Sample records for barringer meteor crater

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar Field Studies of Lunar-Analog Geologic Settings and Processes: Barringer Meteor Crater and Northern Arizona Volcanics (United States)

    Russell, P. S.; Grant, J. A.; Williams, K. K.; Bussey, B.


    Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) data from terrestrial analog environments can help constrain models for evolution of the lunar surface, aid in interpretation of orbital SAR data, and help predict what might be encountered in the subsurface during future, landed, scientific or engineering operations on the Moon. GPR can yield insight into the physical properties, clast-size distribution, and layering of the subsurface, granting a unique view of the processes affecting an area over geologic time. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate these capabilities at sites at which geologic processes, settings, and/or materials are similar to those that may be encountered on the moon, especially lava flows, impact-crater ejecta, and layered materials with varying properties. We present results from transects obtained at Barringer Meteor Crater, SP Volcano cinder cone, and Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, all in northern Arizona. Transects were taken at several sites on the ejecta of Meteor Crater, all within a crater radius (~400 m) of the crater rim. Those taken across ejecta lobes or mounds reveal the subsurface contact of the ejecta upper surface and overlying, embaying sediments deposited by later alluvial, colluvial, and/or aeolian processes. Existing mine shafts and pits on the south side of the crater provide cross sections of the subsurface against which we compare adjacent GPR transects. The ‘actual’ number, size, and depth of clasts in the top 1-2 m of the subsurface are estimated from photos of the exposed cross sections. In GPR radargrams, reflections attributed to blocks in the top 2-5 m of the subsurface are counted, and their depth distribution noted. Taking GPR measurements along a transect at two frequencies (200 and 400 MHz) and to various depths, we obtain the ratio of the actual number of blocks in the subsurface to the number detectable with GPR, as well as an assessment of how GPR detections in ejecta decline with depth and depend on antenna

  2. Two-dimensional computer simulation of hypervelocity impact cratering: some preliminary results for Meteor Crater, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, J.B.; Burton, D.E.; Cunningham, M.E.; Lettis, L.A. Jr.


    A computational approach used for subsurface explosion cratering was extended to hypervelocity impact cratering. Meteor (Barringer) Crater, Arizona, was selected for the first computer simulation because it is one of the most thoroughly studied craters. It is also an excellent example of a simple, bowl-shaped crater and is one of the youngest terrestrial impact craters. Initial conditions for this calculation included a meteorite impact velocity of 15 km/s, meteorite mass of 1.67 x 10/sup 8/ kg, with a corresponding kinetic energy of 1.88 x 10/sup 16/ J (4.5 megatons). A two-dimensional Eulerian finite difference code called SOIL was used for this simulation of a cylindrical iron projectile impacting at normal incidence into a limestone target. For this initial calculation, a Tillotson equation-of-state description for iron and limestone was used with no shear strength. Results obtained for this preliminary calculation of the formation of Meteor Crater are in good agreement with field measurements. A color movie based on this calculation was produced using computer-generated graphics. 19 figures, 5 tables, 63 references.

  3. Airflow analyses using thermal imaging in Arizona's Meteor Crater as part of METCRAX II (United States)

    Grudzielanek, A. Martina; Vogt, Roland; Cermak, Jan; Maric, Mateja; Feigenwinter, Iris; Whiteman, C. David; Lehner, Manuela; Hoch, Sebastian W.; Krauß, Matthias G.; Bernhofer, Christian; Pitacco, Andrea


    In October 2013 the second Meteor Crater Experiment (METCRAX II) took place at the Barringer Meteorite Crater (aka Meteor Crater) in north central Arizona, USA. Downslope-windstorm-type flows (DWF), the main research objective of METCRAX II, were measured by a comprehensive set of meteorological sensors deployed in and around the crater. During two weeks of METCRAX II five infrared (IR) time lapse cameras (VarioCAM® hr research & VarioCAM® High Definition, InfraTec) were installed at various locations on the crater rim to record high-resolution images of the surface temperatures within the crater from different viewpoints. Changes of surface temperature are indicative of air temperature changes induced by flow dynamics inside the crater, including the DWF. By correlating thermal IR surface temperature data with meteorological sensor data during intensive observational periods the applicability of the IR method of representing flow dynamics can be assessed. We present evaluation results and draw conclusions relative to the application of this method for observing air flow dynamics in the crater. In addition we show the potential of the IR method for METCRAX II in 1) visualizing airflow processes to improve understanding of these flows, and 2) analyzing cold-air flows and cold-air pooling.

  4. Planetary science: Meteor Crater formed by low-velocity impact (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Collins, G. S.


    Meteor Crater in Arizona was the first terrestrial structure to be widely recognized as a meteorite impact scar and has probably been more intensively studied than any other impact crater on Earth. We have discovered something surprising about its mode of formation - namely that the surface-impact velocity of the iron meteorite that created Meteor Crater was only about 12 km s-1. This is close to the 9.4 km s-1 minimum originally proposed but far short of the 15-20 km s-1 that has been widely assumed - a realization that clears up a long-standing puzzle about why the crater does not contain large volumes of rock melted by the impact.

  5. Barringer, Daniel Moreau (1860-1929) (United States)

    Murdin, P.


    A Philadelphia mining engineer who, in 1903-5, investigated the `Coon Butte' crater in Arizona, in pursuit of the theory that it was of meteoritic origin. Before he realized that the impact was oblique and the meteor was off-center, he unsuccessfully searched for a buried mass of nickel and rare-earths by drilling in the crater bottom. He collected meteoric iron fragments, which he noticed were i...

  6. Meteor Crater: An Analog for Using Landforms to Reconstruct Past Hydrologic Conditions (United States)

    Palucis, M. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Howard, A. D.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Kring, D. A.


    Recent work suggests that debris flow activity has occurred on Mars in the last few million years during high orbital obliquities, but estimating the amount and frequency of liquid water needed to generate these types of flows is still poorly constrained. While it is relatively common to estimate water amounts needed to produce landforms on Mars, such as gullies or alluvial fans, this is something rarely done on Earth. Consequently, there is little field data on the linkage between climate (snowmelt or rainfall events) and the amount of runoff needed to produce specific volumes of sediment in a landform. Here, we present field and modeling data from Meteor Crater, which is a ~50,000 year old impact crater in northern Arizona (USA). Though it is very well preserved, it has developed gullies along its inner wall, similar in form to many gullies on Mars. Meteor Crater, similar to many Martian craters, has also gone through a change in a climate based on the ~30 m of lake sediments on its now dry floor, and what has eroded from its walls has deposited on its floor, making it a closed system. We show using LiDAR-derived topographic data and field observations that debris flows, likely generated by runoff entrainment into talus bordering bedrock cliffs of the crater walls, drove erosion and deposition processes at Meteor Crater. Cosmogenic dating of levee deposits indicates that debris flows ceased in the early Holocene, synchronous with regional drying. For a water-to-rock ratio of 0.3 at the time of transport, which is based on data from rotating drum experiments, it would have taken ~150,000 m3 of water to transport the estimated ~500,000 m3 of debris flow deposits found at the surface of the crater floor. This extensive erosion would require less than 0.4 m of total runoff over the 0.35 km2 upslope source area of the crater, or ~26 mm of runoff per debris flow event. Much more runoff did occur however, as evidenced by lake deposits on the crater floor and Holocene

  7. Video Meteor Fluxes (United States)

    Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Braid, D.


    The flux of meteoroids, or number of meteoroids per unit area per unit time, is critical for calibrating models of meteoroid stream formation and for estimating the hazard to spacecraft from shower and sporadic meteors. Although observations of meteors in the millimetre to centimetre size range are common, flux measurements (particularly for sporadic meteors, which make up the majority of meteoroid flux) are less so. It is necessary to know the collecting area and collection time for a given set of observations, and to correct for observing biases and the sensitivity of the system. Previous measurements of sporadic fluxes are summarized in Figure 1; the values are given as a total number of meteoroids striking the earth in one year to a given limiting mass. The Gr n et al. (1985) flux model is included in the figure for reference. Fluxes for sporadic meteoroids impacting the Earth have been calculated for objects in the centimeter size range using Super-Schmidt observations (Hawkins & Upton, 1958); this study used about 300 meteors, and used only the physical area of overlap of the cameras at 90 km to calculate the flux, corrected for angular speed of meteors, since a large angular speed reduces the maximum brightness of the meteor on the film, and radiant elevation, which takes into account the geometric reduction in flux when the meteors are not perpendicular to the horizontal. They bring up corrections for both partial trails (which tends to increase the collecting area) and incomplete overlap at heights other than 90 km (which tends to decrease it) as effects that will affect the flux, but estimated that the two effects cancelled one another. Halliday et al. (1984) calculated the flux of meteorite-dropping fireballs with fragment masses greater than 50 g, over the physical area of sky accessible to the MORP fireball cameras, counting only observations in clear weather. In the micron size range, LDEF measurements of small craters on spacecraft have been used to

  8. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun


    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  9. Buried Craters of Utopia (United States)


    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-365, 19 May 2003Beneath the northern plains of Mars are numerous buried meteor impact craters. One of the most heavily-cratered areas, although buried, occurs in Utopia Planitia, as shown in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The history of Mars is complex; impact craters provide a tool by which to understand some of that history. In this case, a very ancient, cratered surface was thinly-buried by younger material that is not cratered at all. This area is near 48.1oN, 228.2oW; less than 180 km (112 mi) west of the Viking 2 lander site. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  10. Impact cratering calculations (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Okeefe, J. D.; Smither, C.; Takata, T.


    In the course of carrying out finite difference calculations, it was discovered that for large craters, a previously unrecognized type of crater (diameter) growth occurred which was called lip wave propagation. This type of growth is illustrated for an impact of a 1000 km (2a) silicate bolide at 12 km/sec (U) onto a silicate half-space at earth gravity (1 g). The von Misses crustal strength is 2.4 kbar. The motion at the crater lip associated with this wave type phenomena is up, outward, and then down, similar to the particle motion of a surface wave. It is shown that the crater diameter has grown d/a of approximately 25 to d/a of approximately 4 via lip propagation from Ut/a = 5.56 to 17.0 during the time when rebound occurs. A new code is being used to study partitioning of energy and momentum and cratering efficiency with self gravity for finite-sized objects rather than the previously discussed planetary half-space problems. These are important and fundamental subjects which can be addressed with smoothed particle hydrodynamic (SPH) codes. The SPH method was used to model various problems in astrophysics and planetary physics. The initial work demonstrates that the energy budget for normal and oblique impacts are distinctly different than earlier calculations for silicate projectile impact on a silicate half space. Motivated by the first striking radar images of Venus obtained by Magellan, the effect of the atmosphere on impact cratering was studied. In order the further quantify the processes of meteor break-up and trajectory scattering upon break-up, the reentry physics of meteors striking Venus' atmosphere versus that of the Earth were studied.

  11. Impact Crater with Peak (United States)


    (Released 14 June 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image shows a classic example of a martian impact crater with a central peak. Central peaks are common in large, fresh craters on both Mars and the Moon. This peak formed during the extremely high-energy impact cratering event. In many martian craters the central peak has been either eroded or buried by later sedimentary processes, so the presence of a peak in this crater indicates that the crater is relatively young and has experienced little degradation. Observations of large craters on the Earth and the Moon, as well as computer modeling of the impact process, show that the central peak contains material brought from deep beneath the surface. The material exposed in these peaks will provide an excellent opportunity to study the composition of the martian interior using THEMIS multi-spectral infrared observations. The ejecta material around the crater can is well preserved, again indicating relatively little modification of this landform since its initial creation. The inner walls of this approximately 18 km diameter crater show complex slumping that likely occurred during the impact event. Since that time there has been some downslope movement of material to form the small chutes and gullies that can be seen on the inner crater wall. Small (50-100 m) mega-ripples composed of mobile material can be seen on the floor of the crater. Much of this material may have come from the walls of the crater itself, or may have been blown into the crater by the wind. The Story When a meteor smacked into the surface of Mars with extremely high energy, pow! Not only did it punch an 11-mile-wide crater in the smoother terrain, it created a central peak in the middle of the crater. This peak forms kind of on the 'rebound.' You can see this same effect if you drop a single drop of milk into a glass of milk. With craters, in the heat and fury of the impact, some of the land material can even liquefy. Central peaks like the one

  12. Proceedings of the Geophysical Laboratory - Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Cratering Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordyke, M. D.


    The geological papers in this morning's session will deal descriptively with surficial features and end products of impact craters caused by meteorite falls. Such items as breccia, structural deformation, normal and inverse stratigraphy, glass (fused rock), and coesite will frequently be mentioned. Meteor and explosion crater data are presented.

  13. The Newcastle meteor radar (United States)

    Keay, Colin


    A brief history and development of the Newcastle Meteor Radar system is given. Also described are its geographical coordinates and its method of operation. The initial objective when the project was commenced was to develop an entirely digital analyzer capable of recognizing meteor echo signals and recording as many of their parameters as possible. This objective was achieved.

  14. Meteors and meteorites spectra (United States)

    Koukal, J.; Srba, J.; Gorková, S.; Lenža, L.; Ferus, M.; Civiš, S.; Knížek, A.; Kubelík, P.; Kaiserová, T.; Váňa, P.


    The main goal of our meteor spectroscopy project is to better understand the physical and chemical properties of meteoroids. Astrometric and spectral observations of real meteors are obtained via spectroscopic CCD video systems. Processed meteor data are inserted to the EDMOND database (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database) together with spectral information. The fully analyzed atmospheric trajectory, orbit and also spectra of a Leonid meteor/meteoroid captured in November 2015 are presented as an example. At the same time, our target is the systematization of spectroscopic emission lines for the comparative analysis of meteor spectra. Meteoroid plasma was simulated in a laboratory by laser ablation of meteorites samples using an (ArF) excimer laser and the LIDB (Laser Induced Dielectric Breakdown) in a low pressure atmosphere and various gases. The induced plasma emissions were simultaneously observed with the Echelle Spectrograph and the same CCD video spectral camera as used for real meteor registration. Measurements and analysis results for few selected meteorite samples are presented and discussed.

  15. Meteor Stream Membership Criteria

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J


    Criteria for the membership of individual meteors in meteor streams are discussed from the point of view of their mathematical and also physical properties. Discussion is also devoted to the motivation. It is shown that standardly used criteria (mainly D-criterion of Southworth and Hawkins, 1963) have unusual mathematical properties in the sense of a term ``distance'', between points in a phase space, and, physical motivation and realization for the purpose of obtaining their final form is not natural and correct, and, moreover, they lead also to at least surprising astrophysical results. General properties of possible criteria are discussed. A new criterion for the membership in meteor streams is suggested. It is based on probability theory. Finally, a problem of meteor orbit determination for known parent body is discussed.

  16. Meteor Streams of Comet Encke Taurid Meteor Complex

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J


    Application of the theoretical results of the author are presented for the case of meteor streams of comet Encke. Theoretical determination of meteor orbit for comet Encke, as a parent body, is presented. Four significant theoretical meteor streams, corresponding to Tauds N, Tauds S, $\\beta$ Tauds and $\\xi$ Perds are found. The meteor stream membership criterion is applied to the photographic orbits of The IAU Meteor Data Center in Lund: Taurid meteor stream is found for several possible areas in phase-space of orbital elements.

  17. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors (United States)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, GiGi; Spurný, Pavel


    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs. PMID:28145486

  18. Meteor Beliefs Project: meteors in the poems of John Donne (United States)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.


    An examination of the uses of meteor imagery in the poems of Englishman John Donne (1572-1631) is made, revealing a set of beliefs reflecting the period when ideas about astronomy, including meteors, were beginning to undergo radical change.

  19. BARRINGER AWARD ADDRESS: Shock Metamorphism of Quartz in Nature and Experiment: A Review (United States)

    Stoffler, D.


    Quartz as a widespread rock-forming mineral of the Earth's crust represents the most sensitive indicator of impact-induced shock waves and therefore provides an outstanding tool for the recognition of terrestrial impact formations and for the pressure calibration of shock metamorphosed rocks. This paper attempts to summarize the current knowledge in this field. Shocked quartz has been observed in quite variable spatial relations to impact craters: (1) in the crater basement, (2) in rock and mineral clasts of polymict breccias, and (3) in distal ejecta such as tektites and global air- fall beds (e.g., K/T boundary). Quartz displays a wide variety of shock- induced mechanical deformations and transformations [1,2]. Microscopically observable effects are multiple sets of planar fractures (PF) and planar deformation features (PDF) parallel to low indices crystallographic planes; mosaickism; reduced refractivity and birefringence; partial transformation to stishovite; increased optic axial angle; amorphization (diaplectic glass), partial transformation to coesite; and melting (lechatelierite). Additional effects at the atomic scale are well documented by TEM, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy [3-7]. All types of shock effects observed so far in natural quartz have been reproduced by experimental shock waves in the laboratory and in large scale TNT and nuclear explosions. By means of sophisticated techniques the pressure dependence of shock effects has been calibrated with high precision. Threshold pressures at room temperature (given in GPa) for the onset of certain effects in single crystals and in nonporous quartzofeldpathic rocks are: 7.5 +- 2, 10 +- 2, 20 +- 2 (various PFs and PDFs), 12 +- 1 (stishovite), 25 +- 1 (reduced refractive index and density), ~30 (coesite), 34 +- 1 (total transformation to diaplectic glass), 50 +- 2 (melting and formation of lechatelierite) [8-12]. The type of shock effects, their paragenetic combination, and their formation pressure are

  20. The EISCAT meteor code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg


    Full Text Available The EISCAT UHF system has the unique capability to determine meteor vector velocities from the head echo Doppler shifts measured at the three sites. Since even meteors spending a very short time in the common volume produce analysable events, the technique lends itself ideally to mapping the orbits of meteors arriving from arbitrary directions over most of the upper hemisphere.

    A radar mode optimised for this application was developed in 2001/2002. A specially selected low-sidelobe 32-bit pseudo-random binary sequence is used to binary phase shift key (BPSK the transmitted carrier. The baud-length is 2.4 μs and the receiver bandwidth is 1.6 MHz to accommodate both the resulting modulation bandwidth and the target Doppler shift. Sampling is at 0.6 μs, corresponding to 90-m range resolution. Target range and Doppler velocity are extracted from the raw data in a multi-step matched-filter procedure. For strong (SNR>5 events the Doppler velocity standard deviation is 100–150 m/s. The effective range resolution is about 30 m, allowing very accurate time-of-flight velocity estimates. On average, Doppler and time-of-flight (TOF velocities agree to within about one part in 103. Two or more targets simultaneously present in the beam can be resolved down to a range separation <300 m as long as their Doppler shifts differ by more than a few km/s.

  1. Coded continuous wave meteor radar



    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after ...

  2. Meteor fireball sounds identified (United States)

    Keay, Colin


    Sounds heard simultaneously with the flight of large meteor fireballs are electrical in origin. Confirmation that Extra/Very Low Frequency (ELF/VLF) electromagnetic radiation is produced by the fireball was obtained by Japanese researchers. Although the generation mechanism is not fully understood, studies of the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) and other fireball data indicate that interaction with the atmosphere is definitely responsible and the cut-off magnitude of -9 found for sustained electrophonic sounds is supported by theory. Brief bursts of ELF/VLF radiation may accompany flares or explosions of smaller fireballs, producing transient sounds near favorably placed observers. Laboratory studies show that mundane physical objects can respond to electrical excitation and produce audible sounds. Reports of electrophonic sounds should no longer be discarded. A catalog of over 300 reports relating to electrophonic phenomena associated with meteor fireballs, aurorae, and lightning was assembled. Many other reports have been cataloged in Russian. These may assist the full solution of the similar long-standing and contentious mystery of audible auroral displays.

  3. Crater Landslide (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA06088 Crater Landslide This landslide occurs in an unnamed crater southeast of Millochau Crater. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -24.4N, Longitude 87.5E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  4. Cutting Craters (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 12 November 2003The rims of two old and degraded impact craters are intersected by a graben in this THEMIS image taken near Mangala Fossa. Yardangs and low-albedo wind streaks are observed at the top of the image as well as interesting small grooves on the crater floor. The origin of these enigmatic grooves may be the result of mud or lava and volatile interactions. Variable surface textures observed in the bottom crater floor are the result of different aged lava flows.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -15.2, Longitude 219.2 East (140.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Letter - Reply: Meteors in Australian Aboriginal Dreamings (United States)

    Hamacher, Duane W.


    In response to the letter by Gorelli (2010) about Hamacher & Norris (2010), he is quite right about Aboriginal people witnessing impact events in Australia. There are several oral traditions regarding impact sites, some of which were probably witnessed, as Gorelli pointed out. The Henbury craters he mentions, with a young age of only ∼ 4200 years, have oral traditions that seem to describe a cosmic impact, including an aversion to drinking water that collects in the craters in fear that the fire-devil (which came from the sun, according to an Elder) would rain iron in them again. Other impact sites, such as Gosse's Bluff crater (Tnorala in the Arrernte language) and Wolfe Creek crater (Kandimalal in the Djaru language) have associated impact stories, despite their old ages (142 Ma and ∼0.3 Ma, respectively). In addition, many fireball and airburst events are described in Aboriginal oral traditions, a number of which seem to indicate impact events that are unknown to Western science. I have published a full treatise of meteorite falls and impact events in Australian Aboriginal culture that I would like to bring to the attention of Gorelli and WGN readers (Hamacher & Norris, 2009). Although our paper was published in the 2009 volume of Archaeoastronomy, it did not appear in print until just recently, which is probably why it has gone unnoticed. Recent papers describing the association between meteorites and Aboriginal cosmology (Hamacher, 2011) and comets in Aboriginal culture (Hamacher & Norris, 2011) have also been published, and would likely be of interest to WGN readers. I heartily agree with Gorelli that oral traditions are fast disappearing, taking with them a wealth of information about not only that peoples' culture, but also about past geologic and astronomical events, such as meteorite falls and cosmic impacts (a branch of the growing field of Geomythology). There is an old saying that "when a man dies, a library goes with him". This is certainly the

  6. On the interaction meteor complex (United States)

    Rajchl, J.

    An approach to the problem of a meteoric complex called the interaction meteor complex (IMC) is applied and discussed, generalizing the idea of the interaction layer (Rajchl 1969). The role of an extended interaction of meteoroids is emphasized, both with planet surfaces and/or their satellites and with planet atmospheres, elastic or inelastic in form. The dissipation and related formative aspect are joined in one complex and compared with a topological compact. Examples of these types of interaction are presented.

  7. Coded continuous wave meteor radar (United States)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter


    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  8. Meteor showers an annotated catalog

    CERN Document Server

    Kronk, Gary W


    Meteor showers are among the most spectacular celestial events that may be observed by the naked eye, and have been the object of fascination throughout human history. In “Meteor Showers: An Annotated Catalog,” the interested observer can access detailed research on over 100 annual and periodic meteor streams in order to capitalize on these majestic spectacles. Each meteor shower entry includes details of their discovery, important observations and orbits, and gives a full picture of duration, location in the sky, and expected hourly rates. Armed with a fuller understanding, the amateur observer can better view and appreciate the shower of their choice. The original book, published in 1988, has been updated with over 25 years of research in this new and improved edition. Almost every meteor shower study is expanded, with some original minor showers being dropped while new ones are added. The book also includes breakthroughs in the study of meteor showers, such as accurate predictions of outbursts as well ...

  9. Changes in abundance and nature of microimpact craters on the surfaces of Australasian microtektites with distance from the proposed source crater location

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ShyamPrasad, M.; Roy, S.K.; Gupta, A.

        Author version: Meteor. Planet. Sci., vol.45(6); 2010; 990-1006 Changes in abundance and nature of micro-impact craters on the surfaces of Australasian microtektites with distance from the proposed source crater location M. Shyam Prasad* National... sediment cores along a N-S transect in the Central Indian Ocean have been investigated optically for micro-impact features on their surfaces. Detailed SEM examination of 68 microtektites along this transect shows 4091 such features. These samples...

  10. The Production of Small Primary Craters on Mars and the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Aharonson, Oded


    We model the primary crater production of small (D < 100 m) primary craters on Mars and the Moon using the observed annual flux of terrestrial fireballs. From the size-frequency distribution (SFD) of meteor diameters, with appropriate velocity distributions for Mars and the Moon, we are able to reproduce martian and lunar crater-count chronometry systems (isochrons) in both slope and magnitude. We include an atmospheric model for Mars that accounts for the deceleration, ablation, and fragmentation of meteors. We find that the details of the atmosphere or the fragmentation of the meteors do not strongly influence our results. The downturn in the crater SFD from atmospheric filtering is predicted to occur at D ~ 10-20 cm, well below the downturn observed in the distribution of fresh craters detected by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) or the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX). Crater counts conducted on the ejecta blanket of Zunil crater on Mars and North Ray crate...

  11. Bolidozor - Distributed radio meteor detection system

    CERN Document Server

    Kakona, Jakub; Kakona, Martin


    Most of the meteor radioastronomical radars are backscatter radars which cover only a small area of the atmosphere. Therefore a daytime meteor flux models are based on sparse data collected by only a few radar systems. To solve this issue, a radar system with a wide coverage is required. We present a new approach of open-source multi-static radio meteor detection system which could be distributed over a large area. This feature allows us to detect meteor events taking place over a larger area as well and gather more uniform data about meteor flux and possibly about meteor trajectories.

  12. Meteor forward scattering at multiple frequencies (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Sasa


    Meteor forward scattering is a well known method of detecting meteors using a radio telescope to receive signals from distant transmitters scattered from a meteor trail. The traditional way of performing the meteor forward scattering is to tune the receiver to some particular frequency to match a distant transmitter and wait for reflected signals. In this paper I will show how new technologies can be used to make a simpler digital radio telescope capable of analyzing broadband spectra from 0 to 250 MHz. Such spectra contain information about several reflections on a single meteor, which can be enough to calculate the meteor's kinetic parameters.

  13. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vierinen


    Full Text Available The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs; continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  14. Coded continuous wave meteor radar (United States)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.


    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  15. A Bright Lunar Impact Flash Linked to the Virginid Meteor Complex (United States)

    Moser, D. E.; Suggs, R. M.; Suggs, R. J.


    Since early 2006, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has observed over 330 impact flashes on the Moon, produced by meteoroids striking the lunar surface. On 17 March 2013 at 03:50:54.312 UTC, the brightest flash of a 9-year routine observing campaign was observed by two 0.35 m telescopes at MSFC. The camera onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), a NASA spacecraft mapping the Moon from lunar orbit, discovered the fresh crater associated with this impact [1] approximately 3 km from the location predicted by a newly developed geolocation technique [2]. The meteoroid impactor responsible for this event may have been part of a stream of large particles encountered by the Earth/Moon associated with the Virginid Meteor Complex, as evidenced by a cluster of five fireballs seen in Earth's atmosphere on the same night by the NASA All Sky Fireball Network [3] and the Southern Ontario Meteor Network [4]. Crater size calculations based on assumptions derived from fireball measurements yielded an estimated crater diameter of 10-23 m rim-to-rim using the Holsapple [5] and Gault [6] models, a result consistent with the observed crater measured to be 18 m across. This is the first time a lunar impact flash has been associated with fireballs in Earth's atmosphere and an observed crater.

  16. A fast meteor detection algorithm (United States)

    Gural, P.


    A low latency meteor detection algorithm for use with fast steering mirrors had been previously developed to track and telescopically follow meteors in real-time (Gural, 2007). It has been rewritten as a generic clustering and tracking software module for meteor detection that meets both the demanding throughput requirements of a Raspberry Pi while also maintaining a high probability of detection. The software interface is generalized to work with various forms of front-end video pre-processing approaches and provides a rich product set of parameterized line detection metrics. Discussion will include the Maximum Temporal Pixel (MTP) compression technique as a fast thresholding option for feeding the detection module, the detection algorithm trade for maximum processing throughput, details on the clustering and tracking methodology, processing products, performance metrics, and a general interface description.

  17. New trends in meteor radio receivers (United States)

    Rault, Jean-Louis


    Recent progresses in low cost—but performing—SDR (software defined radio) technology presents a major breakthrough in the domain of meteor radio observations. Their performances are now good enough for meteor work and should therefore encourage newcomers to join the meteor radio community.

  18. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteors in the Maori astronomical traditions of New Zealand (United States)

    Britton, Tui R.; Hamacher, Duane W.


    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori culture of Aotearoa or New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture, and note that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  19. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.


    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  20. Impact craters on Titan (United States)

    Wood, Charles A.; Lorenz, Ralph; Kirk, Randy; Lopes, Rosaly; Mitchell, Karl; Stofan, Ellen; ,


    Five certain impact craters and 44 additional nearly certain and probable ones have been identified on the 22% of Titan's surface imaged by Cassini's high-resolution radar through December 2007. The certain craters have morphologies similar to impact craters on rocky planets, as well as two with radar bright, jagged rims. The less certain craters often appear to be eroded versions of the certain ones. Titan's craters are modified by a variety of processes including fluvial erosion, mass wasting, burial by dunes and submergence in seas, but there is no compelling evidence of isostatic adjustments as on other icy moons, nor draping by thick atmospheric deposits. The paucity of craters implies that Titan's surface is quite young, but the modeled age depends on which published crater production rate is assumed. Using the model of Artemieva and Lunine (2005) suggests that craters with diameters smaller than about 35 km are younger than 200 million years old, and larger craters are older. Craters are not distributed uniformly; Xanadu has a crater density 2-9 times greater than the rest of Titan, and the density on equatorial dune areas is much lower than average. There is a small excess of craters on the leading hemisphere, and craters are deficient in the north polar region compared to the rest of the world. The youthful age of Titan overall, and the various erosional states of its likely impact craters, demonstrate that dynamic processes have destroyed most of the early history of the moon, and that multiple processes continue to strongly modify its surface. The existence of 24 possible impact craters with diameters less than 20 km appears consistent with the Ivanov, Basilevsky and Neukum (1997) model of the effectiveness of Titan's atmosphere in destroying most but not all small projectiles.

  1. Impact Crater Collapse (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Ivanov, B. A.

    The detailed morphology of impact craters is now believed to be mainly caused by the collapse of a geometrically simple, bowl-shaped "transient crater." The transient crater forms immediately after the impact. In small craters, those less than approximately 15 km diameter on the Moon, the steepest part of the rim collapses into the crater bowl to produce a lens of broken rock in an otherwise unmodified transient crater. Such craters are called "simple" and have a depth-to-diameter ratio near 1:5. Large craters collapse more spectacularly, giving rise to central peaks, wall terraces, and internal rings in still larger craters. These are called "complex" craters. The transition between simple and complex craters depends on 1/g, suggesting that the collapse occurs when a strength threshold is exceeded. The apparent strength, however, is very low: only a few bars, and with little or no internal friction. This behavior requires a mechanism for temporary strength degradation in the rocks surrounding the impact site. Several models for this process, including acoustic fluidization and shock weakening, have been considered by recent investigations. Acoustic fluidization, in particular, appears to produce results in good agreement with observations, although better understanding is still needed.

  2. Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Webster


    Full Text Available The radar system described here (CMOR comprises a basic 5-element receiving system, co-located with a pulsed transmitter, specifically designed to observe meteor echoes and to determine their position in space with an angular resolution of ~1° and a radial resolution of ~3 km. Two secondary receiving sites, a few km distant and arranged to form approximately a right angle with the base station, allow the determination of the velocity (speed and direction of the meteor that, together with the time of occurrence, lead to an estimate of the orbit of the original meteoroid. Some equipment details are presented along with a method used to determine the orbits. Representative echoes are shown and observations on the 2002 Leonid shower presented.

  3. Kharkiv Meteor Radar System (the XX Age) (United States)

    Kolomiyets, S. V.


    Kharkiv meteor radar research are of historic value (Kolomiyets and Sidorov 2007). Kharkiv radar observations of meteors proved internationally as the best in the world, it was noted at the IAU General Assembly in 1958. In the 1970s Kharkiv meteor automated radar system (MARS) was recommended at the international level as a successful prototype for wide distribution. Until now, this radar system is one of the most sensitive instruments of meteor radars in the world for astronomical observations. In 2004 Kharkiv meteor radar system is included in the list of objects which compose the national property of Ukraine. Kharkiv meteor radar system has acquired the status of the important historical astronomical instrument in world history. Meteor Centre for researching meteors in Kharkiv is a analogue of the observatory and performs the same functions of a generator and a battery of special knowledge and skills (the world-famous studio). Kharkiv and the location of the instrument were brand points on the globe, as the place where the world-class meteor radar studies were carried out. They are inscribed in the history of meteor astronomy, in large letters and should be immortalized on a world-wide level.

  4. Meteor Streams and Parent Bodies


    Klacka, Jozef


    Problem of meteor orbit determination for a given parent body is discussed. Some of the published methods for obtaining meteoroid's orbital elements at the moment of intersecting Earth's orbit on the basis of geometrical variation of parent body's orbital elements are discussed. The main result concerns the following two facts: i) in real situations physical quantities for the change of orbital elements of the parent body must be used, and, ii) the usage of Southworth and Hawkins (1963) D-cri...

  5. Impact cratering: A geologic process (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.

    The mechanisms involved in the formation of impact craters are examined theoretically, reviewing the results of recent investigations. Topics addressed include crater morphology, stress waves in solids, the contact and compression stage, the excavation stage, and ejecta deposits. Consideration is given to the scaling of crater dimensions, the crater modification stage, multiring basins, cratered landscapes, atmospheric interactions, and the implications of impact cratering for planetary evolution. Extensive diagrams, graphs, tables, and images of typical craters are provided.

  6. Big data era in meteor science (United States)

    Vinković, D.; Gritsevich, M.; Srećković, V.; Pečnik, B.; Szabó, G.; Debattista, V.; Škoda, P.; Mahabal, A.; Peltoniemi, J.; Mönkölä, S.; Mickaelian, A.; Turunen, E.; Kákona, J.; Koskinen, J.; Grokhovsky, V.


    Over the last couple of decades technological advancements in observational techniques in meteor science have yielded drastic improvements in the quality, quantity and diversity of meteor data, while even more ambitious instruments are about to become operational. This empowers meteor science to boost its experimental and theoretical horizons and seek more advanced science goals. We review some of the developments that push meteor science into the big data era that requires more complex methodological approaches through interdisciplinary collaborations with other branches of physics and computer science. We argue that meteor science should become an integral part of large surveys in astronomy, aeronomy and space physics, and tackle the complexity of micro-physics of meteor plasma and its interaction with the atmosphere.

  7. The 25th International Meteor Conference (United States)

    Roggemans, Paul


    Since the founding of the International Meteor Organization, the International Meteor Conferences guaranteed the vital personal contacts between its members. In recent years IMCs were sometimes assumed to have started with IMO. However, the IMCs grew out of a much older initiative, the Meteor Seminars that started in 1979, later also called International Meteor Weekends. These events played a crucial role in the making of the IMO. The 2006 IMC in Roden, the Netherlands later this year is in fact a jubilee edition as it is the 25th edition since the very beginning in 1979!

  8. Meteor Streams and Parent Bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J


    Problem of meteor orbit determination for a given parent body is discussed. Some of the published methods for obtaining meteoroid's orbital elements at the moment of intersecting Earth's orbit on the basis of geometrical variation of parent body's orbital elements are discussed. The main result concerns the following two facts: i) in real situations physical quantities for the change of orbital elements of the parent body must be used, and, ii) the usage of Southworth and Hawkins (1963) D-criterion yields results not corresponding to observations.

  9. The Role of Nonlocal Sediment Transport in Shaping Impact Crater Walls on Earth and Mars (United States)

    Abbott, A. M.; Furbish, D. J.


    With increasing interest in the concept of ';nonlocal' sediment transport on steep, regolith covered hillslopes, clearer connections between theoretical formulations of nonlocal transport and natural landforms are needed. Scree slopes that form within impact craters provide useful, interesting study sites, due in part to their reasonably well-known initial morphologies. Recent research also suggests that the surface of Mars may be more erosionally active than previously thought. By using elevations derived from LiDAR data for Earth and HiRISE images for Mars together with a probabilistic description of nonlocal transport that includes entrainment and disentrainment rates, comparisons are made between Barringer Meteorite Crater in Arizona and Martian craters of various ages. This enables commentary on whether nonlocal transport produces similar slopes, despite the differing transport processes and acceleration due to gravity for the two planets. Physical insight is obtained through laboratory experiments where gravel particles are dropped on a loose granular slope composed of similar sized gravel inclined at different slopes, including the angle of repose and a flat layer of gravel. Total travel distances were obtained for approximately 500 particles dropped from three different heights for each slope angle. The resulting distributions of travel distances are exponential-like, but for steeper slopes these distributions may decay less rapidly than an exponential function, indicating a decreasing likelihood of disentrainment with increasing travel distance. These approximately dynamically scaled experiments will help clarify the relationship between drop height, slope, surface roughness, and mean travel distance. A description of the disentrainment rate based partly on these findings will to be incorporated in a numerical model that simulates impact crater erosion for Earth and Mars. This will test the theoretical similarity of two locations that are physically very

  10. Experimental impact crater morphology (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.


    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  11. Automatical identification of secondary craters with crater spatial distribution (United States)

    Kinoshita, T.; Honda, C.; Hirata, N.; Morota, T.


    We can estimate relative and absolute ages of geological units on the lunar surface with crater counting. This method is called as crater chronology and based on an assumption that each impact cratering occurs randomly to the surface. In contrast to these primary craters, secondary craters are impact craters formed by ejecta blocks and constitute clustering craters. As a result of the clustering, the secondary craters show a biased spatial distribution of craters. For the crater chronology, researchers have to exclude secondary craters and their regions from the surface image including primary and secondary craters based on his or her subjective views. We can identify most of secondary craters with unique shape and spatial distribution of craters. However, the secondary craters produced by high-velocity ejecta fragments are more circular and may be less clustered than the adjacent secondary craters, and it can therefor be difficult to distinguish from primary craters. So, it has been suggested that individual differences in the recognition of secondary craters exist. We propose an algorithm for evaluating spatial distribution of craters on the lunar images. We have developed two procedures. In these procedures, we evaluated the spatial distribution of craters by using the group average method in one of the hierarchical clustering, or by using the Voronoi diagram. In these procedures, we compare the result of evaluation for observed spatial distribution of craters with the result of evaluation for ideal random spatial distribution of craters. We demonstrated for some regions on the lunar surface. As a result, almost of clustered secondary craters are identified quantitatively by our algorithm.

  12. Sporadic E-Layers and Meteor Activity (United States)

    Alimov, Obid


    In average width it is difficult to explain variety of particularities of the behavior sporadic layer Es ionospheres without attraction long-lived metallic ion of the meteoric origin. Mass spectrometric measurements of ion composition using rockets indicate the presence of metal ions Fe+, Mg+, Si+, Na+, Ca+, K+, Al+ and others in the E-region of the ionosphere. The most common are the ions Fe+, Mg+, Si+, which are primarily concentrated in the narrow sporadic layers of the ionosphere at altitudes of 90-130 km. The entry of meteoric matter into the Earth's atmosphere is a source of meteor atoms (M) and ions (M +) that later, together with wind shear, produce midlatitude sporadic Es layer of the ionosphere. To establish the link between sporadic Es layer and meteoroid streams, we proceeded from the dependence of the ionization coefficient of meteors b on the velocity of meteor particles in different meteoroid streams. We investigated the dependence of the critical frequency f0Es of sporadic E on the particle velocity V of meteor streams and associations. It was established that the average values of f0Es are directly proportional to the velocity V of meteor streams and associations, with the correlation coefficient of 0.53 ions M+ of meteoric origin.

  13. Forward scattering of meteors at multiple frequencies (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, S.; Netterfield, C. B.


    Forward scattering of meteors is a method of meteor detection using a radio receiver to detect signals coming from the transmitters not in line-of-sight. When a meteoroid enters the atmosphere an ionized trail which can reflect radio waves is created. If the meteor, the transmitter and the receiver are in "good" geometrical alignment such that coherent scattering is possible, the receiver will be able to detect a signal reflected from the meteor. A digital radio spectrometer working between 50 and 150MHz and connected to a small wide-frequency, wide-beam antenna can be used as a detector. Its spectral resolution is better than 50kHz and able to resolve individual FM radio and TV stations. In this paper we shall give an overview of the apparatus used to detect meteors at FM frequencies. We will also explain how we can extract the kinetic parameters of the meteoroid. Some preliminary results will be presented.

  14. 10Be content in clasts from fallout suevitic breccia in drill cores from the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana: Clues to preimpact target distribution (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian


    Rocks from drill cores LB-07A (crater fill) and LB-08A (central uplift) into the Bosumtwi impact crater, Ghana, were analyzed for the presence of the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be. The aim of the study was to determine the extent to which target rocks of various depths were mixed during the formation of the crater-filling breccia, and also to detect meteoric water infiltration within the impactite layer. 10Be abundances above background were found in two (out of 24) samples from the LB-07A core, and in none of five samples from the LB-08A core. After excluding other possible explanations for an elevated 10Be signal, we conclude that it is most probably due to a preimpact origin of those clasts from target rocks close to the surface. Our results suggest that in-crater breccias were well mixed during the impact cratering process. In addition, the lack of a 10Be signal within the rocks located very close to the lake sediment-impactite boundary suggests that infiltration of meteoric water below the postimpact crater floor was limited. This may suggest that the infiltration of the meteoric water within the crater takes place not through the aerial pore-space, but rather through a localized system of fractures.

  15. Lunar secondary craters, part K (United States)

    Overbeck, V. R.; Morrison, R. H.; Wedekind, J.


    Formation of V-shaped structures surrounding the fresh Copernicus Crater and its secondary craters are reviewed, and preliminary observations of the more extensively eroded secondary crater field of Theophilus are presented. Results of laboratory simulation of secondary lunar craters to examine their effects on V-shaped ridges are also described.

  16. Venus - Crater Aurelia (United States)


    This Magellan image shows a complex crater, 31.9 kilometers (20 miles) in diameter with a circular rim, terraced walls, and central peaks, located at 20.3 degrees north latitude and 331.8 degrees east longitude. Several unusual features are evidenced in this image: large dark surface up range from the crater; lobate flows emanating from crater ejecta, and very radar-bright ejecta and floor. Aurelia has been proposed to the International Astronomical Union, Subcommittee of Planetary Nomenclature as a candidate name. Aurelia is the mother of Julius Caesar.

  17. Crater in Utopia (United States)


    23 March 2004 Craters of the martian northern plains tend to be somewhat shallow because material has filled them in. Their ejecta blankets, too, are often covered by younger materials. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example--a crater in Utopia Planitia near 43.7oN, 227.3oW. Erosion has roughened some of the surfaces of the material that filled the crater and covered its ejecta deposit. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  18. Radio Meteors Observations Techniques at RI NAO (United States)

    Vovk, Vasyl; Kaliuzhnyi, Mykola


    The Solar system is inhabited with large number of celestial bodies. Some of them are well studied, such as planets and vast majority of big asteroids and comets. There is one group of objects which has received little attention. That is meteoroids with related to them meteors. Nowadays enough low-technology high-efficiency radio-technical solutions are appeared which allow to observe meteors daily. At RI NAO three methodologies for meteor observation are developed: single-station method using FM-receiver, correlation method using FM-receiver and Internet resources, and single-station method using low-cost SDR-receiver.

  19. Listening to FM and Chasing Meteors (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Sasa; Barth Netterfield, C.


    This poster will show how a digital radio spectrometer working between 50 and 150 MHz can be used for meteor detection. The spectrometer is connected to a small wide-frequency, wide-beam antenna. With better than 50 kHz spectral resolution, the instrument can resolve individual FM radio and TV stations. Existing commercial transmitters over the horizon will be used as transmitters for the forward scattering method of meteor detection. Given the frequency, directivity, and power of transmitters, and time evolution of the reflection, we can extract dynamical parameters of the meteor using only one receiver.

  20. Venus Crater Database (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page leads to a database of images and information about the 900 or so impact craters on the surface of Venus by diameter, latitude, and name.

  1. The KUT meteor radar: An educational low cost meteor observation system by radio forward scattering (United States)

    Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.


    The Kochi University of Technology (KUT) meteor radar is an educational low cost observation system built at Kochi, Japan by successive graduate students since 2004. The system takes advantage of the continuous VHF- band beacon signal emitted from Fukui National College of Technology (FNCT) for scientific usage all over Japan by receiving the forward scattered signals. The system uses the classical forward scattering setup similar to the setup described by the international meteor organization (IMO), gradually developed from the most basic single antenna setup to the multi-site meteor path determination setup. The primary objective is to automate the observation of the meteor parameters continuously to provide amounts of data sufficient for statistical analysis. The developed software system automates the observation of the astronomical meteor parameters such as meteor direction, velocity and trajectory. Also, automated counting of meteor echoes and their durations are used to observe mesospheric ozone concentration by analyzing the duration distribution of different meteor showers. The meteor parameters observed and the methodology used for each are briefly summarized.

  2. Meteors in the Maori Astronomical Traditions of New Zealand

    CERN Document Server

    Britton, Tui R


    We review the literature for perceptions of meteors in the Maori cultures of New Zealand. We examine representations of meteors in religion, story, and ceremony. We find that meteors are sometimes personified as gods or children, or are seen as omens of death and destruction. The stories we found highlight the broad perception of meteors found throughout the Maori culture and demonstrate that some early scholars conflated the terms comet and meteor.

  3. Tritium concentrations in the active Pu'u O'o crater, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: implications for cold fusion in the Earth's interior (United States)

    Quick, J.E.; Hinkley, T.K.; Reimer, G.M.; Hedge, C.E.


    The assertion that deuterium-deuterium fusion may occur at low temperature suggests a potential new source of geothermal heat. If a cold-fusion-like process occurs within the Earth, then a test for its existence would be a search for anomalous tritium in volcanic emissions. The Pu'u O'o crater is the first point at which large amounts of water are degassed from the magma that feeds the Kilauea system. The magma is probably not contaminated by meteoric-source ground water prior to degassing at Pu'u O'o, although mixing of meteoric and magmatic H2O occurs within the crater. Tritium contents of samples from within the crater are lower than in samples taken simultaneously from the nearby upwind crater rim. These results provide no evidence in support of a cold-fusion-like process in the Earth's interior. ?? 1991.

  4. The Southern Argentine Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) (United States)

    Janches, Diego


    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53 S) in May 2008. SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large number of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars. In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions. The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source, of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables detailed study of showers at high southern latitudes (e.g July Phoenicids or Puppids complex). Finally, SAAMER is ideal for the deployment of complementary instrumentation in both, permanent

  5. Meteor burst in the post 2000 era (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Oduol, V.; Ghosh, A.; Tailor, B.

    In recent years a renewed interest has been shown in the possibility of using meteor burst links in tactical communications, both for networking and covert operations. Some of the applications that recent performance improvements would permit are evaluated. In evaluating the feasibility of a meteor burst implementation, certain technical and physical limitations are addressed. For the success of these applications, interoperability with other communication systems is necessary. The level of interoperability with other media, and the standards necessary to assure this interoperability are examined. Methods of minimizing and combating jamming are proposed. Meteor burst systems can be used in a large number of applications within a tactical environment. The principal disadvantage of the meteor burst medium is the problem of interference to other spectrum users from the probe end, and the interference from other users at the receiver end. The low throughput characteristic of meteor burst compares with some of the channel capacities used in other systems. Interoperability with other networks or communications links is relatively easy if certain straightforward protocols and standards are established.

  6. IAU Meteor Data Center | the shower database: a status report

    CERN Document Server

    Jopek, Tadeusz Jan


    Currently, the meteor shower part of Meteor Data Center database includes: 112 established showers, 563 in the working list, among them 36 have pro tempore status and 23 will be removed from the list. The list of shower complexes contains 25 groups, 3 have established status and 1 has pro tempore status. In the past three years, new meteor showers submitted to the MDC database were detected amongst meteors observed by CAMS stations (Cameras for Allsky Meteor Surveillance), meteors included in the EDMOND (European viDeo MeteOr Network Database), meteors collected by Japanese SonotaCo Network, meteors recorded in IMO (International Meteor Organization) database, amongst meteors observed by Croatian Meteor Network and meteors observed on the Southern Hemisphere by the SAAMER radar. During the XXIXth General Assembly of the IAU in Honolulu, Hawaii in 2015, the names of 18 showers were o?cially accepted and moved to the list of established showers. Also, one shower already o?cially named (3/SIA the Southern iota A...

  7. All-sky Meteor Orbit System AMOS and preliminary analysis of three unusual meteor showers (United States)

    Tóth, Juraj; Kornoš, Leonard; Zigo, Pavol; Gajdoš, Štefan; Kalmančok, Dušan; Világi, Jozef; Šimon, Jaroslav; Vereš, Peter; Šilha, Jiří; Buček, Marek; Galád, Adrián; Rusňák, Patrik; Hrábek, Peter; Ďuriš, František; Rudawska, Regina


    All-sky Meteor Orbit System (AMOS) is a semi-autonomous video observatory for detection of transient events on the sky, mostly the meteors. Its hardware and software development and permanent placement on several locations in Slovakia allowed the establishment of Slovak Video Meteor Network (SVMN) monitoring meteor activity above the Central Europe. The data reduction, orbital determination and additional results from AMOS cameras - the SVMN database - as well as from observational expeditions on Canary Islands and in Canada provided dynamical and physical data for better understanding of mutual connections between parent bodies of asteroids and comets and their meteoroid streams. We present preliminary results on exceptional and rare meteor streams such as September ɛ Perseids (SPE) originated from unknown long periodic comet on a retrograde orbit, suspected asteroidal meteor stream of April α Comae Berenicids (ACO) in the orbit of meteorites Příbram and Neuschwanstein and newly observed meteor stream Camelopardalids (CAM) originated from Jupiter family comet 209P/Linear.

  8. Advances in Meteoroid and Meteor Science

    CERN Document Server

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M; Llorca, J; Janches, D


    This volume is a compilation of articles that summarize the most recent results in meteor, meteoroid and related fields presented at the Meteoroids 2007 conference held at the impressive CosmoCaixa Science Museum in Barcelona, Spain. The conference took place between the 11th and the 15th of June and was organized by the Institute of Space Sciences (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) and the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC). Researchers in meteor science and supporting fields representing more than 20 countries participated at this international conference. The papers contained in this volume underwent the rigorous refereeing process, and they are good examples of the continuous progress being made in this research field. Technological advances in meteor and metoroid detection, the ever-increasing sophistication of computer modeling, and the proliferation of autonomous monitoring stations continue to create new niches for exciting research on meteoroids and their parent bo...

  9. The Radio Meteor Zoo: a citizen science project (United States)

    Calders, S.; Verbeeck, C.; Lamy, H.; Martínez Picar, A.


    Scientists from the BRAMS radio meteor network have started a citizen science project called Radio Meteor Zoo in collaboration with Zooniverse in order to identify meteor reflections in BRAMS spectrograms. First, a small-scale version of the Radio Meteor Zoo was carried out with a sample of meteor identifications in 12 spectrograms by 35 volunteers. Results are presented here and allowed us to define a method that reliably detects meteor reflections based on the identifications by the volunteers. It turns out that, if each spectrogram is inspected by 10 volunteers, hit and false detection percentages of 95% respectively 6% are expected. The Radio Meteor Zoo is online at Citizen scientists are kindly invited to inspect spectrograms.

  10. Independent identification of meteor showers in EDMOND database

    CERN Document Server

    Rudawska, R; Tóth, J; Kornoš, L


    Cooperation and data sharing among national networks and International Meteor Organization Video Meteor Database (IMO VMDB) resulted in European viDeo MeteOr Network Database (EDMOND). The current version of the database (EDMOND 5.0) contains 144 751 orbits collected from 2001 to 2014. In our survey we used EDMOND database in order to identify existing and new meteor showers in the database. In the first step of the survey, using Dsh criterion we found groups around each meteor within similarity threshold. Mean parameters of the groups were calculated and compared using a new function based on geocentric parameters (solar longitude, right ascension, declination, and geocentric velocity). Similar groups were merged into final clusters (representing meteor showers), and compared with IAU Meteor Data Center list of meteor showers. This paper presents the results obtained by the proposed methodology.

  11. Modern Meteor Science An Interdisciplinary View

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Robert; Brown, Peter


    This volume represents a blend of leading edge research and authoritative reviews in meteor science. It provides a comprehensive view of meteoroid research including the dynamics, sources and distribution of these bodies, and their chemistry and physical processes in the interplanetary medium and the Earth’s atmosphere. Techniques for investigation of meteor phenomena in the book include conventional and large aperture radar systems, spacecraft detection, optical systems, spectral measurements, and laboratory based interplanetary dust particle studies. The book will be of interest to researchers and students in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmochemistry, space engineering and space science. Cover photograph was taken by Masayuki Toda.

  12. Field experiment for blasting crater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Tu-qiang


    A series of single hole blasting crater experiments and a variable distance multi-hole simultaneous blasting experiment was carded in the Yunfu Troilite Mine, according to the Livingston blasting crater theory. We introduce in detail, our methodology of data collection and processing from our experiments. Based on the burying depth of the explosives, the blasting crater volume was fitted by the method of least squares and the characteristic curve of the blasting crater was obtained using the MATLAB software. From this third degree polynomial, we have derived the optimal burying depth, the critical burying depth and the optimal explosive specific charge of the blasting crater.

  13. Are There Meteors Originated from Near Earth Asteroid (25143) Itokawa?

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsuka, K; Abe, M; Yano, H; Watanabe, J


    As a result of a survey of Itokawid meteors (i.e., meteors originated from Near Earth Asteroid (25143) Itokawa = 1998SF36), from among the multi-station optical meteor orbit data of ~15000 orbits, and applying the D-criteria, we could find five Itokawid meteor candidates. We also analyzed corresponding mineral materials of the Itokawid candidates through their trajectory and atmospheric data. We conclude, on the basis of our investigation, that the fireball, MORP172, is the strongest Itokawid candidate.

  14. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668 (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668 The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets. The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on the rover team

  15. Automated Meteor Fluxes with a Wide-Field Meteor Camera Network (United States)

    Blaauw, R. C.; Campbell-Brown, M. D.; Cooke, W.; Weryk, R. J.; Gill, J.; Musci, R.


    Within NASA, the Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) is charged to monitor the meteoroid environment in near ]earth space for the protection of satellites and spacecraft. The MEO has recently established a two ]station system to calculate automated meteor fluxes in the millimeter ]size ]range. The cameras each consist of a 17 mm focal length Schneider lens on a Watec 902H2 Ultimate CCD video camera, producing a 21.7 x 16.3 degree field of view. This configuration has a red ]sensitive limiting meteor magnitude of about +5. The stations are located in the South Eastern USA, 31.8 kilometers apart, and are aimed at a location 90 km above a point 50 km equidistant from each station, which optimizes the common volume. Both single station and double station fluxes are found, each having benefits; more meteors will be detected in a single camera than will be seen in both cameras, producing a better determined flux, but double station detections allow for non ]ambiguous shower associations and permit speed/orbit determinations. Video from the cameras are fed into Linux computers running the ASGARD (All Sky and Guided Automatic Real ]time Detection) software, created by Rob Weryk of the University of Western Ontario Meteor Physics Group. ASGARD performs the meteor detection/photometry, and invokes the MILIG and MORB codes to determine the trajectory, speed, and orbit of the meteor. A subroutine in ASGARD allows for the approximate shower identification in single station meteors. The ASGARD output is used in routines to calculate the flux in units of #/sq km/hour. The flux algorithm employed here differs from others currently in use in that it does not assume a single height for all meteors observed in the common camera volume. In the MEO system, the volume is broken up into a set of height intervals, with the collecting areas determined by the radiant of active shower or sporadic source. The flux per height interval is summed to obtain the total meteor flux. As ASGARD also

  16. The Makings of Meteor Astronomy: Part IX (United States)

    Beech, M.


    Chladni's ideas on the origin of fireballs, shooting stars and meteorites were not fully formed when he first published his thesis in 1794. Below we discuss some of the initial debate concerning the origin of Chladni's cosmic masses. We also discuss a couple of hybrid meteor models.

  17. The makings of meteor astronomy: Part VIII. (United States)

    Beech, M.


    Ernst Chladni (1756 - 1827) is often considered to be the father of modern meteor astronomy. While his thesis of 1794 offered no essentially new or innovative ideas it did break important ground in showing the clear inadequacies of the then accepted model of fireball origins.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Molti ricercatori in questi ultimi anni si sono interessati al problema
    della composizione delle meteoriti; dai risultati sperimentali si
    è cercato trarre elementi circa la genesi di questi materiali, questione
    ancora aperta, ed avere informazioni sui processi chimici e termodinamici
    cui le meteoriti furono soggette prima della loro caduta sulla
    Uno degli aspetti del problema è quello dell'abbondanza percentuale
    degli elementi chimici e della loro composizione isotopica nella
    materia meteorica dei diversi tipi : ciò perché esso è connesso con
    quello piii generale dell'origine e distribuzione degli elementi nel cosmo
    e nella terra, nonché con quello dell'età delle meteoriti (l .
    In un recente lavoro Urey e collaboratori (-, esaminando un gran
    numero di analisi chimiche effettuate su questi materiali, sono pervenuti
    alla formulazione di alcuni criteri di classificazione in base alla
    percentuale dei componenti più abbondanti ed alla presenza o meno
    di disomogeneità strutturali nella massa fondamentale. Fra gli elementi
    meno abbondanti presentano particolare interesse quelli delle due famiglie
    radioattive naturali Torio e Uranio; le loro concentrazioni sono
    state determinate per alcune meteoriti siliciche (stonv ineteorites e
    per qualcuna ferrica (iron meteorites

  19. Luceafarul: a Romanian meteor-inspired poem. (United States)

    McBeath, A.; Ghoerghe, A. D.


    The poem Luceafarul, written by Mihai Eminescu and first published in 1883, is considered as being the greatest Romanian poetic masterpiece. In commemorating the 110th anniversary of the author's death in 1999, the authors present here a short discussion of the poem's astronomical imagery, which includes the re-using of long-held beliefs about meteors from old Romanian myths and folklore.

  20. Analysis of historical meteor and meteor shower records: Korea, China, and Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, H J; Park, M G; Yang, Hong-Jin; Park, Changbom; Park, Myeong-Gu


    We have compiled and analyzed historical Korean meteor and meteor shower records in three Korean official history books, Samguksagi which covers the three Kingdoms period (57 B.C -- A.D. 935), Goryeosa of Goryeo dynasty (A.D. 918 -- 1392), and Joseonwangjosillok of Joseon dynasty (A.D. 1392 -- 1910). We have found 3861 meteor and 31 meteor shower records. We have confirmed the peaks of Perseids and an excess due to the mixture of Orionids, north-Taurids, or Leonids through the Monte-Carlo test. The peaks persist from the period of Goryeo dynasty to that of Joseon dynasty, for almost one thousand years. Korean records show a decrease of Perseids activity and an increase of Orionids/north-Taurids/Leonids activity. We have also analyzed seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from Korean records. We confirm the seasonal variation of sporadic meteors from the records of Joseon dynasty with the maximum number of events being roughly 1.7 times the minimum. The Korean records are compared with Chinese and Japanese re...

  1. Scaling multiblast craters: General approach and application to volcanic craters (United States)

    Sonder, I.; Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.


    Most volcanic explosions leave a crater in the surface around the center of the explosions. Such craters differ from products of single events like meteorite impacts or those produced by military testing because they typically result from multiple, rather than single, explosions. Here we analyze the evolution of experimental craters that were created by several detonations of chemical explosives in layered aggregates. An empirical relationship for the scaled crater radius as a function of scaled explosion depth for single blasts in flat test beds is derived from experimental data, which differs from existing relations and has better applicability for deep blasts. A method to calculate an effective explosion depth for nonflat topography (e.g., for explosions below existing craters) is derived, showing how multiblast crater sizes differ from the single-blast case: Sizes of natural caters (radii and volumes) are not characteristic of the number of explosions, nor therefore of the total acting energy, that formed a crater. Also, the crater size is not simply related to the largest explosion in a sequence but depends upon that explosion and the energy of that single blast and on the cumulative energy of all blasts that formed a crater. The two energies can be combined to form an effective number of explosions that is characteristic for the crater evolution. The multiblast crater size evolution has implications on the estimates of volcanic eruption energies, indicating that it is not correct to estimate explosion energy from crater size using previously published relationships that were derived for single-blast cases.

  2. Identification of craters on Moon using Crater Density Parameter (United States)

    Vandana, Vandana


    Lunar craters are the most noticeable features on the face of the moon. They take up 40.96% of the lunar surface and, their accumulated area is approximately three times as much as the lunar surface area. There are many myths about the moon. Some says moon is made of cheese. The moon and the sun chase each other across the sky etc. but scientifically the moon are closest and are only natural satellite of earth. The orbit plane of the moon is tilted by 5° and orbit period around the earth is 27-3 days. There are two eclipse i.e. lunar eclipse and solar eclipse which always comes in pair. Moon surface has 3 parts i.e. highland, Maria, and crater. For crater diagnostic crater density parameter is one of the means for measuring distance can be easily identity the density between two craters. Crater size frequency distribution (CSFD) is being computed for lunar surface using TMC and MiniSAR image data and hence, also the age for the selected test sites of mars is also determined. The GIS-based program uses the density and orientation of individual craters within LCCs (as vector points) to identify potential source craters through a series of cluster identification and ejection modeling analyses. JMars software is also recommended and operated only the time when connected with server but work can be done in Arc GIS with the help of Arc Objects and Model Builder. The study plays a vital role to determine the lunar surface based on crater (shape, size and density) and exploring affected craters on the basis of height, weight and velocity. Keywords: Moon; Crater; MiniSAR.

  3. Meteoroids and impact craters (United States)

    Spall, H.


    On a clear night scores of meteoroids streak across the sky. they leave light paths we call meteors or shooting stars as the Earth is showered with debris from distant parts of the solar system. When these meteoroids hit the Earth (as meteorites) they range in size from pebbles to the 34 ton Ahnighito meteorite that the American explorer Admiral Robert Peary discovered in Greenland. The unique importance of meteorites is that they have an extra-terrestrial origin and can provide us with direct evidence on the make-up of the solar system. They also give us clues to the origin of the solar system because they formed about 4.6 billion years ago at about the time the planets formed.

  4. The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network: first results (United States)

    Stempels, E.; Kero, E.


    The Swedish Allsky Meteor Network started operations with two cameras in early 2014 and has since grown steadily. Currently, seven stations are active and several more will come online in the near future. The network to a large degree relies on low-cost stations run by private individuals or small societies of amateur astronomers. Originally based on the Danish meteor network Stjerneskud, the central node of Uppsala University provides the network with the necessary infrastructure, such as a continually updated software distribution and automatic processing of data from all stations. Although covering a very large land mass with relatively low resources is challenging, there have up to now been several well-observed events, often in collaboration with observations from neighboring countries. We give a short overview of the network's current status, chosen technical solutions, and some results.

  5. A Global Atmospheric Model of Meteoric Iron (United States)

    Feng, Wuhu; Marsh, Daniel R.; Chipperfield, Martyn P.; Janches, Diego; Hoffner, Josef; Yi, Fan; Plane, John M. C.


    The first global model of meteoric iron in the atmosphere (WACCM-Fe) has been developed by combining three components: the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), a description of the neutral and ion-molecule chemistry of iron in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), and a treatment of the injection of meteoric constituents into the atmosphere. The iron chemistry treats seven neutral and four ionized iron containing species with 30 neutral and ion-molecule reactions. The meteoric input function (MIF), which describes the injection of Fe as a function of height, latitude, and day, is precalculated from an astronomical model coupled to a chemical meteoric ablation model (CABMOD). This newly developed WACCM-Fe model has been evaluated against a number of available ground-based lidar observations and performs well in simulating the mesospheric atomic Fe layer. The model reproduces the strong positive correlation of temperature and Fe density around the Fe layer peak and the large anticorrelation around 100 km. The diurnal tide has a significant effect in the middle of the layer, and the model also captures well the observed seasonal variations. However, the model overestimates the peak Fe+ concentration compared with the limited rocket-borne mass spectrometer data available, although good agreement on the ion layer underside can be obtained by adjusting the rate coefficients for dissociative recombination of Fe-molecular ions with electrons. Sensitivity experiments with the same chemistry in a 1-D model are used to highlight significant remaining uncertainties in reaction rate coefficients, and to explore the dependence of the total Fe abundance on the MIF and rate of vertical transport.

  6. Physical and Chemical Properties of Meteoric Smoke (United States)

    Plane, J. M.; Saunders, R. E.


    Somewhere between 10 and 100 tonnes (the current range of estimates) of interplanetary dust enters the earth's atmosphere each day. At least 60 percent of this ablates completely into atoms and ions, mostly between 70 and 110 km. This paper is concerned with the subsequent fate of the ablated metals and silicon. These species form a variety of oxides and hydroxides below 90 km, and it is widely believed that these species condense into nanometer-sized dust particles, known as "meteoric smoke". Here we will report laboratory experiments to simulate the production of meteoric smoke particles. Several chemical systems were investigated using a photochemical reactor: pure iron, iron-oxygen, silicon-oxygen and mixed iron-silicon-oxygen nano-particles. The particles were analysed for size distribution (diameter greater than 3 nm), chemical and physical structure and optical extinction. The kinetics of particle growth through condensation and coagulation were also measured in a novel aerosol flow tube. The results are used to refine aerosol growth models, and then to speculate on the likely form and size distribution of meteoric smoke in the mesosphere. Finally, we will consider how changes in the interplanetary dust flux could have affected the evolution of the earth's atmosphere.

