WorldWideScience

Sample records for barriers to entry competition

  1. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Stel, André; Storey, David; Wennekers, Sander; Thurik, Roy

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model explaining the nascent entrepreneurship rate and the young business entrepreneurship rate, while taking into account the interrelationship between the two variables (i.e. the conversion). Furthermore var...

  2. Overcoming inadvertent barriers to entry in large infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vincent Livesey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The history behind the award of Brisbane City Council’s Legacy Way project is discussed and the possible impact of cognitive bias in the Expression of Interest  (EOI process together with the steps that were taken during the EOI development and evaluation phase to reduce the impact that this may have had on the selection of Contractors from their EOI submissions.  The paper concludes that Cognitive Bias may have created a greater barrier to entry to Contractors attempting to enter the Australian PPP market than has been previously realised and makes suggestions as to how this effect could be minimised in the future. 

  3. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  4. Contestability in the UK freight market: what are the key barriers to entry, and how can they be overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitening, A. E.; Brewer, P. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines competition in the UK rail freight industry since privatisation, particularly competition from new 'open access ' operators. The first section of the paper sets out the research context, in terms of the evolution of the privatised freight railway in the UK. The research is set against the background of the economic Theory of Contestable Markets, which suggests that the likelihood of competition depends critically on the strength of barriers to entry into the market. If bar...

  5. Perceived barriers to entry: are there any differences between small, medium-sized and large companies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, R.G.M.; Lutz, C.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide empirical evidence about the importance of barriers to entry. In particular, the perceptions of firms are considered. Three questions are addressed: which entry-barriers are important in the perception of firms in the Dutch economy? Do these perceptions diff

  6. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into "Mainstream" Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufford, David J; Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important- and controversial-philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer "Complementary and Integrative Medicine" (CIM) where integrative implies "bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way."(1) Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality.

  7. Barriers to migrant entry to occupations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iredale, R

    1989-03-01

    In 1986, 21.3% of the population of Australia had been born overseas; currently, foreign born workers comprise 25% of the labor force. The level of skilled immigration has continued to increase throughout the 1980s. In the past, most English-speaking migrants gained recognition of their overseas qualifications, but about half of those from non-English speaking countries have never been able to return to their pre-migration occupations. Beginning with the medical field, occupational regulating gradually grew with state autonomy being a marked feature. Australia has 1 of the most highly regulated labor markets in the world, with hundreds of bodies to determine entry criteria. The Council of Overseas Professional Qualifications, established in 1969, guides selection and tests professionals both overseas and already resident in Australia. The Tradesmen's Rights Regulation Act recognizes acceptable tradesmen. Aside from these 2 bodies, the majority of qualifications are assessed at the state or local level. Problems skilled immigrants have encountered in attempting to gain recognition of their overseas qualifications include 1) preference for locally trained workers or discrimination against non-British/non-Australian qualifications; 2) lack of adequate information about assessment procedures; 3) inadequate use of interpreting and translating services; 4) language difficulties in tests; and 5) frequent assessment only on formal qualifications, with skills and experience not being evaluated. The 2 basic models for assessing occupational suitability are the valuation of qualifications approach and the valuation of skills approach. To illustrate the operation of various models of assessment, the author discusses these occupations: medicine, nursing, engineering, computing, and electrical trades. The major factors that are essential for an overall strategy of change include 1) less occupational regulation in the labor market; 2) national registration and licensing systems

  8. Contextualizing Territories in Gvc Supplier Nodes to Understand Chain Entry Barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper deals with entry barriers for developing country suppliers to global value chains (GVCs). It is based on a study of food processing firms in Kenya undertaken between 2012 and 2014. The paper focuses on how entry barriers to GVCs are sometimes constructed within supplier countries...... starting point in the theoretical-methodological process of ‘contextualizing territories’, that is the territories in which GVC suppliers are located. From this theoretical foundation, we go on to suggest the concrete content of such an analysis. The Kenyan food processing industry is used as an analytical...

  9. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    with a sizeable informal sector in developing countries and corruption. Other leading transition researchers such as Andrei Shleifer offer a variety of views on the informal sector from the romantic to the parasitic. This paper leans on the realist interpretation of de Soto grounded in institutional theory. High...... entry barriers push the entrepreneurs towards the informal sector. Whether entrepreneurs succeed in the transition towards the formal sector depends on the size of the entry barriers which are indirectly regulated both by informal institutions such as corruption and formal institutions...... such as competition policy. The model is tested using the World Bank's BEEPS dataset which is a repeated cross section survey of firms across countries in development and transition. This data gives access to observe among other firm size and whether firms pay a bribe or not. This data is combined with Stephan Voigt...

  10. Reducing Barriers to Career Entry for Latinos: An Examination of Pathways into Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony De Jesús

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand for bilingual/bicultural social work practitioners presents a mutually beneficial opportunity for the social work profession and Latinos who are increasingly in positions to be employed as social workers (Acevedo, González, Santiago, & Vargas-Ramos, 2007; Ortíz-Hendricks, 2007. Uneven academic preparation, limited access to information about college, high tuition/opportunity costs and family obligations are among the barriers to higher education for Latinos (Arbona & Nora, 2007; Hurtado & Ponjuan, 2005; Ortíz et al., 2007. Using comparative methods, this article describes career pathway program models that address obstacles to successful entry into social work careers. These models also demonstrate the potential to reduce barriers to degree completion and career entry for Latinos. Salient program components include reduced tuition and tuition assistance, transportation assistance, child care, support in strengthening oral and written English skills, and access to networks of employers (Takahashi & Melendez, 2004. Implications for social work and social work education are also discussed.

  11. Clinician-scientists in Canada: barriers to career entry and progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Lander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. METHODS: Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR databases on grant and award performance of clinician-scientists and non-clinical PhDs for fiscal years 2000 to 2008. RESULTS: Three main barriers were identified through qualitative analysis: research training, research salaries, and research grants. We then looked for evidence of these barriers in the Canada-wide statistical dataset for our study period. Clinician-scientists had a small but statistically significant higher mean number of degrees (3.3 than non-clinical scientists (3.2, potentially confirming the perception of longer training times. But evidence of the other two barriers was equivocal. For example, while overall growth in salary awards was minimal, awards to clinician-scientists increased by 45% compared to 6.3% for non-clinical PhDs. Similarly, in terms of research funding, awards to clinician-scientists increased by more than 25% compared with 5% for non-clinical PhDs. However, clinician-scientist-led grants funded under CIHR's Clinical thematic area decreased significantly from 61% to 51% (p-value<0.001 suggesting that clinician-scientists may be shifting their attention to other research domains. CONCLUSION: While clinician-scientists continue to perceive barriers to career entry and progress, quantitative results suggest improvements over the last decade. Clinician-scientists are awarded an increasing proportion of CIHR research grants and salary awards. Given the translational importance of

  12. A new way to measure competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Boone

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits. Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction betwe

  13. A New Way to Measure Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a new way to measure competition based on firms' profits.Within a general model, we derive conditions under which this measure is monotone in competition, where competition can be intensified both through a fall in entry barriers and through more aggressive interaction between

  14. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into “Mainstream” Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important— and controversial—philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called “complementary and alternative medicine” (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer “Complementary and Integrative Medicine” (CIM) where integrative implies “bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way.”1 Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality. PMID:26665046

  15. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  16. 广告壁垒的结构性效应研究%Research on the Effects of Structural Barriers to Entry of Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田野

    2014-01-01

    Advertising can be seen as a type of barrier to entry , which helps the firm within the industry to prevent an-other firm from entering the market .A model of two-firm price competition with differential products is introduced to an-alyze different key parameters in order to explain how different effects of barriers to entry of advertising prevent another firm entry into the market.In the end, the industry of everyday chemicals is briefly analyzed in application of the model , hoping that this paper is able to provide a brand new way of thinking and theoretical basis for the future research .%广告可以被视作一种市场进入壁垒,能够帮助在位企业阻止潜在厂商的进入。本文通过建立两厂商的差异产品价格竞争模型、对不同关键参数进行分析,研究了广告的各种市场进入壁垒效应如何有效阻止潜在厂商进入,并以日化行业为例,说明了模型在具体行业分析中的作用,旨在为日后研究提供一种新的分析思路和理论参考。

  17. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  18. Barriers of access to care in a managed competition model: lessons from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogollón-Pérez Amparo Susana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector reform in Colombia, initiated by Law 100 (1993 that introduced a managed competition model, is generally presented as a successful experience of improving access to care through a health insurance regulated market. The study's objective is to improve our understanding of the factors influencing access to the continuum of care in the Colombian managed competition model, from the social actors' point of view. Methods An exploratory, descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was carried out, based on case studies of four healthcare networks in rural and urban areas. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to a three stage theoretical sample: I cases, II providers and III informants: insured and uninsured users (35, health professionals (51, administrative personnel (20, and providers' (18 and insurers' (10 managers. Narrative content analysis was conducted; segmented by cases, informant's groups and themes. Results Access, particularly to secondary care, is perceived as complex due to four groups of obstacles with synergetic effects: segmented insurance design with insufficient services covered; insurers' managed care and purchasing mechanisms; providers' networks structural and organizational limitations; and, poor living conditions. Insurers' and providers' values based on economic profit permeate all factors. Variations became apparent between the two geographical areas and insurance schemes. In the urban areas barriers related to market functioning predominate, whereas in the rural areas structural deficiencies in health services are linked to insufficient public funding. While financial obstacles are dominant in the subsidized regime, in the contributory scheme supply shortage prevails, related to insufficient private investment. Conclusions The results show how in the Colombian healthcare system structural and organizational barriers to care access, that are common in developing countries

  19. The Heterochromatic Barrier to DNA Double Strand Break Repair: How to Get the Entry Visa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Goodarzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, a deep understanding of pathways that repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB has been gained from biochemical, structural, biophysical and cellular studies. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR represent the two major DSB repair pathways, and both processes are now well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the chromatin environment at a DSB significantly impacts upon DSB repair and that, moreover, dramatic modifications arise in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. Chromatin is broadly divided into open, transcriptionally active, euchromatin (EC and highly compacted, transcriptionally inert, heterochromatin (HC, although these represent extremes of a spectrum. The HC superstructure restricts both DSB repair and damage response signaling. Moreover, DSBs within HC (HC-DSBs are rapidly relocalized to the EC-HC interface. The damage response protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, is required for HC-DSB repair but is dispensable for the relocalization of HC-DSBs. It has been proposed that ATM signaling enhances HC relaxation in the DSB vicinity and that this is a prerequisite for HC-DSB repair. Hence, ATM is essential for repair of HC-DSBs. Here, we discuss how HC impacts upon the response to DSBs and how ATM overcomes the barrier that HC poses to repair.

