WorldWideScience

Sample records for barriers to entry competition

  1. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Airline deregulation has led to lower fares and better service for most air travelers largely because of increased competition spurred by the entry of new airlines into the industry and established...

  2. AIRLINE COMPETITION: Barriers to Entry Continue in Some Domestic Markets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    ... airlines into new markets. As we reported in 1996 and 1997, however, some airports have not experienced such entry and thus have experienced higher fares and/or less convenient service since deregulation...

  3. Home infusion: overcoming the barriers to entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, David M

    2010-01-01

    The field of pharmacy service is evolving rapidly, as is the delivery of healthcare in general. From patients with infectious diseases dying because there was nothing available to fight the infections, to the involvement of an episodic-based model of care with patients traversing inpatient- and outpatient-based delivery systems, to the new frontier of chronic care and with supports such as the one by the Centers for Disease Control that hospital-acquired infections are killing about 100,000 Americans every year, the home infusion business has become a major alternative to in-hospital treatment. This article discusses the barriers to entry into the home infusion business and assists in the evaluation of a home infusion reimbursement organization.

  4. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); D. Storey (David); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model

  5. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  6. STILL AROUND? BARRIERS TO ENTRY IN SOLO MEDICAL PRACTICE IN SUBURBAN SETTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Lee Mendoz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike many other countries, only 19% of physicians remain independent or solo practitioners in the United States. This study seeks to determine if entry barriers to solo practice exist in physician services markets with a predominantly suburban patient base. Any entry barrier will play a critical role in a wide variety of competition and income-related issues in these markets. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study hypothesizes that substantial deterrence to entry is present in suburban settings where physician competition is typically much less than metropolitan areas. Information about their competitive position was obtained from solo primary care physicians (PCPs and specialists in southern New Jersey municipalities. Two-sample t - tests (α =0.05 ascertained whether the means differences of these two groups are statistically significant for the population from which they were sampled. Regression coefficients were computed for the magnitude of differences in barrier impact between samples. RESULTS Adapting the Orr model, E = ß0 e ß 1 (πp -π* e ß 2 Q . S ß 3 µ, to this study allowed us to estimate the overall height of entry barriers to suburban solo practice. The study finds that entry barriers tend to have moderate effects on PCPs, with the exception of legal and regulatory compliance which are just as burdensome to specialists. Risk and insurance, capital, advertising, research and development (R & D as well as market concentration are far more challenging to solo specialists mainly due to overuse of already costly tests, procedures, and medications by specialists for "defensive medicine," and heavy reliance on specialists by PCPs. Labor costs are associated with several barriers. CONCLUSION Despite their declining population, market entry (and presumably survival of solo physicians is not as straightforward of a phenomenon as conjectural and anecdotal evidence might suggest. Medical specialty offers an explanatory variable

  7. The Effects Of Competition Policy: Merger Approval, Entry Barrier Removal, Antitrust Enforcement Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana B. Avdasheva; Dina V. Tsytsulina

    2014-01-01

    There is little evidence on the comparative effectiveness of different competition policy measures, especially in transition economies. This research represents the effort to expand the financial event study method for the assessment of different competition policy measures: merger control, antitrust investigations on abuse of dominance, and changes of import tariffs in the Russian ferrous and non-ferrous metals markets from 2007 to 2012. According to the reaction of financial market, mergers...

  8. Perceived barriers to entry: are there any differences between small, medium-sized and large companies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, R.G.M.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide empirical evidence about the importance of barriers to entry. In particular, the perceptions of firms are considered. Three questions are addressed: which entry-barriers are important in the perception of firms in the Dutch economy? Do these perceptions

  9. Entry and Competition in Differentiated Products Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaumans, C.B.C.; Verboven, F.L.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a methodology for estimating the competition effects from entry when firms sell differentiated products. We first derive precise conditions under which Bres- nahan and Reiss'entry threshold ratios (ETRs) can be used to test for the presence and to measure the magnitude of competition

  10. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, R

    1989-03-01

    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  11. The Brazilian Banking Industry: A Study of the Entry Barriers to Foreign Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rabelo Melo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil began 2013 year with the announcement of the Central Bank of Brazil (BCB on whether to authorize the entry of new nineteen foreign banks. Moreover, there are barriers to entry in any market. They are structural and can be hardly changed by potential entrants. The research investigates what are the entry barriers the foreign banks will face in the Brazilian market. The theory indicated the barriers should be surveyed, and other specific barriers emerged from consultation with 112 experts from the banking market. They were divided into market barriers and institutional barriers. The research consulted in 2013 the national regulator bank (BCB and 39 domestic and foreign banks. The analysis was descriptive and explanatory using factor analysis and logistic regression. For the analysis it was considered as dependent variable the type of bank (domestic or foreign, and as predictors variables the entry barriers. As a result, it was seen that the barriers of market are representative and the institutional barriers showed no significance, which shows the strength of the banking industry in Brazil

  12. The Spanish company in China: Entry forms and barriers to internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Àngels Niñerola

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The Chinese market is a sought-after investment destination for numerous companies across the world for their great sales potential. However, because of the complexity of the country, the investment should be made with caution. The choice of form of entry is one of the most crucial decisions that the company has to face when it decides to undertake an internationalization process. This paper aims, first, determine the form of entry used by Spanish companies in China and what factors have influenced the choice, and secondly, identify what are the entry barriers that they have been found.Methodology: To answer these questions interviews were held with managers or heads of the department involved in the internationalization process of fifteen Spanish companies from different economic sectors with direct investment in China.Findings: As a result, we found that implantation in China has been a sequential process for the following reasons: lack of market knowledge, compulsory investment with a local partner or gradual commitment of resources. Once the company decides to settle permanently, the form used is a subsidiary company, known in China as Wholly Foreign Owned Enterprise.Regulatory and bureaucratic, cultural and language, competitive and risk of imitation, human resources and, finally, informal barriers have been identified by companies during their internationalization process in the Chinese market.Originality: More studies like this are needed for shed light to the internationalization process in this market for being so culturally different to Spanish and so unknown for not being the first destination of the Spanish company historically.

  13. Air Force Commanders and Barriers to Entry into a Doctoral Business Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tony; LeMire, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined professionally qualified Air Force commanders' barriers to entry into a business doctoral degree program related to the factors of time, financial means, academics, and motivation. Of the 116 present commanders, 63% were interested in pursuing a doctorate in business. For the commanders interested in obtaining a doctorate…

  14. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  15. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  16. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...... entry barriers push the entrepreneurs towards the informal sector. Whether entrepreneurs succeed in the transition towards the formal sector depends on the size of the entry barriers which are indirectly regulated both by informal institutions such as corruption and formal institutions......'s data that measures competition policy for a large cross section of countries. The paper generally finds confirmation for the hypothesized relationship between the informal sector, firm size and corruption and the idea that competition policy may have a moderating effect on this relationship...

  17. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, C.H.M.; Kemp, R.G.M.; Dijkstra, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on the seven generic factors, a conjoint analysis is carried out to identify the most important factors perceived by firms. The conjoint analysis shows that in particular the barriers rooted in three ...

  18. Contextualizing Territories in Gvc Supplier Nodes to Understand Chain Entry Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper deals with entry barriers for developing country suppliers to global value chains (GVCs). It is based on a study of food processing firms in Kenya undertaken between 2012 and 2014. The paper focuses on how entry barriers to GVCs are sometimes constructed within supplier countries......, and not entirely an outcome of chain governance structures. We propose a need for more thorough analysis of historical and present political, social and economic relations and processes going on within supplier countries than are commonly conducted as part of GVC studies. This is essential to our understanding...... starting point in the theoretical-methodological process of ‘contextualizing territories’, that is the territories in which GVC suppliers are located. From this theoretical foundation, we go on to suggest the concrete content of such an analysis. The Kenyan food processing industry is used as an analytical...

  19. Clinician-scientists in Canada: barriers to career entry and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Bryn; Hanley, Gillian E; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2010-10-04

    Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) databases on grant and award performance of clinician-scientists and non-clinical PhDs for fiscal years 2000 to 2008. Three main barriers were identified through qualitative analysis: research training, research salaries, and research grants. We then looked for evidence of these barriers in the Canada-wide statistical dataset for our study period. Clinician-scientists had a small but statistically significant higher mean number of degrees (3.3) than non-clinical scientists (3.2), potentially confirming the perception of longer training times. But evidence of the other two barriers was equivocal. For example, while overall growth in salary awards was minimal, awards to clinician-scientists increased by 45% compared to 6.3% for non-clinical PhDs. Similarly, in terms of research funding, awards to clinician-scientists increased by more than 25% compared with 5% for non-clinical PhDs. However, clinician-scientist-led grants funded under CIHR's Clinical thematic area decreased significantly from 61% to 51% (p-valuescientists may be shifting their attention to other research domains. While clinician-scientists continue to perceive barriers to career entry and progress, quantitative results suggest improvements over the last decade. Clinician-scientists are awarded an increasing proportion of CIHR research grants and salary awards. Given the translational importance of this group, however, it may be prudent to adopt specific policy and funding incentives to

  20. Reducing Barriers to Career Entry for Latinos: An Examination of Pathways into Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony De Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand for bilingual/bicultural social work practitioners presents a mutually beneficial opportunity for the social work profession and Latinos who are increasingly in positions to be employed as social workers (Acevedo, González, Santiago, & Vargas-Ramos, 2007; Ortíz-Hendricks, 2007. Uneven academic preparation, limited access to information about college, high tuition/opportunity costs and family obligations are among the barriers to higher education for Latinos (Arbona & Nora, 2007; Hurtado & Ponjuan, 2005; Ortíz et al., 2007. Using comparative methods, this article describes career pathway program models that address obstacles to successful entry into social work careers. These models also demonstrate the potential to reduce barriers to degree completion and career entry for Latinos. Salient program components include reduced tuition and tuition assistance, transportation assistance, child care, support in strengthening oral and written English skills, and access to networks of employers (Takahashi & Melendez, 2004. Implications for social work and social work education are also discussed.

  1. Clinician-scientists in Canada: barriers to career entry and progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Lander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. METHODS: Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR databases on grant and award performance of clinician-scientists and non-clinical PhDs for fiscal years 2000 to 2008. RESULTS: Three main barriers were identified through qualitative analysis: research training, research salaries, and research grants. We then looked for evidence of these barriers in the Canada-wide statistical dataset for our study period. Clinician-scientists had a small but statistically significant higher mean number of degrees (3.3 than non-clinical scientists (3.2, potentially confirming the perception of longer training times. But evidence of the other two barriers was equivocal. For example, while overall growth in salary awards was minimal, awards to clinician-scientists increased by 45% compared to 6.3% for non-clinical PhDs. Similarly, in terms of research funding, awards to clinician-scientists increased by more than 25% compared with 5% for non-clinical PhDs. However, clinician-scientist-led grants funded under CIHR's Clinical thematic area decreased significantly from 61% to 51% (p-value<0.001 suggesting that clinician-scientists may be shifting their attention to other research domains. CONCLUSION: While clinician-scientists continue to perceive barriers to career entry and progress, quantitative results suggest improvements over the last decade. Clinician-scientists are awarded an increasing proportion of CIHR research grants and salary awards. Given the translational importance of

  2. Decreasing Entry into a Restricted Area Using a Visual Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Leilani; Vore, Jessica; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Baker, Jonathan C.

    2004-01-01

    Wandering is a difficult-to-manage behavior problem for individuals with cognitive impairments that can jeopardize safety if an individual enters a hazardous area or becomes lost. This study investigated the effects of a cloth barrier on entry into an unsafe area. The cloth barrier reduced entry into the restricted area and had high treatment…

  3. Europe's Revolving Doors: Import Competition and Endogenous Firm Entry Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Povilas Lastauskas

    2013-01-01

    The close relationship between politics and enterprises made the revolving door wide open and reinforced business influence on political decisions. This paper analyses the relationship between firm entry institutions and import competition inside the EU. Though there is a clear tendency for entry and startup costs to decrease over time and particularly in space, I challenge the view that greater openness to trade automatically leads to improved firm entry institutions. My model enables calcul...

  4. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  5. Competitive Dynamics of Market Entry: Scale and Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. UPSON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Market entry is the essence of strategy and is largely viewed as a dichotomous event: entry or no entry. What has not been acknowledged is the uniqueness of each market entry. Our study highlights the scale of market entry in the context of multipoint competition. We assert that entry scale varies based on the risk of market incumbent retaliation. Theory suggests that when risk associated with retaliation are low, firms enter with large scale and when associated risks are high, firms enter with low scale. Further, survival is viewed as dependent on following theory. We argue and find supporting evidence that firms behave in the opposite manner and do so to their own benefit, thereby revealing a unique discrepancy between theory and practice among 75 product market entries by 27 firms.

  6. Trade Costs, Barriers to Entry, and Export Diversification in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, Allen; Shepherd, Ben

    2007-01-01

    This paper finds that a 1 percent reduction in the cost of exporting or the cost of international transport is associated with an export diversification gain of 0.3 percent or 0.4 percent respectively. Lower domestic market entry costs can also promote diversification, but the elasticity is weaker (-0.1). To obtain these results, the authors construct new measures of export diversification...

  7. Barriers of access to care in a managed competition model: lessons from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogollón-Pérez Amparo Susana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector reform in Colombia, initiated by Law 100 (1993 that introduced a managed competition model, is generally presented as a successful experience of improving access to care through a health insurance regulated market. The study's objective is to improve our understanding of the factors influencing access to the continuum of care in the Colombian managed competition model, from the social actors' point of view. Methods An exploratory, descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was carried out, based on case studies of four healthcare networks in rural and urban areas. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to a three stage theoretical sample: I cases, II providers and III informants: insured and uninsured users (35, health professionals (51, administrative personnel (20, and providers' (18 and insurers' (10 managers. Narrative content analysis was conducted; segmented by cases, informant's groups and themes. Results Access, particularly to secondary care, is perceived as complex due to four groups of obstacles with synergetic effects: segmented insurance design with insufficient services covered; insurers' managed care and purchasing mechanisms; providers' networks structural and organizational limitations; and, poor living conditions. Insurers' and providers' values based on economic profit permeate all factors. Variations became apparent between the two geographical areas and insurance schemes. In the urban areas barriers related to market functioning predominate, whereas in the rural areas structural deficiencies in health services are linked to insufficient public funding. While financial obstacles are dominant in the subsidized regime, in the contributory scheme supply shortage prevails, related to insufficient private investment. Conclusions The results show how in the Colombian healthcare system structural and organizational barriers to care access, that are common in developing countries

  8. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  9. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  10. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing

  11. The Heterochromatic Barrier to DNA Double Strand Break Repair: How to Get the Entry Visa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Goodarzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, a deep understanding of pathways that repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB has been gained from biochemical, structural, biophysical and cellular studies. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR represent the two major DSB repair pathways, and both processes are now well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the chromatin environment at a DSB significantly impacts upon DSB repair and that, moreover, dramatic modifications arise in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. Chromatin is broadly divided into open, transcriptionally active, euchromatin (EC and highly compacted, transcriptionally inert, heterochromatin (HC, although these represent extremes of a spectrum. The HC superstructure restricts both DSB repair and damage response signaling. Moreover, DSBs within HC (HC-DSBs are rapidly relocalized to the EC-HC interface. The damage response protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, is required for HC-DSB repair but is dispensable for the relocalization of HC-DSBs. It has been proposed that ATM signaling enhances HC relaxation in the DSB vicinity and that this is a prerequisite for HC-DSB repair. Hence, ATM is essential for repair of HC-DSBs. Here, we discuss how HC impacts upon the response to DSBs and how ATM overcomes the barrier that HC poses to repair.

  12. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.

  13. Market Entry, Product Quality And Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sameer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study an entrant firm’s product quality choice and the price competition arising between the entrant and the incumbent firm. We show that the entrant firm should introduce a relatively higher (lower quality than the incumbent firm when the consumers’ valuation for quality is sufficiently large (small. We also study how the incumbent firm modifies its price in response to the ensuing price competition. We find that the incumbent firm should decrease its price. We also profile how the incumbent firm’s price non-linearly depends on consumers’ valuation for quality.

  14. DNA-AuNP networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier to inhibit viral attachment, entry and budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Mei; Zheng, Lin Ling; Yang, Xiao Xi; Wan, Xiao Yan; Wu, Wen Bi; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Yuan Fang; Luo, Ling Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections have caused numerous diseases and deaths worldwide. Due to the emergence of new viruses and frequent virus variation, conventional antiviral strategies that directly target viral or cellular proteins are limited because of the specificity, drug resistance and rapid clearance from the human body. Therefore, developing safe and potent antiviral agents with activity against viral infection at multiple points in the viral life cycle remains a major challenge. In this report, we propose a new modality to inhibit viral infection by fabricating DNA conjugated gold nanoparticle (DNA-AuNP) networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier. The DNA-AuNPs networks were found, via a plaque formation assay and viral titers, to have potent antiviral ability and protect host cells from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Confocal immunofluorescence image analysis showed 80 ± 3.8% of viral attachment, 91.1 ± 0.9% of viral entry and 87.9 ± 2.8% of viral budding were inhibited by the DNA-AuNP networks, which were further confirmed by real-time fluorescence imaging of the RSV infection process. The antiviral activity of the networks may be attributed to steric effects, the disruption of membrane glycoproteins and limited fusion of cell membrane bilayers, all of which play important roles in viral infection. Therefore, our results suggest that the DNA-AuNP networks have not only prophylactic effects to inhibit virus attachment and entry, but also therapeutic effects to inhibit viral budding and cell-to-cell spread. More importantly, this proof-of-principle study provides a pathway for the development of a universal, broad-spectrum antiviral therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Foreign entry, cultural barriers and learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.G. Barkema (Harry); J.H.J. Bell (John); J.M.E. Pennings

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThis paper examines the longevity of foreign entries. Hypotheses are developed on the mode (start-ups vs. acquisitions) and ownership structure (wholly owned vs. joint ventures) in relation to cultural distance. The hypotheses are tested within a framework of organizational learning,

  16. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  17. Authorized Generic Entry prior to Patent Expiry: Reassessing Incentives for Independent Generic Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Appelt, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Patent holders frequently attempt to mitigate the loss of monopoly power by authorizing generic entry prior to patent expiry (early entry). Competition in off-patent pharmaceutical markets may be adversely affected if early entry substantially impairs the attractiveness of subsequent market entry. I examine generic entry decisions made in the course of recent patent expiries to quantify the impact of early entry on incentives for generic entry. Using unique micro data and accounting for th...

  18. Financial Inclusion, Entry Barriers, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the relationship between financial inclusion and the formation of entrepreneurs, both theoretically and empirically. We first construct a theoretical model to examine how the development of financial inclusion affects the formation of entrepreneurs. The model suggests that the development of financial inclusion can mitigate credit constraints on entrepreneurial activities by reducing information asymmetry in financial transactions, and in addition this effect is greater in industries with lower barriers to entry. Then, using data from 31 provinces and 19 industries in China during the period 2005–2014, we test the impact of financial inclusion on the formation of entrepreneurs. The estimation results confirm the positive effect of financial inclusion development on the formation of entrepreneurs, and indicate that this effect is heterogeneous across industries. Moreover, the development of financial inclusion is often beneficial to the formations of entrepreneurs in sectors with lower entry barriers.

  19. Political Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Casey B. Mulligan; Kevin K. Tsui

    2006-01-01

    Political competitiveness - which many interpret as the degree of democracy - can be modeled as a monopolistic competition. All regimes are constrained by the threat of "entry," and thereby seek some combination of popular support and political entry barriers. This simple model predicts that many public policies are unrelated to political competitiveness, and that even unchallenged nondemocratic regimes should tax far short of their Laffer curve maximum. Economic sanctions, odious debt repudi...

  20. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  1. Maximizing competition : reducing barriers for new players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, H.; Cramer, D.; McLeese, R.; Singer, J.

    2003-01-01

    This session included highlights from four guest speakers who commented on ways to reduce barriers to competition in Ontario's electric power industry. Topics of discussion included intertie transaction failures, the lack of overall investment in the market, the government's inaction which is preventing investment, the continued underwriting of Ontario Power Generation's activities by the government which discourages investment in the private sector, and indecisiveness regarding policy on coal plants. It was emphasized that investors need to know for certain that they can get a reasonable rate of return on their investments, that the market will be transparent and there will be no shift in policy. The need to promote new, efficient power generation by means of nuclear, coal, natural gas, and hydro energy was also emphasized. Charts depicting total energy production by source were presented for 2001 with projections to 2012. figs

  2. Breaking the barriers to commercialization of MEMS: a firm's search for competitive advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Steven T.; Linton, Jonathan D.

    1999-08-01

    A model of infrastructure development for MEMS manufacturing Technologies is offered. The role of discontinuous innovation in achieving competitive advantage is briefly reviewed. This is followed by the development of a model that describes the stages in the growth of an infrastructure to support Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems infrastructure. We briefly describe how an infrastructure gradually grows to support a new industry, resulting from discontinuous innovation. the model indicates the evolving nature of the actions and investments that firms and governments need to make to support the growth of an immature industry. Consequently, we aim to not only offer a descriptive model, but offer guidance to firms on whether their intentions and resources fit with the state of the industry and to offer policy makers guidance on the timing of different types of support.

  3. Entry and exit in retailing: incentives, barriers, displacement and replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Carree (Martin); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this study the determinants of entry and exit and the interrelationship between these market phenomena are investigated. We examine incentives, barriers, displacement and replacement for a panel data-set of 23 Dutch shoptypes for the 1981–1988 period. Results indicate that profit as a

  4. Polycentrism: Boon or barrier to metropolitan competitiveness? The case of the Randstad Holland [publication in Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambregts, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the ways Dutch planners try to come to terms with some of the more problematic aspects related to the polycentric make-up of the Randstad. As such, it aims to provide some counterweight to the sometimes overly enthusiastic belief among policy-makers that polycentricity or

  5. Protective role of FKBP51 in calcium entry-induced endothelial barrier disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Caleb L; Kadeba, Pierre I; Vasauskas, Audrey A; Solodushko, Viktoriya; McClinton, Anna K; Alexeyev, Mikhail; Scammell, Jonathan G; Cioffi, Donna L

    2018-01-01

    Pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) express a cation current, I SOC (store-operated calcium entry current), which when activated permits calcium entry leading to inter-endothelial cell gap formation. The large molecular weight immunophilin FKBP51 inhibits I SOC but not other calcium entry pathways in PAECs. However, it is unknown whether FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC is sufficient to protect the endothelial barrier from calcium entry-induced disruption. The major objective of this study was to determine whether FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC leads to decreased calcium entry-induced inter-endothelial gap formation and thus preservation of the endothelial barrier. Here, we measured the effects of thapsigargin-induced I SOC on the endothelial barrier in control and FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs. FKBP51 overexpression decreased actin stress fiber and inter-endothelial cell gap formation in addition to attenuating the decrease in resistance observed with control cells using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Finally, the thapsigargin-induced increase in dextran flux was abolished in FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs. We then measured endothelial permeability in perfused lungs of FKBP51 knockout (FKBP51 -/- ) mice and observed increased calcium entry-induced permeability compared to wild-type mice. To begin to dissect the mechanism underlying the FKBP51-mediated inhibition of I SOC , a second goal of this study was to determine the role of the microtubule network. We observed that FKBP51 overexpressing PAECs exhibited increased microtubule polymerization that is critical for inhibition of I SOC by FKBP51. Overall, we have identified FKBP51 as a novel regulator of endothelial barrier integrity, and these findings are significant as they reveal a protective mechanism for endothelium against calcium entry-induced disruption.

  6. Population of superdeformed bands, the competition with fission, and the barrier between normal and superdeformed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M.P.; Chasman, R.R.; Wolfs, F.L.H.; Beard, K.B.; Garg, U.; Ye, D.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W.; Drigert, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we report on the entry points leading to superdeformed (SD) as well as normal bands. We find that, compared to normal bands, the entry spins for the SD bands are about 9 ℎ higher, and the entry excitation energy 1--3 MeV colder. We also conclude that population of the SD bands represents successful competition against fission. SD bands in both the Dy and Hg regions are considered

  7. Breaking the entry barriers of startup companies to offer AAL services through integrated eHealth solutions based on a hybrid business model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    Healthcare sector is one of the main pillars of the economy at a global level that involves patients, physicians, National Health Systems, insurance companies, pharmaceuticals, vendors, researchers and providers. Healthcare sector represents a good portion of the GDP of any Government and attract...... Organizations (CRO). The full paper will elaborate on the hybrid business model and present how a multi-million € research project has applied this model in order to encounter the challenges and create a solid startup.......Healthcare sector is one of the main pillars of the economy at a global level that involves patients, physicians, National Health Systems, insurance companies, pharmaceuticals, vendors, researchers and providers. Healthcare sector represents a good portion of the GDP of any Government and attracts...... billion dollar investments every year. The technology and Internet evolution have contributed significantly to the creation of eHealth within the Healthcare sector that aims to improve citizens’ health and wellbeing. Nevertheless, the barriers to entry in this highly regulated business sector are huge...

  8. The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Bitzer; Philipp J.H. Schröder

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS entry by examining a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The paper identifies a pro-i...

  9. Ambulatory surgery center and general hospital competition: entry decisions and strategic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amin, Mona; Housman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    General hospitals are consistently under pressure to control cost and improve quality. In addition to mounting payers' demands, hospitals operate under evolving market conditions that might threaten their survival. While hospitals traditionally were concerned mainly with competition from other hospitals, today's reimbursement schemes and entrepreneurial activities encouraged the proliferation of outpatient facilities such as ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs) that can jeopardize hospitals' survival. The purpose of this article was to examine the relationship between ASCs and general hospitals. More specifically, we apply the niche overlap theory to study the impact that competition between ASCs and general hospitals has on the survival chances of both of these organizational populations. Our analysis examined interpopulation competition in models of organizational mortality and market demand. We utilized Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the impact of competition from each on ASC and hospital exit while controlling for market factors. We relied on two data sets collected and developed by Florida's Agency for Health Care Administration: outpatient facility licensure data and inpatient and outpatient surgical procedure data. Although ASCs do tend to exit markets in which there are high levels of ASC competition, we found no evidence to suggest that ASC exit rates are affected by hospital density. On the other hand, hospitals not only tend to exit markets with high levels of hospital competition but also experience high exit rates in markets with high ASC density. The implications from our study differ for ASCs and hospitals. When making decisions about market entry, ASCs should choose their markets according to the following: demand for outpatient surgery, number of physicians who would practice in the surgery center, and the number of surgery centers that already exist in the market. Hospitals, on the other hand, should account for competition from ASCs

  10. Evidence for a post-entry barrier to R5 HIV-1 infection of CD4 memory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyakarnam, A.; Eyeson, J.; teo, I.; Zuckerman, M.; Babaahmady, K.; Schuitemaker, H.; Shaunak, S.; Rostron, T.; Rowland-Jones, S.; Simmons, G.; Clapham, P.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 strains R5 and X4 can infect CD4 memory T cells in vivo. Anti-CD3/28 stimulation induces beta-chemokines and CCR5 down-regulation and renders these cells resistant to R5 HIV-1 infection. Here we describe an additional cellular mechanism that blocks productive R5 HIV-1 infection of

  11. Identifying and Tackling Entry Barriers in Canada : A study for the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Jari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to retain Dutch prominence in the global maritime cluster by enabling the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry to respond to Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy opportunities through identifying and proposing solutions to the market entry barriers existing in the Canadian shipbuilding industry. The reviewed literature focuses on internationalizing theories, market entry barriers and various tools to assess the attractiveness of international ma...

  12. The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS...... entry by examining a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The chapter identifies a pro-innovative effect of OSS competition.......This chapter presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS...

  13. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  14. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  15. Identifying and prioritizing export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food Industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmanyyoushanlouei

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diamond model Cole Porter and approaches after that have been used in several investigations in most countries and the credit behind the model has been repeatedly confirmed. But any theory is contended with regard to the conditions and time scope of their own; and gets corrected with the emergence of new features and based on the environment of reform. Current study has tried to identify and prioritize export barriers to small and medium enterprises (SMEs regarding food industry based on national competition diamond Cole Porter model in Iran (East Azerbaijan province and its subject pool were 266 people who were given the questionnaires. The method used to analyze and get information from research was exploratory confirmation factor, particularly from the equations structural theories for examination. With regard to the results achieved all hypotheses were confirmed.

  16. Reducing structural dominance and entry barriers in Russian industry

    OpenAIRE

    Broadman, Harry G.

    2000-01-01

    Many industrial firms in Russia have undergone changes in ownership, but relatively few have been competitively restructured. Using survey and other data, the author suggests that much of Russian industry is immune from robust competition because of heavy vertical integration, geographic segmentation, and the concentration of buyers and sellers, in selected markets. Moreover, regulatory constraints protect incumbent firms from competition with new entrants, both domestic and foreign. The auth...

  17. Barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheck, Robert; Leslie, Douglas; Keefe, Richard; McEvoy, Joseph; Swartz, Marvin; Perkins, Diana; Stroup, Scott; Hsiao, John K; Lieberman, Jeffrey

    2006-03-01

    There is growing interest in identifying and surmounting barriers to employment for people with schizophrenia. The authors examined factors associated with participation in competitive employment or other vocational activities in a large group of patients with schizophrenia who participated in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study, a multisite clinical trial comparing the effects of first- and second-generation antipsychotics. Baseline data on more than 1,400 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were collected before their entry into the CATIE study. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between participation in either competitive employment or other vocational activities and sociodemographic characteristics, schizophrenia symptoms, neurocognitive functioning, intrapsychic functioning, availability of psychosocial rehabilitation services, and local unemployment rates. Altogether, 14.5% of the patients reported participating in competitive employment in the month before the baseline assessment, 12.6% reported other (noncompetitive) employment activity, and 72.9% reported no employment activity. Participation in either competitive or noncompetitive employment was associated with having less severe symptoms, better neurocognitive functioning, and higher scores on a measure of intrapsychic functioning that encompassed motivation, empathy, and other psychological characteristics. Competitive employment, in contrast to other employment or no employment, was negatively associated with receipt of disability payments as well as with being black. Greater access to rehabilitation services was associated with greater participation in both competitive and noncompetitive employment. Overall employment of persons with schizophrenia seems to be impeded by clinical problems, including symptoms of schizophrenia and poorer neurocognitive and intrapsychic functioning. However, participation in competitive

  18. Barriers to Taking Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, Tatiana Vadimovna; Rudakova, Lyudmila Mikhailovna

    2016-01-01

    Researchers of the traditional higher education system identify a number of factors affecting admission to a university (barriers to entry) and factors of its successful completion (barriers to exit). Massive open online courses (MOOCs), available to any Internet user, remove barriers to entry because anyone can study there. But do all students…

  19. Export Barriers and its Impact on Export Competitiveness of Leather Footwear Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie

    2015-01-01

    Master thesis Business Administration- University of Agder, 2015 Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturi...

  20. The effects of competition on premiums: using United Healthcare's 2015 entry into Affordable Care Act's marketplaces as an instrumental variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirdas, Cagdas; Krebs, Robert J; Yano, Masato

    2018-01-08

    One goal of the Affordable Care Act is to increase insurance coverage by improving competition and lowering premiums. To facilitate this goal, the federal government enacted online marketplaces in the 395 rating areas spanning 34 states that chose not to establish their own state-run marketplaces. Few multivariate regression studies analyzing the effects of competition on premiums suffer from endogeneity, due to simultaneity and omitted variable biases. However, United Healthcare's decision to enter these marketplaces in 2015 provides the researcher with an opportunity to address this endogeneity problem. Exploiting the variation caused by United Healthcare's entry decision as an instrument for competition, we study the impact of competition on premiums during the first 2 years of these marketplaces. Combining panel data from five different sources and controlling for 12 variables, we find that one more insurer in a rating area leads to a 6.97% reduction in the second-lowest-priced silver plan premium, which is larger than the estimated effects in existing literature. Furthermore, we run a threshold analysis and find that competition's effects on premiums become statistically insignificant if there are four or more insurers in a rating area. These findings are robust to alternative measures of premiums, inclusion of a non-linear term in the regression models and a county-level analysis.

  1. Preventing re-entry to foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Rizik-Baer, Daniel; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Re-entry to foster care generally refers to circumstances in which children who have been discharged from foster care to be reunified with their family of origin, adopted, or provided kinship guardianship are returned to foster care. In the context of the federal performance measurement system, re-entry refers specifically to a return to foster care following an unsuccessful reunification. The federal Children and Family Services Review measures re-entry to foster care with a single indicator, called the permanency of reunification indicator, one of four indicators comprising the reunification composite measure. This review focuses on research related to the re-entry indicator, including the characteristics of children, caregivers and families, as well as case and child welfare services that are associated with a higher or lower risk of re-entry to foster care. Promising post-reunification services designed to prevent re-entry to foster care are described.

  2. Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    The first part of this paper provides a systematic discussion of the structural problems of competition on financial markets as observed from the demand and from the supply side, using a diagnostic framework. Potential impediments to competition are concentration, entry barriers, lack of

  3. Entry, Descent, and Landing technological barriers and crewed MARS vehicle performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, Prabhakar; Rasky, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Mars has been explored historically only by robotic crafts, but a crewed mission encompasses several new engineering challenges - high ballistic coefficient entry, hypersonic decelerators, guided entry for reaching intended destinations within acceptable margins for error in the landing ellipse, and payload mass are all critical factors for evaluation. A comprehensive EDL parametric analysis has been conducted in support of a high mass landing architecture by evaluating three types of vehicles -70° Sphere Cone, Ellipsled and SpaceX hybrid architecture called Red Dragon as potential candidate options for crewed entry vehicles. Aerocapture at the Martian orbit of about 400 km and subsequent Entry-from-orbit scenarios were investigated at velocities of 6.75 km/s and 4 km/s respectively. A study on aerocapture corridor over a range of entry velocities (6-9 km/s) suggests that a hypersonic L/D of 0.3 is sufficient for a Martian aerocapture. Parametric studies conducted by varying aeroshell diameters from 10 m to 15 m for several entry masses up to 150 mt are summarized and results reveal that vehicles with entry masses in the range of about 40-80 mt are capable of delivering cargo with a mass on the order of 5-20 mt. For vehicles with an entry mass of 20 mt to 80 mt, probabilistic Monte Carlo analysis of 5000 cases for each vehicle were run to determine the final landing ellipse and to quantify the statistical uncertainties associated with the trajectory and attitude conditions during atmospheric entry. Strategies and current technological challenges for a human rated Entry, Descent, and Landing to the Martian surface are presented in this study.