  7. The return of the Andromedids meteor shower

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegert, Paul A; Weryk, Robert J; Wong, Daniel K


    The Andromedid meteor shower underwent spectacular outbursts in 1872 and 1885, producing thousands of visual meteors per hour and described as `stars fell like rain' in Chinese records of the time. The shower originates from comet 3D/Biela whose disintegration in the mid-1800's is linked to the outbursts, but the shower has been weak or absent since the late 19th Century. This shower returned in December 2011 with a zenithal hourly rate of approximately 50, the strongest return in over a hundred years. Some 122 probable Andromedid orbits were detected by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar. The shower outburst occurred during 2011 Dec 3-5. The radiant at RA +$18\\degree$ and Dec +$56\\degree$ is typical of the `classical' Andromedids of the early 1800's, whose radiant was actually in Cassiopeia. The orbital elements indicate that the material involved was released before 3D/Biela's breakup prior to 1846. The observed shower in 2011 had a slow geocentric speed (16 km s$^{-1}$) and was comprised of small particles: t...

  8. On meteor stream spatial structure theory (United States)

    Andreev, G. V.


    The classical spatial representation of meteor streams is an elliptical torus with variable cross section. The position of this torus in space is determined by the mean orbit elements that may be obtained directly from observations of individual meteor stream particles when crossed by the Earth. Since the orbits of individual particles of a stream differ from each other, the distance between them on a plane normal to the mean orbit of elliptical torus forms some area, i.e., a cross section. The size and form of these cross sections change with the change of the direction among the mean orbit and are completely defined by the dispersion values of the orbit elements in a stream. An attempt was made to create an analytical method that would permit description of the spatial and time parameters of meteor streams, i.e., the form and size of their cross section, density of incident flux and their variations along the mean orbit and in time. In this case, the stream is considered as a continuous flux rather than a set of individual particles.

  9. Dunes in Darwin Crater (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03039 Dunes in Darwin Crater The dunes and sand deposits in this image are located on the floor of Darwin Crater. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 57.4S, Longitude 340.2E. 17 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Landslide in a Crater (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The landslide in this VIS image is located inside an impact crater in the Elysium region of Mars. The unnamed crater is located at the margin of the volcanic flows from the Elysium Mons complex. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 1.2, Longitude 134 East (226 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Interferometric meteor head echo observations using the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hocking, W.; Pifko, S.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Fritts, D. C.; Brunini, C.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.


    A radar meteor echo is the radar scattering signature from the free electrons generated by the entry of extraterrestrial particles into the atmosphere. Three categories of scattering mechanisms exist: specular, nonspecular trails, and head echoes. Generally, there are two types of radars utilized to detect meteors. Traditional VHF all-sky meteor radars primarily detect the specular trails, while high-power, large-aperture (HPLA) radars efficiently detect meteor head echoes and, in some cases, nonspecular trails. The fact that head echo measurements can be performed only with HPLA radars limits these studies in several ways. HPLA radars are sensitive instruments constraining the studies to the lower masses, and these observations cannot be performed continuously because they take place at national observatories with limited allocated observing time. These drawbacks can be addressed by developing head echo observing techniques with modified all-sky meteor radars. Such systems would also permit simultaneous detection of all different scattering mechanisms using the same instrument, rather than requiring assorted different classes of radars, which can help clarify observed differences between the different methodologies. In this study, we demonstrate that such concurrent observations are now possible, enabled by the enhanced design of the Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER). The results presented here are derived from observations performed over a period of 12 days in August 2011 and include meteoroid dynamical parameter distributions, radiants, and estimated masses. Overall, the SAAMER's head echo detections appear to be produced by larger particles than those which have been studied thus far using this technique.

  12. Mesospheric observations by a forward scattering meteor radar basic setup (United States)

    Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki


    The durations of radio echo signals scattered from meteor ionized trails might not show a consistent increase corresponding to higher density trails due to the rapid removal of meteor ions at certain heights. Several studies have concluded the dominant role of the secondary ozone layer over diffusion in the removal of the meteor trails below 95 km through chemical oxidization of the meteor ions. Using a basic setup configuration of a forward scattering receiver, a trial to observe the mesospheric ozone concentration was performed by analyzing the meteor echo duration distributions. The forward scattered meteor echoes have the advantage of long durations that can enable observing the transition from the diffusion-removal regime to the chemistry-removal regime. The cumulative meteor echo duration distribution of two meteor showers, the Perseids and the Geminids, were analyzed over 10 years and the chemistry-removal regime in each shower was observed. The knee duration position at which a drop in the number of long overdense meteor echoes starts differed by around 30 seconds between the two showers. As the secondary ozone concentration is inversely related to the solar activity level, the Geminids 2011 corresponding to a high solar activity level showed a significant higher counts of long duration echoes compared to the Geminids 2006 during a low activity level, with the knee position shifted to longer duration. The knee positions obtained during the two distinct meteor showers and the two half solar cycle points are generally in agreement with the mesospheric ozone conditions expected in each case. However, continuous data record is required for the other meteor showers and the sporadic meteors at different heights to observe the mesospheric ozone concentration vertically and the full 11-years solar cycle.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva, A.A.


    Full Text Available The article describes the basic physical principles of meteor radio. A block diagram of hardware and software for sensing meteor trails. The principles of software-defined radio system lies at the heart of the complex. The paper presents a functional diagram of a digital oscillator, as well as software description with an example of the received data. This complex allows eliminating a number of shortcomings meteor radio, as well as increasing its range and security.

  14. A new method of discovering new meteor showers from the IMO single-station video meteor database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    It has been found that unknown meteor showers could be efficiently discovered from the single station video meteor database of the International Meteor Organization(IMO) by assuming the geocentric velocity and adjusting it within the dynamically permitted range. The mean geocentric velocities of new meteor showers can be obtained,as well as the coordinates of the radiants. The activity period and maximum time can also be obtained if there are sufficient shower meteors. All single station video meteor observations between February 13 and 17(from 2000 to 2005) in IMO’s database are processed with this method. As a result,two new meteor showers,one near RA=245.10°,Dec=41.82° in Hercules and the other near RA=233.03°,Dec=17.04° in Serpenids,are discovered. Some dynamical characteristics of the new meteor showers are also determined. Considering the random nature on the selection of period in this work,it is expected that there are some more potential new meteor showers in IMO’s video database.

  15. A new method of discovering new meteor showers from the IMO single-station video meteor database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; ZHU Jin


    It has been found that unknown meteor showers could be efficiently discovered from the single station video meteor database of the International Meteor Organi-zation (IMO) by assuming the geocentric velocity and adjusting it within the dy-namically permitted range. The mean geocentric velocities of new meteor showers can be obtained, as well as the coordinates of the radiants. The activity period and maximum time can also be obtained if there are sufficient shower meteors. All sin-gle station video meteor observations between February 13 and 17 (from 2000 to 2005) in IMO's database are processed with this method. As a result, two new me-teor showers, one near RA=245.10°, Dec:41.82° in Hercules and the other near RA=233.03°, Dec:17.04° in Serpenids, are discovered. Some dynamical character-istics of the new meteor showers are also determined. Considering the random nature on the selection of period in this work, it is expected that there are some more potential new meteor showers in IMO's video database.

  16. Meteor Beliefs Project: some meteoric imagery in the works of William Shakespeare (United States)

    McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.


    Passages from three of William Shakespeare's plays are presented, illustrating some of the beliefs in meteors in 16th-17th century England. They also reflect earlier beliefs and information which it is known Shakespeare drew on in constructing his works.

  17. Meteor Beliefs Project: Meteoric imagery associated with the death of John Brown in 1859 (United States)

    Drobnock, G. J.; McBeath, A.; Gheorghe, A. D.


    An examination is made of metaphorical meteor imagery used in conjunction with the death of American anti-slavery activist John Brown, who was executed in December 1859. Such imagery continues to be used in this regard into the 21st century.

  18. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.


    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  19. The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER): Platform for comprehensive meteor radar observations and studies (United States)

    Janches, D.; Hormaechea, J.; Pifko, S.; Hocking, W.; Fritts, D.; Brunini, C.; Close, S.; Michell, R.; Samara, M.


    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) is a new generation system deployed in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53^oS) in May 2008 (Janches et al., 2013,2014). SAAMER transmits 10 times more power than regular meteor radars, and uses a newly developed transmitting array, which focuses power upward instead of the traditional single-antenna-all-sky configuration. The system is configured such that the transmitter array can also be utilized as a receiver. The new design greatly increases the sensitivity of the radar enabling the detection of large numbers of particles at low zenith angles. The more concentrated transmitted power enables additional meteor studies besides those typical of these systems based on the detection of specular reflections, such as routine detections of head echoes and non-specular trails, previously only possible with High Power and Large Aperture radars (Janches et al., 2014). In August 2010, SAAMER was upgraded to a system capable to determine meteoroid orbital parameters. This was achieved by adding two remote receiving stations approximately 10 km away from the main site in near perpendicular directions (Pifko et al., 2014). The upgrade significantly expands the science that is achieved with this new radar enabling us to study the orbital properties of the interplanetary dust environment. Because of the unique geographical location, the SAAMER allows for additional inter-hemispheric comparison with measurements from Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, which is geographically conjugate. Initial surveys show, for example, that SAAMER observes a very strong contribution of the South Toroidal Sporadic meteor source (Pifko et al., 2014), of which limited observational data is available. In addition, SAAMER offers similar unique capabilities for meteor showers and streams studies given the range of ecliptic latitudes that the system enables to survey (Janches et al., 2013). It can effectively observe radiants from the ecliptic south

  20. Aging comets and their meteor showers (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi


    Comets are thought to be responsible for the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. The aging of comets is one of the most critical yet poorly understood problems in planetary astronomy. Here we attack this problem by examining different parts of the cometary aging spectrum of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), a group of comets that dominates the cometary influx in the near-Earth space, using both telescopic and meteor observations.We examine two representative JFCs and the population of dormant comets. At the younger end of the aging spectrum, we examine a moderately active JFC, 15P/Finlay, and review the puzzle of the non-detection of the associated Finlayid meteor shower. We find that, although having been behaved like a dying comet in the past several 102 years, 15P/Finlay does possess ability for energetic outbursts without a clear reason. Towards the more aged end of the spectrum, we examine a weakly active JFC, 209P/LINEAR. By bridging telescopic observations at visible and infrared wavelength, meteor observations and dynamical investigations, we find that 209P/LINEAR is indeed likely an aged yet long-lived comet. At the other end of the spectrum, we examine the population of dormant near-Earth comets, by conducting a comprehensive meteor-based survey looking for dormant comets that have recently been active. We find the lower limit of the dormant comet fraction in the near-Earth object (NEO) population to be 2.0 ± 1.7%. This number is at the lower end of the numbers found using dynamical and telescopic techniques, which may imply that a significant fraction of comets in the true JFC population are weakly active and are not yet detected.These results have revealed interesting diversities in dying or dead comets, both in their behaviors as well as their natures. An immediate quest in the understanding of cometary aging would be to examine a large number of dying or dead comets and understand their general characteristics.

  1. Comets and meteors in the beliefs of ancient mayas (United States)

    Yershova, G. G.


    Data concerning the Mayan approach to comets and meteors have till now been available mostly from ethnographical and folklore sources which dealt, as a rule, with various beliefs and tokens. The studies of hieroglyphic texts of the Classic Period (AD 600-900) have proved that comets and meteors were undoubtedly known in this culture through astronomical observations and their periodicity.

  2. Reconstructing the orbit of the Chelyabinsk meteor using satellite observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proud, Simon Richard


    The large number of objects in a range of orbits around the Sun means that some will inevitably intersect the Earth, becoming a meteor. These objects are commonly comet fragments or asteroids. To determine the type of a particular meteor requires knowledge of its trajectory and orbital path...

  3. Goals, technique and equipment of meteor study in Russia (United States)

    Kartashova, A.; Bagrov, A. V.; Bolgova, G. T.; Kruchkov, S. V.; Leonov, V. A.; Mazurov, V. A.


    Institute of Astronomy RAS is one of the science institutes in the Russian Federation providing systematic optical meteor observations and supervises several meteor groups in our country. The main tasks of our investigations are dedicated to study meteoroid nature as well as meteoroid streams and meteoroid population in the Solar System. In the XXI century we in Russia carry out the reconstruction of our meteor astronomy due to possibilities of new meteor observation equipment (more powerful than were used before as visual and photographic methods) had made possible to select more interesting goals. First of our task is investigation of meteoroid streams crossing the Earth's orbit, and character of meteoroid distributions along of them. The multi stations meteor monitoring from located in the both hemispheres of the Earth can help in this study. According to the analysis of the evolution of meteor orbits, the compact and long lived meteoroid streams consist mainly from large particles. The observation equipment (cheap TV-cameras) with low limiting magnitude we use for gathering observational data. On the other hand, the observations of weak meteors are needed for new meteor shower indication (or confirmation of known meteor shower). The more effective way to do it is comparison of individual meteor orbits parameters (then calculation of radiants of meteor showers). The observations of space debris (as the meteors with low velocity - less 11.2 km/s) can be taking up within this task. The combination of high sensitive TV-cameras WATEC and super-fast lenses COMPUTAR are widely used for meteor TV-monitoring. The TVsystems for round-year meteor observations are fixed and are permanently oriented to the zenith area (the patrol camera - PatrolCa). The mobile TV-cameras (MobileCa) are used for double station observations (if it is possible) and located not far from main cameras PatrolCa (20-30 km). The mobile TVcameras observe 90% of main PatrolCa cameras FOV at altitudes

  4. Investigation of meteor shower parent bodies using various metrics (United States)

    Dumitru, B. A.; Birlan, M.; Nedelcu, A.; Popescu, M.


    The present knowledge of meteor showers identifies the small bodies of our Solar System as supply sources for meteor streams. Both comets and asteroids are considered as the origin of meteor showers. The new paradigm of "active asteroids" opens up a large field of investigation regarding the relationships between asteroids and meteors. Processes like ejection and disaggregation at impacts, rotational instabilities, electrostatic repulsion, radiation pressure, dehydration stress followed by thermal fractures, sublimation of ices are sources of matter loss from asteroids. Our objective is to find genetic relationships between asteroids and meteor showers using metrics based on orbital elements. For this objective we selected three metrics (Southworth and Hawkins, 1963; Asher et al. 1993, and Jopek, 1993, respectively), the recent MPC database and the more recent IAU meteor shower database. From our analysis, 41 of the meteor showers have probabilities of being produced (or to be fueled) by asteroids. Our sample of asteroids contains more than 1000 objects, all of them belonging to the Near-Earth Asteroid population. The systematic approach performed, based on the physical properties of our sample, reinforced the link between asteroids and their associated meteor shower.

  5. The Taurid complex meteor showers and asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Porubčan, V; Williams, I P


    The structure of the Taurid meteor complex based on photographic orbits available in the IAU Meteor database is studied. We have searched for potential sub-streams or filaments to be associated with the complex utilizing the Southworth-Hawkins D-criterion. Applying a strict limiting value for D=0.10, fifteen sub-streams or filaments, consisting of more than three members, could be separated out from the general complex. To confirm their mutual consistence as filaments, rather than fortuitous clumping at the present time, the orbital evolution over 5000 years of each member is studied. Utilizing the D-criterion we also searched for NEOs that might be associated with the streams and filaments of the complex and investigated the orbital evolution of potential members. Possible associations between 7 Taurid filaments and 9 NEOs were found. The most probable are for S Psc(b) -- 2003QC10, N Tau(a) -- 2004TG10, o Ori -- 2003UL3 and N Tau(b) -- 2002XM35. Some of the potential parent objects could be either dormant co...

  6. How old is Autolycus crater? (United States)

    Hiesinger, Harald; Pasckert, Jan Henrik; van der Bogert, Carolyn H.; Robinson, Mark S.


    Accurately determining the lunar cratering chronology is prerequisite for deriving absolute model ages (AMAs) across the lunar surface and throughout the Solar System [e.g., 1]. However, the lunar chronology is only constrained by a few data points over the last 1 Ga and there are no calibration data available between 1 and 3 Ga and beyond 3.9 Ga [2]. Rays from Autolycus and Aristillus cross the Apollo 15 landing site and presumably transported material to this location [3]. [4] proposed that at the Apollo 15 landing site about 32% of any exotic material would come from Autolycus crater and 25% would come from Aristillus crater. [5,6] proposed that the 39Ar-40Ar age of 2.1 Ga derived from three petrologically distinct, shocked Apollo 15 KREEP basalt samples, date Autolycus crater. Grier et al. [7] reported that the optical maturity (OMAT) characteristics of these craters are indistinguishable from the background values despite the fact that both craters exhibit rays that were used to infer relatively young, i.e., Copernican ages [8,9]. Thus, both OMAT characteristics and radiometric ages of 2.1 Ga and 1.29 Ga for Autolycus and Aristillus, respectively, suggest that these two craters are not Copernican in age. [10] interpreted newer U-Pb ages of 1.4 and 1.9 Ga from sample 15405 as the formation ages of Aristillus and Autolycus. If Autolycus is indeed the source of the dated exotic material collected at the Apollo 15 landing site, than performing crater size frequency distribution (CSFD) measurements for Autolycus offers the possibility to add a new calibration point to the lunar chronology, particularly in an age range that was previously unconstrained. We used calibrated and map-projected LRO NAC images to perform CSFD measurements within ArcGIS, using CraterTools [11]. CSFDs were then plotted with CraterStats [12], using the production and chronology functions of [13]. We determined ages of 3.72 and 3.85 Ga for the interior (Ai1) and ejecta area Ae3, which we

  7. Spectral, photometric, and dynamic analysis of eight Draconid meteors

    CERN Document Server

    Borovička, Jiř\\'ı; Shrbený, Lukáš; Štork, Rostislav; Hornoch, Kamil


    We analyzed spectra, trajectories, orbits, light curves, and decelerations of eight Draconid meteors observed from Northern Italy on October 8, 2011. Meteor morphologies of two of the meteors are also presented, one of them obtained with a high resolution camera. Meteor radiants agree with theoretical predictions, with a hint that some meteors may belong to the pre-1900 meteoroid trails. The spectra confirm that Draconids have normal chondritic composition of main elements (Mg, Fe, Na). There are, nevertheless, differences in the temporal evolution of Na line emission. The differences are correlated with the shapes of the light curves and the deceleration rates. Our data confirm that Draconids are porous conglomerates of grains, nevertheless, significant differences in the atmospheric fragmentation of cm-sized Draconids were found. Various textures with various resistance to fragmentation exist among Draconid meteoroids and even within single meteoroids.

  8. A processing method and results of meteor shower radar observations (United States)

    Belkovich, O. I.; Suleimanov, N. I.; Tokhtasjev, V. S.


    Studies of meteor showers permit the solving of some principal problems of meteor astronomy: to obtain the structure of a stream in cross section and along its orbits; to retrace the evolution of particle orbits of the stream taking into account gravitational and nongravitational forces and to discover the orbital elements of its parent body; to find out the total mass of solid particles ejected from the parent body taking into account physical and chemical evolution of meteor bodies; and to use meteor streams as natural probes for investigation of the average characteristics of the meteor complex in the solar system. A simple and effective method of determining the flux density and mass exponent parameter was worked out. This method and its results are discussed.

  9. First results on video meteors from Crete, Greece (United States)

    Maravelias, G.


    This work presents the first systematic video meteor observations from a, forthcoming permanent, station in Crete, Greece, operating as the first official node within the International Meteor Organization's Video Network. It consists of a Watec 902 H2 Ultimate camera equipped with a Panasonic WV-LA1208 (focal length 12mm, f/0.8) lens running MetRec. The system operated for 42 nights during 2011 (August 19-December 30, 2011) recording 1905 meteors. It is significantly more performant than a previous system used by the author during the Perseids 2010 (DMK camera 21AF04.AS by The Imaging Source, CCTV lens of focal length 2.8 mm, UFO Capture v2.22), which operated for 17 nights (August 4-22, 2010) recording 32 meteors. Differences - according to the author's experience - between the two softwares (MetRec, UFO Capture) are discussed along with a small guide to video meteor hardware.

  10. The Updated IAU MDC Catalogue of Photographic Meteor Orbits (United States)

    Porubcan, V.; Svoren, J.; Neslusan, L.; Schunova, E.


    The database of photographic meteor orbits of the IAU Meteor Data Center at the Astronomical Institute SAS has gradually been updated. To the 2003 version of 4581 photographic orbits compiled from 17 different stations and obtained in the period 1936-1996, additional new 211 orbits compiled from 7 sources have been added. Thus, the updated version of the catalogue contains 4792 photographic orbits (equinox J2000.0) available either in two separate orbital and geophysical data files or a file with the merged data. All the updated files with relevant documentation are available at the web of the IAU Meteor Data Center. Keywords astronomical databases photographic meteor orbits 1 Introduction Meteoroid orbits are a basic tool for investigation of distribution and spatial structure of the meteoroid population in the close surroundings of the Earth s orbit. However, information about them is usually widely scattered in literature and often in publications with limited circulation. Therefore, the IAU Comm. 22 during the 1976 IAU General Assembly proposed to establish a meteor data center for collection of meteor orbits recorded by photographic and radio techniques. The decision was confirmed by the next IAU GA in 1982 and the data center was established (Lindblad, 1987). The purpose of the data center was to acquire, format, check and disseminate information on precise meteoroid orbits obtained by multi-station techniques and the database gradually extended as documented in previous reports on the activity of the Meteor Data Center by Lindblad (1987, 1995, 1999 and 2001) or Lindblad and Steel (1993). Up to present, the database consists of 4581 photographic meteor orbits (Lindblad et al., 2005), 63.330 radar determined orbit: Harvard Meteor Project (1961-1965, 1968-1969), Adelaide (1960-1961, 1968-1969), Kharkov (1975), Obninsk (1967-1968), Mogadish (1969-1970) and 1425 video-recordings (Lindblad, 1999) to which additional 817 video meteors orbits published by Koten el

  11. Reuyl Crater Dust Avalanches (United States)


    (Released 13 May 2002) The Science The rugged, arcuate rim of the 90 km crater Reuyl dominates this THEMIS image. Reuyl crater is at the southern edge of a region known to be blanketed in thick dust based on its high albedo (brightness) and low thermal inertia values. This thick mantle of dust creates the appearance of snow covered mountains in the image. Like snow accumulation on Earth, Martian dust can become so thick that it eventually slides down the face of steep slopes, creating runaway avalanches of dust. In the center of this image about 1/3 of the way down is evidence of this phenomenon. A few dozen dark streaks can be seen on the bright, sunlit slopes of the crater rim. The narrow streaks extend downslope following the local topography in a manner very similar to snow avalanches on Earth. But unlike their terrestrial counterparts, no accumulation occurs at the bottom. The dust particles are so small that they are easily launched into the thin atmosphere where they remain suspended and ultimately blow away. The apparent darkness of the avalanche scars is due to the presence of relatively dark underlying material that becomes exposed following the passage of the avalanche. Over time, new dust deposition occurs, brightening the scars until they fade into the background. Although dark slope streaks had been observed in Viking mission images, a clear understanding of this dynamic phenomenon wasn't possible until the much higher resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed the details. MOC images also showed that new avalanches have occurred during the time MGS has been in orbit. THEMIS images will allow additional mapping of their distribution and frequency, contributing new insights about Martian dust avalanches. The Story The stiff peaks in this image might remind you of the Alps here on Earth, but they really outline the choppy edge of a large Martian crater over 50 miles wide (seen in the context image at right). While these aren

  12. Temperature tides determined with meteor radar (United States)

    Hocking, W. K.; Hocking, A.


    A new analysis method for producing tidal temperature parameters using meteor radar measurements is presented, and is demonstrated with data from one polar and two mid-latitude sites. The technique further develops the temperature algorithm originally introduced by Hocking (1999). That earlier method was used to produce temperature measurements over time scales of days and months, but required an empirical model for the mean temperature gradient in the mesopause region. However, when tides are present, this temperature gradient is modulated by the presence of the tides, complicating extraction of diurnal variations. Nevertheless, if the vertical wavelengths of the tides are known from wind measurements, the effects of the gradient variations can be compensated for, permitting determination of temperature tidal amplitudes and phases by meteor techniques. The basic theory is described, and results from meteor radars at Resolute Bay (Canada), London (Canada) and Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) are shown. Our results are compared with other lidar data, computer models, fundamental tidal theory and rocket data. Phase measurements at two mid-latitude sites (Albuquerque, New Mexico, and London, Canada) show times of maximum for the diurnal temperature tide to change modestly throughout most of the year, varying generally between 0 h and 6 h, with an excursion to 12 h in June at London. The semidiurnal tide shows a larger annual variation in time of maximum, being at 2 4 h in the winter months but increasing to 9 h during the late summer and early fall. We also find that, at least at mid-latitudes, the phase of the temperature tide matches closely the phase of the meridional tide, and theoretical justification for this statement is given. We also demonstrate that this is true using the Global Scale Wave Model (Hagan et al., 1999). Median values for the temperature amplitudes for each site are in the range 5 to 6 Kelvin. Results from a more northern site (Resolute Bay) show

  13. Crowdsourcing, the great meteor storm of 1833, and the founding of meteor science. (United States)

    Littmann, Mark; Suomela, Todd


    Yale science professor Denison Olmsted used crowdsourcing to gather observations from across the United States of the unexpected deluge of meteors on 13 November 1833--more than 72,000/h. He used these observations (and newspaper accounts and correspondence from scientists) to make a commendably accurate interpretation of the meteor storm, overturning 2100 years of erroneous teachings about shooting stars and establishing meteor science as a new branch of astronomy. Olmsted's success was substantially based on his use of newspapers and their practice of news pooling to solicit observations from throughout the country by lay and expert observers professionally unaffiliated with Yale College and him. In today's parlance, Olmsted was a remarkably successful early practitioner of scientific crowdsourcing, also known as citizen science. He may have been the first to use mass media for crowdsourcing in science. He pioneered many of the citizen-science crowdsourcing practices that are still in use today: an open call for citizen participation, a clearly defined task, a large geographical distribution for gathering data and a rapid response to opportunistic events. Olmsted's achievement is not just that he used crowdsourcing in 1833 but that crowdsourcing helped him to advance science significantly.

  14. Martian parent craters for the SNC meteorites (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Mccoy, T. J.; Taylor, G. J.; Keil, K.


    Information on the petrology and ages of the SNC meteorites, together with geological data derived from Viking Orbiter images, are used to identify 25 candidate impact craters in the Tharsis region of Mars that could possibly be the source craters for these meteorites. The craters chosen as candidate source craters had diameters greater than 10 km, morphologies indicative of young craters, and satisfied both the petrological criteria of the SNCs and the proposed 1.3 Ga crystallization ages. On the basis of the constraints implied by the identification of the candidate source craters, interpretations of the absolute chronology of Mars are proposed.

  15. METEOR v1.0 - A usage example; METEOR v1.0 - Un ejemplo de uso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.


    This script describes a detailed example of the use of the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. A real spanish meteorological data set is chosen to show the capabilities of METEOR. Output files and resultant plots provided of their interpretations are compiled in three appendixes. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph. D.Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written is spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1 .0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)


    Wolfe, Edward W.; Light, Thomas D.


    The results of a mineral survey conducted in the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas, Arizona, indicate little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or fossil fuel resources in the area. The area contains deposits of cinder, useful for the production of aggregate block, and for deposits of decorative stone; however, similar deposits occur in great abundance throughout the San Francisco volcanic field outside the roadless areas. There is a possibility that the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas may overlie part of a crustal magma chamber or still warm pluton related to the San Francisco Mountain stratovolcano or to basaltic vents of late Pleistocene or Holocene age. Such a magma chamber or pluton beneath the Strawberry Crater Roadless Areas might be an energy source from which a hot-, dry-rock geothermal energy system could be developed, and a probable geothermal resource potential is therefore assigned to these areas. 9 refs.

  17. The Geminid meteor shower during the ECOMA sounding rocket campaign: specular and head echo radar observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Stober


    Full Text Available The ECOMA (Existence of Charge state Of meteoric smoke particles in the Middle Atmosphere sounding rocket campaign was conducted during the Geminid meteor shower in December 2010 in order to explore whether there is a change of the properties of meteoric smoke particles due to the stream. In parallel to the rocket flights, three radars monitored the Geminid activity located at the launch site in Northern Norway and in Northern Germany to gain information about the meteor flux into the atmosphere. The results presented here are based on specular meteor radar observations measuring the radiant position, the velocity and the meteor flux into the atmosphere during the Geminids. Further, the MAARSY (Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System radar was operated to conduct meteor head echo experiments. The interferometric capabilities of MAARSY permit measuring the meteor trajectories within the radar beam and to determine the source radiant and geocentric meteor velocity, as well as to compute the meteor orbit.

  18. Moon - 'Ghost' craters formed during Mare filling. (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Hartmann, W. K.; Wood, C. A.


    This paper discusses formation of 'pathological' cases of crater morphology due to interaction of craters with molten lavas. Terrestrial observations of such a process are discussed. In lunar maria, a number of small impact craters (D less than 10 km) may have been covered by thin layers of fluid lavas, or formed in molten lava. Some specific lunar examples are discussed, including unusual shallow rings resembling experimental craters deformed by isostatic filling.

  19. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Cooke, William


    Current optical observations of meteors are commonly limited by systematic uncertainties in photometric calibration at the level of approximately 0.5 mag or higher. Future improvements to meteor ablation models, luminous efficiency models, or emission spectra will hinge on new camera systems and techniques that significantly reduce calibration uncertainties and can reliably perform absolute photometric measurements of meteors. In this talk we discuss the algorithms and tests that NASA's Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has developed to better calibrate photometric measurements for the existing All-Sky and Wide-Field video camera networks as well as for a newly deployed four-camera system for measuring meteor colors in Johnson-Cousins BV RI filters. In particular we will emphasize how the MEO has been able to address two long-standing concerns with the traditional procedure, discussed in more detail below.

  20. A passive FPAA based RF scatter meteor detector

    CERN Document Server

    Popowicz, Adam; Bernacki, Krzysztof; Fietkiewicz, Karol


    In the article we present a hardware meteor detector. The detection principle is based on the electromagnetic wave reflection from the ionized meteor trail in the atmosphere. The detector uses the ANADIGM field programmable analogue array (FPAA), which is an attractive alternative for a typically used detecting equipment - a PC computer with dedicated software. We implement an analog signal path using most of available FPAA resources to obtain precise audio signal detection. Our new detector was verified in collaboration with the Polish Fireball Network - the organization which monitors meteor activity in Poland. When compared with currently used signal processing PC software employing real radio meteor scatter signals, our low-cost detector proved to be more precise and reliable. Due to its cost and efficiency superiority over the current solution, the presented module is going to be implemented in the planned distributed detectors system.

  1. Meteor layers in the Martian ionosphere: Observations and Modelling (United States)

    Peter, Kerstin; Molina Cuberos, Gregorio J.; Witasse, Olivier; Paetzold, Martin

    Observations by the radio science experiments MaRS on Mars Express and VeRa on Venus Express revealed the appearance of additional electron density layers in the Martian and Venu-sian ionosphere below the common secondary layers in some of the ionospheric profiles. This may be an indicator for the signature of meteoric particles in the Martian atmosphere. There are two main sources of meteoric flux into planetary atmospheres: the meteoroid stream com-ponent whose origin is related to comets, and the sporadic meteoroid component which has its source in body collisions i.e. in the Kuiper belt or the asteoroid belt. This paper will present the detection status for the Martian meteor layers in MaRS electron density profiles and the first steps towards modelling this feature. The presented meteor layer model will show the influence of the sporadic meteoric component on the Martian ionosphere. Input param-eters to this model are the ablation profiles of atomic Magnesium and Iron in the Martian atmosphere caused by sporadic meteoric influx, the neutral atmosphere which is taken from the Mars Climate Database and electron density profiles for an undisturbed ionosphere from a simple photochemical model. The meteor layer model includes the effects of molecular and eddy diffusion processes of metallic species and contains chemical reaction schemes for atomic Magnesium and Iron. It calculates the altitude-density-profiles for several metallic species on the basis of Mg and Fe in chemical equilibrium by analytical solution of the reaction equations. A first comparison of model and observed meteoric structures in the Martian ionosphere will be presented.

  2. A chemical model of meteoric ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vondrak


    Full Text Available Most of the extraterrestrial dust entering the Earth's atmosphere ablates to produce metal vapours, which have significant effects on the aeronomy of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A new Chemical Ablation Model (CAMOD is described which treats the physics and chemistry of ablation, by including the following processes: sputtering by inelastic collisions with air molecules before the meteoroid melts; evaporation of atoms and oxides from the molten particle; diffusion-controlled migration of the volatile constituents (Na and K through the molten particle; and impact ionization of the ablated fragments by hyperthermal collisions with air molecules. Evaporation is based on thermodynamic equilibrium in the molten meteoroid (treated as a melt of metal oxides, and between the particle and surrounding vapour phase. The loss rate of each element is then determined assuming Langmuir evaporation. CAMOD successfully predicts the meteor head echo appearance heights, observed from incoherent scatter radars, over a wide range of meteoroid velocities. The model also confirms that differential ablation explains common-volume lidar observations of K, Ca and Ca+ in fresh meteor trails. CAMOD is then used to calculate the injection rates into the atmosphere of a variety of elements as a function of altitude, integrated over the meteoroid mass and velocity distributions. The most abundant elements (Fe, Mg and Si have peak injection rates around 85 km, with Na and K about 8 km higher. The more refractory element Ca ablates around 82 km with a Na:Ca ratio of 4:1, which does therefore not explain the depletion of atomic Ca to Na, by more than 2 orders of magnitude, in the upper mesosphere. Diffusion of the most volatile elements (Na and K does not appear to be rate-limiting except in the fastest meteoroids. Non-thermal sputtering causes ~35% mass loss from the fastest (~60–70 km s−1 and smallest (10−17–10

  3. A chemical model of meteoric ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vondrak


    Full Text Available Most of the extraterrestrial dust entering the Earth's atmosphere ablates to produce metal vapours, which have significant effects on the aeronomy of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A new Chemical Ablation Model (CAMOD is described which treats the physics and chemistry of ablation, by including the following processes: sputtering by inelastic collisions with air molecules before the meteoroid melts; evaporation of atoms and oxides from the molten particle; diffusion-controlled migration of the volatile constituents (Na and K through the molten particle; and impact ionization of the ablated fragments by hyperthermal collisions with air molecules. Evaporation is based on thermodynamic equilibrium in the molten meteoroid (treated as a melt of metal oxides, and between the particle and surrounding vapour phase. The loss rate of each element is then determined assuming Langmuir evaporation. CAMOD successfully predicts the meteor head echo appearance heights, observed from incoherent scatter radars, over a wide range of meteoroid velocities. The model also confirms that differential ablation explains common-volume lidar observations of K, Ca and Ca+ in fresh meteor trails. CAMOD is then used to calculate the injection rates into the atmosphere of a variety of elements as a function of altitude, integrated over the meteoroid mass and velocity distributions. The most abundant elements (Fe, Mg and Si have peak injection rates around 85 km, with Na and K about 8 km higher. The more refractory element Ca ablates around 82 km with a Na:Ca ratio of 4:1, which does therefore not explain the depletion of atomic Ca to Na, by more than 2 orders of magnitude, in the upper mesosphere. Diffusion of the most volatile elements (Na and K does not appear to be rate-limiting except in the fastest meteoroids. Non-thermal sputtering causes ~35% mass loss from the fastest (~60–70 km s−1 and smallest (10−17–10

  4. The 2014 KCG Meteor Outburst: Clues to a Parent Body (United States)

    Moorhead, Althea V.; Brown, Peter G.; Spurny, Pavel; Cooke, William J.


    The Kappa Cygnid (KCG) meteor shower exhibited unusually high activity in 2014, producing ten times the typical number of meteors. The shower was detected in both radar and optical systems and meteoroids associated with the outburst spanned at least five decades in mass. In total, the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar, European Network, and NASA All Sky and Southern Ontario Meteor Network produced thousands of KCG meteor trajectories. Using these data, we have undertaken a new and improved characterization of the dynamics of this little-studied, variable meteor shower. The Cygnids have a di use radiant and a significant spread in orbital characteristics, with multiple resonances appearing to play a role in the shower dynamics. We conducted a new search for parent bodies and found that several known asteroids are orbitally similar to the KCGs. N-body simulations show that the two best parent body candidates readily transfer meteoroids to the Earth in recent centuries, but neither produces an exact match to the KCG radiant, velocity, and solar longitude. We nevertheless identify asteroid 2001 MG1 as a promising parent body candidate.

  5. Small crater populations on Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; O'Brien, D P; Schenk, P; Mottola, S; De Sanctis, M C; Kring, D A; Williams, D A; Raymond, C A; Russell, C T


    The NASA Dawn mission has extensively examined the surface of asteroid Vesta, the second most massive body in the main belt. The high quality of the gathered data provides us with an unique opportunity to determine the surface and internal properties of one of the most important and intriguing main belt asteroids (MBAs). In this paper, we focus on the size frequency distributions (SFDs) of sub-kilometer impact craters observed at high spatial resolution on several selected young terrains on Vesta. These small crater populations offer an excellent opportunity to determine the nature of their asteroidal precursors (namely MBAs) at sizes that are not directly observable from ground-based telescopes (i.e., below ~100 m diameter). Moreover, unlike many other MBA surfaces observed by spacecraft thus far, the young terrains examined had crater spatial densities that were far from empirical saturation. Overall, we find that the cumulative power-law index (slope) of small crater SFDs on Vesta is fairly consistent with...

  6. SPA Meteor Section Results: November -- December 1999 (United States)

    McBeath, A.


    Results and reports submitted to the SPA Meteor Section for November and December, 1999, are summarized, except for the Leonid details already discussed [1-3]. The Taurids received some useful coverage in early November, without anything unusual being detected. A brilliant fireball accurred around 22h10m UT on November 28 over southeast Ireland, after which about 271 g of L6 chondritic meteorites were recovered near Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland, the first recovered meteorite fall in the British Isles since 1991. Two other bright fireballs accurred on November 27-28 and 29-30 over Europe as well. December 13-14 saw the highest Geminid ZHRs, 100 +- 10, during a well-observed Geminid epoch. Radio data showed strong echo counts on both December 13 and 14, with the latter date (lambda approx 263 deg, eq. J2000.0) producing the highest counts generally, but with no specific clear maximum time. The Ursid peak was detected by radio only, giving a very weak showing in most data sets especially around lambda = 269-270 deg.

  7. METEOR v1.0 - User's Guide; METEOR v1.0 - Guia de Usuarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.


    This script is a User's Guide for the software package METEOR for statistical analysis of meteorological data series. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds the graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)

  8. Upward-moving low-light meteor. I: Observation results (United States)

    Kozak, P. M.; Watanabe, J.


    The results of TV-detecting an earth-atmosphere-grazing low-light meteor are presented. The meteor was registered near Kyiv, Ukraine, on 23 September 2003 at UT = 20:55:52 during the Autumn Equinox observations. It was registered with both observational cameras within the altitude range H ≈ 115.6 div 117.9 km (Δ {H} ≈ - 2.3 km), the zenith distance of its radiant varying within the bounds of {Z_R} ≈ 93.7° div 94.0°. After 3D reconstruction of the trajectory, the perigee distance of the meteor was found {R_P} ≈ {{6467}}{{.4}} km, while the altitude of the minimal encounter with earth above sea level was{H_P} = 101.7 km. Traveling with the velocity of {υ}_{∞} ≈ 62.9 km/s, the meteor reached the view fields of the cameras ˜426 km after the perigee (˜6.8 s), and left them at the height of ˜461 km, practically not changing its absolute magnitude which varied in the range of {2.9^m} div {4.1^m} . Thus, the meteor remained inside the view fields of the cameras for ˜0.5 s, passing the distance of ˜35˜ km during this time. The right ascension and declination of geocentric radiant of the meteor before perigee were {α _G} ≈ 79.3°, {δ _G} ≈ - 4.2° accordingly, and the geocentric velocity {υ_G} ≈ 61.9 km/s, while after the perigee {α _G} ≈ 78.1°, {δ _G} ≈ - 2.8°, and {υ_G} ≈ 61.9 km/s (the atmosphere deceleration was neglected). The computations of heliocentric orbit elements of the meteor led to the conclusion that the meteoroid does not belong to any known meteor streams. While traveling through the view fields of the cameras, the meteor lost the mass of ˜ 5 × 10-3 g. Since the meteor was registered at the heights where ablation must become lower and eventually stop, one can assert that the meteoroid left the earth atmosphere saving part of its mass.

  9. Low-emissivity impact craters on Venus (United States)

    Weitz, C. M.; Elachi, C.; Moore, H. J.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.; Schaber, G. G.


    An analysis of 144 impact craters on Venus has shown that 11 of these have floors with average emissivities lower than 0.8. The remaining craters have emissivities between 0.8 and 0.9, independent of the specific backscatter cross section of the crater floors. These 144 impact craters were chosen from a possible 164 craters with diameters greater than 30 km as identified by researchers for 89 percent of the surface of Venus. We have only looked at craters below 6053.5 km altitude because a mineralogical change causes high reflectivity/low emissivity above the altitude. We have also excluded all craters with diameters smaller than 30 km because the emissivity footprint at periapsis is 16 x 24 km and becomes larger at the poles.

  10. PyCraters: A Python framework for crater function analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Norris, Scott A


    We introduce a Python framework designed to automate the most common tasks associated with the extraction and upscaling of the statistics of single-impact crater functions to inform coefficients of continuum equations describing surface morphology evolution. Designed with ease-of-use in mind, the framework allows users to extract meaningful statistical estimates with very short Python programs. Wrappers to interface with specific simulation packages, routines for statistical extraction of output, and fitting and differentiation libraries are all hidden behind simple, high-level user-facing functions. In addition, the framework is extensible, allowing advanced users to specify the collection of specialized statistics or the creation of customized plots. The framework is hosted on the BitBucket service under an open-source license, with the aim of helping non-specialists easily extract preliminary estimates of relevant crater function results associated with a particular experimental system.

  11. Wildfires Caused by Formation of Small Impact Craters: A Kaali Crater Case (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Belcher, Claire; Hudspith, Victoria; Zhu, Menghua; Bronikowska, Malgorzata; Jõeleht, Argo; Plado, Juri


    Formation of ~200-km Chicxulub 65 Ma ago was associated with release of significant amount of thermal energy [1,2,3] which was sufficient to start wildfires that had either regional [4] or global [5] range. The evidence for wildfires caused by impacts smaller than Chicxulub is inconclusive. On one hand, no signs of fires are associated with the formation of 24-km Ries crater [6]. On the other hand, the Tunguska site was burned after the impact and the numerical models of the bolide-produced thermal radiation suggest that the Tunguska-like event would produce a thermal flux to the surface that is sufficient to ignite pine needles [7]. However, in case of Tunguska the only proof for the bolide starting the fire comes from an eyewitness description collected many years after the event. Some authors [8] suggest that this fire might have been caused "normaly" later during the same year, induced on dead trees killed by the Tunguska fall. More recently it was observed that the Chelyabinsk meteor [9] - smaller than Tunguska event - did not produced a fire. In order to explore this apparent relationship in more detail, we have studied the proximal ejecta from a 100-m in diameter, ~3500 years old [10] Kaali crater (Estonia) within which we find pieces of charred organic material. Those pieces appear to have been produced during the impact, according to their stratigraphic location and following 14C analysis [19] as opposed to pre- or post-impact forest fires. In order to determine the most probable formation mechanism of the charred organic material found within Kaali proximal ejecta blanket, we: 1) Analyzed charcoal under SEM to identify the charred plants and determine properties of the charcoal related to the temperature of its formation [11]. Detected homogenization of cell walls suggests that at least some pieces of charcoal were formed at >300 °C [11]. 2) Analyzed the reflectance properties of the charred particles in order to determine the intensity with which

  12. Hydrochemical dynamics of the “lake spring” system in the crater of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) (United States)

    Rouwet, D.; Taran, Y.; Inguaggiato, S.; Varley, N.; Santiago Santiago, J. A.


    El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) erupted violently in March-April 1982, breaching through the former volcano-hydrothermal system. Since then, the 1982 crater has hosted a shallow (1-3.3 m, acidic (pH ˜ 2.2) and warm (˜ 30 °C) crater lake with a strongly varying chemistry (Cl/SO 4 = 0-79 molar ratio). The changes in crater lake chemistry and volume are not systematically related to the seasonal variation of rainfall, but rather to the activity of near-neutral geyser-like springs in the crater (Soap Pool). These Soap Pool springs are the only sources of Cl for the lake. Their geyser-like behaviour with a long-term (months to years) periodicity is due to a specific geometry of the shallow boiling aquifer beneath the lake, which is the remnant of the 1983 Cl-rich (24,000 mg/l) crater lake water. The Soap Pool springs decreased in Cl content over time. The zero-time extrapolation (1982, year of the eruption) approaches the Cl content in the initial crater lake, meanwhile the extrapolation towards the future indicates a zero-Cl content by 2009 ± 1. This particular situation offers the opportunity to calculate mass balance and Cl budget to quantify the lake-spring system in the El Chichón crater. These calculations show that the water balance without the input of SP springs is negative, implying that the lake should disappear during the dry season. The isotopic composition of lake waters (δD and δ 18O) coincide with this crater lake-SP dynamics, reflecting evaporation processes and mixing with SP geyser and meteoric water. Future dome growth, not observed yet in the post-1982 El Chichón crater, may be anticipated by changes in lake chemistry and dynamics.

  13. Using quantitative topographic analysis to understand the role of water on transport and deposition processes on crater walls (United States)

    Palucis, Marisa Christina

    The amount of water runoff need to evolve landscapes is rarely assessed. Empirical studies correlate erosion rate to runoff or mean annual precipitation, but rarely is the full history of a landscape known such that it is possible to assess how much water was required to produce it. While this may not seem to be of primary importance on Earth where water is commonly plentiful, on Mars the amount of water to drive landscape evolution is a key question. Here we tackle this question through a series of five chapters, one devoted to field work at Meteor Crater, another to laboratory experiments about controlling processes, and then two chapters on analysis of landforms and implications of water runoff on Mars (associated with the Mars Science Laboratory mission to Gale Crater), and then we complete this effort with a consideration of how we can reliably assign relative timing between events resulting in small depositional features. What follows below is a summary of what is found in each chapter. Meteor Crater, a 4.5 km2 impact crater that formed ˜50,000 years ago in northern Arizona, has prominent gully features on its steep walls that appear similar to some gullies found on Mars. At the crater bottom, there are over 30 meters of lake sediments from a lake that disappeared ˜10,000 to 11,000 years ago, indicating the transition from the Pleistocene to the current, drier climate. A combination of fieldwork, cosmogenic dating, and topographic analysis of LiDAR data show that debris flows, not seepage erosion and fluvial processes as previously suggested in the literature, drove gully incision during their formation period of ˜40,000 years before the onset of the Holocene. Runoff from bare bedrock source areas high on the crater wall cut into lower debris mantled slopes, where the runoff bulked up and transformed into debris flows that carried boulders down to ˜5 to 8 degree slopes, leaving distinct boulder lined levees and lobate tongues of terminal debris deposits

  14. Dynamical model for the toroidal sporadic meteors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorný, Petr; Vokrouhlický, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holešovičkách 2, CZ-18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Nesvorný, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Campbell-Brown, Margaret; Brown, Peter, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    More than a decade of radar operations by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar have allowed both young and moderately old streams to be distinguished from the dispersed sporadic background component. The latter has been categorized according to broad radiant regions visible to Earth-based observers into three broad classes: the helion and anti-helion source, the north and south apex sources, and the north and south toroidal sources (and a related arc structure). The first two are populated mainly by dust released from Jupiter-family comets and new comets. Proper modeling of the toroidal sources has not to date been accomplished. Here, we develop a steady-state model for the toroidal source of the sporadic meteoroid complex, compare our model with the available radar measurements, and investigate a contribution of dust particles from our model to the whole population of sporadic meteoroids. We find that the long-term stable part of the toroidal particles is mainly fed by dust released by Halley type (long period) comets (HTCs). Our synthetic model reproduces most of the observed features of the toroidal particles, including the most troublesome low-eccentricity component, which is due to a combination of two effects: particles' ability to decouple from Jupiter and circularize by the Poynting-Robertson effect, and large collision probability for orbits similar to that of the Earth. Our calibrated model also allows us to estimate the total mass of the HTC-released dust in space and check the flux necessary to maintain the cloud in a steady state.

  15. American Meteor Society Fireball reporting system and mobile application (United States)

    Hankey, M.


    The American Meteor Society (AMS) founded in 1911 pioneered the visual study of meteors and has collected data relating to meteor observations and bright fireballs for over 100 years. In December 2010, the online fireball reporting system was upgraded to an interactive application that utilizes Google Maps and other programmatic methods to pinpoint the observer's location, azimuth and elevation values with a high degree of precision. The AMS has collected 10s of 1000s of witness reports relating to 100s of events each year since the new application was released. Three dimensional triangulation methods that average the data collected from witnesses have been developed that can determine the start and end points of the meteor with an accuracy of computed for all significant events reported to the AMS. With the release of the mobile application, the AMS is able to collect more precise elevation angles than through the web application. Users can file a new report directly on the phone or update the values submitted through a web report. After web users complete their fireball report online, they are prompted to download the app and update their observation with the more precise data provided by the sensors in the mobile device. The mobile app also provides an accurate means for the witness to report the elapsed time of the fireball. To log this value, the user drags the device across the sky where they saw the fireball. This process is designed to require no button click or user interaction to start and stop the time recording. A count down initiates the process and once the user's phone crosses the plane of azimuth for the end point of the fireball the velocity timer automatically stops. Users are asked to log the recording three times in an effort to minimize error. The three values are then averaged into a final score. Once enough witnesses have filed reports, elapsed time data collected from the mobile phone can be used to determine the velocity of the fireball

  16. Locating the LCROSS Impact Craters

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, William; Moratto, Zachary; Colaprete, Anthony; Neumann, Gregory; Smith, David; Hensley, Scott; Wilson, Barbara; Slade, Martin; Kennedy, Brian; Gurrola, Eric; Harcke, Leif; 10.1007/s11214-011-9765-0


    The Lunar CRater Observations and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission impacted a spent Centaur rocket stage into a permanently shadowed region near the lunar south pole. The Sheperding Spacecraft (SSC) separated \\sim9 hours before impact and performed a small braking maneuver in order to observe the Centaur impact plume, looking for evidence of water and other volatiles, before impacting itself. This paper describes the registration of imagery of the LCROSS impact region from the mid- and near-infrared cameras onboard the SSC, as well as from the Goldstone radar. We compare the Centaur impact features, positively identified in the first two, and with a consistent feature in the third, which are interpreted as a 20 m diameter crater surrounded by a 160 m diameter ejecta region. The images are registered to Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter (LRO) topographical data which allows determination of the impact location. This location is compared with the impact location derived from ground-based tracking and propagation of...

  17. Charles Olivier and the rise of meteor science

    CERN Document Server

    Taibi, Richard


    This fascinating portrait of an amateur astronomy movement tells the story of how Charles Olivier recruited a hard-working cadre of citizen scientists to rehabilitate the study of meteors. By 1936, Olivier and members of his American Meteor Society had succeeded in disproving an erroneous idea about meteor showers. Using careful observations, they restored the public’s trust in predictions about periodic showers and renewed respect for meteor astronomy among professional astronomers in the United States. Charles Olivier and his society of observers who were passionate about watching for meteors in the night sky left a major impact on the field. In addition to describing Olivier’s career and describing his struggles with competitive colleagues in a hostile scientific climate, the author provides biographies of some of the scores of women and men of all ages who aided Olivier in making shower observations, from the Leonids and Perseids and others. Half of these amateur volunteers were from 13 to 25 years of...

  18. SuprimeCam Observation of Sporadic Meteors during Perseids 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Iye, M; Yanagisawa, M; Ebizuka, N; Ohnishi, K; Hirose, C; Asami, N; Komiyama, Yu; Furusawa, H


    We report the serendipitous findings of 13 faint meteors and 44 artificial space objects by Subaru SuprimeCam imaging observations during 11-16 August 2004. The meteors, at about 100km altitude, and artificial satellites/debris in orbit, at 500km altitude or higher, were clearly discriminated by their apparent defocused image sizes. CCD photometry of the 13 meteors, including 1 Perseid, 1 Aquarid, and 11 sporadic meteors, was performed. We defined a peak video-rate magnitude by comparing the integrated photon counts from the brightest portion of the track traversed within 33ms to those from a 0-mag star during the same time duration. This definition gives magnitudes in the range 4.0< V_{vr} <6.4 and 4.1< I_{vr}<5.9 for these 13 meteors. The corresponding magnitude for virtual naked-eye observers could be somewhat fainter especially for the V-band observation, in which the [OI] 5577 line lasting about 1 sec as an afterglow could contribute to the integrated flux of the present 5-10 min CCD exposure...

  19. Division F Commission 22: Meteors, Meteorites, and Interplanetary Dust (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Borovička, Jiří; Watanabe, Jun-Ichi; Jopek, Tadeusz; Abe, Shinsuke; Consolmagno, Guy J.; Ishiguro, Masateru; Janches, Diego; Ryabova, Galina O.; Vaubaillon, Jérémie; Zhu, Jin


    Commission 22 (Meteors, Meteorites and Interplanetary Dust) was established at the first IAU General Assembly held in Rome in 1922, with William Frederick Denning as its first President. Denning was an accountant by profession, but as an amateur astronomer he contributed extensively to meteor science. Commission 22 thus established a pattern that has continued to this day that non-professional astronomers were welcomed and valued and could play a significant role in its affairs. The field of meteors, meteorites and interplanetary dust has played a disproportional role in the astronomical perception of the general public through the majestic displays of our annual meteor showers. Those in the field deployed many techniques uncommon in other fields of astronomy, studying the ``vermin of space'', the small solid bodies that pervade interplanetary space and impact Earth's atmosphere, the surface of the Moon, and that of our satellites in orbit. Over time, the field has tackled a wide array of problems, from predicting the encounter with meteoroid streams, to the origin of our meteorites and the nature of the zodiacal cloud. Commission 22 has played an important role in organizing the field through dedicated meetings, a data centre, and working groups that developed professional-amateur relationships and that organized the nomenclature of meteor showers. The contribution of Commission 22 to the field is perhaps most readily seen in the work of the presidents that followed in the footsteps of Denning.

  20. Boulders Ejected From Small Impact Craters (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.


    We investigate the distribution of boulders ejected from lunar craters by analyzing high resolution Lunar Orbiter images. Our previous study (DPS 2004) of four small craters indicated that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away, and that the size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our current study adds more than ten new bouldery craters that range in size from 200 m to several kilometers and are found on a variety of terrain (mare, highlands, and the Copernicus ejecta blanket.) For each crater we plot the boulder diameter as a function of the ejection velocity of the boulder. We compare this size-velocity distribution with the size-velocity distribution of ejecta from large craters (Vickery 1986, 1987) to ascertain the mechanism of fracture of the substrate in the impact. We also make cumulative plots of the boulders, indicating the number of boulders of each size present around the crater. The cumulative plots allow us to compare our boulder distributions with the distributions of secondary craters from large impacts. Material thrown from a several-hundred-meter diameter crater may land intact as boulders, but material thrown from a tens-of-kilometers diameter crater will travel at a significantly higher velocity, and will form a secondary crater when it impacts the surface. Our data helps elucidate whether the upturn, at small diameters, of the cratering curve of the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts or to the primary population. This work is funded by NASA PGG grant NNG05GK40G.

  1. Meteoric 10Be in soil profiles - A global meta-analysis (United States)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.


    In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied.The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile.In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.

  2. Meteoric 10Be in soil profiles - A global meta-analysis (United States)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Bierman, Paul R.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Pavich, Milan J.


    In order to assess current understanding of meteoric 10Be dynamics and distribution in terrestrial soils, we assembled a database of all published meteoric 10Be soil depth profiles, including 104 profiles from 27 studies in globally diverse locations, collectively containing 679 individual measurements. This allows for the systematic comparison of meteoric 10Be concentration to other soil characteristics and the comparison of profile depth distributions between geologic settings. Percent clay, 9Be, and dithionite-citrate extracted Al positively correlate to meteoric 10Be in more than half of the soils where they were measured, but the lack of significant correlation in other soils suggests that no one soil factor controls meteoric 10Be distribution with depth. Dithionite-citrate extracted Fe and cation exchange capacity are only weakly correlated to meteoric 10Be. Percent organic carbon and pH are not significantly related to meteoric 10Be concentration when all data are complied. The compilation shows that meteoric 10Be concentration is seldom uniform with depth in a soil profile. In young or rapidly eroding soils, maximum meteoric 10Be concentrations are typically found in the uppermost 20 cm. In older, more slowly eroding soils, the highest meteoric 10Be concentrations are found at depth, usually between 50 and 200 cm. We find that the highest measured meteoric 10Be concentration in a soil profile is an important metric, as both the value and the depth of the maximum meteoric 10Be concentration correlate with the total measured meteoric 10Be inventory of the soil profile. In order to refine the use of meteoric 10Be as an estimator of soil erosion rate, we compare near-surface meteoric 10Be concentrations to total meteoric 10Be soil inventories. These trends are used to calibrate models of meteoric 10Be loss by soil erosion. Erosion rates calculated using this method vary based on the assumed depth and timing of erosional events and on the reference data selected.

  3. Meteoroids and Meteors - Observations and Connection to Parent Bodies (United States)

    Abe, Shinsuke


    Meteoroid are a small rocky bodies traveling through interplanetary space. Meteors are phenomena caused by the interaction of meteoroids with the Earth's upper atmosphere. In this chapter the author, will briefly discuss observational methods and then concentrate on optical observations of meteors. First, the basic properties of meteor phenomenon in the atmosphere and classification of meteoroids are introduced and then coincidental phenomena, e.g., wake, jets, and train, are mentioned. Scientific observations (imaging and spectroscopy) carried out using various observational techniques allow measuring characteristics of meteoroids, e.g., orbits, density, strength, compositions. All information are potentially useful for investigating parent bodies of meteoroids, such as comets and asteroids. Searching for organics-related CHON and water in meteoroids is of particular interest for astrobiology.

  4. Meteoric sphaerosiderite lines and their use for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology (United States)

    Ludvigson, Greg A.; Gonzalez, Luis A.; Metzger, R.A.; Witzke, B.J.; Brenner, Richard L.; Murillo, A.P.; White, T.S.


    Sphaerosiderite, a morphologically distinct millimeter-scale spherulitic siderite (FeCO3), forms predominantly in wetland soils and sediments, and is common in the geologic record. Ancient sphaerosiderites are found in paleosol horizons within coal-bearing stratigraphic intervals and, like their modern counterparts, are interpreted as having formed in water-saturated environments. Here we report on sphaerosiderites from four different stratigraphic units, each of which has highly variable 13C and relatively stable 18O compositions. The unique isotopic trends are analogous to well-documented meteoric calcite lines, which we define here as meteoric sphaerosiderite lines. Meteoric sphaerosiderite lines provide a new means of constraining ground-water ??18O and thus allow evaluation of paleohydrology and paleoclimate in humid continental settings.

  5. French Meteor Network for High Precision Orbits of Meteoroids (United States)

    Atreya, P.; Vaubaillon, J.; Colas, F.; Bouley, S.; Gaillard, B.; Sauli, I.; Kwon, M. K.


    There is a lack of precise meteoroids orbit from video observations as most of the meteor stations use off-the-shelf CCD cameras. Few meteoroids orbit with precise semi-major axis are available using film photographic method. Precise orbits are necessary to compute the dust flux in the Earth s vicinity, and to estimate the ejection time of the meteoroids accurately by comparing them with the theoretical evolution model. We investigate the use of large CCD sensors to observe multi-station meteors and to compute precise orbit of these meteoroids. An ideal spatial and temporal resolution to get an accuracy to those similar of photographic plates are discussed. Various problems faced due to the use of large CCD, such as increasing the spatial and the temporal resolution at the same time and computational problems in finding the meteor position are illustrated.

  6. Altitudinal dependence of meteor radio afterglows measured via optical counterparts

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Dowell, J D; Schinzel, F K; Stovall, K; Sutton, E K; Taylor, G B


    Utilizing the all-sky imaging capabilities of the LWA1 radio telescope along with a host of all-sky optical cameras, we have now observed 44 optical meteor counterparts to radio afterglows. Combining these observations we have determined the geographic positions of all 44 afterglows. Comparing the number of radio detections as a function of altitude above sea level to the number of expected bright meteors we find a strong altitudinal dependence characterized by a cutoff below $\\sim$ 90 km, below which no radio emission occurs, despite the fact that many of the observed optical meteors penetrated well below this altitude. This cutoff suggests that wave damping from electron collisions is an important factor for the evolution of radio afterglows, which agrees with the hypothesis that the emission is the result of electron plasma wave emission.

  7. The Cratering History of Asteroid (21) Lutetia

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Vincent, J -B; Morbidelli, A; Mottola, S; Marzari, F; Kueppers, M; Besse, S; Thomas, N; Barbieri, C; Naletto, G; Sierks, H


    The European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft passed by the main belt asteroid (21) Lutetia the 10th July 2010. With its ~100km size, Lutetia is one of the largest asteroids ever imaged by a spacecraft. During the flyby, the on-board OSIRIS imaging system acquired spectacular images of Lutetia's northern hemisphere revealing a complex surface scarred by numerous impact craters, reaching the maximum dimension of about 55km. In this paper, we assess the cratering history of the asteroid. For this purpose, we apply current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models, coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow us to interpret the observed crater size-frequency distribution (SFD) and constrain the cratering history. Thanks to this approach, we derive the crater retention age of several regions on Lutetia, namely the time lapsed since their formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influe...

  8. An upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure from small ancient craters (United States)

    Kite, E. S.; Williams, J.; Lucas, A.; Aharonson, O.


    Planetary atmospheres brake, ablate, and disrupt small asteroids and comets, filtering out small hypervelocity surface impacts and causing fireballs, airblasts, meteors, and meteorites. Hypervelocity craters 90% of the kinetic energy of >240 kg iron impactors; Titan's paucity of small craters is consistent with a model predicting atmospheric filtering of craters smaller than 6-8km; and on Venus, craters below ~20 km diameter are substantially depleted. Changes in atmospheric CO2 concentration are believed to be the single most important control on Mars climate evolution and habitability. Existing data requires an early epoch of massive atmospheric loss to space; suggests that the present-day rate of escape to space is small; and offers only limited evidence for carbonate formation. Existing evidence has not led to convergence of atmosphere-evolution models, which must balance poorly understood fluxes from volcanic degassing, surface weathering, and escape to space. More direct measurements are required in order to determine the history of CO2 concentrations. Wind erosion and tectonics exposes ancient surfaces on Mars, and the size-frequency distribution of impacts on these surfaces has been previously suggested as a proxy time series of Mars atmospheric thickness. We will present a new upper limit on Early Mars atmospheric pressure using the size-frequency distribution of 20-100m diameter ancient craters in Aeolis Dorsa, validated using HiRISE DTMs, in combination with Monte Carlo simulations of the effect of paleo-atmospheres of varying thickness on the crater flux. These craters are interbedded with river deposits, and so the atmospheric state they record corresponds to an era when Mars was substantially wetter than the present, probably >3.7 Ga. An important caveat is that our technique cannot exclude atmospheric collapse-reinflation cycles on timescales much shorter than the sedimentary basin-filling time, so it sets an upper limit on the density of a thick

  9. An Automatic Video Meteor Observation Using UFO Capture at the Showa Station (United States)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Nakamura, T.; Ejiri, M.; Suzuki, H.


    The goal of our study is to clarify meteor activities in the southern hemi-sphere by continuous optical observations with video cameras with automatic meteor detection and recording at Syowa station, Antarctica.

  10. A meteorite crater on Mt. Ararat?

    CERN Document Server

    Gurzadyan, V G


    We briefly report on a crater on the western slope of Mt.Ararat . It is located in an area closed to foreigners at an altitude around 2100m with geographic coordinates 39\\deg 47' 30"N, 44\\deg 14' 40"E. The diameter of the crater is around 60-70m, the depth is up to 15m. The origin of the crater, either of meteorite impact or volcanic, including the evaluation of its age, will need detailed studies.

  11. Performance of Watec 910 HX camera for meteor observing (United States)

    Ocaña, Francisco; Zamorano, Jaime; Tapia Ayuga, Carlos E.


    The new Watec 910 HX model is a 0.5 MPix multipurpose video camera with up to ×256 frames integration capability. We present a sensitivity and spectral characterization done at Universidad Complutense de Madrid Instrument Laboratory (LICA). In addition, we have carried out a field test to show the performance of this camera for meteor observing. With respect to the similar model 902 H2 Ultimate, the new camera has additional set-up controls that are important for the scientific use of the recordings. However the overall performance does not justify the extra cost for most of the meteor observers.