  20. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  1. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisio

  2. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisi

  3. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.

  4. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Erev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games (http://sites.google.com/site/gpredcomp/ and http://www.mdpi.com/si/games/predict-behavior/. The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  5. DNA-AuNP networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier to inhibit viral attachment, entry and budding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun Mei; Zheng, Lin Ling; Yang, Xiao Xi; Wan, Xiao Yan; Wu, Wen Bi; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Yuan Fang; Luo, Ling Fei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Viral infections have caused numerous diseases and deaths worldwide. Due to the emergence of new viruses and frequent virus variation, conventional antiviral strategies that directly target viral or cellular proteins are limited because of the specificity, drug resistance and rapid clearance from the human body. Therefore, developing safe and potent antiviral agents with activity against viral infection at multiple points in the viral life cycle remains a major challenge. In this report, we propose a new modality to inhibit viral infection by fabricating DNA conjugated gold nanoparticle (DNA-AuNP) networks on cell membranes as a protective barrier. The DNA-AuNPs networks were found, via a plaque formation assay and viral titers, to have potent antiviral ability and protect host cells from human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Confocal immunofluorescence image analysis showed 80 ± 3.8% of viral attachment, 91.1 ± 0.9% of viral entry and 87.9 ± 2.8% of viral budding were inhibited by the DNA-AuNP networks, which were further confirmed by real-time fluorescence imaging of the RSV infection process. The antiviral activity of the networks may be attributed to steric effects, the disruption of membrane glycoproteins and limited fusion of cell membrane bilayers, all of which play important roles in viral infection. Therefore, our results suggest that the DNA-AuNP networks have not only prophylactic effects to inhibit virus attachment and entry, but also therapeutic effects to inhibit viral budding and cell-to-cell spread. More importantly, this proof-of-principle study provides a pathway for the development of a universal, broad-spectrum antiviral therapy.

  6. Market Entry, Product Quality And Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sameer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study an entrant firm’s product quality choice and the price competition arising between the entrant and the incumbent firm. We show that the entrant firm should introduce a relatively higher (lower quality than the incumbent firm when the consumers’ valuation for quality is sufficiently large (small. We also study how the incumbent firm modifies its price in response to the ensuing price competition. We find that the incumbent firm should decrease its price. We also profile how the incumbent firm’s price non-linearly depends on consumers’ valuation for quality.

  7. Financial Inclusion, Entry Barriers, and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaobin Fan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the relationship between financial inclusion and the formation of entrepreneurs, both theoretically and empirically. We first construct a theoretical model to examine how the development of financial inclusion affects the formation of entrepreneurs. The model suggests that the development of financial inclusion can mitigate credit constraints on entrepreneurial activities by reducing information asymmetry in financial transactions, and in addition this effect is greater in industries with lower barriers to entry. Then, using data from 31 provinces and 19 industries in China during the period 2005–2014, we test the impact of financial inclusion on the formation of entrepreneurs. The estimation results confirm the positive effect of financial inclusion development on the formation of entrepreneurs, and indicate that this effect is heterogeneous across industries. Moreover, the development of financial inclusion is often beneficial to the formations of entrepreneurs in sectors with lower entry barriers.

  8. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  9. Competitive electricity markets, prices and generator entry and exit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, Robert George

    The electric power industry in the United States is quickly being deregulated and restructured. In the past, new electric generation capacity was added by regulated utilities to meet forecasted demand levels and maintain reserve margins. With competitive wholesale generation, investment will be the responsibility of independent private investors. Electricity prices will assume the coordinating function which has until recently been the responsibility of regulatory agencies. Competitive prices will provide the entry and exit signals for generators in the future. Competitive electricity markets have a distinctive price formation process, and thus require a specialized price model. A mean-reverting price process with stochastic jumps is proposed as an appropriate long-run price process for annual electricity prices. This price process is used to develop an analytic real options model for private investment decisions. The required recursive infinite series solutions have not been widely used for real option models. Entry thresholds and asset values for competitive wholesale electricity markets, and exit decisions for plants with significant retirement costs (i.e. nuclear power plants), are examined. The proposed model results in significantly lower trigger prices for both entry and exit decisions, and higher asset values, when compared with other standard models. The model is used to show that the incentives for retiring a nuclear plant are very sensitive to the treatment of decommissioning costs (e.g. if plant owners do not face full decommissioning costs, retirement decisions may be economically premature.) An econometric model of short-run price behavior is estimated by the method of maximum likelihood using daily electricity prices from markets in the USA and Australia. The model specifies two mean reverting price processes with stochastic Markov switching between the regimes, which allows discontinuous jumps in electricity prices. Econometric tests show that a two

  10. Maximizing competition : reducing barriers for new players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, H. [Independent Electricity Market Operator, Toronto, ON (Canada); Cramer, D. [Sithe Energies Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); McLeese, R. [Access Capital Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada); Singer, J. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session included highlights from four guest speakers who commented on ways to reduce barriers to competition in Ontario's electric power industry. Topics of discussion included intertie transaction failures, the lack of overall investment in the market, the government's inaction which is preventing investment, the continued underwriting of Ontario Power Generation's activities by the government which discourages investment in the private sector, and indecisiveness regarding policy on coal plants. It was emphasized that investors need to know for certain that they can get a reasonable rate of return on their investments, that the market will be transparent and there will be no shift in policy. The need to promote new, efficient power generation by means of nuclear, coal, natural gas, and hydro energy was also emphasized. Charts depicting total energy production by source were presented for 2001 with projections to 2012. figs.

  11. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  12. The competitive advantage of nations and choice of entry strategies : a three scenario case study

    OpenAIRE

    Helvik, Marianne; Harnecker, Maria Luisa Garrido

    2005-01-01

    Michael E. Porter’s Diamond framework has been used as an analysis tool the last 15 years to define the competitive advantage of nations, but few researchers have discussed if there is a link between the Diamond framework and how international firms can pursue the best entry mode. Different variables will be presented linking the Diamond framework to entry strategies, designing an extended framework. Three case scenarios are used for analysis purposes; the first two originating in Porter’s Di...

  13. The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS...... entry by examining a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The chapter identifies a pro-innovative effect of OSS competition....

  14. 进入壁垒的七种基本定义及其意蕴比较%Comparison of Seven Basic Definitions of Barriers to Entry and Their Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广生; 孙瑞华

    2012-01-01

    进入壁垒是研究市场定义和市场势力的核心概念。自从贝恩提出这一概念以来,进入壁垒主要有七种基本定义,其定义有不同的缺点及其效率含义。经济学家围绕进入壁垒的含义进行了大量深入分析,但是对进入壁垒的基本含义、判定标准和主要形式等方面还存在实质性的分歧。%Barriers to entry is the core concept in the study of market definition and market power. Since Bain introduced the concept, a lot of analyses have been made on the meaning of barriers to entry and seven major basic definitions have been developed. However, there are still substantial differences on the basic meaning, judgment standard, and major forms of barriers to entry.

  15. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  16. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Frenken; S. van Terwisga; T. Verburg; G. Burghouwt

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are rela

  17. 企业家能力与城市公用事业进入壁垒研究%A study on entrepreneurship and the barriers to the entry into the city -owned utilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚军姣; 王俊豪

    2011-01-01

    本文分析了民营企业进入城市公用事业的主要壁垒,包括必要资本量壁垒、绝对成本优势壁垒、制度性壁垒和原有企业战略性壁垒。重点阐述了企业家政治活动能力、融资能力、整合资源能力和社会沟通能力对突破各种进入壁垒的作用。在此基础上,构建了一个以“企业家能力一突破进入壁垒一获取稀缺资源(进入城市公用事业)”为基本内容的分析框架。%This paper analyzes the main barriers to private enterprises entering the city - owned utilities. They are the nec essary amount of capital, absolute cost advantages, regulations and the original enterprise strategies. It, mainly, deals with how the entrepreneur' s abilities of participating political activities, financing, integrating resources and communicating can contribute to break through all kinds of barriers. On the basis of this, an analysis framework basically contented withentrepreneur ability, breakthrough barriers to entry access to scarce resources into the city public utilities'is to be constructed.

  18. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  19. Entry and Technological Performance in New Technology Domains : Technological Opportunities, Technology Competition and Technological Relatedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leten, B.; Belderbos, R.; Van Looy, B.