  4. Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edita Ragelskaja

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive advantage and the factors impacting competitive advantage. The integrated model of competitive advantage is proposed in the paper.Article in Lithuanian

  5. Barriers Inhibiting Albanian Tourism from Being Competitive: A Delphi Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariett a Poshi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albanian tourism is a major income contributor to the country’s employment and economy. The industry is relatively new to the country and only recently has it been able to receive the attention it needs in regards to making it more appealing to tourists and everyone involved in it. The lack of inexperience as compared to countries in the region is very apparent especially by comparison of visitors per capita on Albania with the other destinations in the region. Research on various factors that might inhibit Albanian tourism have been conducted and while they display what the problems might be, they lack to suggest implementing strategies. A qualitative Delphi was used in this research study, which included a purposeful sample of SMEs in the field of Albanian tourism. The panel of experts were drawn from three groups: (a government officials, (b industry leaders, and (c academics. The data were collected and analyzed from three rounds of questionnaires. The study found 10 factors inhibiting Albanian tourism from being competitive in the region. SMEs suggested 6 short-term and 4 long-term actions needed to be taken by Albanian tourism in order to increase its competitiveness in the Mediterranean. Recommendations for academia, government, and industry included the need for more research in the field, regulation of industry taxes and fighting of corruption, investment of infrastructure, professional training and developed, and creation on independent professional organizations.

  6. Barriers Approach to Innovation in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hsuan Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.

  7. A Gestalt approach to Gram-negative entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn L

    2016-12-15

    A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm. But bypassing the OM and efflux obstacles does not take into account the additional requirement of penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) whose sieving properties appear to be orthogonal to that of the OM. That is, tailoring compounds to transit the OM may well compromise their ability to enter the cytoplasm. Thus, a Gestalt approach to understanding the chemical requirements for GN entry seems a useful adjunct. This might consist of characterizing compounds which reach the cytoplasm, grouping (or binning) by routes of entry and formulating chemical 'rules' for those bins. This will require acquisition of data on large numbers of compounds, using non-activity-dependent methods of measuring accumulation in the cytoplasm. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Trade Barrier Elimination, Economics of Scale and Market Competition: Computable General Equilibrium Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries agreed to reduce trade barriers in the services sector, one of which is sea transport services. The purpose of this study is to estimate the equivalent tax of non-tariff barriers in the sea transport services. Besides that, this study is going to analyze the economic impacts of the regulatory barriers elimination in the sea transport services of ASEAN and its dialogue partner countries. Using the gravity model, it can be identified that trade barriers of sea transport services sector of ASEAN and dialogue partner countries are still relatively high. Additionally, by adopting IC-IRTS model in Global CGE Model (GTAP, the simulation results show consistent results with the theory of pro-competitive effects. The greater gain from trade is obtained in the CGE model assuming IC-IRTS compared to PC-CRTS. China gains a greater benefit that is indicated by the highest increase in welfare and GDP followed by Japan and AustraliaDOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5279

  9. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS AND MARKET COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna SOBOLIEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examine theoretical perspectives on the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, entry barriers in the industry, the structure of the industry, the competitive behavior of firms and market power; systemize structure of the research of advertising impact on consumer behavior; analyze the main results of empirical studies of the effects of advertising on the competitive relationship in the market.

  10. THEORETICAL APPROACHES TO ASSESS THE IMPACT OF ADVERTISING ON CONSUMERS AND MARKET COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna SOBOLIEVA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article we examine theoretical perspectives on the impact of advertising on consumer behavior, entry barriers in the industry, the structure of the industry, the competitive behavior of firms and market power; systemic structure of the research of advertising impact on consumer behavior; analyze the main results of empirical studies of the effects of advertising on the competitive relationship in the market.

  11. New principles and variations in the architecture of Alvar Aalto : Competition entry for the hospital complex of Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1930-1931)

    OpenAIRE

    Zmijanovic, Vladanka

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is based on the beginning of the creation of Aalto's architectural language where are observed and analyzed some new principles, one step away from his first projects of "Functionalism", "extracted" from a vast project, little known, neither awarded nor performed: the International Competition entry for the Hospital Complex in Zagreb, Yugoslavia (1930/1931). This hospital complex, is not a hospital building, but a complex project: "Hospital City" which Aalto referred to as "Acropo...

  12. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  13. Health Barriers to Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delaney Gracy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.

  14. Delineating morbillivirus entry, dissemination and airborne transmission by studying in vivo competition of multicolor canine distemper viruses in ferrets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Ludlow, Martin; de Jong, Alwin; Rennick, Linda J; Verburgh, R Joyce; van Amerongen, Geert; van Riel, Debby; van Run, Peter R W A; Herfst, Sander; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; de Swart, Rik L; Duprex, W Paul

    2017-05-01

    Identification of cellular receptors and characterization of viral tropism in animal models have vastly improved our understanding of morbillivirus pathogenesis. However, specific aspects of viral entry, dissemination and transmission remain difficult to recapitulate in animal models. Here, we used three virologically identical but phenotypically distinct recombinant (r) canine distemper viruses (CDV) expressing different fluorescent reporter proteins for in vivo competition and airborne transmission studies in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Six donor ferrets simultaneously received three rCDVs expressing green, red or blue fluorescent proteins via conjunctival (ocular, Oc), intra-nasal (IN) or intra-tracheal (IT) inoculation. Two days post-inoculation sentinel ferrets were placed in physically separated adjacent cages to assess airborne transmission. All donor ferrets developed lymphopenia, fever and lethargy, showed progressively increasing systemic viral loads and were euthanized 14 to 16 days post-inoculation. Systemic replication of virus inoculated via the Oc, IN and IT routes was detected in 2/6, 5/6 and 6/6 ferrets, respectively. In five donor ferrets the IT delivered virus dominated, although replication of two or three different viruses was detected in 5/6 animals. Single lymphocytes expressing multiple fluorescent proteins were abundant in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, demonstrating the occurrence of double and triple virus infections. Transmission occurred efficiently and all recipient ferrets showed evidence of infection between 18 and 22 days post-inoculation of the donor ferrets. In all cases, airborne transmission resulted in replication of a single-colored virus, which was the dominant virus in the donor ferret. This study demonstrates that morbilliviruses can use multiple entry routes in parallel, and co-infection of cells during viral dissemination in the host is common. Airborne transmission was efficient, although transmission of

  15. Delineating morbillivirus entry, dissemination and airborne transmission by studying in vivo competition of multicolor canine distemper viruses in ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Identification of cellular receptors and characterization of viral tropism in animal models have vastly improved our understanding of morbillivirus pathogenesis. However, specific aspects of viral entry, dissemination and transmission remain difficult to recapitulate in animal models. Here, we used three virologically identical but phenotypically distinct recombinant (r canine distemper viruses (CDV expressing different fluorescent reporter proteins for in vivo competition and airborne transmission studies in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo. Six donor ferrets simultaneously received three rCDVs expressing green, red or blue fluorescent proteins via conjunctival (ocular, Oc, intra-nasal (IN or intra-tracheal (IT inoculation. Two days post-inoculation sentinel ferrets were placed in physically separated adjacent cages to assess airborne transmission. All donor ferrets developed lymphopenia, fever and lethargy, showed progressively increasing systemic viral loads and were euthanized 14 to 16 days post-inoculation. Systemic replication of virus inoculated via the Oc, IN and IT routes was detected in 2/6, 5/6 and 6/6 ferrets, respectively. In five donor ferrets the IT delivered virus dominated, although replication of two or three different viruses was detected in 5/6 animals. Single lymphocytes expressing multiple fluorescent proteins were abundant in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, demonstrating the occurrence of double and triple virus infections. Transmission occurred efficiently and all recipient ferrets showed evidence of infection between 18 and 22 days post-inoculation of the donor ferrets. In all cases, airborne transmission resulted in replication of a single-colored virus, which was the dominant virus in the donor ferret. This study demonstrates that morbilliviruses can use multiple entry routes in parallel, and co-infection of cells during viral dissemination in the host is common. Airborne transmission was efficient, although

  16. Cournot competition, contestability, and hit-and-run entry and exit in a teaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gächter, Simon; Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2006-01-01

    Instructors can use a computerized experiment to introduce students to imperfect competition in courses on introductory economics, industrial organization, game theory, and strategy and management. In addition to introducing students to strategic thinking in general, the experiment serves...... to demonstrate that profits of a firm fall as the number of competitors is increased in a market and that firms enter profitable markets. The authors have used the experiment in undergraduate classes on strategy and management as well as in master of business administration courses with great success...

  17. Competition policy costs to firms

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, André Demmich Barbosa

    2012-01-01

    The existence of competition policy forces companies to adjust their behaviour. This is also costly. Using a database from a company on contracts, I will try to estimate if a specific competition policy disposition, supply contracts cannot be longer than 60 months, has costs for the coffee suppliers operating in the Portuguese “on-trade” coffee market. The estimation method used in this paper will be OLS. The results suggest that limiting the duration of exclusivity contracts t...

  18. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  19. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from A Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization

    OpenAIRE

    Suhui Li; Avi Dor

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many states; although no longer federally mandated, policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. While numerous studies have examined the impacts of CON on hospital volumes, demand responses to actual hospital entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this pap...

  20. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...

  1. Delineating morbillivirus entry, dissemination and airborne transmission by studying in vivo competition of multicolor canine distemper viruses in ferrets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. de Vries (Rory); M. Ludlow (Martin); de Jong, A. (Alwin); L.J. Rennick (Linda); R.J. Verbugh (Joyce); G. van Amerongen (Geert); D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); P.R.W.A. van Run (Peter); S. Herfst (Sander); T. Kuiken (Thijs); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); W.P. Duprex (William Paul)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIdentification of cellular receptors and characterization of viral tropism in animal models have vastly improved our understanding of morbillivirus pathogenesis. However, specific aspects of viral entry, dissemination and transmission remain difficult to recapitulate in animal models.

  2. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  3. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  5. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all new...

  6. Insights on Technology Innovation - A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon Competition Entries 2002-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Joseph J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, Elizabeth S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Farrar, Sara L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition that challenges student teams to design and build full-size, solar-powered houses. Because of balanced design priorities of architecture, engineering, innovation, performance, and energy use, teams have focused on a range of technologies in the built environment, from wall materials to home control systems, from electric lighting to HVAC equipment, and from geothermal to solar photovoltaic technology. This report provides insights into building technology innovation from a review of the Solar Decathlon competition entry designs, anecdotal experiences, and related market reports. The report describes example case studies of the evolution of technology solutions over time to illustrate the innovative, market-driving nature of the Solar Decathlon. It charts technologies utilized in the team designs over seven competitions and compares those to broader market adoption. It is meant to illustrate the technology innovation aspects of the competition, not to be a comprehensive or quantitative analysis. Solar Decathlon also has impacts on public perception of innovative technologies as well as workforce development through the thousands of participating students. The focus of these case studies is to showcase how it contributes to marketplace adoption of innovative energy technologies.

  7. Argos: Princeton University's entry in the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiola, Solomon O.; Baldassano, Christopher A.; Franken, Gordon H.; Harris, Richard J.; Hendrick, Barbara A.; Mayer, Jonathan R.; Partridge, Brenton A.; Starr, Eric W.; Tait, Alexander N.; Yu, Derrick D.; Zhu, Tony H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present Argos, an autonomous ground robot built for the 2009 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). Discussed are the significant improvements over its predecessor from the 2008 IGVC, Kratos. We continue to use stereo vision techniques to generate a cost map of the environment around the robot. Lane detection is improved through the use of color filters that are robust to changing lighting conditions. The addition of a single-axis gyroscope to the sensor suite allows accurate measurement of the robot's yaw rate and compensates for wheel slip, vastly improving state estimation. The combination of the D* Lite algorithm, which avoids unnecessary re-planning, and the Field D* algorithm, which allows us to plan much smoother paths, results in an algorithm that produces higher quality paths in the same amount of time as methods utilizing A*. The successful implementation of a crosstrack error navigation law allows the robot to follow planned paths without cutting corners, reducing the chance of collision with obstacles. A redesigned chassis with a smaller footprint and a bi-level design, combined with a more powerful drivetrain, makes Argos much more agile and maneuverable compared to its predecessor. At the 2009 IGVC, Argos placed first in the Navigation Challenge.

  8. Competition between social and private landlords : Exploring landlords’ perceptions of rivalry and the barriers to a rivalrous relationship in local housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Governments in many countries have required social housing providers to operate more marketorientated and engage in commercial activities. Conversely, public authorities in some countries have tried to strengthen the role of the private rental sector in the provision of housing for lowincome

  9. Integrated Care, Competition and Choice - Removing barriers to care coordination in the context of market-oriented governance in Germany and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Leichsenring, Kai; Rodrigues, Ricardo; Winkelmann, Juliane; Falk, Rebecka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Many scholars have argued for already more than two decades that integration between health and social care services would be needed to enhance system efficiency, quality of care and users’ quality of life. This has been emphasised worldwide by the implementation and evaluation of countless models, initiatives and innovative practice examples across the health and social care continuum. As the advance of integrated care took place in the context of a pronounced shift towards mar...

  10. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...... by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  12. Entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-An; Kwak, Dai-Soon; You, Sung-Lim

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length. Computed tomography images of pelvic bones from 90 human cadavers were reconstructed into 3-dimensional models. In each model, a sectional image crossing the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and consecutive sectional images up to 20 mm superiorly and inferiorly from the PSIS with 1-mm intervals aiming the AIIS were obtained. One virtual iliac screw with 10-mm diameter was introduced onto the PSIS at the middle and at the lateral and medial 1/4 points on the prominence of the posterior iliac spine. The entry width of the bony prominence and the corresponding maximal screw length available were evaluated for each entry point. The entry width was smallest on the inferior 20 mm (4.7 ± 3.0 mm) and gradually increased up to the superior 10 mm (19.1 ± 3.9 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw length was smallest on the superior 20 mm (76.7 ± 39.7 mm) and gradually increased down to the inferior 10 mm (112.3 ± 15.1 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw lengths were significantly greatest at the most medial point and smallest at the most lateral point on the superior 20- and 10-mm sectional images and at the PSIS. The iliac screw fixation entry zone to maintain proper screw length and entry width is outlined from 20 mm superiorly to 10 mm inferiorly from the PSIS and is located more medially from the prominence of the posterior iliac spine.

  13. Competition policies and environmental quality: Empirical analysis of the electricity sector in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asane-Otoo, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, electricity markets across OECD countries have been subjected to profound structural changes with far-reaching implications on the economy and the environment. This paper investigates the effect of restructuring – changes in entry regulations, the degree of vertical integration and ownership structure – on GHG emissions. The findings show that competition policies – particularly reducing the degree of vertical integration and increasing privatization – correlate negatively with emission intensity. However, the environmental effect of reducing market entry barriers is generally insignificant. Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies are required to reduce GHG emissions and improve environmental quality. - Highlights: •Empirical study on competition policies and GHG emissions from the electricity sector. •Product market regulation scores for OECD countries are used to measure the extent of competition. •Evidence of a positive relationship between competition policies and environmental quality. •Integration of competition and stringent environmental policies is recommended.

  14. Structure-based design, synthesis and validation of CD4-mimetic small molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry: conversion of a viral entry agonist to an antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courter, Joel R; Madani, Navid; Sodroski, Joseph; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto; Kwong, Peter D; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Chaiken, Irwin M; LaLonde, Judith M; Smith, Amos B

    2014-04-15

    This Account provides an overview of a multidisciplinary consortium focused on structure-based strategies to devise small molecule antagonists of HIV-1 entry into human T-cells, which if successful would hold considerable promise for the development of prophylactic modalities to prevent HIV transmission and thereby alter the course of the AIDS pandemic. Entry of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into target T-cells entails an interaction between CD4 on the host T-cell and gp120, a component of the trimeric envelope glycoprotein spike on the virion surface. The resultant interaction initiates a series of conformational changes within the envelope spike that permits binding to a chemokine receptor, formation of the gp41 fusion complex, and cell entry. A hydrophobic cavity at the CD4-gp120 interface, defined by X-ray crystallography, provided an initial site for small molecule antagonist design. This site however has evolved to facilitate viral entry. As such, the binding of prospective small molecule inhibitors within this gp120 cavity can inadvertently trigger an allosteric entry signal. Structural characterization of the CD4-gp120 interface, which provided the foundation for small molecule structure-based inhibitor design, will be presented first. An integrated approach combining biochemical, virological, structural, computational, and synthetic studies, along with a detailed analysis of ligand binding energetics, revealed that modestly active small molecule inhibitors of HIV entry can also promote viral entry into cells lacking the CD4 receptor protein; these competitive inhibitors were termed small molecule CD4 mimetics. Related congeners were subsequently identified with both improved binding affinity and more potent viral entry inhibition. Further assessment of the affinity-enhanced small molecule CD4 mimetics demonstrated that premature initiation of conformational change within the viral envelope spike, prior to cell encounter, can lead to irreversible

  15. Organizational Barriers to Transition: Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, John; Justice, Thomas I., Ed.

    This study sought to identify the barriers that negatively impact the ability of disabled youth to successfully make a transition from school into employment and a quality adult life, and sought to specifically define organizational disincentives to successful transition. Current research is reviewed relating to organizational barriers to…

  16. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  17. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  18. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  19. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  1. Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  2. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  3. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    finding out relationships or no relationships. It is more equivalent with this study’s epistemology and methodology than free-mapping or pure...and industry remain educated on and sensitive to methods that can mitigate this concern and ensure antitrust compliance.151 4. Technology...legal scholars. One way to overcome the legal barriers is through education and clarity about the laws that are currently barriers such as anti-trust

  4. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose proposal...

  5. Intraspecific sperm competition genes enforce post-mating species barriers in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Dean M; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-22

    Sexual selection and sexual conflict are considered important drivers of speciation, based on both theoretical models and empirical correlations between sexually selected traits and diversification. However, whether reproductive isolation between species evolves directly as a consequence of intrapopulation sexual dynamics remains empirically unresolved, in part because knowledge of the genetic mechanisms (if any) connecting these processes is limited. Here, we provide evidence of a direct mechanistic link between intraspecies sexual selection and reproductive isolation. We examined genes with known roles in intraspecific sperm competition (ISC) in D. melanogaster and assayed their impact on conspecific sperm precedence (CSP). We found that two such genes (Acp36DE and CG9997) contribute to both offensive sperm competition and CSP; null/knockdown lines both had lower competitive ability against D. melanogaster conspecifics and were no longer able to displace heterospecific D. simulans sperm in competitive matings. In comparison, Sex Peptide (Acp70A)-another locus essential for ISC-does not contribute to CSP. These data indicate that two loci important for sperm competitive interactions have an additional role in similar interactions that enforce post-mating reproductive isolation between species, and show that sexual selection and sexual isolation can act on the same molecular targets in a gene-specific manner. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. School Competition and Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from Charter School Entry in North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kirabo Jackson

    2011-01-01

    I analyze changes in teacher turnover, hiring, effectiveness, and salaries at traditional public schools after the opening of a nearby charter school. While I find small effects on turnover overall, difficult to staff schools (low-income, high-minority share) hired fewer new teachers and experienced small declines in teacher quality. I also find evidence of a demand side response where schools increased teacher compensation to better retain quality teachers. The results are robust across a va...

  7. Barriers to Internationalization: Firm-Level Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Arndt; Claudia Buch; Anselm Mattes

    2009-01-01

    Exporters and multinationals are larger and more productive than their domestic counterparts. In addition to productivity, financial constraints and labor market constraints might constitute barriers to entry into foreign markets. We present new empirical evidence on the extensive and intensive margin of exports and FDI based on detailed micro-level data of German firms. Our paper has three main findings. First, in line with earlier literature, we find a positive impact of firm size and produ...

  8. Advertising and generic market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Königbauer, Ingrid

    2007-03-01

    The effect of purely persuasive advertising on generic market entry and social welfare is analysed. An incumbent has the possibility to invest in advertising which affects the prescribing physician's perceived relative qualities of the brand-name and the generic version of the drug. Advertising creates product differentiation and can induce generic market entry which is deterred without differentiation due to strong Bertrand competition. However, over-investment in advertising can deter generic market entry under certain conditions and reduces welfare as compared to accommodated market entry.

  9. Introducing the competitive dimension to corporate foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jan Oliver; Rohrbeck, René

    While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches...... in corporate foresight, in particular scenario planning and business wargaming, which address competitive dynamics. Further, literature on competitive strategy is discussed to assess approaches towards the identification of new rivals. One can conclude that there is an absence of structured approaches...... or frameworks towards the competitive dimension in corporate foresight. In the paper an illustrative case study is discussed, with a first attempt to provide a framework for structuring the competitive dimension in corporate foresight....

  10. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...... innovation rather than supplying large volumes of consistent quality products. One recommendation from policy-makers and academia to industry is to increase its market-oriented activity. A major reason for the recommendation is that market-oriented activity is considered a major contributor to successful...

  11. Game Changing Transformable Entry System Technology Applicability to Robotic Venus Science Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovative adpative deployable entry and placement technology (ADEPT), also known as transformable entry system technology (TEST) concept, akin to an umbrella,...

  12. Reflections on Supplier Entry Barriers to Domestic Retail Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper examines challenges for Kenyan food processing firms in the ‘modern’ domestic supermarket sector, and thereby distinguishes itself from an increasing number of studies that have explored developing country suppliers in global value chains (GVCs). The paper also differs by focusing on f...... these businesses must meet for domestic supermarkets increasingly mimic those often stressed in the export sector. Consequently, domestic supermarkets are often considered out of reach even by larger Kenyan food processors....

  13. Building a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Srivastava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes cross-industrial best practices and future trends in the context of the contemporary resource based competitive advantage model of the firm. It identifies key managerial levers, tools and systems that can be used to build and sustain a Hi-Technology company’s core competences in order to facilitate a more innovative, collaborative 21st century corporate culture. A qualitative and quantitative assessment is made of how a firm’s leadership, human capital management, organizational culture, design and systems can all collectively merge to create a more dynamic and responsive organization which is far more adept at building unique resources and capabilities, which can then be leveraged to create new market opportunities with high competitive entry barriers.

  14. Addressing barriers to safe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle

    2013-05-01

    The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... there were no cultivable bacteria, whereas bacteria were cultivated in all positive control samples. In eight of 10 PCR samples no bacterial DNA was detected. The most frequent bacteria in the remaining non-sterile parotid saliva samples and positive control samples were non-haemolytical streptococci...

  16. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally...... important, the narrow set of circumstances warranting inter-vention against refusals is defined by competition law in accordance with its underlying principles of a predominantly economic nature. Hence, competition law should not be relied upon as a corrective in-strument to lacunas in other areas of law, e.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  17. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Andres; Dutch, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens. PMID:22590688

  18. Paramyxovirus Fusion and Entry: Multiple Paths to a Common End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Dutch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family contains many common human pathogenic viruses, including measles, mumps, the parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus, and the zoonotic henipaviruses, Hendra and Nipah. While the expression of a type 1 fusion protein and a type 2 attachment protein is common to all paramyxoviruses, there is considerable variation in viral attachment, the activation and triggering of the fusion protein, and the process of viral entry. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of paramyxovirus F protein-mediated membrane fusion, an essential process in viral infectivity. We also review the role of the other surface glycoproteins in receptor binding and viral entry, and the implications for viral infection. Throughout, we concentrate on the commonalities and differences in fusion triggering and viral entry among the members of the family. Finally, we highlight key unanswered questions and how further studies can identify novel targets for the development of therapeutic treatments against these human pathogens.

  19. Properties of sports competitions and relation to market value

    OpenAIRE

    Tribušon , Matic

    2018-01-01

    Sports are a very popular type of entertainment around the world. Consequently, they have become very important from a business perspective. In this thesis, we research the influence of sports competition competitive balance on its market value. The aim is to determine the competitive balance of various sports competitions and explore the correlation between competitive balance and market value of sports competitions. We propose a method for assessing competitive balance of an arbitrary team ...

  20. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-09-01

    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  1. From pioneering orientation to new product performance through competitive tactics in SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. García-Villaverde

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature regarding entry timing suggests that pioneering orientation (PO is a key determinant factor of new product performance (NPP due to ‘first mover advantages’. The contradictory results and specific biases raise a research gap on which conditions and processes lead PO to a higher NPP. This paper proposes to fill this gap by designing and testing a model examining to what extent development of competitive tactics drive and explain the way from PO to NPP. We test the model on a sample of 224 footwear firms. Results show that, separately, each of the competitive tactics has a total mediating effect linking PO with NPP. Introducing the competitive tactics into a multiple mediator model the routes from PO to NPP through low cost and innovation differentiation are relevant and compatible. However, marketing differentiation is less effective. The study provides new ways of linking the entry timing and advantage strategy perspectives.

  2. Jupyter and Galaxy: Easing entry barriers into complex data analyses for biomedical researchers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn A Grüning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available What does it take to convert a heap of sequencing data into a publishable result? First, common tools are employed to reduce primary data (sequencing reads to a form suitable for further analyses (i.e., the list of variable sites. The subsequent exploratory stage is much more ad hoc and requires the development of custom scripts and pipelines, making it problematic for biomedical researchers. Here, we describe a hybrid platform combining common analysis pathways with the ability to explore data interactively. It aims to fully encompass and simplify the "raw data-to-publication" pathway and make it reproducible.

  3. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  4. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, mult...

  5. Barriers to nursing advocacy: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Advocacy for clients is viewed as an essential function of nursing; however, to be effective advocates for patients, the nurse must often overcome barriers to being an effective advocate. This concept analysis of barriers to nursing advocacy uses the Walker and Avant method of concept analysis. By analyzing the barriers to effective nursing advocacy for clients, nursing can then find strategies to manage those barriers and maximize the nurse's advocacy efforts.

  6. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... expanding the Global Entry program to include the following eight additional airports: Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore, Maryland (BWI); John Wayne Airport, Santa Ana, California... at http://www.globalentry.gov . David Murphy, Acting Assistant Commissioner, Office of Field...

  7. Thresholds to access the market for small-scale energy consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarsma, B.; Bremer, S.; De Nooij, M.; Poort, J.

    2007-10-01

    Entry of and options for expansion are import aspects for a well-functioning free market. The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa)/The Office of Energy Regulation (DTe/Energiekamer) received signals that there are barriers for entering or further growth on the small consumer market. The regulator has asked SEO Economic Research to examine which entry barriers are significant and require further monitoring. For this purpose, more than 20 interviews were held with market parties and stakeholders. [mk] [nl

  8. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Don

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM to a shortened (4-year course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether this could be beneficial. Methods We studied: a 217 and 96 applicants to the Nottingham 5- and 4-year courses respectively, applying in the 2002-3 UCAS cycle, and, b 246 school leavers starting the 5-year course and 39 graduate entrants to the 4-year course in October 2003. The psychological profiles of the two groups of applicants and two groups of entrants were compared using their performance in the Goldberg 'Big 5' Personality test, the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA; measuring interpersonal traits and interpersonal values, and the Lovibond and Lovibond measure of depression, anxiety and stress. For the comparison of the Entrants we excluded the 33 school leavers and seven graduates who took the tests as Applicants. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results Graduate applicants compared to school leaver applicants were significantly more conscientious, more confident, more self controlled, more communitarian in moral orientation and less anxious. Only one of these differences was preserved in the entrants with graduates being less anxious. However, the graduate entrants were significantly less empathetic and conscientious than the school leavers. Conclusion This study has shown that school leaver and graduate entrants to medical school differ in some psychological characteristics. However, if confirmed in other studies and if they were manifest in the extreme, not all the traits brought by graduates would be

  9. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  10. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorolajal, Jalal; Rezaie, Shirin; Aghighi, Negar

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan, Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%), lack of proper reporting form (51.8%), lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%), and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%). The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%), age of 50-40 years (67.6%), less-experienced personnel (58.7%), educational level of MSc (87.5%), and staff of radiology department (88.9%). This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  11. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  12. Substitutive Competition: Virtual Pets as Competitive Buffers to Alleviate Possible Negative Influence on Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Biswas, Gautam; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Although competition is regarded as a powerful motivator in game-based learning, it might have a negative influence, such as damage to confidence, on students who lose the competition. In this paper, we propose an indirect approach, substitutive competition, to alleviate such negative influences. The approach is used to develop a My-Pet v3 system,…

  13. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price

  14. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  15. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...

  16. Using Classroom Competitions to Prepare Students for the Competitive Business World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Fay Y.; Kincade, Doris H.; Frasier, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a university, collaborating with industry, integrated research with active learning (e.g., collaboration in teams and competitions) for fashion majors. The redesigned introductory course uses two strategies: team competitions and a genius bar to guide students, give ongoing feedback, and judge final competitions. Active…

  17. Competition within Physical Education: Using Sport Education and Other Recommendations to Create a Productive, Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Sport Education by physical education teachers to implement developmentally appropriate competitive activities is explored. The potential positive and negative consequences of competitive activities are discussed along with suggestions for teachers on how they can foster an appropriate competitive environment in physical education.

  18. Quantum Approach to Cournot-type Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frąckiewicz, Piotr

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate Cournot-type competition in the quantum domain with the use of the Li-Du-Massar scheme for continuous-variable quantum games. We derive a formula which, in a simple way, determines a unique Nash equilibrium. The result concerns a large class of Cournot duopoly problems including the competition, where the demand and cost functions are not necessary linear. Further, we show that the Nash equilibrium converges to a Pareto-optimal strategy profile as the quantum correlation increases. In addition to illustrating how the formula works, we provide the readers with two examples.

  19. Prioritizing barriers to successful implementation of hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Leila; Khajouei, Reza; Nejad, Simin Salehi; Ebrahimzadeh, Maryam; Nikkar, Somayeh Ezhari

    2014-12-01

    Hospital information systems (HIS) are often implemented to enhance the quality of care, as well as to improve the efficiency and safety of health care services. However, there are various barriers for their successful implementation. The aim of this paper is to prioritize these barriers. This research is a cross sectional analytic-descriptive study. The study populations were hospital managers, IT department administrators, and clinical supervisors at the academic and non-academic hospitals of two cities in Iran. The data was collected by a questionnaire that its content validity was confirmed by three specialists. Its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha (α = 0.78). Questionnaire contained five dimensions and 39 implementation barriers. The collected data was analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics using the Kendall Rank Correlation Coefficient and Chi2 tests. The findings of the study revealed that lack of powerful information networks, error in data entry, technical problems related to system design, lack of organizational training, lack of users' knowledge about system and working with it, and negative attitudes of providers and patients toward systems are the most important barriers of HIS implementation. Prioritizing of these barriers helps policy makers to decide what to do when planning for HIS utilization.

  20. Cell competition: how to eliminate your neighbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoyel, Marc; Bach, Erika A.

    2014-01-01

    A conventional view of development is that cells cooperate to build an organism. However, based on studies of Drosophila, it has been known for years that viable cells can be eliminated by their neighbours through a process termed cell competition. New studies in mammals have revealed that this process is universal and that many factors and mechanisms are conserved. During cell competition, cells with lower translation rates or those with lower levels of proteins involved in signal transduction, polarity and cellular growth can survive in a homogenous environment but are killed when surrounded by cells of higher fitness. Here, we discuss recent advances in the field as well as the mechanistic steps involved in this phenomenon, which have shed light on how and why cell competition exists in developing and adult organisms. PMID:24550108

  1. How to make competitiveness possible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, Martim Afonso

    1993-01-01

    The reorganization of the electric sector formulated by a recently-voted low should permit the adoption of an energy policy that will minimize the general costs without consequences to the environment and the quality of life of the population,. To reach this goal, the electricity suppliers should reduce costs, increase their quality and efficiency and should have tariffs compared to the international standards

  2. Performance during competition and competition outcome in relation to testosterone and cortisol among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Andrea; Sattizahn, Jason R; Norman, Greg J; Beilock, Sian L; Maestripieri, Dario

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. This study investigated the relation between competition, testosterone (T), and cortisol (C) in women. One hundred and twenty female participants competed against a male confederate in a computerized laboratory task. The task was preprogrammed so that half the women won and half of the women lost the competition. T and C concentrations were measured in saliva samples collected at four time points before and after the competition. Accuracy and reaction time during the competition were recorded. T and C increased directly after the competition, though not significantly for C, and then decreased over time regardless of the competition outcome. Regression analyses demonstrated that baseline T was significantly and positively associated with competition accuracy, though only in individuals who were low in C. Individuals who were high in C showed no relation between T and accuracy. This relation was further qualified by competition outcome. Losers of the competition showed a significant positive relation between baseline T levels and competition accuracy, though only if they were low in C. No relation was found between T and accuracy in losers who were high in C. Winners of the competition showed no relation between T and accuracy, regardless of whether C levels were high or low. These results are in line with the dual-hormone hypothesis, whereby the effects of T on status-seeking behaviors are dependent on C levels for individuals whose status is threatened. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sourcing Strategies to Keep up with Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to impro...... are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....... the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic...... of competition. The case study reveals that (a) organizations are adaptive systems and capable of learning to make strategic changes pertaining to sourcing arrangements; (b) organizations select the terms on which they want to compete by developing certain capabilities within the firm; (c) organizations...

  4. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  5. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Šebestová, Martina

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  6. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    . Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...