  12. Physics-Based Modeling of Meteor Entry and Breakup (United States)

    Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Agrawal, Parul; Allen, Gary A., Jr.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Chen, Yih-Kang; Jaffe, Richard L.; Palmer, Grant E.; Saunders, David A.; Stern, Eric C.; Tauber, Michael E.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    A new research effort at NASA Ames Research Center has been initiated in Planetary Defense, which integrates the disciplines of planetary science, atmospheric entry physics, and physics-based risk assessment. This paper describes work within the new program and is focused on meteor entry and breakup.Over the last six decades significant effort was expended in the US and in Europe to understand meteor entry including ablation, fragmentation and airburst (if any) for various types of meteors ranging from stony to iron spectral types. These efforts have produced primarily empirical mathematical models based on observations. Weaknesses of these models, apart from their empiricism, are reliance on idealized shapes (spheres, cylinders, etc.) and simplified models for thermal response of meteoritic materials to aerodynamic and radiative heating. Furthermore, the fragmentation and energy release of meteors (airburst) is poorly understood.On the other hand, flight of human-made atmospheric entry capsules is well understood. The capsules and their requisite heatshields are designed and margined to survive entry. However, the highest speed Earth entry for capsules is 13 kms (Stardust). Furthermore, Earth entry capsules have never exceeded diameters of 5 m, nor have their peak aerothermal environments exceeded 0.3 atm and 1 kW/sq cm. The aims of the current work are: (i) to define the aerothermal environments for objects with entry velocities from 13 to 20 kms; (ii) to explore various hypotheses of fragmentation and airburst of stony meteors in the near term; (iii) to explore the possibility of performing relevant ground-based tests to verify candidate hypotheses; and (iv) to quantify the energy released in airbursts. The results of the new simulations will be used to anchor said risk assessment analyses. With these aims in mind, state-of-the-art entry capsule design tools are being extended for meteor entries. We describe: (i) applications of current simulation tools to

  13. Optical Observations of Meteors Generating Infrasound - I: Acoustic Signal Identification and Phenomenology


    Silber, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Peter G.


    We analyze infrasound signals from 71 bright meteors simultaneously detected by video to investigate the phenomenology and characteristics of meteor-generated near-field infrasound and shock production. A taxonomy for meteor generated infrasound signal classification has been developed using the time-pressure signal of the infrasound arrivals. Based on the location along the meteor trail where the infrasound signal originates, we find most signals are associated with cylindrical shocks, with ...

  14. Detecting Forward-Scattered Radio Signals from Atmospheric Meteors Using Low-Cost Software Defined Radio (United States)

    Snjegota, Ana; Rattenbury, Nicholas James


    The forward scattering of radio signals from atmospheric meteors is a known technique used to detect meteor trails. This article outlines the project that used the forward-scattering technique to observe the 2015 August, September, and October meteor showers, as well as sporadic meteors, in the Southern Hemisphere. This project can easily be replicated in any part of the world and is a suitable, low-cost project designed for students who are interested in astronomy.

  15. Determination of the velocity of meteors based on sinodial modulation and frequency analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettonvil, F.C.M.


    In meteor photography the velocity of meteors is generally obtained from a chopper which blocks periodically the incident light beam in front of the camera lens. In this paper I examine modulation of the meteor trail instead with a sinodial function and use frequency analysis to compute accurately t

  16. Response to Tim Barringer, A White Atlantic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Flint


    Full Text Available In my response to Tim Barringer’s piece, I emphasize the importance of extending one’s frame of reference when discussing transatlantic artistic connections to the consideration of as many different art forms as possible – including photography, and magazine and book illustrations – in order to get as full a picture as possible of the two-way flow in transatlantic artistic influences.This fuller picture notably extends the degree to which images of non-white subjects are seen to be in circulation. I also draw attention to the ways in which American and English artistic circles intersected outside as well as within these two countries, a point reinforced by looking at American women sculptors in Rome in the 1860s, paying particular attention to the work of the part African-American, part Native American sculptor, Edmonia Lewis. In her work can be seen a complex set of attitudes towards her subject matter that remind one forcefully of the many racial and cultural strands coming together in new American art.

  17. Asteroids, comets, meteors, and their interrelations. Part II: Editorial review (United States)

    Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Penttilä, Antti; Gritsevich, Maria


    The Asteroids, Comets, Meteors 2014 (ACM 2014) conference was organized in Helsinki in June 30-July 4, 2014, with the first collection of the peer-reviewed papers published in December 2015 in the Special Issue of Planetary and Space Science (Muinonen et al., 2015). The present issue contains the second collection of papers from ACM 2014.

  18. Building single-page web apps with meteor

    CERN Document Server

    Vogelsteller, Fabian


    If you are a web developer with basic knowledge of JavaScript and want to take on Web 2.0, build real-time applications, or simply want to write a complete application using only JavaScript and HTML/CSS, this is the book for you.This book is based on Meteor 1.0.

  19. Airborne observation of 2011 Draconids meteor outburst: the Italian mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sigismondi, Costantino


    The outburst of 8 October 2011 of Draconids meteors has been observed visually onboard of Alitalia AZ790 flight. The enhanced zenithal hourly rate around ZHR=300 from 19 UT to 21:50 UT has been observed over central Asia. The data and the method of analysis are described and compared with other observations made worldwide.

  20. Improving Photometric Calibration of Meteor Video Camera Systems (United States)

    Ehlert, Steven; Kingery, Aaron; Suggs, Robert


    We present the results of new calibration tests performed by the NASA Meteoroid Environment Oce (MEO) designed to help quantify and minimize systematic uncertainties in meteor photometry from video camera observations. These systematic uncertainties can be categorized by two main sources: an imperfect understanding of the linearity correction for the MEO's Watec 902H2 Ultimate video cameras and uncertainties in meteor magnitudes arising from transformations between the Watec camera's Sony EX-View HAD bandpass and the bandpasses used to determine reference star magnitudes. To address the rst point, we have measured the linearity response of the MEO's standard meteor video cameras using two independent laboratory tests on eight cameras. Our empirically determined linearity correction is critical for performing accurate photometry at low camera intensity levels. With regards to the second point, we have calculated synthetic magnitudes in the EX bandpass for reference stars. These synthetic magnitudes enable direct calculations of the meteor's photometric ux within the camera band-pass without requiring any assumptions of its spectral energy distribution. Systematic uncertainties in the synthetic magnitudes of individual reference stars are estimated at 0:20 mag, and are limited by the available spectral information in the reference catalogs. These two improvements allow for zero-points accurate to 0:05 ?? 0:10 mag in both ltered and un ltered camera observations with no evidence for lingering systematics.

  1. The 2017 Meteor Shower Activity Forecast for Earth Orbit (United States)

    Moorehead, Althea; Cooke, Bill; Moser, Danielle


    Most meteor showers will display typical activity levels in 2017. Perseid activity is expected to be higher than normal but less than in 2016; rates may reach 80% of the peak ZHR in 2016. Despite this enhancement, the Perseids rank 4th in flux for 0.04-cm-equivalent meteoroids: the Geminids (GEM), Daytime Arietids (ARI), and Southern delta Aquariids (SDA) all produce higher fluxes. Aside from heightened Perseid activity, the 2017 forecast includes a number of changes. In 2016, the Meteoroid Environment Office used 14 years of shower flux data to revisit the activity profiles of meteor showers included in the annual forecast. Both the list of showers and the shape of certain major showers have been revised. The names and three-letter shower codes were updated to match those in the International Astronomical Union (IAU) Meteor Data Center, and a number of defunct or insignificant showers were removed. The most significant of these changes are the increased durations of the Daytime Arietid (ARI) and Geminid (GEM) meteor showers. This document is designed to supplement spacecraft risk assessments that incorporate an annual averaged meteor shower flux (as is the case with all NASA meteor models). Results are presented relative to this baseline and are weighted to a constant kinetic energy. Two showers - the Daytime Arietids (ARI) and the Geminids (GEM) - attain flux levels approaching that of the baseline meteoroid environment for 0.1-cm-equivalent meteoroids. This size is the threshold for structural damage. These two showers, along with the Quadrantids (QUA) and Perseids (PER), exceed the baseline flux for 0.3-cm-equivalent particles, which is near the limit for pressure vessel penetration. Please note, however, that meteor shower fluxes drop dramatically with increasing particle size. As an example, the Arietids contribute a flux of about 5x10(exp -6) meteoroids m(exp -2) hr-1 in the 0.04-cm-equivalent range, but only 1x10(exp -8) meteoroids m(sub -2) hr-1 for the 0

  2. Cratering Rates in the Outer Solar System (United States)

    Zahnle, K.; Levison, H.; Dones, L.; Schenk, P.


    We use numerical simulations of the orbital evolution of stray Kuiper Belt objects to relate the number of comets striking the planets to the number of Jupiter-family comets observed in the inner solar system. Cratering rates are obtained by accounting for gravitational focusing, cratering efficiency, and an intuitive average of the various available calibrations of cometary mass. The most telling craters are those of Triton, a retrograde moon in a prograde system. It is well-known that much of Triton's surface is relatively young. Less well-known is that Triton features the most startling hemispheric cratering asymmetry in the solar system: fresh impact craters are almost exclusively limited to the leading hemisphere. It would seem that Triton has been colliding almost exclusively with planetocentric debris. If so, then we conclude that Triton's trailing hemisphere is less than 10 million years old. Recent too must be the event that cratered the leading hemisphere. Once admitted we must consider planetocentric cratering of other, prograde satellites. In particular, the lack of a strong apex-antapex asymmetry on Ganymede is not as good an argument for nonsynchronous rotation as we once thought. Rather, many or most of Ganymede's craters might prove to be secondaries, most likely made by ejecta launched into orbit about Jupiter, only to return not too much later, like the insatiable shards of Texas in Armageddon II: The New Millenium.

  3. Chronology of heavily cratered terrains on Mercury (United States)

    Marchi, S.; Chapman, C. R.


    Imaging of Mercury by Mariner 10 revealed a planet with more extensive plains units than on the Moon. Even in heavily cratered terrain, there is a lack of craters Morbidelli et al., [1] in order to interpret new crater counts on these terrains. We find that these craters are probably not saturated but may have been in equilibrium with a rapid resurfacing process, presumably volcanism that formed the earliest recognized intercrater plains. The crater retention age for this terrain, which contains the oldest large craters on Mercury, is surprisingly young, perhaps hundreds of millions of years younger than the heavily cratered pre-Nectarian terrains on the Moon [2]. These results are important for understanding the early geological and geophysical evolution of Mercury. References: [1] Morbidelli A., Marchi S., Bottke W.F., and Kring D.A. 2012. A sawtooth timeline for the first billion years of the lunar bombardment. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, in press. [2] Marchi S., Bottke W.F., Kring D.A., and Morbidelli A. 2012. The onset of the lunar cataclysm as recorded in its ancient crater populations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 325, 27-38.

  4. Surface expression of the Chicxulub crater (United States)

    Pope, K O; Ocampo, A C; Kinsland, G L; Smith, R


    Analyses of geomorphic, soil, and topographic data from the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, confirm that the buried Chicxulub impact crater has a distinct surface expression and that carbonate sedimentation throughout the Cenozoic has been influenced by the crater. Late Tertiary sedimentation was mostly restricted to the region within the buried crater, and a semicircular moat existed until at least Pliocene time. The topographic expression of the crater is a series of features concentric with the crater. The most prominent is an approximately 83-km-radius trough or moat containing sinkholes (the Cenote ring). Early Tertiary surfaces rise abruptly outside the moat and form a stepped topography with an outer trough and ridge crest at radii of approximately 103 and approximately 129 km, respectively. Two discontinuous troughs lie within the moat at radii of approximately 41 and approximately 62 km. The low ridge between the inner troughs corresponds to the buried peak ring. The moat corresponds to the outer edge of the crater floor demarcated by a major ring fault. The outer trough and the approximately 62-km-radius inner trough also mark buried ring faults. The ridge crest corresponds to the topographic rim of the crater as modified by postimpact processes. These interpretations support previous findings that the principal impact basin has a diameter of approximately 180 km, but concentric, low-relief slumping extends well beyond this diameter and the eroded crater rim may extend to a diameter of approximately 260 km.

  5. The variability of crater identification among expert and community crater analysts

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Stuart J; Kirchoff, Michelle R; Chapman, Clark R; Fassett, Caleb I; Herrick, Robert R; Singer, Kelsi; Zanetti, Michael; Lehan, Cory; Huang, Di; Gay, Pamela L


    The identification of impact craters on planetary surfaces provides important information about their geological history. Most studies have relied on individual analysts who map and identify craters and interpret crater statistics. However, little work has been done to determine how the counts vary as a function of technique, terrain, or between researchers. Furthermore, several novel internet-based projects ask volunteers with little to no training to identify craters, and it was unclear how their results compare against the typical professional researcher. To better understand the variation among experts and to compare with volunteers, eight professional researchers have identified impact features in two separate regions of the moon. Small craters (diameters ranging from 10 m to 500 m) were measured on a lunar mare region and larger craters (100s m to a few km in diameter) were measured on both lunar highlands and maria. Volunteer data were collected for the small craters on the mare. Our comparison shows t...

  6. Hydrothermal Alteration at Lonar Crater, India and Elemental Variations in Impact Crater Clays (United States)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Misra, S.; Narasimham, V.


    The role of hydrothermal alteration and chemical transport involving impact craters could have occurred on Mars, the poles of Mercury and the Moon, and other small bodies. We are studying terrestrial craters of various sizes in different environments to better understand aqueous alteration and chemical transport processes. The Lonar crater in India (1.8 km diameter) is particularly interesting being the only impact crater in basalt. In January of 2004, during fieldwork in the ejecta blanket around the rim of the Lonar crater we discovered alteration zones not previously described at this crater. The alteration of the ejecta blanket could represent evidence of localized hydrothermal activity. Such activity is consistent with the presence of large amounts of impact melt in the ejecta blanket. Map of one area on the north rim of the crater containing highly altered zones at least 3 m deep is shown.

  7. Anomalous photometrical displays in faint meteors from TV observations in Kyiv (United States)

    Kozak, P. M.


    Analysis of a large range of results of modern TV meteor observations for searching presence their of the meteors with highly displayed anomalies in kinematic and photometrical characteristics has been carried out. In parallel, the results of Kyiv meteor group observations obtained with the help of observational systems equipped by high sensitive transmitting TV tubes of superisocon type, which have a range of highly displayed anomalies in a meteor development are presented. Comparative qualitative analysis of the observational data containing anomalous displays in meteor photometrical parameters, in part in their light curves is carried out, and the conclusions about physical reality of technical artifacts of the selected anomalies are done.

  8. Constraining the Cratering Chronology of Vesta

    CERN Document Server

    O'Brien, David P; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Bottke, William F; Schenk, Paul M; Russell, Christopher T; Raymond, Carol A


    Vesta has a complex cratering history, with ancient terrains as well as recent large impacts that have led to regional resurfacing. Crater counts can help constrain the relative ages of different units on Vesta's surface, but converting those crater counts to absolute ages requires a chronology function. We present a cratering chronology based on the best current models for the dynamical evolution of asteroid belt, and calibrate it to Vesta using the record of large craters on its surface. While uncertainties remain, our chronology function is broadly consistent with an ancient surface of Vesta as well as other constraints such as the bombardment history of the rest of the inner Solar System and the Ar-Ar age distribution of howardite, eucrite and diogenite (HED) meteorites from Vesta.

  9. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.


    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  10. Flow Fields at Tooting Crater, Mars (United States)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.; Garbeil, H.


    HiRISE images of the impact crater Tooting (~29 km dia., located at 23.4°N, 207.5°E) on Mars have revealed a remarkable series of lobate flows on the southern rim, wall and floor of the crater. The origin of these flows has not yet been determined, but their spatial distribution and morphology could indicate that they are flows of impact melt, mudflows, or lava flows. Tooting crater shows numerous signs of being very young (very few superposed impact craters, very high depth/diameter ratio, high thermal inertia ejecta, and a well preserved set of secondary craters), and so allows detailed analysis of these unusual flows, which appear to be almost pristine. We have developed a 2-meter digital elevation model of Tooting using stereo HiRISE images to characterize the flows, which in general are relief close to the crater rim crest. Five discrete segments of this flow exist, including a 1.3 km segment with a discrete 15 m wide central channel and three lobate distal margins. (3) A set of 7 lobes ~700 m long on the inner S wall. These lobes have very well defined central channels ~25 m wide and levees 30 m thick and 300 m wide. These flows no doubt formed in an unusual environment, probably including extensive amounts of impact melt, volatiles released from the substrate, and highly unstable slopes on the crater rim. Tooting crater therefore displays a novel planetary flow field; the correct identification of the origin of these flows holds significance for understanding the role of volatiles in the impact cratering process, the potential of thermal anomalies existing within the crater cavity for extended period of time, and the emplacement of the ejecta. We are therefore developing numerical models, based on the rheology of lava flows, in order to help to resolve the origin of this flow field.

  11. Video and photometric observations of a sprite in coincidence with a meteor-triggered jet event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suszcynsky, D. M. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Strabley, R. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Roussel-Dupre, R. [Atmospheric and Climate Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Symbalisty, E. M. D. [Atmospheric and Climate Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico (United States); Armstrong, R. A. [Mission Research Corporation, Nashua, New Hampshire (United States); Lyons, W. A. [FMA Research Inc., Fort Collins, Colorado (United States); Taylor, M. [Space Dynamics Laboratory, Utah State University, Logan (United States)


    Video and photometric observations of a meteor-triggered ''jet'' event in association with the occurrence of a sprite were collected during the SPRITES '98 campaign. The event raises interest in the question of possible meteoric triggering of upper atmospheric transients as originally suggested by Muller [1995]. The event consisted of three stages: (1) the observation of a moderately bright meteor, (2) the development of a sprite in the immediate vicinity of the meteor as the meteor reached no lower than {approx}70 km altitude, and (3) a slower-forming jet of luminosity that appeared during the late stages of the sprite and propagated back up the ionization trail of the meteor. The event is analyzed in terms of its geometry, its relevance to the meteor, and the implications to existing theories for sprite formation. (c) 1999 American Geophysical Union.

  12. Impact cratering experiments in brittle targets with variable thickness: Implications for deep pit craters on Mars (United States)

    Michikami, T.; Hagermann, A.; Miyamoto, H.; Miura, S.; Haruyama, J.; Lykawka, P. S.


    High-resolution images reveal that numerous pit craters exist on the surface of Mars. For some pit craters, the depth-to-diameter ratios are much greater than for ordinary craters. Such deep pit craters are generally considered to be the results of material drainage into a subsurface void space, which might be formed by a lava tube, dike injection, extensional fracturing, and dilational normal faulting. Morphological studies indicate that the formation of a pit crater might be triggered by the impact event, and followed by collapse of the ceiling. To test this hypothesis, we carried out laboratory experiments of impact cratering into brittle targets with variable roof thickness. In particular, the effect of the target thickness on the crater formation is studied to understand the penetration process by an impact. For this purpose, we produced mortar targets with roof thickness of 1-6 cm, and a bulk density of 1550 kg/m3 by using a mixture of cement, water and sand (0.2 mm) in the ratio of 1:1:10, by weight. The compressive strength of the resulting targets is 3.2±0.9 MPa. A spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7 mm) is shot perpendicularly into the target surface at the nominal velocity of 1.2 km/s, using a two-stage light-gas gun. Craters are formed on the opposite side of the impact even when no target penetration occurs. Penetration of the target is achieved when craters on the opposite sides of the target connect with each other. In this case, the cross section of crater somehow attains a flat hourglass-like shape. We also find that the crater diameter on the opposite side is larger than that on the impact side, and more fragments are ejected from the crater on the opposite side than from the crater on the impact side. This result gives a qualitative explanation for the observation that the Martian deep pit craters lack a raised rim and have the ejecta deposit on their floor instead. Craters are formed on the opposite impact side even when no penetration

  13. The Cratering History of Asteroid (2867) Steins

    CERN Document Server

    Marchi, S; Kueppers, M; Marzari, F; Davidsson, B; Keller, H U; Besse, S; Lamy, P; Mottola, S; Massironi, M; Cremonese, G


    The cratering history of main belt asteroid (2867) Steins has been investigated using OSIRIS imagery acquired during the Rosetta flyby that took place on the 5th of September 2008. For this purpose, we applied current models describing the formation and evolution of main belt asteroids, that provide the rate and velocity distributions of impactors. These models coupled with appropriate crater scaling laws, allow the cratering history to be estimated. Hence, we derive Steins' cratering retention age, namely the time lapsed since its formation or global surface reset. We also investigate the influence of various factors -like bulk structure and crater erasing- on the estimated age, which spans from a few hundred Myrs to more than 1Gyr, depending on the adopted scaling law and asteroid physical parameters. Moreover, a marked lack of craters smaller than about 0.6km has been found and interpreted as a result of a peculiar evolution of Steins cratering record, possibly related either to the formation of the 2.1km ...

  14. Processing Images of Craters for Spacecraft Navigation (United States)

    Cheng, Yang; Johnson, Andrew E.; Matthies, Larry H.


    A crater-detection algorithm has been conceived to enable automation of what, heretofore, have been manual processes for utilizing images of craters on a celestial body as landmarks for navigating a spacecraft flying near or landing on that body. The images are acquired by an electronic camera aboard the spacecraft, then digitized, then processed by the algorithm, which consists mainly of the following steps: 1. Edges in an image detected and placed in a database. 2. Crater rim edges are selected from the edge database. 3. Edges that belong to the same crater are grouped together. 4. An ellipse is fitted to each group of crater edges. 5. Ellipses are refined directly in the image domain to reduce errors introduced in the detection of edges and fitting of ellipses. 6. The quality of each detected crater is evaluated. It is planned to utilize this algorithm as the basis of a computer program for automated, real-time, onboard processing of crater-image data. Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that this algorithm is capable of a detection rate >93 percent, a false-alarm rate <5 percent, a geometric error <0.5 pixel, and a position error <0.3 pixel.

  15. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen


    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  16. Why Landers Should Explore Fresh, Small Craters on Mars (United States)

    Kirkland, L. E.; Herr, K. C.; Adams, P. M.


    Small, fresh craters at the Nevada Test Site are unique, high quality test beds to develop exploration techniques for new craters spotted on Mars by Malin et al. The NTS craters provide data to determine the optimum crater size for exploration.

  17. The Universidad Complutense of Madrid meteor and fireball patrol station (United States)

    Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; Ocaña, F.; Sanchez de Miguel, A.; Izquierdo, J.; Manjavacas, E.; Ponce, R.; Garcia, L.; Saez, G.; Ramirez, P.


    The Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM) has recently installed a high sensitivity video system to detect meteors. It is intended to study the entry in our atmosphere of interplanetary particles of mass greater than a gram. The station, not fully equipped yet, is a node of the national Spanish Fireball Network (SPMN) and includes cameras located at the Astronomical Observatory (Physics building) and others distributed around. The system has been automated to detect and record meteors only when the atmospheric conditions are good enough. Undergraduate and graduate physics students have collaborated to develop, install and test the system. Detections which are bright enough to drop a meteorite are analyzed using double station observations with the cameras of the SPMN nodes around Spain to determine their atmospheric paths, origin and landing area.

  18. Constraining the Drag Coefficients of Meteors in Dark Flight (United States)

    Carter, R. T.; Jandir, P. S.; Kress, M. E.


    Based on data in the aeronautics literature, we have derived functions for the drag coefficients of spheres and cubes as a function of Mach number. Experiments have shown that spheres and cubes exhibit an abrupt factor-of-two decrease in the drag coefficient as the object slows through the transonic regime. Irregularly shaped objects such as meteorites likely exhibit a similar trend. These functions are implemented in an otherwise simple projectile motion model, which is applicable to the non-ablative dark flight of meteors (speeds less than .+3 km/s). We demonstrate how these functions may be used as upper and lower limits on the drag coefficient of meteors whose shape is unknown. A Mach-dependent drag coefficient is potentially important in other planetary and astrophysical situations, for instance, in the core accretion scenario for giant planet formation.

  19. Degradation of Victoria Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Wilson, S. A.; Cohen, B. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Geissler, P. E.; Sullivan, R. J.


    Victoria crater (2.05N, 354.51E) is ~750 m in diameter and the largest crater on Mars observed in situ. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed NW to SE across a broad annulus dominated by dark sand that at least partially surrounds the crater before navigating the northern crater rim. Rover observations of the crater and ejecta deposits are complemented by images with 26-52 cm/pixel scales from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and enable assessment of degradation state. The present depth/diameter ratio for Victoria is 0.1, less than the 0.2 expected for a pristine primary impact structure. Together with the eroded, serrated rim, this implies an originally smaller crater diameter and/or considerable infilling consistent with occurrence of a large dune field and few exposed rocks on the crater floor. The height and width of the raised rim is generally 4-5 m and 150-225 m, respectively, less than the 30 m and 500-600 m, respectively, expected for a pristine 750 m diameter crater. Ejecta thicknesses around the rim were derived using rover-based and HiRISE images and yield consistent estimates averaging ~3 m. The serrated rim plan creates a series of promontories extending up to 50 m into the crater and generally fronted by 30-60 degree slopes that are locally vertical and are separated by bays whose floors typically slope 15-25 degrees. A crater originally on order of 600-650 m in diameter and subsequently enlarged by mass wasting and aeolian erosion may yield a structure resembling Victoria today. The steep expression of the promontories and local outcroppings of rocks in the ejecta blanket points to some ongoing mass wasting, but the relative paucity of associated flanking talus indicates derived blocks of sulfate sandstone are not resistant to saltating sand and are rapidly broken down by the wind or are completely covered/filled in by aeolian drift. At Cape St. Vincent, the promontory appears undercut

  20. Variations of the meteor echo heights at Beijing and Mohe, China (United States)

    Liu, Libo; Liu, Huixin; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Sun, Yang-Yi; Ning, Baiqi; Hu, Lianhuan; Wan, Weixing


    Detecting the changing of the upper atmosphere is an important and challenging issue. The change in the meteor peak heights observed by a meteor radar should contain information of the neutral density in the meteoroid ablation region. In this work, observations from the VHF all-sky meteor radars operated at Beijing (40.3°N, 116.2°E) and Mohe (53.5°N, 122.3°E), China, are collected to explore the temporal patterns of the meteor peak heights. The daily meteor peak height is determined through a least squares fitting of the height profile of meteor radar echoes under a normal distribution assumption. There are considerable seasonal variations in the meteor peak heights, being dominated by an annual component at Beijing and a semiannual one at Mohe. Moreover, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) is employed to determine the overall trends in the series of the meteor peak heights. The EEMD analysis reveals an overall decrease in the meteor peak heights at both stations, indicating the descending trend in neutral density near 90 km altitude at middle latitudes. The meteor peak heights show a rather weak solar activity effect at Beijing, which is different from the positive effects reported at some other sites.

  1. Pulse-level interference and meteor processing of Arecibo ISR data (United States)

    Wen, C.-H.; Briczinski, S. J.; Livneh, D. J.; Doherty, J. F.; Mathews, J. D.


    We introduce a simple but effective order statistics filter for the pulse-level interference and meteor processing of Arecibo ionosphere observation data. Using this filter and the techniques introduced by Wen et al. [2005. Adaptive filtering for the separation of incoherent scatter and meteor signals for Arecibo Observation Data. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 67, 1190 1195] we effectively remove/separate the unwanted signals, such as impulsive interference and meteor returns, encountered during incoherent scatter radar (ISR) observations of the ionosphere. We further analyze the separated signals to obtain uniquely “cleaned” incoherent scatter power data and scientifically valuable meteor parameters. We present the processed incoherent scatter results from 22/23 March 2004 observations and the altitude and the speed distributions of the separated meteor signals. The nighttime photochemical E-region is clearly revealed for the first time as a result of meteor and interference removal. Additionally, these results reveal the first major bias in large aperture radar meteor headecho results—the meteor speed distribution is flattened by the absence of at least 50% of the events with duration less than 10 ms revealed by meteor-specific observations. Meteor data derived from standard incoherent scatter data always displays this bias.

  2. A low cost meteor observation system using radio forward scattering and the interferometry technique (United States)

    Madkour, Waleed; Yamamoto, Masa-yuki; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Mizumoto, Satoshi


    We present a low cost meteor observation system based on the radio forward scattering and interferometry technique at Kochi University of Technology (KUT). The system can be a suitable model for low budget educational institutes that target practical learning of astronomical objects and upper atmospheric characteristics. The system methodology for the automatic counting of meteor echoes, filtering noise and detecting meteor echo directions is described. Detection of the meteor echo directions, which is the basic element for determining the meteor trajectories and the orbital parameters of parent comets, is based on a software system developed for analysis of phase differences detected by interferometry. Randomly selected observation samples measured by the radio interferometer are compared to simultaneous optical observations by video cameras to verify the system accuracy. Preliminary error analysis revealed that the system accuracy is directly related to the duration of observed meteor echoes. Eighty percent of meteor echo samples with durations longer than 3 s showed agreement in azimuth and elevation angles measurements to within a 10° error range, while meteor echo samples with shorter durations showed lower agreement levels probably due to the low system sampling resolution of 0.1 s. The reasonable agreement level of meteor echoes with duration longer than 3 s demonstrated the applicability of the system methodology. Accurate observation of shorter duration meteor echoes could possibly be achieved by improving the system resolution.

  3. Development of the mesospheric Na layer at 69° N during the Geminids meteor shower 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dunker


    Full Text Available The ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in 2010 was performed to investigate the charge state and number density of meteoric smoke particles during the Geminids meteor shower in December 2010. The ALOMAR Na lidar contributed to the campaign with measurements of sodium number density, temperature and line-of-sight wind between 80 and 110 km altitude over Andøya in northern Norway. This paper investigates a possible connection between the Geminids meteor shower and the mesospheric sodium layer. We compare with data from a meteor radar and from a rocket-borne in situ particle instrument on three days. Our main result is that the sodium column density is smaller during the Geminids meteor shower than the winter average at the same latitude. Moreover, during two of the three years considered, the sodium column density decreased steadily during these three weeks of the year. Both the observed decrease of Na column density by 30% and of meteoric smoke particle column density correlate well with a corresponding decrease of sporadic meteor echoes. We found no correlation between Geminids meteor flux rates and sodium column density, nor between sporadic meteors and Na column density (R = 0.25. In general, we found the Na column density to be at very low values for winter, between 1.8 and 2.6 × 1013 m−2. We detected two meteor trails containing sodium, on 13 December 2010 at 87.1 km and on 19 December 2010 at 84 km. From these meteor trails, we estimate a global meteoric Na flux of 121 kg d−1 and a global total meteoric influx of 20.2 t d−1.

  4. Development of the mesospheric Na layer at 69° N during the Geminids meteor shower 2010 (United States)

    Dunker, T.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Stober, G.; Rapp, M.


    The ECOMA sounding rocket campaign in 2010 was performed to investigate the charge state and number density of meteoric smoke particles during the Geminids meteor shower in December 2010. The ALOMAR Na lidar contributed to the campaign with measurements of sodium number density, temperature and line-of-sight wind between 80 and 110 km altitude over Andøya in northern Norway. This paper investigates a possible connection between the Geminids meteor shower and the mesospheric sodium layer. We compare with data from a meteor radar and from a rocket-borne in situ particle instrument on three days. Our main result is that the sodium column density is smaller during the Geminids meteor shower than the winter average at the same latitude. Moreover, during two of the three years considered, the sodium column density decreased steadily during these three weeks of the year. Both the observed decrease of Na column density by 30% and of meteoric smoke particle column density correlate well with a corresponding decrease of sporadic meteor echoes. We found no correlation between Geminids meteor flux rates and sodium column density, nor between sporadic meteors and Na column density (R = 0.25). In general, we found the Na column density to be at very low values for winter, between 1.8 and 2.6 × 1013 m-2. We detected two meteor trails containing sodium, on 13 December 2010 at 87.1 km and on 19 December 2010 at 84 km. From these meteor trails, we estimate a global meteoric Na flux of 121 kg d-1 and a global total meteoric influx of 20.2 t d-1.

  5. Photographic fireball networks. [for global recording of meteor trails (United States)

    Halliday, I.


    Three networks for the photography of bright fireballs are now in operation; in the central United States, central Europe and western Canada. A detailed comparison is made of the parameters which describe the three networks. Although only two meteorites for which photographic orbital data are available have been recovered, the networks are contributing valuable data on fireball orbits, influx rates and problems of meteor physics.

  6. VLF observation during Leonid Meteor Shower-2002 from Kolkata

    CERN Document Server

    Chakrabarti, S K; Acharyya, K; Mandal, S; Chakrabarti, S; Khan, R; Bose, B; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.


    Using a Gyrator-II Loop antenna tuned at 19.0Khz, we monitored the meteor shower during 17-24th November, 2002. We observe the primary peak at 3h58m (UT) on the 19th of November, 2002. We distinctly observed several `beadlike' and `exponentially dropping' signals. The `beadlike' signals were more in abundance on the 18th of November, 2002, one day prior to the actual encounter.

  7. Advanced Meteor radar at Tirupati: System details and first results (United States)

    Sunkara, Eswaraiah; Gurubaran, Subramanian; Sundararaman, Sathishkumar; Venkat Ratnam, Madineni; Karanam, Kishore Kumar; Eethamakula, Kosalendra; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.

    An advanced meteor radar viz., Enhanced Meteor Detection Radar (EMDR) operating at 35.25 MHz is installed at Sri Venkateswara University (SVU), Tirupati (13.63oN, 79.4oE), India, in the month of August 2013. Present communication describes the need for the meteor radar at present location, system description, its measurement techniques, its variables and comparison of measured mean winds with contemporary radars over the Indian region. The present radar site is selected to fill the blind region of Gadanki (13.5oN, 79.2oE) MST radar, which covers mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region (70-110 km). By modifying the receiving antenna structure and elements, this radar is capable of providing accurate wind information between 70 and 110 km unlike other similar radars. Height covering region is extended by increasing the meteor counting capacity by modifying the receiving antenna structure and elements and hence its wind estimation limits extended below and above of 80 and 100 km, respectively. In the present study, we also made comparison of horizontal winds in the MLT region with those measured by similar and different (MST and MF radars) techniques over the Indian region including the model (HWM 07) data sets. The comparison showed a very good agreement between the overlapping altitudes (82-98 km) of different radars. Zonal winds compared very well as that of meridional winds. The observed discrepancies and limitations in the wind measurement are discussed. This new radar is expected to play important role in understanding the vertical and lateral coupling by forming a unique local network.

  8. A Persistent Meteoric Ion Layer in the Martian Atmosphere (United States)

    Crismani, Matteo; Schneider, Nicholas M.; Jain, Sonal Kumar; Plane, John; Deigo Carrillo Sanchez, Juan; Deighan, Justin; Stevens, Michael H.; Evans, Scott; Chaffin, Michael S.; Jacosky, Bruce; IUVS Team


    We report on a persistent metal ion layer at Mars produced by meteoric ablation in the upper atmosphere, observed by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) on MAVEN. The response of the Martian atmosphere to meteoroid influx constrains cometary activity, dust dynamics, ionospheric production at Mars and meteoric smoke may represent a site of nucleation for high altitude clouds. Using observations that span more than an Earth year, we find this layer is global and steady state, contrary to previous observations, but in accordance with predictions. IUVS observations cover a range of observation conditions, which allows us to determine the variability of the Mg+ layer seasonally and geographically. Mars has passed through several predicted meteor showers, though the fluences of these events have hitherto been unconstrained. Analysis of these events will determine whether Mars' atmosphere responds to such events dramatically, as was the case with comet Siding Spring, or more similarly to Earth. Mg is also detected, but the ratio of Mg to Mg+ is less than predicted, indicative of undetermined chemical processes in the Martian atmosphere.

  9. Meteor Showers in the Ancient Maya Hieroglyphic Codices (United States)

    Kinsman, J. H.


    Researchers of the ancient Maya culture have long been fascinated with the Maya obsession concerning cyclical calendars and precise visual observations of astronomical bodies and phenomena, in particular the Sun, Moon, visible planets, and solar and lunar eclipses. Although considered possible, heretofore no record of specific sightings of comets or meteor showers in the Maya inscriptions has been firmly established by scholars. Besides difficulties with decipherment of the hieroglyphic script, investigators have had to grapple with an ancient Maya calendar that has not been accurately correlated to the European calendar. Recent examination by this researcher has found that it may be possible to recognize written accounts of meteor showers embedded in the hieroglyphic corpus, especially the codices, the screen-fold books that were the tools of the astronomer-priests of that day. By proposing an alternative decipherment of an astronomical sign and using the accompanying hieroglyphic texts and illustrations with appropriate dates, this researcher believes it is possible to demonstrate that the Maya may have recorded meteor showers occurring in the seventh through the tenth centuries AD.

  10. The prediction of meteor showers from all potential parent comets

    CERN Document Server

    Neslusan, Lubos; Tomko, Dusan; Kanuchova, Zuzana; Jakubik, Marian


    The objectives of this project are to predict new meteor showers associated with as many as possible known periodic comets and to find a generic relationship of some already known showers with these comets. For a potential parent comet, we model a theoretical stream at the moment of its perihelion passage in a far past, and follow its dynamical evolution until the present. Subsequently, we analyze the orbital characteristics of the parts of the stream that approach the Earth's orbit. Modelled orbits of the stream particles are compared with the orbits of actual photographic, video, and radar meteors from several catalogues. The whole procedure is repeated for several past perihelion passages of the parent comet. To keep our description compact but detailed, we usually present only either a single or a few parent comets with their associated showers in one paper. Here, an overview of the results from the modelling of the meteor-shower complexes of more than ten parent bodies will be presented. This enables the...

  11. Rates, Flux Densities, and Spectral Indices of Meteor Radio Afterglows

    CERN Document Server

    Obenberger, K S; Hancock, P J; Holmes, J M; Pedersen, T R; Schinzel, F K; Taylor, G B


    Using the narrowband all-sky imager mode of the LWA1 we have now detected 30 transients at 25.6 MHz, 1 at 34 MHz, and 93 at 38.0 MHz. While we have only optically confirmed that 37 of these events are radio afterglows from meteors, evidence suggests that most, if not all, are. Using the beam-forming mode of the LWA1 we have also captured the broadband spectra between 22.0 and 55.0 MHz of four events. We compare the smooth, spectral components of these four events and fit the frequency dependent flux density to a power law, and find that the spectral index is time variable, with the spectrum steepening over time for each meteor afterglow. Using these spectral indices along with the narrow band flux density measurements of the 123 events at 25.6 and 38 MHz, we predict the expected flux densities and rates for meteor afterglows potentially observable by other low frequency radio telescopes.

  12. Determining proportions of lunar crater populations by fitting crater size distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Nan


    We determine the proportions of two mixed crater populations distinguishable by size distributions on the Moon. A "multiple power-law" model is built to formulate crater size distribution $N(D) \\propto D^{-\\alpha}$ whose slope $\\alpha$ varies with crater diameter $D$. Fitted size distribution of lunar highland craters characterized by $\\alpha = 1.17 \\pm 0.04$, $1.88 \\pm 0.07$, $3.17 \\pm 0.10$ and $1.40 \\pm 0.15$ for consecutive $D$ intervals divided by 49, 120 and 251 km and that of lunar Class 1 craters with a single slope $\\alpha = 1.96 \\pm 0.14$, are taken as Population 1 and 2 crater size distribution respectively, whose sum is then fitted to the size distribution of global lunar craters with $D$ between 10 and 100 km. Estimated crater densities of Population 1 and 2 are $44 \\times 10^{-5}$ and $5 \\times 10^{-5}$ km$^{-2}$ respectively, leading to the proportion of the latter $10 \\%$. The results underlines the need for considering the Population 1 craters and the relevant impactors, the primordial main-b...

  13. The source crater of martian shergottite meteorites. (United States)

    Werner, Stephanie C; Ody, Anouck; Poulet, François


    Absolute ages for planetary surfaces are often inferred by crater densities and only indirectly constrained by the ages of meteorites. We show that the meteorites classified as shergottites. Shergottites and this crater are linked by their coinciding meteorite ejection ages and the crater formation age and by mineralogical constraints. Because Mojave formed on 4.3 billion-year-old terrain, the original crystallization ages of shergottites are old, as inferred by Pb-Pb isotope ratios, and the much-quoted shergottite ages of <600 million years are due to resetting. Thus, the cratering-based age determination method for Mars is now calibrated in situ, and it shifts the absolute age of the oldest terrains on Mars backward by 200 million years.

  14. Impact Structures: What Does Crater Diameter Mean? (United States)

    Turtle, E. P.; Pierazzo, E.; Collins, G. S.; Osinski, G. R.; Melosh, H. J.; Morgan, J. V.; Reimold, W. U.; Spray, J. G.


    Crater diameter is an important parameter in energy scaling and impact simulations. However, disparate types of data make the use of consistent metrics difficult. We suggest a consistent terminology and discuss it in the context of several examples.

  15. 10Be Content in Suevite Breccia from the Bosumtwi Impact Crater (United States)

    Losiak, Anna; Wild, Eva Maria; Michlmayr, Leonard; Koeberl, Christian


    Introduction: According to the current understanding of meteorite impact processes, surface target material is transported from a crater in the form of ejecta or is vaporized/melted (e.g., [1]). The formation model of tektites from the surface of the target rocks has been established using the 10Be content of tektites (e.g., [2]), and chemical comparison with the possible target surface material (e.g., [3]); it was also reproduced by computer modeling (e.g., [4]). On the other hand, some observations ([5, 6]) suggest that part of the surface material may be incorporated into the crater-fill. The aim of this study is to check if surface-derived material is present in suevitic breccias to better understand formation mechanisms of fallback breccias. Also, 10Be can be used to trace contamination of rocks in the top layer of the suevitic layer by meteoric (lake) water. This abstract is an update (based on more data now available) of the previous report presented during the Metsoc75 conference. Samples: The Bosumtwi crater was chosen as study site because of its relatively large size (10.5 km in diameter), young age of 1.07 Ma [7], good state of preservation, and availability of core samples. Clasts from suevitic breccia selected for this study come from the LB-07A and LB-08A cores that are located within the crater and represent fallback breccia (e.g., [7]). Of 41 analyzed samples (22 single clasts and 21 matrix samples - 11 of those being monomictic breccia), 36 came from core LB-07A (in the zone outside the central uplift) and represent depths of 333.7 - 407.9 m and 5 are from core LB-08A (on the flank of the central uplift) from depths 239.5 - 264.9 m. Methods: For each sample, 0.8 g of finely grounded material from clasts containing in situ produced and meteoric 10Be was dissolved in a mixture of HF and HNO3 by microwave digestion. A 9Be carrier (1 mg or 0.6 mg, 10Be/9Be ratio: 2.82±0.31*10-15 [2? uncertainty]) was added to the sample, and then Be was chemically

  16. The Chicxulub Impact Crater and Oblique Impact (United States)

    McDonald, M.; Gulick, S.; Melosh, H.; Christeson, G.


    Determining whether or not the Chicxulub impact was oblique (<45 degrees) will aid in our understanding of the environmental consequences 65 Ma. Planetary impact events, and impact simulations in the laboratory, show that oblique impacts have clear asymmetric ejecta distributions. However, the subsurface structures of the resultant craters are not well understood. In 2005, we acquired 1822 km of seismic reflection data onboard the R/V Maurice Ewing imaging the massive (200+ km) Chicxulub impact crater. The seismic profiles show that pre- crater stratigraphy outside the central basin of the Chicxulub impact crater is offset downward into the crater marking the post-impact slumping and formation of the terrace zone. The inward collapse of the Chicxulub terrace zone coincides with the outward collapse of the central uplift to form the peak ring. Chicxulub's peak ring is offset to the southeast, away from the deepest terrace zone mapped in the seismic data, suggesting that its peak ring was offset toward a more gradual wall of the transient cavity. Peak ring offsets, relative to crater center, of Venusian craters from radar images in the Magellan data set allow us to determine whether there are systematic variations in peak ring offset due to oblique impact. Ten pristine Venusian peak ring craters formed by oblique impact show that peak rings are offset both uprange and downrange, suggesting that peak ring position, and related subsurface asymmetries in the terrace zone, do not provide information about impact obliquity. This analysis supports the idea that Chicxulub's peak ring offset is a consequence of target properties and pre-impact structure and independent of impact trajectory.

  17. Meteor observations with Mini-Mega-TORTORA wide-field monitoring system (United States)

    Karpov, S.; Orekhova, N.; Beskin, G.; Biryukov, A.; Bondar, S.; Ivanov, E.; Katkova, E.; Perkov, A.; Sasyuk, V.


    Here we report on the results of meteor observations with 9-channel Mini-Mega-TORTORA (MMT-9) optical monitoring system with the wide field and high temporal resolution. During the first 1.5 years of operation more than 90 thousands of meteors have been detected, at a rate of 300-350 per night, with durations from 0.1 to 2.5 seconds and angular velocities up to 38 degrees per second. The faintest detected meteors have peak brightnesses about 10 mag, while the majority have them ranging from 4 to 8 mag. Some of the meteors have been observed in BVR filters simultaneously. Color variations along the trail for them have been determined. The parameters of the detected meteors have been published online. The database also includes data from 10 thousands of meteors detected by our previous FAVOR camera during 2006-2009.

  18. Isotope hydrology of El Chichón volcano-hydrothermal system; a coupled system of crater lake and hot springs (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.; Rouwet, D.


    The catastrophic 1982 eruption of El Chichón (>1.5 km3 of erupted material) opened the upper hundred meters of the existing volcano-hydrothermal system. In the new formed 200m-deep crater a large shallow crater lake and numerous hot springs were formed. The lake existence and its salinity depend on the precipitation (~4000 mm/y) as well as a group of geyser-like neutral saline springs (source of Cl and SO4) and hydrothermal steam vents discharging into the lake (source of SO4). The chemistry of these “Soap Pool” (SP) springs evolved from >13,000 ppm of Cl in 1995 to ~2000-3000 ppm of Cl in 2006. Since 2006, this Cl-concentration in SP waters is constant. Similar concentrations of Cl are observed in most flank hot springs located at altitudes of ~ 600 m asl, 2-3 km from the crater. Therefore, it can be suggested that the flank springs, crater lake and crater hot springs are manifestations of the upper, relatively shallow volcano-hydrothermal system developed beneath the crater in the volcano edifice. Water isotopic composition of all types of thermal and fresh waters including fumarolic steam condensates (>100 samples collected in 1995-2010) allow to classify and distinguish different processes of shallow mixing, boiling, evaporation and water-rock isotope exchange. All spring waters from the upper system have meteoric origin, with the isotopic composition plotting close to the meteoric water line. Crater waters are strongly evolved due to shallow boiling and loss of steam. Isotopic composition of water from the lower, deep hydrothermal system is characterized by a significant positive oxygen isotopic shift and a strong Cl-d18O linear correlation. Waters from numerous cold springs that drain pyroclastic deposits demonstrate a clear negative oxygen shift. Some problems related to water isotopic composition are still remain unresolved: (1) we cannot find any traces of the infiltrated isotopically heavy lake waters, i.e., the seepage from the lake at the volcano

  19. Oblique impact cratering experiments in brittle targets: Implications for elliptical craters on the Moon (United States)

    Michikami, Tatsuhiro; Hagermann, Axel; Morota, Tomokatsu; Haruyama, Junichi; Hasegawa, Sunao


    Most impact craters observed on planetary bodies are the results of oblique impacts of meteoroids. To date, however, there have only been very few laboratory oblique impact experiments for analogue targets relevant to the surfaces of extraterrestrial bodies. In particular, there is a lack of laboratory oblique impact experiments into brittle targets with a material strength on the order of 1 MPa, with the exception of ice. A strength on the order of 1 MPa is considered to be the corresponding material strength for the formation of craters in the 100 m size range on the Moon. Impact craters are elliptical if the meteoroid's trajectory is below a certain threshold angle of incidence, and it is known that the threshold angle depends largely on the material strength. Therefore, we examined the threshold angle required to produce elliptical craters in laboratory impact experiments into brittle targets. This work aims to constrain current interpretations of lunar elliptical craters and pit craters with sizes below a hundred meters. We produced mortar targets with compressive strength of 3.2 MPa. A spherical nylon projectile (diameter 7.14 mm) was shot into the target surface at a nominal velocity of 2.3 km/s, with an impact angle of 5°-90° from horizontal. The threshold angle of this experiment ranges from 15° to 20°. We confirmed that our experimental data agree with previous empirical equations in terms of the cratering efficiency and the threshold impact angle. In addition, in order to simulate the relatively large lunar pit craters related to underground cavities, we conducted a second series of experiments under similar impact conditions using targets with an underground rectangular cavity. Size and outline of craters that created a hole are similar to those of craters without a hole. Moreover, when observed from an oblique angle, a crater with a hole has a topography that resembles the lunar pit craters. The relation between the impact velocity of meteoroids on

  20. A Numerical Model to Assess Soil Fluxes from Meteoric 10Be Data (United States)

    Campforts, B.; Govers, G.; Vanacker, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Smolders, E.; Baken, S.


    Meteoric 10Be may be mobile in the soil system. The latter hampers a direct translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into spatial variations in erosion and deposition rates. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model that allows us to simulate the behaviour of meteoric 10Be in the soil system. The Be2D model is then used to analyse the potential impact of human-accelerated soil fluxes on meteoric 10Be inventories. The model consists of two parts. A first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile including particle migration, chemical leaching and bioturbation, whereas a second component describes lateral soil (and meteoric 10Be) fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering and lateral soil fluxes from creep, water and tillage erosion. Model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can indeed be related to erosion and deposition, across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. However, quantification of the effects of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed spatial patterns in 10Be data. Moreover, our simulations suggest that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to unravel human impact on soil fluxes when soils have a high retention capacity for meteoric meteoric 10Be. Application of the Be2D model to existing data sets shows that model parameters can reliably be constrained, resulting in a good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories. This confirms the suitability of the Be2D model as a robust tool to underpin quantitative interpretations of spatial variability in meteoric 10Be data for eroding landscapes.

  1. Short and long-term delivery rates of meteoric 10Be to terrestrial soils (United States)

    Graly, Joseph A.; Reusser, Lucas J.; Bierman, Paul R.


    Well-constrained, long-term average meteoric 10Be deposition rates are important when meteoric 10Be is used as a chronometer or tracer of Earth surface processes. To constrain meteoric 10Be delivery to terrestrial soils, we estimate time-integrated 10Be deposition rates from meteoric 10Be inventories measured in dated soils and compare these results to a new synthesis of short-term measurements of 10Be in precipitation. Comparison of these long-term rates to short-term measurements suggests that short-term measurements likely predict long-term meteoric 10Be deposition rates within uncertainties of ~ 20%. In precipitation measurements, it is possible to deconvolve the contribution of atmospherically-produced "primary" meteoric 10Be from "recycled" meteoric 10Be delivered by terrestrial dust if a second isotope is measured that quantifies either the recycled or primary components of meteoric 10Be deposition. We use dust-concentration dependent differences between 7Be and 10Be measurements to make new estimates of the recycled contribution to total meteoric 10Be flux delivered to the Earth's surface. These dust-corrected data show a strong linear dependence between precipitation amount and primary meteoric 10Be flux. Concentrations of primary meteoric 10Be in mid- and low-latitude precipitation vary predictably by latitude between 0.63 · 10 4 and 2.05 · 10 4 atoms/cm 3 of precipitation, providing a first-order estimate of primary meteoric 10Be deposition for a given latitude and precipitation rate.

  2. Meteor detections at the Metsähovi Fundamental Geodetic Research Station (Finland) (United States)

    Raja-Halli, A.; Gritsevich, M.; Näränen, J.; Moreno-Ibáñez, M.; Lyytinen, E.; Virtanen, J.; Zubko, N.; Peltoniemi, J.; Poutanen, M.


    We provide an overview and present some spectacular examples of the recent meteor observations at the Metsähovi Geodetic Research Station. In conjunction with the Finnish Fireball Network the all-sky images are used to reconstruct atmospheric trajectories and to calculate the pre-impact meteor orbits in the Solar System. In addition, intensive collaborative work is pursued with the meteor research groups worldwide. We foresee great potential of this activity also for educational and outreach purposes.

  3. The Geomorphology of Lyot crater,Mars (United States)

    Balme, Matthew; Gallagher, Colman; Conway, Susan


    Lyot crater, Mars, is a relatively young (ii) studies of glacial and periglacial environments useful for studying water on Mars throughout its history. Here we present preliminary mapping of the various ice- and water-related landforms found in and around Lyot crater. Of particular interest are polygonal networks of metre-scale clasts (perhaps periglacial in origin?) and a variety of channels, fans and lobate flows that could be interpreted as proglacial fluvial systems [2]. The putative glacial assemblage exists within the crater rim and in high relief areas outside of the crater. Fluvial-like channels and fans are seen both within the crater and on the ejecta blanket. The networks of polygonal clasts occur only on the margins of the continuous ejecta blanket, at a radial distance of about 300 km from the crater's centre. The clastic polygons that compose the networks are found only on the Eastern side of Lyot basin, and extend in a broad swathe from about nor-northwest to southwest of the crater. The polygons are generally one to two hundred metres in diameter and consist of lines of clasts (sometime double lines) with flat, low centre-regions between them. Their spatial distribution strongly indicates that they have a genetic link to the formation of the impact crater. Our working hypothesis is that the glacial/fluvial assemblages are related to climate-controlled deposition of ice, with later flow and probably thaw as well. The polygonal clast network is harder to explain, but could reflect the location of water ice-rich zones of the ejecta blanket. Hence, this could be material excavated from the cryosphere during impacts and then reworked by periglacial processes at a much later time. [1] Harrison, T.N., et al., Impact-induced overland fluid flow and channelized erosion at Lyot Crater, Mars. Geophys. Res. Let., 2010. 37(L21201): doi:10.1029/2010GL045074 [2] Dickson, J.L., et al., Amazonian-aged fluvial valley systems in a climatic microenvironment on Mars

  4. The Degradational History of Endeavour Crater, Mars (United States)

    Grant, J. A.; Parker, T. J.; Crumpler, L. S.; Wilson, S. A.; Golombek, M. P.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.


    Endeavour crater (2.28 deg S, 354.77 deg E) is a Noachian-aged 22 km-diameter impact structure of complex morphology in Meridiani Planum. The degradation state of the crater has been studied using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Opportunity rover data. Exposed rim segments rise approximately 10 m to approximately 100 m above the level of the embaying Burns Formation and the crater is 200-500 m deep with the southern interior wall exposing over approximately 300 m relief. Both pre-impact rocks (Matijevic Formation) and Endeavour impact ejecta (Shoemaker Formation) are present at Cape York, but only the Shoemaker crops out (up to approximately 140 m) along the rim segment from Murray Ridge to Cape Tribulation. Study of pristine complex craters Bopolu and Tooting, and morphometry of other martian complex craters, enables us to approximate Endeavour's pristine form. The original rim likely averaged 410 m (+/-)200 m in elevation and a 250-275 m section of ejecta ((+/-)50-60 m) would have composed a significant fraction of the rim height. The original crater depth was likely between 1.5 km and 2.2 km. Comparison between the predicted original and current form of Endeavour suggests approximately 100-200 m rim lowering that removed most ejecta in some locales (e.g., Cape York) while thick sections remain elsewhere (e.g., Cape Tribulation). Almost complete removal of ejecta at Cape York and minimal observable offset across fractures indicates current differences in rim relief are not solely due to original rim relief. Rim segments are embayed by approximately 100-200 m thickness of plains rocks outside the crater, but thicker deposits lie inside the crater. Ventifact textures confirm ongoing eolian erosion with the overall extent difficult to estimate. Analogy with degraded Noachian-aged craters south of Endeavour, however, suggests fluvial erosion dominated rim degradation in the Noachian and was likely followed by approximately 10s of meters modification by alternate

  5. TV Observations of Meteors in INASAN: Equipment, Methods and First Results (United States)

    Kartashova, Anna P.; Bagrov, A. V.; Leonov, V. A.


    For the analysis the risk from particles of meteor streams, we must have proved information about masses and densities of meteors. The prime task is to select minor streams from sporadic meteors. Very few astronomers tried to do it, when others only mark observed meteor “Sporadic” without registering its track. So very few previous observations cannot be used for streams detection, and we had to do it from special observations. As a width of meteoroid stream may be very narrow, the Earth will cross it in few hours and it is necessary to observe meteor events 24 hour a day. This is why we provide meteor monitoring and catch every ray of light in night skies and ask other observers to join our program. The current goal of our investigation is continuous monitoring of meteor events by two ways: from nearby sites (about 20-60 km distance) for triangle observations and simultaneously from some observation sites separated by approximately thousand kilometers for detection of minor streams. The last one will reveal spatial heterogeneity's of strong meteor showers also. Since July 2002 at the Arkhyz Space Tracking Station (North Caucasus) and near Moscow hybrid TV-cameras with CCD (“PatrolCa”) are used for meteor observations. Limiting magnitude of the first camera is about +5 magn in the 52-degrees field under frame rate 25 f/sec, the second camera has limiting magnitude 11,5m in field 18x22 degrees with rate 7,5 f/sec. Since June 2006 four extra PatrolCa begin stereo (basis) TV-observation near Moscow with the aims of determination of individual orbits of observed meteors and their physical densities. Observed by meteor monitoring data show that at least 40% of sporadic meteors may be referred to catalogued weak meteor streams. In this paper we present the method of definition of celestial coordinates of objects in the single frame of the wide-angle system. The method allows definition of celestial coordinates of a meteor at the restrictions of absents of enough

  6. Dynamical modeling validation of parent bodies associated with newly discovered CMN meteor showers

    CERN Document Server

    Šegon, Damir; Gural, Peter S; Vida, Denis; Andreić, Željko; Korlević, Korado; Skokić, Ivica


    Context: Results from previous searches for new meteor showers in the combined Croatian Meteor Network and SonotaCo meteor databases suggested possible parent bodies for several newly identified showers. Aims: We aim to perform an analysis to validate the connection between the identified showers and candidate parent bodies. Methods: Simulated particles were ejected from candidate parent bodies, a dynamical modeling was performed and the results were compared to the real meteor shower observations. Results: From the 13 analysed cases, three were found to be connected with comets, four with asteroids which are possibly dormant comets, four were inconclusive or negative, and two need more observational data before any conclusions can be drawn.

  7. How to estimate the effect of an intense meteor shower on human space activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU GuangJie


    In the present age, the potential threat to space projects oming from some intense meteor storms has been noticed. Especially, the increasing activities of mankind in space for scientific, commercial and military purposes have led to an increase in safety-related problems about the satellites, space stations and astronauts. Several new techniques for observing meteors end meteor showers have been devel-oped. However, how to estimate even predict the effect of an intense meteor shower should be further studied. The initial definition about a meteor storm based on visual observations with a Zenithal Hourly Rate of over one thousand seems insufficient, since it only means a storm or burst of meteors in numbers. In 2006 the author suggested a synthetical index of the potential threats about intense aotivi-ties of meteors; however, it is too complex to determine several parameters. In this paper, the author suggests a Special True Number Flux Density (STNFD). Set a certain energy-limit, or a certain elec-tric-charge-limit, end then calculate the number flux density. Through the comparison between two of the 10 strong meteor showers in recent years it is found that the important factor affecting the space flight security is not only the number of meteoroids, but also their velocities, their average energy and the population index r. Calculations show that Giacobinids, even June Bootids, should be one of the most hazardous meteor showers.

  8. How to estimate the effect of an intense meteor shower on human space activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In the present age,the potential threat to space projects coming from some intense meteor storms has been noticed.Especially,the increasing activities of mankind in space for scientific,commercial and military purposes have led to an increase in safety-related problems about the satellites,space stations and astronauts.Several new techniques for observing meteors and meteor showers have been developed.However,how to estimate even predict the effect of an intense meteor shower should be further studied.The initial definition about a meteor storm based on visual observations with a Zenithal Hourly Rate of over one thousand seems insufficient,since it only means a storm or burst of meteors in numbers.In 2006 the author suggested a synthetical index of the potential threats about intense activities of meteors;however,it is too complex to determine several parameters.In this paper,the author suggests a Special True Number Flux Density(STNFD).Set a certain energy-limit,or a certain electric-charge-limit,and then calculate the number flux density.Through the comparison between two of the 10 strong meteor showers in recent years it is found that the important factor affecting the space flight security is not only the number of meteoroids,but also their velocities,their average energy and the population index r.Calculations show that Giacobinids,even June Bootids,should be one of the most hazardous meteor showers.

  9. METEOR v1.0 - Design and structure of the software package; METEOR v1.0 - Estructura y modulos informaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo, E.


    This script describes the structure and the separated modules of the software package METEOR for the statistical analysis of meteorological data series. It contains a systematic description of the subroutines of METEOR and, also, of the required shape for input and output files. The original version of METEOR have been developed by Ph.D. Elena Palomo, CIEMAT-IER, GIMASE. It is built by linking programs and routines written in FORTRAN 77 and it adds thc graphical capabilities of GNUPLOT. The shape of this toolbox was designed following the criteria of modularity, flexibility and agility criteria. All the input, output and analysis options are structured in three main menus: i) the first is aimed to evaluate the quality of the data set; ii) the second is aimed for pre-processing of the data; and iii) the third is aimed towards the statistical analyses and for creating the graphical outputs. Actually the information about METEOR is constituted by three documents written in spanish: 1) METEOR v1.0: User's guide; 2) METEOR v1.0: A usage example; 3) METEOR v 1.0: Design and structure of the software package. (Author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David; Pokorny, Petr; Bottke, William F. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Janches, Diego [Space Weather Laboratory, Code 674, GSFC/NASA, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Jenniskens, Peter [Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, 515 N. Whisman Road, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)


    The solar system is dusty, and would become dustier over time as asteroids collide and comets disintegrate, except that small debris particles in interplanetary space do not last long. They can be ejected from the solar system by Jupiter, thermally destroyed near the Sun, or physically disrupted by collisions. Also, some are swept by the Earth (and other planets), producing meteors. Here we develop a dynamical model for the solar system meteoroids and use it to explain meteor radar observations. We find that the Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) are the main source of the prominent concentrations of meteors arriving at the Earth from the helion and antihelion directions. To match the radiant and orbit distributions, as measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR) and Advanced Meteor Orbit Radar (AMOR), our model implies that comets, and JFCs in particular, must frequently disintegrate when reaching orbits with low perihelion distance. Also, the collisional lifetimes of millimeter particles may be longer ({approx}> 10{sup 5} yr at 1 AU) than postulated in the standard collisional models ({approx}10{sup 4} yr at 1 AU), perhaps because these chondrule-sized meteoroids are stronger than thought before. Using observations of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite to calibrate the model, we find that the total cross section and mass of small meteoroids in the inner solar system are (1.7-3.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} km{sup 2} and {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} g, respectively, in a good agreement with previous studies. The mass input required to keep the zodiacal cloud in a steady state is estimated to be {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} kg s{sup -1}. The input is up to {approx}10 times larger than found previously, mainly because particles released closer to the Sun have shorter collisional lifetimes and need to be supplied at a faster rate. The total mass accreted by the Earth in particles between diameters D = 5 {mu}m and 1 cm is found to be {approx}15

  11. Kinematic Characteristics of Meteor Showers by Results of the Combined Radio-Television Observations (United States)

    Narziev, Mirhusen


    One of the most important tasks of meteor astronomy is the study of the distribution of meteoroid matter in the solar system. The most important component to address this issue presents the results of measurements of the velocities, radiants, and orbits of both showers and sporadic meteors. Radiant's and orbits of meteors for different sets of data obtained as a result of photographic, television, electro-optical, video, Fireball Network and radar observations have been measured repeatedly. However, radiants, velocities and orbits of shower meteors based on the results of combined radar-optical observations have not been sufficiently studied. In this paper, we present a methods for computing the radiants, velocities, and orbits of the combined radar-TV meteor observations carried out at HisAO in 1978-1980. As a result of the two-year cycle of simultaneous TV-radar observations 57 simultaneous meteors have been identified. Analysis of the TV images has shown that some meteor trails appeared as dashed lines. Among the simultaneous meteors of d-Aquariids 10 produced such dashed images, and among the Perseids there were only 7. Using a known method, for such fragmented images of simultaneous meteors - together with the measured radar distance, trace length, and time interval between the segments - allowed to determine meteor velocity using combined method. In addition, velocity of the same meteors was measured using diffraction and radar range-time methods based on the results of radar observation. It has been determined that the mean values of meteoroid velocity based on the combined radar-TV observations are greater in 1 ÷ 3 km / c than the averaged velocity values measured using only radar methods. Orbits of the simultaneously observed meteors with segmented photographic images were calculated on the basis of the average velocity observed using the combined radar-TV method. The measured results of radiants velocities and orbital elements of individual meteors

  12. Crater and cavity depth in hypervelocity impact (United States)

    Kadono, T.; Fujiwara, A.