    2016-01-01

    Entry and success in new technology domains (NTDs) is essential for firms' long-term performance. We argue that firms' choices to enter NTDs and their subsequent performance in these domains are not only governed by firm-level factors but also by environmental characteristics. Entry is encouraged by

  20. Barriers to screening mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer (BRCA) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the USA, and mammography is an effective means for the early detection of BRCA. Identifying the barriers to screening mammography can inform research, policy and practice aiming to increase mammography adherence. A literature review was conducted to determine common barriers to screening mammography adherence. PsycINFO and PubMed databases were searched to identify studies published between 2000 and 2012 that examined barriers associated with reduced mammography adherence. Three thematic groups of barriers, based on social ecology, were identified from the literature: healthcare system-level, social and individual-level barriers. Researchers must consider screening behaviour in context and, therefore, should simultaneously consider each level of barriers when attempting to understand screening behaviour and create interventions to increase mammography adherence.

  1. Measuring and explaining competition in the financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.A.; Spierdijk, L.

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this paper provides a systematic discussion of the structural problems of competition on financial markets as observed from the demand and from the supply side, using a diagnostic framework. Potential impediments to competition are concentration, entry barriers, lack of transparenc

  2. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Basker, Emek

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response...

  3. Barriers Approach to Innovation in Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Hsuan Chuang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.

  4. WR-2721 entry into the brain across a modified blood-brain barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamperti, A.; Conger, A.D.; Jenkins, O.; Cohen, G.; Rizzo, A.; Davis, M.E.; Sodicoff, M.

    1988-08-01

    Radioprotection of the CNS by WR-2721 has not been possible because of its inability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and so gain access to the neural tissue. Modification of the BBB using hypertonic arabinose (1.8 m), injected via the internal carotid artery (ica), permitted entry of ip-injected (/sup 14/C)WR-2721 into the ipsilateral cerebral hemisphere. The BBB-modified hemisphere had a 5.34-fold increased uptake compared to nonmodified controls. Delivery as a bolus via the ica further enhanced uptake after BBB opening; WR-2721 was 3.73 times greater than by ip injection. A 20-fold increase of WR-2721 brain uptake has been calculated for ica administration with the BBB opened as compared to the ip route without BBB modification. Toxicity of ip-administered WR-2721 with the BBB open was only 1.4 times greater than non-modified controls and 1.96 times more toxic when delivered via the ica. These data demonstrate significant uptake of WR-2721 into the CNS, a previously unprotected organ, and provide a model for future radioprotective studies.

  5. Barriers to Effective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Jack E.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the following barriers which interfere with listening efficiency: content, speaker, medium, distractions, mindset, language, listening speed, and feedback. Suggests ways to combat these obstacles to accurate comprehension. (MM)

  6. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  7. A Gestalt approach to Gram-negative entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Lynn L

    2016-12-15

    A major obstacle confronting the discovery and development of new antibacterial agents to combat resistant Gram-negative (GN) organisms is the lack of a rational process for endowing compounds with properties that allow (or promote) entry into the bacterial cytoplasm. The major permeability difference between GN and Gram-positive (GP) bacteria is the GN outer membrane (OM) which is a permeability barrier itself and potentiates efflux pumps that expel compounds. Based on the fact that OM-permeable and efflux-deleted GNs are sensitive to many anti-GP drugs, recent efforts to approach the GN entry problem have focused on ways of avoiding efflux and transiting or compromising the OM, with the tacit assumption that this could allow entry of compounds into the GN cytoplasm. But bypassing the OM and efflux obstacles does not take into account the additional requirement of penetrating the cytoplasmic membrane (CM) whose sieving properties appear to be orthogonal to that of the OM. That is, tailoring compounds to transit the OM may well compromise their ability to enter the cytoplasm. Thus, a Gestalt approach to understanding the chemical requirements for GN entry seems a useful adjunct. This might consist of characterizing compounds which reach the cytoplasm, grouping (or binning) by routes of entry and formulating chemical 'rules' for those bins. This will require acquisition of data on large numbers of compounds, using non-activity-dependent methods of measuring accumulation in the cytoplasm.

  8. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  9. Barriers to cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womeodu, R J; Bailey, J E

    1996-01-01

    Many barriers to cancer screening have been summarized and discussed. Barriers have been documented in all patient populations, but some groups such as ethnic minorities and the elderly face unique barriers. The barriers to cancer screening, are multifactorial, but much of the responsibility for change must lie with health care providers and the health care delivery industry. This is not to free the patient of all responsibility, but some significant barriers are beyond their direct control. Take, for example, socioeconomic status, disease knowledge, and culturally related perceptions and myths about cancer detection and treatment. The health care industry must do a better job identifying and overcoming these barriers. The significant effects of provider counseling and advice must not be underestimated. Patients must first be advised, and then further actions must be taken if they reject the screening advice. Did they refuse adherence to recommendations because they do not view themselves as susceptible, because of overwhelming personal barriers, or because of a fatalistic attitude toward cancer detection and treatment? If that is the case, physicians and health care institutions must attempt to change perceptions, educate, and personalize the message so that patients accept their disease susceptibility [table: see text]. Multiple patient and provider risk factors have been identified that can be used to target patients particularly at high risk for inadequate cancer screening and providers at high risk for performing inadequate screening. Research has clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions to improve tracking of patient and physician compliance with screening recommendations. Further research is needed to show the impact of managed-care penetration and payer status on screening efforts, and incentive schemes need to be tested that reward institutions and third-party payers who develop uniform standards and procedures for cancer screening. The

  10. Restructuring and Barriers: Cross-Country Evidence on the Competitiveness of Exporters in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Bezic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of exporters attracts the attention of researchers andpolicy makers interested in the competitiveness of their economies.Through participation on the international market, domestic firms cangenerate foreign exchange needed to pay for imports and learn aboutnew technologies which can be used at home to improve the overallcompetitiveness of their industries. The paper develops a model inwhich the ability of firms from transition economies to compete on theinternational market is defined as a function of their activities, characteristicsand features of their environment. The results of our researchindicate that sunk costs of entry, technology transfer, innovations andcompetition play an important role for the decision of firms to export,while once they are on the international market cost advantages becomemore important.

  11. Competitive Strategies for Late Entry into a Market with a Dominant Brand

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory S. Carpenter; Kent Nakamoto

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers optimal positioning, advertising, and pricing strategies for a firm contemplating entry in a market dominated by an entrenched competitor. Drawing on behavioral research on consumer preference formation, we develop an individual-level model that reflects differing consumer responses to similar products offered by the dominant brand and later entrants---an effect we term asymmetric preferences. From the resulting aggregate market response model, we derive several competiti...

  12. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, J-M.

    1997-12-31

    For nearly a century, electric utilities have been vertically integrated, having control over power generation, distribution and transmission. They virtually monopolized the markets which they served. In 1977, during the energy crisis, the electric utilities were challenged with the establishment of the US Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and in 1978 by the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). This independent agency, which was initially set up to promote new energy sources and cogeneration, was also a major player in regulating electric power transmission and wholesale trade. PURPA required that electric utilities buy their electricity from qualifying independent power producers. In 1996, FERC orders 888 and 889 were issued which opened up competition to a large degree. Traditional utilities were forced to unbundle their generating and transmission costs. Order 889 opened up information systems to show available transmission capacity on power grids. By setting up a division to take charge of its power transmission system, Hydro-Quebec hopes to gain full access to transmission setups and the wholesale electricity market in the US. 1 fig.

  13. Business Strategy and Perceived Benefits of Internet Banking: Their Impact on Banks' Strategic Responses to China's Entry to WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红; 江静; 李杰

    2003-01-01

    With the entry to WRO and development of IT, banks in China are adjusting their competitive strategies to meet the competition. Internet banking has become a kind of strategic choice to response to the entry to WTO. Based on relevantly selective reviews of literature of strategy theory and research, a model is developed to study banks' strategic response to entry to WTO. According to a survey of 192 sets of questionnaires, this study finds that external pressure, business strategy and perceived benefits of Internet banking would influence banks' perceived increase in Internet banking investment. And banks'perceived increase in Internet banking investment has no difference between big banks and small banks.

  14. GLOBAL TRADE. THE KEY TO TRANSATLANTIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Laura CUCIURIANU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Global trade has an important characteristic in terms of open global markets by means of eliminating barriers to trade and investment. The United States and the European Union, two major international actors and competitors in the economic field, have both the opportunity to change the global trade by concluding the negotiations of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. For this reason, this paper tries to find the connections between global trade and transatlantic competitiveness in the way that the global trade can be considered a key to transatlantic competitiveness. The United States and the European Union are global actors and competitors in the global economy and the play field is the global trade. In order to be aware of the importance ofglobal trade in the transatlantic competitiveness, this paper includes also an analysis of the concrete actions that both economic powers are taking in key-sectors of the transatlantic economy.

  15. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms.