  7. Sodium hydrogen exchangers contribute to arenavirus cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ngo, Nhi; de la Torre, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose a great public health concern in the regions in which they are endemic. Moreover, evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. The limited existing armamentarium to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses underscores the importance of developing novel antiarenaviral drugs, a task that would be facilitated by the identification and characterization of virus-host cell factor interactions that contribute to the arenavirus life cycle. A genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen identified sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) as required for efficient multiplication of LCMV in HeLa cells, but the mechanisms by which NHE activity contributed to the life cycle of LCMV remain unknown. Here we show that treatment with the NHE inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) resulted in a robust inhibition of LCMV multiplication in both rodent (BHK-21) and human (A549) cells. EIPA-mediated inhibition was due not to interference with virus RNA replication, gene expression, or budding but rather to a blockade of virus cell entry. EIPA also inhibited cell entry mediated by the glycoproteins of the HF arenaviruses LASV and Junin virus (JUNV). Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cell entry of LCMV in A549 cells depended on actin remodeling and Pak1, suggesting a macropinocytosis-like cell entry pathway. Finally, zoniporide, an NHE inhibitor being explored as a therapeutic agent to treat myocardial infarction, inhibited LCMV propagation in culture cells. Our findings indicate that targeting NHEs could be a novel strategy to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses.

  8. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Čepera, Vít

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  9. Russian Federation : How Services Contribute to Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Saez, Sebastian; van der Marel, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globalization is creating many new trade and growth opportunities, with services trade increasingly becoming an issue for export-oriented economies. Services are important to country trade strategies, because they represent activities in which countries may have a comparative advantage, and they are drivers of competitiveness for the whole economy. This paper uses data from the World Devel...

  10. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Changes in Subjective Sleep Quality Before a Competition and Their Relation to Competitive Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlenspiel, Felix; Erlacher, Daniel; Ziegler, Matthias

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of competitions on subjective sleep quality. Previous studies have been inconclusive and lack differentiated and standardized measurements of subjective sleep quality. Furthermore the temporal relation between precompetitive anxiety and sleep quality was investigated. Anxiety and nervousness associated with competitions are considered to cause sleep impairments. A convenience sample of N = 79 elite male athletes from various sports participated. In a time-to-event paradigm, sleep quality and competitive anxiety were assessed via standardized self-report measurements 4 days before a competition and on the day of the competition. Univariate analyses were used to examine differences between time points. To examine cross-lagged effects between anxiety and sleep quality a latent change score model (LCSM) was specified that tested an effect of anxiety on changes in sleep quality. Evaluations of nocturnal sleep deteriorated significantly from 4 days before competition to the day of competition, but there were no differences regarding perceptions of the restorative value of sleep. LCSM revealed that athletes who reported more intense worry symptoms 4 days before competition also reported greater deterioration in evaluations of nocturnal sleep. The findings support earlier reports of impaired subjective sleep quality before competitions. Precompetitive sleep impairments appear also to be preceded by cognitive anxiety. Whereas interventions should thus address worry-cognitions associated with competition and sleep, research should address the practical importance of these perceptions of sleep impairments.

  12. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY IN RUSSIA: COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES AND BARRIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Tsvetkova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of prospects of introduction of the developments related to blokcheyn in the world and in Russia has been made. Key investors and beneficiaries in the development of blockchain technologies were identified. High competitiveness of Russian developments, unique staffing, and favorable climatic conditions for the development of blockade technologies in the Russian Federation were noted. The patent activity in the world has been analyzed and the place of Russia on the patent landscape in the field of blockchain technologies has been determined. It is shown that, to date, the weak position of Russian developers in the global patent landscape in the field of blockchain is not critical due to the high level of uncertainty in matters of protectability of the proposed blockchain algorithms. Special attention was paid to the delayed, perhaps shortterm, readiness of residents of industrially developed countries to expand in the global space of intellectual property associated with the blockchain as soon as the patentability of the proposed solutions is proved. It is concluded that the next 2–3 years should be considered as a “window of opportunity” to form the prerequisites for Russia’s technological leadership in the cluster of block-technologies.

  13. Barriers to Start-Up and Their Effect on Aspirant Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda; Medeira, Natasha; Slater, James

    2003-01-01

    The importance of new business start-ups cannot be over-emphasised. The UK government has taken actions designed to stimulate the growth of new businesses and aid their survival. The identification of barriers to entry is important, together with strategies to minimise their impact. The UK continues to lag behind the USA in its levels of…

  14. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    a comprehensive matched employer-employee longitudinal data set from Denmark. To mitigate endogeneity concerns, we exploit variation in the gender composition of established firms as women are systematically found to be less competitive than man. We find that workers are more likely to become entrepreneurs...... to entrepreneurship has a positive non-linear effect. Our results have strong implications for managers, prospect entrepreneurs and policy makers....

  15. Overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Latruffe, Laure

    2017-01-01

    This is a brief overview and theory relating to the concepts of competitiveness, efficiency and productivity: concept of competitiveness, measurement of competitiveness, determinants of competitiveness.

  16. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-01-01

    Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitivenes...

  17. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Testing the barriers to healthy eating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Eileen R; Feucht, Jeanette

    2004-06-01

    Clarifying barriers to dietary intake may identify factors that place pregnant women at risk for complications. This methodological study assessed the psychometric properties of the Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale. Item generation was based on constructs in Pender's health promotion model. The instrument was tested in two separate samples of pregnant women. Content validity was assessed, and construct validity testing resulted in an expected negative relationship between scores on the Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale and the Nutrition subscale of the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. Factor analysis resulted in a 5-factor scale that explained 73% of the variance. Alpha coefficients for the total scale ranged from.73 to.77, and subscales ranged from.48 to.99. Test-retest reliability for the total scale was.79. The Barriers to Healthy Eating Scale appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to assess barriers that may impede healthy eating in pregnant women.

  19. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  20. How can natural gas markets be competitively organized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper it will be discussed how to most effectively give room to competitive forces in natural gas markets, given the traditional merchant pipeline as point of departure. Alternative models of organizing the market will be reviewed: we first consider decreasing barriers to entry and then analyse advantages and drawbacks of a third party access system. In this context different forms of implementing a competitive market for transportation capacity and coordinating it with gas trade are discussed, among them a simultaneous auction of gas and transmission capacity. Finally a hub system of point markets will be suggested to improve the currently implemented third party access system and to allow for competitive markets for gas and transportation service. 33 refs., 6 figs

  1. How can natural gas markets be competitively organized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funk, C.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper it will be discussed how to most effectively give room to competitive forces in natural gas markets, given the traditional merchant pipeline as point of departure. Alternative models of organizing the market will be reviewed: we first consider decreasing barriers to entry and then analyze advantages and drawbacks of a third party access system. In this context different forms of implementing a competitive market for transportation capacity and coordinating it with gas trade are discussed, among them a simultaneous auction of gas and transmission capacity. Finally a hub system of point markets in conjunction with third party access will be suggested to allow for competitive markets for gas and transportation service. 33 refs

  2. Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based

  3. Ebola Virus Exploits a Monocyte Differentiation Program To Promote Its Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Osvaldo; Johnson, Joshua C.; Honko, Anna; Yen, Benjamin; Shabman, Reed S.; Hensley, Lisa E.; Olinger, Gene G.

    2013-01-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are critical targets of Ebola virus (EBOV) infection in vivo. However, the susceptibility of monocytes to infection is controversial. Studies indicate productive monocyte infection, and yet monocytes are also reported to be resistant to EBOV GP-mediated entry. In contrast, monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells are permissive for both EBOV entry and replication. Here, freshly isolated monocytes are demonstrated to indeed be refractory to EBOV entry. However, EBOV binds monocytes, and delayed entry occurs during monocyte differentiation. Cultured monocytes spontaneously downregulate the expression of viral entry restriction factors such as interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins, while upregulating the expression of critical EBOV entry factors cathepsin B and NPC1. Moreover, these processes are accelerated by EBOV infection. Finally, ectopic expression of NPC1 is sufficient to rescue entry into an undifferentiated, normally nonpermissive monocytic cell line. These results define the molecular basis for infection of APCs and suggest means to limit APC infection. PMID:23345511

  4. Competitive intelligence: An instrument to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Viviers

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The case for Competitive Intelligence (CI as an instrument that can enhance the competitiveness of South African companies and South Africa as a country is strong. Various global competitive rankings measurements have indicated over a number of years the areas in which competitiveness is lacking. Moreover, these rankings have indicated that South Africa has failed to improve its position year on year. The fact that the world is becoming increasingly competitive for South African entities is undisputed. Coupled with a fluctuating exchange rate and the country’s geographical proximity, this poses unique challenges facing South African managers who have to deal with various regulations and legislative matters. In order to create and sustain an effective knowledge economy and to enhance global competitiveness, South Africa however has to put appropriate strategies/measures in place to stimulate, encourage and grow knowledge practices. Competitive Intelligence (CI as a means of making more sense of the competitive business environment and to identify opportunities and risks in time to act upon can be effectively used as a means to enhance competitiveness. Valuable lessons from successful CI practices in the business sector and government can be learnt from elsewhere in the world. CI should be investigated and adapted for South Africa’s business environment. It is therefore the aim of this article to first attempt to describe the role of CI in enhancing competitiveness, specifically in South Africa and secondly, to stimulate thought on how to secure momentum in enhancing CI as an academic field by developing relevant CI courses as well as demonstrating the value of CI to companies in South Africa through research and collaboration between academics and the private and public sectors.

  5. Sociocultural and structural barriers to care among undocumented Latino immigrants with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Bich N; Giordano, Thomas P; Kim, Jennifer H

    2012-02-01

    Timely entry into HIV care is critical for early initiation of therapy, immunologic recovery and improved survival. However, undocumented Latinos are more likely to enter HIV care late in the disease course and with concurrent AIDS. We conducted a qualitative study to examine the circumstantial, situational and social factors that uniquely affect entry and retention in care for this population. Between June and August 2006, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth, individual interviews with 22 undocumented Latino immigrants living with HIV infection. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and reviewed for accuracy. Data was analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Word content was coded and sorted by themes using AnSWR software. Emergent themes related to health care barriers include (1) the challenges of dealing with HIV stigma and rejection from family and community; and (2) the experienced and perceived structural barriers of accessing care as an undocumented individual. Societal intolerance of HIV and stigma-related experiences result in feelings of secrecy and shame. In addition, the undocumented state complicates the situation even further. These unique barriers include fear of deportation, work restrictions, inadequate translation services and difficulties meeting paperwork requirements. This study offers insight into the unique sociocultural and structural barriers faced by undocumented Latinos with HIV infection. Understanding and addressing these barriers will prove vital in the development and implementation of strategies to promote early entry into HIV care.

  6. Foreign Market Entry - The strategic decision of an entry mode to China by an environmental technology firm

    OpenAIRE

    Monerris Virkki, Jyri

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was executed for Wind Power Finland Ltd and it concentrates on the strategic decision of a foreign market entry mode to China, especially to the environmental technology markets. The commissioning company, Wind Power Finland Ltd, is a micro-company with four employees that operates in the environmental technology sector. The company was established in 2013. Now Wind Power Finland Ltd wants to expand its business to China, and is therefore looking for the best market ent...

  7. US Ports of Entry

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — HSIP Non-Crossing Ports-of-Entry A Port of Entry is any designated place at which a CBP officer is authorized to accept entries of merchandise to collect duties, and...

  8. 77 FR 59932 - Single Source Award; Exception to Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Competition AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Exception to Competition--Single Source Award to Texas Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) East--University of Texas...

  9. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R

    2018-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se.

  10. Modelling vocabulary development among multilingual children prior to and following the transition to school entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Andrea A. N.; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Jacques, Sophie; Séguin, Jean R.

    2017-01-01

    Differences between monolingual and multilingual vocabulary development have been observed but few studies provide a longitudinal perspective on vocabulary development before and following school entry. This study compares vocabulary growth profiles of 106 multilingual children to 211 monolingual peers before and after school entry to examine whether: (1) school entry coincides with different rates of vocabulary growth compared to prior to school entry, (2) compared to monolingual peers, multilingual children show different vocabulary sizes or rates of vocabulary growth, (3) the age of onset of second-language acquisition for multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth, and (4) the sociolinguistic context of the languages spoken by multilingual children is associated with vocabulary size or rate of vocabulary growth. Results showed increases in vocabulary size across time for all children, with a steeper increase prior to school entry. A significant difference between monolingual and multilingual children who speak a minority language was observed with regards to vocabulary size at school entry and vocabulary growth prior to school entry, but growth rate differences were no longer present following school entry. Taken together, results suggest that which languages children speak may matter more than being multilingual per se. PMID:29354017

  11. To conciliate energy transition and competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpeles, Jean-Claude; Lafitte, Jean-Paul; Brilland, Fabienne; Guyot, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    This report first proposes a synthetic presentation of results of this study through presentations of stakes on the short term (to respond to competitiveness stakes), on the medium term (to switch to an energetic model based on demand management and modulation) and on the long term (to finance large scale storages and grids), and also definitions of several associated actions. Before reaching these identifications of stakes and actions, the authors identify three trends to be taken into account: effects of shale gas revolution in the USA, a rather steady electric power consumption in France but still sensitive to temperature, and a risk of degradation of power quality in relationship with the development of decentralised and intermittent production by renewable energies. Then, the authors draw lessons from energy transition in neighbouring countries and at the European level. In this context, they try to see how this ambitious bet of energy transition can be gained through principles of competitiveness, of agility, of legibility, and of a Europe of energy. Then, the above mentioned stakes on the short, medium and long terms are analysed and discussed (this discussion is illustrated and based on many graphs and tables of data related to energy prices, production, consumption, and so on), and the associated actions are defined

  12. Has the conduct-based approach to competition law in South Africa led to consistent interpretations of harm to competition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Hawthorne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The Competition Act and certain recent decisions by the competition authorities are examined here to assess the extent to which South Africa’s conduct-based approach to competition law has led to consistent outcomes in the assessment of effects on competition. This has not been the case in the assessment of anti-competitive effects among customers or resellers when a supplier accused of an anti-competitive action does not compete with its customers. An anti-competitive effect among customers or resellers is treated as anti-competitive when it arises from some form of conduct, such as price discrimination. However, it is not seen as anti-competitive when it arises from a refusal to supply, for example. Possible reasons for South Africa’s conduct-based approach and this inconsistent outcome in the assessment of competition among customers and resellers, including the economic foundations of the relevant approaches and their relationship with competition law in other jurisdictions, are assessed.

  13. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  14. Woven TPS – A Revolutionary Approach to Tailorable TPS Design & Manufacturing for Thermal Management Systems & Entry, Descent & Landing Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The thermal protection material system (TPS) is the barrier that protects the space vehicle from atmospheric entry heating. Woven TPS is a concept that leverages the...

  15. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  16. Barriers to Strategic Design: A Perspective from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Xihui Liu

    Full Text Available Strategic design is a driver for innovation that can lead to sustainable competitive advantage. Over the past two decades, the barriers limiting breakthrough strategic design development have been studied in much detail. However, that research is based on well-developed practices in Europe, where strategic design and innovation capabilities have been nurtured for a long period. Barriers to the adoption of strategic design practices and leadership have seldom been studied in high growth economies in which design and innovation competencies are not yet mature. We examined design-led innovation cases from Chinese design clients and consultancies, and uncovered twelve barriers to strategic design practice and leadership in China. Six of these are similar to hindrances experienced elsewhere, and the other six are unique to this study. We found that in China, certain constraints limiting the adoption of strategic design in practice exist in the environment outside the firm. Based on these findings, we offer suggestions to stakeholders for overcoming the barriers to utilizing design at the strategic level. Key words: Breakthrough innovation, Design-led innovation, Design implementation, Strategic design

  17. Competition policy and environmental protection, obstacles to competition in the waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Marttinen, K.; Steiner, N.

    2000-08-01

    This study deals with the legal rules that affect the conditions of competition in the waste sector at both the EU level and national level in Finland. This study describes further, on a more general level, the relation between the EC's internal market rules and competition rules and the actions involving environmental protection taken by public authorities (EG, Member States) and enterprises. Hazardous waste is not studied in this report. The study comprises two parts: The first part deals with the free movement of waste, EG rules on the transportation of waste between Member States, and the specific EG rules and Finnish laws and regulations on waste. The aim of this study has been, on the one hand, to discuss cases where restrictions of competition in the waste sector are a direct consequence of EG rules on waste and, on the other hand, situations where EG rules or the large margin of manoeuvre left with the Member States create problems with a view to a well functioning competition at the national level. Part two deals with the application of EG rules and Finnish competition rules to companies' agreements on actions involving environmental protection and especially waste management, and to their operations in general and, in certain cases, also to the measures taken by Member States. The EG rules on waste do not pay enough attention to competition aspects. The different requirements set by Member States result in distortion of competition while the rules governing the shipments of waste are not effective enough. From the internal market point of view, more binding and detailed rules are motivated. Competition rules are fully applicable to enterprises' measures aimed at environmental protection that restrict competition. Environmental protection aspects in connection with a case-to-case consideration of interests is, however, gaining importance. Those restrictions of competition in the waste sector that EC has dealt with have without exception concerned the

  18. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Barrier: Cultural and religious differences Solution: Culture and religion can influence what care you choose to receive ... questions to ask your doctor about heart failure. Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium ...

  19. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  20. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  1. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....

  2. The effect of counter-trading on competition in electricity markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.J.; Willems, B.

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, nodal pricing is the most efficient way to manage congestion. Counter-trading is inefficient as it gives the wrong long term signals for entry and exit of power plants. However, in a non-competitive market, additional entry will improve the competitiveness of the

  3. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  4. The prequalified competition - how are architects appointed to invited architectural competitions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rönn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results from a study of prequalification in architectural competitions. The aim is to develop knowledge of how the organizer appoints candidates to invited competitions. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identifysuitable candidates for the following design phase. Usually three to six teams are invited to develop design proposals. The overall research question in the study is about how organizers identify architects / design teams for competitions with limited participation. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. Ten municipal and governmental competitions have been examined in the study. There are 375 applications from design teams in the competitions. 43 architect firms/teams (11 % have been invited. In five of the ten competitions 19 informants have reported their experiences of prequalification. The informants responded to an interview guide with questions on the background of the competition, development of the invitation, and the need for information about the candidates, assessment process and experience from the selection of architects / design teams. The invitation emerges during negotiation at the organizing body, which includes discussion with the Swedish Association of Architects.General conditions, submission requirements and criteria for the evaluation of applications by architect firms are part of an established practice. All clients have an assessment procedure made up of two distinct stages. First they check whether applications meet the specific “must requirements” in the invitation. Thereafter follows an evaluative assessment of the candidate’s professional profile, which is based on the criteria in the invitation. Reference projects and information from the referees are important sources of information in this stage. Decisivein the final assessment is the organizer

  5. Competitive effect of metallic canister and clay barrier on the sorption of Eu3+ under subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mrabet, Said; Castro, Miguel A.; Orta, M. Mar; Pazos, M. Carolina; Alba, Maria D.; Astudillo, Julio; Rueda, Silvia; Hurtado, Santiago; Villa, Mara

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLW) such as spent fuel or reprocessing waste resulting from the operation and dismantling of nuclear reactors is one of the most problems facing the worlds because of its long half life and radionuclide migration to the biosphere. For long term performance assessment of radioactive waste disposal, knowledge concerning radionuclide retention processes on materials composing the engineered barrier (clay and container waste) is required. Steel waste containers and bentonite have been proposed as candidate materials for overpack and buffer respectively in most of the proposed repositories designs for nuclear waste disposal. This contribution aims to study the competitiveness of the bentonite and the metallic canister in the retention process of some kinds of radioactive waste such as 152 Eu. The europium was chosen because it is a toxic metal and usually taken as a simulator of the trivalent high level radioactive waste. In order to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the retention processes of europium by both bentonite and metallic canister, a cylindrical steel mini-reactor was designed and prepared from the same material as the steel reactor AISI-316L. The bentonite was then introduced and compacted within the mini-reactor forming a set mini-reactor- bentonite. The system mini-reactor -bentonite was then subjected to hydrothermal treatments at 300 deg. C for 4.5 days. The morphology and chemical composition of both steel and bentonite were analyzed by XRD and SEM. SEM and XRD results revealed that both the bentonite and the metallic canister were involved in sorption mechanism of europium by the formation of insoluble phases of europium silicates originated from the mixed solution of bentonite, Eu 3+ and canister. The pH-Redox potential (Eh) indicated that the interlayer cations of bentonite were replaced by Eu 3+ with higher acidity and Eh which means that the active

  6. THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO REGIONAL COMPETITION INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Tatarkin

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to theoretical-methodological issues of regional economy competitiveness investigation. Economic essence of regional competitiveness is analyzed, its definition is given. The factors that determine relations of competition on medium and macrolevels are proved. The basic differences between world-economical and inter-regional communications are formulated. The specific features of globalization processes as form of competitive struggle are considered.

  7. Taking learning seriously: From competition to collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peinovich, P.E.; Walker, L.H.

    1991-01-01

    Several nuclear power operations have adopted the strategic goal of acquiring and maintaining the best qualified workforce possible - no small task in the face of recent work-force studies. Many utilities also believe that creating opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge beyond what is required to do their job will increase the level of professionalism of workers. One approach that attests to one's ability to grow beyond and strive for more knowledge is the earning of an accredited college credential. Regents College of the University of the State of New York is illustrative of the nature and success of collaboration between campus-based and external degree programs for adults. A combination of eliminating competition among educational providers, sharing the collective knowledge of training and educational resources, and working with utilities to optimize the fiscal resources available for education is a method that is helping to meet the needs of today's and tomorrow's workforce which works

  8. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    The research questions addressed in this research are how the design of a product can be improved to minimize transportation costs without sacrificing performance and how can the methodology developed be institutionalized for future use in a company which has limited resources and capabilities. C...... phase which is usually neglected by start-up firms focused on the engineering driven innovativeness of the products. The processes developed along with guidelines facilitate future use which can help such firms to proactively consider logistics requirements at the design stage........ Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...

  9. Technical solutions to make biofuels more competitive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    With the present day environmental and economical stakes, the French government has announced in 2005 a plan for the accelerated development of biofuels. In France, two traditional ways of biofuel generation exist: the bio-ethanol way and the bio-diesel way (methyl esters of vegetable oils). Two problems limit today the development of biofuels: the available cultivation surfaces and the production costs. The challenge of the next generation of biofuels concerns the better use of the available biomass, with no competition with the food productions, and in particular the development of ethyl esters of vegetable oils or the hydrogen processing of vegetable oils. Other processes are making their way, like the biomass to liquid (BTL) process, based on the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, which allows to convert any type of biomass source into liquid fuels with a high production rate (about 5000 l/Ha). Short paper. (J.S.)

  10. Catalogers and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Reports the results of a literature review and a survey of catalogers which were conducted to study the problem of the decline in quantity and quality of applications for entry-level cataloging jobs. Factors studied included: competition between types of library professionals, automation, library education, the women's movement, and library…

  11. Barriers to Adult Learning: Does Anticipation Match Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Donna L.; Witten, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    Examined barriers to learning in adult students (N=111) using the Adult Student Survey. Results indicated that in many cases students were able to predict barriers before enrolling. Lack of time was the most difficult barrier to anticipate correctly. (JAC)

  12. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  13. APPROACHES TO THE FORMATION OF REGION COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Sergeevna Berman

    2016-04-01

    Practical implications: the model, developed by the authors, can be used by regional authorities at analysis of their competitive positions, in identification of key regions-competitors, as well as at elaboration of strategic development documents.

  14. Intraspecific Competition and Inbreeding Depression: Increased Competitive Effort by Inbred Males Is Costly to Outbred Opponents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jon; Smiseth, Per T

    2017-05-01

    A recent theoretical model suggests that intraspecific competition is an important determinant of the severity of inbreeding depression. The reason for this is that intraspecific competition is density dependent, leading to a stronger negative effect on inbred individuals if they are weaker competitors than outbred ones. In support of this prediction, previous empirical work shows that inbred individuals are weaker competitors than outbred ones and that intraspecific competition often exacerbates inbreeding depression. Here, we report an experiment on the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides, in which we recorded the outcome of competition over a small vertebrate carcass between an inbred or outbred male resident caring for a brood and a size-matched inbred or outbred male intruder. We found that inbred males were more successful as intruders in taking over a carcass from a male resident and were injured more frequently as either residents or intruders. Furthermore, inbred males gained less mass during the breeding attempt and had a shorter adult life span than outbred males. Finally, successful resident males reared a substantially smaller brood comprised of lighter larvae when the intruder was inbred than when it was outbred. Our results shows that inbred males increased their competitive effort, thus contradicting previous work suggesting that inbred males are weaker competitors. Furthermore, our results shows that inbred intruders impose a greater cost to resident males, suggesting that outbred individuals can suffer fitness costs as a result of competition with inbred ones.

  15. Different Infectivity of HIV-1 Strains Is Linked to Number of Envelope Trimers Required for Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenberg, Oliver F.; Magnus, Carsten; Rusert, Peter; Regoes, Roland R.; Trkola, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 enters target cells by virtue of envelope glycoprotein trimers that are incorporated at low density in the viral membrane. How many trimers are required to interact with target cell receptors to mediate virus entry, the HIV entry stoichiometry, still awaits clarification. Here, we provide estimates of the HIV entry stoichiometry utilizing a combined approach of experimental analyses and mathematical modeling. We demonstrate that divergent HIV strains differ in their stoichiometry of entry and require between 1 to 7 trimers, with most strains depending on 2 to 3 trimers to complete infection. Envelope modifications that perturb trimer structure lead to an increase in the entry stoichiometry, as did naturally occurring antibody or entry inhibitor escape mutations. Highlighting the physiological relevance of our findings, a high entry stoichiometry correlated with low virus infectivity and slow virus entry kinetics. The entry stoichiometry therefore directly influences HIV transmission, as trimer number requirements will dictate the infectivity of virus populations and efficacy of neutralizing antibodies. Thereby our results render consideration of stoichiometric concepts relevant for developing antibody-based vaccines and therapeutics against HIV. PMID:25569556

  16. An Up-to-date Survey in Barriers to Open Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Oumlil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Open Innovation (OI is recently recognized as a key factor in the competitiveness of companies. Firms that are not engaged in OI practice risk of becoming uncompetitive. However, innovating firms are likely to face several challenges often illustrated by barriers. Many researchers studied OI barriers without giving importance to their category. The main objective of this survey is to identify and categorize some barriers to OI practice by analysing how the literature on this topic has evolved for the last seven years (2009-2015. Our understanding of OI barriers can be insightful for future research on OI and it can assist managers, in fostering an innovative culture by supporting new ideas and avoiding an attitude that creates resistance towards these ideas.

  17. Excess Entry, Entry Regulation, and Entrant's Incentive

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jaehong

    2001-01-01

    Excess entry theorem, which shows that the free market can generate too many firms, is a theoretic base for entry regulation. When the current market is a monopoly, entry is considered as excessive if the social welfare under the post-entry Cournot-Nash equilibrium, net of entry coast, is lower than that under monopoly. However, this paper argues that, even if this is true, limiting entry is not an optimal choice of the benevolent government. The entrant has an incentive to produce more than ...

  18. School Competition and Teacher Labor Markets: Evidence from Charter School Entry in North Carolina. NBER Working Paper No. 17225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2011-01-01

    I analyze changes in teacher turnover, hiring, effectiveness, and salaries at traditional public schools after the opening of a nearby charter school. While I find small effects on turnover overall, difficult to staff schools (low-income, high-minority share) hired fewer new teachers and experienced small declines in teacher quality. I also find…

  19. 1976 Energy Resource Alternatives II Competition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R.A.; Iannucilli, M.; Marshal, J.; Sununu, J.H.; Eschbach, J.E.; Anson, J.; Wark, D.; Stock, D.E.

    1977-10-01

    Descriptions of all the entries in the competition are presented. Competition rules and judging procedures are described. Entries consisted of team efforts from colleges and universities. The competition called for the student teams to develop means for producing electrical power sufficient to meet the needs of a single family home, using an energy source other than oil or natural gas. The electric power produced had to be economically realistic when compared to present energy sources.

  20. Organizational Barriers to Cultural Competence in Hospice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Dona J; Beckwith, Samira K

    2015-11-01

    This national mixed method study with directors of 207 hospices identified major barriers to cultural competence, including (1) lack of funding for additional staff for community outreach or development of culturally competent programs, (2) lack of applications from diverse professionals, and (3) lack of knowledge about diverse cultures and what cultural groups in the community are not being served. Qualitative results indicated that elements of an organizational culture, which create barriers to access included (1) failure to prioritize cultural competence, (2) failure to budget for culturally competent services, and (3) a staff that does not value awareness of cultural differences, is uncomfortable with diversity, and stereotypes diverse individuals. In phase 2, an interactive session with a 100-symposium audience provided strategies to address the barriers. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    -established as essential tools in drug research and development, but traditionally, mucus-containing models have only rarely been applied. However, a number of mucus-containing in vitro models have recently been described in the literature and their properties and applications will be reviewed and discussed. Finally...... barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are well......, studies of peptide and protein drug diffusion in and through mucus and studies of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are included to illustrate the mucus as a potentially important barrier to obtain sufficient bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and thus an important parameter to address...

  2. Barriers to HIV Testing in Black Immigrants to the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojikutu, Bisola; Nnaji, Chioma; Sithole-Berk, Juliet; Bogart, Laura M; Gona, Philimon

    2014-08-01

    Late HIV testing is common among immigrants from sub Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. Since 2010, HIV testing is no longer a required component of immigrant screening examinations or mandatory for immigrants seeking long term residence in the US. Thus, barriers to HIV testing must be addressed. Five hundred and fifty-five (555) immigrants completed a barriers-to-HIV testing scale. Univariate and multivariate linear regression were performed to examine predictors of barriers. In multivariate analysis, primary language other than English (β=2.9, p=.04), lower education (β=5.8, p=.03), low income [= below $20K/year] (β=4.6, p=.01), no regular provider (β=5.2, p=.002) and recent immigration (β=5.7, p=.0008) were independently associated with greater barriers. Barriers due to health care access, privacy, fatalism, and anticipated stigma were greater for recent versus longer term immigrants. Immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean face significant barriers to HIV testing. Interventions to improve access and timely entry into care are needed.

  3. A Survey to Assess Barriers to Urban Teaching Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, Gary; Mays, Jennifer; Lee, Robert; D'Santiago, Verenice

    2016-01-01

    The "Urban Teaching Barriers" survey was created to assess barriers to urban teaching careers. Pre-service teachers (N = 377) completed this instrument, along with questionnaires that assessed urban teaching intentions and urban teaching self-efficacy. Six barrier domains were identified that tapped concerns over (a) lack of resources,…

  4. How to break the barriers to climate awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is provided a philosophical analysis of the cognitive barriers that may block the individual citizen’s acknowledgement of a personal responsibility to engage in climate responsible behaviour. The authors distinguish between two types of cognitive barriers; the physical barriers......, that are associated with the way we gain knowledge about climate change and the physical world state; and the psychological barriers, that arise from ideas about ourselves and the nature that surrounds us....

  5. LGBT Populations' Barriers to Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehmer, Ulrike

    2018-02-01

    To describe lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals' barriers to accessing and receiving quality cancer care. Published data on cancer care and studies of LGBT individuals. There is a clustering of barriers among LGBT individuals, which suggests multiple inequities exist in LGBT individuals' cancer care, although data on disparities along the cancer control continuum are not consistently available. Nurses can make a difference in LGBT individuals' cancer care by obtaining training on LGBT health and their cancer-related needs and by providing a welcoming and respectful relationship with LGBT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying competitive strategies to improve the performance of hospitals in a competitive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuan-Hui; Chiao, Yu-Ching; Tsai, Yafang

    2017-11-21

    This study is based on competitive dynamics theory, and discusses competitive actions (including their implementation requirements, strategic orientation, and action complexity) that influence hospitals' performance, while also meeting the requirements of Taiwan's "global budget" insurance payment policy. In order to investigate the possible actions of hospitals, the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage investigated the actions of hospitals from March 1 to May 31, 2009. Semi-structured questionnaires were used, which included in-depth interviews with senior supervisors of 10 medium- and large-scale hospitals in central Taiwan. This stage collected data related to the types of actions adopted by the hospitals in previous years. The second stage was based on the data collected from the first stage and on developed questionnaires, which were distributed from June 29 to November 1, 2009. The questionnaires were given to 20 superintendents, deputy superintendents, and supervisors responsible for the management of a hospital, and focused on medical centers and regional hospitals in central Taiwan in order to determine the types and number of competitive actions. First, the strategic orientation of an action has a significantly positive influence on subjective performance. Second, action complexity has a significantly positive influence on the subjective and the objective performance of a hospital. Third, the implementation requirements of actions do not have a significantly positive impact on the subjective or the objective performance of a hospital. Managers facing a competitive healthcare environment should adopt competitive strategies to improve the performance of the hospital.

  7. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  8. Foreign competition and disintermediation: no threat to the German banking system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Buch

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The German financial system is characterized by low degrees of penetration by foreign commercial banks and of (bank disintermediation compared to, for instance, the United States. This could be attributed to the fact that universal banking in Germany creates implicit barriers to entry. Yet, regulatory and informational differences which are unrelated to universal banking could be responsible for the observed difference. This paper provides a stylized theoretical model of the banking industry, which suggests that market segmentation and limited market entry can be due to a number of factors, including information costs. Preliminary empirical evidence does not provide clear evidence for the hypothesis that universal banking is the reason for the observed differences in financial systems.

  9. War games: using MRP (material requirements planning) audits to pinpoint problems and keep the competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S H; Yocus, T E

    1994-05-01

    In today's world, it is a challenge just to stay in business, let alone remain competitive in a specific industry. We will show you how to pinpoint MRP II problems and attack them through self-assessment audits. You will discover the secrets of breaking down barriers between Master Schedulers, Material Planners, Production Control Planners, and the Manufacturing Line. Self-assessment audits are one way to take care of your planning functions before outside auditors take care of them for you.