    Hypervelocity impact experiments with low-density mediums (e.g., foams) have been so far carried out to develop the instruments for intact capture of interplanetary dust particles. The results show that the impact leads a "cavity", a cylindrical or carrot (spindle) shaped vestige. Its shape depends on the condition of projectiles; when impact velocity is so low that projectiles are intact, the depth increases with impact velocity, while it decreases or is constant with impact velocity when the impact velocity is so high that projectiles are broken (e.g., Kadono, Planet. Space Sci. 47, 305--318, 1999). On the other hand, as described by Summers (NASA TN D-94, 1959), crater shape with high density targets (comparable to projectile density) also changes with impact velocity. At low velocities, the strength of projectile's materials is greater than the dynamic impact pressure and the projectile penetrates the target intact. The crater produced is deep and narrow. With increase in impact velocity, a point is reached at which the impact pressure is sufficient to cause the projectile to fragment into a few large pieces at impact. Then as the impact velocity is increased further, the projectile shatters into numerous small pieces and the penetration actually decreases. Finally a velocity is reached at which the typical fluid impact occurs, the crater formed is nearly hemispherical in shape. It appears that the situation in cavity formation with low density targets is quite similar to that in cratering with high density targets at low impact velocity. This similarity allows us to discuss cavity formation and cratering in a unified view. As described above, the previous experiments clearly suggest that the condition of projectiles plays important roles in both cratering and cavity formation. Hence here, by introducing a parameter that characterizes the condition of projectiles at the instance of impact, cratering processes such as projectile penetration and shock wave

  13. Geological Study of Gale Crater on Mars (United States)

    Le Deit, L.; Hauber, E.; Fueten, F.; Pondrelli, M.; Rossi, A.; Mangold, N.; Jaumann, R.


    Gale is an impact crater of 150 km in diameter, formed at Late Noachian/Early Hesperian located close to the dichotomy boundary and to the Medusae Fossae Formation. This crater is partially filled by a crescent-shaped mound of layered deposits up to 5 km thick and 6000 km2 in area, for which several origins have been proposed including volcanic, eolian, and fluviatile and lacustrine processes, precipitation as spring deposits, and a combination of several origins. The past presence of water is attested by the occurrence of many channels carved into the deposits and the crater rim, and of phyllosilicates and sulfates located in the lowest part of the deposits. Hence, Gale crater is a site of high interest to understand the evolution of the geochemical and climatic environment of the region through time, and may have had favorable conditions for supporting life in the past. This will be studied in situ by Curiosity (Mars Science Laboratory) from August 2012. In order to better constrain the history of Gale and the origin of its deposits, a geologic map of Gale crater based on the analysis of the orbital data CTX (~ 6 m/pixel) and HiRISE (25-32 cm/pixel) was produced. The geometry of the layered deposits was measured from HiRISE DEM. The geological units and landforms were defined according to their location, physical characteristics, albedo, erosion patterns, and mineralogical composition. Five main units were identified within the mound of layered deposits, which are interpreted as mainly airfall deposits including aeolian dunes. North of the mound, linear lobate features and a fan-shaped feature might have resulted from mass-wasting processes (i.e., landslides, debris flows, or viscous flows). The crater fill units correspond to deposits located on the rims and on the floor of the crater. They are incised by many valleys and superposed by sinuous ridges, interpreted as fluvial channels and inverted channels respectively. These crater fill units are interpreted as

  14. Forward-scattering of meteors: a digital way (United States)

    Nedeljkovic, Saša; Miovic, Vjera


    The new cutting edge technologies have opened the possibility of using digital spectrometers to probe the sky. With the sampling rate of ˜400 Msamples/s and the capability to digitally process data in real-time it is possible to get wideband spectra covering the frequencies in the range 0-200 MHz with the resolution of a few kHz. This presentation will show how such a spectrometer can be applied to the forward-scattering method of meteor detection.

  15. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters (United States)

    Bart, G. D.; Melosh, H. J.; Strom, R. G.


    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III images from P-12 and S-18. The Mars crater was observed in Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) Release No. MOC2-712. The craters range in size from 300 m to 3 km diameter. We measured the diameters of boulders observed around the craters, and also measured the distance between the boulder and the crater center. We then calculate the ejection velocity of each boulder based on how far the block was from the crater. The data indicate that larger boulders are more frequently found close to the crater rim rather than far away. The size of the ejecta drops off as a power law with distance from the crater. Our results are consistent with studies by Vickery (1986, 1987), which indirectly found the distribution of ejecta sizes from large craters by analyzing the size and distribution of their secondary craters. Our work characterizes the other end of the ejecta spectrum --- low velocity boulders ejected from small craters. We have also constructed R-plots of the boulder diameters for each crater. We found that the R-plot for the boulders has a dependence remarkably similar to an R-plot of the diameters of secondary craters. This similarity supports the already accepted idea that the impactors that produce secondaries are blocks ejected from larger craters. It is also consistent with the interpretation that the upturn of the cratering curve at small diameters on the terrestrial planets is due to secondary impacts rather than a primary population as some have proposed.

  16. Physics of soft impact and cratering

    CERN Document Server

    Katsuragi, Hiroaki


    This book focuses on the impact dynamics and cratering of soft matter to describe its importance, difficulty, and wide applicability to planetary-related problems. A comprehensive introduction to the dimensional analysis and constitutive laws that are necessary to discuss impact mechanics and cratering is first provided. Then, particular coverage is given to the impact of granular matter, which is one of the most crucial constituents for geophysics. While granular matter shows both solid-like and fluid-like behaviors, neither solid nor fluid dynamics is sufficient to fully understand the physics of granular matter. In order to reveal its fundamental properties, extensive impact tests have been carried out recently. The author reveals the findings of these recent studies as well as what remains unsolved in terms of impact dynamics. Impact crater morphology with various soft matter impacts also is discussed intensively. Various experimental and observational results up to the recent Itokawa asteroid’s terrain...

  17. Titan's Impact Cratering Record: Erosion of Ganymedean (and other) Craters on a Wet Icy Landscape (United States)

    Schenk, P.; Moore, J.; Howard, A.


    We examine the cratering record of Titan from the perspective of icy satellites undergoing persistent landscape erosion. First we evaluate whether Ganymede (and Callisto) or the smaller low-gravity neighboring icy satellites of Saturn are the proper reference standard for evaluating Titan’s impact crater morphologies, using topographic and morphometric measurements (Schenk, 2002; Schenk et al. (2004) and unpublished data). The special case of Titan’s largest crater, Minrva, is addressed through analysis of large impact basins such as Gilgamesh, Lofn, Odysseus and Turgis. Second, we employ a sophisticated landscape evolution and modification model developed for study of martian and other planetary landforms (e.g., Howard, 2007). This technique applies mass redistribution principles due to erosion by impact, fluvial and hydrological processes to a planetary landscape. The primary advantage of our technique is the possession of a limited but crucial body of areal digital elevation models (DEMs) of Ganymede (and Callisto) impact craters as well as global DEM mapping of Saturn’s midsize icy satellites, in combination with the ability to simulate rainfall and redeposition of granular material to determine whether Ganymede craters can be eroded to resemble Titan craters and the degree of erosion required. References: Howard, A. D., “Simulating the development of martian highland landscapes through the interaction of impact cratering, fluvial erosion, and variable hydrologic forcing”, Geomorphology, 91, 332-363, 2007. Schenk, P. "Thickness constraints on the icy shells of the galilean satellites from impact crater shapes". Nature, 417, 419-421, 2002. Schenk, P.M., et al. "Ages and interiors: the cratering record of the Galilean satellites". In: Jupiter: The Planet, Satellites, and Magnetosphere, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 427-456, 2004.

  18. Martian Atmospheric Methane Plumes from Meteor Shower Infall: A Hypothesis (United States)

    Fries, M.; Christou, A.; Archer, D.; Conrad, P.; Cooke, W.; Eigenbrode, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Matney, M.; Niles, P.; Sykes, M.


    Methane plumes in the martian atmosphere have been detected using Earth-based spectroscopy, the Planetary Fourier Spectrometer on the ESA Mars Express mission, and the NASA Mars Science Laboratory. The methane's origin remains a mystery, with proposed sources including volcanism, exogenous sources like impacts and interplanetary dust, aqueous alteration of olivine in the presence of carbonaceous material, release from ancient deposits of methane clathrates, and/or biological activity. To date, none of these phenomena have been found to reliably correlate with the detection of methane plumes. An additional source exists, however: meteor showers could generate martian methane via UV pyrolysis of carbon-rich infall material. We find a correlation between the dates of Mars/cometary orbit encounters and detections of methane on Mars. We hypothesize that cometary debris falls onto Mars during these interactions, depositing freshly disaggregated meteor shower material in a regional concentration. The material generates methane via UV photolysis, resulting in a localized "plume" of short-lived methane.

  19. Development of artificial meteor for observation of upper atmosphere (United States)

    Watanabe, Masaki; Sahara, Hironori; Abe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Takeo; Nojiri, Yuta; Okajima, Lena


    This study proposes a method for the observation of the upper atmosphere using an artificial meteor injected by a mass driver installed on a microsatellite. The mass driver injects a pill at a velocity of 200 m/s and deorbits it into the atmosphere. The emission of the pill can then be observed from the ground at the necessary time and location. This approach could contribute to a better understanding of the global environment as well as different aspects of astronomy and planetary science. To realize the proposed method, the required size and emission of the pill have to be determined. Therefore, we conducted flow-field simulations, spectroscopic estimations, and an experiment on an artificial meteor in the arc heater wind tunnel at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science in the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA). From the results, we confirmed that the light emission could be observed as a shooting star by the naked eye and thus verified the feasibility of the method.

  20. Charge Balance in the Mesosphere with Meteoric Dust Particles (United States)

    Robertson, S. H.; Asmus, H.; Dickson, S.; Friedrich, M.; Megner, L. S.


    An aerosol particle charging model developed initially for noctilucent cloud particles has been extended in several steps in order to better explain data for charged meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) returned by the nighttime and daytime CHAMPS rockets launched from the Andøya rocket Range, Norway, in October 2011. Addition of photodetachment to the model shows that this process reduces the number density of positively charged MSPs as well as the number density of negatively charged MSPs as a consequence of the photodetached electrons neutralizing the positively charged MSPs. In addition, the model shows that the ionization rate can be deduced from the electron number density and the electron-ion recombination rate only at the highest altitudes as a consequence of recombination of electrons on the MSPs at lower altitudes. The differences between the daytime and nighttime data place constraints on the photodetachment rate. A further extension of the model to include the formation of negative ions and their destruction by atomic oxygen helps explain the ledge seen in the number density of the lightest negatively charged particles. MSP particle densities from the CARMA/CHEM2D model are in better agreement with rocket data for assumed values of the meteor input flux that are at the low end of the generally accepted range.

  1. Political astronomy: Comet and meteor observations by Muslim historians (United States)

    Chander Kapoor, Ramesh


    Eclipses and unexpected phenomena like comets, meteors, novae and earthquakes were viewed among various cultures as violating the established order of the heavens. They were considered to be ill omens for kings and emperors and were routinely monitored. The present work looks into the texts of history and literature by Muslim historians and chroniclers in West Asia and India that carry stray references to such phenomena. The accounts often relate the apparitions to specific disastrous events or prognosticate revolts, deaths, epidemics, earthquakes all that that took place in later times. Obviously, the occurrences interested the astrologers more. Comet appearances would last for days and weeks but nearly all the writings lack sequential observations. Meteor showers are annual features but the Islamic calendar being lunar would not easily lead one to notice periodic nature of the incidents, let alone sensing a periodicity in comet appearances. These are non-astronomy texts with little scientific content but being from different ages permit us to see how the astronomical perceptions changed over the times. The recorded details and firm chronology, tested against modern back calculations, can provide valuable information on them, keeping in mind the text and the context in which the original reference was made. We also notice a qualitative change in the Indian writings of the 18th century and later where the authors begin to show up with influence of exposure to the European scientific progress.

  2. Does crater 'saturation equilibrium' occur in the solar system? (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.


    The similarity in crater densities on the most heavily cratered surfaces throughout the solar system is statistically examined and discussed in terms of a 'saturation equilibrium' being achieved by cratering processes. This hypothesis accounts for (1) the similarity in maximum relative crater density, below certain theoretically predicted values, on all heavily cratered surfaces; (2) a levelling off at this same relative density among 100-m scale craters in populations on lunar maria and other sparsely cratered lunar surfaces; and (3) the approximate uniformity of maximum relative densities on Saturn satellites. The lunar frontside upland crater population, sometimes described as a well-preserved production function useful for interpreting other planetary surfaces, is found not to be a production function. It was modified by intercrater plains at least partly formed by early upland basaltic lava flooding.

  3. Novel approach of crater detection by crater candidate region selection and matrix-pattern-oriented least squares support vector machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Meng; Cao Yunfeng; Wu Qingxian


    Impacted craters are commonly found on the surface of planets,satellites,asteroids and other solar system bodies.In order to speed up the rate of constructing the database of craters,it is important to develop crater detection algorithms.This paper presents a novel approach to automatically detect craters on planetary surfaces.The approach contains two parts:crater candidate region selection and crater detection.In the first part,crater candidate region selection is achieved by Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) detector.Matrix-pattern-oriented least squares support vector machine (MatLSSVM),as the matrixization version of least square support vector machine (SVM),inherits the advantages of least squares support vector machine (LSSVM),reduces storage space greatly and reserves spatial redundancies within each image matrix compared with general LSSVM.The second part of the approach employs MatLSSVM to design classifier for crater detection.Experimental results on the dataset which comprises 160 preprocessed image patches from Google Mars demonstrate that the accuracy rate of crater detection can be up to 88%.In addition,the outstanding feature of the approach introduced in this paper is that it takes resized crater candidate region as input pattern directly to finish crater detection.The results of the last experiment demonstrate that MatLSSVM-based classifier can detect crater regions effectively on the basis of KLT-based crater candidate region selection.

  4. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater (United States)


    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  5. The Working Group on Meteor Showers Nomenclature: a History, Current Status and a Call for Contributions (United States)

    Jopek, T. J.; Jenniskens, P. M.


    During the IAU General Assembly in Rio de Janeiro in 2009, the members of Commission 22 established the Working Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature, from what was formerly the Task Group on Meteor Shower Nomenclature. The Task Group had completed its mission to propose a first list of established meteor showers that could receive officially names. At the business meeting of Commission 22 the list of 64 established showers was approved and consequently officially accepted by the IAU. A two-step process is adopted for showers to receive an official name from the IAU: i) before publication, all new showers discussed in the literature are first added to the Working List of Meteor Showers, thereby receiving a unique name, IAU number and three-letter code; ii) all showers which come up to the verification criterion are selected for inclusion in the List of Established Meteor Showers, before being officially named at the next IAU General Assembly.

  6. Meteors as a Delivery Vehicle for Organic Matter to the Early Earth (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    Only in recent years has a concerted effort been made to study the circumstances under which extraterrestrial organic matter is accreted on Earth by way of meteors. Meteors are the luminous phenomena associated with the (partial) ablation of meteoric matter and represent the dominant pathway from space to Earth, with the possible exception of rare giant impacts of asteroids and comets. Meteors dominated the supply of organics to the early Earth if organic matter survived this pathway efficiently. Moreover, meteors are a source of kinetic energy that can convert inert atmospheric gases such as CO, N, and H2O into useful compounds, such as HCN and NO. Understanding these processes relies heavily on empirical evidence that is still very limited. Here I report on the observations in hand and discuss their relevance in the context of the origin of life.

  7. Evidence for Recent Liquid Water on Mars: Gullies in Crater Wall, Noachis Terra (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Gullies eroded into the wall of a meteor impact crater in Noachis Terra. This high resolution view (top left) from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) shows channels and associated aprons of debris that are interpreted to have formed by groundwater seepage, surface runoff, and debris flow. The lack of small craters superimposed on the channels and apron deposits indicates that these features are geologically young. It is possible that these gullies indicate that liquid water is present within the martian subsurface today.The MOC image was acquired on September 28, 1999. The scene covers an area approximately 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 6.7 km (4.1 mi) high (note, the aspect ratio is 1.5 to 1.0). Sunlight illuminates this area from the upper left. The image is located near 54.8oS, 342.5oW. The context image (above) shows the location of the MOC image on the south-facing wall of an impact crater approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The context picture was obtained by the Viking 1 orbiter in 1980 and is illuminated from the upper left. The large mound on the floor of the crater in the context view is a sand dune field. The Mars Orbiter Camera high resolution images are taken black-and-white (grayscale); the color seen here has been synthesized from the colors of Mars observed by the MOC wide angle cameras and by the Viking Orbiters in the late 1970s.A brief description of how the color was generated: The MOC narrow angle camera only takes grayscale (black and white) pictures. To create the color versions seen here, we have taken much lower resolution red and blue images acquired by the MOC's wide angle cameras, and by the Viking Orbiter cameras in the 1970s, synthesized a green image by averaging red and blue, and created a pallette of colors that represent the range of colors on Mars. We then use a relationship that correlates color and brightness to assign a color to each gray

  8. Societal Implications of an Impact Crater - Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure, Virginia (United States)

    Emry, S.; McFarland, R.; Powars, D.


    Ground water plays an important role in the economy and quality of life in the Coastal Plain of Virginia. In 1990, the aquifers in the Coastal Plain supplied over 100 million gallons of water per day to the citizens, businesses, and industries of Virginia. In southeastern Virginia, the thirteen public water utilities serve approximately 1.5 million people in the Hampton Roads area. The role of ground water resources in sustaining this area is more critical than ever due to the relatively low relief of the Coastal Plain Province, providing few new surface water sources to meet the growing population and expanding economy and the increased regulatory obstacles to obtaining a permit to build new reservoirs. A zone of salty ground water, referred to as the "inland salt water wedge," is well known to ground water resource planners and scientists, but until recently the phenomenon has not been satisfactorily explained. In 1996, the directors of the water utilities in Hampton Roads were introduced to the most dramatic geological event that ever took place in the Chesapeake Bay region. Geologists from the U.S. Geological Survey provided evidence of a meteor impact that formed a crater over 35 million years ago. The contours of the inland saltwater wedge conform well to the shape of the crater's outer rim. Prior to the discovery of the impact crater, it was presumed that the ground water flow in the Coastal Plain aquifer system was a relatively simple system described as "alternating layers of aquifers and confining units gradually dipping and thickening from the west to the east." With the discovery of the impact crater, the rules changed. In 1997, the USGS and the Hampton Roads Planning District Commission, representing the sixteen member jurisdictions, teamed up in a cooperative effort to redefine the hydrogeology of southeastern Virginia. In 1999, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality and the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy joined the team

  9. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer


    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere. We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out. Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon but all three radiants were detected.

  10. Recharge from a subsidence crater at the Nevada test site (United States)

    Wilson, G. V.; Ely, D.M.; Hokett, S. L.; Gillespie, D. R.


    Current recharge through the alluvial fans of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is considered to be negligible, but the impact of more than 400 nuclear subsidence craters on recharge is uncertain. Many of the craters contain a playa region, but the impact of these playas has not been addressed. It was hypothesized that a crater playa would focus infiltration through the surrounding coarser-grained material, thereby increasing recharge. Crater U5a was selected because it represented a worst case for runoff into craters. A borehole was instrumented for neutron logging beneath the playa center and immediately outside the crater. Physical and hydraulic properties were measured along a transect in the crater and outside the crater. Particle-size analysis of the 14.6 m of sediment in the crater and morphological features of the crater suggest that a large ponding event of ≈63000 m3 had occurred since crater formation. Water flow simulations with HYDRUS-2D, which were corroborated by the measured water contents, suggest that the wetting front advanced initially by as much as 30 m yr−1 with a recharge rate 32 yr after the event of 2.5 m yr−1Simulations based on the measured properties of the sediments suggest that infiltration will occur preferentially around the playa perimeter. However, these sediments were shown to effectively restrict future recharge by storing water until removal by evapotranspiration (ET). This work demonstrated that subsidence craters may be self-healing.

  11. Characterization of Boulders Ejected from Small Impact Craters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bart, G.D.; Melosh, H.J.; Strom, R.G.


    When an asteroid or comet impacts the surface of a solid body, some of the surface material is often ejected from the crater in the form of blocks. We are characterizing the size and location of such blocks around craters on the Moon and Mars. The lunar craters were observed in Lunar Orbiter III ima

  12. Diurnal and annual variations of meteor rates at the Arctic circle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Singer


    Full Text Available Meteors are an important source for (a the metal atoms of the upper atmosphere metal layers and (b for condensation nuclei, the existence of which are a prerequisite for the formation of noctilucent cloud particles in the polar mesopause region. For a better understanding of these phenomena, it would be helpful to know accurately the annual and diurnal variations of meteor rates. So far, these rates have been little studied at polar latitudes. Therefore we have used the 33 MHz meteor radar of the ALOMAR observatory at 69° N to measure the meteor rates at this location for two full annual cycles. This site, being within 3° of the Arctic circle, offers in addition an interesting capability: The axis of its antenna field points (almost towards the North ecliptic pole once each day of the year. In this particular viewing direction, the radar monitors the meteoroid influx from (almost the entire ecliptic Northern hemisphere.

    We report on the observed diurnal variations (averaged over one month of meteor rates and their significant alterations throughout the year. The ratio of maximum over minimum meteor rates throughout one diurnal cycle is in January and February about 5, from April through December 2.3±0.3. If compared with similar measurements at mid-latitudes, our expectation, that the amplitude of the diurnal variation is to decrease towards the North pole, is not really borne out.

    Observations with the antenna axis pointing towards the North ecliptic pole showed that the rate of deposition of meteoric dust is substantially larger during the Arctic NLC season than the annual mean deposition rate. The daylight meteor showers of the Arietids, Zeta Perseids, and Beta Taurids supposedly contribute considerably to the June maximum of meteor rates. We note, though, that with the radar antenna pointing as described above, all three meteor radiants are close to the local horizon. This radiant location should cause most of these

  13. Signs of Landscape Modifications at Martian Crater (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version The lower portion of this image from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera (THEMIS) on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter shows a crater about 16 kilometers (10 miles) in diameter with features studied as evidence of deposition or erosion. The crater is centered at 40.32 degrees south latitude and 132.5 degrees east longitude, in the eastern portion of the Hellas basin on Mars. It has gullies and arcuate ridges on its north, pole-facing interior wall. This crater is in the center of a larger (60-kilometer or 37-mile diameter) crater with lobate flows on its north, interior wall. The image, number V07798008 in the THEMIS catalog, covers a swath of ground 17.4 kilometers (10.8 miles) wide. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science. THEMIS was developed by Arizona State University in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Martian fluvial conglomerates at gale crater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, R.M.E.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Dietrich, W.E.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D.Y.; Wiens, R.C.; Mangold, N.; Malin, M.C.; Edgett, K.S.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H.E.; Dromart, G.; Palucis, M.C.; Yingst, R.A.; Anderson, R.B.; Herkenhoff, K.E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M.B.; Koefoed, A.; Jensen, J.K.; Bridges, J.C.; Schwenzer, S.P.; Lewis, K.W.; Stack, K.M.; Rubin, D.; Kah, L.C.; Bell III, J.F.; Farmer, J.D.; Sullivan, R.; Van Beek, T.; Blaney, D.L.; Pariser, O.; Deen, R.G.; MSL Science Team, the


    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvia


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, A. J. W.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, School of Physical Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NH (United Kingdom)


    The large crater on the asteroid (2867) Steins attracted much attention when it was first observed by the Rosetta spacecraft in 2008. Initially, it was widely thought to be unusually large compared to the size of the asteroid. It was quickly realized that this was not the case and there are other examples of similar (or larger) craters on small bodies in the same size range; however, it is still widely accepted that it is a crater arising from an impact onto the body which occurred after its formation. The asteroid (2867) Steins also has an equatorial bulge, usually considered to have arisen from redistribution of mass due to spin-up of the body caused by the YORP effect. Conversely, it is shown here that, based on catastrophic disruption experiments in laboratory impact studies, a similarly shaped body to the asteroid Steins can arise from the break-up of a parent in a catastrophic disruption event; this includes the presence of a large crater-like feature and equatorial bulge. This suggests that the large crater-like feature on Steins may not be a crater from a subsequent impact, but may have arisen directly from the fragmentation process of a larger, catastrophically disrupted parent.

  16. Exploration of Victoria crater by the mars rover opportunity (United States)

    Squyres, S. W.; Knoll, A.H.; Arvidson, R. E.; Ashley, James W.; Bell, J.F.; Calvin, W.M.; Christensen, P.R.; Clark, B. C.; Cohen, B. A.; De Souza, P.A.; Edgar, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Fleischer, I.; Gellert, Ralf; Golombek, M.P.; Grant, J.; Grotzinger, J.; Hayes, A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Klingelhofer, G.; Knudson, A.; Li, R.; McCoy, T.J.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Rice, J. W.; Schroder, C.; Sullivan, R.J.; Yen, A.; Yingst, R.A.


    The Mars rover Opportunity has explored Victoria crater, a ???750-meter eroded impact crater formed in sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. Impact-related stratigraphy is preserved in the crater walls, and meteoritic debris is present near the crater rim. The size of hematite-rich concretions decreases up-section, documenting variation in the intensity of groundwater processes. Layering in the crater walls preserves evidence of ancient wind-blown dunes. Compositional variations with depth mimic those ???6 kilometers to the north and demonstrate that water-induced alteration at Meridiani Planum was regional in scope.

  17. Impact-derived features of the Xiuyan meteorite crater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming


    Up to now, 176 meteorite impact craters have been found on the Earth. Among these craters, none of them lies in China. The Xiuyan crater is located in the Liaodong Peninsula of China. This bowl-shaped crater has a diameter of 1.8 km and depth of about 150 m. The impact-derived features include planar deformation features (PDFs) in quartz, shatter cones, impact breccia, and radial valleys on the wall of rim. It is the first confirmed meteorite impact crater in China.

  18. Physical characteristics of faint meteors by light curve and high-resolution observations, and the implications for parent bodies (United States)

    Subasinghe, Dilini; Campbell-Brown, Margaret D.; Stokan, Edward


    Optical observations of faint meteors (10-7 single body objects) show mostly symmetric light curves, surprisingly, and this indicates that light-curve shape is not an indication of fragility or fragmentation behaviour. Approximately 90 per cent of meteors observed with high-resolution video cameras show some form of fragmentation. Our results also show, unexpectedly, that meteors which show negligible fragmentation are more often on high-inclination orbits (i > 60°) than low-inclination ones. We also find that dynamically asteroidal meteors fragment as often as dynamically cometary meteors, which may suggest mixing in the early Solar system, or contamination between the dynamic groups.

  19. Odin-OSIRIS detection of the Chelyabinsk meteor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Rieger


    Full Text Available On 15 February 2013 an 11 000 ton meteor entered Earth's atmosphere south east of Chelyabinsk creating a large fireball at 23 km altitude. The resulting stratospheric aerosol loading was detected by the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS in a high altitude polar belt. This work confirms the presence and lifetime of the stratospheric debris using the Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imaging System (OSIRIS onboard the Odin satellite. Although OSIRIS coverage begins in mid-March, the measurements show a belt of enhanced scattering near 35 km altitude between 50° N and 70° N. Initially, enhancements show increased scattering of up to 15% over the background conditions, decaying in intensity and dropping in altitude until they are indistinguishable from background conditions by mid-May.

  20. Lunar polar craters -- icy, rough or just sloping?

    CERN Document Server

    Eke, Vincent R; Lane, David A; Smith, David; Teodoro, Luis F A


    Circular Polarisation Ratio (CPR) mosaics from Mini-SAR on Chandrayaan-1 and Mini-RF on LRO are used to study craters near to the lunar north pole. The look direction of the detectors strongly affects the appearance of the crater CPR maps. Rectifying the mosaics to account for parallax also significantly changes the CPR maps of the crater interiors. It is shown that the CPRs of crater interiors in unrectified maps are biased to larger values than crater exteriors, because of a combination of the effects of parallax and incidence angle. Using the LOLA Digital Elevation Map (DEM), the variation of CPR with angle of incidence has been studied. For fresh craters, CPR~0.7 with only a weak dependence on angle of incidence or position interior or just exterior to the crater, consistent with dihedral scattering from blocky surface roughness. For anomalous craters, the CPR interior to the crater increases with both incidence angle and distance from the crater centre. Central crater CPRs are similar to those in the cra...

  1. Simultaneous optical and radar observations of meteor head-echoes utilizing SAAMER (United States)

    Michell, R. G.; Janches, D.; Samara, M.; Hormaechea, J. L.; Brunini, C.; Bibbo, I.


    We present simultaneous optical and radar observations of meteors observed with the Southern Argentine Agile MEteor Radar (SAAMER). Although such observations were performed in the past using High Power and Large Aperture radars, the focus here is on meteors that produced head echoes that can be detected by a significantly less sensitive but more accessible radar system. An observational campaign was conducted in August of 2011, where an optical imager was operated near the radar site in Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina. Six head echo events out of 150 total detections were identified where simultaneous optical meteors could also be clearly seen within the main radar beam. The location of the meteors derived from the radar interferometry agreed very well with the optical location, verifying the accuracy of the radar interferometry technique. The meteor speeds and origin directions calculated from the radar data were accurate-compared with the optics-for the 2 meteors that had radar signal-to-noise ratios above 2.5. The optical meteors that produced the head echoes had horizontal velocities in the range of 29-91 km/s. These comparisons with optical observations improve the accuracy of the radar detection and analysis techniques, such that, when applied over longer periods of time, will improve the statistics of southern hemisphere meteor observations. Mass estimates were derived using both the optical and radar data and the resulting masses agreed well with each other. All were within an order of magnitude and in most cases, the agreement was within a factor of two.

  2. Using lunar boulders to distinguish primary from distant secondary impact craters (United States)

    Bart, Gwendolyn D.; Melosh, H. J.


    A high-resolution study of 18 lunar craters, including both primary and distant secondary craters, shows that the secondary craters produce larger ejecta fragments at a given crater size than do the primary craters. The maximum boulder diameter (B) increases with crater size (D) according to the power law B = KD 2/3; for primary craters, when B and D are in meters, K is 0.29, whereas for secondary craters, we find that K is 0.46 (60% larger). Next we show that impact fracture theory predicts that secondary craters, because of their lower impact velocity, will produce larger ejecta fragments than primary craters. This result provides an opportunity for distinguishing between primary and secondary craters in high resolution planetary images. The ability to identify distant secondary craters will help constrain primary production rates of small craters and improve surface age determination of small areas based on small crater counts.

  3. Secondary Crater Populations on the Martian South Polar Layered Deposits (United States)

    Schaller, E. L.; Murray, B.; Rasmussen, J.; Byrne, S.


    Understanding the formation and evolution of the Mars South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD) is an important step toward unraveling Martian climate history. The cratering record on the SPLD suggests that the surface of these deposits has been recently modified. Extremely shallow large (>800 m) impact craters along with a lack of small (material from a primary impact event, are important stratigraphic markers that can shed light on the modification history of the deposits. Using MOC, THEMIS and MOLA data, we examined the broad secondary crater field surrounding McMurdo crater (84.5S, 0W) on the SPLD, the field surrounding a 15 km crater at 80.5S, 284W on the SPLD, and the field surrounding a 43 km crater at 81S, 285W off of the SPLD. These datasets provided us with the opportunity to compare and contrast the morphologies of craters in different secondary crater fields both on and off of the deposits. We measured the depth to diameter (d/D) ratios of secondary craters and compared them with those of other primary craters on the deposits measured by Koutnik et al (2002). Among secondary craters on the SPLD, we found a correlation between crater d/D and the steepness of the slope on which the crater resides. Specifically, craters with extremely low d/D ratios (indicating high modification) are found more often on flat areas. Those with high d/D ratios are often associated with scarps and are on higher slopes. This indicates that there have been different resurfacing rates over areas as small as several hundred square kilometers and that modification occurs more readily on flat areas. We examine different mechanisms that may have led to decreased d/D ratios such as blanketing, ice flow, wind erosion or viscous relaxation. We find that the d/D ratios of secondary craters on flat regions of the SPLD are comparable with the extremely low d/D ratios of the primary craters elsewhere on the deposits measured by Koutnik et al (2002). The d/D ratios of secondary craters on the

  4. 4-D imaging and monitoring of the Solfatara crater (Italy) by ambient noise tomography (United States)

    Pilz, Marco; Parolai, Stefano; Woith, Heiko; Gresse, Marceau; Vandemeulebrouck, Jean


    Imaging shallow subsurface structures and monitoring related temporal variations are two of the main tasks for modern geosciences and seismology. Although many observations have reported temporal velocity changes, e.g., in volcanic areas and on landslides, new methods based on passive sources like ambient seismic noise can provide accurate spatially and temporally resolved information on the velocity structure and on velocity changes. The success of these passive applications is explained by the fact that these methods are based on surface waves which are always present in the ambient seismic noise wave field because they are excited preferentially by superficial sources. Such surface waves can easily be extracted because they dominate the Greeńs function between receivers located at the surface. For real-time monitoring of the shallow velocity structure of the Solfatara crater, one of the forty volcanoes in the Campi Flegrei area characterized by an intense hydrothermal activity due to the interaction of deep convection and meteoric water, we have installed a dense network of 50 seismological sensing units covering the whole surface area in the framework of the European project MED-SUV (The MED-SUV project has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7 under Grant agreement no 308665). Continuous recordings of the ambient seismic noise over several days as well as signals of an active vibroseis source have been used. Based on a weighted inversion procedure for 3D-passive imaging using ambient noise cross-correlations of both Rayleigh and Love waves, we will present a high-resolution shear-wave velocity model of the structure beneath the Solfatara crater and its temporal changes. Results of seismic tomography are compared with a 3-D electrical resistivity model and CO2 flux map.

  5. A (revised) confidence index for the forecasting of the meteor showers (United States)

    Vaubaillon, Jeremie


    The prediction of meteor shower is known to provide several quality results depending on how it is performed. As a consequence it is hard to have an idea of how much one can trust a given prediction. In this paper I will present a revised confidence index, aiming to provide users with information regarding the way the prediction was performed. An effort to quantify the influence of close encounters with the parent body of a meteor shower is part of this confidence index. In fine, a single code will be provided for each prediction of meteor showers at any planet with a focus on Earth, Mars and Venus.

  6. Meteoric 10Be as a tool to investigate human induced soil fluxes: a conceptual model (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; De Vente, Joris; Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Minella, Jean; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik


    The use of meteoric 10Be as a tool to understand long term landscape behavior is becoming increasingly popular. Due its high residence time, meteoric 10Be allows in principle to investigate in situ erosion rates over time scales exceeding the period studied with classical approaches such as 137Cs. The use of meteoric 10Be strongly contributes to the traditional interpretation of sedimentary archives which cannot be unequivocally coupled to sediment production and could provide biased information over longer time scales (Sadler, 1981). So far, meteoric 10Be has successfully been used in geochemical fingerprinting of sediments, to date soil profiles, to assess soil residence times and to quantify downslope soil fluxes using accumulated 10Be inventories along a hill slope. However, less attention is given to the potential use of the tracer to directly asses human induced changes in soil fluxes through deforestation, cultivation and reforestation. A good understanding of the processes governing the distribution of meteoric 10Be both within the soil profile and at landscape scale is essential before meteoric 10Be can be successfully applied to assess human impact. We developed a spatially explicit 2D-model (Be2D) in order to gain insight in meteoric 10Be movement along a hillslope that is subject to human disturbance. Be2D integrates both horizontal soil fluxes and vertical meteoric 10Be movement throughout the soil prolife. Horizontal soil fluxes are predicted using (i) well studied geomorphical laws for natural erosion and soil formation as well as (ii) human accelerated water and tillage erosion. Vertical movement of meteoric 10Be throughout the soil profile is implemented by inserting depth dependent retardation calculated using experimentally determined partition coefficients (Kd). The model was applied to different environments such as (i) the Belgian loess belt, characterized by aeolian deposits enriched in inherited meteoric 10Be, (ii) highly degraded and stony

  7. Paleomagnetism of Lonar Crater Impact Glass (United States)

    Garrick-Bethell, I.; Weiss, B. P.; Maloof, A. C.; Stewart, S. T.; Louzada, K. L.; Soule, S. A.; Swanson-Hysell, N.


    The source of magnetic fields on extraterrestrial bodies is largely unknown. There is particularly little information about magnetic fields on asteroids and the Moon for the last 3 billion years because most samples from these bodies predate this time. An exception is the small amount of impact-melt which has been continuously created by hypervelocity impactors over most of solar system history. Impact melt can be used to test the controversial hypothesis that magnetic fields on extraterrestrial bodies were predominantly the product of impact-produced plasmas rather than of core dynamos. However, to date only a small amount of impact melt has been analyzed paleomagnetically. To assess the quality of impact melts as recorders of magnetic fields, in January 2004 and January 2005 we collected thousands of samples of basaltic glass from the perimeter of Lonar Crater, a 1.8 km diameter impact crater which formed approximately 50,000 years ago in the Deccan Traps in Maharashtra, India. Lonar crater is a unique extraterrestrial analog because it is the only fresh impact crater on the Earth in a basaltic target. Most glass samples have rounded features and are between 0.01 and 1 cm in size, indicating that they are fladen and impact spherules (microtektites) formed from molten ejecta that cooled in mid-air while subject to rotational and aerodynamic forces. We have found that both types of glasses are strongly magnetic (saturation remanence of ~2 A m-1), contain ferromagnetic crystals that are predominantly single domain in size, and have no significant remanence anisotropy. The glasses also carry a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) presumably acquired just after the impact. However, alternating field demagnetization results in large directional changes of the magnetic moment, with little decrease in moment intensity. We interpret this unusual behavior as progressive removal of different coercivity components that cooled while the orientation of the spinning glasses

  8. Treatment of non-sparse cratering in planetary surface dating (United States)

    Kneissl, T.; Michael, G. G.; Schmedemann, N.


    We here propose a new technique to derive crater size-frequency distributions (CSFDs) from non-sparsely cratered surfaces, by accounting for the loss of craters due to subsequent crater/ejecta coverage. This approach, which we refer to as the buffered non-sparseness correction (BNSC), relates each crater to a measurement area found by excluding regions in the study area that have been resurfaced by larger craters and their ejecta blankets. The approach includes the well-known buffered crater counting (BCC) technique in order to consider the potential identification of craters whose centers are located outside the counting area. We demonstrate the new approach at two test sites on the Moon, one on the ancient lunar highlands outside the South Pole Aitken basin and the other on the much younger surface of lunar Mare Serenitatis. As expected, the correction has a much stronger effect on ancient, densely cratered surfaces than on younger, sparsely cratered surfaces. Furthermore, these first results indicate that the shapes of CSFDs on ancient terrains are actually very similar to the shapes of CSFDs on younger terrains.

  9. Searching for the Source Crater of Nakhlite Meteorites (United States)

    Kereszturi, A.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.


    We surveyed the Martian surface in order to identify possible source craters of the nakhlite Martian meteorites. We investigated rayed craters that are assumed to be younger than 11 Ma, on lava surfaces with a solidification age around 1.2 Ga. An area of 17.3 million km2 Amazonian lava plains was surveyed and 53 rayed craters were identified. Although most of them are smaller than the threshold limit that is estimated as minimum of launching fragments to possible Earth crossing trajectories, their observed size frequency distribution agrees with the expected areal density from cratering models characteristic for craters that are less than few tens of Ma old. We identified 6 craters larger than 3 km diameter constituting the potentially best source craters for nakhlites. These larger candidates are located mostly on a smooth lava surface, and in some cases, on the earlier fluvial-like channels. In three cases they are associated with fluidized ejecta lobes and rays - although the rays are faint in these craters, thus might be older than the other craters with more obvious rays. More work is therefore required to accurately estimate ages based on ray system for this purpose. A more detailed search should further link remote sensing Martian data with the in-situ laboratory analyses of Martian meteorites, especially in case of high altitude, steep terrains, where the crater rays seems to rarely survive several Ma.

  10. Martian cratering 11. Utilizing decameter scale crater populations to study Martian history (United States)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Daubar, I. J.


    New information has been obtained in recent years regarding formation rates and the production size-frequency distribution (PSFD) of decameter-scale primary Martian craters formed during recent orbiter missions. Here we compare the PSFD of the currently forming small primaries (P) with new data on the PSFD of the total small crater population that includes primaries and field secondaries (P + fS), which represents an average over longer time periods. The two data sets, if used in a combined manner, have extraordinary potential for clarifying not only the evolutionary history and resurfacing episodes of small Martian geological formations (as small as one or few km2) but also possible episodes of recent climatic change. In response to recent discussions of statistical methodologies, we point out that crater counts do not produce idealized statistics, and that inherent uncertainties limit improvements that can be made by more sophisticated statistical analyses. We propose three mutually supportive procedures for interpreting crater counts of small craters in this context. Applications of these procedures support suggestions that topographic features in upper meters of mid-latitude ice-rich areas date only from the last few periods of extreme Martian obliquity, and associated predicted climate excursions.

  11. Meteor Beliefs Project: Shakespeare revisited and the Elizabethan stage's `blazing star' (United States)

    Gheorghe, Andrei Dorian; McBeath, Alastair


    Some fresh Shakespearean citations of meteors, further to those given previously in the Project, are presented, along with a discussion of the Elizabethan stage's use of the `blazing star', with especial reference to the great comet of 1577.

  12. New meteor showers identified in the CAMS and SonotaCo meteoroid orbit surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Rudawska, Regina


    A cluster analysis was applied to the combined meteoroid orbit database derived from low-light level video observations by the SonotaCo consortium in Japan (64,650 meteors observed between 2007 and 2009) and by the Cameras for All-sky Meteor Surveillance (CAMS) project in California, during its first year of operation (40,744 meteors from Oct. 21, 2010 to Dec. 31, 2011). The objective was to identify known and potentially new meteoroid streams and identify their parent bodies. The database was examined by a single-linking algorithm using the Southworth and Hawkins D-criterion to identify similar orbits, with a low criterion threshold of D < 0.05. A minimum member threshold of 6 produced a total of 88 meteoroid streams. 43 are established streams and 45 are newly identified streams. The newly identified streams were included as numbers 448-502 in the IAU Meteor Shower Working List. Potential parent bodies are proposed.

  13. Analytical formulation of lunar cratering asymmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Nan


    We formulate the lunar cratering distribution and verify the cratering asymmetries generated by the main-belt asteroids (MBAs) as well as the near-Earth objects (NEOs). Based on a planar model that excludes the terrestrial and lunar gravitations on the impactors and assuming the impactor encounter speed with Earth $v_{\\rm{enc}}$ is higher than the lunar orbital speed $v_{\\rm{M}}$, we rigorously integrated the lunar cratering distribution, and derived its approximation to the first order of $v_{\\rm{M}}/v_{\\rm{enc}}$. Numerical simulations of lunar bombardment by the MBAs during the late heavy bombardment were performed with an Earth-Moon distance $a_{\\rm{M}}$ = 20--60 Earth radii in five cases. The analytical model directly proves the existence of a leading/trailing asymmetry and the absence of near/far asymmetry. The approximate form of the leading/trailing asymmetry is $(1 + A_1 \\cos\\beta)$, which decreases as the apex distance $\\beta$ increases. The numerical simulations show evidence of a pole/equator asym...

  14. Assessing soil fluxes using meteoric 10Be: development and application of the Be2D model (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Govers, Gerard; Vanacker, Veerle; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Vanderborght, Jan


    Meteoric 10Be is a promising and increasingly popular tool to better understand soil fluxes at different timescales. Unlike other, more classical, methods such as the study of sedimentary archives it enables a direct coupling between eroding and deposition sites. However, meteoric 10Be can be mobilized within the soil. Therefore, spatial variations in meteoric 10Be inventories cannot directly be translated into spatial variations in erosion and sedimentation rates: a correct interpretation of measured 10Be inventories requires that both lateral and vertical movement of meteoric 10Be are accounted for. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model that allows to simulate the behaviour of meteoric 10Be in the soil system over timescales of up to 1 million year and use the model to investigate the impact of accelerated erosion on meteoric 10Be inventories. The model consists of two parts. A first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility within the soil profile, whereas a second component describes lateral soil (and meteoric 10Be) fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering and lateral soil fluxes. Different types of erosion such as creep, water and tillage erosion are supported. Model runs show that natural soil fluxes can be well reconstructed based on meteoric 10Be inventories, and this for a wide range of geomorphological and pedological conditions. However, extracting signals of human impact and distinguishing them from natural soil fluxes is only feasible when the soil has a rather high retention capacity so that meteoric 10Be is retained in the top soil layer. Application of the Be2D model to an existing data set in the Appalachian Mountains [West et al.,2013] using realistic parameter values for the soil retention capacity as well as for vertical advection resulted in a good agreement between simulated and observed 10Be inventories. This confirms the robustness of the model. We

  15. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  16. Data Reduction and Control Software for Meteor Observing Stations Based on CCD Video Systems (United States)

    Madiedo, J. M.; Trigo-Rodriguez, J. M.; Lyytinen, E.


    The SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN) is performing a continuous monitoring of meteor activity over Spain and neighbouring countries. The huge amount of data obtained by the 25 video observing stations that this network is currently operating made it necessary to develop new software packages to accomplish some tasks, such as data reduction and remote operation of autonomous systems based on high-sensitivity CCD video devices. The main characteristics of this software are described here.

  17. Cosmic meteor dust: potentially the dominant source of bio-available iron in the Southern Ocean (United States)

    Dyrud, L. P.; Marsh, D. R.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Fentzke, J.; Lopez-Rosado, R.; Behrenfeld, M.


    Johnson, 2001 [Johnson, Kenneth. S. (2001), Iron supply and demand in the upper ocean: Is extraterrestrial dust a significant source of bioavailable iron?, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 15(1), 61-63, doi:10.1029/2000GB001295], first suggested that meteoric particulate flux could be a significant source of bio-available iron, particularly in regions with little or no eolean sources, such as the Southern Ocean. While these calculations raised intriguing questions, there were many large unknowns in the input calculations between meteor flux and bio-available ocean molecular densities. There has been significant research in the intervening decade on related topics, such as the magnitude (~200 ktons per year) and composition of the meteoric flux, its atmospheric evaporation, transport, mesospheric formation of potentially soluble meteoric smoke, and extraterrestrial iron isotope identification. Paramount of these findings are recent NCAR WACCM atmosphere model results demonstrating that the majority of meteoric constituents are transported towards the winter poles and the polar vortex. This may lead to a focusing of meteoritic iron deposition towards the Southern Ocean. We present a proposed research plan involving Southern Ocean sample collection and analysis and atmospheric and biological modeling to determine both the current relevance of meteoric iron, and examine the past and future consequences of cosmic dust under a changing climate.

  18. Zumba crater, Daedalia Planum, Mars: Geologic investigation of a young, rayed impact crater and its secondary field (United States)

    Chuang, Frank C.; Crown, David A.; Tornabene, Livio L.


    Zumba is a ∼2.9 km diameter rayed crater on Mars located on extensive lava plains in Daedalia Planum to the southwest of Arsia Mons. It is a well-preserved young crater with large ejecta rays that extend for hundreds of kilometers from the impact site. The rays are thermally distinct from the background lava flows in THEMIS daytime and nighttime thermal infrared data, a unique characteristic among martian rayed craters. Concentrated within the rays are solitary or dense clusters of secondary craters with associated diffuse dark-toned deposits along with fewer secondary craters lacking dark-toned deposits. Using CTX images, we have mapped secondary craters with dark-toned deposits, collectively termed "secondary fields", to investigate their distribution as a function of distance from the impact site. The mapped secondary field was then used to investigate various aspects of the crater-forming event such as the surface angle and direction of the projectile, the effect of secondary craters on surface age estimates, and the number of secondary craters produced by the impact event. From our mapping, a total of 13,064 secondary fields were documented out to a 200 km radial distance beyond a 15 km-wide non-secondary zone around Zumba crater. Results show that the highest areal coverage of secondary fields occurs within 100 km of Zumba and within its rays, decreasing radially with distance to a background scattering of small secondary fields that are moderately oblique impact projectile coming from the south. Using primary craters in a ∼101 km2 sample region and all craters (primaries and secondaries) from 43 select secondary fields in two map sectors in the study area, we obtain ages of ∼580 ± 100 Ma and ∼650 ± 70 Ma, respectively, for the lava flows into which Zumba impacted. These ages are consistent with and intermediate to 0.1-1 Ga volcanic flow units within and near Daedalia Planum. For craters within the secondary fields, a log differential plot of the

  19. Novel Experimental Simulations of the Atmospheric Injection of Meteoric Metals (United States)

    Gómez Martín, J. C.; Bones, D. L.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; James, A. D.; Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fegley, B., Jr.; Plane, J. M. C.


    A newly developed laboratory, Meteoric Ablation Simulator (MASI), is used to test model predictions of the atmospheric ablation of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) with experimental Na, Fe, and Ca vaporization profiles. MASI is the first laboratory setup capable of performing time-resolved atmospheric ablation simulations, by means of precision resistive heating and atomic laser-induced fluorescence detection. Experiments using meteoritic IDP analogues show that at least three mineral phases (Na-rich plagioclase, metal sulfide, and Mg-rich silicate) are required to explain the observed appearance temperatures of the vaporized elements. Low melting temperatures of Na-rich plagioclase and metal sulfide, compared to silicate grains, preclude equilibration of all the elemental constituents in a single melt. The phase-change process of distinct mineral components determines the way in which Na and Fe evaporate. Ca evaporation is dependent on particle size and on the initial composition of the molten silicate. Measured vaporized fractions of Na, Fe, and Ca as a function of particle size and speed confirm differential ablation (i.e., the most volatile elements such as Na ablate first, followed by the main constituents Fe, Mg, and Si, and finally the most refractory elements such as Ca). The Chemical Ablation Model (CABMOD) provides a reasonable approximation to this effect based on chemical fractionation of a molten silicate in thermodynamic equilibrium, even though the compositional and geometric description of IDPs is simplistic. Improvements in the model are required in order to better reproduce the specific shape of the elemental ablation profiles.

  20. A First-Principle Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma Formation (United States)

    Dimant, Yakov; Oppenheim, Meers


    Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to observe visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo. Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for more accurate quantitative interpretation of the head echo radar measurements. Work supported by NSF Grant 1244842.

  1. [Abdominal spasms, meteorism, diarrhea: fructose intolerance, lactose intolerance or IBS?]. (United States)

    Litschauer-Poursadrollah, Margaritha; El-Sayad, Sabine; Wantke, Felix; Fellinger, Christina; Jarisch, Reinhart


    Meteorism, abdominal spasms, diarrhea, casually obstipation, flatulence and nausea are symptoms of fructose malabsorption (FIT) and/or lactose intolerance (LIT), but are also symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Therefore these diseases should be considered primarily in patients with digestive complaints. For diagnosis an H(2)-breath test is used.In 1,935 patients (526 m, 1,409 f) a fructose intolerance test and in 1,739 patients (518 m,1,221 f) a lactose intolerance test was done.FIT is found more frequently than LIT (57 versus 52 % in adults (p intolerance (HIT). Headache (ca. 10 %), fatigue (ca. 5 %) and dizziness (ca. 3 %) may occur after the test, irrespective whether the test was positive or negative.In more than 2/3 of patients a diet reduced in fructose or lactose may lead to improvement or remission of these metabolic disorders. IBS, which is often correlated with FIT (183/221 patients = 83 %), can be improved by relevant but also not relevant diets indicating that irritable bowel disease seems to be caused primarily by psychological disorders.

  2. The geology of Darwin Crater, western Tasmania, Australia (United States)

    Howard, Kieren T.; Haines, Peter W.


    Darwin glass is a siliceous impact glass found in a 400 km 2 strewn field near Mt Darwin, western Tasmania, Australia. It has been dated by Ar-Ar methods at 816 ± 7 ka. A 1.2 km diameter circular depression, named Darwin Crater (42°18.39'S, 145°39.41'E), is the assumed source crater for the glass. Darwin Crater is situated in a remote rain forested valley developed within Siluro-Devonian quartzite and slate (Eldon Group). Earlier geophysical investigations demonstrated that the structure is an almost circular bowl-shaped sediment-filled basin. This paper provides the first detailed description of the geology of Darwin Crater. The centre of the crater has been penetrated by two drill cores, the deeper to a maximum depth of ˜ 230 m. The drill cores intersected fine-grained lacustrine sediments (˜ 60 m thick) overlying poorly sorted coarser crater-fill deposits. The pre-lacustrine crater-fill stratigraphy comprises an uppermost polymict breccia (˜ 40 m thick) of angular quartz and country rock, which contains very rare (≪ 1%) fresh glass fragments (Crater-fill Facies A). Beneath the polymict breccia facies, the drill core intersected monomict sandy breccias of angular quartz (Crater-fill Facies B), and a complicated package of deformed slate clasts (Crater-fill Facies C). Quartz grains in the crater-fill samples contain abundant irregular fractures. In some of the most deformed quartz grains, sub-planar fractures define zones of alternating extinction that superficially resemble twinning. Kinked micas are also present. While the deformation observed in clasts of the crater-fill facies is far greater than in rocks cropping out around the crater, no diagnostic shock indicators, such as planar deformation features (PDF's) in quartz, were observed. If the crater is of impact origin, as seems likely due to the close association with Darwin glass, this is another example of a simple crater where diagnostic shock indicators appear to be absent, preventing

  3. Be2D: A model to understand the distribution of meteoric 10Be in soilscapes (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Govers, Gerard


    Cosmogenic nuclides have revolutionised our understanding of earth surface process rates. They have become one of the standard tools to quantify soil production by weathering, soil redistribution and erosion. Especially Beryllium-10 has gained much attention due to its long half-live and propensity to be relatively conservative in the landscape. The latter makes 10Be an excellent tool to assess denudation rates over the last 1000 to 100 × 103 years, bridging the anthropogenic and geological time scale. Nevertheless, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in soil systems makes translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates difficult. Here we present a coupled soil hillslope model, Be2D, that is applied to synthetic and real topography to address the following three research questions. (i) What is the influence of vertical meteoric Be10 mobility, caused by chemical mobility, clay translocation and bioturbation, on its lateral redistribution over the soilscape, (ii) How does vertical mobility influence erosion rates and soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be inventories and (iii) To what extent can a tracer with a half-life of 1.36 Myr be used to distinguish between natural and human-disturbed soil redistribution rates? The model architecture of Be2D is designed to answer these research questions. Be2D is a dynamic model including physical processes such as soil formation, physical weathering, clay migration, bioturbation, creep, overland flow and tillage erosion. Pathways of meteoric 10Be mobility are simulated using a two step approach which is updated each timestep. First, advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be is simulated within the soil profile and second, lateral redistribution because of lateral soil fluxes is calculated. The performance and functionality of the model is demonstrated through a number of synthetic and real model runs using existing datasets of meteoric 10Be from case-studies in southeastern US. Brute

  4. A Monte-Carlo based extension of the Meteor Orbit and Trajectory Software (MOTS) for computations of orbital elements (United States)

    Albin, T.; Koschny, D.; Soja, R.; Srama, R.; Poppe, B.


    The Canary Islands Long-Baseline Observatory (CILBO) is a double station meteor camera system (Koschny et al., 2013; Koschny et al., 2014) that consists of 5 cameras. The two cameras considered in this report are ICC7 and ICC9, and are installed on Tenerife and La Palma. They point to the same atmospheric volume between both islands allowing stereoscopic observation of meteors. Since its installation in 2011 and the start of operation in 2012 CILBO has detected over 15000 simultaneously observed meteors. Koschny and Diaz (2002) developed the Meteor Orbit and Trajectory Software (MOTS) to compute the trajectory of such meteors. The software uses the astrometric data from the detection software MetRec (Molau, 1998) and determines the trajectory in geodetic coordinates. This work presents a Monte-Carlo based extension of the MOTS code to compute the orbital elements of simultaneously detected meteors by CILBO.

  5. Simulating the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the landscape through a coupled soil-hillslope model (Be2D) (United States)

    Campforts, Benjamin; Vanacker, Veerle; Vanderborght, Jan; Baken, Stijn; Smolders, Erik; Govers, Gerard


    Meteoric 10Be allows for the quantification of vertical and lateral soil fluxes over long time scales (103-105 yr). However, the mobility of meteoric 10Be in the soil system makes a translation of meteoric 10Be inventories into erosion and deposition rates complex. Here, we present a spatially explicit 2D model simulating the behaviour of meteoric 10Be on a hillslope. The model consists of two parts. The first component deals with advective and diffusive mobility of meteoric 10Be within the soil profile, and the second component describes lateral soil and meteoric 10Be fluxes over the hillslope. Soil depth is calculated dynamically, accounting for soil production through weathering as well as downslope fluxes of soil due to creep, water and tillage erosion. Synthetic model simulations show that meteoric 10Be inventories can be related to erosion and deposition across a wide range of geomorphological and pedological settings. Our results also show that meteoric 10Be can be used as a tracer to detect human impact on soil fluxes for soils with a high affinity for meteoric 10Be. However, the quantification of vertical mobility is essential for a correct interpretation of the observed variations in meteoric 10Be profiles and inventories. Application of the Be2D model to natural conditions using data sets from the Southern Piedmont (Bacon et al., 2012) and Appalachian Mountains (Jungers et al., 2009; West et al., 2013) allows to reliably constrain parameter values. Good agreement between simulated and observed meteoric 10Be concentrations and inventories is obtained with realistic parameter values. Furthermore, our results provide detailed insights into the processes redistributing meteoric 10Be at the soil-hillslope scale.

  6. Meteor Ablation as Origin for the D-region Ledge in Electrical Conductivity (United States)

    Williams, E. R.; Wu, Y. J.; Friedrich, M.; Hsu, R. R.


    The ledge in electron density and electrical conductivity in the 80-90 km altitude range has been a consistent feature in rocket and electromagnetic observations of the D-region for half a century. Most conspicuous at nighttime and at low latitudes, the abrupt increase in electron density with altitude near 85 km often shows a scale height of less than 1 km. This observed behavior is a marked departure from the Wait-Spies exponential profile that is often used to model the D-region. Calculations show that the conduction current and displacement current are matched at the height of the observed ledge over a wide range of VLF frequencies, pinning this altitude as the sharp boundary for the global VLF waveguide. Meteor ablation involves the abrupt transformation in altitude of faint sub-millimeter-sized meteoroids to nanometer-sized dust, when the meteor boiling temperature near 2100K is attained. The ablation dust can reach concentrations comparable to electron density near the ledge height and in the polluted continental boundary layer. The electron affinity of this silicate mineral dust together with the suppression of negative molecular ions (e.g., O2- ) by monatomic O (Plane et al., 2014), serves to reduce the free electron concentration to form the ledge in conductivity. Calculations with the classical model for meteor ablation require a mean incoming meteor speed of 15 km/s. with rapid decline at higher speeds, to produce a ledge height at 85 km altitude. The key role for meteor ablation in this ionosphere context has likely not received due recognition because neither the meteoric dust nor the meteors that create it are readily detectable by remote sensing, and in situ observations of the mesosphere are scarce.

  7. Seismic detections of the 15 February 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor from the dense ChinArray (United States)

    Li, Lu; Wang, Baoshan; Peng, Zhigang; Wang, Weitao


    ChinArray is a dense portable broadband seismic network to cover the entire continental China, and the Phase I is deployed along the north-south seismic belt in southwest China. In this study, we analyze seismic data recorded on the ChinArray following the February 15, 2013 Chelyabinsk (Russia) meteor. This was the largest known object entering the Earth's atmosphere since the 1908 Tunguska meteor. The seismic energy radiated from this event was recorded by seismic stations worldwide including the dense ChinArray that are more than 4000 km away. The weak signal from the meteor event was contaminated by a magnitude 5.8 Tonga earthquake occurred ~20 min earlier. To test the feasibility of detecting the weak seismic signals from the meteor event, we compute vespagram and perform F-K analysis to the surface-wave data. We identify a seismic phase with back azimuth (BAZ) of 329.7° and slowness of 34.73 s/deg, corresponding to the surface wave from the Russian meteor event (BAZ ~325.97°). The surface magnitude ( M S) of the meteor event is 3.94 ± 0.18. We also perform similar analysis on the data from the broadband array F-net in Japan, and find the BAZ of the surface waves to be 316.61°. With the different BAZs of ChinArray and F-net, we locate the Russian meteor event at 58.80°N, 58.72°E. The relatively large mislocation (~438 km as compared with 55.15°N, 61.41°E by others) may be a result of the bending propagation path of surface waves, which deviates from the great circle path. Our results suggest that the dense ChinArray and its subarrays could be used to detect weak signals at teleseismic distances.

  8. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-León, F


    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been posted to several lists in order to get feedback to it.

  9. Catalog of crater lakes from Costa Rica (United States)

    Ramirez, C. J.; Mora-Amador, R.; González, G.


    Costa Rica has a diversity of volcanic crater lakes that can be classified into two groups: hot and cold lakes. The country contains at least 5% of the world's hot lakes. Costa Rica has 2 hot hyperacidic lakes, both of them on active volcanoes, the Rincón de la Vieja (38.0°C, pH = 0 - 1) and the Poás Laguna Caliente (36.1°C - 56°C, pH = 0.55 - 0.74), nowadays the Poás hot lake is the most active crater lake in the world, with more than 200 eruptions only on 2010. One of the most studied cold crater lakes is Irazú (13°C, pH = 3.5), that used to contain bubbling and clear areas of upwelling involving CO2 liberation and subaqueous fumaroles with temperatures up to 50°C, but since 2005 the lake presents an important descend until April 2010 when it disappeared. On February 9, 2003, Irazú's lake underwent a drastic change of color, from clear green to mustard with reddish loops, similar to the color of the waters of Lake Nyos after the gas burst of August 1986. Other studied cold lakes include Botos, Chato, and Tenorio, all at the summit of Quaternary volcanoes as well as Barva and Danta, located in recent pyroclastic cones. Some cold lakes are located in Holocene maar-type explosion craters, among them are Congo, Bosque Alegre, Hule, and Río Cuarto. These last two have undergone repeated rapid reddish color changes over the last 10 years, in association with fish kills and the liberation of apparently sulfurous scents. On March 2010, University of Costa Rica was the host of the 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, part of the Commission of Volcanic Lakes of the IAVCEI, 51 participants from 14 countries attended the workshop; they presented 27 talks and 17 posters, also they visited and sample 4 of the lakes mentioned above (Botos, Irazú, Río Cuarto and Hule). Level of Study: 1: few or no data, 2: regular, 3: acceptable

  10. Prebiotic Processing induced by Comet and Meteor Impact (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)


    In their study of organic synthesis from impact shocks using the laser-induced-plasma (LIP) technique, McKay and Borucki(l) found that organic synthesis preferentially occurred in a reducing gas mixture rich in methane, and not in a mixture rich in carbon dioxide. This result means chemical models based on the thermodynamical equilibrium approach do not apply to shock chemistry. In this study, we employ the technique of reacting flow, i.e., chemical kinetics in a fluid flow, to simulate the chemistry occurring in LIP and in the wake region from comet or meteor impact. Three different air compositions have been used: (1) 1/3 CO2 and 2/3 H2, (2) pure CH4, and (3) 1/4 CH4, 1/4 CO2, and 1/2 H2O. The stoichiometric ratio of gas mixtures (1) and (3) are kept the same. For (1) we obtain equal mole fractions of CO and H2O as the major products and for (2) C2H2 is the major product. In both cases our results are in agreement with Ref. (1). For (3) we find an interesting case where the nature of chemicals produced to be critically dependent on the flowfield temperature. At the higher temperature part of the wake region, CO and H2O are the dominant products, whereas in the cooler region C2H2 is the dominant product. Further studies of these reactions, as well as for the gas mixture including N2, are being pursued.

  11. Meteoric 10Be in Lake Cores as a Measure of Climatic and Erosional Change (United States)

    Jensen, R. E.; Dixon, J. L.


    Utilization of meteoric 10Be as a paleoenvironmental proxy has the potential to offer new insights into paleoprecipitation records and paleoclimate models, as well as to long-term variations in erosion with climate. The delivery of meteoric 10Be to the surface varies with precipitation and its strong adsorption to sediment has already proven useful in studies of erosion. Thus, it is likely meteoric 10Be concentrations in lake sediments vary under both changing climate and changing sediment influx. Assessment of the relative importance of these changes requires the comparison of 10Be concentrations in well-dated lake cores with independent paleoenvironmental proxies, including oxygen isotope, pollen, and charcoal records, as well as variation in geochemical composition of the sediments. Blacktail Pond details 15,000 years of climatic change in the Yellowstone region. We develop a new model framework for predicting meteoric 10Be concentrations with depth in the core, based on sedimentation rates of both lake-derived and terrigenous sediments and changes in the flux of meteoric 10Be with precipitation. Titanium concentrations and previously determined 10Be concentrations in wind-derived loess provide proxies for changing delivery of 10Be to the lake by terrigenous sources. We use existing paleoenvironmental data obtained from this core and the surrounding region to develop models for changing rainfall across the region and predict meteoric 10Be delivery to the lake by precipitation. Based on a suite of ~10 models, sedimentation rate is the primary control of meteoric 10Be in the Blacktail Pond core unless terrestrial input is very high, as it was post-glacial in the early Holocene when the lake experienced a high influx of loess and terrigenous sediments. We used these models to inform sample selection for 10Be analysis along the Blacktail pond core. Core sediments are processed for meteoric 10Be analysis using sequential digestions and standard extraction procedures

  12. Unexpected Delivery of Meteoric 10Be to Critical Zone Soils, Front Range, Colorado (United States)

    Ouimet, W. B.; Dethier, D. P.; Bierman, P. R.; Wyshnytsky, C.; Rood, D. H.


