de