  16. How to use competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan.

  17. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza rezvani

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are often inconsistent. Hence, this study intends to identify the factors affecting selection of foreign market entry strategies and their influences on the selection. For this purpose, the content and types of foreign market entry strategies have been introduced by studying relevant literature. These strategies have been then divided into three main categories of export strategies, non-export strategies, and intermediate strategies. Then, the factors that make effect on selection of these strategies have been identified and classified. Finally, all factors are used to form two separate structural equation models (SEMs based on the theory of Strategic Reference Points and respectively it has been explained that how foreign entry strategies are chosen according to these reference points. To support this explanation empirically, 42 export companies of food industry have been studied in Mazandaran. SPSS18, MINITAB15, and AMOS18 have been used for analyzing and testing the research hypotheses. Findings imply that uncertainty of host country, uncertainty of product market, competitive uncertainty, uncertainty of partner behavior, international experience, technical knowledge, marketing skills, total investment, competitive intensity, nature of foreign activity, attractiveness of location and business relatedness affect selecting foreign market entry strategies. Moreover, with our SEMs, Attractiveness of location, language diversity and uncertainty of the host country are proved to be good manifests of

  18. Cournot competition, contestability, and hit-and-run entry and exit in a teaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gächter, Simon; Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2006-01-01

    Instructors can use a computerized experiment to introduce students to imperfect competition in courses on introductory economics, industrial organization, game theory, and strategy and management. In addition to introducing students to strategic thinking in general, the experiment serves...... to demonstrate that profits of a firm fall as the number of competitors is increased in a market and that firms enter profitable markets. The authors have used the experiment in undergraduate classes on strategy and management as well as in master of business administration courses with great success...

  19. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  20. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports AGENCY: U.S... as Global Entry, at twenty major U.S. airports. Global Entry allows pre-approved,...

  1. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-01-01

    The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs) increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of import...

  2. Barriers to Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    The Presiding Officer of the National Assembly for Wales, Rosemary Butler AM, has put the issue of barriers to women in public life at the top of the political agenda in Wales. She has held sessions with women across Wales to find out what those barriers are and how they can be tackled. On International Women's Day in February, she invited…

  3. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, W T; Callaghan, G M; Ruckstuhl, L E

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers.

  4. Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William T.; Callaghan, Glenn M.; Ruckstuhl, L. E.

    1998-01-01

    The historian and philosopher of science Gaston Bachelard proposed the concept of epistemological barriers to describe the intellectual challenges encountered by scientists in their work. In order to embrace novel ways of approaching a problem in science, scientists must overcome barriers or obstacles posed by their prior views. For example, Einsteinian physics presents scientists with claims that space is curved and that time and space are on the same continuum. We utilize Bachelard's concept of epistemological barriers to describe the differences between the intellectual journeys students pursuing advanced studies face when attempting to accept cognitive psychology or radical behaviorism. We contend that the folk psychological beliefs that students typically hold when entering these studies pose less challenge to cognitive psychology than to radical behaviorism. We also suggest that these barriers may also partly be involved in the problematic exegesis that has plagued radical behaviorism. In close, we offer some suggestions for dealing with these epistemological barriers. PMID:22478314

  5. Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic.

  6. Competition between social and private landlords: Exploring landlords’ perceptions of rivalry and the barriers to a rivalrous relationship in local housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lennartz, C.

    2011-01-01

    Governments in many countries have required social housing providers to operate more marketorientated and engage in commercial activities. Conversely, public authorities in some countries have tried to strengthen the role of the private rental sector in the provision of housing for lowincome househo

  7. Competition and Market Dynamics on the Russian Deposits Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-H. Admiraal (Piet-Hein); M.A. Carree (Martin)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn the early transition era in Russia entry barriers for commercial banks were about absent. It resulted in the mushrooming of hundreds of small, poorly-endowed and inexperienced banks. In this paper we address the question whether the claimed benefits of low entry barriers - competition

  8. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  9. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    by monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized....... In particular, imperfect competition on the product markets and the positive profits associated with it may have the effect that there is a cycle even if the labor supply curve is increasing in the real-wage rate. For competitive cycles is required not only a decreasing labor supply curve, but a wage elasticity...

  10. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Bridoux

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political arena

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  12. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  13. Dental hygienists' perceptions of barriers to graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D; Bailey, Angela

    2011-08-01

    To advance the profession of dental hygiene, graduate education is necessary to support growth in research, education, administration, and practice in the discipline and to sustain credibility in a climate in which other health professions require entry-level master's and doctoral degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore what dental hygienists perceive as barriers to pursuing a graduate degree. A survey was developed based on the literature and other national surveys. Data were collected from 160 respondents to the survey: 50 percent held an entry-level baccalaureate degree in dental hygiene, while the rest held an entry-level associate degree (48 percent) or certificate (2 percent) in dental hygiene. All respondents had completed a bachelor's degree. The top five barriers these respondents identified in pursuing graduate education were as follows: 1) cost of graduate education, 2) family responsibilities are too great, 3) concerns about personal funding to pay for graduate education, 4) finding time for graduate school while working, and 5) fear of thesis research. Dental hygiene is one of the few health professions that still have entry-level degrees at the associate and baccalaureate levels. The profession needs to reduce such barriers to enable dental hygienists to pursue graduate education and thus ensure an adequate supply of future leaders, educators, and researchers.

  14. Phobetor: Princeton University's entry in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joshua; Zhu, Han; Partridge, Brenton A.; Szocs, Laszlo J.; Abiola, Solomon O.; Corey, Ryan M.; Suresh, Srinivasan A.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Phobetor, an autonomous outdoor vehicle originally designed for the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). We describe new vision and navigation systems that have yielded 3x increase in obstacle detection speed using parallel processing and robust lane detection results. Phobetor also uses probabilistic local mapping to learn about its environment and Anytime Dynamic A* (AD*) to plan paths to reach its goals. Our vision software is based on color stereo images and uses robust, RANSAC-based algorithms while running fast enough to support real-time autonomous navigation on uneven terrain. AD* allows Phobetor to respond quickly in all situations even when optimal planning takes more time, and uses incremental replanning to increase search efficiency. We augment the cost map of the environment with a potential field which addresses the problem of "wall-hugging" and smoothes generated paths to allow safe and reliable path-following. In summary, we present innovations on Phobetor that are relevant to real-world robotics platforms in uncertain environments.

  15. How Do Hospitals Respond to Market Entry? Evidence from a Deregulated Market for Cardiac Revascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suhui; Dor, Avi

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory entry barriers to hospital service markets, namely Certificate of Need (CON) regulations, are enforced in many US states. Policy makers in other states are considering reinstating CON policies in tandem with service expansions mandated under the Affordable Care Act. Although previous studies examined the volume effects of CON, demand responses to actual entry into local hospital markets are not well understood. In this paper, we empirically examine the demand-augmenting, demand-redistribution, and risk-allocation effects of hospital entry by studying the cardiac revascularization markets in Pennsylvania, a state in which dynamic market entry occurred after repeal of CON in 1996. Results from interrupted time-series analyses indicate demand-augmenting effects for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and business-stealing effects for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedures: high entrant market share mitigated the declining incidence of CABG, but it had no significant effect on the rising trend in PCI use, among patients with coronary artery disease. We further find evidence that entry by new cardiac surgery centers tended to sort high-severity patients into the more invasive CABG procedure and low-severity patients into the less invasive PCI procedures. These findings underscore the importance of considering market-level strategic responses by hospitals when regulatory barriers are rescinded.

  16. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rezvani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are often inconsistent. Hence, this study intends to identify the factors affecting selection of foreign market entry strategies and their influences on the selection. For this purpose, the content and types of foreign market entry strategies have been introduced by studying relevant literature. These strategies have been then divided into three main categories of export strategies, non-export strategies, and intermediate strategies. Then, the factors that make effect on selection of these strategies have been identified and classified. Finally, all factors are used to form two separate structural equation models (SEMs based on the theory of Strategic Reference Points and respectively it has been explained that how foreign entry strategies are chosen according to these reference points. To support this explanation empirically, 42 export companies of food industry have been studied in Mazandaran. SPSS18, MINITAB15, and AMOS18 have been used for analyzing and testing the research hypotheses. Findings imply that uncertainty of host country, uncertainty of product market, competitive uncertainty, uncertainty of partner behavior, international experience, technical knowledge, marketing skills, total investment, competitive intensity, nature of foreign activity, attractiveness of location and business relatedness affect selecting foreign market entry strategies. Moreover, with our SEMs, Attractiveness of location, language diversity and uncertainty of the host country are proved to

  17. Federal Barriers to Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raegen; Lake, Robin

    2012-01-01

    With educational outcomes inadequate, resources tight, and students' academic needs growing more complex, America's education system is certainly ready for technological innovation. And technology itself is ripe to be exploited. Devices harnessing cheap computing power have become smart and connected. Voice recognition, artificial intelligence,…

  18. The effects of market structure and payment rate on the entry of private health plans into the Medicare market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Feldman, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Private insurance firms participating in Medicare can offer up to three principal plan types: coordinated care plans (CCPs), prescription drug plans (PDPs), and private fee-for-service (PFFS) plans. Firms can make entry and marketing decisions separately across plan types and geographic regions. In this study, we estimate firm-level models of Medicare private plan entry using data from the years 2007 to 2009. Our models include a measure of market structure and separately identify CCP, PDP, and PFFS entry. We find evidence that entry barriers associated with CCP market concentration affect all three product types. We also find evidence of cross-product competition and common cost or demand factors that make entry with certain product combinations more likely. We predict that the market presence of CCPs and PFFS plans will decrease and that of PDPs will increase in response to payment reductions included in the new health reform law.