    Using meteoric 10Be in geomorphic studies requires knowing its long-term delivery rate to the earth surface. Delivery rates vary by latitude due to the influence of geomagnetic field intensity and solar activity and locally due to differences in precipitation and rates of dustfall accumulation, which are responsible for depositing primary and recycled meteoric 10Be to geomorphic surfaces, respectively. Because influences on delivery rate vary in space and time, recent studies emphasize the use of inventory sites where the total concentration of meteoric 10Be is measured on stable landforms of known age to determine site-specific, long-term delivery rates. To date, measured long-term delivery rates typically have fallen within the range of expected rates for the site's latitude and modern annual rate of precipitation, including minor contributions of dust to the total inventory of meteoric 10Be. Here, we present the results of a meteoric 10Be inventory measured on a Pinedale (~15 ka) moraine within the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory, Front Range, Colorado. We report a long-term delivery rate of meteoric 10Be for this site of 4.2 to 4.6 × 106 atoms/cm2/yr, significantly higher than the expected delivery rate (1 to 1.3 × 106 atoms/cm2/yr) for it's latitude (40 degrees) and annual precipitation rate (85-95 cm/yr). A detailed analysis of soils in the Front Range (of various age) indicate that long-term dust accumulation rates are less than ~0.1 grams/cm2/kyr and therefore do not significantly influence the total amount of meteoric 10Be delivered to geomorphic surfaces. When applied to measured concentrations of meteoric 10Be in soils within the Gordon Gulch CZO catchment, our high, inventory-based delivery rate suggests that hillslopes are 10 to 40 ka younger (all post-LGM) than suggested by published precipitation based delivery rates. Furthermore, this result, combined with a long-term delivery rate calibrated nearby on the High Plains (1200 m lower in

  13. 36 CFR 7.2 - Crater Lake National Park. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crater Lake National Park. 7.2 Section 7.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.2 Crater Lake National Park. (a)...

  14. Impact craters on venus: initial analysis from magellan. (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Arvidson, R E; Boyce, J M; Campbell, D B; Guest, J E; Schaber, G G; Soderblom, L A


    Magellan radar images of 15 percent of the planet show 135 craters of probable impact origin. Craters more than 15 km across tend to contain central peaks, multiple central peaks, and peak rings. Many craters smaller than 15 km exhibit multiple floors or appear in clusters; these phenomena are attributed to atmospheric breakup of incoming meteoroids. Additionally, the atmosphere appears to have prevented the formation of primary impact craters smaller than about 3 km and produced a deficiency in the number of craters smaller than about 25 km across. Ejecta is found at greater distances than that predicted by simple ballistic emplacement, and the distal ends of some ejecta deposits are lobate. These characteristics may represent surface flows of material initially entrained in the atmosphere. Many craters are surrounded by zones of low radar albedo whose origin may have been deformation of the surface by the shock or pressure wave associated with the incoming meteoroid. Craters are absent from several large areas such as a 5 million square kilometer region around Sappho Patera, where the most likely explanation for the dearth of craters is volcanic resurfacing. There is apparently a spectrum of surface ages on Venus ranging approximately from 0 to 800 million years, and therefore Venus must be a geologically active planet.

  15. Numerical Modeling of Shatter Cones Development in Impact Craters (United States)

    Baratoux, D.; Melosh, H. J.


    We present a new model for the formation of shatter cones in impact craters. Our model has been tested by means of numerical simulations. Our results are consistent with the observations of shatter cones in natural impact craters and explosions experiments.

  16. Fluvial erosion as a mechanism for crater modification on Titan (United States)

    Neish, C. D.; Molaro, J. L.; Lora, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Kirk, R. L.; Schenk, P.; Bray, V. J.; Lorenz, R. D.


    There are few identifiable impact craters on Titan, especially in the polar regions. One explanation for this observation is that the craters are being destroyed through fluvial processes, such as weathering, mass wasting, fluvial incision and deposition. In this work, we use a landscape evolution model to determine whether or not this is a viable mechanism for crater destruction on Titan. We find that fluvial degradation can modify craters to the point where they would be unrecognizable by an orbiting spacecraft such as Cassini, given enough time and a large enough erosion rate. A difference in the erosion rate between the equator and the poles of a factor of a few could explain the latitudinal variation in Titan's crater population. Fluvial erosion also removes central peaks and fills in central pits, possibly explaining their infrequent occurrence in Titan craters. Although many craters on Titan appear to be modified by aeolian infilling, fluvial modification is necessary to explain the observed impact crater morphologies. Thus, it is an important secondary modification process even in Titan's drier equatorial regions.

  17. Impact craters on Venus: Initial analysis from Magellan (United States)

    Phillips, R.J.; Arvidson, R. E.; Boyce, J.M.; Campbell, D.B.; Guest, J.E.; Schaber, G.G.; Soderblom, L.A.


    Magellan radar images of 15 percent of the planet show 135 craters of probable impact origin. Craters more than 15 km across tend to contain central peaks, multiple central peaks, and peak rings. Many craters smaller than 15 km exhibit multiple floors or appear in clusters; these phenomena are attributed to atmospheric breakup of incoming meteoroids. Additionally, the atmosphere appears to have prevented the formation of primary impact craters smaller than about 3 km and produced a deficiency in the number of craters smaller than about 25 km across. Ejecta is found at greater distances than that predicted by simple ballistic emplacement, and the distal ends of some ejecta deposits are lobate. These characteristics may represent surface flows of material initially entrained in the atmosphere. Many craters are surrounded by zones of low radar albedo whose origin may have been deformation of the surface by the shock or pressure wave associated with the incoming meteoroid. Craters are absent from several large areas such as a 5 million square kilometer region around Sappho Patera, where the most likely explanation for the dearth of craters is volcanic resurfacing, There is apparently a spectrum of surface ages on Venus ranging approximately from 0 to 800 million years, and therefore Venus must be a geologically active planet.

  18. Chemical hazards from acid crater lakes (United States)

    van Bergen, M. J.; Sumarti, S.; Heikens, A.; Bogaard, T. A.; Hartiyatun, S.


    Acid crater lakes, which are hosted by a considerable number of active volcanoes, form a potential threat for local ecosystems and human health, as they commonly contain large amounts of dissolved chemicals. Subsurface seepage or overflow can lead to severe deterioration of the water quality of rivers and wells, as observations around several of these volcanoes have shown. The Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) is a striking example, as this reservoir of hyperacid (pHdental fluorosis is widespread among the ca. 100,000 residents of the area. A conspicuous spatial correlation between fluoride concentrations and the irrigation system suggest that long-term (century) infiltration of irrigation water may have affected the quality of groundwater. Fluorosis is also a problem in some villages within the caldera, where well water sources may have a more direct subsurface connection with the lake system. From our observations we conclude that water-quality monitoring is especially needed for health reasons in volcanic areas where volatile elements, derived from passively degassing magma, are intercepted by (sub) surface water bodies.

  19. A Giant Crater on 90 Antiope?

    CERN Document Server

    Descamps, P; Michalowski, T; Berthier, J; Pollock, J; Wiggins, P; Birlan, M; Colas, F; Vachier, F; Fauvaud, S; Fauvaud, M; Sareyan, J -P; Pilcher, F; Klinglesmith, D A


    Mutual event observations between the two components of 90 Antiope were carried out in 2007-2008. The pole position was refined to lambda0 = 199.5+/-0.5 eg and beta0 = 39.8+/-5 deg in J2000 ecliptic coordinates, leaving intact the physical solution for the components, assimilated to two perfect Roche ellipsoids, and derived after the 2005 mutual event season (Descamps et al., 2007). Furthermore, a large-scale geological depression, located on one of the components, was introduced to better match the observed lightcurves. This vast geological feature of about 68 km in diameter, which could be postulated as a bowl-shaped impact crater, is indeed responsible of the photometric asymmetries seen on the "shoulders" of the lightcurves. The bulk density was then recomputed to 1.28+/-0.04 gcm-3 to take into account this large-scale non-convexity. This giant crater could be the aftermath of a tremendous collision of a 100-km sized proto-Antiope with another Themis family member. This statement is supported by the fact ...

  20. Water balance for Crater Lake, Oregon (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel


    A water balance for Crater Lake, Oregon, is calculated using measured lake levels and precipitation data measured at Park Headquarters and at a gage on the North Rim. Total water supply to the lake from precipitation and inflow from the crater walls is found to be 224 cm/y over the area of the lake. The ratio between water supply to the lake and precipitation at Park Headquarters is calculated as 1.325. Using leakage determined by Phillips (1968) and Redmond (1990), evaporation from the lake is approximately 85 cm/y. Calculations show that water balances with precipitation data only from Park Headquarters are unable to accurately define the water-level variation, whereas the addition of yearly precipitation data from the North Rim reduces the average absolute deviation between calculated and modeled water levels by one half. Daily precipitation and water-level data are modeled assuming that precipitation is stored on the rim as snow during fall and winter and released uniformly during the spring and early summer. Daily data do not accurately define the water balance, but they suggest that direct precipitation on the lake is about 10 % higher than that measured at Park Headquarters and that about 17 % of the water supply is from inflow from the rim.

  1. Evolution of Occator Crater on (1) Ceres (United States)

    Nathues, A.; Platz, T.; Thangjam, G.; Hoffmann, M.; Mengel, K.; Cloutis, E. A.; Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Kallisch, J.; Crown, D. A.


    The dwarf planet Ceres (diameter 939 km) is the largest object in the main asteroid belt. Recent investigations suggest that Ceres is a thermally evolved, volatile-rich body with potential geological activity, a body which was never completely molten but possibly differentiated into a rocky core, an ice-rich mantle, and which may contain remnant internal liquid water. Thermal alteration and exogenic material infall contribute to producing a (dark) carbonaceous chondritic-like surface containing ammoniated phyllosilicates. Here we report imaging and spectroscopic analyses of Occator crater derived from the Framing Camera and the Visible and Infrared Spectrometer onboard Dawn. We found that the central bright spot (Cerealia Facula) of Occator is ∼30 Myr younger than the crater itself. The central spot is located in a central pit which contains a dome that is spectrally homogenous, exhibiting absorption features that are consistent with carbonates. Multiple radial fractures across the dome indicate an extrusive formation process. Our results lead us to conclude that the floor region was subject to past endogenic activity. Dome and bright material in its vicinity formed likely due to a long-lasting, periodic, or episodic ascent of bright material from a subsurface reservoir rich in carbonates. Originally triggered by an impact event, gases, possibly dissolved from a subsurface water/brine layer, enabled material rich in carbonates to ascend through fractures and be deposited onto the surface.

  2. Meteor head echo characteristics observed with MAARSY in the polar region (United States)

    Schult, Carsten; Stober, Gunter; Chau, Jorge L.


    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY, 53.5 MHz), on the North Norwegian island Andoya (69.30° N, 16.04° E) , is the only high power large aperture (HPLA) radar system with interferometric capabilities providing daily meteor head echo observations since November 2013. Meanwhile, the data set of meteor head echoes contains over one million events with a perfect daily and seasonal coverage of the four northern hemisphere sporadic sources. Although, the North Apex meteor source dominates the observation by far (more than 40%), the statistic is large enough for a comparison of the observational meteor parameters for all sporadic sources. Furthermore, due to the large spread of the antenna gain of the HPLA radar system in combination with the interferometric solutions, the observation area can be divided into high and low sensitive regions with different collecting sizes. This separation is equivalent with a measurement of various radar systems with different beam characteristics, observing at the same time and geographical location. This helps answering question on the impact of the radar specifications on the meteor head echo measurements.

  3. Calibrating a long-term meteoric 10Be accumulation rate in soil (United States)

    Reusser, Lucas; Graly, Joseph; Bierman, Paul; Rood, Dylan


    Using 13 samples collected from a 4.1 meter profile in a well-dated and stable New Zealand fluvial terrace, we present the first long-term accumulation rate for meteoric 10Be in soil (1.68 to 1.72 × 106 at/(cm2·yr)) integrated over the past ˜18 ka. Site-specific accumulation data, such as these, are prerequisite to the application of meteoric 10Be in surface process studies. Our data begin the process of calibrating long-term meteoric 10Be delivery rates across latitude and precipitation gradients. Our integrated rate is lower than contemporary meteoric 10Be fluxes measured in New Zealand rainfall, suggesting that long-term average precipitation, dust flux, or both, at this site were less than modern values. With accurately calibrated long-term delivery rates, such as this, meteoric 10Be will be a powerful tool for studying rates of landscape change in environments where other cosmogenic nuclides, such as in situ 10Be, cannot be used.

  4. Mitigation of transient meteor events in sodium layer by TMT NFIRAOS (United States)

    Herriot, Glen; Irvin, Craig


    NFIRAOS Small meteors usually bum up near the bottom of the sodium layer. Meteor trails can lead to temporary dra­ matic changes in the altitude of the sodium layer. This altitude change is very rapid, typically over 1 second, and after some unpredictable period of 10-20 seconds, can transition back to the nominal mean altitude also in about 1 second. The altitude change is very drastic and can jump by up to 1 km which, on the face of it, would cause 4 micrometers defocus errors on LGS WFS measurements for a 30-m telescope, unless properly tracked. Measurements by the UBC Lidar detected 20 meteor trails I hour, and of these, 1-2 are significant events. We report on a full end-to-end Simulink simulation for TMT NFIRAOS including: meteor events measured by the UBC Lidar; on-instrument NGS focus sensor running at 90 Hz (median sky coverage frame rate); optimal temporal blending with LGS WFS focus measurements; LGS WFS centroiding matched filter update and Truth WFS update very 3s; full trombone servo model including non-linear focus range vs stage position. We optimized our control architecture and traded off motor power dissipation versus residual wavefront error and Shack-Hartmann spot displacement and found range tracking errors induce 12 nm WFE in normal conditions and brief (Is) jumps of 30-80 nm WFE at the beginning and ending of meteor transients.

  5. Mass Movement on Vesta at Steep Scarps and Crater Rims (United States)

    Krohn, K.; Jaumann, R.; Otto, K.; Hoogenboom, T.; Wagner, R.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Garry, B.; Williams, D. A.; Yingst, R. A.; Scully, J.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Kneissl, T.; Schmedemann, N.; Kersten, E.; Stephan, K.; Matz, K.-D.; Pieters, C. M.; Preusker, F.; Roatsch, T.; Schenk, P.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.


    The Quadrangles Av-11 and Av-12 on Vesta are located at the northern rim of the giant Rheasilvia south polar impact basin. The primary geologic units in Av-11 and Av-12 include material from the Rheasilvia impact basin formation, smooth material and different types of impact crater structures (such as bimodal craters, dark and bright crater ray material and dark ejecta material). Av-11 and Av-12 exhibit almost the full range of mass wasting features observed on Vesta, such as slump blocks, spur-and-gully morphologies and landslides within craters. Processes of collapse, slope instability and seismically triggered events force material to slump down crater walls or scarps and produce landslides or rotational slump blocks. The spur-and-gully morphology that is known to form on Mars is also observed on Vesta; however, on Vesta this morphology formed under dry conditions.

  6. Acoustic fluidization and the scale dependence of impact crater morphology (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Gaffney, E. S.


    A phenomenological Bingham plastic model has previously been shown to provide an adequate description of the collapse of impact craters. This paper demonstrates that the Bingham parameters may be derived from a model in which acoustic energy generated during excavation fluidizes the rock debris surrounding the crater. Experimental support for the theoretical flow law is presented. Although the Bingham yield stress cannot be computed without detailed knowledge of the initial acoustic field, the Bingham viscosity is derived from a simple argument which shows that it increases as the 3/2 power of crater diameter, consistent with observation. Crater collapse may occur in material with internal dissipation Q as low as 100, comparable to laboratory observations of dissipation in granular materials. Crater collapse thus does not require that the acoustic field be regenerated during flow.

  7. Acoustic fluidization and the scale dependence of impact crater morphology (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.; Gaffney, E. S.


    A phenomenological Bingham plastic model has previously been shown to provide an adequate description of the collapse of impact craters. This paper demonstrates that the Bingham parameters may be derived from a model in which acoustic energy generated during excavation fluidizes the rock debris surrounding the crater. Experimental support for the theoretical flow law is presented. Although the Bingham yield stress cannot be computed without detailed knowledge of the initial acoustic field, the Bingham viscosity is derived from a simple argument which shows that it increases as the 3/2 power of crater diameter, consistent with observation. Crater collapse may occur in material with internal dissipation Q as low as 100, comparable to laboratory observations of dissipation in granular materials. Crater collapse thus does not require that the acoustic field be regenerated during flow.

  8. El Chichón crater lake dynamic based on continuous physical data and mass-heat budget (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Taran, Y.


    The March-April 1982 Plinian eruption of El Chichón volcano destroyed the summit domes system and created a new 200 m deep crater. Since then, a shallow lake (~3 m) with acidic pH (~2.3), and temperature around 30°C appeared in the crater. This lake has never disappeared until now although its volume has suffered important variations from 40,000 m3 to 160,000 m3. Chemical composition of the lake is also highly variable (Cl/SO4 = 0-79 molar ratio), alternating between acid-sulfate and acid-chloride-sulfate composition. These variations can occur very fast within few weeks and are not directly correlated with precipitation. Due to its shallow depth and small volume, El Chichón crater lake is probably one of the most dynamic crater lake on earth. These rapid changes in chemistry and volume reflect the dynamic of one group of geyser-type springs ('Soap Pools springs, SP') located offshore and the input of hydrothermal steam underneath the crater. The SP springs discharge sporadically to the lake neutral waters with Cl content currently around 3000 mg/l, while the condensed steam feeds the lake with Cl-free and SO4-rich acid water. In this study, we present for the first time continuous physical data of the crater lake (temperature, depth, meteoric precipitation, wind velocity, solar radiation, air humidity). These data were registered by a meteorological station and two dataloggers installed inside and outside the lake. Using a mass and heat budget model constrained with these data, we were able to estimate the flux of 'hydrothermal' fluid entering the lake through the sub-lacustrian fumaroles and SP springs. Tracing the variations of the input flux in time can be help to understand the dynamic of the 'crater lake-SP springs-fumaroles' system but also can provide an efficient way of monitoring the volcanic activity. During the observation period, the mean mass flux entering the lake (Min) was respectively of 12 ± 2 kg/s, corresponding to a total heat flux (Ein) of

  9. Interpretation of Lunar Topography: Impact Cratering and Surface Roughness (United States)

    Rosenburg, Margaret A.

    This work seeks to understand past and present surface conditions on the Moon using two different but complementary approaches: topographic analysis using high-resolution elevation data from recent spacecraft missions and forward modeling of the dominant agent of lunar surface modification, impact cratering. The first investigation focuses on global surface roughness of the Moon, using a variety of statistical parameters to explore slopes at different scales and their relation to competing geological processes. We find that highlands topography behaves as a nearly self-similar fractal system on scales of order 100 meters, and there is a distinct change in this behavior above and below approximately 1 km. Chapter 2 focuses this analysis on two localized regions: the lunar south pole, including Shackleton crater, and the large mare-filled basins on the nearside of the Moon. In particular, we find that differential slope, a statistical measure of roughness related to the curvature of a topographic profile, is extremely useful in distinguishing between geologic units. Chapter 3 introduces a numerical model that simulates a cratered terrain by emplacing features of characteristic shape geometrically, allowing for tracking of both the topography and surviving rim fragments over time. The power spectral density of cratered terrains is estimated numerically from model results and benchmarked against a 1-dimensional analytic model. The power spectral slope is observed to vary predictably with the size-frequency distribution of craters, as well as the crater shape. The final chapter employs the rim-tracking feature of the cratered terrain model to analyze the evolving size-frequency distribution of craters under different criteria for identifying "visible" craters from surviving rim fragments. A geometric bias exists that systematically over counts large or small craters, depending on the rim fraction required to count a given feature as either visible or erased.

  10. Small craters on the meteoroid and space debris impact experiment (United States)

    Humes, Donald H.


    Examination of 9.34 m(exp 2) of thick aluminum plates from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) using a 25X microscope revealed 4341 craters that were 0.1 mm in diameter or larger. The largest was 3 mm in diameter. Most were roughly hemispherical with lips that were raised above the original plate surface. The crater diameter measured was the diameter at the top of the raised lips. There was a large variation in the number density of craters around the three-axis gravity-gradient stabilized spacecraft. A model of the near-Earth meteoroid environment is presented which uses a meteoroid size distribution based on the crater size distribution on the space end of the LDEF. An argument is made that nearly all the craters on the space end must have been caused by meteoroids and that very few could have been caused by man-made orbital debris. However, no chemical analysis of impactor residue that will distinguish between meteoroids and man-made debris is yet available. A small area (0.0447 m(exp 2)) of one of the plates on the space end was scanned with a 200X microscope revealing 155 craters between 10 micron and 100 micron in diameter and 3 craters smaller than 10 micron. This data was used to extend the size distribution of meteoroids down to approximately 1 micron. New penetration equations developed by Alan Watts were used to relate crater dimensions to meteoroid size. The equations suggest that meteoroids must have a density near 2.5 g/cm(exp 3) to produce craters of the shape found on the LDEF. The near-Earth meteoroid model suggests that about 80 to 85 percent of the 100 micron to 1 mm diameter craters on the twelve peripheral rows of the LDEF were caused by meteoroids, leaving 15 to 20 percent to be caused by man-made orbital debris.

  11. Observations of the Quadrantid meteor shower from 2008 to 2012: Orbits and emission spectra (United States)

    Madiedo, José M.; Espartero, Francisco; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M.; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Pujols, Pep; Pastor, Sensi; de los Reyes, José A.; Rodríguez, Diego


    The activity of the Quadrantids in January during several years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) has been investigated in the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). For this purpose, an array of high-sensitivity CCD video devices and CCD all-sky cameras have been used to obtain multi-station observations of these meteors. These allowed to obtain precise radiant and orbital information about this meteoroid stream. This paper presents a large set of orbital data (namely, 85 orbits) of Quadrantid meteoroids. Most meteors produced by these particles were recorded during the activity peak of this shower. Besides, we discuss four Quadrantid emission spectra. The tensile strength of Quadrantid meteoroids has been also obtained.

  12. Meteoric smoke and H2SO4 aerosols in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere (United States)

    Hervig, Mark E.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Siskind, David E.; Mills, Michael J.; Stockwell, Robert


    Meteoric smoke has traditionally been understood as a passive tracer which follows the global mesospheric circulation. Smoke extinction measured by the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment, however, shows that while this is true in the middle to upper mesosphere (pressure hPa), it is not true near the stratopause. Here the expected winter increase begins 3 months earlier than in models. We suggest that the autumn extinction increase is due to H2SO4 condensing above the nominal stratospheric aerosol layer ( 5 hPa). This is possible due to lowering of the H2SO4 saturation vapor pressure when the acid is neutralized through combination with meteoric metals. The appearance of neutralized H2SO4 aerosol in autumn is associated with the seasonal decrease in temperature. The combination of meteoric smoke and neutralized H2SO4 aerosols explains the observations and supports previous suggestions that H2SO4 could condense above the nominal stratospheric sulfate layer.

  13. Fire in the Sky: Comets and Meteors, the Decisive Centuries, in British Art and Science (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    Comets and meteors are spectacular and awe-inspiring natural phenomena, which are among nature's most compelling icons. Since the beginning of recorded time, they have mesmerized people, not least among them artists and astronomers. Britain during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries produced a larger number and greater variety of representations of comets and meteors than any other country. The development of new technologies, and the burgeoning interest of the general public in science and art, dovetailed with the inherent British interest in nature and a strong literary tradition of comet and meteor symbolism. This beautifully illustrated book examines the link between these works and the achievements of British science in the wake of Newton and Halley. This book will be stimulating to anyone interested in the art or astronomy of comets.

  14. Observations of the Quadrantid meteor shower from 2008 to 2012: orbits and emission spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Madiedo, José M; Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Pujols, Pep; Pastor, Sensi; Reyes, José A de los; Rodríguez, Diego


    The activity of the Quadrantids in January during several years (2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012) has been investigated in the framework of the SPanish Meteor Network (SPMN). For this purpose, an array of high-sensitivity CCD video devices and CCD all-sky cameras have been used to obtain multi-station observations of these meteors. These allowed us to obtain precise radiant and orbital information about this meteoroid stream. This paper presents a large set of orbital data (namely, 85 orbits) of Quadrantid meteoroids. Most meteors produced by these particles were recorded during the activity peak of this shower. Besides, we discuss four Quadrantid emission spectra. The tensile strength of Quadrantid meteoroids has been also obtained.

  15. The EISCAT meteor-head method – a review and recent observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pellinen-Wannberg


    Full Text Available Since the very first meteor observations at EISCAT in December 1990, the experimental method has improved significantly. This is due to a better understanding of the phenomenon and a recent major upgrade of the EISCAT signal processing and data storage capabilities. Now the simultaneous spatial-time resolution is under 100 m-ms class. To illuminate the meteor target for as long as possible and simultaneously get as good altitude resolution as possible, various coding techniques have been used, such as alternating Barker codes, Barker codes and random codes with extremely low side lobe effects. This paper presents some background and the current view of the meteor head echo process at EISCAT as well as the observations which support this view, such as altitude distributions, dual-frequency target sizes and vector velocities. It also presents some preliminary results from recent very high resolution tristatic observations.

  16. Dormant Comets Among the Near-Earth Object Population: A Meteor-Based Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Pokorný, Petr


    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13~567~542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (NEACOs) that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify 5 positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including 3 previously known associations. This transla...

  17. Riddles in the Dark: Imaging Inside Mercury's Permanently Shadowed Craters (United States)

    Ernst, C. M.; Chabot, N. L.; Denevi, B. W.; Nair, H.; Deutsch, A. N.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Blewett, D. T.; Head, J. W.; Harmon, J. K.; Neumann, G. A.; Solomon, S. C.


    Numerous lines of evidence independently point to the presence of water ice in Mercury's polar regions: Earth-based radar shows radar-bright regions; Mariner 10 and MESSENGER Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) images reveal that these regions are permanently (south polar region) or persistently (north polar region) shadowed; neutron spectrometry indicates hydrogen-rich material; thermal models support the presence of water ice; and Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) reflectance measurements at 1064 nm show high and low reflectance deposits consistent in location to where models predict surface and buried water ice, respectively. Throughout 2013, MESSENGER executed a campaign dedicated to imaging the permanently shadowed crater floors of Mercury's north polar region using sunlight scattered from nearby terrain. The campaign makes use of the broadband clear filter (central wavelength 700 nm, bandwidth 600 nm) of the MDIS wide-angle camera (WAC) to target and image radar-bright areas within all host craters > 10 km in diameter under multiple lighting conditions. To date, MESSENGER has imaged the interiors of nearly 20 craters that host radar-bright deposits, including the largest such deposits near the north pole that are likely to host surface water ice. The images reveal a variety of surface morphologies, ranging from the smooth crater floor of the fresh Kandinsky crater, to the moderately cratered floor of Tolkien crater, and to the battered floor of Prokofiev crater, in which the permanently shadowed region does not differ morphologically from the rest of the crater floor. Thus, no distinct morphology is identified in association with polar deposits, and craters hosting such material span the typical range of degradation states relative to their illuminated counterparts. MDIS images also reveal albedo differences in craters with floors not fully in permanent shadow. Prokofiev provides a special environment for viewing a radar- and MLA-bright region suspected to host

  18. High Resolution Digital Elevation Models of Pristine Explosion Craters (United States)

    Farr, T. G.; Krabill, W.; Garvin, J. B.


    In order to effectively capture a realistic terrain applicable to studies of cratering processes and landing hazards on Mars, we have obtained high resolution digital elevation models of several pristine explosion craters at the Nevada Test Site. We used the Airborne Terrain Mapper (ATM), operated by NASA's Wallops Flight Facility to obtain DEMs with 1 m spacing and 10 cm vertical errors of 4 main craters and many other craters and collapse pits. The main craters that were mapped are Sedan, Scooter, Schooner, and Danny Boy. The 370 m diameter Sedan crater, located on Yucca Flat, is the largest and freshest explosion crater on Earth that was formed under conditions similar to hypervelocity impact cratering. As such, it is effectively pristine, having been formed in 1962 as a result of a controlled detonation of a 100 kiloton thermonuclear device, buried at the appropriate equivalent depth of burst required to make a simple crater. Sedan was formed in alluvium of mixed lithology and subsequently studied using a variety of field-based methods. Nearby secondary craters were also formed at the time and were also mapped by ATM. Adjacent to Sedan and also in alluvium is Scooter, about 90 m in diameter and formed by a high-explosive event. Schooner (240 m) and Danny Boy (80 m) craters were also important targets for ATM as they were excavated in hard basalt and therefore have much rougher ejecta. This will allow study of ejecta patterns in hard rock as well as engineering tests of crater and rock avoidance and rover trafficability. In addition to the high resolution DEMs, crater geometric characteristics, RMS roughness maps, and other higher-order derived data products will be generated using these data. These will provide constraints for models of landing hazards on Mars and for rover trafficability. Other planned studies will include ejecta size-frequency distribution at the resolution of the DEM and at finer resolution through air photography and field measurements

  19. Theory and experiments on centrifuge cratering (United States)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.


    Centrifuge experimental techniques provide possibilities for laboratory simulation of ground motion and cratering effects due to explosive loadings. The results of a similarity analysis for the thermomechanical response of a continuum show that increased gravity is a necessary condition for subscale testing when identical materials for both model and prototype are being used. The general similarity requirements for this type of subscale testing are examined both theoretically and experimentally. The similarity analysis is used to derive the necessary and sufficient requirements due to the general balance and jump equations and gives relations among all the scale factors for size, density, stress, body forces, internal energy, heat supply, heat conduction, heat of detonation, and time. Additional constraints due to specific choices of material constitutive equations are evaluated separately. The class of constitutive equations that add no further requirements is identified. For this class of materials, direct simulation of large-scale cratering events at small scale on the centrifuge is possible and independent of the actual constitutive equations. For a rate-independent soil it is shown that a small experiment at gravity g and energy E is similar to a large event at 1 G but with energy equal to g3E. Consequently, experiments at 500 G with 8 grams of explosives can be used to simulate a kiloton in the field. A series of centrifuge experiments was performed to validate the derived similarity requirements and to determine the practicality of applying the technique to dry granular soils having little or no cohesion. Ten shots using Ottawa sand at various gravities confirmed reproducibility of results in the centrifuge environment, provided information on particle size effects, and demonstrated the applicability of the derived similitude requirements. These experiments used 0.5-4 grams of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) and 1.7 grams of lead-azide explosives. They

  20. Meteors do not break exogenous organic molecules into high yields of diatomics. (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Schaller, Emily L; Laux, Christophe O; Wilson, Michael A; Schmidt, Greg; Rairden, Rick L


    Meteoroids that dominate the Earth's extraterrestrial mass influx (50-300 microm size range) may have contributed a unique blend of exogenous organic molecules at the time of the origin of life. Such meteoroids are so large that most of their mass is ablated in the Earth's atmosphere. In the process, organic molecules are decomposed and chemically altered to molecules differently from those delivered to the Earth's surface by smaller (10 cm) meteorites. The question addressed here is whether the organic matter in these meteoroids is fully decomposed into atoms or diatomic compounds during ablation. If not, then the ablation products made available for prebiotic organic chemistry, and perhaps early biology, might have retained some memory of their astrophysical nature. To test this hypothesis we searched for CN emission in meteor spectra in an airborne experiment during the 2001 Leonid meteor storm. We found that the meteor's light-emitting air plasma, which included products of meteor ablation, contained less than 1 CN molecule for every 30 meteoric iron atoms. This contrasts sharply with the nitrogen/iron ratio of 1:1.2 in the solid matter of comet 1P/Halley. Unless the nitrogen content or the abundance of complex organic matter in the Leonid parent body, comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, differs from that in comet 1P/Halley, it appears that very little of that organic nitrogen decomposes into CN molecules during meteor ablation in the rarefied flow conditions that characterize the atmospheric entry of meteoroids approximately 50 microm-10 cm in size. We propose that the organics of such meteoroids survive instead as larger compounds.

  1. Secondary Craters and the Size-Velocity Distribution of Ejected Fragments around Lunar Craters Measured Using LROC Images (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; Jolliff, B. L.; McKinnon, W. B.


    Title: Secondary Craters and the Size-Velocity Distribution of Ejected Fragments around Lunar Craters Measured Using LROC Images Authors: Kelsi N. Singer1, Bradley L. Jolliff1, and William B. McKinnon1 Affiliations: 1. Earth and Planetary Sciences, Washington University in St Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States. We report results from analyzing the size-velocity distribution (SVD) of secondary crater forming fragments from the 93 km diameter Copernicus impact. We measured the diameters of secondary craters and their distances from Copernicus using LROC Wide Angle Camera (WAC) and Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) image data. We then estimated the velocity and size of the ejecta fragment that formed each secondary crater from the range equation for a ballistic trajectory on a sphere and Schmidt-Holsapple scaling relations. Size scaling was carried out in the gravity regime for both non-porous and porous target material properties. We focus on the largest ejecta fragments (dfmax) at a given ejection velocity (υej) and fit the upper envelope of the SVD using quantile regression to an equation of the form dfmax = A*υej ^- β. The velocity exponent, β, describes how quickly fragment sizes fall off with increasing ejection velocity during crater excavation. For Copernicus, we measured 5800 secondary craters, at distances of up to 700 km (15 crater radii), corresponding to an ejecta fragment velocity of approximately 950 m/s. This mapping only includes secondary craters that are part of a radial chain or cluster. The two largest craters in chains near Copernicus that are likely to be secondaries are 6.4 and 5.2 km in diameter. We obtained a velocity exponent, β, of 2.2 × 0.1 for a non-porous surface. This result is similar to Vickery's [1987, GRL 14] determination of β = 1.9 × 0.2 for Copernicus using Lunar Orbiter IV data. The availability of WAC 100 m/pix global mosaics with illumination geometry optimized for morphology allows us to update and extend the work of Vickery

  2. Martian Fluvial Conglomerates at Gale Crater (United States)

    Williams, R. M. E.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Dietrich, W. E.; Gupta, S.; Sumner, D. Y.; Wiens, R. C.; Mangold, N.; Malin, M. C.; Edgett, K. S.; Maurice, S.; Forni, O.; Gasnault, O.; Ollila, A.; Newsom, H. E.; Dromart, G.; Palucis, M. C.; Yingst, R. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Le Mouélic, S.; Goetz, W.; Madsen, M. B.; Koefoed, A.; Jensen, J. K.; Bridges, J. C.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Lewis, K. W.; Stack, K. M.; Rubin, D.; Kah, L. C.; Bell, J. F.; Farmer, J. D.; Sullivan, R.; Van Beek, T.; Blaney, D. L.; Pariser, O.; Deen, R. G.; Kemppinen, Osku; Bridges, Nathan; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Minitti, Michelle; Cremers, David; Edgar, Lauren; Godber, Austin; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Wellington, Danika; McEwan, Ian; Newman, Claire; Richardson, Mark; Charpentier, Antoine; Peret, Laurent; King, Penelope; Blank, Jennifer; Weigle, Gerald; Schmidt, Mariek; Li, Shuai; Milliken, Ralph; Robertson, Kevin; Sun, Vivian; Baker, Michael; Edwards, Christopher; Ehlmann, Bethany; Farley, Kenneth; Griffes, Jennifer; Miller, Hayden; Newcombe, Megan; Pilorget, Cedric; Rice, Melissa; Siebach, Kirsten; Stolper, Edward; Brunet, Claude; Hipkin, Victoria; Léveillé, Richard; Marchand, Geneviève; Sobrón Sánchez, Pablo; Favot, Laurent; Cody, George; Steele, Andrew; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Lees, David; Nefian, Ara; Martin, Mildred; Gailhanou, Marc; Westall, Frances; Israël, Guy; Agard, Christophe; Baroukh, Julien; Donny, Christophe; Gaboriaud, Alain; Guillemot, Philippe; Lafaille, Vivian; Lorigny, Eric; Paillet, Alexis; Pérez, René; Saccoccio, Muriel; Yana, Charles; Aparicio, Carlos Armiens; Caride Rodríguez, Javier; Carrasco Blázquez, Isaías; Gómez Gómez, Felipe; Elvira, Javier Gómez; Hettrich, Sebastian; Lepinette Malvitte, Alain; Marín Jiménez, Mercedes; Frías, Jesús Martínez; Soler, Javier Martín; Torres, F. Javier Martín; Molina Jurado, Antonio; Sotomayor, Luis Mora; Muñoz Caro, Guillermo; Navarro López, Sara; González, Verónica Peinado; García, Jorge Pla; Rodriguez Manfredi, José Antonio; Planelló, Julio José Romeral; Alejandra Sans Fuentes, Sara; Sebastian Martinez, Eduardo; Torres Redondo, Josefina; O'Callaghan, Roser Urqui; Zorzano Mier, María-Paz; Chipera, Steve; Lacour, Jean-Luc; Mauchien, Patrick; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Manning, Heidi; Fairén, Alberto; Hayes, Alexander; Joseph, Jonathan; Squyres, Steven; Thomas, Peter; Dupont, Audrey; Lundberg, Angela; Melikechi, Noureddine; Mezzacappa, Alissa; DeMarines, Julia; Grinspoon, David; Reitz, Günther; Prats, Benito; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Genzer, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kauhanen, Janne; Paton, Mark; Polkko, Jouni; Schmidt, Walter; Siili, Tero; Fabre, Cécile; Wray, James; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Poitrasson, Franck; Patel, Kiran; Gorevan, Stephen; Indyk, Stephen; Paulsen, Gale; Bish, David; Schieber, Juergen; Gondet, Brigitte; Langevin, Yves; Geffroy, Claude; Baratoux, David; Berger, Gilles; Cros, Alain; Uston, Claude d.; Lasue, Jérémie; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Pallier, Etienne; Parot, Yann; Pinet, Patrick; Schröder, Susanne; Toplis, Mike; Lewin, Éric; Brunner, Will; Heydari, Ezat; Achilles, Cherie; Oehler, Dorothy; Sutter, Brad; Cabane, Michel; Coscia, David; Szopa, Cyril; Robert, François; Sautter, Violaine; Nachon, Marion; Buch, Arnaud; Stalport, Fabien; Coll, Patrice; François, Pascaline; Raulin, François; Teinturier, Samuel; Cameron, James; Clegg, Sam; Cousin, Agnès; DeLapp, Dorothea; Dingler, Robert; Jackson, Ryan Steele; Johnstone, Stephen; Lanza, Nina; Little, Cynthia; Nelson, Tony; Williams, Richard B.; Jones, Andrea; Kirkland, Laurel; Treiman, Allan; Baker, Burt; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Davis, Scott; Duston, Brian; Fay, Donald; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Herrera, Paul; Jensen, Elsa; Kennedy, Megan R.; Krezoski, Gillian; Krysak, Daniel; Lipkaman, Leslie; McCartney, Elaina; McNair, Sean; Nixon, Brian; Posiolova, Liliya; Ravine, Michael; Salamon, Andrew; Saper, Lee; Stoiber, Kevin; Supulver, Kimberley; Van Beek, Jason; Zimdar, Robert; French, Katherine Louise; Iagnemma, Karl; Miller, Kristen; Summons, Roger; Goesmann, Fred; Hviid, Stubbe; Johnson, Micah; Lefavor, Matthew; Lyness, Eric; Breves, Elly; Dyar, M. Darby; Fassett, Caleb; Blake, David F.; Bristow, Thomas; DesMarais, David; Edwards, Laurence; Haberle, Robert; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Kahre, Melinda; Keely, Leslie; McKay, Christopher; Bleacher, Lora; Brinckerhoff, William; Choi, David; Conrad, Pamela; Dworkin, Jason P.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer; Floyd, Melissa; Freissinet, Caroline; Garvin, James; Glavin, Daniel; Harpold, Daniel; Mahaffy, Paul; Martin, David K.


    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcrop show a predominantly feldspathic composition, consistent with minimal aqueous alteration of sediments. Sediment was mobilized in ancient water flows that likely exceeded the threshold conditions (depth 0.03 to 0.9 meter, average velocity 0.20 to 0.75 meter per second) required to transport the pebbles. Climate conditions at the time sediment was transported must have differed substantially from the cold, hyper-arid modern environment to permit aqueous flows across several kilometers.

  3. Ancient aqueous environments at Endeavour crater, Mars (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Bell, J.F.; Catalano, J.G.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.S.; de Souza, P.A.; Fairén, A.G.; Farrand, W. H.; Fox, V.K.; Gellert, Ralf; Ghosh, A.; Golombeck, M.P.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Guinness, E.A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; Li, R.; McLennan, S.M.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Moore, Johnnie N.; Morris, R.V.; Murchie, S.L.; Parker, T.J.; Paulsen, G.; Rice, J.W.; Ruff, S.W.; Smith, M.D.; Wolff, M.J.


    Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe+3-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  4. Flyover Animation of Becquerel Crater on Mars (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] View the Movie Click on image to view the movie This simulated flyover shows rhythmic layers of sedimentary rock inside Becquerel crater on Mars. The animation uses three-dimensional modeling based on a stereo pair of images from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  5. Martian fluvial conglomerates at Gale crater. (United States)

    Williams, R M E; Grotzinger, J P; Dietrich, W E; Gupta, S; Sumner, D Y; Wiens, R C; Mangold, N; Malin, M C; Edgett, K S; Maurice, S; Forni, O; Gasnault, O; Ollila, A; Newsom, H E; Dromart, G; Palucis, M C; Yingst, R A; Anderson, R B; Herkenhoff, K E; Le Mouélic, S; Goetz, W; Madsen, M B; Koefoed, A; Jensen, J K; Bridges, J C; Schwenzer, S P; Lewis, K W; Stack, K M; Rubin, D; Kah, L C; Bell, J F; Farmer, J D; Sullivan, R; Van Beek, T; Blaney, D L; Pariser, O; Deen, R G


    Observations by the Mars Science Laboratory Mast Camera (Mastcam) in Gale crater reveal isolated outcrops of cemented pebbles (2 to 40 millimeters in diameter) and sand grains with textures typical of fluvial sedimentary conglomerates. Rounded pebbles in the conglomerates indicate substantial fluvial abrasion. ChemCam emission spectra at one outcrop show a predominantly feldspathic composition, consistent with minimal aqueous alteration of sediments. Sediment was mobilized in ancient water flows that likely exceeded the threshold conditions (depth 0.03 to 0.9 meter, average velocity 0.20 to 0.75 meter per second) required to transport the pebbles. Climate conditions at the time sediment was transported must have differed substantially from the cold, hyper-arid modern environment to permit aqueous flows across several kilometers.

  6. Ancient aqueous environments at Endeavour crater, Mars. (United States)

    Arvidson, R E; Squyres, S W; Bell, J F; Catalano, J G; Clark, B C; Crumpler, L S; de Souza, P A; Fairén, A G; Farrand, W H; Fox, V K; Gellert, R; Ghosh, A; Golombek, M P; Grotzinger, J P; Guinness, E A; Herkenhoff, K E; Jolliff, B L; Knoll, A H; Li, R; McLennan, S M; Ming, D W; Mittlefehldt, D W; Moore, J M; Morris, R V; Murchie, S L; Parker, T J; Paulsen, G; Rice, J W; Ruff, S W; Smith, M D; Wolff, M J


    Opportunity has investigated in detail rocks on the rim of the Noachian age Endeavour crater, where orbital spectral reflectance signatures indicate the presence of Fe(+3)-rich smectites. The signatures are associated with fine-grained, layered rocks containing spherules of diagenetic or impact origin. The layered rocks are overlain by breccias, and both units are cut by calcium sulfate veins precipitated from fluids that circulated after the Endeavour impact. Compositional data for fractures in the layered rocks suggest formation of Al-rich smectites by aqueous leaching. Evidence is thus preserved for water-rock interactions before and after the impact, with aqueous environments of slightly acidic to circum-neutral pH that would have been more favorable for prebiotic chemistry and microorganisms than those recorded by younger sulfate-rich rocks at Meridiani Planum.

  7. The Morphology of Craters on Mercury: Results from MESSENGER Flybys (United States)

    Barnouin, Oliver S.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Herrick, Robert R.; Chappelow, John E.; Murchie, Scott L.; Prockter, Louise M.


    Topographic data measured from the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) and the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) aboard the MESSENGER spacecraft were used for investigations of the relationship between depth and diameter for impact craters on Mercury. Results using data from the MESSENGER flybys of the innermost planet indicate that most of the craters measured with MLA are shallower than those previously measured by using Mariner 10 images. MDIS images of these same MLA-measured craters show that they have been modified. The use of shadow measurement techniques, which were found to be accurate relative to the MLA results, indicate that both small bowl-shaped and large complex craters that are fresh possess depth-to-diameter ratios that are in good agreement with those measured from Mariner 10 images. The preliminary data also show that the depths of modified craters are shallower relative to fresh ones, and might provide quantitative estimates of crater in-filling by subsequent volcanic or impact processes. The diameter that defines the transition from simple to complex craters on Mercury based on MESSENGER data is consistent with that reported from Mariner 10 data.

  8. The effect of craters on the lunar neutron flux

    CERN Document Server

    Eke, V R; Diserens, S; Ryder, M; Yeomans, P E L; Teodoro, L F A; Elphic, R C; Feldman, W C; Hermalyn, B; Lavelle, C M; Lawrence, D J


    The variation of remotely sensed neutron count rates is measured as a function of cratercentric distance using data from the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer. The count rate, stacked over many craters, peaks over the crater centre, has a minimum near the crater rim and at larger distances it increases to a mean value that is up to 1% lower than the mean count rate observed over the crater. A simple model is presented, based upon an analytical topographical profile for the stacked craters fitted to data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA). The effect of topography coupled with neutron beaming from the surface largely reproduces the observed count rate profiles. However, a model that better fits the observations can be found by including the additional freedom to increase the neutron emissivity of the crater area by ~0.35% relative to the unperturbed surface. It is unclear what might give rise to this effect, but it may relate to additional surface roughness in the vicinities of craters. The ampl...

  9. Fluvial erosion of impact craters: Earth and Mars (United States)

    Baker, V. R.


    Geomorphic studies of impact structures in central Australia are being used to understand the complexities of fluvial dissection in the heavily cratered terrains of Mars. At Henbury, Northern Territory, approximately 12 small meteorite craters have interacted with a semiarid drainage system. The detailed mapping of the geologic and structural features at Henbury allowed this study to concentrate on degradational landforms. The breaching of crater rims by gullies was facilitated by the northward movement of sheetwash along an extensive pediment surface extending from the Bacon Range. South-facing crater rims have been preferentially breached because gullies on those sides were able to tap the largest amounts of runoff. At crater 6 a probable rim-gully system has captured the headward reaches of a pre-impact stream channel. The interactive history of impacts and drainage development is critical to understanding the relationships in the heavily cratered uplands of Mars. Whereas Henbury craters are younger than 4700 yrs. B.P., the Gosses Bluff structure formed about 130 million years ago. The bluff is essentially an etched central peak composed of resistant sandstone units. Fluvial erosion of this structure is also discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Recharge Potential at Crater U5a (WISHBONE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard H. French; Samuel L. Hokett


    Radionuclides are present both below and above the water table at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), as the result of underground nuclear testing. Mobilization and transport of radionuclides from the vadose zone is a complex process that is influenced by the solubility and sorption characteristics of the individual radionuclides, as well as the soil water flux. On the NTS, subsidence craters resulting from testing underground nuclear weapons are numerous, and many intercept surface water flows. Because craters collect surface water above the sub-surface point of device detonation, these craters may provide a mechanism for surface water to recharge the groundwater aquifer system underlying the NTS. Given this situation, there is a potential for the captured water to introduce contaminants into the groundwater system. Crater U5a (WISHBONE), located in Frenchman Flat, was selected for study because of its potentially large drainage area, and significant erosional features, which suggested that it has captured more runoff than other craters in the Frenchman Flat area. Recharge conditions were studied in subsidence crater U5a by first drilling boreholes and analyzing the collected soil cores to determine the soil properties and moisture conditions. This information, coupled with a 32-year precipitation record, was used to conduct surface and vaodse zone modeling. Surface water modeling predicted that approximately 13 ponding events had occurred during the life of the crater. Vadose zone modeling indicated that since the crater's formation approximately 5,900 m3 of water were captured by the crater. Of this total, approximately 5,200 m3 of potential recahrge may have occurred, and the best estimates of annual average potential recharge rates lie between 36 and 188 cm of water per year. The term potential is used here to indicate that the water is not technically recharged because it has not yet reached the water table.

  11. Crater Morphologies on Pluto and Charon: Anticipating New Horizons (United States)

    Schenk, P.; Bray, V. J.; McKinnon, W. B.; White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.


    Impact craters are among the few geologic features we have some confidence will be present in the Pluto/Charon system. Crater morphologies are important as tracers of thermal history (through the mechanism of viscous relaxation), and can be used to probe through icy crusts (in terms of excavating deeper layers as on Ganymede or penetrating through floating ice shells as on Europa). New Horizons will have the opportunity to examine crater morphologies on Pluto to resolutions Charon to ~250 meters over significant areas. Stereo-derived topography maps are anticipated over 20-35% of each body. The first task will be to place the observed craters (assuming they are not deeply eroded) into Solar System context. Crater morphology on icy satellites is controlled primarily by surface gravity. Charon has similar surface gravity to the icy Saturnian satellites and we expect craters on Charon to resemble those seen by Cassini, where the dominant landform will be prominent central peaks. Pluto surface gravity is midway between Ganymede and Rhea. Triton, with similar surface gravity and internal composition to Pluto, is of no help due to the paucity of resolved craters there. This opens the possibility of observing landforms seen on Ganymede, such as central dome craters, palimpsests and perhaps even a multiring basin or two, albeit at larger diameters than we would see on Ganymede. Several issues complicate our rosy picture. A key unresolved concern is that impact velocities in the Pluto system are only a few km/s, in the low end of the hypervelocity range. Numerical models imply possible differences during excavation, producing deeper simple craters than on the icy satellites. Impacts occurring at velocities well below the mean (topographic data sets is unclear. Any viscous relaxation (driven by internal or modest tidal heating) or mass wasting erosion (by volatile redistribution) will also work to reduce crater depths on Pluto in different ways, but cratering onto the likely

  12. On Mercury's past rotation, in light of its large craters (United States)

    Knibbe, Jurriën Sebastiaan; van Westrenen, Wim


    We have simulated in-orbit variations of the impact flux and spatial distributions of >100 km diameter (D) crater production for Mercury in its current 3:2 and hypothetical 2:1 and 1:1 spin-orbit resonances. Results show that impact fluxes and D > 100 km cratering are non-uniform for these rotational states when Mercury's orbit is significantly eccentric. Variations in the impact flux and D > 100 km cratering depend on the orbital elements of Mercury and its impactors. The observed spatial distribution of large Mercurian craters is difficult to generate by cratering in Mercury's current 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, but can be produced by cratering in a former 1:1 (as previously proposed by Wieczorek et al., 2012) or 2:1 spin-orbit resonance. We have calculated capture probabilities at spin-orbit resonances for a rigid Mercury. If Mercury's initial rotation was prograde, we find that a higher order spin-orbit resonance is the most likely first capture for feasible (low) values of Mercury's past triaxiality. In light of Mercury's crater record, we examined the possibility that impacts have initiated transitions in past spin-orbit resonances. Although the number of craters whose generating impact would have destabilized a spin-orbit resonance is sensitive to the crater scaling procedure, any initial rotational state of Mercury has likely been destabilized by impacts. An initial and permanent 3:2 spin-orbit resonance capture seems untenable. Mercury's tidal torque decelerates Mercury's rotation for the most likely range of Mercury's orbital eccentricity. Only one or two craters are candidate relics of an impact-event that facilitates an instantaneous transition from a former synchronous rotation to the 3:2 spin-orbit resonance, and only for a small crater scaling factor. We propose a rotational evolution trajectory for Mercury with visits to spin-orbit resonances of decreasing order including a substantial period in the 2:1 spin-orbit resonance, which can account for the

  13. Morphometry and Morphology of Fresh Craters on Titan (United States)

    Kirk, R. L.; Wood, C. A.; Neish, C.; Lucas, A.; Hayes, A. G.; Cassini Radar Team


    Cassini RADAR imagery obtained on Titan flyby T77 revealed a 40-km diameter fresh impact crater at 11.6° N 44.6° W. This is only the 8th crater identified with high confidence (Wood et al., 2010, Icarus 206, 334), and the 3rd (after Sinlap D=79 km and Ksa D=30 km) for which the depth can be estimated by comparing the foreshortening of the near and far walls. This "autostereo" technique yields an estimated depth of 680 m. The T77 image forms a stereo pair with the T17 discovery image of Ksa from which we estimate the depth of Ksa at 750-800 m, in close agreement with SARTopo data. The depth of Sinlap is 760 m based on SARTopo. Depth-diameter ratios for these craters thus range from 0.01 to 0.025 and the depths are comparable to but 200-400 m shallower than fresh craters of the same size on Ganymede (Bray et al., 2008, Met. Planet Sci. 43, 1979). The depth differences could be explained by initial crater morphometry, by relaxation in a different thermal environment, or (perhaps most plausibly given the bland floors of even the freshest Titan craters) to sedimentary infill. In contrast, the 18x36 km elliptical depression at Sotra Facula is much deeper than Ganymede craters of similar size (d=1500 m from stereo), supporting the conclusion that it is not an impact crater. All three craters exhibit a relatively radar-bright annulus around the outer edge of the floor, possibly as the result of mass wasting of blocky materials from the crater walls. The central part of each crater is darker. The central darker floor of the new crater is symmetrical and featureless, whereas Ksa has a bright central ring 7 km in diameter. Stereo spot heights indicate the ring is 350±100 m above the outer floor. This height is in close agreement with the scaling for Ganymede crater central peaks from Bray et al. (2008). The darker floor area of Sinlap is substantially asymmetrical with a small bright central spot whose elevation is unknown. The new crater has continuous, radar

  14. Formation of complex impact craters - Evidence from Mars and other planets (United States)

    Pike, R. J.


    An analysis of the depth vs diameter data of Arthur (1980), is given along with geomorphic data for 73 Martian craters. The implications for the formation of complex impact craters on solid planets is discussed. The analysis integrates detailed morphological observations on planetary craters with geologic data from terrestrial meteorite and explosion craters. The simple to complex transition for impact craters on Mars appears at diameters in the range of 3 to 8 km. Five features appear sequentially with increasing crater size, flat floors, central peaks and shallower depths, scalloped rims, and terraced walls. This order suggests that a shallow depth of excavation and a rebound mechanism have produced the central peaks, not centripetal collapse and deep sliding. Simple craters are relatively uniform in shape from planet to planet, but complex craters vary considerably. Both the average onset diameter for complex impact craters on Mars and the average depth of complex craters vary inversely with gravitational acceleration on four planets.

  15. Craters and basins on Ganymede and Callisto - Morphological indicators of crustal evolution (United States)

    Passey, Q. R.; Shoemaker, E. M.

    The morphologic characteristics of craters and palimpsests on Ganymede and Callisto are surveyed, and the crustal properties of these satellites and the evolution of the properties are studied. The morphology of bowl-shaped craters, smooth-floored craters, craters without central peaks, craters with central pits, chain craters on Callisto, the Gilgamesh and Western Equatorial Basins on Ganymede, crater palimpsests and penepalimpsests, multiring structures on Callisto, and the Galileo Regio rimmed furrow system on Ganymede are described individually. The crustal evolution is addressed by examining the development of the Galileo Regio system, the distribution of crater retention ages, the record of ray clusters, the thermal history of the lithosphere of Ganymede, and the origin of the central pits. It is suggested that as the lithosphere of each satellite cooled and thickened, crater retentivity spread as a wave from the polar regions and the antapex toward the apex; at any given location, progressively larger craters were retained with the passage of time.

  16. The fractured Moon: Production and saturation of porosity in the lunar highlands from impact cratering (United States)

    Soderblom, Jason M.; Evans, Alexander J.; Johnson, Brandon C.; Melosh, H. Jay; Miljković, Katarina; Phillips, Roger J.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Bierson, Carver J.; Head, James W.; Milbury, Colleen; Neumann, Gregory A.; Nimmo, Francis; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Sori, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.


    We have analyzed the Bouguer anomaly (BA) of ~1200 complex craters in the lunar highlands from Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory observations. The BA of these craters is generally negative, though positive BA values are observed, particularly for smaller craters. Crater BA values scale inversely with crater diameter, quantifying how larger impacts produce more extensive fracturing and dilatant bulking. The Bouguer anomaly of craters larger than 93-19+47 km in diameter is independent of crater size, indicating that there is a limiting depth to impact-generated porosity, presumably from pore collapse associated with either overburden pressure or viscous flow. Impact-generated porosity of the bulk lunar crust is likely in a state of equilibrium for craters smaller than ~30 km in diameter, consistent with an ~8 km thick lunar megaregolith, whereas the gravity signature of larger craters is still preserved and provides new insight into the cratering record of even the oldest lunar surfaces.

  17. Modelling the surface deposition of meteoric smoke particles (United States)

    Brooke, James S. A.; Feng, Wuhu; Mann, Graham W.; Dhomse, Sandip S.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Plane, John M. C.


    The flux of meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) in Greenland and Antarctica has been measured using Ir and Pt observations in ice cores, by Gabrielli et al. [1,2]. They obtained MSP deposition fluxes of 1.5 ± 0.45 × 10-4 g m-2 yr-1 (209 ± 63 t d-1) in Greenland and 3.9 ± 1.4 × 10-5 g m-2 yr-1 (55 ± 19 t d-1) in Antarctica, where the values in parentheses are total atmospheric inputs, assuming a uniform global deposition rate. These results show reasonable agreement with those of Lanci et al. [3], who used ice core magnetisation measurements, resulting in MSP fluxes of 1.7 ± 0.23 × 10-4 g m-2 yr-1 (236 ± 50 t d-1) (Greenland) and 2.0 ± 0.52 × 10-5 g m-2 yr-1 (29 ± 5.0 t d-1) (Antarctica). Atmospheric modelling studies have been performed to assess the transport and deposition of MSPs, using WACCM (Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model), and the CARMA (Community Aerosol and Radiation Model) aerosol microphysics package. An MSP input function totalling 44 t d-1 was added between about 80 and 105 km. Several model runs have been performed in which the aerosol scavenging by precipitation was varied. Wet deposition is expected (and calculated here) to be the main deposition process; however, rain and snow aerosol scavenging coefficients have uncertainties spanning up to two and three orders of magnitude, respectively [4]. The model experiments that we have carried out include simple adjustments of the scavenging coefficients, full inclusion of a parametrisation reported by Wang et al. [4], and a scheme based on aerosol removal where relative humidity > 100 %. The MSP fluxes obtained vary between 1.4 × 10-5 and 2.6 × 10-5 g m-2 yr-1 for Greenland, and 5.1 × 10-6 and 1.7 × 10-5 g m-2 yr-1 for Antarctica. These values are about an order of magnitude lower than the Greenland observations, but show reasonable agreement for Antarctica. The UM (Unified Model), UKCA (United Kingdom Chemistry and Aerosols Model), and GLOMAP (GLObal Model of Aerosol Processes) have

  18. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements (United States)

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  19. New additional material of meteor showers during 9th -19th centuries in the Islamic history

    CERN Document Server

    Basurah, Hassan M


    This article presents twelve records of meteor showers in Arabic chronicles covering period from the 9th to the 19th century. The observations were in Egypt, Morocco, Syria and Yemen. These new addition historical records are considered to be important events which indicate a serious current interest in astronomy.

  20. An analysis of the physical, chemical, optical, and historical impacts of the 1908 Tunguska meteor fall (United States)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Park, C.; Whitten, R. C.; Pollack, J. B.; Noerdlinger, P.


    An analysis is presented of the physical characteristics and photochemical aftereffects of the 1908 Tunguska explosive cometary meteor, whose physical manifestations are consistent with a five million ton object's entry into the earth's atmosphere at 40 km/sec. Aerodynamic calculations indicate that the shock waves emanating from the falling meteor could have generated up to 30 million tons of nitric oxide in the stratosphere and mesosphere. A fully interactive one-dimensional chemical-kinetics model of atmospheric trace constituents is used to estimate the photochemical consequences of such a large NO injection. The 35-45% hemispherical ozone depletion predicted by the model is in keeping with the 30 + or - 15% ozone variation reported for the first year after the Tunguska fall. Attention is also given to the optical anomalies which followed the event for indications of NO(x)-O(x) chemiluminescent emissions, NO2 solar absorption, and meteoric dust turbidity, along with possible climate changes due to the nearly one million tons of pulverized dust deposited in the mesosphere and stratosphere by the meteor.

  1. Fragmentation of specular overdense meteor trail echoes observed with Gadanki MST radar (United States)

    Chenna Reddy, K.; Yellaiah, G.


    The pulse-integrated signal to noise ratio as a function of time known as radar meteor light curve (analogous to optical light curve), is an indicative of ablation processes during meteoroid flight in the atmosphere. In this study, we present and discuss few examples of light curves of long duration specular overdense meteor echoes detected with 53 MHz Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) MST radar. These echoes are of several seconds duration, where pulsation in amplitude is about ten cycles within few seconds. This means the fluctuations in amplitude are much slower than typical Fresnel oscillations of underdense as well as the head echo fluctuations. These light curves reveal several features unreported previously in the radar meteor returns that are consistent with meteoroid fragmentation. Some of them provide the strong observational evidence of a sub-millimeter-sized meteoroid, breaking apart into two distinct fragments. The pulsations in light curves are interpreted as being due to interference from two distinct scattering centers. Some other meteor events such as meteoroids undergoing quasi-continuous disintegration are also discussed.

  2. MU head echo observations of the 2010 Geminids: radiant, orbit, and meteor flux observing biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kero


    Full Text Available We report Geminid meteor head echo observations with the high-power large-aperture (HPLA Shigaraki middle and upper atmosphere (MU radar in Japan (34.85° N, 136.10° E. The MU radar observation campaign was conducted from 13 December 2010, 08:00 UTC to 15 December, 20:00 UTC and resulted in 48 h of radar data. A total of ~ 270 Geminids were observed among ~ 8800 meteor head echoes with precisely determined orbits. The Geminid head echo activity is consistent with an earlier peak than the visual Geminid activity determined by the International Meteor Organization (IMO. The observed flux of Geminids is a factor of ~ 3 lower than the previously reported flux of the 2009 Orionids measured with an identical MU~radar setup. We use the observed flux ratio to discuss the relation between the head echo mass–velocity selection effect, the mass distribution indices of meteor showers and the mass threshold of the MU radar.

  3. Meteor reporting made easy- The Fireballs in the Sky smartphone app (United States)

    Sansom, E.; Ridgewell, J.; Bland, P.; Paxman, J.


    Using smartphone technology, the award-winning 'Fireballs in the Sky' app provides a new approach to public meteor reporting. Using the internal GPS and sensors of a smartphone, a user can record the start and end position of a meteor sighting with a background star field as reference. Animations are used to visualize the duration and characteristics of the meteor. The intuitive application can be used in situ, providing a more accurate eye witness account than after-the-fact reports (although reports may also be made through a website interface). Since its launch in 2013, the app has received over 2000 submissions, including 73 events which were reported by multiple users. The app database is linked to the Desert Fireball Network in Australia (DFN), meaning app reports can be confirmed by DFN observatories. Supporting features include an integrated meteor shower tool that provides updates on active showers, their visibility based on moon phase, as well as a tool to point the user toward the radiant. The locations of reports are also now shown on a live map on the Fireballs in the Sky webpage.

  4. Effects of probiotics on the faecal production of hydrogen and methane in patients with meteorism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Julie Bernstorf; Jespersen, Lene; Westermann, Peter;

    Meteorism is a dominating problem in the western world, especially in women. The condition is very difficult to quantify, and effective and documented therapies are not avaiable. We wanted to develop a method for measuring anaerobic production of hydrogen and methane in faeces, and to correlate t...

  5. Bullialdus Crater: Correlations Between KREEP and Local Mineralogy (United States)

    Klima, R. L.; Lawrence, D.; Cahill, J. T. S.; Hagerty, J.


    We explore the pyroxenes in and around Bullialdus Crater, examining relationships between lithology, thorium content, and hydroxylated material to help constrain about the source region and character of KREEP on the lunar nearside.

  6. Mossbauer studies on impactites from Lonar impact crater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Verma, H.C.; Misra, S.; ShyamPrasad, M.; Bijlani, N.; Tripathi, A.; Newsom, H.

    Iron mineralogy has been studied using Mossbauer spectroscopy on eight glassy impactite samples from different parts of the Lonar Crater Rim Region. Distinct changes are observed when compared to the host basaltic samples. Significant amount of Fe...

  7. Degradation sequence of young lunar craters from orbital infrared survey (United States)

    Wieczorek, M. A.; Mendell, W. W.


    Using new software, nighttime thermal maps of the lunar surface have been generated from data obtained by the Apollo 17 Infrared Scanning Radiometer (ISR) in lunar orbit. Most of the thermal anomalies observed in the maps correspond to fresh lunar craters because blocks on the lunar surface maintain a thermal contrast relative to surrounding soil during the lunar night. Craters of Erastosthenian age and older - relatively young by lunar standards - have developed soil covers that make them almost indistinguishable from their surroundings in the thermal data. Thermal images of Copernican age craters show various stages of a degradation process, allowing the craters to be ranked by age. The ISR data should yield insights into lunar surface evolution as well as a more detailed understanding of the bombardment history after formation of the great mare basins.