  10. Re-Thinking Re-Entry: New Approaches to Supporting Students after Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Cate

    2017-01-01

    While participation in study abroad continues to increase, and both pre-departure and in-country support and interventions have become more robust, the re-entry experience after a program ends still typically takes a back seat to other priorities. Consequently, most students are left to navigate the re-entry transition on their own. This article…

  11. Religious barriers to measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wombwell, Eric; Fangman, Mary T; Yoder, Alannah K; Spero, David L

    2015-06-01

    In 2014, the United States has experienced an increase in measles activity, the most since the elimination of the virus in 2000. The measles infection occurs in unvaccinated individuals. Communities and individuals choose to not vaccinate for a number of reasons, primarily citing religious and philosophical motives. Objections based upon religion most often center on the use of aborted human fetus tissue used in the rubella component of the combined vaccine products, and animal derived gelatins used in vaccine production. Objections among religious communities may also not be faith based, rather in some cases concerns related to lack of safety and efficacy of the vaccination result in refusal.

  12. Barriers to Vaccinating Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenstein, Walter A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of vaccinations in preventing disease, preschool children, particularly in the inner cities, are not being adequately immunized. Inadequate clinic staff and hours, inconvenient locations, prohibitive policies, and missed opportunities within the health care system may contribute to this problem. Suggests policy changes…

  13. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. Corn may be...

  14. Access to natural resources on private property: factors beyond right of entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare Ginger; Marla R. Emery; Michelle J. Baumflek; David E. Punam

    2012-01-01

    Discussions of access to natural resources on private lands in the United States often focus on property rights and ownership. In Maine, changing ownership of private forestland has been associated with increased posting against trespass. This raises concerns about the terms of physical entry to land for resource use. While the right of entry is an important component...

  15. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  16. Telehomecare in The Netherlands: Barriers to implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HSM Kort; Joost van Hoof

    2012-01-01

    Telehomecare is one of the technological solutions used by older persons to remain living at home in their own community. A selection of 85 Dutch telehomecare projects was examined in terms of the barriers to their implementation. Three categories of telehomecare technologies were distinguished: (i)

  17. Identifying Barriers to Study Abroad Program Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    University administrators, industry professionals, and government leaders encourage college students to participate in study abroad programs. Despite an increase in the number of students going abroad, the percentage of students participating in global programs remain low. This study identified barriers to study abroad program participation at a…

  18. GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVENESS: FROM INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marginean

    2009-01-01

    The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...

  19. BRAND AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rutecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition companies enterprises in every sector of the economy. In the age of twenty-first century all parties compete with each other for recognition and trust of cus-tomers. It is a tough challenge especially in the banking services sector. These institutions are not able to stand out in the market offer, because this is similar to competitors. High barriers to entry and a large number of entities that provide services similar to banks threaten these organizations. Currently on the market of banking services is proving to be an important brand. Distinguishing itself from the competition image and brand loyalty is a source of advantage for Polish banks. The building of a strong brand plays an important role such factors as internal communication-on company, advertising, business processes, quality, relations with investors and customers. Its construction is a challenge for many banks, because around it must focus on the whole strategy of the company.

  20. Natural and Synthetic Barriers to Immobilize Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, W.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments of weathering of glass waste form and the reacted sediments with simulated glass leachates show that radionuclide sequestration can be significantly enhanced by promoting the formation of secondary precipitates. In addition, synthetic phosphate-bearing nanoporous material exhibits high stability at temperature and has a very high K d value for U(VI) removal. Both natural and synthetic barrier materials can be used as additional efficient adsorbents for retarding transport of radionuclides for various contaminated waste streams and waste forms present at U. S. Department of Energy clean-up sites and the proposed geologic radioactive waste disposal facility. In the radioactive waste repository facility, natural or synthetic materials are planned to be used as a barrier material to immobilize and retard radionuclide release. The getter material can be used to selectively scavenge the radionuclide of interest from a liquid waste stream and subsequently incorporate the loaded getters in a cementitious or various monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides from monolithic waste forms. Also, the getter material is to reduce the release of radionuclides form monolithic waste forms by being emplaced as a backfill barrier material around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential around the wastes or waste form to minimize the potential hazard of leached radioactive wastes. The barrier material should be highly efficient to sequester radionuclides and possess physical and chemical stability for long-term exposure to severe weathering conditions. Because potential leaching of radionuclides depends on various environmental and weathering conditions of the near-field repository, the barrier materials must be durable and not disintegrate under a range of moisture, temperature, pressure, radiation, Eh, ph. and

  1. Breaking the Barriers to the Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchherr, J.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411261487; Hekkert, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/143777629; Bour, Ruben; Huijbrechtse-Truijens, Anne; Kostense-Smit, Erica; Muller, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, the Netherlands and Deloitte have jointly carried out research on barriers to the Circular Economy (CE) in the European Union. For this research, a survey with 153 businesses, 55 government officials and expert interviews with

  2. Perception, Knowledge Level and Barriers to Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also identified barriers to effective women reproductive health knowledge and behaviour among women. Based on these findings, recommendations were made that information on reproductive health rights of women should be provided and that cultural and traditional religious injunctions should be discouraged.

  3. Thinly disguised contempt: a barrier to excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Stewart, P

    1987-04-01

    Many elements in contemporary leadership and management convey contempt for employees. "Thinly disguised contempt," a concept introduced by Peters and Austin in A Passion For Excellence, explains many barriers to the achievement of excellence in corporations across disciplines. Health care executives and managers can learn from the errors of corporate management and avoid replicating these errors in the health care industry.

  4. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  5. Navigating the Road to Success: A Systematic Approach to Preparing Competitive Grant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Mackenzie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Difficulty in securing research funding has been cited as one barrier to the involvement of more librarians and information professionals in conducting original research. This article seeks to support the work of librarians who wish to secure research funding by describing a systematic approach to the creation of successful grant applications.Approach The authors draw on more than fifteen years collective experience in supporting the development of successful research grant proposals. Eleven grant‐writing best practicesor ‘key approaches’ are described, and a planning timeline is suggested.Conclusions: Use of these best practices can assist researchers in creating successful research grant proposals that will also help streamline the research process once it is underway. It is important to recognize the competitive nature of research grant competitions, obtain feedback from an internal review panel, and use feedback from funding agencies to strengthen future grant applications.

  6. How companies overcome barriers to overseas business

    OpenAIRE

    Weidenbaum, Murray

    1993-01-01

    The choice to a company among exporting, acquiring other firms, licensing products and services, and entering into strategic alliances with other business firms is often strongly influenced by governmental policies and practices. In turn, companies’ responses to such influences have increasing feedback effects on governmental activities as public-sector decision-makers are being forced to understand that they now have to become internationally competitive in the economic policies they devise.

  7. Use of technology to provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, P. D.

    1999-01-01

    The role of technology in plotting a new paradigm is explored by means of reviewing NOVA Chemicals' technology strategy for feedstocks, petrochemicals and polymers. As part of this transformation of technology from that of a servant to a key contributor to the success of the company, the expansion (in a 50/50 joint venture with DOW/Union Carbide) of a mammoth 2.8 billion pound ethylene plant at Joffre, Alberta is 'the jewel in the crown'. This plant, with the two ethylene units already on site will make Joffre in the year 2000 the world's largest single site for the manufacture of ethylene. An 800 million pound Advanced SCLAIRTECH T M polystyrene plant, (a proprietary process for the manufacture of high performance polymers initially developed, but considered 'non-strategic' to their own needs, by DuPont and sold to NOVA Chemicals for $ 45 million in 1994), the largest single train of its kind in the world, is also under construction. Also in the early stages of construction on the site is a large linear alpha olefin plant owned by BP-Amoco to supply co-monomer to the polyethylene plant, To back up these facilities, there is a 400 MW cogeneration unit to supply power and steam. NOVA Chemicals Research and Technology Laboratory is a focused world class research facility with an annual budget of $ 37 million, combined with the active collaboration with all major Canadian universities, and targeted projects with other universities around the world , are all necessary components of creating and acquiring the technology that is required to achieve the corporate goals of the company. The high level of investment in research and technology is seen as the pathway to fundamentally change the business and create value which can be realized in the marketplace. Research and technology also help the company to advance the competitiveness of their own processes, keep the company on the cutting edge of technology, and assure its survival among the leaders of the industry

  8. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches.

  9. Changes in state anxiety prior to competition | Mabweazara | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been shown that competitive anxiety can negatively affect athletic performance. Psychological interventions must be used in the pre-competition period to prevent the debilitative effects of state anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate the temporal changes in state anxiety in the period leading up to ...

  10. Is Education the Key to Global Economic Competitiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary test-based reforms are often grounded in the claim that test performance is the key to international economic competitiveness. However, this oft-repeated assertion lacks empirical support. According to the World Economic Forum, the United States' recent loss of economic competitiveness standing is due to macroeconomic instability…

  11. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  12. Knowledge management and Competitive Intelligenge: designing competitiveness and innovation strategies to small business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Aparecida Corsatto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper´s intention was make a presentation about the concepts and definitions of knowledge management and competitive intelligence search in the current bibliography and draw a parallel about their real possibility of application in the small business context. By the way, the main intention was bring the discussion to the relevance of the knowledge management to make and applied competitiveness strategies in this enterprise, another intention was show others elements and tools to support the application of this strategies inside the organization. This elements are: person and process. This elements are: person and process and they have a essential importance to create an internal enterprise knowledge, to create and maintain the information organized to keep the organizations with more appropriate information witch will support the way to formulated strategies and make decisions. It also intend to show tolls and methodologies to help organizations improved the competitive intelligence`s strategies as a way to increase competitiveness and value creation for customers and market.

  13. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2016-06-06

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  14. Diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in manufacturing business units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadali Shah Housseini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the transition from the old economic model to the global village constituting patterns, different functional requirements are needed. In other words, for success in the modern production management, strategic decisions must create the conditions for taking new systems for enterprises and create conditions for the competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a survey on diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in a manufacturing firm named Pakshoo company in city of Tehran, Iran. The study tries to find the obstacles for the implementation of strategic decisions in this firm. The study determines 14 different factors influencing on the development of strategic planning and using analytical hierarchy process, prioritize them, accordingly. In our survey, behavioral factors are considered as the most important factors followed by structural and context issues.

  15. BMC Ecology image competition: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BMC Ecology announces the winning entries in its inaugural Ecology Image Competition, open to anyone affiliated with a research institute. The competition, which received more than 200 entries from international researchers at all career levels and a wide variety of scientific disciplines, was looking for striking visual interpretations of ecological processes. In this Editorial, our academic Section Editors and guest judge Dr Yan Wong explain what they found most appealing about their chosen winning entries, and highlight a few of the outstanding images that didn’t quite make it to the top prize. PMID:23517630

  16. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  17. Assembled Products: The Key to More Effective Competition And Antitrust Oversight in Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M

    2016-01-01

    This Article argues that recent calls for antitrust enforcement to protect health insurers from hospital and physician consolidation are incomplete. The principal obstacle to effective competition in health care is not that one or the other party has too much bargaining power, but that they have been buying and selling the wrong things. Vigorous antitrust enforcement will benefit health care consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. Because of regulation, what pass for products in health care are typically small process steps and isolated components that can be assigned a billing code, even if they do little to help patients. Instead of further entrenching weakly competitive parties engaged in artificial commerce, antitrust enforcers and regulators should work together to promote the sale of fully assembled products and services that can be warranted to consumers for performance and safety. As better products emerge through innovation and market entry, competition may finally succeed at lowering medical costs, increasing access to treatment, and improving quality of care.

  18. Entry, Descent, and Landing Technology Concept Trade Study for Increasing Payload Mass to the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.; Cianciolo, Alicia D.; Powell, Richard W.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Tolson, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    investigated in this trade study, mid L/D aeroshells were not competitive on an entry mass basis as compared to blunt-body aeroshells.

  19. Competition Provisions in Regional Trade Agreements: How to ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-05-20

    May 20, 2007 ... This publication focuses on competition issues in South-South regional trade agreements (RTAs), dealing with cross-regional, regional and sector-specific experiences. It addresses issues and makes recommendations of relevance to competition authorities in developing countries, including legal and ...

  20. Robotics Competitions: The Choice Is up to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard T.; Londt, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Competitive robotics as an interactive experience can increase the level of student participation in technology education, inspire students to consider careers in technical fields, and enhance the visibility of technology education programs. Implemented correctly, a competitive robotics program can provide a stimulating learning environment for…

  1. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The socialist regime's economic policies are further compounding the problems that businesses face. ... This project seeks to investigate the barriers to competition, the potential gaps in Ethiopia's revised competition law (Trade Practices Proclamation), and the possible challenges that ... Bulletin de BRAS - Janvier 2018.

  2. A Rigid Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Approach to Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Christopher J.; Robertson, Edward A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Campbell, Charles H.; Robinson, Phil; Matz, Daniel A.; Johnson, Breanna J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Current NASA Human Mars architectures require delivery of approximately 20 metric tons of cargo to the surface in a single landing. A proposed vehicle type for performing the entry, descent, and landing at Mars associated with this architecture is a rigid, enclosed, elongated lifting body shape that provides a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than a typical entry capsule, but lower than a typical winged entry vehicle (such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter). A rigid Mid-L/D shape has advantages for large mass Mars EDL, including loads management, range capability during entry, and human spaceflight heritage. Previous large mass Mars studies have focused more on symmetric and/or circular cross-section Mid-L/D shapes such as the ellipsled. More recent work has shown performance advantages for non-circular cross section shapes. This paper will describe efforts to design a rigid Mid-L/D entry vehicle for Mars which shows mass and performance improvements over previous Mid-L/D studies. The proposed concept, work to date and evolution, forward path, and suggested future strategy are described.

  3. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, wo...

  4. Identifying competitive strategies to improve the performance of hospitals in a competitive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hui Chang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is based on competitive dynamics theory, and discusses competitive actions (including their implementation requirements, strategic orientation, and action complexity that influence hospitals’ performance, while also meeting the requirements of Taiwan’s “global budget” insurance payment policy. Methods In order to investigate the possible actions of hospitals, the study was conducted in two stages. The first stage investigated the actions of hospitals from March 1 to May 31, 2009. Semi-structured questionnaires were used, which included in-depth interviews with senior supervisors of 10 medium- and large-scale hospitals in central Taiwan. This stage collected data related to the types of actions adopted by the hospitals in previous years. The second stage was based on the data collected from the first stage and on developed questionnaires, which were distributed from June 29 to November 1, 2009. The questionnaires were given to 20 superintendents, deputy superintendents, and supervisors responsible for the management of a hospital, and focused on medical centers and regional hospitals in central Taiwan in order to determine the types and number of competitive actions. Results First, the strategic orientation of an action has a significantly positive influence on subjective performance. Second, action complexity has a significantly positive influence on the subjective and the objective performance of a hospital. Third, the implementation requirements of actions do not have a significantly positive impact on the subjective or the objective performance of a hospital. Conclusion Managers facing a competitive healthcare environment should adopt competitive strategies to improve the performance of the hospital.

  5. Understanding sleep disturbance in athletes prior to important competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotally many athletes report worse sleep in the nights prior to important competitions. Despite sleep being acknowledged as an important factor for optimal athletic performance and overall health, little is understood about athlete sleep around competition. The aims of this study were to identify sleep complaints of athletes prior to competitions and determine whether complaints were confined to competition periods. Cross-sectional study. A sample of 283 elite Australian athletes (129 male, 157 female, age 24±5 y) completed two questionnaires; Competitive Sport and Sleep questionnaire and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. 64.0% of athletes indicated worse sleep on at least one occasion in the nights prior to an important competition over the past 12 months. The main sleep problem specified by athletes was problems falling asleep (82.1%) with the main reasons responsible for poor sleep indicated as thoughts about the competition (83.5%) and nervousness (43.8%). Overall 59.1% of team sport athletes reported having no strategy to overcome poor sleep compared with individual athletes (32.7%, p=0.002) who utilised relaxation and reading as strategies. Individual sport athletes had increased likelihood of poor sleep as they aged. The poor sleep reported by athletes prior to competition was situational rather than a global sleep problem. Poor sleep is common prior to major competitions in Australian athletes, yet most athletes are unaware of strategies to overcome the poor sleep experienced. It is essential coaches and scientists monitor and educate both individual and team sport athletes to facilitate sleep prior to important competitions. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recertifying as a doctor in Canada: international medical graduates and the journey from entry to adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne; Lohfeld, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Globalisation and severe doctor shortages in many countries have resulted in increased numbers of international medical graduates (IMGs) in medical training programmes in major recipient countries such as Canada. Much of the literature on IMGs is written from the perspective of the doctor workforce. Less is known about the recertification training experiences of IMGs in recipient countries. This study aims to describe the recertification training experiences of IMGs in Canada in order to help medical training programmes understand how to facilitate the integration of IMGs into recipient medical communities. A phenomenological (qualitative) research approach was undertaken for this study. International medical graduates undergoing recertification training in order to practise in Canada were individually interviewed about their experiences. Data collection and analysis followed the procedures of interpretive phenomenology. Twelve IMGs participated. Analysis of the interviews revealed 4 themes that typified IMG recertification training experiences: training entry barriers; and a 3-phase process of loss, disorientation and adaptation. International medical graduates must complete this 3-phase process in order to feel fully integrated into their professional environments. This study provided a description of IMGs' training experiences during certification for practice in Canada and revealed that these experiences were characterised by a 3-phase process of adjustment. Using this framework, a series of recommendations were proposed for medical training programmes to help IMGs with this process.

  7. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  8. There are many barriers to species' migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Feeley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-change trajectories are being used to identify the geographic barriers and thermal ‘cul-de-sacs’ that will limit the ability of many species to track climate change by migrating. We argue that there are many other potential barriers to species’ migrations. These include stable ecotones, discordant shifts in climatic variables, human land use, and species’ limited dispersal abilities. To illustrate our argument, for each 0.5° latitude/longitude grid cell of the Earth’s land surface, we mapped and tallied the number of cells for which future (2060–2080 climate represents an analog of the focal cell’s current climate. We compared results when only considering temperature with those for which both temperature and total annual precipitation were considered in concert. We also compared results when accounting for only geographic barriers (no cross-continental migration with those involving both geographic and potential ecological barriers (no cross-biome migration. As expected, the number of future climate analogs available to each pixel decreased markedly with each added layer of complexity (e.g. the proportion of the Earth’s land surface without any available future climate analogs increased from 3% to more than 36% with the inclusion of precipitation and ecological boundaries. While including additional variables can increase model complexity and uncertainty, we must strive to incorporate the factors that we know will limit species’ ranges and migrations if we hope to predict the effects of climate change at a high-enough degree of accuracy to guide management decisions.

  9. [Barriers to communication between clinicians and immigrants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Morten; Kristensen, Trine Rønde; Sångren, Henrik; Nielsen, Dorthe

    2015-08-24

    Clinicians lack cultural competencies and communication skills relevant to clinical decision-making in cases of language and cultural barriers. Life course perspectives and basic understanding of life in exile are not integrated in diagnostics, treatment or follow-up resulting in low patient compliance, mistrust, complications, diagnostic errors and delays. Stereotyping and generalizations put patients in a position where they are forced to protect themselves by withholding important information. When in doubt clinicians should ask, listen and avoid guessing.

  10. Regulatory barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusinen, T.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1991-02-01

    The primary federal regulatory programs that influence the development of new technology for hazardous waste are the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA, also commonly known as Superfund). Two important aspects of RCRA that can create barriers to hazardous waste technology innovation are technology-based waste pre-treatment standards and a cumbersome permitting program. By choosing a technology-based approach to the RCRA land disposal restrictions program, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has simultaneously created tremendous demand for the technologies specified in its regulations, while at the same time significantly reduced incentives for technology innovation that might have otherwise existed. Also, the RCRA hazardous waste permitting process can take years and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars. The natural tendency of permit writers to be cautious of unproven (i.e., innovative) technology also can create a barrier to deployment of new technologies. EPA has created several permitting innovations, however, to attempt to mitigate this latter barrier. Understanding the constraints of these permitting innovations can be important to the success of hazardous waste technology development programs. 3 refs

  11. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  12. From coexistence to competitive exclusion: can overfishing change the outcome of competition in skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Ruocco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition for food could be a major force driving changes in the community structure of skates (Rajidae subjected to fishing exploitation. Under this hypothesis, small skates are released from competition with larger skates after fishing has depleted the larger species. Here, we compare the abundance patterns of two sympatric skates with similar niches but different life histories, Bathyraja albomaculata (larger and slow-reproducing and Bathyraja macloviana (smaller and faster-reproducing, before (1971, 1978 and after (1998-2004 a 108% increase in industrial bottom trawling on the southeastern South American shelf in order to test the prediction that B. macloviana should competitively exclude B. albomaculata after the increase in fishing mortality. In 1971 and 1978, there was no relationship between the abundance of both species, indicating that they coexisted over large scales. In 1998-2004, the relationship between the abundances of these skates was bell-shaped, indicating that both species increased in abundance at low densities until peaking, after which B. albomaculata decreased when B. macloviana became more abundant, consistent with resource competition. We tested whether food may be a potential limiting resource by comparing the diet of both species. The two species consumed mostly polychaetes, differing only in the consumption of polychaetes from the family Nephthyidae, which was much higher for B. macloviana. Bathyraja macloviana could replace B. albomaculata at high densities when food resources may become scarce. These results support the hypothesis that competition release is an important factor explaining the changes in skate communities in overexploited areas.

  13. Targeting spare CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) as a principle to inhibit HIV-1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun; Colin, Philippe; Staropoli, Isabelle; Lima-Fernandes, Evelyne; Ferret, Cécile; Demir, Arzu; Rogée, Sophie; Hartley, Oliver; Randriamampita, Clotilde; Scott, Mark G H; Marullo, Stefano; Sauvonnet, Nathalie; Arenzana-Seisdedos, Fernando; Lagane, Bernard; Brelot, Anne

    2014-07-04

    CCR5 binds the chemokines CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 and is the major coreceptor for HIV-1 entry into target cells. Chemokines are supposed to form a natural barrier against human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) infection. However, we showed that their antiviral activity is limited by CCR5 adopting low-chemokine affinity conformations at the cell surface. Here, we investigated whether a pool of CCR5 that is not stabilized by chemokines could represent a target for inhibiting HIV infection. We exploited the characteristics of the chemokine analog PSC-RANTES (N-α-(n-nonanoyl)-des-Ser(1)-[l-thioprolyl(2), l-cyclohexylglycyl(3)]-RANTES(4-68)), which displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that native chemokines fail to prevent high-affinity binding of PSC-RANTES, analog-mediated calcium release (in desensitization assays), and analog-mediated CCR5 internalization. These results indicate that a pool of spare CCR5 may bind PSC-RANTES but not native chemokines. Improved recognition of CCR5 by PSC-RANTES may explain why the analog promotes higher amounts of β-arrestin 2·CCR5 complexes, thereby increasing CCR5 down-regulation and HIV-1 inhibition. Together, these results highlight that spare CCR5, which might permit HIV-1 to escape from chemokines, should be targeted for efficient viral blockade. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Legal and Regulatory Barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John

    Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of

  15. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  16. Attitudinal barriers to participation in oncology clinical trials: factor analysis and correlates of barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, S; Kashy, D; Albrecht, T; Wong, Y-N; Lederman Flamm, A; Benson, A B; Miller, S M; Fleisher, Linda; Buzaglo, J; Roach, N; Katz, M; Ross, E; Collins, M; Poole, D; Raivitch, S; Miller, D M; Kinzy, T G; Liu, T; Meropol, N J

    2015-01-01

    Patient participation in cancer clinical trials is low. Little is known about attitudinal barriers to participation, particularly among patients who may be offered a trial during an imminent initial oncology consult. The aims of the present study were to confirm the presence of proposed subscales of a recently developed cancer clinical trial attitudinal barriers measure, describe the most common cancer clinical trials attitudinal barriers, and evaluate socio-demographic, medical and financial factors associated with attitudinal barriers. A total of 1256 patients completed a survey assessing demographic factors, perceived financial burden, prior trial participation and attitudinal barriers to clinical trials participation. Results of a factor analysis did not confirm the presence of the proposed four attitudinal barriers subscale/factors. Rather, a single factor represented the best fit to the data. The most highly-rated barriers were fear of side-effects, worry about health insurance and efficacy concerns. Results suggested that less educated patients, patients with non-metastatic disease, patients with no previous oncology clinical trial participation, and patients reporting greater perceived financial burden from cancer care were associated with higher barriers. These patients may need extra attention in terms of decisional support. Overall, patients with fewer personal resources (education, financial issues) report more attitudinal barriers and should be targeted for additional decisional support. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Barriers and facilitators to bicycle commuting amoung college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Olekszechen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Confronted with the current challenge of urban mobility, the bicycle has been presented as an alternative to individual transportation. Studies on this topic have mainly identified the individual factors involved in the choosing of this mean of transportation, sometimes putting the environmental factors in second plan, and neglecting the person-environment implications of the bicycle use a mean of transportation. This article aimed to identify, through environmental psychology, the barrier and facilitators in the use of the bicycle among college students in the city of Florianópolis-SC. Eighteen college students (twelve men and eight woman answered a semistructured interview. The data was organized into two categories of four subcategories each, based on the categorical-content analysis. The results indicated as barriers the Environment factors, social conjuncture, and political and personal factors. Among the facilitators, the time, practicality, motorized system, and personal factors were indicated as main characteristics. The results show a need to comprehend the use of bicycles as a mean of transportation in a contextualized way and as part of a public policy in effect. Furthermore, this study emphasizes the existence of an interpersonal dimension of traffic, which requires from its participants a sharing posture, rather than a competitive one.

  18. Causal attribution and psychobiological response to competition in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Alicia; Costa, Raquel; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. Psychoneuroendocrine effects of competition have been widely accepted as a clear example of the relationship between androgens and aggressive/dominant behavior in humans. However, results about the effects of competitive outcomes are quite heterogeneous, suggesting that personal and contextual factors play a moderating role in this relationship. To further explore these dimensions, we aimed to examine (i) the effect of competition and its outcome on the psychobiological response to a laboratory competition in young men, and (ii) the moderating role of some cognitive dimensions such as causal attributions. To do so, we compared the responses of 56 healthy young men faced with two competitive tasks with different instructions. Twenty-eight men carried out a task whose instructions led subjects to think the outcome was due to their personal performance ("merit" task), whereas 28 other men faced a task whose outcome was attributable to luck ("chance" task). In both cases, outcome was manipulated by the experimenter. Salivary steroid hormones (testosterone and cortisol), cardiovascular variables (heart rate and blood pressure), and emotional state (mood and anxiety) were measured at different moments before, during and after both tasks. Our results did not support the "winner-loser effect" because no significant differences were found in the responses of winners and losers. However, significantly higher values on the testosterone and cardiovascular variables, along with slight decreases in positive mood, were associated with the merit-based competition, but not the chance-based condition. In addition, an exploratory factorial analysis grouped the response components into two patterns traditionally related to more active or more passive behaviors. Thus, our results suggest that the perception of contributing to the outcome is relevant in the psychobiological response to competition in men. Overall, our

  19. Fiscal competition and regional differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Justman, Moshe; Thisse, Jacques-François; Van Ypersele, Tanguy

    2001-01-01

    Regions can benefit by offering infrastructure services that are differentiated. Competition between regions over potential investors is then less direct, allowing them to realize greater benefits from external investors. The two polar cases of full and incomplete information about investors' needs are studied. In both cases, there is regional differentiation. However, fiscal competition is efficient in the former case but not in the latter. Finally, it is shown that free entry in the loc...

  20. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  1. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  2. Use of electrical barriers to deter movement of round goby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Jude, David J.; Kostich, Melissa J.; Coutant, Charles C.

    2001-01-01

    An electrical barrier was chosen as a possible means to deter movement of round goby Neogobius melanostomus. Feasibility studies in a 2.1-m donut-shaped tank determined the electrical parameters necessary to inhibit round goby from crossing the 1-m stretch of the benthic, electrical barrier. Increasing electrical pulse duration and voltage increased effectiveness of the barrier in deterring round goby movement through the barrier. Differences in activity of round goby during daytime and nocturnal tests did not change the effectiveness of the barrier. In field verification studies, an electrical barrier was placed between two blocking nets in the Shiawassee River, Michigan. The barrier consisted of a 6-m wide canvas on which were laid four cables carrying the electrical current. Seven experiments were conducted, wherein 25 latex paint-marked round goby were introduced upstream of the electrical barrier and recovered 24 h later upstream, on, and downstream of the barrier. During control studies, round goby moved across the barrier within 20 min from release upstream. With the barrier on and using the prescribed electrical settings shown to inhibit passage in the laboratory, the only marked round goby found below the barrier were dead. At reduced pulse durations, a few round goby (mean one/test) were found alive, but debilitated, below the barrier. The electrical barrier could be incorporated as part of a program in reducing movement of adult round goby through artificial connections between watersheds.

  3. Local competition increases people’s willingness to harm others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat

    2016-01-01

    evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We......). This result still held when people “earned” (rather than were simply given) their money (study 2). In addition, when competition was local, people were more willing to harm ingroup members than outgroup members (study 3), because ingroup members were the relevant competitive targets. Together, our results...

  4. The UK gas market in transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, D.

    1997-01-01

    Virtually every aspect of the UK gas market is currently experiencing rapid change and major uncertainties. The fast-track to full competition in 1998 requires a new customer-handling infrastructure, new rules and new marketing strategies.The introduction of competition in the UK is proving more complex than most of its architects assumed. The UK provides considerable evidence not only on market design but also the management of the transitional process. The path from a state-owned monopoly through privatisation to competition is overviewed, and some of the lessons are considered which other countries (and the European Commission) contemplating reforms may glean from the UK experience. (R.P.)

  5. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) for Missions to Saturn and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gasch, M.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; hide

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  6. The entry-level occupational therapy clinical doctorate: advantages, challenges, and international issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made.

  7. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  8. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  9. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    field of research and practice the question on how to design programs for building market orientation is about to be answered. This branch looks deeper into the nature of market orientation and into designing and managing the increase of market orientation. However, the question on why marketing...... and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  10. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  11. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  12. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  13. Differential Rollover Risk in Vehicle-to-Traffic Barrier Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J.; Gabler, Hampton C.

    2009-01-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  14. Cellular expression of gH confers resistance to herpes simplex virus type-1 entry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, Perry M.; Tiwari, Vaibhav; Bommireddy, Susmita; Shukla, Deepak

    2003-01-01

    Entry of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) into cells requires a concerted action of four viral glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH-gL. Previously, cell surface expression of gD had been shown to confer resistance to HSV-1 entry. To investigate any similar effects caused by other entry glycoproteins, gB and gH-gL were coexpressed with Nectin-1 in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Interestingly, cellular expression of gB had no effect on HSV-1(KOS) entry. In contrast, entry was significantly reduced in cells expressing gH-gL. This effect was further analyzed by expressing gH and gL separately. Cells expressing gL were normally susceptible, whereas gH-expressing cells were significantly resistant. Further experiments suggested that the gH-mediated interference phenomenon was not specific to any particular gD receptor and was also observed in gH-expressing HeLa cells. Moreover, contrary to a previous report, gL-independent cell surface expression of gH was detected in stably transfected CHO cells, possibly implicating cell surface gH in the interference phenomenon. Thus, taken together these findings indicate that cellular expression of gH interferes with HSV-1 entry

  15. Automated reported system using structured data entry: Application to prostate US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Hyun; Paik, Chul Hwa; Lee, Won Yong

    2001-01-01

    To improve efficacy in producing and searching the radiological reported of prostate US in daily practice and clinical research by developing an automated reporting system using structured data entry system. The report database was established with appropriate fields. A structured data entry form for prostate US was created. The rules for automated transformation from the entered data a text report have been decide. Two programmers coded the programs according to the rules. We have successful developed an automated reporting system for prostate US using structured data entry. Patients. deg Φs demographic information, the order information, and the contents of the main body and conclusion of the radiological report were included as individual fields in the database. The report contents were input by selecting corresponding fields in a structured data entry entry form, which has transformed into a text report. The automated reporting system using structured data entry is an efficient way to establish radiological report database and could be successfully applied to prostate US. If its utility can be extended to other US examinations, it will become a useful tool for both radiological reporting and database management.

  16. ENTRYSAT: A 3U Cubesat to Study the Re-Entry Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. F.; Chaix, J.; Mimoun, D.; EntrySat student Team

    2014-04-01

    The EntrySat is a 3U CubeSat designed to study the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. The project, developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA, is funded by CNES and is intended to be launched in January 2016, in the context of the QB50 network. The scientific goal is to relate the kinematics of the satellite with the aerothermodynamic environment during re-entry. In particular, data will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. According to these requirements, the satellite will measure the temperature, pressure, heat flux, and drag force during re-entry, as well as the trajectory and attitude of the satellite. One of the major technological challenges is the retrieval of data during the re-entry phase, which will be based on the Iridium satellite network. The system design is based on the use of commercial COTS components, and is mostly developed by students from ISAE. As such, the EntrySat has an important educational value in the formation of young engineers.

  17. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagiannas, A.G.; Askounis, D.T.; Psarras, J.

    2004-01-01

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  18. Barriers over time to full implementation of health information exchange in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Regier, Verna; Rheinboldt, Kurt T

    2014-09-30

    Although health information exchanges (HIE) have existed since their introduction by President Bush in his 2004 State of the Union Address, and despite monetary incentives earmarked in 2009 by the health information technology for economic and clinical health (HITECH) Act, adoption of HIE has been sparse in the United States. Research has been conducted to explore the concept of HIE and its benefit to patients, but viable business plans for their existence are rare, and so far, no research has been conducted on the dynamic nature of barriers over time. The aim of this study is to map the barriers mentioned in the literature to illustrate the effect, if any, of barriers discussed with respect to the HITECH Act from 2009 to the early months of 2014. We conducted a systematic literature review from CINAHL, PubMed, and Google Scholar. The search criteria primarily focused on studies. Each article was read by at least two of the authors, and a final set was established for evaluation (n=28). The 28 articles identified 16 barriers. Cost and efficiency/workflow were identified 15% and 13% of all instances of barriers mentioned in literature, respectively. The years 2010 and 2011 were the most plentiful years when barriers were discussed, with 75% and 69% of all barriers listed, respectively. The frequency of barriers mentioned in literature demonstrates the mindfulness of users, developers, and both local and national government. The broad conclusion is that public policy masks the effects of some barriers, while revealing others. However, a deleterious effect can be inferred when the public funds are exhausted. Public policy will need to lever incentives to overcome many of the barriers such as cost and impediments to competition. Process improvement managers need to optimize the efficiency of current practices at the point of care. Developers will need to work with users to ensure tools that use HIE resources work into existing workflows.