  19. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  20. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    product development. Despite the increasing evidence of a positive relationship between above average business performance and a high level of market-oriented activity, normative recommendations on how to increase the level of market-oriented activity is sparse. The scientific contribution of the present...... research is to expand the understanding of what factors inhibit the increase of market-oriented activity and how these factors may interact. Identifying and describing the barriers is considered the first and necessary step in attempting to reach a higher level of market-oriented activity......Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  1. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  2. 基于多期信贷竞争的外资银行进入模式研究%Entry modes of foreign banks in the multi-phase credit competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 曾勇; 李强

    2012-01-01

    With the full opening-up of the banking industry, foreign banks are allowed to enter the Chinese credit market either through Greenfield investment or by cooperating with the Chinese banks as strategic investors. Under the assumption that the foreign bank has the cost advantage and the domestic bank has the information advantage from old customers and screening, this paper first extends the single-phase credit competition model to the multi-phase, and then studies the entry modes of foreign banks in the multi-phase credit competition. The results show that, unlike that both the information advantage from old customers and screening can affect the equilibrium in the single-phase competition, only the information advantage from screening can affect the multi-phase competition equilibrium. With regard to the entry modes of foreign banks, the results suggest that the information advantage from screening is a barrier to Greenfield investment. Under the policy that foreign banks can only become minority shareholders of domestic banks, a foreign bank will tend to buy the share of the domestic bank with screening in order to eliminate the information disadvantage, and thus the policy can protect the weaker domestic bank from merging.%银行业全面开放后,外资银行可以绿地投资或作为本地银行的战略投资者两种模式进入.本文考虑本地银行具有老客户和甄别能力带来的信息优势,外资银行具有信贷成本优势,首先在银行不损失优质老客户利润的竞争规则下,将单期信贷模型扩展到多期,然后利用多期竞争的结论对两种进入模式进行了研究.结论表明:与单期信贷竞争中本地银行信息优势来源于老客户和甄别能力两方面不同,在多期信贷竞争中,本地银行信息优势主要来源于甄别能力,并成为外资银行绿地投资的进入壁垒;在少数股权政策的限制下,为了消除信息劣势,外资银行倾向于入股因拥

  3. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  4. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  5. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  6. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  7. Perfect competition according to Enrico Barone

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Mosca; Michael E. Bradley

    2013-01-01

    The Italian economist Enrico Barone (1859- 1924) is best known for his contributions to marginal productivity theory and the socialist planning debate. This paper analyzes Barone’s contributions to the theory of perfect competition which are largely ignored in the secondary literature. It includes his methodology; the definition, conditions and outcomes of perfect competition; the institutional context of perfect competition; and the adjustment process. It also includes some of Barone’s graph...

  8. Competition and Personality in a Restaurant Entry Game: Is there an Entrepreneurial Personality Type?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted C; Sonstelie, Jon C; Parendo, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Students in a large principles class participated in a market experiment in which they had opportunities to take entrepreneurial action. These students had also taken the Meyers-Briggs personality test. We explore the relation between personality characteristics and participation decisions.

  9. Competitive effects of low trade barriers: evaluations for the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golovanova Svetlana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available International trade is an important factor affecting competition in domestic markets. Considering the vastness of Russian territory, one can expect the pro-competitive effect to vary from region to region. This analysis tests the hypothesis that the unique geographical position and economic status of the Kaliningrad region contribute to the rapid development of international trade, which, in turn, exerts competitive pressure on regional prices. The study incorporates two major lines of analysis: a a comparison of the international trade growth rates of different Russian regions; b an assessment of the influence of Russian and European prices on the consumer price index as well as prices for particular tradable goods in the Kaliningrad region. Rosstat and Eurostat serve as the main data sources. To test their hypothesis, the authors use the methods of statistical and econometric analysis. The status of the free economic zone and unique geographic position of the Kaliningrad region do not result in high growth rates of international trade in the region, but rather lead to a structural shift towards import thus exerting additional competitive pressure on domestic prices. The analysis did not confirm the hypothesis about the considerable influence of European prices on the short run dynamics of the regional consumer prices index or prices for certain imported goods. Nevertheless, indirect evidence of competitive effects of foreign trade was found in the course of a comparative analysis of price levels in the regions of the Northwest Federal district: the cost of the standard set of consumer goods and services in the Kaliningrad region is lower than the level defined by the regional per capita income.

  10. A Study on Entry Barriers of Chinese Service Industry Based on Extended Orr Model%基于拓展Orr模型的中国服务业进入壁垒研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵骏; 张捷

    2015-01-01

    The entry barriers of Chinese service industry consist of institutional environment, factor cost and governmental intervention.This paper uses extended Orr model to empirically test the effects of the above entry barriers on entry rate of 40 Chinese 2-digit service industries.The empirical results show that, the growth of entry rate of service industries is significantly promoted by releasing the regulation of entry access based on administrative approval system, meanwhile, it is obstructed by tax burden, capital intensity, R&D investment and overwhelming revenue and capital proportion of state-owned economy.Especially, higher requirement for human capital and R&D investment significantly impedes outside entry activities in knowledge-and technology-intensive service industries.%从制度环境质量、要素使用特征以及政府干预等方面探讨了中国服务业进入壁垒的形成机理,并利用拓展Orr模型实证检验进入壁垒对中国2008年40个二位数服务行业进入率的影响。结果表明:依托行政审批制度的行业准入管制的放松有利于提高服务业进入率,但税收负担、资产规模和研发投入构成显著的进入壁垒,其中知识和技术密集型服务业对人力资本和研发投入的要求更高;政府干预形成的进入壁垒主要表现在国有企业庞大的营业额和资产规模上。

  11. Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Barriers which Limit the Entry of International Telecommunication Service Companies into Asian Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the development of telecom regulation andderegulation between some typical Asian countries, and analyzes the telecom regulatory systems and industrial organizations of China. This paper also investigates the approaches and strategies of Asian countries to reduce the regulation, reinforce the competition and establish efficient telecom industries. Having examined the Asian telecommunication markets, the paper attempts to apply the lessons learned from the opening of the telecoms markets of the developed economies. Finally the paper contends that if Asian economies wish to have nationally based companies, state or private enterprises, in a competitive postion, the format of the implementation of the WTO/GATS basic telecoms agreement should be carefully examined.

  12. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  13. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  14. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  15. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price co

  16. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...

  17. China to Hold Third International Piano Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan

    2004-01-01

    The third China InternationalPiano Competition will be held inMay at the Beijing Sun Yat-SenConcert Hall. Since its inceptionin 1994, the competition hasgarnered attention from aroundthe globe for its high standards,world-class panel of judges, andtalented candidates. Prior to the

  18. Introducing the competitive dimension to corporate foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jan Oliver; Rohrbeck, René

    While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches...... in corporate foresight, in particular scenario planning and business wargaming, which address competitive dynamics. Further, literature on competitive strategy is discussed to assess approaches towards the identification of new rivals. One can conclude that there is an absence of structured approaches...... or frameworks towards the competitive dimension in corporate foresight. In the paper an illustrative case study is discussed, with a first attempt to provide a framework for structuring the competitive dimension in corporate foresight....

  19. Barriers to comparing the usability of electronic health records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratwani, Raj M; Hettinger, A Zachary; Fairbanks, Rollin J

    2016-08-29

    Despite the widespread adoption of electronic health records (EHRs), usability of many EHRs continues to be suboptimal, with some vendors failing to meet usability standards, resulting in clinician frustration and patient safety hazards. In an effort to increase EHR vendor competition on usability, recommendations have been made and legislation drafted to develop comparison tools that would allow purchasers to better understand the usability of EHR products prior to purchase. Usability comparison can be based on EHR vendor design and development processes, vendor usability testing as part of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology certification program, and usability of implemented products. Barriers exist within the current certified health technology program that prevent effective comparison of usability during each of these stages. We describe the importance of providing purchasers with improved information about EHR usability, barriers to making usability comparisons, and solutions to overcome these barriers.

  20. Late entry to antenatal care in New South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubin George

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims This study aimed to assess the prevalence of women who entered antenatal care (ANC late and to identify factors related to the late entry to ANC in New South Wales (NSW in 2004. Methods The NSW Midwives Data Collection contained data of 85,034 women who gave birth in 2004. Data were downloaded using SAS and transferred to STATA 8.0. Entering ANC after 12 weeks of gestation was classified as late. The Andersen Health Seeking Behaviour Model was used for selection and analyses of related factors. Regression and hierarchical analyses were used to identify significant factors and their relative contributions to the variation of pregnancy duration at entry to ANC. Results 41% of women commenced ANC after 12 weeks of gestation. Inequality existed between groups of women with predisposing characteristics and enabling resources contributed more to the variation in pregnancy duration at entry to ANC than needs. The groups of women with highest risk were teenagers, migrants from developing countries, women living in Western Sydney, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, women with three or more previous pregnancies and heavy smokers. The high risk groups with largest number of women were migrants from developing countries and women living in Western Sydney. Conclusion A large number of women in NSW entered ANC late in their pregnancies. Efforts to increase early entry to ANC should be targeted on identified high risk groups of women.