  8. Radar glory from buried craters on icy moons (United States)

    Eshleman, Von R.


    Three ice-covered moons of Jupiter, in comparison with rocky planets and earth's moon, produce radar echoes of astounding strengths and bizarre polarizations. Scattering from buried craters can explain these and other anomalous properties of the echoes. The role of such craters is analogous to that of the water droplets that create the apparition known as 'the glory', the optically bright region surrounding an observer's shadow on a cloud. Both situations involve the electromagnetic phenomenon of total internal reflection at a dielectric interface, operating in a geometry that strongly favors exact backscattering. Dim surface craters are transformed into bright glory holes by being buried under somewhat denser material, thereby increasing the intensity of their echoes by factors of hundreds. The dielectric interface thus formed at the crater walls nicely accounts for the unusual polarizations of the echoes.

  9. Impact Metamorphism of Sandstones at Amguid Crater, Algeria (United States)

    Sahoui, R.; Belhai, D.


    Amguid is a 450 m diameter sample crater; it is emplaced in Lower Devonian sandstones.We have carried out a petrographic study in order to investigate shock effects recorded in these sandstones and define shock stages in Amguid.

  10. Observations of meteor-head echoes using the Jicamarca 50MHz radar in interferometer mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Chau


    Full Text Available We present results of recent observations of meteor-head echoes obtained with the high-power large-aperture Jicamarca 50MHz radar (11.95°S, 76.87°W in an interferometric mode. The large power-aperture of the system allows us to record more than 3000 meteors per hour in the small volume subtended by the 1° antenna beam, albeit when the cluttering equatorial electrojet (EEJ echoes are not present or are very weak. The interferometry arrangement allows the determination of the radiant (trajectory and speed of each meteor. It is found that the radiant distribution of all detected meteors is concentrated in relative small angles centered around the Earth's Apex as it transits over the Jicamarca sky, i.e. around the corresponding Earth heading for the particular observational day and time, for all seasons observed so far. The dispersion around the Apex is ~18° in a direction transverse to the Ecliptic plane and only 8.5° in heliocentric longitude in the Ecliptic plane both in the Earth inertial frame of reference. No appreciable interannual variability has been observed. Moreover, no population related to the optical (larger meteors Leonid showers of 1998-2002 is found, in agreement with other large power-aperture radar observations. A novel cross-correlation detection technique (adaptive match-filtering is used in combination with a 13 baud Barker phase-code. The technique allows us to get good range resolution (0.75km without any sensitivity deterioration for the same average power, compared to the non-coded long pulse scheme used at other radars. The matching Doppler shift provides an estimation of the velocity within a pulse with the same accuracy as if a non-coded pulse of the same length had been used. The velocity distribution of the meteors is relatively narrow and centered around 60kms-1. Therefore most of the meteors have an almost circular retrograde orbit around the Sun. Less than 8% of the velocities correspond to interstellar orbits

  11. Determination of Parameters of Meteor Bodies from Observational Data with High Accuracy of Estimate (United States)

    Gritsevich, Maria

    A great volume of data has been accumulated thus far related to the photoregistration of the paths of meteor bodies in the terrestrial atmosphere. Most images have been obtained by four fireball networks, which operate in the USA, Canada, Europe, and Spain in different time periods. The approximation of the actual data using theoretical models makes it possible to achieve additional estimates, which do not directly follow from the observations. For example, the correct mathematical modeling of meteor events in the atmosphere is necessary for further estimates of the key parameters, including the extra-atmospheric mass, the ablation coefficient, and the effective enthalpy of evaporation of entering bodies. In turn, this information is needed by some applications, namely, those aimed at studying the problems of asteroid and comet security, to develop measures of planetary defense, and to determine the bodies that can reach Earth's surface. In the report, the mathematical technique to find basic dynamic parameters of the theoretical relationship between the height and the velocity of the meteor body motion that help to fit observations along the luminous part of the trajectories in the best way is suggested. The main difference from previous studies is that the given observations are approximated using the analytical solution of the equations of meteor physics. Note that, for the limited values of the mass loss parameter, analytical solution is usually replaced by the simpler expression (e.g., Stulov et al., 1995). In particular, this approximate solution was earlier used as a trial function during the implementation of the least-squares method. New model presented in the report was applied to a number of bright meteors observed by the Canadian camera network and by the US Prairie network. Results of such calculation are partly presented. During our data processing we discovered several sufficiently thermostable meteor bodies whose mass loss parameters were almost

  12. Morphology of Lonar Crater, India: Comparisons and implications (United States)

    Fudali, R.F.; Milton, D.J.; Fredriksson, K.; Dube, A.


    Lonar Crater is a young meteorite impact crater emplaced in Deccan basalt. Data from 5 drillholes, a gravity network, and field mapping are used to reconstruct its original dimensions, delineate the nature of the pre-impact target rocks, and interpret the emplacement mode of the ejecta. Our estimates of the pre-erosion dimensions are: average diameter of 1710 m; average rim height of 40 m (30-35 m of rim rock uplift, 5-10 m of ejected debris); depth of 230-245 m (from rim crest to crater floor). The crater's circularity index is 0.9 and is unlikely to have been lower in the past. There are minor irregularities in the original crater floor (present sediment-breccia boundary) possibly due to incipient rebound effects. A continuous ejecta blanket extends an average of 1410 m beyond the pre-erosion rim crest. In general, 'fresh' terrestrial craters, less than 10 km in diameter, have smaller depth/diameter and larger rim height/diameter ratios than their lunar counterparts. Both ratios are intermediate for Mercurian craters, suggesting that crater shape is gravity dependent, all else being equal. Lonar demonstrates that all else is not always equal. Its depth/diameter ratio is normal but, because of less rim rock uplift, its rim height/diameter ratio is much smaller than both 'fresh' terrestrial and lunar impact craters. The target rock column at Lonar consists of one or more layers of weathered, soft basalt capped by fresh, dense flows. Plastic deformation and/or compaction of this lower, incompetent material probably absorbed much of the energy normally available in the cratering process for rim rock uplift. A variety of features within the ejecta blanket and the immediately underlying substrate, plus the broad extent of the blanket boundaries, suggest that a fluidized debris surge was the dominant mechanism of ejecta transportation and deposition at Lonar. In these aspects, Lonar should be a good analog for the 'fluidized craters' of Mars. ?? 1980 D. Reidel

  13. Melt water-driven gully formation in Moni Crater, Mars (United States)

    Glines, N. H.; Gulick, V. C.; Freeman, P. M.


    The southern mid-latitude 5-km diameter Moni Crater (47S, 18.5E) in Noachis Terra is typical of many small craters of this latitude, containing both gullies on its walls and arcuate ridges on its floor. Interpreted by Howard (2003) and others as remnant terminal moraines, these ridges are located at the distal margins of the gullies' debris aprons, suggesting a possible association in their formation. Our results suggest that these arcuate ridges might result from the downslope movement of ice-rich deposits that pushed pre-existing ice-rich crater floor deposits into a moraine-like ridge. The pre-existing floor deposits can be interpreted to be a form of sublimated Concentric Crater Fill (CCF), which would have been among the first ice deposits to erode the Moni Crater walls. If we assume the arcuate ridges to be glacial moraines, then we can also assume the same processes that elevated the ridges also provided melt water to form the gullies. There is evidence that water and ice deposit-related processes incised the gully headwalls, exposing bedrock, plucking boulders, and initiating fractures, through ice-wedging or surface abrasion. HiRISE images (~25cm/pixel) show shallow gullies extending several tens of meters beyond the crater rim, exploiting possible fractures or lineation in the rock. Melt water from these ice deposits, or snow melt, is a potential gully formation mechanism that would be consistent with the shallow runoff-like drainage morphology extending above the gully alcoves and beyond the crater rim. An initial phase of rapid melt water flows would also explain the wider degraded remnant channels we see on the crater slopes. The more gradual melting of ice frozen around headwall rocks could explain a secondary phase of melt water flows that form the more-recent channels.

  14. Ceres' internal structure as inferred from its large craters (United States)

    Marchi, Simone; Raymond, Carol; Fu, Roger; Ermakov, Anton I.; O'Brien, David P.; De Sanctis, Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Russell, Christopher T.


    The Dawn spacecraft has gathered important data about the surface composition, internal structure, and geomorphology of Ceres, revealing a cratered landscape. Digital terrain models and global mosaics have been used to derive a global catalog of impact craters larger than 10 km in diameter. A surface dichotomy appears evident: a large fraction of the northern hemisphere is heavily cratered as the result of several billion of years of collisions, while portions of the equatorial region and southern hemisphere are much less cratered. The latter are associated with the presence of the two largest (~270-280 km) impact craters, Kerwan and Yalode. The global crater count shows a severe depletion for diameters larger than 100-150 km with respect to collisional models and other large asteroids, like Vesta. This is a strong indication that a significant population of large cerean craters has been obliterated over geological time-scales. This observation is supported by the overall topographic power spectrum of Ceres, which shows that long wavelengths in topography are suppressed (that is, flatter surface) compared to short wavelengths.Viscous relaxation of topography may be a natural culprit for the observed paucity of large craters. Relaxation accommodated by the creep of water ice is expected to result in much more rapid and complete decay of topography than inferred. In contrast, we favor a strong crust composed of a mixture of silicates and salt species (depression, known as Vendimia Planitia. The overall topography of Vendimia Planitia is compatible with a partially relaxed mega impact structure. The presence of such a large scale depression bears implications for the rheology of the deeper interior, potentially implying a transition to higher viscosity/higher density materials at a depth of ~200 km. This is compatible with the presence of a central mass concentration, as inferred from gravity measurements.

  15. Impact crater formation: a simple application of solid state physics


    Celebonovic, V.; Souchay, J.


    This contribution is a first step aiming to address a general question: what can be concluded on impact craters which exist on various planetary system objects, by combining astronomical data and known theoretical results from solid state physics. Assuming that the material of the target body is of crystaline structure,it is shown that a simple calculation gives the possibility of estimating the speed of the impactor responsible for the creation of a crater.A test value,calculated using obser...

  16. Tracing hillslope sediment production and transport with in situ and meteoric 10Be (United States)

    Jungers, Matthew C.; Bierman, Paul R.; Matmon, Ari; Nichols, Kyle; Larsen, Jennifer; Finkel, Robert


    We use in situ-produced and meteoric 10Be, analyzed in soils from 28 pits on four hillcrest-parallel transects along a 14° hillslope in the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina, as tracers of soil production and transport. We rely upon amalgamation both to investigate and smooth spatial variability in 10Be concentrations. Lidar indicates that the hillslope is topographically complex and that soil is moved downslope diffusively until it encounters the ephemeral channel network and is rapidly exported. In situ-produced 10Be, measured in depth profiles, indicates that over millennial timescales, soils are mixed above the soil-saprolite boundary. In contrast, meteoric 10Be concentrations increase with depth and are correlated to concurrent increases of dithionite-extractable Al and pH, observations explained by similar Al and Be mobility in the soil. The concentrations of both meteoric and in situ-produced 10Be increase downslope proportional to the maximum soil particle path length. The data suggest virtual downslope soil velocities of 1.1-1.7 cm yr-1 in a well-mixed active transport layer ˜60 cm thick. The thickness of this transport layer is constant downslope and depends on the rooting depth and consequent root wad thickness of downed trees on the slope, both of which reflect depth to the soil/saprolite boundary. Both meteoric and in situ-produced 10Be suggest that soil production is balanced by surface denudation at rates between 10 and 13 m Myr-1. Soil residence times on the slope range from 21 to 33 kyr based on the meteoric 10Be inventories. Major element geochemical analysis suggests little if any elemental loss during soil transport downslope.

  17. Meteor head echo polarization at 930 MHz studied with the EISCAT UHF HPLA radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Wannberg


    Full Text Available The polarization characteristics of 930-MHz meteor head echoes have been studied for the first time, using data obtained in a series of radar measurements carried out with the tristatic EISCAT UHF high power, large aperture (HPLA radar system in October 2009. An analysis of 44 tri-static head echo events shows that the polarization of the echo signal recorded by the Kiruna receiver often fluctuates strongly on time scales of tens of microseconds, illustrating that the scattering process is essentially stochastic. On longer timescales (> milliseconds, more than 90 % of the recorded events show an average polarization signature that is independent of meteor direction of arrival and echo strength and equal to that of an incoherent-scatter return from underdense plasma filling the tristatic observation volume. This shows that the head echo plasma targets scatter isotropically, which in turn implies that they are much smaller than the 33-cm wavelength and close to spherically symmetric, in very good agreement with results from a previous EISCAT UHF study of the head echo RCS/meteor angle-of-incidence relationship.

    Significant polarization is present in only three events with unique target trajectories. These all show a larger effective target cross section transverse to the trajectory than parallel to it. We propose that the observed polarization may be a signature of a transverse charge separation plasma resonance in the region immediately behind the meteor head, similar to the resonance effects previously discussed in connection with meteor trail echoes by Herlofson, Billam and Browne, Jones and Jones and others.

  18. Impact cratering as a major process in planet formation: Projectile identification of meteorite craters (United States)

    Schmidt, G.; Kratz, K.


    Ancient surfaces of solid planets show that impact cratering is a major process in planet formation. Understanding origin and influence of impactors on the chemical composition of planets (core, mantle and crust) it is important to know the relative abundances of highly siderophile elements (Os, Ir, Ru, Pt, Rh, Pd) in the silicate mantle and crust of planets and meteorites. Refractory highly siderophile elements, such as Os and Ir, are abundant in most meteorites but depleted in crustal rocks (low target/meteorite ratios) and thus the most reliable elements for projectile identification. However, target/meteorite ratios are high if target rocks consist of mantle rocks. In such cases elements are enriched in impactites due to relatively high abundances (ng/g level) in target rocks to make the identification of projectile types difficult (e.g., Gardnos impact structure in Norway). The Ru/Ir ratio is the most reliable key ratio that rules out Earth primitive upper mantle (PUM) derived refractory highly siderophile element components in impactites. The well established Ru/Ir ratio of the Earth mantle of 2.0 ± 0.1 (e.g. Schmidt and Kratz 2004) is significantly above the chondritic ratios varying from 1.4 to 1.6. On Earth Rh/Ir, Ru/Ir, Pd/Ir, and Pt/Os derived from PUM match the ratios of group IV irons with fractionated trace element patterns. The question raise if HSE in mantle rocks are added to the accreting Earth by a late bombardment of pre-differentiated objects or the cores of these objects (magmatic iron meteorites as remnants of the first planetesimals, e.g. Kleine et al. 2009) or some unsampled inner solar system materials from the Mercury-Venus formation region, not sampled through meteorite collections (Schmidt 2009). The PGE and Ni systematics of the upper continental crust (UCC) closely resembles group IIIAB iron meteorites with highly fractionated refractory trace element patterns, pallasites, and the evolved suite of Martian meteorites (representing

  19. Projectile remnants in central peaks of lunar impact craters (United States)

    Yue, Z.; Johnson, B. C.; Minton, D. A.; Melosh, H. J.; di, K.; Hu, W.; Liu, Y.


    The projectiles responsible for the formation of large impact craters are often assumed to melt or vaporize during the impact, so that only geochemical traces or small fragments remain in the final crater. In high-speed oblique impacts, some projectile material may survive, but this material is scattered far down-range from the impact site. Unusual minerals, such as magnesium-rich spinel and olivine, observed in the central peaks of many lunar craters are therefore attributed to the excavation of layers below the lunar surface. Yet these minerals are abundant in many asteroids, meteorites and chondrules. Here we use a numerical model to simulate the formation of impact craters and to trace the fate of the projectile material. We find that for vertical impact velocities below about 12kms-1, the projectile may both survive the impact and be swept back into the central peak of the final crater as it collapses, although it would be fragmented and strongly deformed. We conclude that some unusual minerals observed in the central peaks of many lunar impact craters could be exogenic in origin and may not be indigenous to the Moon.

  20. Surficial geology of the Chicxulub impact crater, Yucatan, Mexico (United States)

    Pope, Kevin O.; Ocampo, Adriana C.; Duller, Charles E.


    The Chicxulub impact crater in northwestern Yucatan, Mexico is the primary candidate for the proposed impact that caused mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period. The crater is buried by up to a kilometer of Tertiary sediment and the most prominent surface expression is a ring of sink holes, known locally as cenotes, mapped with Landsat imagery. This 165 +/- 5 km diameter Cenote Ring demarcates a boundary between unfractured limestones inside the ring, and fractured limestones outside. The boundary forms a barrier to lateral ground water migration, resulting in increased flows, dissolution, and collapse thus forming the cenotes. The subsurface geology indicates that the fracturing that created the Cenote Ring is related to slumping in the rim of the buried crater, differential thicknesses in the rocks overlying the crater, or solution collapse within porous impact deposits. The Cenote Ring provides the most accurate position of the Chicxulub crater's center, and the associated faults, fractures, and stratigraphy indicate that the crater may be approximately 240 km in diameter.

  1. 100 New Impact Crater Sites Found on Mars (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Malin, M. C.


    Recent observations constrain the formation of 100 new impact sites on Mars over the past decade; 19 of these were found using the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and the other 81 have been identified since 2006 using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX). Every 6 meter/pixel CTX image is examined upon receipt and, where they overlap images of 0.3-240 m/pixel scale acquired by the same or other Mars-orbiting spacecraft, we look for features that may have changed. New impact sites are initially identified by the presence of a new dark spot or cluster of dark spots in a CTX image. Such spots may be new impact craters, or result from the effect of impact blasts on the dusty surface. In some (generally rare) cases, the crater is sufficiently large to be resolved in the CTX image. In most cases, however, the crater(s) cannot be seen. These are tentatively designated as “candidate” new impact sites, and the CTX team then creates an opportunity for the MRO spacecraft to point its cameras off-nadir and requests that the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team obtain an image of ~0.3 m/pixel to confirm whether a crater or crater cluster is present. It is clear even from cursory examination that the CTX observations are areographically biased to dusty, higher albedo areas on Mars. All but 3 of the 100 new impact sites occur on surfaces with Lambert albedo values in excess of 23.5%. Our initial study of MOC images greatly benefited from the initial global observations made in one month in 1999, creating a baseline date from which we could start counting new craters. The global coverage by MRO Mars Color Imager is more than a factor of 4 poorer in resolution than the MOC Wide Angle camera and does not offer the opportunity for global analysis. Instead, we must rely on partial global coverage and global coverage that has taken years to accumulate; thus we can only treat impact rates statistically. We subdivide the total data

  2. Lunar cold spots and crater production on the Moon (United States)

    Williams, Jean-Pierre; Bandfield, Joshua


    A new class of small, fresh impact craters has been recently identified on the Moon through the systematic mapping of lunar surface temperatures by the Diviner Lunar Radiometer instrument aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter [1]. These craters are distinguished by anomalously low nighttime temperatures at distances ~10–100 crater radii. This thermal behavior indicates that impacts modify the surrounding regolith surfaces making them highly insulating with little evidence for either significant deposition or erosion of surface material [2]. These thermophysically distinct surfaces, or "cold spots", appear to be common to all recent impacts and provide a means of uniquely identifying the most recent impact craters on the Moon. We have conducted a survey of the crater population associated with cold spots. Comparison with existing crater chronology models [e.g., 3] constrains the retention-age of the cold spots to ~200,000 yr with a size-frequency distribution (SFD) slope that is consistent with the modeled production function. This implies the rate at which cold spots fade to background levels is independent of initial cold spot size and that the SFD of crater production in the last 200 ka is similar to the long-term average used to establish modeled production functions, though the rate of cratering may have varied [4]. In addition, we observe a longitudinal heterogeneity in cold spot crater density that is consistent with that predicted to occur as a result of the Moon's synchronous rotation [5] and has been observed in the rayed crater population [6], with the cold spot density at the apex of motion (90°W) nearly twice that observed at the antapex (90°E).[1] Bandfield, J., et al. (2011) JGR 116, E00H02. [2] Bandfield, J., et al. (2014) Icarus, 231, 221-231. [3] Neukum, G., et al. (2001) SSR 96, 55–86. [4] Mazrouei, S. et al. (2015) LPSC 46, 2331. [5] Le Fleuvre, M., and Wieczorek, M. A. (2011) Icarus 214, 1-20. [6] Morota, T. and Furumoto, M. (2002) EPSL

  3. Craters on Earth, Moon, and Mars - Multivariate classification and mode of origin (United States)

    Pike, R. J.


    Testing extraterrestrial craters and candidate terrestrial analogs for morphologic similitude is treated as a problem in numerical taxonomy. According to a principal-components solution and a cluster analysis, 402 representative craters on the Earth, the Moon, and Mars divide into two major classes of contrasting shapes and modes of origin. Craters of net accumulation of material (cratered lunar domes, Martian calderas, and all terrestrial volcanoes except maars and tuff rings) group apart from craters of excavation (terrestrial meteorite impact and experimental explosion craters, typical Martian craters, and all other lunar craters). Maars and tuff rings belong to neither group but are transitional. The classification criteria are four independent attributes of topographic geometry derived from seven descriptive variables by the principal-components transformation. Morphometric differences between crater bowl and raised rim constitute the strongest of the four components.

  4. An Olivine-Rich Crater in Tyrrhena Terra (United States)


    This image of the ejecta of a crater in the Tyrrhena Terra region was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0328 UTC on February 23, 2007 (10:28 p.m. EST on February 22, 2007), near 13 degrees south latitude, 67 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 18 meters (60 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 9 kilometers (5.6 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Named for a classic albedo feature, Tyrrhena Terra is an extensive, heavily-cratered part of Mars' southern highlands, some 2,300 kilometers (1,430 miles) at its broadest extent. It is located to the northeast of the Hellas basin. The region imaged by CRISM is to the north of Hellas Planitia and just east of the crater Huygens in Tyrrhena Terra's western end. The uppermost image in the montage above reveals the location of the CRISM image on a mosaic taken by the Mars Odyssey spacecraft's Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). The CRISM image is located inside a large, flat-floored crater measuring about 52 kilometers (32 miles) across. The image includes a small crater and its ejecta blanket, an apron of material thrown out during a crater's formation, both located inside the larger crater. The lower left image is an infrared false-color image that reveals the extent of the ejecta blanket. It also includes ejecta from another small crater located just east of the CRISM image. The lower right image shows the strengths of mineral absorptions, and reveals the composition of the ejecta and surrounding material. The ejecta surrounding the small impact crater is thickest at the crater's rim, and becomes thinner to discontinuous at the blanket's outer edge. This small crater's ejecta blanket shows an enhanced spectral signature of the mineral olivine, as does the ejecta from the small crater just out of view to the east. In contrast the surrounding material is rich in the volcanic mineral

  5. Acid Sulfate Alteration in Gusev Crater, Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Catalano, J. G.


    The Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit landed on the Gusev Crater plains west of the Columbia Hills in January, 2004, during the Martian summer (sol 0; sol = 1 Martian day = 24 hr 40 min). Spirit explored the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater in the vicinity of Home Plate at the onset on its second winter (sol approximately 900) until the onset of its fourth winter (sol approximately 2170). At that time, Spirit became mired in a deposit of fined-grained and sulfate-rich soil with dust-covered solar panels and unfavorable pointing of the solar arrays toward the sun. Spirit has not communicated with the Earth since sol 2210 (January, 2011). Like its twin rover Opportunity, which landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridiani Planum, Spirit has an Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument for chemical analyses and a Moessbauer spectrometer (MB) for measurement of iron redox state, mineralogical speciation, and quantitative distribution among oxidation (Fe(3+)/sigma Fe) and coordination (octahedral versus tetrahedral) states and mineralogical speciation (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, ilmenite, carbonate, and sulfate). The concentration of SO3 in Gusev rocks and soils varies from approximately 1 to approximately 34 wt%. Because the APXS instrument does not detect low atomic number elements (e.g., H and C), major-element oxide concentrations are normalized to sum to 100 wt%, i.e., contributions of H2O, CO2, NO2, etc. to the bulk composition care not considered. The majority of Gusev samples have approximately 6 plus or minus 5 wt% SO3, but there is a group of samples with high SO3 concentrations (approximately 30 wt%) and high total iron concentrations (approximately 20 wt%). There is also a group with low total Fe and SO3 concentrations that is also characterized by high SiO2 concentrations (greater than 70 wt%). The trend labeled "Basaltic Soil" is interpreted as mixtures in variable proportions between unaltered igneous material and oxidized and SO3-rich basaltic

  6. Venus - Maxwell Montes and Cleopatra Crater (United States)


    This Magellan full-resolution image shows Maxwell Montes, and is centered at 65 degrees north latitude and 6 degrees east longitude. Maxwell is the highest mountain on Venus, rising almost 11 kilometers (6.8 miles) above mean planetary radius. The western slopes (on the left) are very steep, whereas the eastern slopes descend gradually into Fortuna Tessera. The broad ridges and valleys making up Maxwell and Fortuna suggest that the topography resulted from compression. Most of Maxwell Montes has a very bright radar return; such bright returns are common on Venus at high altitudes. This phenomenon is thought to result from the presence of a radar reflective mineral such as pyrite. Interestingly, the highest area on Maxwell is less bright than the surrounding slopes, suggesting that the phenomenon is limited to a particular elevation range. The pressure, temperature, and chemistry of the atmosphere vary with altitude; the material responsible for the bright return probably is only stable in a particular range of atmospheric conditions and therefore a particular elevation range. The prominent circular feature in eastern Maxwell is Cleopatra. Cleopatra is a double-ring impact basin about 100 kilometers (62 miles) in diameter and 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles) deep. A steep-walled, winding channel a few kilometers wide breaks through the rough terrain surrounding the crater rim. A large amount of lava originating in Cleopatra flowed through this channel and filled valleys in Fortuna Tessera. Cleopatra is superimposed on the structures of Maxwell Montes and appears to be undeformed, indicating that Cleopatra is relatively young.

  7. What Dominates a Craters Size, the Largest Single Explosion of the Formation Process or the Cumulative Energy of Many? Results of Multiblast Crater Evolution Experiments (United States)

    Sonder, I.; Graettinger, A. H.; Valentine, G. A.


    Craters of explosive volcanic eruptions are products of many explosions. Such craters are different than products of single events such as meteorite impacts or those produced by military testing because they typically result from multiple, rather than single, explosions. We analyzed the evolution of experimental craters that were created by several detonations of chemical explosives in layered aggregates. A method to calculate an effective explosion depth for non-flat topography (e.g. for explosions below existing craters) is derived, showing how multi-blast crater sizes differ from the single blast case. It is shown that sizes of natural caters (radii, volumes) are not characteristic of the number of explosions, and therefore not characteristic for the total acting energy, that formed a crater. Also the crater size is not simply related to the largest explosion in a sequence, but depends upon that explosion and the energy of that single blast and on the cumulative energy of all blasts that formed the crater. The two energies can be combined to form an effective number of explosions that is characteristic for the crater evolution. The multi-blast crater size evolution implies that it is not correct to estimate explosion energy of volcanic events from crater size using previously published relationships that were derived for single blast cases.

  8. Eruptive history of the Ubehebe Crater cluster, Death Valley, California (United States)

    Fierstein, Judy; Hildreth, Wes


    A sequence of late Holocene eruptions from the Ubehebe Crater cluster in Death Valley was short-lived, emplacing several phreatomagmatic and magmatic deposits. Seven craters form the main group, which erupted along a north-south alignment 1.5 km long. At least five more make a 500-m east-west alignment west of the main crater group. One more is an isolated shallow crater 400 m south of that alignment. All erupted through Miocene fanglomerate and sandstone, which are now distributed as comminuted matrix and lithic clasts in all Ubehebe deposits. Stratigraphic evidence showing that all Ubehebe strata were emplaced within a short time interval includes: (1) deposits from the many Ubehebe vents make a multi-package sequence that conformably drapes paleo-basement topography with no erosive gullying between emplacement units; (2) several crater rims that formed early in the eruptive sequence are draped smoothly by subsequent deposits; and (3) tack-welded to agglutinated spatter and bombs that erupted at various times through the sequence remained hot enough to oxidize the overlying youngest emplacement package. In addition, all deposits sufficiently consolidated to be drilled yield reliable paleomagnetic directions, with site mean directions showing no evidence of geomagnetic secular variation. Chemical analyses of juvenile components representing every eruptive package yield a narrow range in major elements [SiO2 (48.65-50.11); MgO (4.98-6.23); K2O (2.24-2.39)] and trace elements [Rb (28-33); Sr (1513-1588); Zr (373-404)]. Despite lithologic similarities, individual fall units can be traced outward from vent by recording layer thicknesses, maximum scoria and lithic sizes, and juvenile clast textural variations. This permits reconstruction of the eruptive sequence, which produced a variety of eruptive styles. The largest and northernmost of the craters, Ubehebe Crater, is the youngest of the group. Its largely phreatomagmatic deposits drape all of the others, thicken in

  9. Recognition of Terrestrial Impact Craters with COSMO-SkyMed (United States)

    Virelli, M.; Staffieri, S.; Battagliere, M. L.; Komatsu, G.; Di Martino, M.; Flamini, E.; Coletta, A.


    All bodies having a solid surface, without distinction, show, with greater or lesser evidence, the marks left by the geological processes they undergone during their evolution. There is a geomorphological feature that is evident in all the images obtained by the probes sent to explore our planetary system: impact craters.Craters formed by the impact of small cosmic bodies have dimensions ranging from some meters to hundreds of kilometers. However, for example on the Lunar regolith particles, have been observed also sub- millimeter craters caused by dust impacts. The kinetic energy of the impactor, which velocity is in general of the order of tens km/s, is released in fractions of a second, generally in a explosive way, generating complex phenomena that transform not only the morphology of the surface involved by the impact, but also the mineralogy and crystallography of the impacted material. Even our planet is not immune to these impacts. At present, more than 180 geological structures recognized as of impact origin are known on Earth.In this article, we aim to show how these impact structures on Earth's surface are observed from space. To do this, we used the images obtained by the COSMO-SkyMed satellite constellation.Starting from 2013, ASI proposed, in collaboration with the Astrophysical Observatory of Turin and University D'Annunzio of Chieti, the realization of an Encyclopedic Atlas of Terrestrial Impact Craters using COSMO-SkyMed data that will become the first atlas of all recognized terrestrial impact craters based on images acquired by a X band radar. To observe these impact craters all radar sensor modes have been used, according to the size of the analyzed crater.The project includes research of any new features that could be classified as impact craters and, for the sites whereby it is considered necessary, the implementation of a geological survey on site to validate the observations.In this paper an overview of the Atlas of Terrestrial Impact

  10. Chemical abundances of giant stars in the Crater stellar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonifacio, P; Zaggia, S; François, P; Sbordone, L; Andrievsky, S M; Korotin, S A


    We obtained spectra for two giants of Crater (Crater J113613-105227 and Crater J113615-105244) using X-Shooter at the VLT. The spectra have been analysed with the MyGIsFoS code using a grid of synthetic spectra computed from one dimensional, Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) model atmospheres. Effective temperature and surface gravity have been derived from photometry measured from images obtained by the Dark Energy Survey. The radial velocities are 144.3+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113613-105227 and and 134.1+-4.0 km/s for Crater J113615-105244. The metallicities are [Fe/H]=-1.73 and [Fe/H]=-1.67, respectively. Beside the iron abundance we could determine abundances for nine elements: Na, Mg, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni and Ba. For Na and Ba we took into account deviations from LTE, since the corrections are significant. The abundance ratios are similar in the two stars and resemble those of Galactic stars of the same metallicity. On the deep photometric images we could detect several stars that lie to the blue of t...

  11. Inferring conduit process from population studies of cinder cone craters (United States)

    Bemis, Karen G.


    One of the most observable aspects of magma conduits is of course their exit to the Earth's surface: the volcanic crater. The craters resulting from small mostly-monogenetic volcanic eruptions vary in considerable in size and shape, even after accounting for variation in size. Presumably, these variations tell us something about the state of the conduit at least in the ending stages of eruption. But what? This work explores the statistical properties of crater populations in Guatemala and elsewhere and speculates on the conduit processes that may explain the complex behavior. Crater depths are strongly correlated with cone slopes even when normalized by cone diameter, which suggests the importance of the impact of the volatile content (which may influence slope through fragmentation and the resulting grain size) and the duration of eruption (which may influence whether the cone is built to its maximum slope) despite erosion acting to reduce observed crater depths (cone slopes are known to decrease with erosion but cone diameters increase).

  12. Vapor plumes: A neglected aspect of impact cratering (United States)

    Melosh, H. J.


    When a meteorite or comet strikes the surface of the planet or satellite at typical interplanetary velocities of 10-40 km/sec, the projectile and a quantity of the target body vaporize and expand out of the growing crater at high speed. The crater continues to grow after the vapor plume has formed and the series of ejecta deposits is laid down ballistically while the crater collapses into its final morphology. Although the vapor plume leaves little evidence of its existence in the crater structure of surface deposits, it may play a major role in a number of impact-related processes. The vapor plume expanding away from the site of an impact carries 25-50 percent of the total impact energy. Although the plume's total mass is only a few times the mass of the projectile, its high specific energy content means that it is the fastest and most highly shocked material in the cratering event. The mean velocity of expansion can easily exceed the escape velocity of the target plane, so that the net effect of a sufficiently high-speed impact is to erode material from the planet.

  13. The Meteor and Fireball Network of the Sociedad Malagueña de Astronomía (United States)

    Aznar, J. C.; Castellón, A.; Gálvez, F.; Martínez, E.; Troughton, B.; Núñez, J. M.; Villalba, F.


    One of the most active fields in which has been dedicated the Málaga Astronomical Society (SMA) is the meteors and meteor showers. Since 2006 the SMA refers parts of visual observations and photographic detections from El Pinillo station (Torremolinos, Spain). In 2013 it was decided to give an extra boost to get a camera network that allowed the calculation of the atmospheric trajectory of a meteoroid and, where possible, obtaining the orbital elements.

  14. Contrasting hydrological processes of meteoric water incursion during magmatic-hydrothermal ore deposition: An oxygen isotope study by ion microprobe (United States)

    Fekete, Szandra; Weis, Philipp; Driesner, Thomas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Baumgartner, Lukas; Heinrich, Christoph A.


    Meteoric water convection has long been recognized as an efficient means to cool magmatic intrusions in the Earth's upper crust. This interplay between magmatic and hydrothermal activity thus exerts a primary control on the structure and evolution of volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming systems. Incursion of meteoric water into magmatic-hydrothermal systems has been linked to tin ore deposition in granitic plutons. In contrast, evidence from porphyry copper ore deposits suggests that crystallizing subvolcanic magma bodies are only affected by meteoric water incursion in peripheral zones and during late post-ore stages. We apply high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to analyze oxygen isotope ratios of individual growth zones in vein quartz crystals, imaged by cathodo-luminescence microscopy (SEM-CL). Existing microthermometric information from fluid inclusions enables calculation of the oxygen isotope composition of the fluid from which the quartz precipitated, constraining the relative timing of meteoric water input into these two different settings. Our results confirm that incursion of meteoric water directly contributes to cooling of shallow granitic plutons and plays a key role in concurrent tin mineralization. By contrast, data from two porphyry copper deposits suggest that downward circulating meteoric water is counteracted by up-flowing hot magmatic fluids. Our data show that porphyry copper ore deposition occurs close to a magmatic-meteoric water interface, rather than in a purely magmatic fluid plume, confirming recent hydrological modeling. On a larger scale, the expulsion of magmatic fluids against the meteoric water interface can shield plutons from rapid convective cooling, which may aid the build-up of large magma chambers required for porphyry copper ore formation.

  15. Meteor observations of forward-scattered FM-radio echo in Busan (Korea) (United States)

    Kim, K.-M.; Cho, M.; Kim, T.; Hong, J.; Kang, Y.-W.; Ahn, S.-H.; Lee, S. H.; Song, I.-O.


    The detection system of forward-scattered FM-radio signals has been newly set up in Korea Science Academy of KAIST in Busan, Korea. The meteor observations using a 2.5m-long Yagi antenna have been carried out since May, 2015. The radio station we use is the NHK broadcasting station (85.20MHz) located in Hokkaido, Japan which is approximately 1,400 km away from Busan and is well below the local horizon. The detection is successfully running, and we examine the observed data reliability by simply checking long-lasting echoes. An additional observing station is being installed in the nearby city of Ulsan to make a cross-check. We analyze the results to find the diurnal and daily variation of the meteor rates. We are planning to pursue long-term observations in order to educate students.

  16. Leonid Shower Probe of Aerothermochemistry in Meteoric Plasmas and Implication for the Origin of Life (United States)

    Jenniskens, Peter S. I.; Packan, D.; Laux, C.; Wilson, Mike; Boyd, I. D.; Kruger, C. H.; Popova, O.; Fonda, M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)


    The rarefied and high Mach number (up to 270) of the flow field of a typical meteoroid as it enters the Earth's atmosphere implies conditions of ablation and atmospheric chemistry that have proven to be as difficult to grasp as the proverbial shooting star. An airborne campaign was organized to study these processes during an intense Leonid shower. A probe of molecular band emission now demonstrates that the flash of light from a common meteor originates in the wake of the object rather than in the meteor head. A new theoretical approach using the direct simulation Monte Carlo technique demonstrates that the ablation process is critical in heating the air in that wake. Air molecules impinge on a dense cloud of ablated material in front of the meteoroid head into an extended wake that has the observed excitation temperatures. These processes determine what extraterrestrial materials may have been delivered to Earth at the time of the origin of life.

  17. Mesospheric temperatures estimated from the meteor radar observations at Mohe, China (United States)

    Liu, Libo; Liu, Huixin; Le, Huijun; Chen, Yiding; Sun, Yang-Yi; Ning, Baiqi; Hu, Lianhuan; Wan, Weixing; Li, Na; Xiong, Jiangang


    In this work, we report the estimation of mesospheric temperatures at 90 km height from the observations of the VHF all-sky meteor radar operated at Mohe (53.5°N, 122.3°E), China, since August 2011. The kinetic temperature profiles retrieved from the observations of Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) on board the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, Mesosphere, Energetics, and Dynamics satellite are processed to provide the temperature (TSABER) and temperature gradient (dT/dh) at 90 km height. Based on the SABER temperature profile data an empirical dT/dh model is developed for the Mohe latitude. First, we derive the temperatures from the meteor decay times (Tmeteor) and the Mohe dT/dh model gives prior information of temperature gradients. Second, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the meteor height profiles is calculated and further used to deduce the temperatures (TFWHM) based on the strong linear relationship between FWHM and TSABER. The temperatures at 90 km deduced from the decay times (Tmeteor) and from the meteor height distributions (TFWHM) at Mohe are validated/calibrated with TSABER. The temperatures present a considerable annual variation, being maximum in winter and minimum in summer. Harmonic analyses reveal that the temperatures have an annual variation consistent with TSABER. Our work suggests that FWHM has a good performance in routine estimation of the temperatures. It should be pointed out that the slope of FWHM as a function of TSABER is 10.1 at Mohe, which is different from that of 15.71 at King Sejong (62.2°S, 58.8°E) station.

  18. Side transmission of radio waves on the Dushanbe-Leninabad radio-meteor path (Preliminary results) (United States)

    Karpov, A. V.; Kodirov, A.; Mirdzhamolov, K.; Rubtsov, L. N.

    Radio-wave propagation on the Dushanbe-Leninabad meteor path was studied experimentally in 1982, indicating that this path is suitable for ultrashort-wave communications. The selection of the optimal orientation of the antenna systems with respect to the path is examined, and it is shown that a maximum volume of data can be transmitted when the antennas are inclined at an angle of 70 deg from the path axis.

  19. The Nippon/Norway Svalbard Meteor Radar: First results of small-scale structure observations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Nippon/Norway Svalbard Meteor Radar(NSMR), has been in operation since March 2001. While primarily thought of as an instrument for examining mean wind, tidal and gravity wave neutral atmosphere dynamics in the upper mesosphere region, it is also possible to investigate spatial and temporal structure of temperature and windshear. Here, the radar itself is described followed by a presentation of these derived parameters.

  20. Using Wide-Field Meteor Cameras to Actively Engage Students in Science (United States)

    Kuehn, D. M.; Scales, J. N.


    Astronomy has always afforded teachers an excellent topic to develop students' interest in science. New technology allows the opportunity to inexpensively outfit local school districts with sensitive, wide-field video cameras that can detect and track brighter meteors and other objects. While the data-collection and analysis process can be mostly automated by software, there is substantial human involvement that is necessary in the rejection of spurious detections, in performing dynamics and orbital calculations, and the rare recovery and analysis of fallen meteorites. The continuous monitoring allowed by dedicated wide-field surveillance cameras can provide students with a better understanding of the behavior of the night sky including meteors and meteor showers, stellar motion, the motion of the Sun, Moon, and planets, phases of the Moon, meteorological phenomena, etc. Additionally, some students intrigued by the possibility of UFOs and "alien visitors" may find that actual monitoring data can help them develop methods for identifying "unknown" objects. We currently have two ultra-low light-level surveillance cameras coupled to fish-eye lenses that are actively obtaining data. We have developed curricula suitable for middle or high school students in astronomy and earth science courses and are in the process of testing and revising our materials.

  1. Dormant comets among the near-Earth object population: a meteor-based survey (United States)

    Ye, Quan-Zhi; Brown, Peter G.; Pokorný, Petr


    Dormant comets in the near-Earth object (NEO) population are thought to be involved in the terrestrial accretion of water and organic materials. Identification of dormant comets is difficult as they are observationally indistinguishable from their asteroidal counterparts, however, they may have produced dust during their final active stages which potentially are detectable today as weak meteor showers at the Earth. Here we present the result of a reconnaissance survey looking for dormant comets using 13 567 542 meteor orbits measured by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar (CMOR). We simulate the dynamical evolution of the hypothetical meteoroid streams originated from 407 near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits that resemble orbital characteristics of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). Out of the 44 hypothetical showers that are predicted to be detectable by CMOR, we identify five positive detections that are statistically unlikely to be chance associations, including three previously known associations. This translates to a lower limit to the dormant comet fraction of 2.0 ± 1.7 per cent in the NEO population and a dormancy rate of ˜10-5 yr-1 per comet. The low dormancy rate confirms disruption and dynamical removal as the dominant end state for near-Earth JFCs. We also predict the existence of a significant number of meteoroid streams whose parents have already been disrupted or dynamically removed.

  2. Small-scale structures in common-volume meteor wind measurements (United States)

    Fraser, G. J.; Marsh, S. H.; Baggaley, W. J.; Bennett, R. G. T.; Lawrence, B. N.; McDonald, A. J.; Plank, G. E.


    Observational differences occur when different techniques are used for measuring mesospheric winds because the different instruments observe different physical quantities to infer the wind velocity, and have differing time and space resolution. The AMOR meteor wind radar near Christchurch, New Zealand [Marsh et al., 2000. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 62,1129 1133.] has good resolution in time (˜0.1 s) and height (˜1 km) and a narrow beam centred in the geographic N S meridian. The meteor echoes randomly sample the atmosphere in a region extending over several hundred kilometres to the South of the radar. The volume of data obtained from the one instrument has made it possible to use correlations between measurements made from individual meteor trails to identify the contribution of atmospheric variability to the observational differences. Measurements of the meridional wind component made from May July 1997 inclusive show that a large part (20 30 m/s r.m.s.) of the atmospheric variation is due to inhomogeneities with small scales, of the order of 10 km and 1 h. There is also a component which has a random time phase over the observation interval but a spatial scale which is coherent over several hundred kilometres, consistent with the behaviour of gravity waves.

  3. Stable isotope ratios in meteoric recharge and groundwater at Mt. Vulture volcano, southern Italy (United States)

    Paternoster, M.; Liotta, M.; Favara, R.


    SummaryA rain gauge network consisting of five sites located at different altitudes, ranging from 320 to 1285 m.a.s.l., was installed at Mt. Vulture volcano (southern Italy). Rain water samples were collected monthly over a two-year period and their isotopic composition (δ 18O and δD) was analyzed. During the same period, circulating groundwater was sampled from 24 springs and wells distributed throughout the study area. Monthly isotopic composition values were used to determine the local meteoric water line (LMWL). Its slope is slightly lower than the relationship defined by Longinelli and Selmo (Longinelli, A., Selmo, E., 2003. Isotopic composition of precipitation in Italy: a first overall map. J. Hydrol. 270, 75-88) for southern Italy. The groundwater samples analyzed were distributed essentially along the LMWL. The weighted local meteoric water line (WLMWL), defined through the mean values weighted by the rainfall amount, however, may define in a short range the meteoric end-member in the local hydrological cycle more precisely. Since most of the groundwater sampling locations do not show seasonal variations in their stable isotope values, the flow system appears to be relatively homogeneous. The mean altitude of the recharge by rainfall infiltration was estimated on the basis of the local vertical isotopic gradient δ 18O. A few springs, which show anomalous isotopic values, reveal more regional circulation systems, associated with tectonic structures responsible for the ascent of deeper water.

  4. Shock-induced effects in calcite from Cactus Crater (United States)

    Vizgirda, J.; Ahrens, T. J.; Tsay, F.-D.


    The paper discusses shock metamorphism of calcite from coralline limestone samples retrieved from a borehole drilled into rocks beneath Cactus Crater, a nuclear explosion crater at Eniwetok Atoll. The metamorphism was detected and quantified using electron spin resonance (ESR); the ESR spectra of Mn(+) present as a trace constituent in the coral samples, show a consistent decrease in hyperfine peak splitting with decreasing depth of sample. It is suggested that the decrease in hyperfine peak splitting reflects a decrease in crystal field splitting, and therefore, small increases on cation-anion distances produced by mechanical energy input during the shock process. Two alternative crater models suggested by the ESR results are a depiction of a steady decay of the shock wave, and a delineation of a breccia lens with a breccia-bedrock interface at 20 plus or minus 5 m.

  5. Complex Volcanism at Oppenheimer U Floor-Fractured Crater (United States)

    Gaddis, L. R.; Bennett, K.; Horgan, B.; McBride, Marie; Stopar, J.; Lawrence, S.; Gustafson, J. O.; Giguere, T.


    Recent remote sensing studies have identified complex volcanism in the floor-fractured crater (FFC) Oppenheimer U, located in the northwest floor of Oppenheimer crater (35.2degS, 166.3degW, 208 km dia., Figure 1) within the "South Pole - Aitken basin" (SPA) region of the lunar far side. Up to 15 sites of pyroclastic volcanism have been identified in the floor of Oppenheimer crater. Studies of Moon Mineralogy Mapper data (M3, 0.4-3 microns, 86 bands, [5]) indicated that the pyroclastic deposits are comprised of mixtures of clinopyroxene and iron-rich glass, with the Oppenheimer U deposit showing variable composition within the FFC and having the most iron-rich volcanic glass thus far identified on the Moon. Here we examine the floor of Oppenheimer U in more detail and show evidence for possible multiple eruptive vents.

  6. Artificial Crater Formation on Satellite Surfaces Using an Orbiting Railgun (United States)

    Dissly, R. W.; Miller, K. L.; Carlson, R. J.


    The specification of greater than 45kW of disposable power available on the JIMO spacecraft raises the possibility of a new class of instrumentation that has utility at such power levels. In this presentation we discuss the concept of an electromagnetic mass driver that can launch projectiles from orbit around one of the Galilean satellites directed on a trajectory that will impact the satellite surface. The resulting impact will create a crater that will provide information on the mechanical properties of surface and near-surface materials, expose subsurface materials for remote spectral identification, and form a vapor cloud that can be sensed for composition either remotely or in-situ. An analog for such a controlled cratering experiment is Deep Impact, a mission to observe the crater and ensuing ejecta cloud formed by a ballistic projectile into a comet surface in July, 2005.

  7. New impact craters and meteoroid densities on Mars (United States)

    Ivanov, B.; Melosh, H. J.; McEwen, A.


    Repetitive high-resolution imaging of Mars revealed new small impact craters with known dates of formation (see [1, 2] and references in [2]). After ~2006 the discovery rate became a linear function of time, so we can use the discovery rate as a proxy for the modern bombardment rate. The low-mass Martian atmosphere is dense enough to shatter roughly half of the meteoroids, resulting in the crater clusters. Separation distances in these clusters put some constraints on the density and strength of meteoroids. The atmospheric deceleration and breakup of meteoroids complicate the Mars/Moon comparison and attempts to verify the crater related timescale (e.g. [3]). At the same time observations of impact sites with known formation dates allow us to analyze the rate of modern surface changes due to wind/dust interaction.

  8. Gullies and Layers in Crater Wall in Newton (United States)


    This dramatic view of gullies emergent from layered outcrops occurs on the wall of a crater within the much larger impact basin, Newton. Newton Crater and its surrounding terrain exhibit many examples of gullies on the walls of craters and troughs. The gullies exhibit meandering channels with fan-shaped aprons of debris located downslope. The gullies are considered to have been formed by erosion--both from a fluid (such as water) running downslope, and by slumping and landsliding processes driven by the force of gravity. This picture was obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in March 2001; it is illuminated from the upper left and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  9. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William


    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  10. Starting Conditions for Hydrothermal Systems Underneath Martian Craters: Hydrocode Modeling (United States)

    Pierazzo, E.; Artemieva, N. A.; Ivanov, B. A.


    Mars is the most Earth-like of the Solar System s planets, and the first place to look for any sign of present or past extraterrestrial life. Its surface shows many features indicative of the presence of surface and sub-surface water, while impact cratering and volcanism have provided temporary and local surface heat sources throughout Mars geologic history. Impact craters are widely used ubiquitous indicators for the presence of sub-surface water or ice on Mars. In particular, the presence of significant amounts of ground ice or water would cause impact-induced hydrothermal alteration at Martian impact sites. The realization that hydrothermal systems are possible sites for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth has given rise to the hypothesis that hydrothermal systems may have had the same role on Mars. Rough estimates of the heat generated in impact events have been based on scaling relations, or thermal data based on terrestrial impacts on crystalline basements. Preliminary studies also suggest that melt sheets and target uplift are equally important heat sources for the development of a hydrothermal system, while its lifetime depends on the volume and cooling rate of the heat source, as well as the permeability of the host rocks. We present initial results of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) simulations of impacts on Mars aimed at constraining the initial conditions for modeling the onset and evolution of a hydrothermal system on the red planet. Simulations of the early stages of impact cratering provide an estimate of the amount of shock melting and the pressure-temperature distribution in the target caused by various impacts on the Martian surface. Modeling of the late stage of crater collapse is necessary to characterize the final thermal state of the target, including crater uplift, and distribution of the heated target material (including the melt pool) and hot ejecta around the crater.

  11. Impact craters at falling of large asteroids in Ukraine (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.


    Catastrophes of different scale that are associated with the fall of celestial bodies to the Earth - occurred repeatedly in its history. But direct evidence of such catastrophes has been discovered recently. Thus, in the late 1970s studies of terrestrial rocks showed that in layers of the earth's crust that corresponded to the period of 65 million years before the present, marked by the mass extinction of some species of living creatures, and the beginning of the rapid development of others. It was then - a large body crashed to Earth in the Gulf of Mexico in Central America. The consequence of this is the Chicxulub crater with a diameter of ~170 km on Yucatan Peninsula. Modern Earth's surface retains many traces of collisions with large cosmic bodies. To indicate the craters with a diameter of more than 2 km using the name "astrobleme". Today, it found more than 230. The largest astroblems sizes exceeding 200 km. Ukraine also has some own astroblems. In Ukraine, been found nine large impact craters. Ukrainian crystalline shield, because of its stability for a long time (more than 1.5 billion years), has the highest density of large astroblems on the Earth's surface. The largest of the Ukrainian astroblems is Manevytska. It has a diameter of 45 km. There are also Ilyinetskyi (7 km), Boltysh (25 km), Obolon' (20 km), Ternivka (12-15 km), Bilylivskyi (6 km), Rotmystrivka (3 km) craters. Zelenohayska astrobleme founded near the village Zelenyi Gay in Kirovograd region and consists of two craters: larger with diameter 2.5-3.5 km and smaller - with diameter of 800 m. The presence of graphite, which was the basis for the research of the impact diamond in astroblems of this region. As a result, the diamonds have been found in rocks of Ilyinetskyi crater; later it have been found in rocks in the Bilylivska, Obolon' and other impact structures. The most detailed was studied the geological structure and the presence of diamonds in Bilylivska astrobleme

  12. Properties of Ejecta Blanket Deposits Surrounding Morasko Meteorite Impact Craters (Poland) (United States)

    Szokaluk, M.; Muszyński, A.; Jagodziński, R.; Szczuciński, W.


    Morasko impact craters are a record of the fall of a meteorite into the soft sediments. The presented results illustrate the geological structure of the area around the crater as well as providing evidence of the occurrence of ejecta blanket.

  13. Survey of TES high albedo events in Mars' northern polar craters (United States)

    Armstrong, J.C.; Nielson, S.K.; Titus, T.N.


    Following the work exploring Korolev Crater (Armstrong et al., 2005) for evidence of crater interior ice deposits, we have conducted a survey of Thermal Emission Spectroscopy (TES) temperature and albedo measurements for Mars' northern polar craters larger than 10 km. Specifically, we identify a class of craters that exhibits brightening in their interiors during a solar longitude, Ls, of 60 to 120 degrees, roughly depending on latitude. These craters vary in size, latitude, and morphology, but appear to have a specific regional association on the surface that correlates with the distribution of subsurface hydrogen (interpreted as water ice) previously observed on Mars. We suggest that these craters, like Korolev, exhibit seasonal high albedo frost events that indicate subsurface water ice within the craters. A detailed study of these craters may provide insight in the geographical distribution of the ice and context for future polar missions. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Sub-Surface Excavation of Transient Craters in Porous Targets: Explaining the Impact Delay (United States)

    Bowling, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.


    We numerically investigate the subsurface excavation of the transient crater in the earliest moments after the Deep Impact event. At high target porosities the crater remains hidden from observation long enough to explain the "impact delay."

  15. The Links Between Target Properties and Layered Ejecta Craters in Acidalia and Utopia Planitiae Mars (United States)

    Jones, E.; Osinski, G. R.


    Layered ejecta craters on Mars may form from excavation into subsurface volatiles. We examine a new catalogue of martian craters to decipher differences between the single- and double-layered ejecta populations in Acidalia and Utopia.

  16. Search for Impact Craters in Iran: Citizen Science as a Useful Method

    CERN Document Server

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed


    To recognition probable impact craters in Iran, we use Google Earth data in the first step. Some probable structures identified and studies suggest non-impact origin for them. Studies on other craters in Iran are in progress.

  17. Improved Measurement of Ejection Velocities From Craters Formed in Sand (United States)

    Cintala, Mark J.; Byers, Terry; Cardenas, Francisco; Montes, Roland; Potter, Elliot E.


    A typical impact crater is formed by two major processes: compression of the target (essentially equivalent to a footprint in soil) and ejection of material. The Ejection-Velocity Measurement System (EVMS) in the Experimental Impact Laboratory has been used to study ejection velocities from impact craters formed in sand since the late 1990s. The original system used an early-generation Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera; custom-written software; and a complex, multicomponent optical system to direct laser light for illumination. Unfortunately, the electronic equipment was overtaken by age, and the software became obsolete in light of improved computer hardware.

  18. Exploring oceanic impact crater mechanics through numerical models (United States)

    Wünnemann, K.; Lange, M. A.


    The mechanics of oceanic impact events differ in several ways from the processes that accompany the strike of an asteroid on land. In order to explore the cratering process on a water-covered target, a series of 2D hydrocode simulations have been carried out. Whereas crater structures on continental targets are the result of a gravity-driven collapse of the transient cavity that is formed immediately after the impact, we show that oceanic impact structures are additionally modified by strong water movements along the ocean-sea floor interface. Water currents directed both inwardly and outwardly from the impact point result in significant structural disturbances of the pelagic sediments. These currents are treated in the numerical models through an analysis of massless tracer particles movement initially placed in the target. In the models it is shown, that the modification of the ocean floor by water currents takes place, regardless of whether or not the residual kinetic energy of the impactor is large enough to penetrate the water column and to form a crater at the ocean floor. This hypothesis verified by an investigation of the so far only known deep sea impact structure, the Eltanin impact structure. Here a zone of chaotically deposited sediments was found but no depression in the ocean floor has been detected. Strong water surges play also an import role in the modification of crater structures at relatively shallow water depth on the continental shelf. This has been observed in the formation of gullies at the Lockne structure in Sweden. Even more surprisingly is the existence of a ringed impact structure in the North Sea, the Silverpit crater, which has a diameter of only 20 km. We explain the formation of a ring structure, which has not previously been thought possible at such a small scale, via numerical modelling by extremely weak strength properties of the target rocks. This kind of strength softening may be due to the fact, that water is involved in the

  19. Impact crater formation: a simple application of solid state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Celebonovic, V


    This contribution is a first step aiming to address a general question: what can be concluded on impact craters which exist on various planetary system objects, by combining astronomical data and known theoretical results from solid state physics. Assuming that the material of the target body is of crystaline structure,it is shown that a simple calculation gives the possibility of estimating the speed of the impactor responsible for the creation of a crater.A test value,calculated using observed data on the composition of some asteroids,gives a value of the speed in good agreement with results of celestial mechanics.

  20. Mapping nuclear craters on Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands (United States)

    Hampson, John C., Jr.


    In 1984, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed geologic analysis of two nuclear test craters at Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands, on behalf of the Defense Nuclear Agency. A multidisciplinary task force mapped the morphology, surface character, and subsurface structure of two craters, OAK and KOA. The field mapping techniques include echo sounding, sidescan sonar imaging, single-channel and multichannel seismic reflection profiling, a seismic refraction survey, and scuba and submersible operations. All operations had to be navigated precisely and correlatable with subsequent drilling and sampling operations.

  1. Parameters critical to the morphology of fluidization craters (United States)

    Siegal, B. S.; Gold, D. P.


    In order to study further the role of fluidization on the moon, a laboratory investigation was undertaken on two particulate material size fractions to determine the effect of variables, such as, duration of gas streaming, gas pressure, and 'regolith' thickness on the morphology of fluidization craters. A 3.175-mm cylindrical vent was used to simulate a gas streaming conduit. Details of the fluidization chamber are discussed together with questions of experimental control, aspects of nomenclature, crater measurements, and the effect of variables.

  2. The "human" statistics of terrestrial impact cratering rate

    CERN Document Server

    Jetsu, L


    The most significant periodicities in the terrestrial impact crater record are due to the human-signal: the bias of assigning integer values for the crater ages. This bias seems to have eluded the proponents and opponents of real periodicity in the occurrence of these events, as well as the theorists searching for an extraterrestrial explanation for such periodicity. The human-signal should be seriously considered by scientists in astronomy, geology and paleontology when searching for a connection between terrestrial major comet or asteroid impacts and mass extinctions of species.

  3. Meteoric cosmogenic Beryllium-10 adsorbed to river sediment and soil: Applications for Earth-surface dynamics (United States)

    Willenbring, Jane K.; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm


    Rainfall scavenges meteoric cosmogenic 10Be from the atmosphere. 10Be falls to the Earth's surface, where it binds tightly to sediment particles in non-acidic soils over the life-span of those soils. As such, meteoric 10Be has the potential to be an excellent geochemical tracer of erosion and stability of surfaces in a diverse range of natural settings. Meteoric 10Be has great potential as a recorder of first-order erosion rates and soil residence times. Even though this tracer was first developed in the late 1980s and showed great promise as a geomorphic tool, it was sidelined in the past two decades with the rise of the "sister nuclide", in situ10Be, which is produced at a known rate inside quartz minerals. Since these early days, substantial progress has been made in several areas that now shed new light on the applicability of the meteoric variety of this cosmogenic nuclide. Here, we revisit the potential of this tracer and we summarize the progress: (1) the atmospheric production and fallout is now described by numeric models, and agrees with present-day measurements and paleo-archives such as from rain and ice cores; (2) short-term fluctuations in solar modulation of cosmic rays or in the delivery of 10Be are averaged out over the time scale soils accumulate; (3) in many cases, the delivery of 10Be is not dependent on the amount of precipitation; (4) we explore where 10Be is retained in soils and sediment; (5) we suggest a law to account for the strong grain-size dependence that controls adsorption and the measured nuclide concentrations; and (6) we present a set of algebraic expressions that allows calculation of both soil or sediment ages and erosion rates from the inventory of meteoric 10Be distributed through a vertical soil column. The mathematical description is greatly simplified if the accumulation of 10Be is at a steady state with its export through erosion. In this case, a surface sample allows for the calculation of an erosion rate. Explored

  4. Long-term erosion and interglacial period exposure in Western Greenland from meteoric 10Be in ice-bound sediment (United States)

    Graly, J. A.; Corbett, L.; Bierman, P. R.; Neumann, T.; Rood, D. H.; Finkel, R. C.


    To examine the history of surface exposure and erosion in areas of Western Greenland presently covered by ice, we measured the concentration of meteoric 10Be in ice-bound fine sediment at three locations: Kangerlussuaq (67.1°N), Ilulissat (69.4°N), and Upernavik (72.5°N). Meteoric 10Be concentrations at Ilulissat and Upernavik range from 2×106 to 2×108 atoms/g and are statistically indistinguishable from each other. Meteoric 10Be concentrations at Kangerlussuaq range from 2×106 to 5×107 atoms/g and are significantly lower than the values found at the northern two sites. Through comparison to typical meteoric 10Be distribution in soils, source soil ages can be estimated at each of these locations. These estimates suggest on the order of 105 years of exposure at the northern sites and on the order of 104 years of exposure at Kangerlussuaq. Because meteoric 10Be is lost from the soil system both by erosion and isotope decay, these exposure ages represent a minimum length of cumulative interglacial exposure. This exposure signal likely developed over several Late Pliocene and Pleistocene interglacial periods and prior to the onset of Northern hemisphere glaciation, ~2.7 Ma before present. To further constrain the glacial history of Western Greenland implied from the meteoric 10Be data, we constructed forward models of interglacial period exposure and glacial period erosion. The high levels of meteoric 10Be at Upernavik and Ilulissat imply erosion rates below 5 m/My and some preservation of pre-glacial regolith. The lower levels of meteoric 10Be at Kangerlussuaq can be explained with erosion rates as high as 20 m/My. Because of the substantial debris fluxes in modern Kangerlussuaq glaciers [Knight, et al., 2002], erosion rates greater than 10 m/My are likely. Meteoric 10Be inventories at Kangerlussuaq under 10-20 m/My of long-term erosion imply substantial interglacial exposure and the slow evacuation of sediment by glacial transport. These results suggest that

  5. CPR evolution of kilometer-scale craters on the lunar mare (United States)

    King, Isabel; Fassett, Caleb; Thomson, Bradley J.; Minton, David A.; Watters, Wesley A.


    This study analyzes the 12.6-cm radar signature of kilometer-scale craters using data from the Mini-RF instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. We examine the circular polarization ratio (CPR), which is sensitive to rockiness and surface roughness at the decimeter scale, to determine if there is a relationship between CPR signature and age for craters on the lunar mare. The craters come from an existing dataset of >13,000 craters ranging 800 m to 5 km in diameter that have previously determined degradation states based on their topography. The locations of craters in the original data set were manually co-registered to Mini-RF level 2 observations from the PDS, and for each crater, radial CPR profiles were extracted. In total, there were 5,142 unique craters with Mini-RF observations; 914 craters had repeat measurements that were used to assess uncertainties in CPR profiles. To characterize the time evolution of CPR, the craters were analyzed by finding the median profiles for groups of craters sorted by age and diameter. The highest CPR values are found in the interiors of the craters, and for craters ≤2 km, the freshest craters have the highest CPR values. In the ejecta, fresh craters exhibit the highest CPR, and this decreases with time until an equilibrium is reached. As expected from theory, larger craters' profiles evolve less quickly, with only minor changes in CPR inside their rim and a slower decrease of CPR in their ejecta. In conjunction with other datasets like topography, optical maturity, and rockiness, these data are important for constraining models of regolith evolution and crater degradation on the Moon.

  6. Cleopatra crater on Venus - Venera 15/16 data and impact/volcanic origin controversy (United States)

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.


    The morphology and morphometry of the 100-km diameter, 2.4-km deep Cleopatra crater on Venus are examined using Venera 15/16 images. The Cleopatra crater is compared to circular structures on Venus, Mercury, Mars, the earth and the moon. Consideration is given to the possible causes for the genesis of the Cleopatra crater. It is concluded that Cleopatra has a clear impact basin morphology with an anomalous crater depth.

  7. Connections between hyper-acid crater lakes and flank springs: new evidence from Rincón de la Vieja volcano (Costa Rica) (United States)

    Martínez, M.; Fernández, E.; Sáenz, W.; van Bergen, M. J.; Ayres, G.; Pacheco, J. F.; Brenes, J.; Avard, G.; Malavassi, E.