  19. Assessing the effectiveness of slab flooring as a barrier to soil gas and radon infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williamson, A.D.; Fowler, C.S.; McDonough, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental studies on the entry of soil gas and radon into slab-on-grade buildings have been carried out in instrumented, single-zone test structures. This work, as part of the Florida Radon Research Program, focused on the effectiveness of slab flooring variants as barriers to soil gas/radon entry. A second objective was the study of the role of subslab fill soil as both a potential source of and barrier to radon entry. Studies were made in well-sealed (∼ 600 mm 2 ELA) unoccupied test buildings placed on well-characterized, radium-bearing sandy fill soil. The buildings were instrumented with data acquisition systems to continuously monitor indoor radon concentrations, differential pressures at several subsurface locations, weather conditions, and soil moisture. The response of the structures to mechanical depressurization as well as natural driving forces was measured. Limited measurements were made regarding direct diffusive transport of radon through apparently intact concrete slabs, as well as transport through cracks in the floor structure

  20. Barriers to Herbal Medicine Research in Nigeria; Researcher's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the barriers to herbal medicine research in Nigeria. This is with a view to formulating appropriate strategies that would be deployed to overcome the identified barriers to herbal medicine research. The paper therefore identified and discussed some of these inherent barriers such as the standardization of ...

  1. Devices for overcoming biological barriers: the use of physical forces to disrupt the barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitragotri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Overcoming biological barriers including skin, mucosal membranes, blood brain barrier as well as cell and nuclear membrane constitutes a key hurdle in the field of drug delivery. While these barriers serve the natural protective function in the body, they limit delivery of drugs into the body. A variety of methods have been developed to overcome these barriers including formulations, targeting peptides and device-based technologies. This review focuses on the use of physical methods including acoustic devices, electric devices, high-pressure devices, microneedles and optical devices for disrupting various barriers in the body including skin and other membranes. A summary of the working principles of these devices and their ability to enhance drug delivery is presented. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binboga, Erdal; Guven, Senol; Catıkkaş, Fatih; Bayazıt, Onur; Tok, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychophysiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and personality traits in young taekwondo athletes. A total of 20 male and 10 female taekwondo athletes (mean age = 18.6 years; ± 1.8) volunteered for the study. The Five Factor Personality Inventory and the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure personality and cognitive state anxiety. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured twice, one day and approximately one hour prior to the competition, to determine psychophysiological arousal. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Several "Big Five" facets were related to the EDA delta scores that were measured both one day and one hour before the competition. Two stepwise regressions were conducted to examine whether personality traits could significantly predict both EDA delta scores. The final model, containing only neuroticism from the Big Five factors, can significantly explain the variations in the EDA delta scores measured one day before the competition. Agreeableness can significantly explain variations in the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. No relationship was found between cognitive anxiety and the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. In conclusion, personality traits, especially agreeableness and neuroticism, might be useful in understanding arousal responses to competition.

  3. Patients' reports of barriers to expressing concerns during cancer consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Kim; Linn, Annemiek J; Smit, Edith G; van Weert, Julia C M

    2015-03-01

    To identify cancer patients' most influential barriers to expressing concerns during cancer consultations in a new manner by examining patients' reports of perceived barriers and perceived occurrence of barriers in consultations. Two online focus groups (N=16) and an online survey (N=236) were conducted among cancer patients and cancer survivors. The online focus groups and survey were used to examine two elements of patients' barriers, i.e., patients' reports of perceived barriers and perceived occurrence of barriers in consultations. Composite scores of these two elements were calculated to determine influential barriers. Results showed that the most influential barriers were related to providers' behavior (e.g., providers do not explicitly invite patients to express concerns) and the environment where the consultation takes place (e.g., perceived lack of time). The results of this study indicate that influential barriers to expressing concerns are barriers that patients cannot overcome themselves (i.e., they are related to providers' behavior or the environment of the consultation). A collaborative approach between researchers, providers and policy makers is needed to overcome these barriers. The results of this study can be used to develop strategies to overcome barriers to patients expressing concerns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to Asthma Management as Identified by School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Judith E.; Spencer, Gale A.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma rates are increasing in children. School nurses have opportunities to care for children with asthma but need to overcome barriers impacting their ability to manage asthma in the school setting. This study (a) assessed barriers present in the school setting, (b) determined the impact of barriers on performance of asthma management behaviors,…

  5. How Gaussian competition leads to lumpy or uniform species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lopez, Cristóbal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    A central model in theoretical ecology considers the competition of a range of species for a broad spectrum of resources. Recent studies have shown that essentially two different outcomes are possible. Either the species surviving competition are more or less uniformly distributed over the resource...... spectrum, or their distribution is “lumped” (or “clumped”), consisting of clusters of species with similar resource use that are separated by gaps in resource space. Which of these outcomes will occur crucially depends on the competition kernel, which reflects the shape of the resource utilization pattern...... of the competing species. Most models considered in the literature assume a Gaussian competition kernel. This is unfortunate, since predictions based on such a Gaussian assumption are not robust. In fact, Gaussian kernels are a border case scenario, and slight deviations from this function can lead to either...

  6. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  7. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-01-01

    Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...

  8. [Challenge and opportunity of entry to WTO brings to scientific and technological periodical].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yun-Mei

    2004-11-01

    After our country enters WTO, confronted with the direct influence in big international market opening, editorial department will face fierce competition. Selecting the superior and eliminate the inferior will test every publishing house and every magazine directly. In order to improve the competition level, author has analyzed the current situation of China's periodical development, and then explored the scientific and technological periodical opportunity and challenge faced under the new situation.

  9. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.

  10. Overcoming barriers to implementation of evidence-based practice concepts in athletic training education: perceptions of select educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manspeaker, Sarah; Van Lunen, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    The need to include evidence-based practice (EBP) concepts in entry-level athletic training education is evident as the profession transitions toward using evidence to inform clinical decision making. To evaluate athletic training educators' experience with implementation of EBP concepts in Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education (CAATE)-accredited entry-level athletic training education programs in reference to educational barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers. Qualitative interviews of emergent design with grounded theory. Undergraduate CAATE-accredited athletic training education programs. Eleven educators (3 men, 8 women). The average number of years teaching was 14.73 ± 7.06. Interviews were conducted to evaluate perceived barriers and strategies for overcoming these barriers to implementation of evidence-based concepts in the curriculum. Interviews were explored qualitatively through open and axial coding. Established themes and categories were triangulated and member checked to determine trustworthiness. Educators identified 3 categories of need for EBP instruction: respect for the athletic training profession, use of EBP as part of the decision-making toolbox, and third-party reimbursement. Barriers to incorporating EBP concepts included time, role strain, knowledge, and the gap between clinical and educational practices. Suggested strategies for surmounting barriers included identifying a starting point for inclusion and approaching inclusion from a faculty perspective. Educators must transition toward instruction of EBP, regardless of barriers present in their academic programs, in order to maintain progress with other health professions' clinical practices and educational standards. Because today's students are tomorrow's clinicians, we need to include EBP concepts in entry-level education to promote critical thinking, inspire potential research interest, and further develop the available body of knowledge in our

  11. Building a Bridge of Understanding: How Barriers to Training Participation Become Barriers to Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. C.; McCracken, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to look at the issues concerning barriers that managers face in relation to participation in training and transfer of training, which have become increasingly important to HRD scholars and practitioners. To date, these areas have largely been examined independently. This paper aims to argue that there is an…

  12. Unpacking the Barriers to Reproductive Health Services in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Abstract. Youth report embarrassment, cost, and poor access as barriers to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. ..... Table 4: Percent of Respondents Reporting Perceived Barriers to HIV Testing, Abortion, and Contraception by. Gender, Age, Community and School Status. Perceived. Barrier. Boys Girls 11-16 yrs.

  13. Preemption and entry timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, Xavier; Teece, D.; Augier, M.

    2013-01-01

    Entry timing research examines how firm performance varies, possibly non-monotonically, with the order (also known as order of entry) or elapsed time since first entry into a new market. While the pre-emption literature in economics focuses on assumptions for a first entrant to monopolize a market,

  14. Intraspecific genetic variation and competition interact to influence niche expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agashe, Deepa; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2010-10-07

    Theory and empirical evidence show that intraspecific competition can drive selection favouring the use of novel resources (i.e. niche expansion). The evolutionary response to such selection depends on genetic variation for resource use. However, while genetic variation might facilitate niche expansion, genetically diverse groups may also experience weaker competition, reducing density-dependent selection on resource use. Therefore, genetic variation for fitness on different resources could directly facilitate, or indirectly retard, niche expansion. To test these alternatives, we factorially manipulated both the degree of genetic variation and population density in flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) exposed to both novel and familiar food resources. Using stable carbon isotope analysis, we measured temporal change and individual variation in beetle diet across eight generations. Intraspecific competition and genetic variation acted on different components of niche evolution: competition facilitated niche expansion, while genetic variation increased individual variation in niche use. In addition, genetic variation and competition together facilitated niche expansion, but all these impacts were temporally variable. Thus, we show that the interaction between genetic variation and competition can also determine niche evolution at different time scales.

  15. Telerobotic Excavator Designed to Compete in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Rodney; Santin, Cara; Yousef, Ahmed; Nguyen, Thien; Helferty, John; Pillapakkam, Shriram

    2011-01-01

    The second annual NASA Lunabotics Mining competition is to be held in May 23-28, 2011. The goal of the competition is for teams of university level students to design, build, test and compete with a fully integrated lunar excavator on a simulated lunar surface. Our team, named Lunar Solutions I, will be representing Temple University's College of Engineering in the competition. The team's main goal was to build a robot which is able to compete with other teams, and ultimately win the competition. The main challenge of the competition was to build a wireless robot that can excavate and collect a minimum of 10 kilograms of the regolith material within 15 minutes. The robot must also be designed to operate in conditions similar to those found on the lunar surface. The design of the lunar excavator is constrained by a set of requirements determined by NASA and detailed in the competition's rulebook. The excavator must have the ability to communicate with the "main base" wirelessly, and over a Wi-Fi network. Human operators are located at a remote site approximately 60 meters away from the simulated lunar surface upon which the robot must excavate the lunar regolith surface. During the competition, the robot will operate in a separate area from the control room in an area referred to as the "Lunarena." From the control room, the operators will have to control the robot using visual feedback from cameras placed both within the arena and on the robot. Using this visual feedback the human operators control the robots movement using both keyboard and joystick commands. In order to place in the competition, a minimum of 10 kg of regolith material has to be excavated, collected, and dumped into a specific location. For that reason, the robot must be provided with an effective and powerful excavation system. Our excavator uses tracks for the drive system. After performing extensive research and trade studies, we concluded that tracks would be the most effective method for

  16. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  17. Barriers to e-health business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Suzanne; Hinton, Matthew; Barnes, David

    2004-01-01

    This paper builds from recent case study research in commercial organisations to develop the hypothesis that many of the barriers to e-health processes are similar to those encountered by commercial businesses. The paper reports findings from a case study within the pathology department of a UK National Health Service (NHS) Trust. The NHS has a risk-averse culture where many individuals practice defensive behaviour and there are deeply embedded working practices. The paper suggests that if the NHS is to seize the opportunities offered by substantial new investments in e-health systems that utilise internet-based ICTs, greater effort needs to be made to understand and address the socio-cultural factors affecting the UK healthcare system.

  18. The Propensity to Tax Competition: The Case of Implementation Local Tax Policy by Polish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Walasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to identify the main factors determining the propensity of local authorities to compete for the access to the limited as well as mobile sources of local tax revenue. The success of such an activity should be discussed in relation to the stabilization of local budget revenues; hence it seems that the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction could be better index to evaluate of the efficiency of local tax policy. The theoretical approach is based on the assumption that, if central government provides limitations of the right to improve local tax policy means (the scope of local tax jurisdiction, the local governments should focus on both the efficient acquiring the sources of tax revenues, and the stabilization of tax revenues in the future, in particular by the implementation of the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction. The paper suggests studying a propensity to tax competition. The article formulates desideratum of the efficiency of spending on acquiring the sources of tax revenue, in particular, the need to identify the barriers to leave tax jurisdiction is suggested. The first and foremost way to build the barrier to leave tax jurisdiction could be reducing tax liabilities by local tax authorities, in particular by introducing local tax reliefs and local tax exemptions, as well as lowering local tax rates. Hence, the model of local authorities’ competition for local tax resources could be proposed. The empirical studies are dedicated to identify the actual propensity of Polish local government to execute the legal ability to impose tax policy instruments. The inquiry is based on comparing the fiscal consequences of implementing local tax policy within two groups of local authorities: small towns and countries (gminas and medium-size towns and big cities (cities with powiat status. The period under investigation contains 14 fiscal years, started 2000 and finished in 2013. The method is based on the analysis of the

  19. Conceptual Barriers to Progress Within Evolutionary Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N; Odling-Smee, John; Feldman, Marcus W; Kendal, Jeremy

    2009-08-01

    In spite of its success, Neo-Darwinism is faced with major conceptual barriers to further progress, deriving directly from its metaphysical foundations. Most importantly, neo-Darwinism fails to recognize a fundamental cause of evolutionary change, "niche construction". This failure restricts the generality of evolutionary theory, and introduces inaccuracies. It also hinders the integration of evolutionary biology with neighbouring disciplines, including ecosystem ecology, developmental biology, and the human sciences. Ecology is forced to become a divided discipline, developmental biology is stubbornly difficult to reconcile with evolutionary theory, and the majority of biologists and social scientists are still unhappy with evolutionary accounts of human behaviour. The incorporation of niche construction as both a cause and a product of evolution removes these disciplinary boundaries while greatly generalizing the explanatory power of evolutionary theory.

  20. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  1. Barriers to Healthcare for American Indians Experiencing Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Stephanie M; Kemp, Katherine A; Greenfield, Brenna L; Walls, Melissa L

    2017-01-01

    Members of American Indian (AI) communities face many barriers to receiving both mental and physical healthcare. These barriers can have a negative effect on overall health. Barriers are compounded for AIs who are also experiencing homelessness, and AI make up a disproportionate percentage of the homeless population nationwide. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 service providers and 16 homeless participants in a mid-size Midwestern city to identify barriers to care for homeless participants. Key barriers identified in this study for homeless participants were: transportation, phone accessibility, discrimination, and cold and bureaucratic cultures of healthcare systems. Major barriers identified by service providers were: access to care, discrimination and mistrust, and restrictive policies. Given generally higher disease prevalence within the homeless population and health disparities within the AI community, steps should be taken to reduce barriers to healthcare.

  2. Addressing barriers to low carbon energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, Fiona; Dunstan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Two energy solutions gaining attention are cogeneration and trigeneration, mostly fuelled by natural gas, although other renewable sources can be used, such as sewage, agricultural waste and municipal waste. Trigeneration has become increasingly popular in Australia's urban centres as a relatively cost-effective means to cut the carbon-intensity of energy supply by more than half compared to traditional coal- fired electricity. Some examples of trigeneration projects include the City of Sydney's planned 360 megawatt trigeneration networks by 2030, the University of Technology Sydney's campus master plan and the six star Green Star Commonwealth Bank Place building in Sydney. Trigeneration and cogeneration can present opportunities such as addressing the issue of rising peak demand, which is a major driver for the current $9 billion per annum of network infrastructure spending. They can also face barriers. For example, depending on the current state of the network, additional network costs can be required to accommodate trigeneration. Furthermore, under the current National Electricity Market regulations and conventions, challenges do exist to timely and financially viable connection to the grid. Here we present two examples of barriers to trigeneration and cogeneration and solutions being considered and implemented. The University of Technology Sydney campus master plan is underway, with approximately 100,000sq.m of floor area being built by 2019 and includes plans for trigeneration. During the master planning phase of development, the university considered small trigeneration units in individual buildings in order to reduce the carbon intensity of electricity supply and deliver high ratings under Green Star ratings. When considering connecting trigeneration with the grid at multiple buildings on an individual basis, a number of barriers were encountered by UTS. The largest barrier was appropriate charging for connecting to and using the

  3. From glue to gasoline: how competition turns perspective takers unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jason R; Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D; Sivanathan, Niro

    2013-10-01

    Perspective taking is often the glue that binds people together. However, we propose that in competitive contexts, perspective taking is akin to adding gasoline to a fire: It inflames already-aroused competitive impulses and leads people to protect themselves from the potentially insidious actions of their competitors. Overall, we suggest that perspective taking functions as a relational amplifier. In cooperative contexts, it creates the foundation for prosocial impulses, but in competitive contexts, it triggers hypercompetition, leading people to prophylactically engage in unethical behavior to prevent themselves from being exploited. The experiments reported here establish that perspective taking interacts with the relational context--cooperative or competitive--to predict unethical behavior, from using insidious negotiation tactics to materially deceiving one's partner to cheating on an anagram task. In the context of competition, perspective taking can pervert the age-old axiom "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" into "do unto others as you think they will try to do unto you."

  4. Cell Surface THY-1 Contributes to Human Cytomegalovirus Entry via a Macropinocytosis-Like Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxue; Fischer, Elizabeth; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2016-11-01

    Previously we showed that THY-1 has a critical role in the initial stage of infection of certain cell types with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and that THY-1 is important for HCMV-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt during virus entry. THY-1 is known to interact with integrins and is a major cargo protein of clathrin-independent endocytic vesicles. Since macropinocytosis involves integrin signaling, is PI3K/Akt dependent, and is a clathrin-independent endocytic process, we determined whether THY-1 has a role in HCMV entry by macropinocytosis. Using electron microscopy in two cell lines that support HCMV infection in a THY-1-dependent manner, we found that HCMV enters these cells by a macropinocytosis-like process. THY-1 associated with HCMV virions on the cell surface and colocalized with virus inside macropinosomes. 5-(N-Ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA) and soluble THY-1 blocked HCMV infection in the cell lines by ≥80% and 60%, respectively. HCMV entry into the cells triggered increased influx of extracellular fluid, a marker of macropinocytosis, and this increased fluid uptake was inhibited by EIPA and by soluble THY-1. Blocking actin depolymerization, Na + /H + exchange, PI3K, and Pak1 kinase, which are critical for macropinocytosis, impaired HCMV infection. Neither internalized HCMV virions nor THY-1 in virus-infected cells colocalized with transferrin as determined by confocal microscopy, indicating that clathrin-mediated endocytosis was not involved in THY-1-associated virus entry. These results suggest that HCMV has adapted to utilize THY-1, a cargo protein of clathrin-independent endocytotic vesicles, to facilitate efficient entry into certain cell types by a macropinocytosis-like process. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects over half of the population and is the most common infectious cause of birth defects. The virus is the most important infection occurring in transplant recipients. The mechanism of how HCMV enters cells

  5. The Big Shortage: Geropsychologists Discuss Facilitators and Barriers to Working in the Field of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, C Caroline; Koh, Deborah; Sakai, Erin Y; Molinari, Victor; Karel, Michele J; Moye, Jennifer; Carpenter, Brian D

    2017-12-01

    Geropsychology is a vibrant field of scientific study, pedagogy, and clinical practice, and the need for more geropsychologists will only expand as the population ages. This study involved in-depth, semi-structured telephone interviews with 30 clinical geropsychologists about their training and current work. Qualitative coding of interviews was undertaken using an inductive coding approach. Results revealed four major themes: factors influencing entry into the field of geropsychology, the rewards of being a geropsychologist, competing demands on time and money, and barriers to involvement in leadership. These results suggest some possible points of intervention to attract people to the field of aging and promote their professional development and success.

  6. Competition Between Barrier Island Migration and Marsh-Upland Migration Could Determine the Fate of Coastal Lagoons Under Sea Level Rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran Vinent, O.; Kirwan, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Although marshes can modulate their vertical growth to adjust to sea level rise, wave-induced marsh edge erosion seems to be unstoppable, eating away large chunks of marshes around coastal lagoons in low-sediment environments. Because lagoon size is ultimately constrained by barrier islands, a positive feedback ensues by which barrier migration decreases lagoon size and wind fetch, which in turn reduces marsh edge erosion. Under sea level rise, back-barrier marshes and bay sediments are eventually exposed at the seashore where they are eroded away by waves, thereby increasing barrier island migration rate and further mitigating fetch-driven marsh erosion. We study this feedback using a simple model that couples barrier, lagoon, marsh, and upland components of the coastal landscape. We find that the final state of the ecosystem is controlled by the relation between barrier migration rate, marsh edge erosion rate and marsh upland propagation rate. Our results suggest there are two stable, extreme long-term scenarios, which are a function of the rate of sea level rise and sediment availability: (i) a growing lagoon devoid of marshes, for slowly migrating barrier islands and limited upland marsh transgression; and (ii) a marsh filled lagoon, for fast migrating barrier islands, and unconstrained upland marsh transgression.

  7. Barriers to optimizing investments in the built environment to reduce youth obesity: policy-maker perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jill L; MacKay, Kathryn C; Manuel, Patricia M; McHugh, Tara-Leigh F

    2010-01-01

    To identify factors which limit the ability of local governments to make appropriate investments in the built environment to promote youth health and reduce obesity outcomes in Atlantic Canada. Policy-makers and professionals participated in focus groups to discuss the receptiveness of local governments to introducing health considerations into decision-making. Seven facilitated focus groups involved 44 participants from Atlantic Canada. Thematic discourse analysis of the meeting transcripts identified systemic barriers to creating a built environment that fosters health for youth aged 12-15 years. Participants consistently identified four categories of barriers. Financial barriers limit the capacities of local government to build, maintain and operate appropriate facilities. Legacy issues mean that communities inherit a built environment designed to facilitate car use, with inadequate zoning authority to control fast food outlets, and without the means to determine where schools are built or how they are used. Governance barriers derive from government departments with distinct and competing mandates, with a professional structure that privileges engineering, and with funding programs that encourage competition between municipalities. Cultural factors and values affect outcomes: people have adapted to car-oriented living; poverty reduces options for many families; parental fears limit children's mobility; youth receive limited priority in built environment investments. Participants indicated that health issues have increasing profile within local government, making this an opportune time to discuss strategies for optimizing investments in the built environment. The focus group method can foster mutual learning among professionals within government in ways that could advance health promotion.

  8. Possible barriers to enrollment in substance abuse treatment among a diverse sample of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: opinions of treatment clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Carmen L; Shopshire, Michael S; Sen, Soma; Hoffman, Kim A; Hengl, Nicholas S; Bartolome, John; McCarty, Dennis; Sorensen, James L; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2013-03-01

    This mixed methods study examined motivations and barriers to substance abuse treatment entry and treatment continuation among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) substance users. AAPI substance users (N = 61) were recruited from substance abuse treatment programs in California and Hawaii. Semi-structured interviews and interviewer-administered surveys assessed barriers and facilitators to entering substance abuse treatment. Barriers included peer pressure, family influences, and face loss concerns. Facilitators included peer support, involvement in the criminal justice system, a perceived need for treatment, and culturally competent substance abuse treatment services. Family and peer influences may act as both facilitators and impediments. AAPI substance using populations face many of the same individual-level and structural and systems barriers to entry to treatment as other substance using populations. However, similar to other racial/ethnic minority groups, it is important to address cultural differences and develop culturally competent substance abuse treatments for the AAPI population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. HOW TO MAKE A DESTINATION MORE COMPETITIVE IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL SANDA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to make an overview on the concept of destination competitiveness, starting with the importance of tourism in the economy and ending with what actually means the concept, taking into consideration also the importance of developing quality tourism products.Powerful destinations manage to attract millions of tourists annually. The key of establishing proper strategies for tourism destinations is to determine the competitiveness of a tourism destination. This subject has been researched by many important researchers from the tourism area and the findings obtained can help marketers. It must also be taken into discussion the fact that competitiveness may not only relate to factors of related to the destination

  10. Harmful Tax Competition in the EU with Reference to Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Drezgić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalisation has led, among other things, to harmful tax competition. This paper considers the efforts within the EU in combating harmful tax competition (Code of Conduct on Business Taxation and their effects when taking into account the EU regulations in relation to state aids. Considering a number of problems in the implementation of the Code, and the numerous criticisms with regard to the validity of the combat against harmful tax competition – it is difficult to give a final answer about its success. Croatian tax system, and the corporation tax in particular, are analysed in the light of the aforementioned problems. The advantages of the equal treatment of domestic and foreign investors, as well as the certain elements of state aids in tax benefits, are pointed out.

  11. Reliability enhancement due to in-situ post-oxidation of sputtered MgO barrier in double MgO barrier magnetic tunnel junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Yoshida

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effects of in-situ post-oxidation (PO of a sputtered MgO barrier in a double-MgO-barrier magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ and found that the short error rate was significantly reduced, the magnetoresistance (MR ratio was increased approximately 18%, and the endurance lifetime was extend. In addition, we found that the distribution of breakdown number (a measure of endurance exhibits trimodal characteristics, which indicates competition between extrinsic and intrinsic failures. This improvement in reliability might be related to the suppression of Fe and Co diffusion to the MgO barrier, as revealed by electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS analysis.

  12. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person......-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  13. Exploring the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ attitude towards reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Lever–Chain

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: British children enter school younger than their European counterparts. Research suggests that this disadvantages boys who may be unready for formal literacy instruction.This longitudinal study explores the effect of age of entry to school on boys’ reading development, focussing on attitudes and beliefs. Data from 60 summer-born boys, divided into two cohorts, was collected on three occasions: before entry to Year One, end of Year One and end of Year Two. Comparisons were drawn between 31 boys with part-time nursery education before Year One, and 29 with full-time Reception class experience. This paper presents data collected at Time One. Employing both quantitative and qualitative methodologies the study explores how beliefs about and attitudes towards reading emerge in the context of these contrasting early years settings. Implications of the findings are considered in the context of policies and trends in age of entry to school.

  14. A restricted hybrid zone between native and introduced red fox (Vulpes vulpes) populations suggests reproductive barriers and competitive exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Moore, Marcelle; Statham, Mark J; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2011-01-01

    Introduced species can threaten native taxa in multiple ways, including competition and hybridization, which can reduce fitness, alter ecological niches or swamp native genomes. Encroachment and hybridization by introduced species also provide opportunities to study the dynamics of invasiveness and hybridization during early stages following contact. We used 33 microsatellites, 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms and a mtDNA marker to characterize the extent and spatial pattern of encroachment and hybridization between a native, endemic subspecies of red fox (Vulpes vulpes patwin) and an introduced red fox population composed of highly admixed, phylogenetically divergent stock, resulting from a century of domestication. Both nuclear and mtDNA markers indicated that hybridization was primarily restricted to a narrow zone where the two populations came into contact. Although a few introgressed genotypes were detected in the interior of the native range, we found no immigrant foxes or F(1) or F(2) hybrids there, suggesting native foxes excluded introduced individuals. We speculate that the observed interbreeding at the periphery was facilitated by low densities. In total, 98% of mtDNA haplotypes in the native range were native and 96% of the nuclear ancestry was estimated to be native. Although the introduced range had expanded fivefold over the past four decades, native and non-native haplotypes from museum samples collected in and near the native range three decades earlier showed a similar geographic distribution as today, suggesting that the native range and hybrid zone were relatively stable. We hypothesize that the monogamous mating system of red foxes and other wild canids may enhance their resistance to hybridization because of greater fitness consequences associated with mate discrimination. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  16. Competitive performance of transgenic wheat resistant to powdery mildew.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kalinina

    Full Text Available Genetically modified (GM plants offer an ideal model system to study the influence of single genes that confer constitutive resistance to pathogens on the ecological behaviour of plants. We used phytometers to study competitive interactions between GM lines of spring wheat Triticum aestivum carrying such genes and control lines. We hypothesized that competitive performance of GM lines would be reduced due to enhanced transgene expression under pathogen levels typically encountered in the field. The transgenes pm3b from wheat (resistance against powdery mildew Blumeria graminis or chitinase and glucanase genes from barley (resistance against fungi in general were introduced with the ubiquitin promoter from maize (pm3b and chitinase genes or the actin promoter from rice (glucanase gene. Phytometers of 15 transgenic and non-transgenic wheat lines were transplanted as seedlings into plots sown with the same 15 lines as competitive environments and subject to two soil nutrient levels. Pm3b lines had reduced mildew incidence compared with control lines. Chitinase and chitinase/glucanase lines showed the same high resistance to mildew as their control in low-nutrient treatment and slightly lower mildew rates than the control in high-nutrient environment. Pm3b lines were weaker competitors than control lines. This resulted in reduced yield and seed number. The Pm3b line with the highest transgene expression had 53.2% lower yield than the control whereas the Pm3b line which segregated in resistance and had higher mildew rates showed only minor costs under competition. The line expressing both chitinase and glucanase genes also showed reduced yield and seed number under competition compared with its control. Our results suggest that single transgenes conferring constitutive resistance to pathogens can have ecological costs and can weaken plant competitiveness even in the presence of the pathogen. The magnitude of these costs appears related to the degree

  17. Sensitivity of Asteroid Impact Risk to Uncertainty in Asteroid Properties and Entry Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan; Dotson, Jessie L.; NASA Asteroid Threat Assessment Project

    2017-10-01

    A central challenge in assessing the threat posed by asteroids striking Earth is the large amount of uncertainty inherent throughout all aspects of the problem. Many asteroid properties are not well characterized and can range widely from strong, dense, monolithic irons to loosely bound, highly porous rubble piles. Even for an object of known properties, the specific entry velocity, angle, and impact location can swing the potential consequence from no damage to causing millions of casualties. Due to the extreme rarity of large asteroid strikes, there are also large uncertainties in how different types of asteroids will interact with the atmosphere during entry, how readily they may break up or ablate, and how much surface damage will be caused by the resulting airbursts or impacts.In this work, we use our Probabilistic Asteroid Impact Risk (PAIR) model to investigate the sensitivity of asteroid impact damage to uncertainties in key asteroid properties, entry parameters, or modeling assumptions. The PAIR model combines physics-based analytic models of asteroid entry and damage in a probabilistic Monte Carlo framework to assess the risk posed by a wide range of potential impacts. The model samples from uncertainty distributions of asteroid properties and entry parameters to generate millions of specific impact cases, and models the atmospheric entry and damage for each case, including blast overpressure, thermal radiation, tsunami inundation, and global effects. To assess the risk sensitivity, we alternately fix and vary the different input parameters and compare the effect on the resulting range of damage produced. The goal of these studies is to help guide future efforts in asteroid characterization and model refinement by determining which properties most significantly affect the potential risk.

  18. Foreign bank entry impacted domestic-owned banks in Ghana from 1975 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsiah K. Acheampong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article empirically examines the effects of foreign bank entry on the financial performance of Merchant Bank Ghana Limited and Ghana Commercial Banks Limited in Ghana from 1975 to 2008. The main result of the pooled regression was that foreign bank entry relatively increased domestic banks’ return on assets for the period 1992-2008; a period with a high influx of foreign banks into Ghana. This result supported the studies by Beck, Demirguc-Kunt, and Levine (2006 and Boldrin and Levine (2009 that found that foreign bank entry enhanced domestic banks profitability margins. The presence of foreign-owned banks was not detrimental to the financial performance of the domestic-owned banks in Ghana.

  19. CinéGlobe invites you to participate in a poster design competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Neal David Hartman

    2013-01-01

    For its 2014 publicity campaign, CinéGlobe invites CERN people to participate in a poster design competition.  The entries are now on display on the Pas Perdus in the main building, and the CERNois are invited to vote for their favourites.    CinéGlobe is the international festival of short films inspired by science that takes place every two years at CERN, in the Globe of Science and Innovation. From 18 to 23 March 2014, CERN will host the fourth edition of the festival. The mission of the CinéGlobe Film Festival is to challenge the commonly perceived divisions between science and art by demonstrating that they are both essential to interpreting our world. Open to short film creators from around the world, the CinéGlobe festival is truly international, the first three editions having attracted more than 4,000 entries from more than 100 countries around the globe.  In addition to screening...