  1. Application of an Aesthetic Evaluation Model to Data Entry Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. C. L.; Byrne, J. G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a new model for quantitatively assessing screen formats. Results of applying the model to data entry screens support the use of the model. Also described is a critiquing mechanism embedded in a user interface design environment as a demonstration of this approach. (Author/AEF)

  2. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  3. Barriers to Start-Up and Their Effect on Aspirant Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Martyn; Collins, Amanda; Medeira, Natasha; Slater, James

    2003-01-01

    The importance of new business start-ups cannot be over-emphasised. The UK government has taken actions designed to stimulate the growth of new businesses and aid their survival. The identification of barriers to entry is important, together with strategies to minimise their impact. The UK continues to lag behind the USA in its levels of…

  4. The immunological barriers to xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadori, M; Cozzi, E

    2015-10-01

    The availability of cells, tissues and organs from a non-human species such as the pig could, at least in theory, meet the demand of organs necessary for clinical transplantation. At this stage, the important goal of getting over the first year of survival has been reported for both cellular and solid organ xenotransplantation in relevant preclinical primate models. In addition, xenotransplantation is already in the clinic as shown by the broad use of animal-derived medical devices, such as bioprosthetic heart valves and biological materials used for surgical tissue repair. At this stage, however, prior to starting a wide-scale clinical application of xenotransplantation of viable cells and organs, the important obstacle represented by the humoral immune response will need to be overcome. Likewise, the barriers posed by the activation of the innate immune system and coagulative pathway will have to be controlled. As far as xenogeneic nonviable xenografts, increasing evidence suggests that considerable immune reactions, mediated by both innate and adaptive immunity, take place and influence the long-term outcome of xenogeneic materials in patients, possibly precluding the use of bioprosthetic heart valves in young individuals. In this context, the present article provides an overview of current knowledge on the immune processes following xenotransplantation and on the possible therapeutic interventions to overcome the immunological drawbacks involved in xenotransplantation.

  5. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Munro Don; Bore Miles; Powis David; Ferguson Eamonn; James David; Symonds Ian; Yates Janet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM) to a shortened (4-year) course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether t...

  6. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Don

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM to a shortened (4-year course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether this could be beneficial. Methods We studied: a 217 and 96 applicants to the Nottingham 5- and 4-year courses respectively, applying in the 2002-3 UCAS cycle, and, b 246 school leavers starting the 5-year course and 39 graduate entrants to the 4-year course in October 2003. The psychological profiles of the two groups of applicants and two groups of entrants were compared using their performance in the Goldberg 'Big 5' Personality test, the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA; measuring interpersonal traits and interpersonal values, and the Lovibond and Lovibond measure of depression, anxiety and stress. For the comparison of the Entrants we excluded the 33 school leavers and seven graduates who took the tests as Applicants. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results Graduate applicants compared to school leaver applicants were significantly more conscientious, more confident, more self controlled, more communitarian in moral orientation and less anxious. Only one of these differences was preserved in the entrants with graduates being less anxious. However, the graduate entrants were significantly less empathetic and conscientious than the school leavers. Conclusion This study has shown that school leaver and graduate entrants to medical school differ in some psychological characteristics. However, if confirmed in other studies and if they were manifest in the extreme, not all the traits brought by graduates would be

  7. Competition law and the obligation to supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergqvist, Christian

    2015-01-01

    While accepted in theory and practice that an obligation to supply, ser-vice or license can emerge under competition law, the scope of this is subject to many, if not lacunas, at least ambiguities, and no general ob-li¬gations of such nature can, no should, be identified. Further, and equally.......g. compulsory licenses un-der IP law. Below, some considerations regarding the obligation to supply under competition law are offered for the purpose of correcting the misunderstandings....

  8. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  9. Measurements and Determinates of Entry Barriers of Chinese Construction Industry%我国建筑业进入壁垒度量及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓明; 郝生跃; 任旭

    2014-01-01

    建筑业产业形态与进入壁垒的高低有着直接的关系,为了充分阐释这一命题背后的因果关系,采用市场驱动力和累计进入率测算了我国建筑业的进入壁垒指数,结果发现我国建筑业进入较低,存在过度进入的问题。而造成这一问题的原因在于规模经济、必要资本量、绝对成本优势等影响因素未能对新进企业的进入造成障碍。同时从“结构-行为”的互动效应来看,进入壁垒低也导致了我国建筑业市场集中度低、盈利水平差、市场秩序恶化等现象。最后结合我国建筑业市场进入壁垒低的问题,对建筑行业、企业发展提出了相关管理启示。%There is a direct correlation between the industrial patterns and entry barriers of construction industry. In order to fully explain the causation behind this proposition,this paper measures the entry barriers of Chinese construction industry by using market drivers and entry rates.The result demonstrates that the entry barriers is low and there is “over-entry” in Chinese construction industry. The key reason is that scale economy,minimum capital requirement,advantage of absolute expenditure and other factors have little effect on the entering of new enterprises. Meanwhile low entry barriers also result in the low concentration,low profit margins and market order worsened. Finally,some suggestions for firms and the industry are proposed.

  10. Pollen competition between two sympatric Orchis species (Orchidaceae): the overtaking of conspecific of heterospecific pollen as a reproductive barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, A; Palermo, A M; Bellusci, F; Pellegrino, G

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of hybrid formation in angiosperms depends on how and when heterospecific pollen is transferred to the stigma, and on the success of that heterospecific pollen at fertilising ovules. We applied pollen mixtures to stigmas to determine how pollen interactions affect siring success and the frequency of hybrid formation between two species of Mediterranean deceptive orchid. Plants of Orchis italica and O. anthropophora were pollinated with conspecific and heterospecific pollen (first conspecific pollen then heterospecific pollen and vice versa) and molecular analysis was used to check the paternity of the seeds produced. In this pair of Mediterranean orchids, competition between conspecific and heterospecific pollen functions as a post-pollination pre-zygotic barrier limiting the frequency of the formation of hybrids in nature. Flowers pollinated with heterospecific pollen can remain receptive for the arrival of conspecific pollen for a long time. There is always an advantage of conspecific pollen for fruit formation, whether it comes before or after heterospecific pollen, because it overtakes the heterospecific pollen. The conspecific pollen advantage exhibited in O. italica and O. anthropophora is likely to result from the reduced germination of heterospecific pollen or retarded growth of heterospecific pollen tubes in the stigma and ovary. Overall, the results indicate that our hybrid zone represents a phenomenon of little evolutionary consequence, and the conspecific pollen advantage maintains the genetic integrity of the parental species.

  11. Is parotid saliva sterile on entry to the oral cavity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine A; Bardow, Allan; Eickhardt-Dalbøge, Steffen;

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The present study indicates that parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity. OBJECTIVES: The objective was to investigate if parotid saliva is sterile on entry to the oral cavity and, thus, prior to contamination by oral bacteria. METHOD: Forty healthy volunteers were...... included in sterile parotid saliva collection. Parotid saliva was collected using a sterile Lashley cup, placed over the papilla of the Stensen´s duct, as well as sterile tubes and syringes for collection. All collections were followed by collection of a positive control sample where some of the sterile...... obtained parotid saliva had been exposed to the contralateral mucosal membranes. All samples parotid saliva, as well as the positive controls, were cultivated, and 10 randomly selected parotid saliva samples underwent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses. RESULTS: In 33 of 40 parotid saliva samples...

  12. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals.

  13. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack...

  14. Nurses' barriers to learning: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marion C

    2012-07-01

    This integrative review of the literature describes nurses' barriers to learning. Five major themes emerged: time constraints, financial constraints, workplace culture, access/relevance, and competency in accessing electronic evidence-based practice literature. The nurse educator must address these barriers for the staff to achieve learning and competency.

  15. Franchising as a form of entry to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Palásková, Dana

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. This work is devided into three chapters. The first chapter is focused on general theory in franchising (definition, different kinds of franchising, advantages and disadvantages, franchising history etc.). The second chapter is devoted to the application of franchising in particular firm accor hotels, where I introduce the brand ibis hotels and its operation in the world. In the third chapter I describe and introduc...

  16. Hepatic tight junctions:From viral entry to cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikki; P; Lee; John; M; Luk

    2010-01-01

    The tight junction (TJ) is a critical cellular component for maintenance of tissue integrity, cellular interactions and cell-cell communications, and physiologically functions as the "great wall" against external agents and the surrounding hostile environment. During the host-pathogen evolution, viruses somehow found the key to unlock the gate for their entry into cells and to exploit and exhaust the host cells. In the liver, an array of TJ molecules is localized along the bile canaliculi forming the blood-...

  17. Sodium hydrogen exchangers contribute to arenavirus cell entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ngo, Nhi; de la Torre, Juan C

    2014-01-01

    Several arenaviruses, chiefly Lassa virus (LASV), cause hemorrhagic fever (HF) disease in humans and pose a great public health concern in the regions in which they are endemic. Moreover, evidence indicates that the worldwide-distributed prototypic arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a neglected human pathogen of clinical significance. The limited existing armamentarium to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses underscores the importance of developing novel antiarenaviral drugs, a task that would be facilitated by the identification and characterization of virus-host cell factor interactions that contribute to the arenavirus life cycle. A genome-wide small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen identified sodium hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3) as required for efficient multiplication of LCMV in HeLa cells, but the mechanisms by which NHE activity contributed to the life cycle of LCMV remain unknown. Here we show that treatment with the NHE inhibitor 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl) amiloride (EIPA) resulted in a robust inhibition of LCMV multiplication in both rodent (BHK-21) and human (A549) cells. EIPA-mediated inhibition was due not to interference with virus RNA replication, gene expression, or budding but rather to a blockade of virus cell entry. EIPA also inhibited cell entry mediated by the glycoproteins of the HF arenaviruses LASV and Junin virus (JUNV). Pharmacological and genetic studies revealed that cell entry of LCMV in A549 cells depended on actin remodeling and Pak1, suggesting a macropinocytosis-like cell entry pathway. Finally, zoniporide, an NHE inhibitor being explored as a therapeutic agent to treat myocardial infarction, inhibited LCMV propagation in culture cells. Our findings indicate that targeting NHEs could be a novel strategy to combat human-pathogenic arenaviruses.

  18. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Bláha, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  19. Dynamic peer-to-peer competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram, L. F.; Caiafa, C. F.; Proto, A. N.; Ausloos, M.