    Rincón de la Vieja, a complex andesitic stratovolcano in NW Costa Rica, shows various hydrothermal surface manifestations that comprise: (1) A hyper-acid crater lake and subaerial fumaroles receiving direct input of fluids of magmatic origin, (2) Acid thermal discharges along the northeastern slopes of the volcano that feed the headwaters of the Cucaracho river, and (3) Small lakes and a geothermal field with bubbling-boiling mud pools, acid-sulfate springs, steaming ground and fumarolic emissions in a region on the western flank. Here the streams are of relatively low flow rate and their chemical signatures correspond to that of deep fluids from an extensive geothermal reservoir mixed with shallow meteoric water. Physico-chemical properties of the sulfate-chloride hyper-acid lake (T=28-58 °C; pH between 1.2 and water body supplied by a significant input of chemical components derived from hydrolysis of magmatic volatiles and from intense rock leaching. The Cucaracho catchment receives input from warm acid brines with no free-gas phase but carrying a high load of hydrolyzed magmatic volatiles and rock-forming elements. One of these brines (Spring 4) is characterized by a sulfate-chloride chemical signature, medium temperatures of 27-38 °C, pH between 2 and 4 and TDS values between 780 and 1300 mg/L. Based on water and heat-balance considerations, chemical and stable-isotope signatures and groundwater transport modeling, it has been proposed that these acid springs represent brine water from the lake-hydrothermal system that is diluted by shallow groundwater permeating tephra layers (Kempter and Rowe, 2000). Since Rincóńs latest phreatomagmatic activity in 1983, episodes of phreatic eruptions from the crater lake have been registered in 1983-87, 1991, 1995, 1998 and 2011. Some of these eruptions (VEI 1) have expelled large quantities of lake water, triggering small to medium- sized fast-moving acidic lahars running along effluents of the Cucaracho River. They

  8. Geological observation of impact craters on Mars and the earth using remote-sensing methods (United States)

    Garvin, J. B.


    It has been suggested that future multispectral and radar remote sensing of Martian craters can be developed on the basis of studies of multispectral and radar signatures of earth craters which are reasonable analogues of the Martian varieties. The present paper is a contribution toward establishing a methodology for detecting the record of very fresh craters on Mars.

  9. Assessment of gravity wave momentum flux measurement capabilities by meteor radars having different transmitter power and antenna configurations (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Hocking, W. K.; Mitchell, N. J.; Taylor, M. J.


    Measurement capabilities of five meteor radars are assessed and compared to determine how well radars having different transmitted power and antenna configurations perform in defining mean winds, tidal amplitudes, and gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes. The five radars include two new-generation meteor radars on Tierra del Fuego, Argentina (53.8°S) and on King George Island in the Antarctic (62.1°S) and conventional meteor radars at Socorro, New Mexico (34.1°N, 106.9°W), Bear Lake Observatory, Utah (˜41.9°N, 111.4°W), and Yellowknife, Canada (62.5°N, 114.3°W). Our assessment employs observed meteor distributions for June of 2009, 2010, or 2011 for each radar and a set of seven test motion fields including various superpositions of mean winds, constant diurnal tides, constant and variable semidiurnal tides, and superposed GWs having various amplitudes, scales, periods, directions of propagation, momentum fluxes, and intermittencies. Radars having higher power and/or antenna patterns yielding higher meteor counts at small zenith angles perform well in defining monthly and daily mean winds, tidal amplitudes, and GW momentum fluxes, though with expected larger uncertainties in the daily estimates. Conventional radars having lower power and a single transmitting antenna are able to describe monthly mean winds and tidal amplitudes reasonably well, especially at altitudes having the highest meteor counts. They also provide reasonable estimates of GW momentum fluxes at the altitudes having the highest meteor counts; however, these estimates are subject to uncertainties of ˜20 to 50% and uncertainties rapidly become excessive at higher and lower altitudes. Estimates of all quantities degrade somewhat for more complex motion fields.

  10. Identification of radiants of low-light-level meteors from double station TV observations during autumnal equinox of 2001 and 2003 (United States)

    Kozak, Pavlo M.; Rozhilo, Olexander O.; Taranukha, Yuriy G.


    Results of double-station TV meteor observations which were carried out during autumnal equinox in 2001 and 2003 are used for the confirmation of existing meteor showers and for a search for probable new micro-showers. Seven existing September showers were confirmed, two of them by meteors from both years. Fourteen new groups were proposed to be considered as new meteor micro-showers. Taking into account similar kinematical parameters two of them can be supposed to be a part of already existing showers.

  11. Organic molecules in the Sheepbed Mudstone, Gale Crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Miller, K. E.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Summons, R. E.; Brunner, A. E.; Buch, A.; Szopa, C.; Archer, P. D.; Franz, H. B.; Atreya, S. K.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Cabane, M.; Coll, P.; Conrad, P. G.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dworkin, J. P.; Fairén, A. G.; François, P.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Kashyap, S.; ten Kate, I. L.; Leshin, L. A.; Malespin, C. A.; Martin, M. G.; Martin-Torres, F. J.; Mcadam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Prats, B. D.; Squyres, S. W.; Steele, A.; Stern, J. C.; Sumner, D. Y.; Sutter, B.; Zorzano, M. P.


    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on board the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover is designed to conduct inorganic and organic chemical analyses of the atmosphere and the surface regolith and rocks to help evaluate the past and present habitability potential of Mars at Gale Crater. C

  12. Target and Projectile: Material Effects on Crater Excavation and Growth (United States)

    Anderson, J. L. B.; Burleson, T.; Cintala, Mark J.


    Scaling relationships allow the initial conditions of an impact to be related to the excavation flow and final crater size and have proven useful in understanding the various processes that lead to the formation of a planetary-scale crater. In addition, they can be examined and tested through laboratory experiments in which the initial conditions of the impact are known and ejecta kinematics and final crater morphometry are measured directly. Current scaling relationships are based on a point-source assumption and treat the target material as a continuous medium; however, in planetary-scale impacts, this may not always be the case. Fragments buried in a megaregolith, for instance, could easily approach or exceed the dimensions of the impactor; rubble-pile asteroids could present similar, if not greater, structural complexity. Experiments allow exploration into the effects of target material properties and projectile deformation style on crater excavation and dimensions. This contribution examines two of these properties: (1) the deformation style of the projectile, ductile (aluminum) or brittle (soda-lime glass) and (2) the grain size of the target material, 0.5-1 mm vs. 1-3 mm sand.

  13. A year of convective vortex activity at Gale crater (United States)

    Steakley, Kathryn; Murphy, James


    Atmospheric convective vortices, which become dust devils when they entrain dust from the surface, are prominent features within Mars' atmosphere which are thought to be a primary contributor to the planet's background dust opacity. Buoyantly produced in convectively unstable layers at a planet's surface, these vertically aligned vortices possess rapidly rotating and ascending near-surface warm air and are readily identified by temporal signatures of reduced atmospheric surface pressure measured within the vortex as it passes by. We investigate such signatures in surface pressure measurements acquired by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station aboard the Mars Science Laboratory rover located within Gale crater. During the first 707 sols of the mission, 245 convective vortices are identified with pressure drops in the range of 0.30-2.86 Pa with a median value of 0.67 Pa. The cumulative distribution of their pressure drops follows a power law of slope -2.77 and we observe seasonal and diurnal trends in their activity. The vast majority of these pressure signatures lack corresponding reductions in REMS-measured UV flux, suggesting that these vortices rarely cast shadows upon the rover and therefore are most often dust-free. The relatively weak-magnitude, dustless vortices at Gale crater are consistent with predictions from mesoscale modeling indicating that the planetary boundary layer is suppressed within the crater and are also consistent with the almost complete absence of both dust devils within Mars Science Laboratory camera images and Gale crater surface dust devil streaks within orbiter images.

  14. Cratering on Titan: A Pre-Cassini Perspective (United States)

    Lorenz, R. D.


    The NASA-ESA Cassini mission, comprising a formidably instrumented orbiter and parachute-borne probe to be launched this October, promises to reveal a crater population on Titan that has been heretofore hidden by atmospheric haze. This population on the largest remaining unexplored surface in the solar system will be invaluable in comparative planetological studies, since it introduces evidence of the atmospheric effects of cratering on an icy satellite. Here, I highlight some impact features we may hope to find and could devote some modeling effort toward. Titan in a Nutshell: Radius= 2575 km. Density= 1880 kg/cubic m consistent with rock-ice composition. Surface pressure = 1.5 bar. Surface gravity = 1.35 m/square s Atmosphere -94% N2 6% CH, Surface temperature = 94K Tropopause temperature = 70K at 40 km alt. Probable liquid hydrocarbon deposits exist on or near the surface.Titan in a Nutshell: Radius= 2575 km. Density= 1880 kg/cubic m consistent with rock-ice composition. Surface pressure = 1.5 bar. Surface gravity = 1.35 m/square s; Atmosphere about 94% N2 6% CH, Surface temperature = 94K Tropopause temperature = 70K at 40 km alt. Probable liquid hydrocarbon deposits exist on or near the surface. Titan is comparable to Callisto and Ganymede for strength/gravity, Mars/Earth/Venus for atmospheric interaction, and Hyperion, Rhea, and Iapetus for impactor distribution. The leading/trailing asymmetry of crater density from heliocentric impactors is expected to be about 5-6, in the absence of resurfacing. Any Saturnocentric impactor population is likely to alter this. In particular the impact disruption of Hyperion is noted; because of the 3:4 orbital resonance with Titan, fragments from the proto-Hyperion breakup would have rapidly accreted onto Titan. Titan's resurfacing history is of course unknown. The disruption of impactors into fragments that individually create small craters is expected to occur. A crude estimate suggests a maximum separation of about 2 km

  15. Mineralogy of a mudstone at Yellowknife Bay, Gale crater, Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaniman, D.T.; Bish, D.L.; Ming, D.W.; Bristow, T.F.; Morris, R.V.; Blake, D.F.; Chipera, S.J.; Morrison, S.M.; Treiman, A.H.; Rampe, E.B.; Rice, M.; Achilles, C.N.; Grotzinger, J.P.; McLennan, S.M.; Williams, J.; Bell III, J.F.; Newsom, H.E.; Downs, R.T.; Maurice, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A.S.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Stack, K.; Milliken, R.E.; Ehlmann, B.L.; Sumner, D.Y.; Berger, G.; Crisp, J.A.; Hurowitz, J.A.; Anderson, R.; Des Marais, D.J.; Stolper, E.M.; Edgett, K.S.; Gupta, S.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the


    Sedimentary rocks at Yellowknife Bay (Gale crater) on Mars include mudstone sampled by the Curiosity rover. The samples, John Klein and Cumberland, contain detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxide or hydroxides, iron sulfides, amorphous material, and trioctahedral smectites. The John

  16. Clues to the Relative Timing of Lakes in Gale Crater (United States)

    Dietrich, W. E.; Palucis, M. C.; Parker, T.; Rubin, D.; Lewis, K.; Sumner, D.; Williams, R. M. E.


    In Gale Crater two higher deltas appear to record the deposition into lakes associated with the cutting of Farah Vallis. At the entrance canyon to Mt. Sharp a possible back stepping fan/delta sequence may record a later rising lake level.

  17. Fluid mechanical scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials (United States)

    Miranda, Colin S.; Dowling, David R.


    A single scaling law is proposed for the diameter of simple low- and high-speed impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials where spall is not apparent. The scaling law is based on the assumption that gravity- and shock-wave effects set crater size, and is formulated in terms of a dimensionless crater diameter, and an empirical combination of Froude and Mach numbers. The scaling law involves the kinetic energy and speed of the impactor, the acceleration of gravity, and the density and speed of sound in the target material. The size of the impactor enters the formulation but divides out of the final empirical result. The scaling law achieves a 98% correlation with available measurements from drop tests, ballistic tests, missile impacts, and centrifugally-enhanced gravity impacts for a variety of target materials (sand, alluvium, granulated sugar, and expanded perlite). The available measurements cover more than 10 orders of magnitude in impact energy. For subsonic and supersonic impacts, the crater diameter is found to scale with the 1/4- and 1/6-power, respectively, of the impactor kinetic energy with the exponent crossover occurring near a Mach number of unity. The final empirical formula provides insight into how impact energy partitioning depends on Mach number.

  18. Centrifuge Modeling of Explosion-Induced Craters in Unsaturated Sand (United States)


    crater volume (V), the heat of detonation per unit mass (Q), initial density of the explosive (6), initial density of the soil (p), material strength...cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX) and 6 percent Exon 461 (Baker et al., 1980) . Based on the heat of detonation , the TNT equivalent weightL for PBX 9407 and RDX

  19. A new study of crater concentric ridges on the Moon (United States)

    Atwood-Stone, Corwin; Bray, Veronica J.; McEwen, Alfred S.


    Crater concentric ridges (CCRs) are topographic ridges found in the ejecta blankets of fresh few-kilometer-scale lunar craters. These ridges, which were last studied in detail in the late 1970 s (referred to as 'lunar concentric dunes'), were hypothesized to form due to ballistic impact sedimentation and erosion. We have surveyed the Moon to find 59 craters with CCRs and have constructed mosaics of these craters where possible using high-resolution LROC NAC (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera-Narrow Angle Camera) images. We then map from some of these mosaics in order to measure the CCRs and examine their morphologies. Ejecta scaling models and some of our observations of the CCRs contradict the current hypothesis for the formation of these features. We therefore propose new hypotheses to consider for the formation of CCRs, specifically interaction of ejecta with initial topography or formation via interactions of shocks in the ejecta. Additionally, for the first time we have found CCRs on Mercury, but they are rare or absent on Mars.

  20. Venus - Stereo Image Pair of Crater Geopert-Meyer (United States)


    During the third global cycle of Magellan's radar mapping mission, images were obtained at viewing angles that were slightly different than those used in the first two cycles. This strategy was designed to produce stereo image pairs, which take advantage of distortions induced by the different views to provide details of the surface topography. This is a stereo image pair of crater Geopert-Meyer, named for the 20th Century Polish physicist and Nobel laureate (60 degrees north latitude, 26.5 degrees east longitude). The crater, 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter, lies above an escarpment at the edge of a ridge belt in southern Ishtar Terra. West of the crater the scarp has more than one kilometer (0.6 mile) of relief. Perception of relief may be obtained with stereo glasses or a stereoscope. Some individuals may be able to fuse the images without the aid of those devices. The radar illumination for both images is from the west, or left side of the scene. Incidence angles are: (Cycle 1 (left) 28 degrees, Cycle 3 (right) 15 degrees from vertical. Analysis of stereo image pairs allows planetary scientists to resolve details of topographic relationships on Venusian craters, volcanoes, mountain belts and fault zones. The spatial resolution of this topographic information is approximately ten times better than that obtained by Magellan's altimetry experiment.

  1. The large crater origin of SNC meteorites. [Shergottite, Nakhlite, Chassigny (United States)

    Vickery, A. M.; Melosh, H. J.


    A large body of evidence strongly suggests that the shergottite, nakhlite, and Chassigny (SNC) meteorites are from Mars. Various mechanisms for the ejection of large rocks at Martian escape velocity (5 km/sec) have been investigated, but none has proved wholly satisfactory. This article examines a number of possible ejection and cosmic-ray exposure histories to determine which is most plausible. For each possible history, the Melosh (1984, 1985, 1987) spallation model is used to estimate the size of the crater required to produce ejecta fragments of the required size with velocities not less than 5 km/sec and to produce a total mass of solid ejecta consistent with the observed mass flux of SNC meteorites. Estimates of crater production rates on Mars are then used to evaluate the probability that sufficiently large craters have formed during the available time. The results indicate that the SNC meteorites were probably ejected from a very large crater (greater than 100 kilometers in diameter) about 200 million years ago, and that cosmic-ray exposure of the recovered meteorites was initiated after collisional fragmentation of the original ejecta in space at much later times (0.5 to 10 million years ago).

  2. Distribution, morphology, and origins of Martian pit crater chains (United States)

    Wyrick, Danielle; Ferrill, David A.; Morris, Alan P.; Colton, Shannon L.; Sims, Darrell W.


    Pit craters are circular to elliptical depressions found in alignments (chains), which in many cases coalesce into linear troughs. They are common on the surface of Mars and similar to features observed on Earth and other terrestrial bodies. Pit craters lack an elevated rim, ejecta deposits, or lava flows that are associated with impact craters or calderas. It is generally agreed that the pits are formed by collapse into a subsurface cavity or explosive eruption. Hypotheses regarding the formation of pit crater chains require development of a substantial subsurface void to accommodate collapse of the overlying material. Suggested mechanisms of formation include: collapsed lava tubes, dike swarms, collapsed magma chamber, substrate dissolution (analogous to terrestrial karst), fissuring beneath loose material, and dilational faulting. The research described here is intended to constrain current interpretations of pit crater chain formation by analyzing their distribution and morphology. The western hemisphere of Mars was systematically mapped using Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images to generate ArcView™ Geographic Information System (GIS) coverages. All visible pit crater chains were mapped, including their orientations and associations with other structures. We found that pit chains commonly occur in areas that show regional extension or local fissuring. There is a strong correlation between pit chains and fault-bounded grabens. Frequently, there are transitions along strike from (1) visible faulting to (2) faults and pits to (3) pits alone. We performed a detailed quantitative analysis of pit crater morphology using MOC narrow angle images, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) visual images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data. This allowed us to determine a pattern of pit chain evolution and calculate pit depth, slope, and volume. Volumes of approximately 150 pits from five areas were calculated to determine volume size distribution and regional

  3. Numerical modeling of Stickney crater and its aftermath (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen R.; Michel, Patrick; Bruck Syal, Megan; Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul L.; Richardson, Derek C.; Zhang, Yun


    Phobos is characterized by a large crater called Stickney. Its collisional formation and its aftermath have important implications on the final structure, morphology, and surface properties of Phobos that still need further clarification. This is particularly important in the current environment, with space mission concepts to Phobos under active study by several space agencies. SPH hydrocode simulations of the impact that formed Stickney crater [1] have been performed. Using the Soft-Sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) collisional routine of the N-body code pkdgrav [2], we take the outcome of SPH simulations as inputs and model the ensuing phase of the crater formation process and its ejecta evolution under the gravitational influence of Phobos and Mars. In our simulations, about 9 million particles comprise Phobos' shape [3], and the evolution of particles that are expected to form or leave the crater is followed using multiple plausible orbits for Phobos around Mars. We track the immediate fate of low-speed ejecta (~3-8 m/s), allowing us to test an hypothesis [4] that they may scour certain groove marks that have been observed on Phobos' surface and to quantify the amounts and locations of re-impacting ejecta. We also compute the orbital fate of ejecta whose speed is below the system escape speed (about 3 km/s). This allows us to estimate the thickness and distribution of the final ejecta blanket and to check whether crater chains may form. Finally, particles forming the crater walls are followed until achieving stability, allowing us to estimate the final crater depth and diameter. We will show examples of these simulations from a set of SPH initial conditions and over a range of parameters (e.g., material friction coefficients). Work ongoing to cover a larger range of plausible impact conditions, allowing us to explore different scenarios to explain Phobos' observed properties and to infer more, giving useful constraints to space mission studies. [1] Bruck

  4. Earth's Largest Meteorite Impact Craters discovered in South America? (United States)

    Kellndorfer, J. M.; Schmidt-Falkenberg, H.


    Novel analysis of high resolution InSAR-based digital elevation data from the year 2001 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission combined with a recently produced dataset of pan-tropical vegetation height from ALOS-1 SAR and IceSAT/GLAS Lidar estimates led to the quasi-bald-Earth discovery of four sizable near-perfect circle arcs in South America under dense tropical forests ranging in length from 216 km to 441 km. Terrain elevation profiles of cross-sections across the arcs show a distinct vertical rising and falling in elevations of hundreds of meters over a horizontal distance of tens of kilometers. It is hypothesized that these sizable arcs and associated rim-like topographic terrain features are remnants of huge meteorite impact craters with diameters ranging from 770 km to 1,310 km, thus forming potentially the largest known impact carter structures discovered on Earth today. The potential impact crater rim structures are located north of the eastern Amazon River, in the coastal region of Recife and Natal, and in the Brazilian, Bolivian and Paraguayan border region encompassing the Pantanal. Elevation profiles, hillshades and gray-shaded elevation maps were produced to support the geomorphologic analysis. It is also speculated whether in three of the four potential impact craters, central uplift domes or peaks, which are typical for complex impact crater structures can be identified. The worlds largest iron ore mining area of Carajás in Para, Brazil, falls exactly in the center of the largest hypothesized circular impact crater showing topographic elevations similar to the rim structure discovered 655 km to the north-north-west. Based on the topographic/geomorphologic driven hypothesis, geologic exploration of these topographic features is needed to test whether indeed meteorite impact craters could be verified, what the more exact ellipsoidal shapes of the potential impact craters might be, and to determine when during geologic times the impacts would have taken

  5. In Situ-produced vs. Meteoric 10Be in Hillslope Soils: One Isotope, Two Tracers, Different Stories (United States)

    Jungers, M. C.; Bierman, P. R.; Matmon, A.; Cox, R.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R. C.


    In situ-produced and meteoric 10Be are both powerful tools for tracing the production and transport of hillslope sediment. In situ-produced 10Be is used to infer sediment production rates as well as investigate sediment sources and transport. Meteoric 10Be may also be useful for inferring sediment production and transport rates in some landscapes, especially those that lack the target minerals for in situ-produced 10Be. Few studies have investigated the insights gained by a comparing in situ-produced and meteoric 10Be inventories. We present a series of paired 10Be inventories from different climatic and tectonic regimes to illustrate both the value and the potential pitfalls of coupling these geomorphic tracers. The mean in situ and meteoric 10Be near surface (within a meter) inventories for our field areas are as follows: Great Smoky Mountains, NC, USA: 3.6 x 107 atoms cm-2 and 3.3 x 1010 atoms cm-2; Laurely Fork, PA, USA: 2.6 x 106 atoms cm-2 and 3.0 x 109 atoms cm-2; Oregon Coast Range, OR, USA: no in situ data and 3.87 x 1010 atoms cm-2; North Island, New Zealand: no in situ data and 1.8 x 109 atoms cm-2; and Amparafaravola, Madagascar: 1.86 x 107 atoms cm-2 and 8.0 x 109 atoms cm-2. The associated inferred soil residence times, respectively, are: Great Smoky Mountains, NC, USA: 40.9 ky and 25.6 ky; Laurely Fork, PA, USA: 2.9 ky and 2.3 ky; Oregon Coast Range, OR, USA: n/a and 30ky; North Island, New Zealand: n/a and 1.5 ky; and Amparafaravola, Madagascar: 21 ky and 6.2 ky. Soil residence times inferred from meteoric 10Be assume a global average delivery rate of 1.3 x 106 atoms cm-2 yr-1. These soil residence times are minimum values that assume that all in situ and meteoric 10Be is accounted for. Discrepancies between inferred soil residence times most likely highlight some error in assumptions regarding meteoric 10Be retention in the soil mantles that we sampled. For example, if meteoric 10Be is not retained at the near surface where we collected our samples

  6. A cold hydrological system in Gale crater, Mars (United States)

    Fairén, Alberto G.; Stokes, Chris R.; Davies, Neil S.; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; Davila, Alfonso F.; Uceda, Esther R.; Dohm, James M.; Baker, Victor R.; Clifford, Stephen M.; McKay, Christopher P.; Squyres, Steven W.


    Gale crater is a ~154-km-diameter impact crater formed during the Late Noachian/Early Hesperian at the dichotomy boundary on Mars. Here we describe potential evidence for ancient glacial, periglacial and fluvial (including glacio-fluvial) activity within Gale crater, and the former presence of ground ice and lakes. Our interpretations are derived from morphological observations using high-resolution datasets, particularly HiRISE and HRSC. We highlight a potential ancient lobate rock-glacier complex in parts of the northern central mound, with further suggestions of glacial activity in the large valley systems towards the southeast central mound. Wide expanses of ancient ground ice may be indicated by evidence for very cohesive ancient river banks and for the polygonal patterned ground common on the crater floor west of the central mound. We extend the interpretation to fluvial and lacustrine activity to the west of the central mound, as recorded by a series of interconnected canyons, channels and a possible lake basin. The emerging picture from our regional landscape analyses is the hypothesis that rock glaciers may have formerly occupied the central mound. The glaciers would have provided the liquid water required for carving the canyons and channels. Associated glaciofluvial activity could have led to liquid water running over ground ice-rich areas on the basin floor, with resultant formation of partially and/or totally ice-covered lakes in parts of the western crater floor. All this hydrologic activity is Hesperian or younger. Following this, we envisage a time of drying, with the generation of polygonal patterned ground and dune development subsequent to the disappearance of the surface liquid and frozen water.

  7. Under trees and water at Crater Lake National Park, Oregon (United States)

    Robinson, Joel E.; Bacon, Charles R.; Wayne, Chris


    Crater Lake partially fills the caldera that formed approximately 7,700 years ago during the eruption of a 12,000-ft-high volcano known as Mount Mazama. The caldera-forming, or climactic, eruption of Mount Mazama devastated the surrounding landscape, left a thick deposit of pumice and ash in adjacent valleys, and spread a blanket of volcanic ash as far away as southern Canada. Prior to the climactic event, Mount Mazama had a 400,000-year history of volcanic activity similar to other large Cascade volcanoes such as Mounts Shasta, Hood, and Rainier. Since the caldera formed, many smaller, less violent eruptions occurred at volcanic vents below Crater Lake's surface, including Wizard Island. A survey of Crater Lake National Park with airborne LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) resulted in a digital elevation map of the ground surface beneath the forest canopy. The average resolution is 1.6 laser returns per square meter yielding vertical and horizontal accuracies of ±5 cm. The map of the floor beneath the surface of the 1,947-ft-deep (593-m-deep) Crater Lake was developed from a multibeam sonar bathymetric survey and was added to the map to provide a continuous view of the landscape from the highest peak on Mount Scott to the deepest part of Crater Lake. Four enlarged shaded-relief views provide a sampling of features that illustrate the resolution of the LiDAR survey and illustrate its utility in revealing volcanic landforms and subtle features of the climactic eruption deposits. LiDAR's high precision and ability to "see" through the forest canopy reveal features that may not be easily recognized-even when walked over-because their full extent is hidden by vegetation, such as the 1-m-tall arcuate scarp near Castle Creek.

  8. Chemical variations observed on Aeolis Mons in Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Frydenvang, Jens; Gasda, Patrick J.; Thompson, Lucy; Hurowitz, Joel; Grotzinger, John P.; Blaney, Diana L.; Gellert, Ralf; Wiens, Roger; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; MSL Science Team


    The extraordinarily extensive exposure of hematite-, clay-, sulfate-bearing stratigraphic layers in the lower part of Aeolis Mons was the primary reason Gale Crater was selected as the landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity. 753 martian solar days (sols) after the Curiosity rover landed in Gale Crater in August 2012, and after driving more than 9 km, the Curiosity rover arrived at the first exposure of the Murray formation, the basal layer of Aeolis Mons. The Murray formation is a thinly laminated lacustrine mudstone showing stratification down to the millimeter scale. This supports the idea that the stratigraphic layers of Aeolis Mons are sedimentary, and likely deposited in a series of long-lived lakes extending into the early Hesperian time, as recently described by Grotzinger et al. (Science, vol. 350, 2015). The chemical variations observed throughout the Murray formation by the ChemCam and APXS instruments in the 600+ sols since first arriving at Aeolis Mons will be presented. While Murray remains thinly laminated throughout the 30+ vertical meters of stratigraphy explored, large chemical variations are observed. The most extreme variations arise from likely co-located detrital and diagenetic silica enrichments in Murray. Remarkably, an associated diagenetic silica enrichment is also observed in the unconformably overlying eolian sandstone of the Stimson formation in that location. The detrital enrichment provides evidence of how the source region chemistry varied as the sedimentary layers of Aeolis Mons were deposited. Conversely, the diagenetic enrichment observed across both the Murray and Stimson formations provides compelling evidence for the presence of subsurface fluids in Gale Crater, thousands to millions of years after the crater lakes disappeared. This evidence of liquid water greatly extends the timescale in which Gale Crater might have been habitable.

  9. Anticipated Electrical Environment Within Permanently Shadowed Lunar Craters (United States)

    Farrell, W. M.; Stubbs, T. J.; Halekas, J. S.; Killen, R. M.; Delory, G. T.; Collier, M. R.; Vondrak, R. R.


    Shadowed locations ncar the lunar poles arc almost certainly electrically complex regions. At these locations near the terminator, the local solar wind flows nearly tangential to the surface and interacts with large-scale topographic features such as mountains and deep large craters, In this work, we study the solar wind orographic effects from topographic obstructions along a rough lunar surface, On the leeward side of large obstructions, plasma voids are formed in the solar wind because of the absorption of plasma on the upstream surface of these obstacles, Solar wind plasma expands into such voids) producing an ambipolar potential that diverts ion flow into the void region. A surface potential is established on these leeward surfaces in order to balance the currents from the expansion-limited electron and ion populations, Wc find that there arc regions ncar the leeward wall of the craters and leeward mountain faces where solar wind ions cannot access the surface, leaving an electron-rich plasma previously identified as an "electron cloud." In this case, some new current is required to complete the closure for current balance at the surface, and we propose herein that lofted negatively charged dust is one possible (nonunique) compensating current source. Given models for both ambipolar and surface plasma processes, we consider the electrical environment around the large topographic features of the south pole (including Shoemaker crater and the highly varied terrain near Nobile crater), as derived from Goldstone radar data, We also apply our model to moving and stationary objects of differing compositions located on the surface and consider the impact of the deflected ion flow on possible hydrogen resources within the craters

  10. Performance of D-criteria in isolating meteor showers from the sporadic background in an optical data set

    CERN Document Server

    Moorhead, Althea V


    Separating meteor showers from the sporadic meteor background is critical for the study of both showers and the sporadic complex. The linkage of meteors to meteor showers, to parent bodies, and to other meteors is done using measures of orbital similarity. These measures often take the form of so-called D-parameters and are generally paired with some cutoff value within which two orbits are considered related. The appropriate cutoff value can depend on the size of the data-set (Southworth & Hawkins 1963), the sporadic contribution within the observed size range (Jopek 1995), or the inclination of the shower (Galligan 2001). If the goal is to minimize sporadic contamination of the extracted shower, the cutoff value should also reflect the strength of the shower compared to the local sporadic background. In this paper, we present a method for determining, on a per-shower basis, the orbital similarity cutoff value that corresponds to a chosen acceptable false-positive rate. This method also assists us in dis...

  11. Crater Morphometry and Crater Degradation on Mercury: Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) Measurements and Comparison to Stereo-DTM Derived Results (United States)

    Leight, C.; Fassett, C. I.; Crowley, M. C.; Dyar, M. D.


    Two types of measurements of Mercury's surface topography were obtained by the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface Space ENvironment, GEochemisty and Ranging) spacecraft: laser ranging data from Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) [1], and stereo imagery from the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) camera [e.g., 2, 3]. MLA data provide precise and accurate elevation meaurements, but with sparse spatial sampling except at the highest northern latitudes. Digital terrain models (DTMs) from MDIS have superior resolution but with less vertical accuracy, limited approximately to the pixel resolution of the original images (in the case of [3], 15-75 m). Last year [4], we reported topographic measurements of craters in the D=2.5 to 5 km diameter range from stereo images and suggested that craters on Mercury degrade more quickly than on the Moon (by a factor of up to approximately 10×). However, we listed several alternative explanations for this finding, including the hypothesis that the lower depth/diameter ratios we observe might be a result of the resolution and accuracy of the stereo DTMs. Thus, additional measurements were undertaken using MLA data to examine the morphometry of craters in this diameter range and assess whether the faster crater degradation rates proposed to occur on Mercury is robust.

  12. Ganymede crater dimensions - Implications for central peak and central pit formation and development (United States)

    Bray, Veronica J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Jay Melosh, H.; Morgan, Joanna V.; Collins, Gareth S.


    The morphology of impact craters on the icy Galilean satellites differs from craters on rocky bodies. The differences are thought due to the relative weakness of ice and the possible presence of sub-surface water layers. Digital elevation models constructed from Galileo images were used to measure a range of dimensions of craters on the dark and bright terrains of Ganymede. Measurements were made from multiple profiles across each crater, so that natural variation in crater dimensions could be assessed and averaged scaling trends constructed. The additional depth, slope and volume information reported in this work has enabled study of central peak formation and development, and allowed a quantitative assessment of the various theories for central pit formation. We note a possible difference in the size-morphology progression between small craters on icy and silicate bodies, where central peaks occur in small craters before there is any slumping of the crater rim, which is the opposite to the observed sequence on the Moon. Conversely, our crater dimension analyses suggest that the size-morphology progression of large lunar craters from central peak to peak-ring is mirrored on Ganymede, but that the peak-ring is subsequently modified to a central pit morphology. Pit formation may occur via the collapse of surface material into a void left by the gradual release of impact-induced volatiles or the drainage of impact melt into sub-crater fractures.

  13. Characterization of the Morphometry of Impact Craters Hosting Polar Deposits in Mercury's North Polar Region (United States)

    Talpe Matthieu; Zuber, Maria T.; Yang, Di; Neumann, Gregory A.; Solomon, Sean C.; Mazarico, Erwan; Vilas, Faith


    Earth-based radar images of Mercury show radar-bright material inside impact craters near the planet s poles. A previous study indicated that the polar-deposit-hosting craters (PDCs) at Mercury s north pole are shallower than craters that lack such deposits. We use data acquired by the Mercury Laser Altimeter on the MESSENGER spacecraft during 11 months of orbital observations to revisit the depths of craters at high northern latitudes on Mercury. We measured the depth and diameter of 537 craters located poleward of 45 N, evaluated the slopes of the northern and southern walls of 30 PDCs, and assessed the floor roughness of 94 craters, including nine PDCs. We find that the PDCs appear to have a fresher crater morphology than the non-PDCs and that the radar-bright material has no detectable influence on crater depths, wall slopes, or floor roughness. The statistical similarity of crater depth-diameter relations for the PDC and non-PDC populations places an upper limit on the thickness of the radar-bright material (< 170 m for a crater 11 km in diameter) that can be refined by future detailed analysis. Results of the current study are consistent with the view that the radar-bright material constitutes a relatively thin layer emplaced preferentially in comparatively young craters.

  14. Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar: Initial assessment of gravity wave momentum fluxes (United States)

    Fritts, D. C.; Janches, D.; Hocking, W. K.


    The Southern Argentina Agile Meteor Radar (SAAMER) was installed on Tierra del Fuego (53.8°S) in May 2008 and has been operational since that time. This paper describes tests of the SAAMER ability to measure gravity wave momentum fluxes and applications of this capability during different seasons. Test results for specified mean, tidal, and gravity wavefields, including tidal amplitudes and gravity wave momentum fluxes varying strongly with altitude and/or time, suggest that the distribution of meteors throughout the diurnal cycle and averaged over a month allows characterization of both monthly mean profiles and diurnal variations of the gravity wave momentum fluxes. Applications of the same methods for real data suggest confidence in the monthly mean profiles and the composite day diurnal variations of gravity wave momentum fluxes at altitudes where meteor counts are sufficient to yield good statistical fits to the data. Monthly mean zonal winds and gravity wave momentum fluxes exhibit anticorrelations consistent with those seen at other midlatitude and high-latitude radars during austral spring and summer, when no strong local gravity wave sources are apparent. When stratospheric variances are significantly enhanced over the Drake Passage “hot spot” during austral winter, however, MLT winds and momentum fluxes over SAAMER exhibit very different correlations that suggest that MLT dynamics are strongly influenced by strong local gravity wave sources within this “hot spot.” SAAMER measurements of mean zonal and meridional winds at these times and their differences from measurements at a conjugate site provide further support for the unusual momentum flux measurements.

  15. On Meteoric Dust Particles in the Near-Earth Space Environment (United States)

    Mahmoudian, Alireza; Farahani, Majid Mazraeh Ei; Mohebalhojeh, Ali R.; Scales, Wayne


    Over 40 metric tons of meteoric dust enters the earth's atmosphere every day. This dust settles and creates natural dust layers in the altitude ranges between 80 and 100 kilometers which spans the earth's upper mesosphere to lower thermosphere. The dust layers in the lower atmosphere have a great impact on climate, human health as well as communication and navigation signals. The main goal of this study is the role of meteoric smoke particles on the formation of Polar Mesospheric Clouds (PMC). Recent rocket experiments have detected the presence of these particles. Since these dust layers are immersed in the earth's upper atmosphere, they become charged due to collection of electrons and ions from the earth's ionospheric plasma. Noctilucent Clouds NLCs are a fascinating visual manifestation of these dust layers. So-called Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes PMSEs are radar echoes that are a direct consequence of the sub-visible charged dust that exists at altitudes above NLC regions. Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes (PMSE) are strong echoes that have been typically observed in the frequency range from 50MHz to 1.3GHz and in the altitude about 85km. Unlike PMSE, Polar mesospheric winter echoes (PMWE) are less known. PMWE appear at a lower altitude and is weaker in comparison with PMSE. The focus of this study is on meteoric smoke particles and how they affect PMWE source region. Parameters associated with smoke dust particles such as size distribution, charging characteristics, density and positive or negative charge will be considered. The second part of this presentation will be on the effect of gravity waves on PMC. Full coupling to a turbulent neutral field with a statistical analysis will be discussed. Impact of a neutral turbulence driving field on small amplitude plasma fluctuations in such a configuration and some of the important consequences will be also presented. This has important consequences for electric field and potential measurements on rocket probes as

  16. Kinetic Theory of Meteor Plasma in the Earth's atmosphere: Implications for Radar Head Echo (United States)

    Dimant, Y. S.; Oppenheim, M. M.


    Every second millions of tiny meteoroids hit the Earth from space, vast majority too small to be observed visually. However, radars detect the plasma they generate and use the collected data to characterize the incoming meteoroids and the atmosphere in which they disintegrate. This diagnostics requires a detailed quantitative understanding of formation of the meteor plasma and how it interacts with the Earth's atmosphere. Fast-descending meteoroids become detectable to radars after they heat due to collisions with atmospheric molecules sufficiently and start ablating. The ablated material then collides into atmospheric molecules and forms plasma around the meteoroid. Reflection of radar pulses from this plasma produces a localized signal called a head echo often accompanied by a much longer non-specular trail (see the Figure). Using first principles, we have developed a consistent collisional kinetic theory of the near-meteoroid plasma responsible for the radar head echo. This theory produces analytic expressions describing the ion and neutral velocity distributions along with the detailed 3-D spatial structure of the near-meteoroid plasma. These expressions predict a number of unexpected features such as shell-like velocity distributions. This theory shows that the meteoroid plasma develops over a length-scale close to the ion mean free path with a strongly non-Maxwellian velocity distribution. The spatial distribution of the plasma density shows significant deviations from a Gaussian law usually employed in head-echo modeling. This analytical model will serve as a basis for a more accurate quantitative interpretation of radar measurements, estimates of the ionization efficiency, and should help calculate meteoroid and atmosphere parameters from radar head-echo observations. This theory could also help clarify the physical nature of electromagnetic pulses observed during recent meteor showers and associated with the passage of fast-moving meteors through the

  17. A laboratory study of meteor smoke analogues: Composition, optical properties and growth kinetics (United States)

    Saunders, Russell W.; Plane, John M. C.


    Meteoric smoke forms in the mesosphere from the recondensation of the metallic species and silica produced by meteoric ablation. A photochemical flow reactor was used to generate meteoric smoke mimics using appropriate photolytic precursors of Fe and Si atoms in an excess of oxidant. The following systems were studied: (i) Fe+O3/O2, (ii) Fe+O3/O2+H2O, (iii) Fe+Si/SiO+O3/O2 and (iv) Si/SiO+O3/O2. The resulting nano-particles were captured for imaging by transmission electron microscopy, combined with elemental analysis using X-ray (EDX) and electron energy loss (EELS) techniques. These systems generated particle compositions consistent with: (i) Fe2O3 (hematite), (ii) FeOOH (goethite), (iii) Fe2SiO4 (fayalite) and (iv) SiO2 (silica). Electron diffraction revealed that the Fe-containing particles were entirely amorphous, while the SiO2 particles displayed some degree of crystallinity. The Fe-containing particles formed fractal aggregates with chain-like morphologies, whereas the SiO2 particles were predominantly spherical and compact in appearance. The optical extinction spectra of the Fe-containing particles were measured from 300 nmcoagulation. This was modelled by assuming an initial period of coalescent particle growth resulting from diffusional (Brownian) coagulation to form primary particles; further growth of these particles is then dominated by long-range magnetic dipole dipole interactions, leading to the fractal aggregates observed. The atmospheric implications of this work are then discussed.

  18. Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth's stratosphere (United States)

    Saunders, R. W.; Dhomse, S.; Tian, W. S.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Plane, J. M. C.


    Nano-sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs) with iron-magnesium silicate compositions, formed in the upper mesosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, may remove sulphuric acid from the gas-phase above 40 km and may also affect the composition and behaviour of supercooled H2SO4-H2O droplets in the global stratospheric aerosol (Junge) layer. This study describes a time-resolved spectroscopic analysis of the evolution of the ferric (Fe3+) ion originating from amorphous ferrous (Fe2+)-based silicate powders dissolved in varying Wt % sulphuric acid (30-75 %) solutions over a temperature range of 223-295 K. Complete dissolution of the particles was observed under all conditions. The first-order rate coefficient for dissolution decreases at higher Wt % and lower temperature, which is consistent with the increased solution viscosity limiting diffusion of H2SO4 to the particle surfaces. Dissolution under stratospheric conditions should take less than a week, and is much faster than the dissolution of crystalline Fe2+ compounds. The chemistry climate model UMSLIMCAT (based on the UKMO Unified Model) was then used to study the transport of MSPs through the middle atmosphere. A series of model experiments were performed with different uptake coefficients. Setting the concentration of 1.5 nm radius MSPs at 80 km to 3000 cm-3 (based on rocket-borne charged particle measurements), the model matches the reported Wt % Fe values of 0.5-1.0 in Junge layer sulphate particles, and the MSP optical extinction between 40 and 75 km measured by a satellite-borne spectrometer, if the global meteoric input rate is about 20 tonnes per day. The model indicates that an uptake coefficient ≥0.01 is required to account for the observed two orders of magnitude depletion of H2SO4 vapour above 40 km.

  19. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. Results (United States)

    Strelnikova, Irina; Rapp, Markus; Strelnikov, Boris; Baumgarten, Gerd; Brattli, Alvin; Svenes, Knut; Hoppe, Ulf-Peter; Friedrich, Martin; Gumbel, Jörg; Williams, Bifford P.


    The first sounding rocket of the European ECOMA-project (ECOMA, Existence and Charge state Of Meteoric smoke particles in the middle Atmosphere) was launched on 8 September 2006. Measurements with a new particle detector described in the companion paper by Rapp and Strelnikova [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.06.002] clearly showed meteor smoke particle (MSP) signatures in both data channels. The data channels measure particles directly impacting on the detector electrode and photoelectrons from the particles actively created using ionization by the UV-photons of a xenon-flashlamp. Measured photoelectron currents resemble model expectations of the shape of the MSP layer almost perfectly, whereas derived number densities in the altitude range 60-90 km are larger than model results by about a factor of 5. Given the large uncertainties inherent to both model and the analysis of our measurements (e.g., the composition of the particles is not known and must be assumed) we consider this a satisfactory agreement and proof that MSPs do extend throughout the entire mesosphere as predicted by models. The measurements of direct particle impacts revealed a confined layer of negative charge between 80 and 90 km. This limited altitude range, however, is quantitatively shown to be the consequence of the aerodynamics of the rocket flight and does not have any geophysical origin. Measured charge signatures are consistent with expectations of particle charging given our own measurements of the background ionization. Unfortunately, however, a contamination of these measurements from triboelectric charging cannot be excluded at this stage.

  20. DUSTER: collection of meteoric CaO and carbon smoke particles in the upper stratosphere . (United States)

    Della Corte, V.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Rotundi, A.; Ferrari, M.; Palumbo, P.

    Nanometer- to micrometer-size particles present in the upper stratosphere are a mixture of terrestrial and extra-terrestrial origins. They can be extraterrestrial particles condensed after meteor ablation. Meteoric dust in bolides is occasionally deposited into the lower stratosphere around 20 km altitude. Nanometer CaO and pure carbon smoke particles were collected at 38 km altitude in the upper stratosphere in the Arctic during June 2008 using DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval), a balloon-borne instrument for the non-destructive collection of solid particles between 200 nm to 40 microns. We report the collection of micron sized CaCO_3 (calcite) grains. Their morphologies show evidence of melting and condensation after vaporization suggest at temperatures of approximately 3500 K. The formation environment of the collected grains was probably a dense dust cloud formed by the disintegration of a carbonaceous meteoroid during deceleration in the Earth� atmosphere. For the first time, DUSTER collected meteor ablation products that were presumably associated with the disintegration of a bolide crossing the Earth's atmosphere. The collected mostly CaO and pure carbon nanoparticles from the debris cloud of a fireball, included: 1) intact fragments; 2) quenched melted grains; and 3) vapor phase condensation products. The DUSTER project was funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), PRIN2008/MIUR (Ministero dell'Istruzione dell'Universitá e della Ricerca), PNRA 2013(Piano Nazionale Ricerca Antartide). CNES graciously provided this flight opportunity. We thank E. Zona and S. Inarta at the Laboratorio di Fisica Cosmica INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte-Universitá di Napoli Parthenope. F.J.M.R. was supported by grant NNX07AI39G from the NASA Cosmochemistry Program. We thank three anonymous reviewers who assisted us in introducing our new instrument.

  1. Near-Earth Asteroids as Possible Parent Bodies of Meteor Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Sokolova


    Full Text Available The genetic relationship of meteor streams with near-Earth asteroids (NEAs is being actively studied. A genetic link with the asteroid is possible only for streams in which meteoroids have the geocentric speed smaller than 50 km/s, thereby meaning the proportionality of their orbits with the orbits of asteroids. To date, there are about 40 such orphan streams with unknown parent bodies. In the paper, NEA groups (Aten, Apollo, Amor, and Atira have been considered from the perspective of possible search for the parent bodies of meteor streams among them. The groups have been compared based on the following parameters: eccentricity of asteroid orbits, as well as size and chemical composition of asteroids. Currently, it is considered that the surface of asteroids with elongated orbits is subjected to temperature fall: it is heated in perihelion and cooled in aphelion. Due to small orbital periods around the Sun (about 2–4 years, this may lead to formation of meteoroid clusters. Therefore, comparison of asteroids by their orbit shape and physicochemical parameters enables us to distinguish between NEA groups of asteroids and the Apollo group as most probable candidates to search for the parent bodies of meteor streams among NEAs. Unfortunately, finding physicochemical parameters poses great difficulties, since they are only detectable for some asteroids. At the same time, it is impossible to study asteroids dynamics, evolution, and relation with other bodies of the Solar system, as well as to realistically assess the impact of NEAs and products of their disintegration collision with the Earth and to develop systems of anti-asteroid protection without knowing the following parameters of asteroids: mineralogical composition, density, size, and accurate mass.

  2. A time-resolved model of the mesospheric Na layer: constraints on the meteor input function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. C. Plane


    Full Text Available A time-resolved model of the Na layer in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere region is described, where the continuity equations for the major sodium species Na, Na+ and NaHCO3 are solved explicity, and the other short-lived species are treated in steady-state. It is shown that the diurnal variation of the Na layer can only be modelled satisfactorily if sodium species are permanently removed below about 85 km, both through the dimerization of NaHCO3 and the uptake of sodium species on meteoric smoke particles that are assumed to have formed from the recondensation of vaporized meteoroids. When the sensitivity of the Na layer to the meteoroid input function is considered, an inconsistent picture emerges. The ratio of the column abundance of Na+ to Na is shown to increase strongly with the average meteoroid velocity, because the Na is injected at higher altitudes. Comparison with a limited set of Na+ measurements indicates that the average meteoroid velocity is probably less than about 25 km s-1, in agreement with velocity estimates from conventional meteor radars, and considerably slower than recent observations made by wide aperture incoherent scatter radars. The Na column abundance is shown to be very sensitive to the meteoroid mass input rate, and to the rate of vertical transport by eddy diffusion. Although the magnitude of the eddy diffusion coefficient in the 80–90 km region is uncertain, there is a consensus between recent models using parameterisations of gravity wave momentum deposition that the average value is less than 3×105 cm2 s-1. This requires that the global meteoric mass input rate is less than about 20 td-1, which is closest to estimates from incoherent scatter radar observations. Finally, the diurnal variation in the meteoroid input rate only slight perturbs the Na layer, because the residence time of Na in the layer is several days, and diurnal effects are effectively averaged out.

  3. The Zodiacal Cloud Model applied to the Martian atmosphere. Diurnal variations in Meteoric ion layers (United States)

    Diego Carrillo-Sánchez, Juan; Plane, John M. C.; Withers, Paul; Fallows, Kathryn; Nesvorný, David; Pokorný, Petr; Feng, Wuhu


    Sporadic metal layers have been detected in the Martian atmosphere by radio occultation measurements using the Mars Express Orbiter and Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. More recently, metallic ion layers produced by the meteor storm event following the close encounter between Comet Siding Spring (C/2013 A1) and Mars were identified by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft. However, the background metal layers produced by the influx of sporadic meteors have not yet been detected at Mars (contrary to the permanent metal layers identified in the Earth's atmosphere). The Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model for particle populations released by asteroids (AST), and dust grains from Jupiter Family Comets (JFC) and Halley-Type Comets (HTC) has been combined with a Monte Carlo sampling method and the Chemical ABlation MODel (CABMOD) to predict the ablation rates of Na, K, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca and Al above 40 km altitude in the Martian atmosphere. CABMOD considers the standard treatment of meteor physics, including the balance of frictional heating by radiative losses and the absorption of heat energy through temperature increases, melting phase transitions and vaporization, as well as sputtering by inelastic collisions with the air molecules. These vertical profiles are input into the Leeds 1-D Mars atmospheric model which includes photo-ionization, and gas-phase ion-molecule and neutral chemistry, in order to explore the evolution of the resulting metallic ions and atoms. We conclude that the formation of the sporadic ion layers observed below 100 km with a plasma density exceeding 104 cm-3 requires the combination of the three different influx sources considered by the ZDC model, with a significant asteroidal contribution. Finally, we explore the changes of the neutral and ionized Mg and Fe layers over a diurnal cycle.

  4. Role of the granular nature of meteoritic projectiles in impact crater morphogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Bartali, Roberto; Nahmad-Molinari, Yuri; Sarochi, Damiano; Ruiz-Suárez, J C


    By means of novel volume-diameter aspect ratio diagrams, we ponder on the current conception of crater morphogenesis analyzing crater data from beam explosions, hypervelocity collisions and drop experiments and comparing them with crater data from three moons (the Moon, Callisto, and Ganymede) and from our own experimental results. The distinctive volume-diameter scaling laws we discovered make us to conclude that simple and complex craters in satellites and planets could have been formed by granular vs. granular collisions and that central peaks and domes in complex craters were formed by a dynamic confinement of part of the impacting projectile, rather than by the uplift of the target terrain. A granulometric analysis of asteroids and central peaks and domes inside complex craters, shows boulder size distributions consistent with our hypothesis that crater internal features are the remnants of granular impactors.

  5. Seasonal and diurnal variability of the meteor flux at high latitudes observed using PFISR (United States)

    Sparks, J. J.; Janches, D.; Nicolls, M. J.; Heinselman, C. J.


    We report in this and a companion paper [Fentzke, J.T., Janches, D., Sparks, J.J., 2008. Latitudinal and seasonal variability of the micrometeor input function: A study using model predictions and observations from Arecibo and PFISR. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.015] a complete seasonal study of the micrometeor input function (MIF) at high latitudes using meteor head-echo radar observations performed with the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar (PFISR). This flux is responsible for a number of atmospheric phenomena; for example, it could be the source of meteoric smoke that is thought to act as condensation nuclei in the formation of ice particles in the polar mesosphere. The observations presented here were performed for full 24-h periods near the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes, times at which the seasonal variability of the MIF is predicted to be large at high latitudes [Janches, D., Heinselman, C.J., Chau, J.L., Chandran, A., Woodman, R., 2006. Modeling of the micrometeor input function in the upper atmosphere observed by High Power and Large Aperture Radars, JGR, 11, A07317, doi:10.1029/2006JA011628]. Precise altitude and radar instantaneous line-of-sight (radial) Doppler velocity information are obtained for each of the hundreds of events detected every day. We show that meteor rates, altitude, and radial velocity distributions have a large seasonal dependence. This seasonal variability can be explained by a change in the relative location of the meteoroid sources with respect to the observer. Our results show that the meteor flux into the upper atmosphere is strongly anisotropic and its characteristics must be accounted for when including this flux into models attempting to explain related aeronomical phenomena. In addition, the measured acceleration and received signal strength distribution do not seem to depend on season; which may suggest that these observed

  6. Comets, meteors, and eclipses: Art and science in early Renaissance Italy (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss eight trecento (fourteenth century) paintings containing depictions of astronomical events to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting in early Renaissance Italy, noting that an artistic interest in naturalism predisposed these pioneering painters to make their scientific observations. In turn, the convincing representations of their observations of astronomical phenomena in works of art rendered their paintings more believable, convincing. Padua was already a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology) when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (circa 1301-1303). Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem in the Adoration of the Magi scene. Moreover, he painted a historical apparition that he recently had observed with a great accuracy even by modern standards. Halley's Comet of 1301 (Olson, 1979). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and "astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we discuss Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, reputed to have been partially blinded by a solar eclipse, whose calamity may find expression in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30; 1338?). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20) contain dazzling meteor showers that reveal the artist's observed astronomical phenomena, such as the "radiant" effect of meteor showers, first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt in 1799 and only accepted in the nineteenth century. Lorenzetti also painted sporadic, independent

  7. Automated detection of lunar craters based on object-oriented approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE ZongYu; LIU JianZhong; WU GanGuo


    The object-oriented approach is a powerful method in making classification. With the segmentation of images to objects, many features can be calculated based on the objects so that the targets can be distinguished. However, this method has not been applied to lunar study. In this paper we attempt to apply this method to detecting lunar craters with promising results. Craters are the most obvious features on the moon and they are important for lunar geologic study. One of the important questions in lunar research is to estimate lunar surface ages by examination of crater density per unit area. Hence,proper detection of lunar craters is necessary. Manual crater identification is inefficient, and a more efficient and effective method is needed. This paper describes an object-oriented method to detect lunar craters using lunar reflectance images. In the method, many objects were first segmented from the image based on size, shape, color, and the weights to every layer. Then the feature of "contrast to neighbor objects" was selected to identify craters from the lunar image. In the next step, by merging the adjacent objects belonging to the same class, almost every crater can be taken as an independent object except several very big craters in the study area. To remove the crater rays diagnosed as craters,the feature of "length/width" was further used with suitable parameters to finish recognizing craters.Finally, the result was exported to ArcGIS for manual modification to those big craters and the number of craters was acquired.

  8. Relative impact of meteor scatter and other long-distance high-latitude propagation modes on VHF communication systems (United States)

    Cannon, Paul S.; Weitzen, Jay A.; Ostergaard, Jens; Rasmussen, John E.


    We have analyzed the duty cycle, due to ionospheric propagation, of very high frequency sounding signals for both polar cap and auroral paths. We find that at 35 and 45 MHz the propagation is often sustained by sporadic E layers and other nonmeteoric modes rather than by meteor scatter. At the higher frequencies of 65 and 85 MHz we find that the path is generally dominated by meteor scatter modes. These results have important ramifications for frequency reuse and security in meteor burst communications systems and for the development of extended frequency range HF systems (above 30 MHz) with a capability to operate on any available propagation mode. The diurnal, seasonal, and geomagnetic variations of the nonmeteoric duty cycle have been examined. A polar cap path model is presented for the nonmeteoric duty cycle as a function of geomagnetic activity.

  9. The Complicated Geologic Histories of Large Venusian Impact Craters (United States)

    Rumpf, M. E.; Herrick, R.; Gregg, T. K.


    One of the more surprising discoveries from the Magellan imaging campaign was that the impact craters have a spatial distribution closely consistent with a random pattern. First impressions of most craters were that they are also well preserved. These observations led to an initial post-Magellan consensus that the planet is nearly geologically inactive and that activity rapidly ceased a few hundred million years ago. Early mapping efforts were mostly interpreted in terms of a rapid, linear, globally uniform stratigraphic evolution in the nature of volcanism and deformation. A number of challenges to this view have been made as detailed study of the Magellan data has progressed, and several researchers now advocate a more uniformitarian view of the planet. A valuable research tool has been topography derived from Magellan stereo imagery; it provides an order of magnitude improvement in horizontal resolution over the altimetry data (1 km vs. 10 km). Previous studies utilizing the stereo-derived topography have shown that impact craters with radar-dark floors (most of the population) are shallow and probably partially filled with post-impact lavas, and detailed mapping of Mead impact basin (the planet's largest impact structure) has revealed post-impact volcanic embayment. We have recently performed detailed photogeologic mapping, aided by stereo-derived topography, of several 50-100 km diameter impact craters. Most of these craters are not at the top of the stratigraphic column, and in some cases there is a complex, multi-event post-emplacement history. The combined histories of these craters are not consistent with a rapid cessation of geologic activity, and we are still synthesizing the individual histories to evaluate the hypothesis of a linear global stratigraphic evolution. Although the stereo-derived topography greatly aided interpretation, in many cases geologic contacts were ambiguous, individual volcanic flows could not be distinguished, source vents could

  10. Regolith production and transport at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory, Part 2: Insights from meteoric 10Be (United States)

    West, Nicole; Kirby, Eric; Bierman, Paul; Slingerland, Rudy; Ma, Lin; Rood, Dylan; Brantley, Susan


    Regolith-mantled hillslopes are ubiquitous features of most temperate landscapes, and their morphology reflects the climatically, biologically, and tectonically mediated interplay between regolith production and downslope transport. Despite intensive research, few studies have quantified both of these mass fluxes in the same field site. Here we present an analysis of 87 meteoric 10Be measurements from regolith and bedrock within the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHO), in central Pennsylvania. Meteoric 10Be concentrations in bulk regolith samples (n = 73) decrease with regolith depth. Comparison of hillslope meteoric 10Be inventories with analyses of rock chip samples (n = 14) from a 24 m bedrock core confirms that >80% of the total inventory is retained in the regolith. The systematic downslope increase of meteoric 10Be inventories observed at SSHO is consistent with 10Be accumulation in slowly creeping regolith (~ 0.2 cm yr-1). Regolith flux inferred from meteoric 10Be varies linearly with topographic gradient (determined from high-resolution light detection and ranging-based topography) along the upper portions of hillslopes at SSHO. However, regolith flux appears to depend on the product of gradient and regolith depth where regolith is thick, near the base of hillslopes. Meteoric 10Be inventories at the north and south ridgetops indicate minimum regolith residence times of 10.5 ± 3.7 and 9.1 ± 2.9 ky, respectively, similar to residence times inferred from U-series isotopes in Ma et al. (2013). The combination of our results with U-series-derived regolith production rates implies that regolith production and erosion rates are similar to within a factor of two on SSHO hillcrests.

  11. Observations on Stratospheric-Mesospheric-Thermospheric temperatures using Indian MST radar and co-located LIDAR during Leonid Meteor Shower (LMS

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    R. Selvamurugan

    Full Text Available The temporal and height statistics of the occurrence of meteor trails during the Leonid meteor shower revealed the capability of the Indian MST radar to record large numbers of meteor trails. The distribution of radio meteor trails due to a Leonid meteor shower in space and time provided a unique opportunity to construct the height profiles of lower thermospheric temperatures and winds, with good time and height resolution. There was a four-fold increase in the meteor trails observed during the LMS compared to a typical non-shower day. The temperatures were found to be in excellent continuity with the temperature profiles below the radio meteor region derived from the co-located Nd-Yag LIDAR and the maximum height of the temperature profile was extended from the LIDAR to ~110 km. There are, how-ever, some significant differences between the observed profiles and the CIRA-86 model profiles. The first results on the meteor statistics and neutral temperature are presented and discussed below. 

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pres-sure, density, and temperature History of geophysics (at-mospheric sciences Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics

  12. Meteoroids Interaction With The Earth Atmosphere

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    Turchak Leonid I.


    Full Text Available In this study we evaluate meteoroid mass and its other properties based on the observed atmospheric trajectory. With account for aerodynamics, we formulate a problem by introducing key dimensionless parameters in the model, responsible for the drag, mass loss and rotation of meteoroid. The proposed model is suitable to categorize various impact events in terms of meteor survivability and impact damage and thus, to analyze consequences that accompany collisions of cosmic bodies with planetary atmosphere and surface. The different types of events, namely, formation of a massive single crater (Barringer, Lonar Lake, dispersion of craters and meteorites over a large area (Sikhote-Alin, absent of craters and meteorites, but huge damage (Tunguska are considered as illustrative examples. The proposed approach helps to summarize the data on existing terrestrial impacts and to formulate recommendations for further studies valuable for planetary defence. It also significantly increases chances of successful meteorite recoveries in future. In other words, the study represents a ’cheap’ possibility to probe cosmic matter reaching planetary surface and it complements results of sample-return missions bringing back pristine samples of the materials.

  13. Cambios en los niveles de Meteorín a lo largo de la gestación


    Mora Morantes, José Alfonso; Bedoya Ossa, Andrés


    Meteorín es una molécula de reciente interés, identificada inicialmente en el tejido neuronal, con propiedades angiogénicas que la postulan como factor protector para el desarrollo de preeclampsia. Su intervención en procesos como la adipogénesis, la obesidad y el síndrome metabólico la clasifican como marcador predictivo para el diagnóstico precoz de preeclampsia en etapas tempranas de la gestación. Objetivo: Determinar niveles de Meteorín y parámetros bioquímicos relacionados con el sínd...

  14. Ground-based Optical Observations of Geophysical Phenomena: Aurora Borealis and Meteors (United States)

    Samara, Marilia


    Advances in low-light level imaging technology have enabled significant improvements in the ground based study of geophysical phenomena. In this talk we focus on two such phenomena that occur in the Earth's ionosphere: aurorae and meteors. Imaging the aurora which is created by the interplay of the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere, provides a tool for remote sensing physical processes that are otherwise very difficult to study. By quantifying the intensities, scale sizes and lifetimes of auroral structures, we can gain significant insight into the physics behind the generation of the aurora and the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind. Additionally, the combination of imaging with radars provides complimentary data and therefore more information than either method on its own. Meteor observations are a perfect example of this because the radar can accurately determine only the line-of-sight component of velocity, while imaging provides the direction of motion, the perpendicular velocity and brightness (a proxy for mass), therefore enabling a much more accurate determination of the full velocity vector and mass.

  15. An ET Origin for Stratospheric Particles Collected during the 1998 Leonids Meteor Shower

    CERN Document Server

    Noever, D A; Horack, J M; Jerman, G; Myszka, E


    On 17 November 1998, a helium-filled weather balloon was launched into the stratosphere, equipped with a xerogel microparticle collector. The three-hour flight was designed to sample the dust environment in the stratosphere during the Leonid meteor shower, and possibly to capture Leonid meteoroids. Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope analyses of the returned collectors revealed the capture of a $\\sim$30-$\\mu$m particle, with a smooth, multigranular shape, and partially melted, translucent rims; similar to known Antarctic micrometeorites. Energy-dispersive X-ray Mass Spectroscopy shows enriched concentrations of the non-volatile elements, Mg, Al, and Fe. The particle possesses a high magnesium to iron ratio of 2.96, similar to that observed in 1998 Leonids meteors (Borovicka, {\\it et al.} 1999) and sharply higher than the ratio expected for typical material from the earth's crust. A statistical nearest-neighbor analysis of the abundance ratios Mg/Si, Al/Si, and Fe/Si demonstrates that the particle is mo...

  16. Meteoric 10Be in volcanic materials and its behavior during acid-leaching (United States)

    Shimaoka, Akiko; Sakamoto, Minoru; Hiyagon, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Kaneoka, Ichiro; Imamura, Mineo


    We have investigated the chemical and isotopic behavior of beryllium (Be) during acid leaching for removing meteoric 10Be in volcanic samples. Determination of the Be isotopic ratio in the leachate was carried out using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Elemental distribution of Be and other incompatible elements including boron (B) were also examined by ion microprobe (SIMS) for a deeper understanding of their chemical behavior in volcanic samples. SIMS analysis show that Be is concentrated in the groundmass together with B. However, the behavior of their elements during acid leaching is quite different. The Be concentration decreases through progressive leaching, while the concentration of B remains constant. Furthermore, the variation in the Be isotopic ratio after acid leaching is different between the two samples, neither of which has altered minerals under microscopic observation. It is demonstrated that meteoric 10Be resides in a rather narrow region of the rock and can be removed by acid leaching with minimum loss of the main host phase of Be.