  20. Evaluating barriers to adopting telemedicine worldwide: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Kruse, Clemens; Karem, Priyanka; Shifflett, Kelli; Vegi, Lokesh; Ravi, Karuna; Brooks, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Introduction and objective Studies on telemedicine have shown success in reducing the geographical and time obstacles incurred in the receipt of care in traditional modalities with the same or greater effectiveness; however, there are several barriers that need to be addressed in order for telemedicine technology to spread. The aim of this review is to evaluate barriers to adopting telemedicine worldwide through the analysis of published work. Methods The authors conducted a systematic literature review by extracting the data from the Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and PubMed (MEDLINE) research databases. The reviewers in this study analysed 30 articles (nine from CINAHL and 21 from Medline) and identified barriers found in the literature. This review followed the checklist from Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2009. The reviewers organized the results into one table and five figures that depict the data in different ways, organized by: barrier, country-specific barriers, organization-specific barriers, patient-specific barriers, and medical-staff and programmer-specific barriers. Results The reviewers identified 33 barriers with a frequency of 100 occurrences through the 30 articles. The study identified the issues with technically challenged staff (11%), followed by resistance to change (8%), cost (8%), reimbursement (5%), age of patient (5%), and level of education of patient (5%). All other barriers occurred at or less than 4% of the time. Discussion and conclusions Telemedicine is not yet ubiquitous, and barriers vary widely. The top barriers are technology-specific and could be overcome through training, change-management techniques, and alternating delivery by telemedicine and personal patient-to-provider interaction. The results of this study identify several barriers that could be eliminated by focused policy. Future work should evaluate policy to identify which one to lever to

  1. Thermal Barrier Coatings Resistant to Glassy Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Julie Marie

    Engineering of alloys has for years allowed aircraft turbine engines to become more efficient and operate at higher temperatures. As advancements in these alloy systems have become more difficult, ceramic thermal barrier coatings (TBCs), often yttria (7 wt %) stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), have been utilized for thermal protection. TBCs have allowed for higher engine operating temperatures and better fuel efficiency but have also created new engineering problems. Specifically, silica based particles such as sand and volcanic ash that enter the engine during operation form glassy deposits on the TBCs. These deposits can cause the current industrial 7YSZ thermal barrier coatings to fail since the glass formed penetrates and chemically interacts with the TBC. When this occurs, coating failure may occur due to a loss of strain tolerance, which can lead to fracture, and phase changes of the TBC material. There have been several approaches used to stop calcium-magnesium aluminio-silcate (CMAS) glasses (molten sand) from destroying the entire TBC, but overall there is still limited knowledge. In this thesis, 7YSZ and new TBC materials will be examined for thermochemical and thermomechanical performance in the presence of molten CMAS and volcanic ash. Two air plasma sprayed TBCs will be shown to be resistant to volcanic ash and CMAS. The first type of coating is a modified 7YSZ coating with 20 mol% Al2O3 and 5 mol% TiO2 in solid solution (YSZ+20Al+5Ti). The second TBC is made of gadolinium zirconate. These novel TBCs impede CMAS and ash penetration by interacting with the molten CMAS or ash and drastically changing the chemistry. The chemically modified CMAS or ash will crystallize into an apatite or anorthite phase, blocking the CMAS or ash from further destroying the coating. A presented mechanism study will show these coatings are effective due to the large amount of solute (Gd, Al) in the zirconia structure, which is the key to creating the crystalline apatite or

  2. Marketing Needed to Make Universities Globally Competitive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, B. M.

    2016-01-01

    The article aims at improving the quality of higher and technical education in India to world class standard. Institutions in knowledge economy are reckoned to be the drivers of development. Indian institutions are making efforts, investing money, appointing professors, students are studying hard but due to the lack of marketing strategy, their…

  3. Youth sport specialization: how to manage competition and training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L

    2011-12-01

    A prevailing theory (and practical application) is that elite performance requires early childhood skill development and training across various domains, including sport. Debate continues whether children specializing early (ie, training/competition in a single sport) have true advantage compared with those who sample various sports early and specialize in a single sport later (adolescence). Retrospective data and case studies suggest either model yields elite status depending upon the sport category (ie, situational: ball games, martial arts, fencing; quantitative: track and field, swimming, skiing; or qualitative: gymnastics, diving, figure skating). However, potential risks of early specialization include greater attrition and adverse physical/emotional health outcomes. With the advent of the IOC Youth Olympic Games, increased emphasis on global youth competition has unknown implications but also represents a potential platform for investigation. Modification of youth competition formats should be based upon multidisciplinary research on psychophysiological responses, and technical-tactical behaviors during competition. The assumption that a simple scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of technical/tactical skills of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Relatively little evidence exists regarding the long-term effects of rigorous training and competitive schedules on children in specific sports. It is clear that more prospective studies are needed to understand the training dose that optimally develops adaptations in youth without inducing dropout, overtraining syndrome, and/or injury. Such an approach should be sport specific as well as gender based. Until such evidence exists, coaches and sport administrators will continue to rely upon their sport-specific dogma to influence programmatic development of our most vulnerable population.

  4. EntrySat: A 3U CubeStat to study the reentry atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix

    2016-04-01

    ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France Raphael.GARCIA@isae.fr +33 5 61 33 81 14

  5. Digital Competition Game to Improve Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a digital game with an educational purpose in the subject of computer programming, which enables students to reinforce and improve their abilities on the concepts of sequencing, defined iteration and nesting. For its design, a problem solving approach was followed and a score comparing mechanism was implemented…

  6. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials and techni......During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... solution for these demands, while also offering the opportunity for very financially competitive solutions, it is of interest to determine their appropriateness in the design phase of a building. Through a study carried out by means of a review of the current state of the-art literature on straw...

  7. Barriers to development and deployment of innovative waste minimization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, E.A.; Donaghue, J.F.

    1994-08-01

    Increasing regulation and scrutiny is driving waste generators towards reducing the use of scarce natural resources and reducing or eliminating was streams. There is increasing emphasis on developing and deploying technologies that meet industry needs for recovering valuable materials in a cost-effective manner. At the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, Battelle operates Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). PNL's mission is to develop technologies to clean up the environment, and to assist industry in being competitive on a global scale. One such technology developed by PNL is the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) process. This technology recovers acids from metal-bearing spent solutions, separating out the metals (which are a valuable byproduct of the acid recycling operation) from the acids. WADR uses selective precipitation and distillation together in an innovative waste recycling technology. Selective precipitation removes the heavy metals, and vacuum distillation recovers clean acid. However, WADR and other innovative waste reduction technologies face numerous barriers to successful development and deployment in the field

  8. Competition to provide heat in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2007-01-01

    Replacing political nominees at state-owned companies after each change of the cabinet has become a standard. The consequences are all too well-known. In the best case, the company gets a manager that is an expert in the given area and in the worst case the new manager is a person who does not have the vaguest idea of the business and the only reason he has taken the position is to collect the salary. And in addition to this they might harm the company due to a lack of experience and expertise. These post-election changes often remove capable people from company management that do not have friends in the new cabinet but do not wish to leave the business. Over the years, they gained experience so why not start up a new company in the same business area. And heat supply in Kosice is a good example. For many years, there was only one heat supplier in Kosice, the state-owned joint stock company Teplaren Kosice (TEKO). It uses natural gas and coal from Russia. But at the end of last year, a new private limited liability company, Teplarenska spolocnost, was established. And it plans to build a new heating plant using wooden bio-mass for about 300 mil. Sk (8.82 mil. EUR) to compete with TEKO. The owners and managers of the company include former employees of the state-owned heating plant. (author)

  9. Facilitators and barriers to 10 National Quality Forum safe practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Sarah C; Kohler, Susan; Rask, Kimberly; Davis, Anne; Naylor, Dorothy Vi

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of 10 National Quality Forum (NQF) medication processes and the culture of safety practices in Georgia hospitals. In-depth interviews with hospital administrators were conducted to identify facilitators and barriers to the implementation of programs that support the NQF safe practices. Hospitals identified significant as well as other key factors that resulted in the adoption and/or nonadoption of medication and culture of safety practices. Informants also identified strategies used to overcome barriers that were experienced. Facilitators to both practices include administrative leadership support and education and training. The resistance to change was the most significant barrier identified in both the safe medication process interviews and the culture of safety interviews. Implementing safety practices can be a difficult process, replete with organizational, financial, and professional barriers. Strategies identified by our informants to overcome these barriers may assist other hospitals currently facing this challenge.

  10. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debate...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  11. Entry: direct control or regulation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.; Vorage, M.

    2009-01-01

    We model a setting in which citizens form coalitions to seek preferential entry to a given market. The lower entry the higher firm profits and political contributions, but the lower social welfare. Politicians choose to either control entry directly and be illegally bribed, or regulate entry using a

  12. Barriers to Research and Evidence (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I often find attending conferences or workshops a source of reflection or inspiration for editorials, and today I attended an event that proved to be no exception. The HEALER network is a UK grouping of professionals interested in health library research. It brings together those working in health information at an academic, practitioner or strategic capacity as well as those working in higher education, research and the NHS. (http://www.libraryservices.nhs.uk/healer/minutes.htmlThere were a number of interesting presentations, but one (and the subsequent interactive discussions left me with some worrying thoughts. Hannah Spring (2013 presented some of the findings from her PhD that found when health librarians were asked about their barriers to research they reported that they didn't know what research questions to ask! Alternatively if they had research questions they didn't think to engage with the literature or believed that there was no evidence to answer them! If we really don't have any research questions, and we really don't think to look at the literature or there really is no evidence, this is worrying indeed for the future of EBLIP. It's also a situation I don't recognize from being involved in the EBLIP journal and was left wondering whether it was the health librarians perceptions of “research” and “evidence” that was the issue; questions which are being examined in the LIRG Scan which was described in another presentation. The scan is a review of the evidence on: What practitioners understand by research; what kind of research is relevant to LIS practitioners? How do they use research and what are the barriers and facilitators to using research in practice? (https://sites.google.com/site/lirgweb/home/awards/lirg-scan-award The results will be used to help inform the Chartered Institute for Library and Information Professionals’ policy on research.The barrier which I’m much more familiar in terms of engaging with

  13. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  14. Barriers to student success in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wills

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.

  15. Domestic Wood Products Manufacturing Trends and Factors to Enhance Competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson; Rich Christianson

    2003-01-01

    There is little question that imports have captured a substantial portion of the domestic furniture market. However, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain industry perspectives of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that can enhance domestic competitiveness...

  16. Barriers to the management of pain in dementia care

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, R.; Bruneau, B.

    2014-01-01

    Pain in people with dementia is increasingly recognised as both underassessed and undertreated. This review discusses the main barriers to effective assessment and management of pain in this population, strategies to overcome these barriers, and the implications of such strategies for practitioners and researchers. There appear to be gaps in nursing knowledge and inaccurate beliefs about pain in dementia, and further education may address these. More research is necessary to explore barriers ...

  17. Barriers to participation in vocational orientation programmes among prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien Brosens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the barriers to prisoners’ participation in vocational education, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N=468 provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational barriers are most common. Based on the different kinds of barriers, various types of non-participants can be distinguished and multinomial logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify in what way participants of vocational education differ from various types of non-participants. For instance, prisoners with a poor understanding of the Dutch language and those who never/rarely receive visitors participate less in vocational education as they are more likely to be confronted with informational barriers. We conclude this article by discussing paths for future research and implications for policy and practice to anticipate the barriers for those who want to participate in vocational education.

  18. One-week exposure to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet does not disrupt blood-brain barrier permeability in fed or overnight fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, M.; Unmehopa, U A; Eggels, L.; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, S E

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows

  19. One-week exposure to a free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet does not disrupt blood-brain barrier permeability in fed or overnight fasted rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijnsburger, M.; Unmehopa, U. A.; Eggels, L.; Serlie, M. J.; La Fleur, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus lies adjacent to the third ventricle and is in close proximity with the median eminence (ME), a circumventricular organ with an incomplete blood-brain barrier (BBB) which controls direct entry of nutrients into the brain. The blood-CSF barrier of the hypothalamus shows dynamic

  20. Barriers to Open Innovation: Case China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Savitskaya

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of open innovation suggests that firms can boost their innovative performance by both acquiring knowledge from outside the company and deploying external paths to market for commercialization of non-core technologies. As innovations emerge increasingly from interorganisational cooperation, the background for such cooperation can also have an impact on the involvement of companies into open innovation processes. Thereby this paper proposes to analyze the barriers towards open innovation from three different aspects, such as internal firms’ environment, institutional factors or innovation system and cultural background. Our findings indicate that economic systems and institutions (in particular the protection of IPRs may have large effects on the behavior of firms with respect to their engagement in open innovation practices. On the other hand, our results also suggest that the importance of appropriability regime may differ in the buy and sell sides of knowledge, and finally we demonstrate the influence of peculiarities of national cultures upon the adoption of certain elements of open innovation model.

  1. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials and techni......During the past decades the building industry has had a great focus on energy consumption during the use phase of a building, but currently a more holistic view of the entire lifecycle of a building is starting to emerge. With this follows a greater interest in which building materials...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...

  2. Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study attempted to create the psychological profiles of the personality of athletes practising individual and team disciplines, according to the type of pressure exerted on the opponent in a competitive situation. The selected criterion for division into the types of pressure exerted on the opponent was physical contact with ...

  3. Whitebark pine diameter growth response to removal of competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Kathy L. Gray; Laura J. Dickinson

    2007-01-01

    Silvicultural cutting treatments may be needed to restore whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests, but little is known of the response of this species to removal of competition through prescribed burning or silvicultural cuttings. We analyzed stem cross-sections from 48 whitebark pine trees in Montana around which most of the competing vegetation...

  4. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  5. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Anna; Morgan, Craig; Sloan, Claire; Howard, Louise

    2010-12-02

    It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  6. Barriers to medication error reporting among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Dana N; Retrosi, Tina; Ostrowski, Gary

    2018-03-01

    The study purpose was to report medication error reporting barriers among hospital nurses, and to determine validity and reliability of an existing medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Hospital medication errors typically occur between ordering of a medication to its receipt by the patient with subsequent staff monitoring. To decrease medication errors, factors surrounding medication errors must be understood; this requires reporting by employees. Under-reporting can compromise patient safety by disabling improvement efforts. This 2017 descriptive study was part of a larger workforce engagement study at a faith-based Magnet ® -accredited community hospital in California (United States). Registered nurses (~1,000) were invited to participate in the online survey via email. Reported here are sample demographics (n = 357) and responses to the 20-item medication error reporting barriers questionnaire. Using factor analysis, four factors that accounted for 67.5% of the variance were extracted. These factors (subscales) were labelled Fear, Cultural Barriers, Lack of Knowledge/Feedback and Practical/Utility Barriers; each demonstrated excellent internal consistency. The medication error reporting barriers questionnaire, originally developed in long-term care, demonstrated good validity and excellent reliability among hospital nurses. Substantial proportions of American hospital nurses (11%-48%) considered specific factors as likely reporting barriers. Average scores on most barrier items were categorised "somewhat unlikely." The highest six included two barriers concerning the time-consuming nature of medication error reporting and four related to nurses' fear of repercussions. Hospitals need to determine the presence of perceived barriers among nurses using questionnaires such as the medication error reporting barriers and work to encourage better reporting. Barriers to medication error reporting make it less likely that nurses will report medication

  7. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice

  8. Molecular markers to study competition and diversity of Rhizobium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed to the development of molecular identification and detection techniques for studying the ecology of Rhizobium, a nitrogen- fixing bacterium of agricultural importance. Competition of inoculant strains with indigenous

  9. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crago, Christine L.; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO 2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  10. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crago, Christine L. [Energy Biosciences Institute, 1115 IGB Bldg., 1206 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Khanna, Madhu [Department of Agricultural and Consumer Economics, 301A Mumford Hall, 1301 W Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL (United States); Barton, Jason [Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, 2357 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Giuliani, Eduardo [Venture Partners do Brasil, Rua Iguatemi 354 82, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Weber [Av. Padua Dias 11 - CP 9, Forest Sciences Departament - ESALQ, University of Sao Paulo, 13148-900, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO{sub 2} is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  11. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  12. KEY LINES TO IMPROVE COMPETITIVENESS OF SMALL INNOVATIVE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Reshetov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the importance of small innovative businesses in the modern global economy. The article also deals with the key lines to improve their competitiveness, and the author makes the conclusion how spread and promising the strategies are in Russia.

  13. Relaxing Competition through Speculation : Committing to a Negative Supply Slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, P.; Willems, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate how suppliers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, suppliers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete with supply functions. In equilibrium firms sell forward contracts and buy

  14. Relaxing competition through speculation : Committing to a negative supply slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, Par; Willems, Bert

    We demonstrate how commodity producers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, producers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete in supply functions. In equilibrium, producers sell forward contracts and

  15. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-03

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. British Veterinary Association.

  16. 76 FR 5058 - Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... [CBP Dec 11-05] RIN 1651-AA86 Airports of Entry or Departure for Flights to and From Cuba AGENCY: U.S... (DHS) regulations, direct flights between the United States and Cuba must arrive at or depart from one... Border Protection (CBP) to process authorized flights between the United States and Cuba. These...

  17. An Application of Fuzzy Theory to Technical Competency Analysis for the Entry-Level Electronic Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Te; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop the electronic technical competencies of duty and task analysis by using a revised DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) method, a questionnaire survey, and a fuzzy synthesis operation. The revised DACUM process relied on inviting electronics trade professionals to analyze electronic technology for entry-level…

  18. Pathways to Performance: An Examination of Entry Pathway and First-Year University Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Mark R.; O'Brien-Malone, Angela

    2018-01-01

    Although diversity at universities has increased dramatically over the past 150 years, many groups are still under-represented relative to their proportion in the general population. Initiatives to improve diversity have included the increased use of entry pathways other than direct admission from secondary school. As admissions via these…

  19. An Exploratory Study to Identify Competencies for Entry-Level Residence Life Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies important for success in entry-level residence life positions. The literature suggests that student affairs professionals must ascertain which skills require further development in order to identify professional development activities that will increase proficiency and improve overall…

  20. 75 FR 43997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection and Permit AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning the: Transportation Entry and Manifest of Goods Subject to CBP Inspection... of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and maintenance costs). The comments...

  1. Assessing the Readability of College Textbooks in Public Speaking: Attending to Entry Level Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David E.

    2011-01-01

    More research is needed that examines textbooks intended for the entry level college classroom. This study offers valuable information to academics that adopt a public speaking textbook for instruction as well as objective feedback to the collective authors. Readability levels of 22 nationally published textbooks, based on McGlaughlin's (1969)…

  2. Improved anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement

    CERN Document Server

    Capatina, O; Foreste, A; Parma, V; Renaglia, T; Quesnel, J

    2009-01-01

    As presented in the previous speech, the incident in sector 3-4 of the LHC caused a high pressure build-up inside the cryostat insulation vacuum resulting in high longitudinal forces acting on the insulation vacuum barriers. This resulted in braking floor and floor fixations of the SSS with vacuum barrier. The strategy of improving anchoring of SSS with vacuum barrier to avoid displacement is presented and discussed.

  3. Scrutinizing the Barriers to Organizational Change : Analyzing the Soft Barriers to Change from an External Change Agent Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Josefin; Glimskog, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    About 50-70 % of all change initiatives fail and one reason for this is soft barriers, which mainly depend on people. These barriers are challenging to manage because individuals react to change in different ways. Due to these difficulties, companies look for help from consultants, who are perceived to have wide knowledge about change. Hence, the authors have studied the change process and the soft barriers from an external change agent perspective by interviewing nine experienced consultants...

  4. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  5. Barriers and facilitators to antiretroviral medication adherence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medication adherence is a complex behaviour with multiple determinants. Understanding the barriers and facilitators of adherence is invaluable for programme improvement, which assists the foundation of adherence intervention strategies. A qualitative study was conducted in six selected hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2008, ...

  6. Physical Environmental Barriers to School Attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    attendance among children with disabilities and subsequently the overall inclusive education. Key words: Parents/caregivers, children with disabilities, barriers. Introduction. The prevalence of disability increases as war, conflict, and poverty increase. However, the needs of chil- dren with disabilities in developing countries ...

  7. Barriers to alcohol and other drug treatment use among Black African and Coloured South Africans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are racial disparities in the use of alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment services in South Africa but little is known about the factors contributing to these disparities. This study aimed to redress this gap through identifying differences in barriers to AOD treatment use among Black African and Coloured persons from Cape Town, South Africa. The Behavioral Model of Health Services Utilization was used as an analytic framework. Methods A case-control design was used to compare 434 individuals with AOD problems who had accessed treatment with 555 controls who had not accessed treatment on a range of variables. Logistic regression procedures were employed to examine the unique profile of variables associated with treatment utilization for Black African and Coloured participants. Results After controlling for the influence of treatment need and predisposing factors on treatment use, several barriers to treatment were identified. Greater awareness of treatment options and fewer geographic access and affordability barriers were strongly associated with an increased likelihood of AOD treatment use for both race groups. However, Black African persons were more vulnerable to the effects of awareness and geographic access barriers on treatment use. Stigma consciousness was only associated with AOD treatment utilization for Coloured participants. Conclusion Differences in barriers to AOD treatment use were found among Black African and Coloured South Africans. Targeted interventions that address the unique profile of barriers experienced by each race group are needed to improve AOD treatment use by these underserved groups. Several strategies for improving the likelihood of treatment entry are suggested. PMID:23683119

  8. Entry and release of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus are restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J. W.; Bekker, C. P.; Voorhout, W. F.; Strous, G. J.; van der Ende, A.; Rottier, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) infects the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in a high mortality rate in piglets. This study shows the interaction of TGEV with a porcine epithelial cell line. To determine the site of viral entry, LLC-PK1 cells were

  9. 75 FR 82200 - Expansion of Global Entry Pilot to Mexican Nationals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Francisco, California (SFO); Orlando International Airport, Orlando, Florida (MCO); Detroit Metropolitan...-Orlando International Airport, Sanford, Florida (SSB); Seattle-Tacoma International Airport-SEATAC... Entry phase expected to offer expedited travel into the United States for Mexican nationals who meet CBP...

  10. Further evidence in favor of prior entry from endogenous attention to a location in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, Ralph S; d'Entremont, Ghislain; Klein, Raymond M

    2017-05-01

    Titchener's (1908) law of prior entry states that "the object of attention comes to consciousness more quickly than the objects which we are not attending to," or otherwise, that attended stimuli are perceived earlier than unattended stimuli. Shore, Spence, and Klein (Psychological Science, 12, 205-212. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00337 , 2001) showed that endogenous visuospatial orienting does in fact elicit prior-entry effects, albeit to a smaller degree than does exogenous visuospatial orienting. In disagreement with this finding, Schneider and Bavelier (Cognitive Psychology, 47, 333-366. doi: 10.1016/S0010-0285(03)00035-5 , 2003) found no effect of their instruction to attend. They concluded that nonattentional effects could masquerade as prior entry, which could account for findings such as those in Shore et al.'s endogenous condition. We investigated this empirical and theoretical discord by replicating the temporal-order judgment task used by Shore, Spence, and Klein, while manipulating and measuring endogenous orienting by way of an orthogonal color probe task. We showed evidence of prior entry as a consequence of endogenous orienting, supporting the conclusions of Shore, Spence, and Klein.

  11. Barriers to development of the innovation potential in the small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Tabas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a common fact, that innovations are the necessary prerequisite of economic development. With regard to the gradual globalization of the world economy, it is obvious that the strategic objectives of every country are directed to own economic wealth which is lead especially by the small and medium-sized enterprises. Due to the fact that these business entities are creating the most of economic growth of every country, the necessity of research, support and development of their innovation potential is obvious. The last and also the least that one could starve for is the building up the barriers to innovativeness of domestic companies, and to decrease competitiveness of the country.In the paper, the authors are focused on the determination of barriers to innovation potential of small and medium-sized enterprises. For this reason, the secondary research of recent studies on innovation barriers has been elaborated. Subsequently, the primary research has been realized on the statistical sample of 173 SMEs. Based on the data analyses, the authors have proved four statistical interactions between innovation potential and factors which stand as barriers to innovation potential development. This paper is based on the confrontation of outcomes of primary research with the secondary research on world-wide perceived barriers to innovations. Data obtained from the primary research had mostly the qualitative and categorical character. Due to this fact, especially Chi-square Test, normalized Pearson coefficient of contingence and Chuprov’s coefficient have been applied.

  12. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Healthy Eating and School Lunch Meals among Adolescents: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Sloane, David C; Illum, Jacqueline; Farris, Tahirah; Lewis, LaVonna B

    2017-09-01

    We explored how perceived barriers and facilitators influence healthy eating and investigated the acceptability of changes to school lunch meals among adolescents after implementation of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010. We conducted 8 focus groups with adolescents (N = 64) at 3 South Los Angeles high schools. Data collection instruments included a semi-structured guide and questionnaire. Two researchers independently coded transcripts. Most participants believed fruits and vegetables were available in their community and reported high relative cost, poor quality, and lack of motivation as barriers to consumption. Many said school meals were an important source of healthy food and were aware of recent changes to the school lunch program. A primary facilitator to eating school lunches was access to fresh food items (eg, a salad bar). Perceived barriers included long cafeteria lines, time constraints, lack of variety, and limited quantities of preferred items. Adolescents viewed off-campus food establishments near the school as competition to school meals. Our findings suggest the need to measure perceived and actual barriers to healthy eating among adolescents and to examine the effect of these barriers on dietary behavior. We provide programmatic and policy recommendations.

  13. Cooperation for competition : linking Ethiopian farmers to markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, rural smallholders have formed various forms of associations to confront access-barriers to the market. It is estimated that 250 million farmers participate in agricultural cooperatives in developing countries. Agricultural cooperatives are considered to be a fundamental pillar

  14. Shape Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) Updates to Techport Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa; Bertagne, Christopher; Hartl, Darren; Witcomb, John; Cognata, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The Shape-Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) project builds off the FY16 research effort that developed a flexible composite radiator panel and demonstrated its ability to actuate from SMA's attached to it. The proposed FY17 Shape-Morphing Adaptive Radiator Technology (SMART) project's goal is to 1) develop a practical radiator design with shape memory alloys (SMAs) bonded to the radiator's panel, and 2) build a multi-panel radiator prototype for subsequent system level thermal vacuum tests. The morphing radiator employs SMA materials to passively change its shape to adapt its rate of heat rejection to vehicle requirements. Conceptually, the radiator panel has a naturally closed position (like a cylinder) in a cold environment. Whenever the radiator's temperature gradually rises, SMA's affixed to the face sheet will pull the face sheet open a commensurate amount - increasing the radiators view to space and causing it to reject more heat. In a vehicle, the radiator's variable heat rejection capabilities would reduce the number of additional heat rejection devices in a vehicle's thermal control system. This technology aims to help achieve the required maximum to minimum heat rejection ratio required for manned space vehicles to adopt a lighter, simpler, single loop thermal control architecture (ATCS). Single loop architectures are viewed as an attractive means to reduce mass and complexity over traditional dual-loop solutions. However, fluids generally considered safe enough to flow within crewed cabins (e.g. propylene glycol-water mixtures) have much higher freezing points and viscosities than those used in the external sides of dual loop ATCSs (e.g. Ammonia and HFE7000).

  15. Computer-based physician order entry: the state of the art.

    OpenAIRE

    Sittig, D F; Stead, W W

    1994-01-01

    Direct computer-based physician order entry has been the subject of debate for over 20 years. Many sites have implemented systems successfully. Others have failed outright or flirted with disaster, incurring substantial delays, cost overruns, and threatened work actions. The rationale for physician order entry includes process improvement, support of cost-conscious decision making, clinical decision support, and optimization of physicians' time. Barriers to physician order entry result from t...

  16. Midwives unable to overcome language barriers in prenatal care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Fransen (Mirjam); H.I.J. Wildschut (Hajo); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The present study aims to explore to what extent midwives experience barriers in providing information about prenatal screening for Down syndrome to women from diverse ethnic backgrounds, and to assess their competences to overcome these barriers. Methods: Midwives from 24

  17. 'No entry', an invitation to intrude, or both? Reflections on a group of anorexic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian M

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes the twice-weekly psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a young woman who had undergone major bowel surgery in her early 20s, with no clear medical indication for the surgery. Whilst the concept of 'No Entry' described by Williams (, b) aptly describes many features of more 'typical' anorexic patients, this paper describes a particular group of anorexic patients, referred by their physicians for multiple medical procedures; and proposes there is a group of anorexic patients, repeatedly referred for medical investigations, into whom particular types of entries occur. These are entries into the body 'legitimized' as medical, with a trajectory towards multiple procedures, examinations and surgical operations. Other entries (outside the medical setting) may occur in a state of altered consciousness, under the influence of alcohol or drugs, such that any wish for intrusion is disowned and denied. In both sets of events, intrusion is both invited, and consciously denied. The case example illuminates some of these features, and aspects of the countertransference are also described. Attention is drawn to relevant research focusing on surgical intrusion. Finally, there is an exploration as to how such patients may invite intrusions into the body through surgery and medical procedures. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  18. Polysemy and Homonymy: Challenges Relating to Lexical Entries in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article outlines the challenges relating to the lemmatization of the lexical items which are either polysemous or homonymous, as experienced during the compilation of the Sesotho sa Leboa–English Bilingual Dictionary. These problems can be ascribed to a lack of objectivity result-ing from an inadequate knowledge ...

  19. The Japanese Experience of the NameExoWorlds Competition: Translating Official Information into Japanese to Enable Domestic Groups to Participate in a Global Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda-Sato, K.; Iizuka, R.; Yamaoka, H.; Handa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Translation of information from English is an essential step toward ensuring the involvement of non-English speakers in global events. The NameExoWorlds competition, led by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), was held from 9 July 2014 to 15 December 2015. It was a unique event that invited the public to name celestial bodies. In Japan, language acts as a significant barrier for amateur astronomers and school students to participate in global events hosted in English. To address this concern, we established a domestic working group to set up a Japanese website and provided a translation of the IAU's official site for the NameExoWorlds competition. We also developed additional original information in Japanese when needed and sent announcements to a mailing lists of astronomy societies in Japan. As a result, 28% of the registered groups and 47% of proposals for names were from Japan, making Japan the most active country for these stages of the competition. After the competition had ended, we carried out a survey in the Japanese astronomy community and received 124 responses. We found that most of the Japanese participants referred to our official Japanese website in order to overcome the language barrier and participate in the competition. This article explores our work of translating the competition information into Japanese and our evaluation of the impact of this action on the uptake by Japanese astronomy enthusiasts.

  20. Entry at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  1. The entry to Kolarac foundation: Cultural activity and music audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foundation of Ilija Milosavljević Kolarac (also known as Kolarac Foundation; in Serbian: Kolarčeva zadužbina was established simultaneously with the development of the most important modern cultural institutions in Serbia in the 19th century. The quality and diversity of the program, the ability to recognize important topics in the current time, as well as preservation of the old and encouragement of new ideas in almost all domains of art and science have contributed to its unquestionable reputation throughout the region. However, there have been no significant academic attempts to approach its work analytically and, in particular, its audience. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the work of Kolarac Foundation by presenting the origin and history of the institution, followed by an analysis of the program of all its activities in the first ten seasons of the new millennium. The central part of the paper is an analysis of its cultural activity in the given period. Finally, by using empirical data, the music audence of Great Hall (Velika Dvorana of Kolarac Foundation is profiled through its basic socio-demographic characteristics and music practices. The music audience mainly consisted of women, highly educated professionals with a high material standard. The share of the oldest and those from 21 to 30 years old is the highest and, at the same time, equal. This audience is authentically fond of music, with no exceptions at all. Its members listen to music on everyday basis, and they were attending concerts in the year before the investigation. They find music to be an inevitable part of their lives, and cannot imagine emotional expression or making friendships without it. Finally, they sincerely like coming to Kolarac Foundation since they find it to be a place that has all the positive treats of a good cultural institution.

  2. Essays on Currency Competition, Institutional Restrictions and Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Arghya

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays on currency competition, institutional restrictions and exchange rates. When faced with currency competition, a country's government has two tools at its disposal: reduce the level of inflation or place institutional barriers to the use of foreign currency. In the first chapter, I propose a two-country, two-currency New Monetarist model to study currency competition. I model institutional barriers as a `tax' on the real value of foreign currency hol...

  3. Optimization of Observation Strategy to Improve Re-entry Prediction of Objects in HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasotto, M.; Di Mauro, G.; Massari, M.; Di Lizia, P.; Armellin, R.; Funke, Q.; Flohrer, T.

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade the number of space debris moving on high elliptical orbit (HEO) has grown fast. Many of these resident space objects (RSO) consist of medium and large spent upper stages of launch vehicles, whose atmosphere re-entry might violate on-ground casualty risk constraints. Increasing the accuracy of re-entry predictions for this class of RSO is therefore a key issue to limit the hazards on the Earth assets. Traditional computational methods are mainly based on the exploitation of Two Line Elements (TLEs), provided by the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and currently the only public data source available for these kind of analyses. TLE data however, are characterized by low accuracies, and in general come without any uncertainty information, thus limiting the achievable precision of the re-entry estimates. Better results on the other hand, can be obtained through the exploitation of observational data provided by one or more Earth sensors. Despite the benefits, this approach introduces a whole new set of complexities, mainly related with the design of proper observation campaigns. This paper presents a method based on evolutionary algorithms, for the optimization of observation strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through dedicated examples, in which re-entry predictions, attainable with existing and ideal sensor architectures, are compared with corresponding results derived from TLE data.

  4. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to determine if the barriers are consistent throughout the continent. .... people, were partly attributable to the cultural.

  5. 3. barriers to prompt malaria treatment among under five children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    strategy need to be established. Therefore, this study aimed at determining barriers to prompt malaria treatment among this vulnerable age group in Mpika district. Objective: To determine the barriers to prompt malaria treatment among children under five years of age with malaria in Mpika district. Study design: This was an ...

  6. Barriers to sports and recreation participation in three communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A questionnaire was used to assess barriers to sports and recreation participation among men and women of the three communities in five barrier categories: aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, awareness of facilities and facility constraints. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. T-test was used to ...

  7. HAPPY Team Entry to NIST OpenSAD Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Tomi; Sholokhov, Alexey; Khoury, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Speech activity detection (SAD), the task of locating speech segments from a given recording, remains challenging under acoustically degraded conditions. In 2015, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) coordinated OpenSAD bench-mark. We summarize “HAPPY” team effort to Open- SAD...

  8. Sodium Hydrogen Exchangers Contribute to Arenavirus Cell Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ngo, Nhi; de la Torre, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose a great public health concern in the regions in which they are endemic. Moreover, evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. The limited existing armamentarium to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses underscores the importance of developing novel antiarenaviral dr...

  9. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  10. Electrochemical Determination of Hydrogen Entry to HSLA Steel during Pickling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Aromaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pickling with hydrochloric acid is a standard method to clean steel surfaces before hot-dip galvanizing. When normal low strength steels are pickled, hydrogen formed in pickling reactions does not have any significant harmful effect on the mechanical properties of steel. However, in pickling of steels with higher strength, the penetration of hydrogen into the steel may cause severe damages. The effect of pickling of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA steels was investigated using a cell construction based on the Devanathan-Stachurski method with modified anodic surface treatment and hydrogen production using acid. The penetration and the permeability of hydrogen were measured using an electrochemical cell with hydrochloric acid on the one side of the steel sample and a solution of NaOH on the other side. No protective coating, for example, palladium on the anodic side of the sample, is needed. The penetration rate of hydrogen into the steel and exit rate from the steel were lower for higher strength steel.