    2010-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of a multiagent system in which the agent size si is variable it is studied along a Lotka-Volterra approach. The agent size has hereby the meaning of the fraction of a given market that an agent is able to capture (market share). A Lotka-Volterra system of equations for prey-predator problems is considered, the competition factor being related to the difference in size between the agents in a one-on-one competition. This mechanism introduces a natural self-organized dynamic competition among agents. In the competition factor, a parameter σ is introduced for scaling the intensity of agent size similarity, which varies in each iteration cycle. The fixed points of this system are analytically found and their stability analyzed for small systems (with n=5 agents). We have found that different scenarios are possible, from chaotic to non-chaotic motion with cluster formation as function of the σ parameter and depending on the initial conditions imposed to the system. The present contribution aim is to show how a realistic though minimalist nonlinear dynamics model can be used to describe the market competition (companies, brokers, decision makers) among other opinion maker communities.

  20. Trajectory And A Competitive Company Internacionalization Perdigão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei José Sereia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world economy has required new configurations of global companies to support their positions and result in earnings of its assets. The company Perdigao sought to direct their efforts as market orientation and respond to new stimuli with the adequacy of its structure to the highly competitive international markets. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolutionary process of the company Perdigão S/A Brazil until the formation of Foods, a result of the merger with Sadia S/A, the company’s track record, set in a competitive environment characterized by barriers to market entry international, protected by tariff barriers and sanitary. The company’s shares resulted in increased sales and opening new markets abroad. The brand, creating new products, operational efficiency and commercial aggressiveness have been responsible for expanding sales and net revenues in the period 2004-2009.

  1. Sourcing Strategies to Keep up with Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic...... are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....

  2. Substitutive Competition: Virtual Pets as Competitive Buffers to Alleviate Possible Negative Influence on Pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi-Hong; Chou, Chih-Yueh; Biswas, Gautam; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2012-01-01

    Although competition is regarded as a powerful motivator in game-based learning, it might have a negative influence, such as damage to confidence, on students who lose the competition. In this paper, we propose an indirect approach, substitutive competition, to alleviate such negative influences. The approach is used to develop a My-Pet v3 system,…

  3. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are well......, studies of peptide and protein drug diffusion in and through mucus and studies of mucus-penetrating nanoparticles are included to illustrate the mucus as a potentially important barrier to obtain sufficient bioavailability of orally administered drugs, and thus an important parameter to address...

  4. Cultural Barriers to International Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    Studies in international business negotiation acquire unprecedented significance, as globalization closely connects vari⁃ous business fields into a dynamic whole. Cultural factors play a vital role in international business negotiation. This paper begins with a brief introduction to business negotiation, international business negotiation and significance of cultural barriers to interna⁃tional business negotiation. It then explores two fundamental cultural differences of China and western countries:value differenc⁃es and thinking-pattern differences, which pose cultural barriers. The author then puts forward three strategies to help remove the cultural barriers and achieve successful negotiations.

  5. Using Classroom Competitions to Prepare Students for the Competitive Business World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Fay Y.; Kincade, Doris H.; Frasier, Pamela Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how a university, collaborating with industry, integrated research with active learning (e.g., collaboration in teams and competitions) for fashion majors. The redesigned introductory course uses two strategies: team competitions and a genius bar to guide students, give ongoing feedback, and judge final competitions. Active…

  6. Competition within Physical Education: Using Sport Education and Other Recommendations to Create a Productive, Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Sport Education by physical education teachers to implement developmentally appropriate competitive activities is explored. The potential positive and negative consequences of competitive activities are discussed along with suggestions for teachers on how they can foster an appropriate competitive environment in physical education.

  7. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition? 636.404 Section 636.404 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS DESIGN-BUILD CONTRACTING Exchanges § 636.404 Can a competitive range...

  8. Transformation from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage: A Way to Improve Regional Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Neng-li

    2011-01-01

    Primarily this paper analyses the internal correlation between comparative advantage and competitive advantage, and holds that there are no conflict and contradiction between the two. the industries with comparative advantage often easily to have strong comparative advantage. Then this paper analyses the factors influencing regional agricultural competitiveness, including resources endowment, ecological environment, quality of labour forces, infrastructure, technology innovation and transform...

  9. From harmonisation to regulatory competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Vitols, Sigurt; Heuschmid, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    In his contribution (Chapter 4) Jan Cremers provides a historical account of the European-level approach to company law and its effect on national systems. Originally, the European Commission pursued a project of company law harmonisation on the basis of high standards which were designed to discour

  10. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... to a set of city center social interventions to reveal four themes: "offering collaboration", "requesting collaboration", "allowing for collaboration" and "making collaboration contextually relevant". Each of these breaching experiments in different ways helps reveal the ordinary social organization...

  11. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  12. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution.

  13. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making Updated:Mar 6,2017 Advanced heart failure is ... But charting a clear path through the shared decision-making process is possible, if you can recognize where ...

  14. STRATEGY FROM CONCEPTUALIZATION TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Catalin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how important the process of defining strategy can be for a company in the economical context that we all face now days. This study shows that although the results after a company has defined its strategy can be seen in a longer or shorter period of time, the process is complex and needs managers that can foresee the future. And at the end of every strategy defining the final result should be competitive advantage, this competitive advantage that can bring a company in front of its main competitors, and if the company manages to stay in front of those competitors it can gain sustainable competitive advantage. In fact this should be the goal of every company: to try by all means, off course legal means, to do things better than other companies using the right strategy. Companies can use their capabilities and knowledge in these fields, a constant innovation process can help the society to undergo powerful changes. These changes can be firstly seen in the mentality, the behaviour and the process of knowledge. It is important for a company to understand its role in the modern society. Managers of important companies do their best to keep those respective companies at a level that can secure profit, but profit is not always the entire issue. It takes time in order for those innovations to reach the whole society, because companies are not willing to give information about their products, and keep this information to be able to have future profit. The role of competitive advantage can be seen in any field of activity, it provides the values that keep our society moving forward. Competitive advantage is needed in fields like: medicine, education or environmental protection. Companies have to innovate constantly in order to obtain this competitive advantage, but this competitive advantage can be present today and gone tomorrow, because the conditions on the market are changing at a very fast rate.In the past years

  15. Dynamic Peer-to-Peer Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Caram, L F; Proto, A N; Ausloos, M

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a multiagent system in which the agent size $s_{i}$ is variable it is studied along a Lotka-Volterra approach. The agent size has hereby for meaning the fraction of a given market that an agent is able to capture (market share). A Lotka-Volterra system of equations for prey-predator problems is considered, the competition factor being related to the difference in size between the agents in a one-on-one competition. This mechanism introduces a natural self-organized dynamic competition among agents. In the competition factor, a parameter $\\sigma$ is introduced for scaling the intensity of agent size similarity, which varies in each iteration cycle. The fixed points of this system are analytically found and their stability analyzed for small systems (with $n=5$ agents). We have found that different scenarios are possible, from chaotic to non-chaotic motion with cluster formation as function of the $\\sigma$ parameter and depending on the initial conditions imposed to the system. The prese...

  16. Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Laura C.; Seipke, Ryan F.; Prieto, Pilar; Willemse, Joost; van Wezel, Gilles P.; Hutchings, Matthew I.; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction with other soil organisms. Disruption of the mce cluster resulted in virulence towards amoebae (Acanthamoeba polyphaga) and reduced colonization of plant (Arabidopsis) models, indicating these genes may play an important role in Streptomyces survival in the environment. Our data suggest that loss of mce in Streptomyces spp. may have profound effects on survival in a competitive soil environment, and provides insight in to the evolution and selection of these genes as virulence factors in related pathogenic organisms. PMID:23346366

  17. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  18. Ranking Barriers to Green Supply Chain Management Using DIMATEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Omidvar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today's organizations in order to achieve and maintain proper position requires the use of a model of supply chain management in order to fulfill the competitive advantage and expectations of customers. Due to the challenging economic, social and environmental organizations in recent decades has threatened, Customer-oriented approach and focus on the demands of the organization's strategy and design basis for competitive advantage in organizations is less. In this regard, green supply chain management, new approach to achieve these goals. Green supply chain management, supply chain management is the integration of environmental requirements in all stages of product design, selection and procurement of raw materials, manufacturing, distribution and transport processes, and finally delivered to the customer after consumption, waste management and consumption of energy and resources in order to maximize productivity and improve the overall performance of the supply chain. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the barriers to green supply chain management practices in the company's vehicle using DIMATEL. The logistics company for the car was studied. After the conclusion of these obstacles, the second step of the analysis and ranking DIMATEL barriers were causal. ISO 14000, the most important influence on the lack of green supply chain management practices.

  19. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    a comprehensive matched employer-employee longitudinal data set from Denmark. To mitigate endogeneity concerns, we exploit variation in the gender composition of established firms as women are systematically found to be less competitive than man. We find that workers are more likely to become entrepreneurs...... to entrepreneurship has a positive non-linear effect. Our results have strong implications for managers, prospect entrepreneurs and policy makers....

  20. Identify and Rank Barriers to Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parchekani Choozaki Parvaneh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey study and is practical and in nature is analytical descriptive. This is an analytical study because samples were used to collect data and it is descriptive because its variables are studied and reported as there are in the real world. In this study we study the barriers to tourism development and will rank the barriers for the use planners. In this study, to determine the validity the content validity was determined and to determine reliability the Cronbach's alpha method has been used. Also to check the normality of questions’ answers the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test is used. The sample population has also been determined by computational methods. In conclusion, according to the results of questionnaires and fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process method, results were presented in two parts: result analysis for ranking the barriers to the development of tourism and suggestions.