  17. Extreme decay of meteoric beryllium-10 as a proxy for persistent aridity (United States)

    Valletta, Rachel D.; Willenbring, Jane K.; Lewis, Adam R.; Ashworth, Allan C.; Caffee, Marc


    The modern Antarctic Dry Valleys are locked in a hyper-arid, polar climate that enables the East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to remain stable, frozen to underlying bedrock. The duration of these dry, cold conditions is a critical prerequisite when modeling the long-term mass balance of the EAIS during past warm climates and is best examined using terrestrial paleoclimatic proxies. Unfortunately, deposits containing such proxies are extremely rare and often difficult to date. Here, we apply a unique dating approach to tundra deposits using concentrations of meteoric beryllium-10 (10Be) adhered to paleolake sediments from the Friis Hills, central Dry Valleys. We show that lake sediments were emplaced between 14-17.5 My and have remained untouched by meteoric waters since that time. Our results support the notion that the onset of Dry Valleys aridification occurred ~14 My, precluding the possibility of EAIS collapse during Pliocene warming events. Lake fossils indicate that >14 My ago the Dry Valleys hosted a moist tundra that flourished in elevated atmospheric CO2 (>400 ppm). Thus, Dry Valleys tundra deposits record regional climatic transitions that affect EAIS mass balance, and, in a global paleoclimatic context, these deposits demonstrate how warming induced by 400 ppm CO2 manifests at high latitudes.

  18. Estimation of surface UV levels based on Meteor-3/TOMS ozone data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, Y.A. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation); Geogdzhaev, I.V. [Moscow Inst. of Physics and Technology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khattatov, V.U. [Central Aerological Observatory, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The major consequence of ozone layer depletion for the environment is an increase of harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the Earth surface and in the upper ocean. This implies the importance of environmental UV monitoring. Since the direct global monitoring is not currently possible, indirect estimations of surface UV levels may be used based on satellite ozone data (Madronich, S. 1992). Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on board the METEOR-3 satellite provided regular set of data for such estimates. During the time of its operation (August, 1991 - December, 1994) the instrument registered several ozone hole events over Antarctica, when ozone levels dropped by as much as 60 % from their unperturbed values. Probably even more alarming ozone depletions were observed over highly populated regions of middle latitudes of northern hemisphere. Radiative transfer modeling was used to convert METEOR-3/TOMS daily ozone values into regional and global maps of biologically active UV. Calculations demonstrate the effect on surface UV levels produced by ozone hole over Antarctica and ozone depletions over the territory of Russia (March, 1994). UV contour lines deviate from the normal appearance which is determined by growing southward solar elevation. UV contour lines are almost perpendicular to the ozone ones in the ozone depletions areas. The 30 % ozone depletion, over Siberia caused more than 30 % increase in noontime erythemal UV levels, which is equivalent to 10-15 degrees southward latitude displacement. Higher UV radiation increases were found in ozone hole over South America (October 1992) equivalent to about 20 degrees southward displacement

  19. Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) resulting from Chelyabinsk Meteor Blast (United States)

    Sheeks, B. J.; Warren, N.; Coster, A. J.


    A global network of GPS receivers continuously make line-of-sight (LOS) measurements of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. This TEC measurement data can be analyzed to 'persistently monitor' natural and man-made activity in the atmosphere (such as volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, rocket launches, etc) which propagate into the ionosphere to produce TIDs (Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances). As an example we have analyzed in detail the TIDs resulting from the 15 Feb 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor blast as observed by the Artu GPS receiver site in Arti, Russia close to the event. Seven of the GPS satellite measurements with LOS pierce points within 1000 km of the blast show disturbances. Four of these clearly show VTEC oscillations with ~12 minute periods. The other three show much weaker responses, but their LOS pierce points are far from the blast and their aspects between the geomagnetic field & blast propagation vector are unfavorable (near broadside). By fitting all seven measurements we estimate a propagation speed of ~380 m/s for these medium-scale TIDs. As future 'persistent surveillance' efforts we intend to investigate the observability of man-made activities such as static rocket engine firings in TEC measurements. Analysis of MSTIDs resulting from the Chelyabinsk meteor blast

  20. Geological mapping of impact melt deposits at lunar complex craters Jackson and Tycho: Morphologic and topographic diversity and relation to the cratering process (United States)

    Dhingra, Deepak; Head, James W.; Pieters, Carle M.


    High resolution geological mapping, aided by imagery and elevation data from the lunar reconnaissance orbiter (LRO) and Kaguya missions, has revealed the scientifically rich character of impact melt deposits at two young complex craters: Jackson (71 km) and Tycho (85 km). The morphology and distribution of mapped impact melt units provide several insights into the cratering process. We report elevation differences (>200 m) among large, coherent floor sections within a single crater and interpret them to be caused by crater wall collapse and/or large scale structural failure of the floor region. Clast-poor, smooth melt deposits are correlated with floor sections at lower elevations and likely represent ponded deposits sourced from higher elevation regions (viz. crater walls). In addition, these deposits are also located in the inferred downrange direction of the impact. Melt-coated large blocks spanning several kilometers are common on the crater floors and may represent collapsed wall sections or in some cases, subdued sections of the central peaks. Spatial trends in the mapped impact melt units at the two craters provide clues to decipher the conditions during each impact event and subsequent evolution of the crater floor.

  1. Space Radar Image of the Yucatan Impact Crater Site (United States)


    This is a radar image of the southwest portion of the buried Chicxulub impact crater in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The radar image was acquired on orbit 81 of space shuttle Endeavour on April 14, 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). The image is centered at 20 degrees north latitude and 90 degrees west longitude. Scientists believe the crater was formed by an asteroid or comet which slammed into the Earth more than 65 million years ago. It is this impact crater that has been linked to a major biological catastrophe where more than 50 percent of the Earth's species, including the dinosaurs, became extinct. The 180-to 300-kilometer-diameter (110- to 180-mile)crater is buried by 300 to 1,000 meters (1,000 to 3,000 feet) of limestone. The exact size of the crater is currently being debated by scientists. This is a total power radar image with L-band in red, C-band in green, and the difference between C-band L-band in blue. The 10-kilometer-wide (6-mile) band of yellow and pink with blue patches along the top left (northwestern side) of the image is a mangrove swamp. The blue patches are islands of tropical forests created by freshwater springs that emerge through fractures in the limestone bedrock and are most abundant in the vicinity of the buried crater rim. The fracture patterns and wetland hydrology in this region are controlled by the structure of the buried crater. Scientists are using the SIR-C/X-SAR imagery to study wetland ecology and help determine the exact size of the impact crater. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3 cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community

  2. Lorentzian crater in superconducting microwave resonators with inserted nanowires (United States)

    Bezryadin, Alexey; Brenner, Matthew W.; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Ku, Jaseung; Shah, Nayana; Goldbart, Paul M.


    We report on observations of nonequilibrium pulsing states in microwave (i.e., GHz) coplanar waveguide(CPW) resonators consisting of superconducting MoGe strips interrupted by a trench and connected by one or more suspended superconducting nanowires. The Lorentzian resonance peak shows a ``crater'' when driven past the critical current of the nanowire, leading to a ``pulsing'' state. In the pulsing state, the supercurrent grows until it reaches the critical current, at which point all stored energy quickly dissipates through Joule heating. We develop a phenomenological model of resonator-nanowire systems, which explains the experimental data quantitatively. For the case of resonators comprising two parallel nanowires and subject to an external magnetic field, we find field-driven oscillations of the onset power for crater formation, as well as the occurrence of a new state, in which the periodic pulsing effect is such that only the weaker wire participates in the dissipation process.

  3. An Impact Crater in Palm Valley, Central Australia?

    CERN Document Server

    Hamacher, Duane W; O'Neill, Craig; Britton, Tui R


    We explore the origin of a ~280 m wide, heavily eroded circular depression in Palm Valley, Northern Territory, Australia using gravity, morphological, and mineralogical data collected from a field survey in September 2009. From the analysis of the survey, we debate probable formation processes, namely erosion and impact, as no evidence of volcanism is found in the region or reported in the literature. We argue that the depression was not formed by erosion and consider an impact origin, although we acknowledge that diagnostics required to identify it as such (e.g. meteorite fragments, shatter cones, shocked quartz) are lacking, leaving the formation process uncertain. We encourage further discussion of the depression's origin and stress a need to develop recognition criteria that can help identify small, ancient impact craters. We also encourage systematic searches for impact craters in Central Australia as it is probable that many more remain to be discovered.

  4. Louth Crater: Evolution of a layered water ice mound

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Tornabene, Livio L; Roush, Ted L


    We report on observations made of the ~36km diameter crater, Louth, in the north polar region of Mars (at 70{\\deg}N, 103.2{\\deg}E). High-resolution imagery from the instruments on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft has been used to map a 15km diameter water ice deposit in the center of the crater. The water ice mound has surface features that include roughened ice textures and layering similar to that found in the North Polar Layered Deposits. Features we interpret as sastrugi and sand dunes show consistent wind patterns within Louth over recent time. CRISM spectra of the ice mound were modeled to derive quantitative estimates of water ice and contaminant abundance, and associated ice grain size information. These morphologic and spectral results are used to propose a stratigraphy for this deposit and adjoining sand dunes. Our results suggest the edge of the water ice mound is currently in retreat.

  5. Unusual bacterioplankton community structure in ultra-oligotrophic Crater Lake (United States)

    Urbach, Ena; Vergin, Kevin L.; Morse, Ariel


    The bacterioplankton assemblage in Crater Lake, Oregon (U.S.A.), is different from communities found in other oxygenated lakes, as demonstrated by four small subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (SSU rRNA) gene clone libraries and oligonucleotide probe hybridization to RNA from lake water. Populations in the euphotic zone of this deep (589 m), oligotrophic caldera lake are dominated by two phylogenetic clusters of currently uncultivated bacteria: CL120-10, a newly identified cluster in the verrucomicrobiales, and ACK4 actinomycetes, known as a minor constituent of bacterioplankton in other lakes. Deep-water populations at 300 and 500 m are dominated by a different pair of uncultivated taxa: CL500-11, a novel cluster in the green nonsulfur bacteria, and group I marine crenarchaeota. b-Proteobacteria, dominant in most other freshwater environments, are relatively rare in Crater Lake (chemistry of infiltrating hydrothermal waters, and irradiation by high levels of ultraviolet light.

  6. The formation of peak rings in large impact craters (United States)

    Morgan, Joanna V.; Gulick, Sean P. S.; Bralower, Timothy; Chenot, Elise; Christeson, Gail; Claeys, Philippe; Cockell, Charles; Collins, Gareth S.; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Ferrière, Ludovic; Gebhardt, Catalina; Goto, Kazuhisa; Jones, Heather; Kring, David A.; Le Ber, Erwan; Lofi, Johanna; Long, Xiao; Lowery, Christopher; Mellett, Claire; Ocampo-Torres, Rubén; Osinski, Gordon R.; Perez-Cruz, Ligia; Pickersgill, Annemarie; Poelchau, Michael; Rae, Auriol; Rasmussen, Cornelia; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Riller, Ulrich; Sato, Honami; Schmitt, Douglas R.; Smit, Jan; Tikoo, Sonia; Tomioka, Naotaka; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime; Whalen, Michael; Wittmann, Axel; Yamaguchi, Kosei E.; Zylberman, William


    Large impacts provide a mechanism for resurfacing planets through mixing near-surface rocks with deeper material. Central peaks are formed from the dynamic uplift of rocks during crater formation. As crater size increases, central peaks transition to peak rings. Without samples, debate surrounds the mechanics of peak-ring formation and their depth of origin. Chicxulub is the only known impact structure on Earth with an unequivocal peak ring, but it is buried and only accessible through drilling. Expedition 364 sampled the Chicxulub peak ring, which we found was formed from uplifted, fractured, shocked, felsic basement rocks. The peak-ring rocks are cross-cut by dikes and shear zones and have an unusually low density and seismic velocity. Large impacts therefore generate vertical fluxes and increase porosity in planetary crust.

  7. Meteor cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Strack, Isaac


    This book is meant for developers of all experience levels looking to create mobile and full-stack web applications in JavaScript. Many of the simple recipes can easily be followed by less-experienced developers, while some of the advanced recipes will require extensive knowledge of existing web, mobile, and server technologies. Any application or enterprise web developer looking to create full-stack JavaScript-based apps will benefit from the recipes and concepts covered in this book.

  8. Interpreting the Elliptical Crater Populations on Mars, Venus, and the Moon (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Love, Stanley G.; Tytell, David; Glotch, Timothy


    Asteroids or comets striking a planetary surface at very shallow angles produce elliptical-shaped craters. According to laboratory impact experiments (D. E. Gault and J. A. Wedekind 1978, Proc. Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf. 9th, 3843-3875), elliptical craters result from impact angles within ˜5° of horizontal and less than 1% of projectiles with isotropic impact trajectories create elliptical craters. This result disagrees with survey results which suggest that approximately 5% of all kilometer-sized craters formed on Mars, Venus, and the Moon have elliptical shapes. To explain this discrepancy, we examined the threshold incidence angle necessary to produce elliptical craters in laboratory impact experiments. Recent experiments show that aluminum targets produce elongated craters at much steeper impact angles than sand targets. This suggests that target properties are as important as the projectile's impact angle in determining the eventual ellipticity of the crater. Creating a model which interpolates between impact data produced using sand and aluminum targets, we derive a new elliptical crater threshold angle of 12° from horizontal for Mars, Venus, and the Moon. This leads to a predicted proportion of elliptical craters that matches observations within uncertainty given a random projectile population. We conclude that the observed proportion of elliptical craters on these bodies is a natural by-product of projectiles striking at random angles, and that no additional formation mechanisms are needed.

  9. Impact Craters on Pluto and Charon Indicate a Deficit of Small Kuiper Belt Objects (United States)

    Singer, Kelsi N.; McKinnon, William B.; Greenstreet, Sarah; Gladman, Brett; Parker, Alex Harrison; Robbins, Stuart J.; Schenk, Paul M.; Stern, S. Alan; Bray, Veronica; Spencer, John R.; Weaver, Harold A.; Beyer, Ross A.; Young, Leslie; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Binzel, Richard; Grundy, William M.; New Horizons Geology Geophysics and Imaging Science Theme Team, The New Horizons MVIC and LORRI Teams


    The impact craters observed during the New Horizons flyby of the Pluto system currently provide the most extensive empirical constraints on the size-frequency distribution of smaller impactors in the Kuiper belt. These craters also help us understand the surface ages and geologic evolution of the Pluto system bodies. Pluto's terrains display a diversity of crater retention ages and terrain types, indicating ongoing geologic activity and a variety of resurfacing styles including both exogenic and endogenic processes. Charon's informally named Vulcan Planum did experience early resurfacing, but crater densities suggest this is also a relatively ancient surface. We will present and compare the craters mapped across all of the relevant New Horizons LOng Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) and Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC) datasets of Pluto and Charon. We observe a paucity of small craters on all terrains (there is a break to a shallower slope for craters below 10 km in diameter), despite adequate resolution to observe them. This lack of small craters cannot be explained by geological resurfacing alone. In particular, the main area of Charon's Vulcan Planum displays no obviously embayed or breached crater rims, and may be the best representation of a production population since the emplacement of the plain. The craters on Pluto and Charon are more consistent with Kuiper belt and solar system evolution models producing fewer small objects.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  10. Analysis of a crater-forming meteorite impact in Peru (United States)

    Brown, P.; ReVelle, D. O.; Silber, E. A.; Edwards, W. N.; Arrowsmith, S.; Jackson, L. E.; Tancredi, G.; Eaton, D.


    The fireball producing a crater-forming meteorite fall near Carancas, Peru, on 15 September 2007 has been analyzed using eyewitness, seismic, and infrasound records. The meteorite impact, which produced a crater of 13.5 m diameter, is found to have released of order 1010 J of energy, equivalent to ~2-3 tons of TNT high explosives based on infrasonic measurements. Our best fit trajectory solution places the fireball radiant at an azimuth of 82° relative to the crater, with an entry angle from the horizontal of 63°. From entry modeling and infrasonic energetics constraints, we find an initial energy for the fireball to be in the 0.06-0.32 kton TNT equivalent. The initial velocity for the meteoroid is restricted to be below 17 km/s from orbit considerations alone, while modeling suggests an even lower best fit velocity close to 12 km/s. The initial mass of the meteoroid is in the range of 3-9 tons. At impact, modeling suggests a final end mass of order a few metric tons and impact velocity in the 1.5-4 km/s range. We suggest that the formation of such a substantial crater from a chondritic mass was the result of the unusually high strength (and corresponding low degree of fragmentation in the atmosphere) of the meteoritic body. Additionally, the high altitude of the impact site (3800 m.a.s.l) resulted in an almost one order of magnitude higher impact speed than would have been the case for the same body impacting close to sea level.

  11. The Deep Impact Experiment and the Physics of Impact Cratering (United States)

    Richardson, J. E.; Melosh, H. J.; Deep Impact Science Team


    On July 4, 2005 the Deep Impact experiment produced an impact event on the surface of Comet 9P Tempel 1, using a 360 kg (primarily copper) impactor striking the comet at a velocity of 10.2 km/sec. In addition to images taken from the flyby spacecraft (500 km closest approach distance), images of the target were also returned from the impactor spacecraft, which show that the impactor hit the comet's surface at an oblique angle of roughly 60 degrees from the surface normal. The impactor struck the comet at an ideal location for viewing the cratering process by the flyby spacecraft both during the 800 second long post-impact imaging phase and during the ``look-back" imaging phase (beginning ˜ 45 minutes after impact). Within a fraction of a second of impact, an incandescent vapor plume emerged from the impact site, cooling rapidly and moving away from the comet at a speed of ˜ 5 km/sec. This vapor emission was followed by the emergence and rapid growth of a prominent, conical ejecta plume, indicating crater excavation flow. This ejecta plume was more opaque (composed of finer material) than predicted, obscuring clear observations of the impact crater itself (extraction efforts continue). However, the behavior of the plume during both it's growth and fallback stages is consistent with a gravity-scaled cratering event into a very weak (post-shock) target material. The expansion state of the plume during the look-back phase will also allow us to place constraints on the comet's gravity field (and by extension mass and density).

  12. Specificity of zooplankton distribution in meteorite crater ponds (Morasko, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuczyńska-Kippen N.


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to define the most important factors responsible for the zooplankton community structure inhabiting four meteorite crater ponds, located near the city of Poznań (Poland. The functioning of the meteorite craters resembled that of other small water bodies, where seasonality, physical-chemical features (mainly chlorophyll a concentration, pH and conductivity or biological parameters (lack of fish structured zooplankton assemblages. Rotifer species richness and abundance were highest in the autumn (12 species and 5107 ind L-1 on average, while crustaceans prevailed in the summer (12 and 201, respectively. The dominating structure also depended on the season, with pelagic species occurring in the spring and autumn and mainly littoral species in the summer. Moreover, the temporary nature of the craters caused great differentiation in zooplankton among ponds and favoured organisms adapted to living in astatic reservoirs, e.g. bdelloids, Daphnia pulex or Macrocyclops viridis. The co-occurrence of a variable community of small crustaceans with large daphnids indicated the existence of an additional ecological niche – a thick layer of sediments. Despite the occurrence of adverse living conditions (oxygen deficiencies and periodic drying and the eutrophic character of the waters, these ponds were a source of many rare species (e.g. Keratella paludosa, even in the status of dominants. Protective measures (a nature reserve allowed the area of meteorite fall to remain quite natural, despite its location close to an urban area.

  13. Impact-generated Hydrothermal Activity at the Chicxulub Crater (United States)

    Kring, D. A.; Zurcher, L.; Abramov, O.


    Borehole samples recovered from PEMEX exploration boreholes and an ICDP scientific borehole indicate the Chicxulub impact event generated hydrothermal alteration throughout a large volume of the Maya Block beneath the crater floor and extending across the bulk of the ~180 km diameter crater. The first indications of hydrothermal alteration were observed in the crater discovery samples from the Yucatan-6 borehole and manifest itself in the form of anhydrite and quartz veins. Continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 borehole reveal a more complex and temporally extensive alteration sequence: following a brief period at high temperatures, impact- melt-bearing polymict breccias and a thin, underlying unit of impact melt were subjected to metasomatism, producing alkali feldspar, sphene, apatite, and magnetite. As the system continued to cool, smectite-series phyllosilicates appeared. A saline solution was involved. Stable isotopes suggest the fluid was dominated by a basinal brine created mostly from existing groundwater of the Yucatan Peninsula, although contributions from down-welling water also occurred in some parts of the system. Numerical modeling of the hydrothermal system suggests circulation occurred for 1.5 to 2.3 Myr, depending on the permeability of the system. Our understanding of the hydrothermal system, however, is still crude. Additional core recovery projects, particularly into the central melt sheet, are needed to better evaluate the extent and duration of hydrothermal alteration.

  14. Moessbauer studies on impactites from Lonar impact crater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, H. C., E-mail: [I I T Kanpur, Department of Physics (India); Misra, S., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (India); Shyam Prasad, M., E-mail: [National Institute of Oceanography, Geological Oceanography Division (India); Bijlani, N.; Tripathi, A., E-mail: [J.N.V. University, Department of Physics (India); Newsom, Horton, E-mail: [University of New Mexico, Institute of Meteoritics and Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences (United States)


    Iron mineralogy has been studied using Moessbauer spectroscopy on eight glassy impactite samples from different parts of the Lonar Crater Rim Region. Distinct changes are observed when compared to the host basaltic samples. Significant amount of Fe{sup 3+} phase is observed in the impactite samples whereas this phase is known to be almost absent in the basalt. Besides this we have a strong Fe{sup 2+} doublet showing up corresponding to the main iron-containing mineral. The Moessbauer results are very similar to those with glasses from Ries crater which is also believed to have formed by meteoritic impact but on nonbasaltic rock bed. Besides the glassy samples, we also study some spherules found in the crater region and some fine glassy particles on the surfaces of melt impact bombs. These contain a good amount of magnetically ordered phase, most likely nanosize hematite. Interestingly, part of it is strongly attracted by a magnet and part of it is not. But both parts show a significantly strong six-line component corresponding to hematite.

  15. Cones and craters on Mount Pavagadh, Deccan Traps: Rootless cones?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hetu C Sheth; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande; Soumen Mallick; Balaram Jena


    Rootless cones, also (erroneously) called pseudocraters, form due to explosions that ensue when a lava flow enters a surface water body, ice, or wet ground. They do not represent primary vents connected by vertical conduits to a subsurface magma source. Rootless cones in Iceland are well studied. Cones on Mars, morphologically very similar to Icelandic rootless cones, have also been suggested to be rootless cones formed by explosive interaction between surface lava flows and ground ice. We report here a group of gentle cones containing nearly circular craters from Mount Pavagadh, Deccan volcanic province, and suggest that they are rootless cones. They are very similar morphologically to the rootless cones of the type locality of Mý vatn in northeastern Iceland. A group of three phreatomagmatic craters was reported in 1998 from near Jabalpur in the northeastern Deccan, and these were suggested to be eroded cinder cones. A recent geophysical study of the Jabalpur craters does not support the possibility that they are located over volcanic vents. They could also be rootless cones. Many more probably exist in the Deccan, and volcanological studies of the Deccan are clearly of value in understanding planetary basaltic volcanism.

  16. Inverted channel deposits on the floor of Miyamoto crater, Mars (United States)

    Newsom, Horton E.; Lanza, N.L.; Ollila, A.M.; Wiseman, S.M.; Roush, T.L.; Marzo, G.A.; Tornabene, L.L.; Okubo, C.H.; Osterloo, M.M.; Hamilton, V.E.; Crumpler, L.S.


    Morphological features on the western floor of Miyamoto crater in southwestern Meridiani Planum, Mars, are suggestive of past fluvial activity. Imagery from the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) gives a detailed view of raised curvilinear features that appear to represent inverted paleochannel deposits. The inverted terrain appears to be capped with a resistant, dark-toned deposit that is partially covered by unconsolidated surficial materials. Subsequent to deposition of the capping layer, erosion of the surrounding material has left the capping materials perched on pedestals of uneroded basal unit material. Neither the capping material nor the surrounding terrains show any unambiguous morphological evidence of volcanism or glaciation. The capping deposit may include unconsolidated or cemented stream deposits analogous to terrestrial inverted channels in the Cedar Mountain Formation near Green River, Utah. In addition to this morphological evidence for fluvial activity, phyllosilicates have been identified in the basal material on the floor of Miyamoto crater by orbital spectroscopy, providing mineralogical evidence of past aqueous activity. Based on both the morphological and mineralogical evidence, Miyamoto crater represents an excellent site for in situ examination and sampling of a potentially habitable environment. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  17. Complex explosive volcanic activity on the Moon within Oppenheimer crater (United States)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Allen, Carlton C.; Hayne, Paul O.; Bell, James F.; Paige, David A.


    Oppenheimer crater is a floor-fractured crater located within the South Pole-Aitken basin on the Moon, and exhibits more than a dozen localized pyroclastic deposits associated with the fractures. Localized pyroclastic volcanism on the Moon is thought to form as a result of intermittently explosive Vulcanian eruptions under low effusion rates, in contrast to the higher-effusion rate, Hawaiian-style fire fountaining inferred to form larger regional deposits. We use Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images and Diviner Radiometer mid-infrared data, Chandrayaan-1 orbiter Moon Mineralogy Mapper near-infrared spectra, and Clementine orbiter Ultraviolet/visible camera images to test the hypothesis that the pyroclastic deposits in Oppenheimer crater were emplaced via Vulcanian activity by constraining their composition and mineralogy. Mineralogically, we find that the deposits are variable mixtures of orthopyroxene and minor clinopyroxene sourced from the crater floor, juvenile clinopyroxene, and juvenile iron-rich glass, and that the mineralogy of the pyroclastics varies both across the Oppenheimer deposits as a whole and within individual deposits. We observe similar variability in the inferred iron content of pyroclastic glasses, and note in particular that the northwest deposit, associated with Oppenheimer U crater, contains the most iron-rich volcanic glass thus far identified on the Moon, which could be a useful future resource. We propose that this variability in mineralogy indicates variability in eruption style, and that it cannot be explained by a simple Vulcanian eruption. A Vulcanian eruption should cause significant country rock to be incorporated into the pyroclastic deposit; however, large areas within many of the deposits exhibit spectra consistent with high abundances of juvenile phases and very little floor material. Thus, we propose that at least the most recent portion of these deposits must have erupted via a Strombolian or more continuous fire

  18. Seasonal Variations in Dust Loading within Gale Crater, Mars (United States)

    Moore, Casey; Moores, John; Smith, Christina L.; MSL Science Team


    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring Gale Crater for more than two martian years. Such tenure allows seasonal variability of the weather record for the current era to be studied with aid from Mast Cameras (Mastcam), Navigation Cameras (Navcam) and Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS). Dust is a key component in the Martian atmosphere which helps drive atmospheric circulation. As such, these three instruments are integral in the characterization of the dust-loading environment both within and above the crater. This study uses Navcam imagery and a digital terrain model provided from HRSC on Mars Express to derive geographical line-of-sight extinction (LOS-Ext) coefficients, a quantity that assesses dust loading local to the air within the crater and which reveals differences in dust loading along different lines of sight.We report two martian years worth of LOS-Ext at Gale Crater, covering Ls 210° in Mars year (MY) 31 to Ls 210° in MY33. All seasons have been observed twice with the only significant exception being a gap in data between Ls 270° - 315° in MY31 (early southern summer). Visibility conditions within the crater range from a few tens of km in spring and summer to over 100 km peaking around the winter solstice. The LOS-Ext record is also compared to the column extinction record derived from the Mastcam Tau observations. The first year shows a convergence of the two values around Ls 270° in MY31 and similar values around Ls 350° in MY31 and Ls 135° in MY32. Otherwise, during the first year of observation, the LOS-Ext has lower values than the Mastcam column extinction indicating two non-interacting atmospheric layers. In the second year, not only are similar values observed more frequently, the LOS-Ext coefficients have a global peak and overtake Mastcam column extinction during Ls 270° - 315° in MY32, which correspond to the missing timeframe from the previous year. As this season is prone to high wind speeds

  19. Contour-based automatic crater recognition using digital elevation models from Chang'E missions (United States)

    Zuo, Wei; Zhang, Zhoubin; Li, Chunlai; Wang, Rongwu; Yu, Linjie; Geng, Liang


    In order to provide fundamental information for exploration and related scientific research on the Moon and other planets, we propose a new automatic method to recognize craters on the lunar surface based on contour data extracted from a digital elevation model (DEM). Through DEM and image processing, this method can be used to reconstruct contour surfaces, extract and combine contour lines, set the characteristic parameters of crater morphology, and establish a crater pattern recognition program. The method has been tested and verified with DEM data from Chang'E-1 (CE-1) and Chang'E-2 (CE-2), showing a strong crater recognition ability with high detection rate, high robustness, and good adaptation to recognize various craters with different diameter and morphology. The method has been used to identify craters with high precision and accuracy on the Moon. The results meet requirements for supporting exploration and related scientific research for the Moon and planets.

  20. Dropping the Ball: The effect of anisotropic granular materials on ejecta and impact crater shape

    CERN Document Server

    Drexler, Philip; Arratia, Paulo


    In this fluid dynamics video, we present an experimental investigation of the shape of impact craters in granular materials. Complex crater shapes, including polygons, have been observed in many terrestrial planets as well as moons and asteroids. We release spherical projectiles from different heights above a granular bed (sand). The experiments demonstrate two different techniques to create non-circular impact craters, which we measure by digitizing the final crater topography. In the first method, we create trenches in the sand to mimic fault lines or valleys on a planetary target. During impact, ejecta move faster in the direction of the trenches, creating nearly elliptical craters with the major axis running parallel to the trench. Larger trenches lead to more oblong craters. In the second method, a hose beneath the surface of the sand injects nitrogen gas. The pressure of the gas counters the hydrostatic pressure of the sand, greatly reducing static friction between grains above the injection point, with...

  1. In plain sight: the Chesapeake Bay crater ejecta blanket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Griscom


    Full Text Available The discovery nearly two decades ago of a 90 km-diameter impact crater below the lower Chesapeake Bay has gone unnoted by the general public because to date all published literature on the subject has described it as "buried". To the contrary, evidence is presented here that the so-called "upland deposits" that blanket ∼5000 km2 of the U.S. Middle-Atlantic Coastal Plain (M-ACP display morphologic, lithologic, and stratigraphic features consistent with their being ejecta from the 35.4 Ma Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure (CBIS and absolutely inconsistent with the prevailing belief that they are of fluvial origin. Specifically supporting impact origin are the facts that (i a 95 %-pure iron ore endemic to the upland deposits of southern Maryland, eastern Virginia, and the District of Columbia has previously been proven to be impactoclastic in origin, (ii this iron ore welds together a small percentage of well-rounded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the upland deposits into brittle sheets interpretable as "spall plates" created in the interference-zone of the CBIS impact, (iii the predominantly non-welded upland gravels have long ago been shown to be size sorted with an extreme crater-centric gradient far too large to have been the work of rivers, but well explained as atmospheric size-sorted interference-zone ejecta, (iv new evidence is provided here that ~60 % of the non-welded quartzite pebbles and cobbles of the (lower lying gravel member of the upland deposits display planar fractures attributable to interference-zone tensile waves, (v the (overlying loam member of the upland deposits is attributable to base-surge-type deposition, (vi several exotic clasts found in a debris flow topographically below the upland deposits can only be explained as jetting-phase crater ejecta, and (vii an allogenic granite boulder found among the upland deposits is deduced to have been launched into space and sculpted by hypervelocity air friction

  2. Comets, Meteors, and Eclipses: Art and Science in Early Renaissance Italy (Invited) (United States)

    Olson, R. J. M.; Pasachoff, J. M.


    We discuss several topics relating artists and their works with actual astronomical events in early Renaissance Italy to reveal the revolutionary advances made in both astronomy and naturalistic painting. Padua, where Galileo would eventually hold a chair at the University, was already by the fourteenth century (trecento) a renowned center for mathematics and nascent astronomy (which was separating from astrology). It is no wonder that when Enrico Scrovegni commissioned the famous Florentine artist Giotto di Bondone to decorate his lavish family chapel (c. 1303) that in the scene of the Adoration of the Magi Giotto painted a flaming comet in lieu of the traditional Star of Bethlehem. Moreover, he painted an historical apparition he recently had observed with a great understanding of its scientific structure: Halley's Comet of 1301 (since Olson's first publication of this idea in Scientific American we have expanded the argument in several articles and talks). While we do not know the identity of the artist's theological advisor, we discuss the possibility that Pietro d'Abano, the Paduan medical doctor and ``astronomer" who wrote on comets, might have been influential. We also compare Giotto's blazing comet with two others painted by the artist's shop in San Francesco at Assisi (before 1316) and account for the differences. In addition, we tackle the question how Giotto's pupil, Taddeo Gaddi, who is documented as having been partially blinded by lengthy unprotected observation of the partial phase of an annular solar eclipse, reflects his observations in his frescoes in Santa Croce, Florence (1328-30). Giotto also influenced the Sienese painter Pietro Lorenzetti, two of whose Passion cycle frescoes at Assisi (1316-20), contain dazzling meteor showers that hold important symbolic meanings in the cyle's argument but more importantly reveal that the artist observed astronomical phenomena, such as the ``radiant" effect, which was first recorded by Alexander von Humboldt

  3. Meteor-Shower on Mars Indicates Cometary Activity Far Away From the Sun (United States)

    Sekhar, Aswin; ASHER, DAVID


    Introduction: The close encounter of Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) with Mars on 2014 Oct 19 at 1830h (UT) generated a lot of interest and modelling work [1] [2] [3] in the solar system community. A recent (on 2014 Nov 7) press release from NASA implied that a meteor shower was detected on Mars by their space instruments some hours after the comet-Mars close encounter. Various work [4] [5] [6] has suggested that very specific meteoroid sizes and ejection conditions may be required to produce meteor phenomena at Mars at the given times.Stream dynamics: Meteoroid stream modelling and their orbital geometry calculations have gained high precision over the years. In this work, we compute in detail the structure of the cloud of meteoroids released by C/2013 A1, showing its dependence on heliocentric ejection distances, 3-dimensional ejection velocities, and particle sizes. Our calculations using numerical integrator MERCURY, [7], incorporating radiation pressure, [8], show that ejection of particles at large heliocentric distances (about 7 au to 13 au) from C/2013 A1 could lead to evolution of a dense meteoroid cloud which intersects Mars a few hours after the comet-Mars close encounter. Hence this detection of a meteor shower on Mars by space instruments is an indirect confirmation of cometary activity at large distances which has rarely been observed directly by telescopes so far. Furthermore it shows that comprehensive threat estimation needs to be done for satellites orbiting the Earth when dynamically new comets come very close to the Earth in future.References:[1] Vaubaillon J., Macquet L., Soja R. 2014. MNRAS. 439: 3294.[2] Moorhead A. V., Wiegert P. A., Cooke W. J. 2014. Icarus. 231:13.[3] Ye Q.-Z., Hui M.-T., 2014, ApJ, 787: 115.[4] Farnocchia D. et al. 2014. ApJL. 790: 114.[5] Kelley M. S. P. et al. 2014, ApJL, 792: 16.[6] Tricarico P. et al., 2014, ApJL, 787: 35.[7] Chambers J. E. 1999. MNRAS. 304: 793.[8] Burns J. A, Lamy P. L., Soter S. 1979. Icarus. 40: 1.

  4. Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth's stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Saunders


    Full Text Available Nano-sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs with iron-magnesium silicate compositions, formed in the upper mesosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, may remove sulphuric acid from the gas-phase above 40 km and may also affect the composition and behaviour of supercooled H2SO4-H2O droplets in the global stratospheric aerosol (Junge layer. This study describes a time-resolved spectroscopic analysis of the evolution of the ferric (Fe3+ ion originating from amorphous ferrous (Fe2+-based silicate powders dissolved in varying Wt % sulphuric acid (30–75% solutions over a temperature range of 223–295 K. Complete dissolution of the particles was observed under all conditions. The first-order rate coefficient for dissolution decreases at higher Wt % and lower temperature, which is consistent with the increased solution viscosity limiting diffusion of H2SO4 to the particle surfaces. Dissolution under stratospheric conditions should take less than a week, and is much faster than the dissolution of crystalline Fe2+ compounds. The chemistry climate model UMSLIMCAT (based on the UKMO Unified Model was then used to study the transport of MSPs through the middle atmosphere. A series of model experiments were performed with different uptake coefficients. Setting the concentration of 1.5 nm radius MSPs at 80 km to 3000 cm−3 (based on rocket-borne charged particle measurements, the model matches the reported Wt % Fe values of 0.5–1.0 in Junge layer sulphate particles, and the MSP optical extinction between 40 and 75 km measured by a satellite-borne spectrometer, if the global meteoric input rate is about 20 t d−1. The model indicates that an uptake coefficient ≥0.01 is required to account for the observed two orders of magnitude depletion of H2SO4 vapour above 40 km.

  5. Interactions of meteoric smoke particles with sulphuric acid in the Earth's stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. W. Saunders


    Full Text Available Nano-sized meteoric smoke particles (MSPs with iron-magnesium silicate compositions, formed in the upper mesosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, may remove sulphuric acid from the gas-phase above 40 km and may also affect the composition and behaviour of supercooled H2SO4-H2O droplets in the global stratospheric aerosol (Junge layer.

    This study describes a time-resolved spectroscopic analysis of the evolution of the ferric (Fe3+ ion originating from amorphous ferrous (Fe2+-based silicate powders dissolved in varying Wt % sulphuric acid (30–75 % solutions over a temperature range of 223–295 K. Complete dissolution of the particles was observed under all conditions. The first-order rate coefficient for dissolution decreases at higher Wt % and lower temperature, which is consistent with the increased solution viscosity limiting diffusion of H2SO4 to the particle surfaces. Dissolution under stratospheric conditions should take less than a week, and is much faster than the dissolution of crystalline Fe2+ compounds.

    The chemistry climate model UMSLIMCAT (based on the UKMO Unified Model was then used to study the transport of MSPs through the middle atmosphere. A series of model experiments were performed with different uptake coefficients. Setting the concentration of 1.5 nm radius MSPs at 80 km to 3000 cm−3 (based on rocket-borne charged particle measurements, the model matches the reported Wt % Fe values of 0.5–1.0 in Junge layer sulphate particles, and the MSP optical extinction between 40 and 75 km measured by a satellite-borne spectrometer, if the global meteoric input rate is about 20 tonnes per day. The model indicates that an uptake coefficient ≥0.01 is required to account for the observed two orders of magnitude depletion of H2SO4 vapour above 40 km.

  6. Lunar Crustal Properties: Insights from the GRAIL Gravity Signatures of Lunar Impact Craters (United States)

    Soderblom, J. M.; Andrews-Hanna, J. C.; Evans, A. J.; Johnson, B. C.; Melosh, J., IV; Milbury, C.; Miljkovic, K.; Nimmo, F.; Phillips, R. J.; Smith, D. E.; Solomon, S. C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Zuber, M. T.


    Impact cratering is a violent process, shattering and melting rock and excavating deep-seated material. The resulting scars are apparent on every planetary surface across our Solar System. Subsurface density variations associated with the resulting impact structures contain clues to aid in unlocking the details of this process. High-resolution gravity fields, such as those derived from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, are ideal for investigating these density variations. With gravity measurements from GRAIL and topography from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), we derived high-resolution Bouguer gravity fields (i.e., the gravity field after the contribution from topography is removed) that we correlated with craters mapped from LOLA data. We found that the mass deficit beneath lunar impact craters relates directly to crater size, up to diameter ~130 km, whereas craters larger than this diameter display no further systematic change. This observation, coupled with the greater depth of impact damage expected beneath larger craters, indicates that some process is affecting the production and/or preservation of porosity at depth or otherwise altering the mean density beneath the larger craters (note, measurable mantle uplift is observed for craters larger than ~184-km diameter). The observed crater gravity anomalies, however, exhibit considerable variation about these mean trends, suggesting that other factors are also important in determining the bulk density of impact crater structures. Milbury et al. (this conference) have demonstrated that pre-impact crustal porosity strongly influences the resulting density contrast between the impact damage zone beneath a crater and its surroundings. Herein, we extend these studies using the same GRAIL- and LOLA-derived maps to further investigate the effects that crustal properties have on the bulk density of the rock beneath lunar impact features. We focus, in particular, on the processes that

  7. Subsurface volatile content of martian double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters (United States)

    Viola, Donna; McEwen, Alfred S.; Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane


    Excess ice is widespread throughout the martian mid-latitudes, particularly in Arcadia Planitia, where double-layer ejecta (DLE) craters also tend to be abundant. In this region, we observe the presence of thermokarstically-expanded secondary craters that likely form from impacts that destabilize a subsurface layer of excess ice, which subsequently sublimates. The presence of these expanded craters shows that excess ice is still preserved within the adjacent terrain. Here, we focus on a 15-km DLE crater that contains abundant superposed expanded craters in order to study the distribution of subsurface volatiles both at the time when the secondary craters formed and, by extension, remaining today. To do this, we measure the size distribution of the superposed expanded craters and use topographic data to calculate crater volumes as a proxy for the volumes of ice lost to sublimation during the expansion process. The inner ejecta layer contains craters that appear to have undergone more expansion, suggesting that excess ice was most abundant in that region. However, both of the ejecta layers had more expanded craters than the surrounding terrain. We extrapolate that the total volume of ice remaining within the entire ejecta deposit is as much as 74 km3 or more. The variation in ice content between the ejecta layers could be the result of (1) volatile preservation from the formation of the DLE crater, (2) post-impact deposition in the form of ice lenses; or (3) preferential accumulation or preservation of subsequent snowfall. We have ruled out (2) as the primary mode for ice deposition in this location based on inconsistencies with our observations, though it may operate in concert with other processes. Although none of the existing DLE formation hypotheses are completely consistent with our observations, which may merit a new or modified mechanism, we can conclude that DLE craters contain a significant quantity of excess ice today.

  8. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited) (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.


    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact

  9. Lateral Translation of Explosion Crater Ejecta: A Working Model Based Upon Pellet Experiments (United States)


    empiric-al ejecta studies to a variety of, telds and ,eologic-al settings, and (2) characteri-ing * the relative threat the total ejecta eavironment...inmqict cratering protesi . C-urrent thenrwie.s ies•t-•,. the cratering of impart crater frwmationt arn basedt primartly upon (1) small -cale imnpact expe...ial thrown farther travels faster so that the total ejecta deposit can reflect , variety of depositional processes ranging from the low velocity

  10. Vertical winds and momentum fluxes due to equatorial planetary scale waves using all-sky meteor radar over Brazilian region (United States)

    Egito, F.; Andrioli, V. F.; Batista, P. P.


    In the equatorial region planetary scale waves play an important role transporting significant amount of energy and momentum through atmosphere. Quantifying the momentum transported by these waves and its effects on the mean flow is rather important. Direct estimates of the momentum flux transported by waves require horizontal and vertical wind measurements. Ground-based meteor radars have provided continuous and reliable measurements of the horizontal wind components in the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region and have contributed to improve our knowledge of the dynamics of this region. However, instrumental limitations hinder its use for measuring vertical winds and momentum fluxes. On the other hand, according to Babu et al (2012), all- sky meteor radars are able to infer tridimensional winds when using a large number of meteor echoes centered at the meteor ablation peak. Following this approach, we have used measurements performed by a Meteor Radar installed at São João do Cariri, Brazil (7.4°S; 36.5°W) in order to measure vertical winds and calculate the momentum flux transported by equatorial planetary scale waves. In order to evaluate the accuracy of vertical wind values we have performed several tests based on a simple model considering real meteor distributions and theoretical equations for the MLT winds motion. From our tests, we inferred that Brazilian meteor radar data can be used for this purpose with an accuracy of ~ 1.8 m/s. The results show that the vertical wind presents magnitudes of a few meters per second and occasionally reaches magnitudes around 10 m/s. Below 92 km the vertical wind is predominantly upward during the whole year and above exhibits a semi-annual oscillation with downward phase during the equinoxes. Variations associated to planetary scale waves in the vertical wind are also observed and some of them appear simultaneously in the zonal and meridional wind as well. Largest wave induced amplitudes in the vertical wind

  11. New ways of using an old isotopic system - meteoric 10-Be is back and ready to do geomorphology (United States)

    Bierman, P.; Reusser, L.; Pavich, M.


    Meteoric 10-Be, produced in the atmosphere and delivered in precipitation, is an important tracer of sediment and geomorphic processes. This talk will review several decades of work measuring 10-Be adhered to soil and sediment collected from varied terrains around the world. We will then present new data and modeling approaches demonstrating the rich potential but complex, dynamic nature of this isotope system. Considering all of these data, we will examine the utility of meteoric10-Be, produced in the atmosphere and delivered in precipitation, as a tracer of watershed and hillslope sediment transport processes at a variety of spatial scales. We will finish the talk by examining uncertainties that require additional research to resolve. After a brief hay-day in the 1980s, tracing sediment down rivers, dating a few terraces, and following sediment through subduction zones, meteoric or garden variety 10-Be was largely forgotten. It's been lurking somewhere in the dark corners of isotope geoscience while its more famous but difficult-to-measure twin, the 10-Be produced in quartz, got all the attention. Recently, several research groups have again begun to build upon the excellent foundation constructed by those working in the 1980s and early 1990s. New data from a series of soil pits on hillslopes from around the world suggest that meteoric 10-Be is mobile in the soil column moving from the more acidic, organic-rich A-horizon to the B-horizon. Meteoric 10-Be concentrations are well correlated with both soil pH and extractable Al suggesting that Be is retained in Al-rich grain coatings that we know, from numerous attempts to purify riverine quartz, survive fluvial transport all too well. The important take-away message is that meteoric 10-Be is mobile in soil fluids while in situ 10-Be only moves with the quartz grains in which it resides. Depth profiles of in situ and meteoric 10-Be can be quite different, helping us to learn about rates of soil stirring and 10-Be

  12. The theoretical plausibility of central pit crater formation via melt drainage (United States)

    Elder, Catherine M.; Bray, Veronica J.; Melosh, H. Jay


    Central pit craters are seen in large craters on some icy satellites and on Mars. We investigate the hypothesis that central pits form when impact melt drains into fractures beneath the impact crater. For this process to occur, the volume of melt generated during the impact, the volume of void space in fractures beneath the impact crater, and the volume of melt able to drain before the fractures freeze shut all must exceed the volume of the observed central pits. We estimate the volume of melt generated using results from previous numerical modeling studies. The fracture volume is estimated using gravity anomalies over terrestrial craters. To estimate the amount of melt able to drain before freezing, we consider flow through plane parallel fractures. These calculations all suggest that enough liquid water could drain into fractured ice beneath a crater on Ganymede to form a central pit. On Earth and the Moon, silicate impact melt will freeze before a large volume is able to drain, so we do not expect to see central pits in impact craters in targets with no ice. In summary, we find our calculations are consistent with observed central pits in craters on Ganymede and the lack of central pits in craters on Earth and the Moon.

  13. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Asa M.; Harper, David A. T.


    . At the crater rim communities were established early on, although the crater depression was not inhabited until deposition of the upper third of the remaining crater fill. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment where sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession....... Moreover the development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches helped further drive both a and p biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. The Chicxulub multi-ring impact crater, Yucatan carbonate platform, Gulf of Mexico


    Jaime Urrutia-Fucugauchi; Antonio Camargo-Zanoguera; Ligia Pérez-Cruz; Guillermo Pérez-Cruz


    The Chicxulub impact crater is part of a select group of unique geological sites, being a natural laboratory to investigate crater formation processes and global effects of large-scale impacts. Chicxulub is one of only three multi-ring craters documented in the terrestrial record and impact has been related to the global environmental/climatic effects and mass extinction that mark the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) boundary. The crater is buried under ~1.0 km of carbonate sediments in the Yucata...

  15. Planetary surface dating from crater size-frequency distribution measurements: Poisson timing analysis (United States)

    Michael, G. G.; Kneissl, T.; Neesemann, A.


    The predictions of crater chronology models have customarily been evaluated by dividing a crater population into discrete diameter intervals, plotting the crater density for each, and finding a best-fit model isochron, with the uncertainty in the procedure being assessed using 1/√n estimates, where n is the number of craters in an interval. This approach yields an approximate evaluation of the model predictions. The approximation is good until n becomes small, hence the often-posed question: what is the minimum number of craters for an adequate prediction? This work introduces an approach for exact evaluation of a crater chronology model using Poisson statistics and Bayesian inference, expressing the result as a likelihood function with an intrinsic uncertainty. We demonstrate that even in the case of no craters at all, a meaningful likelihood function can be obtained. Thus there is no required minimum count: there is only varying uncertainty, which can be well described. We recommend that the Poisson timing analysis should be preferred over binning/best-fit approaches. Additionally, we introduce a new notation to make it consistently clear that crater chronology model calibration errors are inseparable from stated crater model ages and their associated statistical errors.

  16. Analysis of impact crater populations and the geochronology of planetary surfaces in the inner solar system (United States)

    Fassett, Caleb I.


    Analyzing the density of impact craters on planetary surfaces is the only known technique for learning their ages remotely. As a result, crater statistics have been widely analyzed on the terrestrial planets, since the timing and rates of activity are critical to understanding geologic process and history. On the Moon, the samples obtained by the Apollo and Luna missions provide critical calibration points for cratering chronology. On Mercury, Venus, and Mars, there are no similarly firm anchors for cratering rates, but chronology models have been established by extrapolating from the lunar record or by estimating their impactor fluxes in other ways. This review provides a current perspective on crater population measurements and their chronological interpretation. Emphasis is placed on how ages derived from crater statistics may be contingent on assumptions that need to be considered critically. In addition, ages estimated from crater populations are somewhat different than ages from more familiar geochronology tools (e.g., radiometric dating). Resurfacing processes that remove craters from the observed population are particularly challenging to account for, since they can introduce geologic uncertainty into results or destroy information about the formation age of a surface. Regardless of these challenges, crater statistics measurements have resulted in successful predictions later verified by other techniques, including the age of the lunar maria, the existence of a period of heavy bombardment in the Moon's first billion years, and young volcanism on Mars.

  17. Crater features diagnostic of oblique impacts: The size and position of the central peak (United States)

    Ekholm, Andreas G.; Melosh, H. Jay

    Using Magellan data, we investigated two crater characteristics that have been cited as diagnostic of oblique impacts: an uprange offset of the central peak in complex craters, and an increasing central peak diameter relative to crater diameter with decreasing impact angle. We find that the offset distribution is random and very similar to that for high-angle impacts, and that there is no correlation between central peak diameter and impact angle. Accordingly, these two crater characteristics cannot be used to infer the impact angle or direction.

  18. Quantifying Slope Effects and Variations in Crater Density across a Single Geologic Unit (United States)

    Meyer, Heather; Mahanti, Prasun; Robinson, Mark; Povilaitis, Reinhold


    Steep underlying slopes (>~5°) significantly increase the rate of degradation of craters [1-3]. As a result, the density of craters is less on steeper slopes for terrains of the same age [2, 4]. Thus, when age-dating a planetary surface, an area encompassing one geologic unit of constant low slope is chosen. However, many key geologic units, such as ejecta blankets, lack sufficient area of constant slope to derive robust age estimates. Therefore, accurate age-dating of such units requires an accurate understanding of the effects of slope on age estimates. This work seeks to determine if the observed trend of decreasing crater density with increasing slopes [2] holds for craters >1 km and to quantify the effect of slope for craters of this size, focusing on the effect of slopes over the kilometer scale. Our study focuses on the continuous ejecta of Orientale basin, where we measure craters >1 km excluding secondaries that occur as chains or clusters. Age-dating via crater density measurements relies on uniform cratering across a single geologic unit. In the case of ejecta blankets and other impact related surfaces, this assumption may not hold due to the formation of auto- secondary craters. As such, we use LRO WAC mosaics [5], crater size-frequency distributions, absolute age estimates, a 3 km slope map derived from the WAC GLD100 [6], and density maps for various crater size ranges to look for evidence of non-uniform cratering across the continuous ejecta of Orientale and to determine the effect of slope on crater density. Preliminary results suggest that crater density does decrease with increasing slope for craters >1 km in diameter though at a slower rate than for smaller craters.References: [1] Trask N. J. and Rowan L. C. (1967) Science 158, 1529-1535. [2] Basilevsky (1976) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf. 7th, p. 1005-1020. [3] Pohn and Offield (1970) USGS Prof. Pap., 153-162. [4] Xiao et al. (2013) Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett., 376, pgs. 1-11. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013

  19. Geology of the Selk crater region on Titan from Cassini VIMS observations (United States)

    Soderblom, J.M.; Brown, R.H.; Soderblom, L.A.; Barnes, J.W.; Jaumann, R.; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Sotin, C.; Stephan, K.; Baines, K.H.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.N.; Nicholson, P.D.


    Observations of Titan obtained by the Cassini Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) have revealed Selk crater, a geologically young, bright-rimmed, impact crater located ???800. km north-northwest of the Huygens landing site. The crater rim-crest diameter is ???90. km; its floor diameter is ???60. km. A central pit/peak, 20-30. km in diameter, is seen; the ratio of the size of this feature to the crater diameter is consistent with similarly sized craters on Ganymede and Callisto, all of which are dome craters. The VIMS data, unfortunately, are not of sufficient resolution to detect such a dome. The inner rim of Selk crater is fluted, probably by eolian erosion, while the outer flank and presumed ejecta blanket appear dissected by drainages (particularly to the east), likely the result of fluvial erosion. Terracing is observed on the northern and western walls of Selk crater within a 10-15. km wide terrace zone identified in VIMS data; the terrace zone is bright in SAR data, consistent with it being a rough surface. The terrace zone is slightly wider than those observed on Ganymede and Callisto and may reflect differences in thermal structure and/or composition of the lithosphere. The polygonal appearance of the crater likely results from two preexisting planes of weakness (oriented at azimuths of 21?? and 122?? east of north). A unit of generally bright terrain that exhibits similar infrared-color variation and contrast to Selk crater extends east-southeast from the crater several hundred kilometers. We informally refer to this terrain as the Selk "bench." Both Selk and the bench are surrounded by the infrared-dark Belet dune field. Hypotheses for the genesis of the optically bright terrain of the bench include: wind shadowing in the lee of Selk crater preventing the encroachment of dunes, impact-induced cryovolcanism, flow of a fluidized-ejecta blanket (similar to the bright crater outflows observed on Venus), and erosion of a streamlined upland formed

  20. Geology of McLaughlin Crater, Mars: A Unique Lacustrine Setting with Implications for Astrobiology (United States)

    Michalski, J. R.; Niles, P. B.; Rogers, A. D.; Johnson, S. S.; Ashley, J. W.; Golombek, M. P.


    McLaughlin crater is a 92-kmdiameter Martian impact crater that contained an ancient carbonate- and clay mineral-bearing lake in the Late Noachian. Detailed analysis of the geology within this crater reveals a complex history with important implications for astrobiology [1]. The basin contains evidence for, among other deposits, hydrothermally altered rocks, delta deposits, deep water (>400 m) sediments, and potentially turbidites. The geology of this basin stands in stark contrast to that of some ancient basins that contain evidence for transient aqueous processes and airfall sediments (e.g. Gale Crater [2-3]).

  1. Ejecta velocity distribution of impact craters formed on quartz sand: Effect of projectile density on crater scaling law (United States)

    Tsujido, Sayaka; Arakawa, Masahiko; Suzuki, Ayako I.; Yasui, Minami


    In order to clarify the effects of projectile density on ejecta velocity distributions for a granular target, impact cratering experiments on a quartz sand target were conducted by using eight types of projectiles with different densities ranging from 11 g cm-3 to 1.1 g cm-3, which were launched at about 200 m s-1 from a vertical gas gun at Kobe University. The scaling law of crater size, the ejection angle of ejecta grains, and the angle of the ejecta curtain were also investigated. The ejecta velocity distribution obtained from each projectile was well described by the π-scaling theory of v0/√{gR} =k2(x0/R)-1/μ, where v0, g, R and x0 are the ejection velocity, gravitational acceleration, crater radius and ejection position, respectively, and k2 and μ are constants mostly depending on target material properties (Housen, K.R., Holsapple, K.A. [2011]. Icarus 211, 856-875). The value of k2 was found to be almost constant at 0.7 for all projectiles except for the nylon projectile, while μ increased with the projectile density, from 0.43 for the low-density projectile to 0.6-0.7 for the high-density projectile. On the other hand, the π-scaling theory for crater size gave a μ value of 0.57, which was close to the average of the μ values obtained from ejecta velocity distributions. The ejection angle, θ, of each grain decreased slightly with distance, from higher than 45° near the impact point to 30-40° at 0.6 R. The ejecta curtain angle is controlled by the two elementary processes of ejecta velocity distribution and ejection angle; it gradually increased from 52° to 63° with the increase of the projectile density. The comparison of our experimental results with the theoretical model of the crater excavation flow known as the Z-model revealed that the relationship between μ and θ obtained by our experiments could not be described by the Z-model (Maxwell, D.E. [1977]. In: Roddy, D.J., Pepin, R.O., Merrill, R.B. (Eds.), Impact and Explosion Cratering

  2. VHF antenna pattern characterization by the observation of meteor head echoes (United States)

    Renkwitz, Toralf; Schult, Carsten; Latteck, Ralph


    The Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) with its active phased array antenna is designed and used for studies of phenomena in the mesosphere and lower atmosphere. The flexible beam forming and steering combined with a large aperture array allows for observations with a high temporal and angular resolution. For both the analysis of the radar data and the configuration of experiments, the actual radiation pattern needs to be known. For that purpose, various simulations as well as passive and active experiments have been conducted. Here, results of meteor head echo observations are presented, which allow us to derive detailed information of the actual radiation pattern for different beam-pointing positions and the current health status of the entire radar. For MAARSY, the described method offers robust beam pointing and width estimations for a minimum of a few days of observations.

  3. Hyperbolic meteors: interstellar or generated locally via the gravitational slingshot effect?

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegert, Paul A


    The arrival of solid particles from outside our solar system would present us with an invaluable source of scientific information. Attempts to detect such interstellar particles among the meteors observed in Earth's atmosphere have almost exclusively assumed that those particles moving above the Solar System's escape speed -- particles on orbits hyperbolic with respect to the Sun-- were precisely the extrasolar particles being searched for. Here we show that hyperbolic particles can be generated entirely within the Solar System by gravitational scattering of interplanetary dust and meteoroids by the planets. These particles have necessarily short lifetimes as they quickly escape our star system; nonetheless some may arrive at Earth at speeds comparable to those expected of interstellar meteoroids. Some of these are associated with the encounter of planets with the debris streams of individual comets; however, such encounters are relatively rare. The rates of occurrence of hyperbolically-scattered sporadic met...

  4. Foliar Shielding: How Non-Meteoric Water Deposition Helps Leaves Survive Drought by Reducing Incoming Energy (United States)

    Gerlein-Safdi, C.; Sinkler, C. J.; Caylor, K. K.


    The uptake of water from the surface of the leaves, called foliar uptake, is common when rainfall is scarce and non-meteoric water (dew or fog) is the only source of water. However, many species have very water repellent leaves. Past studies have not differentiated between the uptake of water and the impact of the droplets on the energy balance of the leaf, which we call 'foliar shielding'. Leaves of the hydrophobic Colocasia esculenta were misted with isotopically enriched water in order to mimic non-meteoric water deposition. The leaf water potential and water isotopes were monitored for different water-stress conditions. A new protocol was developed for the fast analysis of leaf water isotopes using the Picarro induction module coupled to a laser spectrometer. Comparing the isotopic composition of the bulk leaf water at the end of the experiment, the misted leaves exhibit a d-excess higher by c. 63‰ than the control ones (P < 0.001). Low d-excess values are commonly associated with a high transpiration rate. Linking isotopic enrichment with leaf transpiration rate, we find a c. 30% decrease in transpiration rate for the treated leaves compared to the control (P < 0.001). Water-stressed leaves that were misted regularly exhibit a c. 64% smaller decline in water potential than water-stressed leaves that did not get misted (P < 0.05). Three possible mechanisms are proposed for the interaction of water droplets with the leaf energy and water balance. Comparing three previous foliar uptake studies to our results, we conclude that foliar shielding has a comparable yet opposite effect to foliar uptake on leaf water isotopes and that it is necessary to consider both processes when estimating foliar uptake of fog water.

  5. A new approach to momentum flux determinations using SKiYMET meteor radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Hocking


    Full Text Available The current primary radar method for determination of atmospheric momentum fluxes relies on multiple beam studies, usually using oppositely directed coplanar beams. Generally VHF and MF radars are used, and meteor radars have never been successfully employed. In this paper we introduce a new procedure that can be used for determination of gravity wave fluxes down to time scales of 2-3h, using the SKiYMET meteor radars. The method avoids the need for beam forming, and allows simultaneous determination of the three components of the wind averaged over the radar volume, as well as the variance and flux components $overline {u'^2},overline {v'^2},overline {w'^2}, overline {u'v'},overline {u'w'} {rm and} : overline {v'w'}$, where $u'$ refers to the fluctuating eastward wind, $v'$ refers to the fluctuating northward wind, and $w'$ refers to the fluctuating vertical wind. Data from radars in New Mexico and Resolute Bay are used to illustrate the data quality, and demonstrate theoretically expected seasonal forcing.

    Keywords. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (Middle atmosphere dynamics; Waves and tides; Climatology

  6. A meteor head echo analysis algorithm for the lower VHF band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nishimura


    Full Text Available We have developed an automated analysis scheme for meteor head echo observations by the 46.5 MHz Middle and Upper atmosphere (MU radar near Shigaraki, Japan (34.85° N, 136.10° E. The analysis procedure computes meteoroid range, velocity and deceleration as functions of time with unprecedented accuracy and precision. This is crucial for estimations of meteoroid mass and orbital parameters as well as investigations of the meteoroid-atmosphere interaction processes. In this paper we present this analysis procedure in detail. The algorithms use a combination of single-pulse-Doppler, time-of-flight and pulse-to-pulse phase correlation measurements to determine the radial velocity to within a few tens of metres per second with 3.12 ms time resolution. Equivalently, the precision improvement is at least a factor of 20 compared to previous single-pulse measurements. Such a precision reveals that the deceleration increases significantly during the intense part of a meteoroid's ablation process in the atmosphere. From each received pulse, the target range is determined to within a few tens of meters, or the order of a few hundredths of the 900 m long range gates. This is achieved by transmitting a 13-bit Barker code oversampled by a factor of two at reception and using a novel range interpolation technique. The meteoroid velocity vector is determined from the estimated radial velocity by carefully taking the location of the meteor target and the angle from its trajectory to the radar beam into account. The latter is determined from target range and bore axis offset. We have identified and solved the signal processing issue giving rise to the peculiar signature in signal to noise ratio plots reported by Galindo et al. (2011, and show how to use the range interpolation technique to differentiate the effect of signal processing from physical processes.

  7. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 1. Particle detection by active photoionization (United States)

    Rapp, Markus; Strelnikova, Irina


    We present a new design of an in situ detector for the study of meteor smoke particles (MSPs) in the middle atmosphere. This detector combines a classical Faraday cup with a xenon-flashlamp for the active photoionization/photodetachment of MSPs and the subsequent detection of corresponding photoelectrons. This instrument was successfully launched in September 2006 from the Andøya Rocket Range in Northern Norway. A comparison of photocurrents measured during this rocket flight and measurements performed in the laboratory proves that observed signatures are truly due to photoelectrons. In addition, the observed altitude cut-off at 60 km (i.e., no signals were observed below this altitude) is fully understood in terms of the mean free path of the photoelectrons in the ambient atmosphere. This interpretation is also proven by a corresponding laboratory experiment. Consideration of all conceivable species which can be ionized by the photons of the xenon-flashlamp demonstrates that only MSPs can quantitatively explain the measured currents below an altitude of 90 km. Above this altitude, measured photocurrents are most likely due to photoionization of nitric oxide. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the active photoionization and subsequent detection of photoelectrons provides a promising new tool for the study of MSPs in the middle atmosphere. Importantly, this new technique does not rely on the a priori charge of the particles, neither is the accessible particle size range severely limited by aerodynamical effects. Based on the analysis described in this study, the geophysical interpretation of our measurements is presented in the companion paper by Strelnikova, I., et al. [2008. Measurements of meteor smoke particles during the ECOMA-2006 campaign: 2. results. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.jastp.2008.07.011].

  8. Meteors under scrutiny: Private, public, and professional weather in Britain, 1660-1800 (United States)

    Jankovic, Vladimir


    In this study I explore the social and cultural dimensions of eighteenth-century British meteorology. I discuss the re-definition of meteorological subject matter from the sensationalistic reportage on prodigious phenomena to the natural history of meteors to the chemical philosophy of atmosphere. Using eighteenth- century scientific periodicals, popular press, newspapers, and private diaries, I interpret this process as a result of the marginalization of environmental localism and its replacement with the laboratory science practiced by the growing society of urban naturalists. This replacement was equivalent to moving environmental sciences 'indoors' and changing their previous disciplinary status from the domain of natural history to that of chemical philosophy. I argue that this 'indoors' transition made a critical impact on the nature of scientific credibility, institutional dimension of scientific research, and popular understanding of the natural world. Taking weather as a domain of nature remarkable in its public accessibility, I also analyze its appropriation by natural historians, diarists, priests and pamphleteers, and discuss the implications of their respective 'meteorologies' in the period 1660-1800. Contrasting these cultural uses with the scientific approach to atmospheric phenomena, I discuss the problem of the interaction between the history of scientific ideas and the sociology of popular beliefs. I show the ways in which common people used unusual meteors as means for the social and cultural fashioning in opposition