  11. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  12. Socioeconomic status and barriers to the use of free antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to describe the barriers to accessibility and the coping strategies employed to overcome these barriers among users of free ART services overall and by socioeconomic status (SES). Data were collected from 240 people receiving ART at one urban and one peri-urban health facility in Enugu State, ...

  13. Student Athletes' Perceived Barriers to and Preferences for Seeking Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Renee L.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes of intercollegiate student athletes regarding their use of counseling services. The authors assessed student athletes' perceived barriers to seeking counseling services and their preferred characteristics of a helping professional. Several barriers to counseling were identified. Results…

  14. Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: Case studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal barriers to antiretroviral therapy adherence: Case studies from a rural Uganda prospective clinical cohort. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2013) > ... should target specific personal barriers to ART adherence like: lack of family support, health and sexual life concerns, desire to have children and family instability.

  15. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  16. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Barkatullah, N.

    2011-01-01

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  17. Barriers to climate change adaptation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kabat, P.

    2011-01-01

    Review of recent literature on adaptation to climate change and general literature on policy processes shows that there are a large number of barriers that hamper the development and implementation of climate change adaptation strategies. To reduce and manage the number of barriers and combine both

  18. The Gendered International School: Barriers to Women Managers' Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Ruth Elizabeth; Whitehead, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers women identify to their promotion in international schools and also the ways in which women can overcome these barriers. Design/methodology/approach: The field of enquiry is international schools, with the study drawing on qualitative research. The researchers interviewed 11 women from…

  19. Perceived barriers to physical activity among Nigerian stroke survivors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four most reported common barriers among stroke survivors were access to exercise facilities (95.0 %), being embarrassed to exercise (94.2%), economic cost demands of exercise (94.2 %) and notion that people in exercise clothes look funny (94.2%) respectively. There were no significant differences found in barriers ...

  20. Perceived Barriers To Sport And Recreation Participation In Botswana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine perceived barriers to sport and recreation participation in Botswana the modified Crawford, Jackson and Godbey\\'s (1991) constraint assessment questionnaire which focused on five barrier categories, i.e. aptitude, socio-economic, socio-cultural, facility-awareness and facility constraint, was used.

  1. Maternal perception of barriers to utilization of prenatal ultrasound in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal ultrasound has in the past one decade gained acceptance as a standard tool for obstetric management in North-Central Nigeria but it is however faced with barriers hindering its utilization in prenatal care. The objective of this study was to assess the perception of pregnant women about the barriers to utilization of ...

  2. On the nature of barriers to climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable barriers can emerge in developing and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. Understanding the nature of barriers to adaptation is important so as to find strategic ways of dealing with them. However, our current understanding is limited and highly fragmented across the

  3. Non-statutory barriers and incentives to stakeholder participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-30

    Oct 30, 2009 ... ing a 'polluter pay' system, can increase the costs of polluting and address this barrier. Resistance to organisational change is another powerful barrier preventing participation on the part of industry. To undertake measures such as pollution prevention, a company must re-envision all its processes (Lober, ...

  4. Barriers for administering primary health care services to battered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Violence against women is an important public-health problem that draws attention of a wide spectrum of clinicians. However, multiple barriers undermine the efforts of primary health care workers to properly manage and deal with battered women. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reveal barriers ...

  5. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win.

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic Palomino and Luca Rigotti.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incentiv...

  6. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...

  7. Thermal barrier coating resistant to sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Ramesh; Seth, Brij B.

    2004-06-29

    A device (10) is made, having a ceramic thermal barrier coating layer (16) characterized by a microstructure having gaps (18) with a sintering inhibiting material (22) disposed on the columns (20) within the gaps (18). The sintering resistant material (22) is stable over the range of operating temperatures of the device (10), is not soluble with the underlying ceramic layer (16) and is applied by a process that is not an electron beam physical vapor deposition process.

  8. Metalearning to support competitive electricity market players' strategic bidding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Sousa, Tiago M.; Morais, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    Electricity markets are becoming more competitive, to some extent due to the increasing number of players that have moved from other sectors to the power industry. This is essentially resulting from incentives provided to distributed generation. Relevant changes in this domain are still occurring...... a dynamic artificial neural network to create its own output, taking advantage on several learning algorithms already implemented in ALBidS (Adaptive Learning strategic Bidding System). The proposed metalearner considers different weights for each strategy, based on their individual performance....... The metalearner's performance is analysed in scenarios based on real electricity markets data using MASCEM (Multi-Agent Simulator for Competitive Electricity Markets). Results show that the proposed metalearner is able to provide higher profits to market players when compared to other current methodologies...

  9. [To know, understand and combating medication errors related to computerized physician order entry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vialle, V; Tiphine, T; Poirier, Y; Raingeard, E; Feldman, D; Freville, J-C

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify medication errors related to computerized physician order entry in our hospital. At the end of this 1-year study (2008 to 2009), 378 beds were computerized by a business software. Medication errors were identified from notifications sent to the publisher of the software, feedback of health professionals and the analysis of Pharmacists' interventions formulate following prescription errors due to computerization. They were qualified according to the medication error's French dictionary of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy. Thirty-five categories of medication errors were found. Most of them appear during prescription. Dosage and concentration errors, dose errors, omission errors and drug errors are the most frequent. Three main causes were found: human factor, closely related to the software settings and the quality of user training; communication problems, related to the ergonomics; conception problems, related to intuitiveness and intricacy of the software. These results confirm the existence of medication errors induced by computerized physician order entry systems. They highlight the need to involve initial and ongoing training of users, relevance and scalability of the setup and use of mature and certified software to minimized them. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Possible barriers to the advancement of women to leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a previous article we discussed, in detail, the problem of this study, its aim, methods used, its limitations, and the first five of twelve barriers that were perceived to be obstacles to the advancement of women to leadership positions in the education profession, in particular, and the workplace, in general. To avoid repetition ...

  11. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  12. Site-selective solid-phase synthesis of a CCR5 sulfopeptide library to interrogate HIV binding and entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuyu; Malins, Lara R; Roche, Michael; Sterjovski, Jasminka; Duncan, Renee; Garcia, Mary L; Barnes, Nadine C; Anderson, David A; Stone, Martin J; Gorry, Paul R; Payne, Richard J

    2014-09-19

    Tyrosine (Tyr) sulfation is a common post-translational modification that is implicated in a variety of important biological processes, including the fusion and entry of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). A number of sulfated Tyr (sTyr) residues on the N-terminus of the CCR5 chemokine receptor are involved in a crucial binding interaction with the gp120 HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Despite the established importance of these sTyr residues, the exact structural and functional role of this post-translational modification in HIV-1 infection is not fully understood. Detailed biological studies are hindered in part by the difficulty in accessing homogeneous sulfopeptides and sulfoproteins through biological expression and established synthetic techniques. Herein we describe an efficient approach to the synthesis of sulfopeptides bearing discrete sulfation patterns through the divergent, site-selective incorporation of sTyr residues on solid support. By employing three orthogonally protected Tyr building blocks and a solid-phase sulfation protocol, we demonstrate the synthesis of a library of target N-terminal CCR5(2-22) sulfoforms bearing discrete and differential sulfation at Tyr10, Tyr14, and Tyr15, from a single resin-bound intermediate. We demonstrate the importance of distinct sites of Tyr sulfation in binding gp120 through a competitive binding assay between the synthetic CCR5 sulfopeptides and an anti-gp120 monoclonal antibody. These studies revealed a critical role of sulfation at Tyr14 for binding and a possible additional role for sulfation at Tyr10. N-terminal CCR5 variants bearing a sTyr residue at position 14 were also found to complement viral entry into cells expressing an N-terminally truncated CCR5 receptor.

  13. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  14. Barriers and facilitators to patients\\' adherence to antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients\\' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective medical treatment of HIV/AIDS. We conducted a qualitative interview study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia in 2006. The aim of the study was to explore patients\\' and health care professionals\\' perceived barriers and facilitators to patients\\' ...

  15. Proposing policy mechanisms to reduce barriers to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This poses the question as to what developing countries such as Namibia can do to ensure energy supply, especially by focusing on readily available resources such as wind and the sun. The study firstly identifies the non-technical barriers to the implementation of renewable energy solutions by using a qualitative ...

  16. Barriers to Communication During Interviews for Accounting Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Accounting students (n=237) perceived closed-mindedness and one-sided communication as the most serious barriers to communication in campus interviews; they viewed barriers as less serious than did business students. Recruiters were less concerned than students with prejudice/bias and lack of feedback and more with lack of credibility or interest.…

  17. Overcoming barriers to hypertension control in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odedosu, Taiye; Schoenthaler, Antoinette; Vieira, Dorice L.; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2012-01-01

    Barriers to blood pressure control exist at the patient, physician, and system levels. We review the current evidence for interventions that target patient- and physician-related barriers, such as patient education, home blood pressure monitoring, and computerized decision-support systems for

  18. Barriers to Skilled Birth Attendance: A Survey among Mothers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to Skilled Birth Attendance: A Survey among Mothers in Rural Gambia. ... The majority of the women (83%) stated that they preferred having a health worker attending their childbirth. More than seventy ... Keywords: Childbirth, maternal health services, access, barriers, birth preparedness, complication readiness ...

  19. Barriers to Participation in Vocational Orientation Programmes among Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Dorien; De Donder, Liesbeth; Dury, Sarah; Verté, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the barriers to prisoners' participation in vocational orientation programmes, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N = 468) provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational…

  20. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simin Jahani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  1. Big Data, IPRs & Competition Law in the Pharma & Life Sciences- future issues in a rapidly evolving field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    and European Commission took the position that the need for a company to collect vast amounts of financial data to effectively compete with the merged firm in the market for data terminals created a significant barrier to entry. To address this concern, both the U.S. and the European authorities approved...... competitors is something, especially in Europe, that is likely to attract the attention of the competition authorities. In the Cegedim investigation the French Competition Authority examined whether or not market leader Cegedim was entitled to refuse to sell access to its widely-used CRM medical database...... to pharmaceutical laboratories using Euris software while selling to laboratories using Cegedim’s own and other competing CRM management software. Following the decision from the French Authority finding that the refusal was unjustified it is clear that refusal to sell may in certain circumstances give rise...

  2. Foreign competition and banking industry dynamics: an application to Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Corbae, Dean; D'Erasmo, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The authors develop a simple general equilibrium framework to study the effects of global competition on banking industry dynamics and welfare. They apply the framework to the Mexican banking industry, which underwent a major structural change in the 1990s as a consequence of both government policy and external shocks. Given the high concentration in the Mexican banking industry, domestic and foreign banks act strategically in the authors’ framework. After calibrating the model to Mexican dat...

  3. SCORCHED EARTH: THE USE OF RESTRICTIVE COVENANTS TO STIFLE COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Ziff; Ken Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Restrictive covenants running with freehold land are sometimes used as a means of impeding commercial competition. For example, when a firm elects to relocate a retail operation and sell the existing site, a covenant may be placed on the title to that site designed to prohibit a competing retail business from operating on those lands. It is known, for example, that the multinational grocery chain Safeway has adopted this practice extensively in Edmonton. Likewise, the practice is found in oth...

  4. Trends and barriers to lateral gene transfer in prokaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Ovidiu; Dagan, Tal

    2011-10-01

    Gene acquisition by lateral gene transfer (LGT) is an important mechanism for natural variation among prokaryotes. Laboratory experiments show that protein-coding genes can be laterally transferred extremely fast among microbial cells, inherited to most of their descendants, and adapt to a new regulatory regime within a short time. Recent advance in the phylogenetic analysis of microbial genomes using networks approach reveals a substantial impact of LGT during microbial genome evolution. Phylogenomic networks of LGT among prokaryotes reconstructed from completely sequenced genomes uncover barriers to LGT in multiple levels. Here we discuss the kinds of barriers to gene acquisition in nature including physical barriers for gene transfer between cells, genomic barriers for the integration of acquired DNA, and functional barriers for the acquisition of new genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. "Bureaucracy & Beliefs": Assessing the Barriers to Accessing Opioid Substitution Therapy by People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojko, Martha J; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Makarenko, Iuliia; Marcus, Ruthanne; Dvoriak, Sergii; Islam, Zahedul; Altice, Frederick L

    Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine's estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST. Data were transcribed, translated into English and coded. Coded segments related to OST access, entry, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes were analyzed among 41 PWIDs who were eligible for but had never received OST. A number of programmatic and structural barriers were mentioned by participants as barriers to entry to OST, including compulsory drug user registration, waiting lists, and limited number of treatment slots. Participants also voiced strong negative attitudes and beliefs about OST, especially methadone. Their perceptions about methadone's side effects as well as the stigma of being a methadone client were expressed as obstacles to treatment. Despite expressed interest in treatment, Ukrainian OST-naïve PWIDs evade OST for reasons that can be addressed through changes in program-level and governmental policies and social-marketing campaigns. Voiced OST barriers can effectively inform public health and policy directives related to HIV prevention and treatment in Ukraine to improve evidence-based treatment access and availability.

  6. Entry, Descent, and Landing Performance for a Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Vehicle at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Breanna J.; Braden, Ellen M.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Cerimele, Christopher J.; Lu, Ping

    2018-01-01

    In an effort to mature the design of the Mid-Lift-to-Drag ratio Rigid Vehicle (MRV) candidate of the NASA Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) architecture study, end-to-end six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) simulations are needed to ensure a successful entry, descent, and landing (EDL) design. The EMC study is assessing different vehicle and mission architectures to determine which candidate would be best to deliver a 20 metric ton payload to the surface of Mars. Due to the large mass payload and the relatively low atmospheric density of Mars, all candidates of the EMC study propose to use Supersonic Retro-Propulsion (SRP) throughout the descent and landing phase, as opposed to parachutes, in order to decelerate to a subsonic touchdown. This paper presents a 6DOF entry-to-landing performance and controllability study with sensitivities to dispersions, particularly in the powered descent and landing phases.

  7. Barriers to healthcare of homeless residents of three Honolulu shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, Reid R; Manog, Jenny D; Noh, Thomas; Omori, Jill

    2011-10-01

    In Honolulu, health insurance rates amongst the homeless are one of the highest in the nation, yet significant health care needs are still unmet. In a previous model, health care barriers have been divided into four domains: bureaucratic, personal, programmatic, and financial. This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the domains of health care barriers amongst the study's sample of 128 subjects across three Honolulu homeless shelters. Univariate models revealed health care barriers; but only the lack of health insurance was a significant financial barrier to health care in multivariate analyses (Odds ratio: 2.12; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.09-4.16). The identification of barriers should guide how health care programs approach Honolulu's homeless population to better serve their health care needs.

  8. Linguistic and Cultural Barriers to Intercultural Communication in Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltokorpi, Vesa; Clausen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causes and consequences of linguistic and cultural barriers to inter-cultural communication in Nordic subsidiaries in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden) expatriates and 29 Japanese employees show that the main linguistic barriers...... to intercultural communication were lack of a shared language and low motivation to improve foreign-language proficiency. The main cultural barriers were collectivism, and status and power differences. Combined, the consequences of these barriers were extensive reliance on language intermediaries, information...... filtering, in-group/out-group categorization, receiver-centred communication and incongruent supervisor-subordinate expectations. The interviews suggest that linguistic and cultural barriers have a differentiated impact on intercultural communication....

  9. Reliability risks during the transition to competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) is a U.S. association representing industrial consumers of electricity, and is a long-standing advocate of competition in the electric power industry. However, because a reliable grid is necessary to support competitive wholesale markets, ELCON believes that the transmission system is an essential facility that must remain regulated. The initiatives discussed in this white paper represent significant steps that the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the industry have taken to improve reliability in a competitive and restructured electric industry. Strategic manoeuvres of incumbent utilities to maintain market share were evaluated, as well as discrimination against potential competitors. It was suggested that, occasionally, indecisive federal policies have been taken advantage of by utilities. The unintended consequences of state restructuring policies that allow utilities to over-earn their revenue requirements were reviewed. NERC reliability standards will remain unenforceable until a new Electricity Reliability Organization has been certified. Flawed market designs and inadequate market power mitigation, as well as the financial distress of merchant generators, pose considerable risks. It was suggested that these risks could trigger transmission loading relief incidents, local outages or widespread outages. In the absence of mandatory reliability standards with penalties, and complementary market rules for mitigating generation and transmission market power, economic incentives will encourage other forms of opportunistic behavior that may be the root cause of other outages. Public concern regarding these risks to grid reliability may result in lost public support for competitive electricity markets. Proposed solutions include the certification of a new Electric Reliability Organization to establish and enforce mandatory reliability standards, and granting the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

  10. 31 CFR 363.22 - Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... TreasuryDirect § 363.22 Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities? (a... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who has the right to conduct online transactions in book-entry securities? 363.22 Section 363.22 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating...

  11. 7 CFR 319.15a - Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. 319.15a Section 319.15a Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Sugarcane § 319.15a Administrative instructions and interpretation relating to entry into Guam of bagasse and related sugarcane products. Bagasse and related...

  12. One-year transitional programme increases knowledge to level sufficient for entry into the fourth year of the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Bouwkamp-Timmer, Tineke; van Scheltinga, Gerard R. Terwisscha; Kuks, Jan B. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To cope with a lack of doctors and in anticipation of the Bachelor-Master structure for Medicine, several Dutch universities offer graduate entry programmes for students with degrees in areas related to Medicine. The graduate entry programme is a four-year programme: after a transition

  13. Vulnerability of positron emission tomography radiotracers to endogenous competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, M.; Huang, Y.

    2001-01-01

    PET and SPECT neuro receptor imaging techniques combined with pharmacological challenges have been introduce to measure acute fluctuations of synaptic dopamine (DA) concentrations in the living human brain. Changes in the in vivo binding of radioligands following manipulation of transmitter levels are generally believed to be driven by binding competition between the radioligand and neurotransmitter. This imaging modality has been very successful in the study of DA transmission at D2 receptors. Yet, the extension of this technique to the study of other neurotransmitter systems has proven difficult. This paper reviews recent evidence suggesting that simple binding competition might not be the only phenomenon regulating transmitter-radioligand interactions in vivo, and examines emerging data indicating that receptor trafficking might also be involved. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying these interactions should facilitate the development of PET and SPECT radiotracers suitable for the reporting of synaptic transmitter levels

  14. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Stigma, disclosure, unemployment, lack of transport, insufficient feeding, disability grants and alternative forms of therapy were identified as major barriers to adherence, whereas inadequate follow-ups and lack of patient confidentiality came under major criticisms from the patients. Conclusion: Interventions to ...

  15. Toward an Extension of Decision Analysis to Competitive Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Utility and Risk Theory with Applications. Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reldel Publishing Co., 247- 262. 50. Neumann, John von and Oskar Morgenstern 110441...order to deal with competition may ease the use of non-von Neumann- Morgenstern utility. This leads to our secondary goal of questioning expected...Neumann and Morgenstern or Pratt, Ralffa, and Schlalfer). Since these alternate rationalities are not as well defined, the solutions based on them

  16. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  17. Gamification in thoracic surgical education: Using competition to fuel performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokadam, Nahush A; Lee, Richard; Vaporciyan, Ara A; Walker, Jennifer D; Cerfolio, Robert J; Hermsen, Joshua L; Baker, Craig J; Mark, Rebecca; Aloia, Lauren; Enter, Dan H; Carpenter, Andrea J; Moon, Marc R; Verrier, Edward D; Fann, James I

    2015-11-01

    In an effort to stimulate residents and trainers to increase their use of simulation training and the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum, a gamification strategy was developed in a friendly but competitive environment. "Top Gun." Low-fidelity simulators distributed annually were used for the technical competition. Baseline and final video assessments were performed, and 5 finalists were invited to compete in a live setting from 2013 to 2015. "Jeopardy." A screening examination was devised to test knowledge contained in the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum. The top 6 2-member teams were invited to compete in a live setting structured around the popular game show Jeopardy. "Top Gun." Over 3 years, there were 43 baseline and 34 final submissions. In all areas of assessment, there was demonstrable improvement. There was increasing evidence of simulation as seen by practice and ritualistic behavior. "Jeopardy." Sixty-eight individuals completed the screening examination, and 30 teams were formed. The largest representation came from the second-year residents in traditional programs. Contestants reported an average in-training examination percentile of 72.9. Finalists reported increased use of the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum by an average of 10 hours per week in preparation. The live competition was friendly, engaging, and spirited. This gamification approach focused on technical and cognitive skills, has been successfully implemented, and has encouraged the use of simulators and the Thoracic Surgery Curriculum. This framework may capitalize on the competitive nature of our trainees and can provide recognition of their achievements. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The ethics of Canadian entry-to-practice pain competencies: how are we doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt-Watson, Judy; Peter, Elizabeth; Clark, A John; Dewar, Anne; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Morley-Forster, Pat; O'Leary, Christine; Raman-Wilms, Lalitha; Unruh, Anita; Webber, Karen; Campbell-Yeo, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    Although unrelieved pain continues to represent a significant problem, prelicensure educational programs tend to include little content related to pain. Standards for professional competence strongly influence curricula and have the potential to ensure that health science students have the knowledge and skill to manage pain in a way that also allows them to meet professional ethical standards. To perform a systematic, comprehensive examination to determine the entry-to-practice competencies related to pain required for Canadian health science and veterinary students, and to examine how the presence and absence of pain competencies relate to key competencies of an ethical nature. Entry-to-practice competency requirements related to pain knowledge, skill and judgment were surveyed from national, provincial and territorial documents for dentistry, medicine, nursing, pharmacy, occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology and veterinary medicine. Dentistry included two and nursing included nine specific pain competencies. No references to competencies related to pain were found in the remaining health science documents. In contrast, the national competency requirements for veterinary medicine, surveyed as a comparison, included nine pain competencies. All documents included competencies pertaining to ethics. The lack of competencies related to pain has implications for advancing skillful and ethical practice. The lack of attention to pain competencies limits the capacity of health care professionals to alleviate suffering, foster autonomy and use resources justly. Influencing professional bodies to increase the number of required entry-to-practice pain competencies may ultimately have the greatest impact on education and practice.

  19. A Quantitative Approach to Measure Tax Competitiveness Between EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos J. Liapis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic purpose of the study is to find a metric-variable of competitiveness for each country's tax regime and to assess the impact of tax regime differentiation across the common market. A country adopting competitive taxation policies manages to attract productive factors, funds and investments from other intra- and inter-countries. The value added tax (VAT, property tax as well as corporate and personal taxes are examined for the twenty seven (27 European Union (EU countries. The methods applied consist of Least Square Dummy variable models and the results from the estimations for each one of the aforementioned taxes are integrated into a new total competitiveness taxation index (TCTI, following weighted hierarchical quantitative approaches. Our findings suggest that significant differences still exist between the countries examined and the application of diverse tax regime systems results in various tax performances. Using the above procedure, we also find that subgroups exist within the (27 EU countries and that EU lacks taxation policies with common rules or restrictions. Following the TCTI methodology proposed by this research, a tool for monitoring EU tax regimes is introduced in order to assist in the EU integration to a common tax regime.

  20. Does it Pay to do Well in Competitions? The case of the Queen Elizabeth Piano Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginsburgh, V.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Pianists who achieve high scores in the Queen Elizabeth musical competition are rewarded by subsequent success.It is not clear whether this is caused by the score itself or because those who have high scores are better pianists anyway. Since the timing and the order of appearance are good

  1. CONCEPTUAL APPROACH OF COMPETITIVENESS AND INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN COMPETITION AND COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana GUTIUM

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to analysis of interdependence and correlation between competition and competitiveness, and competition’s consequences. The author analysed some authors’ visions on competitiveness, and common features between theories of competition and competitiveness. Using the synthetic indicator elaborated by author has been evaluated the competitiveness of domestic goods on the internal and external market. At the end of this article, the author has developed proposals to increase competitiveness.

  2. Trading and risk management during the transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation outlined the risks facing companies active in competitive energy markets. It reviewed and explained various types of risks including physical, market, credit, liquidity, volumetric and operational risks. The management of price risks includes trading and risk management strategies aimed at exploiting the alternatives associated with highly volatile power and fuel markets. The presentation also reviewed financial energy management in terms of the fuel markets and wholesale markets. Approaches to trading were also presented. tabs., figs

  3. Time-to-event data with time-varying biomarkers measured only at study entry, with applications to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Catherine; Betensky, Rebecca A

    2018-03-15

    Relating time-varying biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease to time-to-event using a Cox model is complicated by the fact that Alzheimer's disease biomarkers are sparsely collected, typically only at study entry; this is problematic since Cox regression with time-varying covariates requires observation of the covariate process at all failure times. The analysis might be simplified by using study entry as the time origin and treating the time-varying covariate measured at study entry as a fixed baseline covariate. In this paper, we first derive conditions under which using an incorrect time origin of study entry results in consistent estimation of regression parameters when the time-varying covariate is continuous and fully observed. We then derive conditions under which treating the time-varying covariate as fixed at study entry results in consistent estimation. We provide methods for estimating the regression parameter when a functional form can be assumed for the time-varying biomarker, which is measured only at study entry. We demonstrate our analytical results in a simulation study and apply our methods to data from the Rush Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project and data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Self-reported adverse effects as barriers to adherence to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A survey of patients, who started antiretroviral treatment between July 2004 and August 2005, was conducted by means of a semi-struc-tured ... barriers to optimal adherence included the use of non-prescribed drugs, and the presence of side effects such as insomnia, headaches and abdominal pain; while eating ...

  5. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  6. Entry-to-practice public health nursing competencies: A Delphi method and knowledge translation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Ruth; Chircop, Andrea; Baker, Cynthia; Dietrich Leurer, Marie; Duncan, Susan; Wotton, Donalda

    2018-06-01

    Sustaining and strengthening nurses 'contributions to public and population health in the 21st century depends in part on nursing education. Clearly articulated entry-to-practice competencies will contribute to the capacity of undergraduate nursing education programs to prepare graduates to promote local, national and global population health. The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing created the Public Health Task Force to develop consensus on core, national entry-to-practice competencies in public health nursing for undergraduate nursing students and to support these competencies with corresponding online teaching strategies. Delphi approach. Nurses with public health experience in education and practice, and representatives from other public health professional organizations across Canada. The three-phased competency development included: 1) an environmental scan; 2) an iterative process to draft competencies; and 3) a modified Delphi process to confirm the final competency framework using face to face consultations and a survey. The knowledge translation strategy involved soliciting submissions of teaching strategies for peer-review and subsequent inclusion in an interactive online resource. 242 public health educators and practitioners participated in the consensus consultation. The final document outlined five competency statements with 19 accompanying indicators. A total of 123 teaching strategies were submitted for the online resource, of which 50 were accepted as exemplary teaching strategies. This competency development process can provide guidance for the development of competencies in other countries, thus strengthening public health nursing education globally. The decision to intentionally level the competencies to entry-to-practice, as opposed to an advanced level, enhanced their application to undergraduate nursing education. The development of the additional inventory of teaching strategies created a sustainable innovative resource for public

  7. An exploration of competitiveness and caring in relation to psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Kirsten; Gilbert, Paul; Duarte, Joana

    2012-03-01

    Social mentality theory outlines how specialist systems have evolved to facilitate different types of social behaviour such as caring for offspring, forming alliances, and competing for resources. This research explored how different types of self-experience are linked to the different social mentalities of competitive social ranking (focusing on gaining and defending one's social position/status/rank) in contrast to caring (being helpful to others). Perceived low social rank (with feelings of being inferior and unfavourable social comparison, SC) has been linked to depression, but a caring sense of self has less so. We hypothesized therefore that depression, in both clinical and non-clinical populations, would be primarily linked to competitive and rank focused sense of self rather than a caring sense of self. Students (N = 312) and patients with depression (N = 48) completed self-report scales measuring: self-experience related to competitiveness and caring; social rank; social safeness; and depression, anxiety, and stress. The data suggest that in students, and particularly in patients, competitiveness (and feeling unsuccessful in competing for resources) is strongly associated with depression. Although caring shares a small correlation with depression in students, and with depression, anxiety, and stress in patients, when controlling for the rank variable of submissive behaviour this relationship ceases to be significant. Submissive behaviour was found to be a full mediator between caring and depression. We also found that how safe and comfortable one feels in one's social relationships (social safeness), was a full mediator between competitiveness and depression. So, it is the feeling of being unable to compete where one does not feel secure in one's social environment that is particularly linked to depression. The results of this study suggest that self-experience is complex and multifaceted and is linked to different social roles that are socially

  8. Psychological traits regarding competitiveness are related to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury in high school female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Masahiro; Nakase, Junsuke; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Moriyama, Shigenori; Oda, Takumi; Shima, Yosuke; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between psychological competitive ability and the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries among high school female athletes. A three-year prospective cohort study was conducted using 300 15-year-old high school female athletes with no previous injuries or symptoms in their lower limbs (106 handball players and 194 basketball players). At baseline, their psychological competitive abilities were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire-the Diagnostic Inventory of Psychological Competitive Ability (DIPCA.3). After the baseline examination was performed at high school entry, all players were prospectively followed for 36months to document any subsequent incidence of ACL injury, according to their coaches. An unpaired t-test with Welch's correction was performed to compare the differences in the psychological competitive abilities between the injured and uninjured players. Of the 300 players, 25 (8.3%) experienced a noncontact ACL injury during the three-year observation period. The injured players had significantly higher total DIPCA.3 scores for psychological competitive ability than the uninjured players (169.9±18.8 vs. 159.2±21.6, P=.036). Additionally, the injured players had significantly higher scores than the uninjured players in the following categories: aggressiveness, volition for self-realization, volition for winning, judgment, and cooperation. However, no significant differences were observed in patience, self-control, ability to relax, concentration, confidence, decision, and predictive ability. High psychological competitive ability was associated with the incidence of noncontact ACL injuries in high school female athletes. Level II (prospective cohort study). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans: expert interviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Stefan; Rau, Heinrich; Dors, Simone; Brants, Loni; Börner, Michaela; Mahnke, Manuel; Zimmermann, Peter L; Willmund, Gerd; Ströhle, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    The number of service members of the German armed forces suffering from deployment-related mental health problems is increasing. However, less than 50 % seek professional help, and there is little knowledge about the barriers to treatment-seeking. The article presents data gathered by the Delphi technique combined with focus groups from 55 health service experts regarding the evaluated barriers to treatment-seeking among German veterans. According to the interviewed experts, major contextual barriers to treatment-seeking include: 1) intimidating processes and structures, 2) actual stigmatization and discrimination, and 3) health service deficits. Major individual barriers to treatment were: 4) health beliefs, self-perception and fear of stigmatization, and 5) avoidance behavior related to psychopathology. In addition, there is another both contextual and individual barrier, i.e., 6) information deficits. Individual internal factors like the soldiers' self-perception and their fear of being stigmatized were considered important barriers to treatment-seeking. The experts' opinion about avoidance behavior related to psychopathology and deficits in health services and information coincides with international findings. Compared to research in other countries, actual stigmatization and discrimination were regarded to be an important barrier in itself. According to our findings daunting/intimidating processes and structures like time-consuming and complex expert medical reports rather seem to be a German phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Barriers to accessing radiation therapy in Canada: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillan, Caitlin; Briggs, Kaleigh; Pazos, Alejandro Goytisolo; Maurus, Melanie; Harnett, Nicole; Catton, Pamela; Wiljer, David

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is effective treatment for curing and palliating cancer, yet concern exists that not all Canadians for whom RT is indicated receive it. Many factors may contribute to suboptimal use of RT. A review of recent Canadian literature was undertaken to identify such barriers. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBase databases were used to search keywords relating to barriers to accessing or utilizing RT in Canada. Collected abstracts were reviewed independently. Barriers identified in relevant articles were categorized as relating to the health systems, patient socio-demographic, patient factors, or provider factors contexts and thematic analysis performed for each context. 535 unique abstracts were collected. 75 met inclusion criteria. 46 (61.3%) addressed multiple themes. The most cited barriers to accessing RT when indicated were patient age (n = 26, 34.7%), distance to treatment centre (n = 23, 30.7%), wait times (n = 22, 29.3%), and lack of physician understanding about the use of RT (n = 16, 21.6%). Barriers to RT are reported in many areas. The role of provider factors and the lack of attention to patient fears and mistrust as potential barriers were unexpected findings demanding further attention. Solutions should be sought to overcome identified barriers facilitating more effective cancer care for Canadians

  11. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Daskapan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies which were published in other countries identified certain benefits and barriers to physical activity among young people. But there is no data about the subject pertaining to Turkish adolescents. This study tries to rectify this with a study of Turkish university students. Undergraduate university students (n = 303 were recruited to the study. Current exercise habits and perceived barriers to physical activity were assessed in the sample. Using a Likert Type scale, participants responded an instrument with 12 items representing barriers to physical activity. Mean scores were computed. External barriers were more important than internal barriers. "Lack of time due to busy lesson schedule", "My parents give academic success priority over exercise." and "lack of time due to responsibilities related to the family and social environment" were most cited items for physical activity barriers. There is a need for future research, which will be carried out with larger sample groups to develop national standardized instrument. It will be helpful for accurately identify perceived barriers and then recommend changes to enhance physical activity among young people.

  12. Nested barriers to low-carbon infrastructure investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, J. Ryan; Miller, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Low-carbon, 'green' economic growth is necessary to simultaneously improve human welfare and avoid the worst impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Infrastructure choices underpin both the growth and the carbon intensity of the economy. This Perspective explores the barriers to investing in low-carbon infrastructure and some of the policy levers available to overcome them. The barriers to decarbonizing infrastructure 'nest' within a set of barriers to infrastructure development more generally that cause spending on infrastructure--low-carbon or not--to fall more than 70% short of optimal levels. Developing countries face additional barriers such as currency and political risks that increase the investment gap. Low-carbon alternatives face further barriers, such as commercialization risk and financial and public institutions designed for different investment needs. While the broader barriers to infrastructure investment are discussed in other streams of literature, they are often disregarded in literature on renewable energy diffusion or climate finance, which tends to focus narrowly on the project costs of low- versus high-carbon options. We discuss how to overcome the barriers specific to low-carbon infrastructure within the context of the broader infrastructure gap.

  13. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  14. Sunk costs equal sunk boats? The effect of entry costs in a transboundary sequential fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    that for other fisheries substantial sunk investments are needed. In this paper I investigate the effect of such sunk entry costs in a sequential fisheries. I model the uncertainty as a shock to the stock dependent fishing costs, in a two player game, where one of the players faces sunk entry costs. I find that......, depending on parameters, sunk costs can i) increase the competitive pressure on the fish stock compared to a game where entry is free ii) act as a deterrence mechanism and iii) act as a commitment device. I conclude that entry costs can play a crucial role because they can change the outcome of the game...

  15. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  16. Topical application of entry inhibitors as "virustats" to prevent sexual transmission of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Root Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the continuing march of the AIDS epidemic and little hope for an effective vaccine in the near future, work to develop a topical strategy to prevent HIV infection is increasingly important. This stated, the track record of large scale "microbicide" trials has been disappointing with nonspecific inhibitors either failing to protect women from infection or even increasing HIV acquisition. Newer strategies that target directly the elements needed for viral entry into cells have shown promise in non-human primate models of HIV transmission and as these agents have not yet been broadly introduced in regions of highest HIV prevalence, they are particularly attractive for prophylaxis. We review here the agents that can block HIV cellular entry and that show promise as topical strategies or "virustats" to prevent mucosal transmission of HIV infection

  17. Hydroelastic slamming of flexible wedges: Modeling and experiments from water entry to exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Adel; Zhao, Sam; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2017-03-01

    Fluid-structure interactions during hull slamming are of great interest for the design of aircraft and marine vessels. The main objective of this paper is to establish a semi-analytical model to investigate the entire hydroelastic slamming of a wedge, from the entry to the exit phase. The structural dynamics is described through Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the hydrodynamic loading is estimated using potential flow theory. A Galerkin method is used to obtain a reduced order modal model in closed-form, and a Newmark-type integration scheme is utilized to find an approximate solution. To benchmark the proposed semi-analytical solution, we experimentally investigate fluid-structure interactions through particle image velocimetry (PIV). PIV is used to estimate the velocity field, and the pressure is reconstructed by solving the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations from PIV data. Experimental results confirm that the flow physics and free-surface elevation during water exit are different from water entry. While water entry is characterized by positive values of the pressure field, with respect to the atmospheric pressure, the pressure field during water exit may be less than atmospheric. Experimental observations indicate that the location where the maximum pressure in the fluid is attained moves from the pile-up region to the keel, as the wedge reverses its motion from the entry to the exit stage. Comparing experimental results with semi-analytical findings, we observe that the model is successful in predicting the free-surface elevation and the overall distribution of the hydrodynamic loading on the wedge. These integrated experimental and theoretical analyses of water exit problems are expected to aid in the design of lightweight structures, which experience repeated slamming events during their operation.

  18. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil

    2010-01-01

    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver--flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  19. Ranking Barriers to Green Supply Chain Management Using DIMATEL

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Omidvar; Ahmad Sardari; Nasser Yazdani

    2015-01-01

    Today's organizations in order to achieve and maintain proper position requires the use of a model of supply chain management in order to fulfill the competitive advantage and expectations of customers. Due to the challenging economic, social and environmental organizations in recent decades has threatened, Customer-oriented approach and focus on the demands of the organization's strategy and design basis for competitive advantage in organizations is less. In this regard, green supply chain m...

  20. Sport and Transgender People: A Systematic Review of the Literature Relating to Sport Participation and Competitive Sport Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bethany Alice; Arcelus, Jon; Bouman, Walter Pierre; Haycraft, Emma

    2017-04-01

    Whether transgender people should be able to compete in sport in accordance with their gender identity is a widely contested question within the literature and among sport organisations, fellow competitors and spectators. Owing to concerns surrounding transgender people (especially transgender female individuals) having an athletic advantage, several sport organisations place restrictions on transgender competitors (e.g. must have undergone gender-confirming surgery). In addition, some transgender people who engage in sport, both competitively and for leisure, report discrimination and victimisation. To the authors' knowledge, there has been no systematic review of the literature pertaining to sport participation or competitive sport policies in transgender people. Therefore, this review aimed to address this gap in the literature. Eight research articles and 31 sport policies were reviewed. In relation to sport-related physical activity, this review found the lack of inclusive and comfortable environments to be the primary barrier to participation for transgender people. This review also found transgender people had a mostly negative experience in competitive sports because of the restrictions the sport's policy placed on them. The majority of transgender competitive sport policies that were reviewed were not evidence based. Currently, there is no direct or consistent research suggesting transgender female individuals (or male individuals) have an athletic advantage at any stage of their transition (e.g. cross-sex hormones, gender-confirming surgery) and, therefore, competitive sport policies that place restrictions on transgender people need to be considered and potentially revised.

  1. Barriers to implementing evidence-based practice in a private ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , individual perceptions that underpin clinical decision-making, lack of access to information required for EBP, inadequate sources to access evidence, inability to synthesise the literature available, and resistance to change. Barriers related to ...

  2. An Automated Method to Compute Orbital Re-Entry Trajectories with Heating Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Curtis; Dukeman, Greg; Hanson, John; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Determining how to properly manipulate the controls of a re-entering re-usable launch vehicle (RLV) so that it is able to safely return to Earth and land involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). This problem, which can be quite difficult, is traditionally solved on the ground prior to flight. If necessary, a nearly unlimited amount of time is available to find the "best" solution using a variety of trajectory design and optimization tools. The role of entry guidance during flight is to follow the pre-determined reference solution while correcting for any errors encountered along the way. This guidance method is both highly reliable and very efficient in terms of onboard computer resources. There is a growing interest in a style of entry guidance that places the responsibility of solving the TPBVP in the actual entry guidance flight software. Here there is very limited computer time. The powerful, but finicky, mathematical tools used by trajectory designers on the ground cannot in general be made to do the job. Nonconvergence or slow convergence can result in disaster. The challenges of designing such an algorithm are numerous and difficult. Yet the payoff (in the form of decreased operational costs and increased safety) can be substantial. This paper presents an algorithm that incorporates features of both types of guidance strategies. It takes an initial RLV orbital re-entry state and finds a trajectory that will safely transport the vehicle to a Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) region. During actual flight, the computed trajectory is used as the reference to be flown by a more traditional guidance method.

  3. Barriers to the adoption of green operational practices at Brazilian companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; De Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    companies. A conceptual framework with 8 hypotheses is proposed and tested at 75 companies using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) with WarpPLS 4.0. The main results show that (a) the proposed framework obtained an adequate statistical adjustment, (b) the internal barriers (IBs...... by showing that companies which are looking for green competitive advantages should try to reduce their IBs. Also, policy-makers should pay attention not only to legislation that promotes ecological modernisation, but also to create a strong set of initiatives to overcome IBs, regardless of the size...

  4. Barriers and perceived limitations to early treatment of hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kapil Saxena Boston Hemophilia Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Early treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients, both with and without inhibitors, has been shown to be of immense benefit in the overall clinical outcome. Despite the advantages of treating the bleeding episodes early, significant barriers and limitations remain. The aim of this review is to highlight the various barriers and perceived limitations to early therapy of bleeding episodes, especially in patients who have developed inhibitors to factor VIII. The peer-reviewed literature was searched for articles on hemophilia patients, with and without inhibitors, and early treatment, to identify the barriers to early treatment and potential impact on patient outcomes. The most important barrier is the educational barrier, which involves lack of awareness among patients regarding the signs of a bleed, as well as importance of early therapy. It is also common for parents or caregivers of school-age children to exhibit inconvenience and scheduling barriers. Distance to the treatment center can also play a role here. Some patients experience financial barriers related to cost of clotting factor products, insurance coverage, or insurance caps and out-of-pocket costs. Rarely, there can also be problems related to venous access or home infusion. Lastly, multiple psychosocial barriers can prevent adherence to treatment regimens. Identification and addressing these individual barriers will result in improved compliance rates, prevent joint damage, be more cost-effective, and lead to better overall health of these patients. Keywords: hemophilia A, hemophilia B, inhibitors, outcomes, quality of life, cost of care

  5. Taking entry heating credit to address planetary protection bio-burden limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, J.; Clark, B.; Linch, S.; Johnson, M.; Bomba, K.; Oakman, K.; Tice, N.; Kast, W.; Willcockson, W.

    In 2005 NASA will launch a large orbiting science observatory, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), for what should be a 5.4-year mission. High resolution imaging of the surface is a principle goal of the mission. One consequence of this goal however is the need for a low science orbit. Unfortunately this orbit fails the required 20-year orbit life requirements set in NASA Policy Guideline. So rather than sacrifice the science goals of the mission by raising the science orbit, the MRO Project chose to be the first orbiter to pursue the bio-burden reduction approach. Because the orbiter is so large, cleaning only is insufficient to achieve the bio-burden threshold requirement in NASA Policy. This presentation outlines one of the processes developed to reduce bio-burden by taking credit for hardware that will either never reach the surface or achieves high temperature during entry due to ablation and aero-heating. Lockheed Martin engineers developed a process to perform what is called breakup and burn-up analysis. This process considers the assumptions that go into modeling and into decision methods that result on structural degradation branching points. Structural degradation rate is driven by thermal properties of the hardware. These branching points produce multiple trajectory bodies of their own. Assumptions of body shape, mass and velocity drive the rate aero-heating in the entry trajectory. As entry velocity decays so does the available entry heating. In the end, an inventory of all the SC hardware is done in terms of Exempt (burned-up or sufficiently heated) and Non-exempt (survived to surface) components. © Lockheed Martin Corporation A companion paper by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory discusses how this data is integrated into the overall bio-burden assessment activity and the derivation of the Implementation Plan.

  6. Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittleborough, Catherine R; Mittinty, Murthy N; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lynch, John W

    2014-01-01

    Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Research in Child Development.

  7. Analysis of entry of additional energy to gunpowder in electrothermal chemical shot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, Viktor; Ishchenko, Alexandr; Kasimov, Vladimir; Samorokova, Nina; Sidorov, Aleksey

    2017-11-01

    In the article two series of ballistic experiments conducted according to the scheme of electrothermal chemical control of ballistic parameters of the shot at the Research Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics of Tomsk State University (RIAMM TSU, Russia) are considered. The experimental part of the work is described. The analysis of the electro physical data of ballistic experiments is carried out. A methodical approach that allows to take into account the entry of an electric discharge plasma in a gunpowder in the mathematical model of internal ballistic processes in barrel systems is proposed and tested. Under the conditions of these experiments, the effects of various characteristics of the plasmatron on the nature of the energy entry are estimated.

  8. Global competitiveness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wealth in all economies is being created at the microeconomic level through the activities of economic entities. Due to the disappearance of many barriers in international trade, i.e. reducing costs in transportation and communications, all countries and their economic subjects are now competing in the global market. In today's global economy, characterized by openness and integration, competitiveness plays a key role both in developed countries, as well as in developing ones. Competitiveness presents sustainable productivity growth driven by the quality of the strategy and operations of the company, affected by macroeconomic and microeconomic environment altogether. The level of competitiveness is determined by productivity - ability to produce goods and services using existing human, financial, natural and other resources. Productivity determines the standard of living of the country or a region, capital income, preservation of national wealth. Productivity also depends on the value of goods and services (e.g. of their uniqueness, quality and the efficiency of their production. In order to identify as many indicators (variables that are essential to the concept of competition, and get more reliable results when measuring the international competitiveness of countries, most commonly used and most accurate ones are three models: IMD model, the World Economic Forum model and the World Bank model. Those models have been successfully used by the CEER magazine, in order to conduct an analysis of competitiveness between Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, as well as of all developing countries (Serbia being among them.

  9. Endocrine and aggressive responses to competition are moderated by contest outcome, gender, individual versus team competition, and implicit motives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon K Oxford

    Full Text Available This study examined hormonal responses to competition in relation to gender, social context, and implicit motives. Participants (N = 326 were randomly assigned to win or lose in a 10-round, virtual face-to-face competition, in same-sex individual- and team-competition contexts. Saliva samples, taken before and twice after the competition, were assayed for testosterone (T, estradiol (E, progesterone (P, and cortisol (C. Implicit needs for power (nPower and affiliation (nAffiliation were assessed with a picture-story exercise before the competition. Aggression was measured via the volume at which participants set noise blasts for their opponents. Men competing individually and women competing as teams showed similar T increases after winning. C was differentially associated with outcome in the team matches, with higher post-match cortisol for winning women, and an opposite effect for male teams. Analyses including implicit motives indicated that situational variables interacted with motivational needs in shaping hormonal responses to competition: in naturally cycling women, nPower predicted T increases after winning and T and E decreases after losing. In men, nPower predicted T increases after losing and decreases after winning. In male teams, nPower predicted C increases after losing, but not after winning, whereas in individual competitions, nPower was a general negative predictor of C changes in women. nAffiliation predicted P increases for women competing as teams, and P decreases for women competing individually. Aggression was higher in men, losers, and teams than in women, winners, and individuals. High aggression was associated with high baseline C in women competing individually and with low baseline C and C decreases in women competing as teams and in men generally. Our findings suggest that while situational and gender factors play a role in hormonal responses to competition, they also depend on their interplay with motivational factors

  10. In Vitro and Ex Vivo Model Systems to Measure ABC Transporter Activity at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Nienke M; Kooij, Gijs; de Vries, Helga E

    2016-01-01

    With the aging population the occurrence of central nervous system diseases such as cancer, mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, is expected to increase and hence, the demand for effective drugs. However, the passage of drugs across the blood-brain barrier represents a major challenge in accomplishing efficient brain delivery of therapeutic agents. This highly efficient barrier is composed of a monolayer of capillary endothelial cells supported by pericytes and astrocytic end-feet, that together effectively shield the brain from the blood. The brain microvascular endothelial cells form a physical and metabolic barrier where paracellular and transcellular transport of molecules in and out of the brain is closely regulated, allowing nutrients to pass but preventing the entry of harmful neurotoxic substances, including drugs. For this purpose brain endothelial cells express efficient efflux pumps, such as ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which limit the delivery of drugs into the brain. To treat the above-mentioned chronic central nervous system disorders, it is crucial to design compounds that can pass the blood-brain barrier and thus the ABC transporters. In order to achieve this, representative models of the blood-brain barrier with predictive validity are necessary. This review discusses the current in vitro and ex vivo model systems that are used to measure ABC transporter activity in order to study potential in vivo efficacy of blood-brain barrier-drug passage.

  11. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  12. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahr Weiss

    Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional

  13. Barriers to global health development: An international quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Bahr; Pollack, Amie Alley

    2017-01-01

    Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers. 432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62%) participating. The survey assessed participants' (A) demographic and global health background, (B) perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C) detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D) potential solutions. Thirty-four (of 66) barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale), Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a) Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b) Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC) but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications) negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness. That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type) were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional was

  14. Elaboration of collisional-radiative models applied to atmospheric entry into the Earth and Mars atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Annaloro, Julien

    2013-01-01

    The hypersonic entry of a body into the upper layers of a planetary atmosphere leads to the formation of a plasma resulting from the intense compression of the incident gas. This compression takes place within a shock layer in non-equilibrium, the knowledge of which is partial. This prevents a precise assessment of the convective, radiative and catalytic parts of the parietal heat flux required for the sizing of the thermal protection system of the entering body. The latter contributions stro...

  15. Barriers to disaster preparedness among medical special needs populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie eMeyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical special needs (MSN assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%, Hispanic (92.9%, aged > 45 years (51%, not insured for health (59.2%, and with an MSN (33.2%. Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild to level 4 (most severe. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness.

  16. Discoverability Problem of Free-to-Play Mobile Games

    OpenAIRE

    Koivisto, Maija

    2015-01-01

    Gaining visibility is crucial to a mobile game’s success. The competitive forces in mobile games market are strong, which pose challenges for game discovery. Low barriers to entry, minimal capital requirements and equal access to distribution platforms are some of the reasons the market is now flooded with staggering amounts of invisible, undifferentiated mobile games desperate for downloads. The thesis will give a holistic view of the current discovery landscape of free-to-play mobil...

  17. The epigenetic modifications and the anterior to posterior characterization of meiotic entry during mouse oogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xia-Fei; Yang, Fan; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Feng, Yan-Ni; Li, Lan; Dyce, Paul W; Shen, Wei; Sun, Xiao-Feng

    2017-07-01

    The meiotic initiation of mammalian oogonia is a critical step during the development of primordial germ cells (PGCs) to mature oocytes. In this study, a systematic investigation of epigenetic modifications and DAZL gene expression during oogonia meiotic entry were performed. We found that the expression of DAZL was epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation of CpG islands within its promoter region. During meiotic entry, a continuously increasing level of 5hmC, a stable epigenetic marker usually associated with the activation of gene expression, was observed from 11.5 to 16.5 dpc (days post coitum). Meanwhile trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone3 (H3K27me3), usually associated with repression of gene expression, had a sustainable increase from 12.5 to 16.5 dpc. Finally, by equally dividing the ovaries into three regions representing the anterior, the middle, and the posterior of the ovary and performing immunofluorescence and qRT-PCR on the individual regions, we provided further evidences that the meiotic entry and progression of female germ cells is in an anterior to posterior pattern.

  18. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Palucci

    Full Text Available PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33 in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3, indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  19. Barriers to the Development of SME's in the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mills

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized companies (SMEs operating in the construction industry in regionalareas of Australia often struggle to compete against city-based companies for constructionwork. This paper identifies the barriers that confront SMEs in areas outsidemajor cities, specifically in regional areas of Victoria (Australia where local firms oftencompete unsuccessfully against large Melbourne-based organisations. The authors alsolook at the possibility of using e-commerce solutions to give regional SMEs greater competitivenessas well as considering possible policy initiatives that may assist these companiesto be more successful in tendering against city-based competition.

  20. Foundations of noise barriers according to eurocode standards

    OpenAIRE

    Bajec, Andrej

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, different types of noise barriers are presented. The focus in the thesis then shifts to a wall type barrier and its foundation. Following this are the calculations of the forces that are acting on the barrier and by extension on the foundation itself. A choice for the foundation is a concrete rectangular shaped foundation. All the necessary controls of the foundation are introduced on the ultimate limit state and serviceability limit state. Added to the thesis is a CD which co...

  1. Quality Health Care in the European Union Thanks to Competition Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaciari, Diego

    2010-01-01

    There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union and the right to quality health care and to point out the problems that arise when integrating quality concerns in competition law analysis. Guidelines must be issued and competition authorities must work together with institutions that have expertise in the field of health care quality measurement in order to integrate these dimensions in competition practice. PMID:20195428

  2. Crossing the Barriers: An Analysis of Land Access Barriers to Geothermal Development and Potential Improvement Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Developers have identified many non-technical barriers to geothermal power development, including access to land. Activities required for accessing land, such as environmental review and private and public leasing can take a considerable amount of time and can delay or prevent project development. This paper discusses the impacts to available geothermal resources and deployment caused by land access challenges, including tribal and cultural resources, environmentally sensitive areas, biological resources, land ownership, federal and state lease queues, and proximity to military installations. In this analysis, we identified challenges that have the potential to prevent development of identified and undiscovered hydrothermal geothermal resources. We found that an estimated 400 MW of identified geothermal resource potential and 4,000 MW of undiscovered geothermal resource potential were either unallowed for development or contained one or more significant barriers that could prevent development at the site. Potential improvement scenarios that could be employed to overcome these barriers include (1) providing continuous funding to the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) for processing geothermal leases and permit applications and (2) the creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures. The model results forecast that continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 80 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 124 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The creation of advanced environmental mitigation measures coupled with continuous funding to the USFS could result in deployment of an additional 97 MW of geothermal capacity by 2030 and 152 MW of geothermal capacity by 2050 when compared to the business-as-usual scenario. The small impact on potential deployment in these improvement scenarios suggests that these 4,400 MW have other barriers to development in addition to land access. In other words, simply

  3. An accessory to the 'Trinity': SR-As are essential pathogen sensors of extracellular dsRNA, mediating entry and leading to subsequent type I IFN responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNA is becoming increasingly recognized as a signaling molecule. Virally derived double stranded (dsRNA released into the extracellular space during virus induced cell lysis acts as a powerful inducer of classical type I interferon (IFN responses; however, the receptor that mediates this response has not been identified. Class A scavenger receptors (SR-As are likely candidates due to their cell surface expression and ability to bind nucleic acids. In this study, we investigated a possible role for SR-As in mediating type I IFN responses induced by extracellular dsRNA in fibroblasts, a predominant producer of IFNbeta. Fibroblasts were found to express functional SR-As, even SR-A species thought to be macrophage specific. SR-A specific competitive ligands significantly blocked extracellular dsRNA binding, entry and subsequent interferon stimulated gene (ISG induction. Candidate SR-As were systematically investigated using RNAi and the most dramatic inhibition in responses was observed when all candidate SR-As were knocked down in unison. Partial inhibition of dsRNA induced antiviral responses was observed in vivo in SR-AI/II(-/- mice compared with WT controls. The role of SR-As in mediating extracellular dsRNA entry and subsequent induced antiviral responses was observed in both murine and human fibroblasts. SR-As appear to function as 'carriers', facilitating dsRNA entry and delivery to the established dsRNA sensing receptors, specifically TLR3, RIGI and MDA-5. Identifying SR-As as gatekeepers of the cell, mediating innate antiviral responses, represents a novel function for this receptor family and provides insight into how cells recognize danger signals associated with lytic virus infections. Furthermore, the implications of a cell surface receptor capable of recognizing extracellular RNA may exceed beyond viral immunity to mediating other important innate immune functions.

  4. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, Anna; Morgan, Craig; Sloan, Claire; Howard, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a) review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b) review the evidence on the effectivene...

  5. Barriers, facilitators, and potential strategies for increasing HPV vaccination: A statewide assessment to inform action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartmell, Kathleen B; Young-Pierce, Jennifer; McGue, Shannon; Alberg, Anthony J; Luque, John S; Zubizarreta, Maria; Brandt, Heather M

    2017-12-07

    The objective was to investigate how state level strategies in South Carolina could maximize HPV vaccine uptake. An environmental scan identified barriers, facilitators, and strategies for improving HPV vaccination in South Carolina. Interviews were conducted with state leaders from relevant organizations such as public health agencies, medical associations, K-12 schools, universities, insurers, and cancer advocacy organizations. A thematic content analysis design was used. Digital interview files were transcribed, a data dictionary was created and data were coded using the data dictionary. Thirty four interviews were conducted with state leaders. Barriers to HPV vaccination included lack of HPV awareness, lack of provider recommendation, HPV vaccine concerns, lack of access and practice-level barriers. Facilitators included momentum for improving HPV vaccination, school-entry Tdap requirement, pharmacy-based HPV vaccination, state immunization registry, HEDIS measures and HPV vaccine funding. Strategies for improving HPV vaccination fell into three categories: 1) addressing lack of awareness about the importance of HPV vaccination among the public and providers; 2) advocating for policy changes around HPV vaccine coverage, vaccine education, and pharmacy-based vaccination; and 3) coordination of efforts. A statewide environmental scan generated a blueprint for action to be used to improve HPV vaccination in the state. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Retail competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Retail competition as the cornerstone of a competitive electricity marketplace was the subject of the seventh in the series of policy discussion papers developed at the Market Design Conference. Concern was expressed that because of the complexities involved in market design and technical implementation, the retail competition may lag behind other elements of the implementation of the new market design. A variety of key issues were debated, including the role of physical versus financial contracts, the form of retail competition and financial settlement systems in the short term, the requirement to separate 'competitive' (metering, billing, maintenance, consumer education) from non-competitive' (the transmission wires) services and the role of municipal electric utilities. It was agreed that the IMO should play an important role in defining and enforcing the separation of services, and that as a general rule, the development of policy in this area should be guided by the principle of maximizing the potential for competition

  7. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in the school setting. Findings revealed multiple barriers school nurses encounter in managing asthma. Six themes emerged that included lack of resources and support, insufficient time, communication challenges, limited knowledge, and lack of awareness of school nurses' expertise. Students, parents, primary care physicians, school administration, staff, and school nurses themselves all play a role in constructing barriers to asthma management. There is a need for school nurses and school nurse leaders to focus efforts to develop strategies to overcome barriers to ensure evidence-based, best practice management of asthma in the school setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR, THE 2010-2014 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂLDAN FLORENTINA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paper “Analysis of the evolution of the competitive environment in the Romanian banking sector, the 2010- 2014 period” takes into account the fact that in the analysed period, the number of the active credit institutions in the Romanian market remained relatively constant. Thus, at the end of the first semester of 2014, the Romanian banking system comprised 40 credit institutions, out of which nine are branches of foreign banks, while after 2010 42 banks operated in the market (out of which nine were branches of foreign banks. The main factors that determine the dynamics of the number of competitors in the banking sector are: relatively high barriers to the entry on the market; high barriers to the exit from the market; the macroeconomic environment, more particularly, the uncertainties related to the main indicators and on the public policies with impact on the business environment. The comparative analysis of the evolution of interests with the situation of the bank charges for banking services covering the highest number of clients, indicates a market power clearly higher of the banks in relation to the clients holding debit cards and a relatively low competition level generated by the even level of the charges. An important cause of this situation consists of high barriers for consumers in relation to changing the supplier banking service (switching costs (especially debit cards. Under such circumstances, the initiatives aimed at increasing the pro-competitive nature of the regulations, especially by eliminating the barriers to changing the supplier (such as the bank account portability, are particularly important from the perspective of the national competition authority

  9. New rules for competition: Ontario to cap power plant emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The Ontario government through the Dept. of the Environment announced on November 16, 1999 that it would cut the emissions from Ontario coal burning power plants that cause acid rain and smog. This announcement was a much anticipated clarification of the government's plans to clean up the power industry since the enactment of the Electricity Competition Act more than one year past. The announcement signals the beginning of a public discussion process between government and stakeholders on the environmental rules for electricity generation in Ontario. The Ontario government is expected to release draft regulations for controlling coal burning power plant emissions in the near future. Consulations with stakeholders on the regulations, as well as the rules for disclosure and labeling, are anticipated to begin in a few months. The announcement set out four principles for environmental performance in the competitive electricity market. Anti-smog requirements will be included in the stringent environmental requirements to be built into Ontario's new, competitive electricity market. The strong measures which the government will put into place when the market opens later in 2000 include: (1) regulations to cut smog and acid gas emissions for all Ontario electricity generators on the grid - these regulations will include Ontario Hydro's voluntary nitrogen oxide limits; (2) emission performance standards to define maximum acceptable emission levels for all generators wanting to sell in the Ontario market; (3) a framework to support opportunities to make greater use of more efficient, environmentally responsible technologies; and (4) disclosure requirements to ensure that electricity consumers can understand the environmental implications of their purchasing decisions

  10. Students' benefits and barriers to mental health help-seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidourek, Rebecca A.; King, Keith A.; Nabors, Laura A.; Merianos, Ashley L.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma is recognized as a potential barrier to seeking help for a mental health disorder. The present study assessed college students' perceived benefits and barriers to obtaining mental health treatment and stigma-related attitudes via a four-page survey. A total of 682 students at one Midwestern university participated in the study. Findings indicated that females perceived a greater number of benefits to having participated in mental health services and held significantly lower stigma-related attitudes than did males. Students who had ever received mental health services reported significantly more barriers to treatment than did students who had never received services. Health professionals should target students with educational programs about positive outcomes related to receiving mental health services and work with treatment centers to reduce barriers for receiving services. PMID:25750831

  11. Barriers to Medical Error Reporting for Physicians and Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydemir, Dilek; Seren Intepeler, Seyda; Mert, Hatice

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine what barriers to error reporting exist for physicians and nurses. The study, of descriptive qualitative design, was conducted with physicians and nurses working at a training and research hospital. In-depth interviews were held with eight physicians and 15 nurses, a total of 23 participants. Physicians and nurses do not choose to report medical errors that they experience or witness. When barriers to error reporting were examined, it was seen that there were four main themes involved: fear, the attitude of administration, barriers related to the system, and the employees' perceptions of error. It is important in terms of preventing medical errors to identify the barriers that keep physicians and nurses from reporting errors.

  12. Barriers to Nursing Home Care for Nonelderly Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning-Smith, Carrie; Kozhimannil, Katy; Prasad, Shailendra

    2017-12-01

    Rural residents experience higher disability, mortality, and poverty rates than their urban counterparts; they also have more barriers to accessing care, including nursing home care. Meanwhile, the proportion of nonelderly adult nursing home residents (<65 years old) is growing, yet little is known about this population and barriers they face trying to access care, especially in rural areas. This qualitative study uses data from 23 semistructured interviews with rural hospital discharge planners in five states to identify specific barriers to finding nursing home care for nonelderly rural residents. We grouped those barriers into three primary themes-payment status, fit, and medical complexity-as well as two minor themes-caregivers and bureaucratic processes-and discuss each in the article, along with potential policy and programmatic interventions to improve access to nursing home care for nonelderly rural residents.

  13. [Stigma: Barrier to Access to Mental Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi Celina; Herazo, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    The perceived stigma represents a sociocultural barrier to access mental health services and prevents individuals who meet criteria for a mental disorder the possibility of receiving comprehensive and integred care. To update institutional mechanisms by which stigma related to mental disorders, perceived and perpetrated, acts as a barrier to mental health access. Stigma as a barrier to access to mental health services is due to a reduction in service requests, the allocation of limited resources to mental health, the systematic process of impoverishment of the people who suffer a mental disorder, increased risk of crime, and implications in contact with the legal system, and the invisibility of the vulnerability of these people. Structured awareness and education programs are needed to promote awareness about mental disorders, promote community-based psychosocial rehabilitation, and reintegration into productive life process. In Colombia, the frequency and variables associated with the stigma of mental disorders needs to be studied. This knowledge will enable the implementation of measures to promote the social and labor inclusion of people who meet the criteria for mental disorders. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. All rights reserved.

  14. Barriers to Mammography Screening: How to Overcome Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Hassoun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Screening mammography is an established intervention that leads to early breast cancer detection and reduced mortality. The Lebanese Ministry of Health has initiated yearly awareness campaigns and provided free mammography in multiple centers around the country. Methods: The study took place in two major areas of Lebanon - Beirut and South Lebanon. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess knowledge about breast cancer screening and screening behaviors in the Lebanese population. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the reasons that prevented women from performing screening mammography based on our categories of questions: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, lack of access to screening facilities, failure of primary care physician to encourage screening behavior, and other reasons. Results: The major barriers to seek screening that had statistically significant P-values, in order of prevalence, included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, followed by social reasons and lack of access. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of breast cancer in our population, it is important to understand the pitfalls that we experience in promoting awareness. Our study is the first study to reach out to the community to assess perceived barriers against screening and provide solutions for such barriers.

  15. Nuclear dynamics around the barrier: from fusion to evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    This work is devoted to aspects of nuclear dynamics around the barrier. It is shown that for fusion reactions, the Coulomb field couples relative motion of nuclei to rotation of a deformed projectile independently of the energy and the charge of the nuclei. An experimental study of the reaction 6 He + 190 Os via gamma spectroscopy of product nuclei has shown that the break up of the 6 He is coupled to the relative motion too, a strong hindrance resulting in the fusion around and above the fusion barrier. The path to fusion after overcoming the barrier, especially the charge equilibration, have been studied in the framework of the TDHF theory via the preequilibrium GDR excited in N/Z asymmetric reactions. An application to formation of the super-heavy elements has been proposed. Finally, couplings between protons and neutrons have been shown up in mean field calculations. Their main expected effect is an emission of protons under the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  16. Barriers to women engaging in collective action to overcome sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Helena R M; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-12-01

    Over centuries women have fought hard to obtain increasing gender equality, but despite these successes absolute equality remains an elusive goal. Theoretically, women's numerical strength makes them well-placed to take effective collective action, and millions of women engage in feminist collective action every day. In this article, however, we argue that women also face barriers to engaging in feminist collective action; barriers that are associated with the social construction and experience of what it means to be a woman. Our review synthesizes sexism research under a contemporary collective action framework to clarify our current understanding of the literature and to offer novel theoretical explanations for why women might be discouraged from engaging in feminist collective action. Using the antecedents of collective action identified by van Zomeren, Postmes, and Spears' (2008) meta-analysis, we critically review the sexism literature to argue that women face challenges when it comes to (a) identifying with other women and feminists, (b) perceiving sexism and expressing group-based anger, and (c) recognizing the efficacy of collective action. We then outline a research agenda with a view to investigating ways of overcoming these barriers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Competitive protein adsorption to polymer surface from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification by "soft" plasma polymerisation to obtain a hydrophilic and non-fouling polymer surface has been validated using radioactive labelling. Adsorption to unmodified and modified polymer surfaces, from both single protein and human serum solutions, has been investigated. By using...... different radioisotopes, albumin and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) adsorption has been monitored simultaneously during competitive adsorption processes, which to our knowledge has not been reported in the literature before. Results show that albumin and IgG adsorption is dependent on adsorption time...

  18. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drawback entry. 191.143 Section 191.143 Customs... entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed under...

  19. 19 CFR 132.24 - Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Entry. 132.24 Section 132.24 Customs Duties U.S... Importation of Absolute Quota Merchandise § 132.24 Entry. Unless a formal entry or entry by appraisement is required, a mail entry on Customs Form 3419 shall be issued and forwarded with the package to the...

  20. INCOME AND PRICE AS A BARRIER TO ORGANIC FOOD CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Zielke, Stephan; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    From the barriers said to potentially hamper the further development of the sector, the consumer demand side and herein the high prices are handled as crucial. We reviewed the literature since 2000 regarding the role of perceived price and income. We find that self-report based studies nearly unequivocally find price is the primary barrier to choice, deviations from this appear to occur when researching organic consumers and developed organic markets. There are mixed findings regarding income...