  1. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  2. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  3. Transformation from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage——A Way to Improve Regional Agricultural Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Primarily this paper analyses the internal correlation between comparative advantage and competitive advantage,and holds that there are no conflict and contradiction between the two,the industries with comparative advantage often easily to have strong competitive advantage.Then this paper analyses the factors influencing regional agricultural competitiveness,including resources endowment,ecological environment,quality of labour forces,infrastructure,technology innovation and transformation capacity,industrialization degree,relevant support industries,market demand structure,government management and policy and so on.Finally,based on the analysis of conversion mechanism of regional agriculture from comparative advantage to competitive advantage,this paper puts forward the countermeasures for promoting regional agricultural competitiveness as follows:vigorously develop agricultural industrialization,and foster the leading enterprises;improve the national policy system for supporting agriculture,and increase the inputs into infrastructure and scientific research innovation;promote the development of related industries and support industries,and promote agricultural competitiveness;increase consumers’ demand for the quality of agricultural products,and propel business investment and innovation.

  4. Market and Policy Barriers to Energy Storage Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.

  5. Concurso CORVI para viviendas en Valparaiso: comentario sobre el proyecto ganador, el Conjunto Habitacional “Villa Italia” /Housing in Valparaiso CORVI competition: coments on the winning entry “Villa Italia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Raposo [1967

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La reedición de este artículo busca recoger la línea de diseño urbano residencial que se desarrollaba en la Facultad de Arquitectura y Urbanismo en esa época. /This competition entry presents the urban housing design taught at that time (1967 in FAU.

  6. Tax Competition Leading to Strict Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Withagen, Cees; Halsema, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We study tax competition when pollution matters. Most notably we present a dynamic setting, where the supply of capital is endogenous. It is shown that tax competition may involve stricter environmental policy than the cooperative outcome.

  7. ON AFFECTIVE BARRIERS TO LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangMaoying

    2004-01-01

    Affective factors play a significant role in languagelearning. This paper argues that positive emotions can facilitatethe language learning process and improve learners' languageperformance, while negative emotions will bring barriers tolanguage learning and reduce learners learning capacity. Withtwo true stories as an introduction and some relevant answersobtained from my questionnaire, this paper mainly discusses theinfluences of negative emotional factors on language learning.such as anxiety, low self-esteem, insecure classroomatmosphere, lack of rapport between teachers and students, etc.Some suggestions about how to overcome affective barriers areput forward.

  8. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    machines and continued to collect shoppers ’ information for three more days.39 On December 27, Target also acknowledged, contrary to early reports...cyber criminals it is difficult, costly and ineffective to fight online attacks alone. Having the ability to connect and share information about

  9. Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based

  10. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C.; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document disc

  11. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  12. Language barriers to learning science

    OpenAIRE

    Elaine Ridge; Faan Jordaan; NC Nangu

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a study done in 1996 by Jordaan and Mangu which sought to determine how well pupils understand concepts which appear frequently in their textbooks and also to establish whether support material would facilitate learning. This article is not as much interested in the performance level of the students as the underlying reasons for the poor performance. The article explores some of the responses made by students in order to define their difficulties more precisely and concl...

  13. Exploring the Barriers to Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christian Gormsen

    in the model are identical, but appear heterogeneous due to their price randomization. In larger and more open economies, prices and markups will be lower, and exports are primarily realized by sellers who charge low prices. These predictions are similar to those of trade models where firm heterogeneity...

  14. Barriers to implement green supply chain management in automobile industry using interpretive structural modeling technique: An Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Luthra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM has received growing attention in the last few years. Most of the automobile industries are setting up their own manufacturing plants in competitive Indian market. Due to public awareness, economic, environmental or legislative reasons, the requirement of GSCM has increased.  In this context, this study aims to develop a structural model of the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry.Design/methodology/approach: We have identified various barriers and contextual relationships among the identified barriers. Classification of barriers has been carried out based upon dependence and driving power with the help of MICMAC analysis. In addition to this, a structural model of barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry has also been put forward using Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM technique. Findings: Eleven numbers of relevant barriers have been identified from literature and subsequent discussions with experts from academia and industry. Out of which, five numbers of barriers have been identified as dependent variables; three number of barriers have been identified as the driver variables and three number of barriers have been identified as the linkage variables. No barrier has been identified as autonomous variable. Four barriers have been identified as top level barriers and one bottom level barrier. Removal of these barriers has also been discussed.Research limitations/implications: A hypothetical model of these barriers has been developed based upon experts’ opinions. The conclusions so drawn may be further modified to apply in real situation problem. Practical implications: Clear understanding of these barriers will help organizations to prioritize better and manage their resources in an efficient and effective way.Originality/value: Through this paper we contribute to identify the barriers to implement GSCM in Indian automobile industry and to prioritize them

  15. Trojan Horse Transit Contributes to Blood-Brain Barrier Crossing of a Eukaryotic Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Tirado, Felipe H.; Onken, Michael D.; Cooper, John A.; Klein, Robyn S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the central nervous system (CNS) by restricting the passage of molecules and microorganisms. Despite this barrier, however, the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans invades the brain, causing a meningoencephalitis that is estimated to kill over 600,000 people annually. Cryptococcal infection begins in the lung, and experimental evidence suggests that host phagocytes play a role in subsequent dissemination, although this role remains ill defined. Additionally, the disparate experimental approaches that have been used to probe various potential routes of BBB transit make it impossible to assess their relative contributions, confounding any integrated understanding of cryptococcal brain entry. Here we used an in vitro model BBB to show that a “Trojan horse” mechanism contributes significantly to fungal barrier crossing and that host factors regulate this process independently of free fungal transit. We also, for the first time, directly imaged C. neoformans-containing phagocytes crossing the BBB, showing that they do so via transendothelial pores. Finally, we found that Trojan horse crossing enables CNS entry of fungal mutants that cannot otherwise traverse the BBB, and we demonstrate additional intercellular interactions that may contribute to brain entry. Our work elucidates the mechanism of cryptococcal brain invasion and offers approaches to study other neuropathogens. PMID:28143979

  16. A Learner Perspective on Barriers to E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Karen; Newton, Cameron; Sawang, Sukanlaya

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to identify and categorize barriers to e-learning adoption and the relative impact of those barriers on learners. It contributes to the understanding of learner perceptions of barriers, the different types of barriers and their relative importance. This study used a quantitative methodology grounded in previous literature. The…

  17. Implement Obligations Seriously, Enjoy Rights Fully Make Active Countermeasure to the Barrier of Foreign Technology Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Changjiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ December 11th, 2006 is the fifth anniversary of China's entry into WTO. Over the past five years, what AQSIQ has done in implementing the obligations and enjoying the rights as a member of WTO? How's the performance? Facing with the current complicated barrier of technology trade worldwide, how will China reply to it? For these questions, reporters have made a special interview with Li Changjiang, Minister of AQSIQ.

  18. Assessing barriers to care and readiness for cognitive behavioral therapy in early acute care PTSD interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusz, Sarah Geiss; Wagner, Amy W; Russo, Joan; Love, Jeff; Zatzick, Douglas F

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) interventions are efficacious in reducing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) but are challenging to implement in acute care and other non-specialty mental health settings. This investigation identified barriers impacting CBT delivery through a content analysis of interventionist chart notes from an acute care PTSD prevention trial. Only 8.5% of all intervention patients were able to complete CBT. Lack of engagement, clinical and logistical barriers had the greatest impact on CBT entry. Treatment preferences and stigma only prevented entry when more primary barriers resolved. Patients with prior diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were able to enter CBT after six months of sobriety. Based on the first trial, we developed a CBT readiness assessment tool. We implemented and evaluated the tool in a second early intervention trial. Lack of engagement emerged again as the primary impediment to CBT entry. Patients who were willing to enter CBT treatment but demonstrated high rates of past trauma or diagnosis of PTSD were also the least likely to engage in any PTSD treatment one month post-discharge. Findings support the need for additional investigations into engagement and alternative delivery strategies, including those which dismantle traditional office-based, multi-session CBT into stepped, deliverable components.

  19. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    . Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...... phase which is usually neglected by start-up firms focused on the engineering driven innovativeness of the products. The processes developed along with guidelines facilitate future use which can help such firms to proactively consider logistics requirements at the design stage....

  20. Barriers to medical device innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. Keyword: implantable, FDA, regulation, CE-mark, innovation

  1. Identifying and overcoming barriers to technology implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, M.; Warren, S.; McCune, M. [Dept. of Energy, Germantown, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    In a recent General Accounting Office report, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Environmental Management was found to be ineffective in integrating their environmental technology development efforts with the cleanup actions. As a result of these findings, a study of remediation documents was performed by the Technology Applications Team within DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) to validate this finding and to understand why it was occurring. A second initiative built on the foundation of the remediation document study and evaluated solutions to the ineffective implementation of improved technologies. The Technology Applications Team examined over 50 remediation documents (17 projects) which included nearly 600 proposed remediation technologies. It was determined that very few technologies are reaching the Records of Decision documents. In fact, most are eliminated in the early stages of consideration. These observations stem from regulators` and stakeholders` uncertainties in cost and performance of the technology and the inability of the technology to meet site specific conditions. The Technology Applications Team also set out to identify and evaluate solutions to barriers to implementing innovative technology into the DOE`s environmental management activities. Through the combined efforts of DOE and the Hazardous Waste Action Coalition (HWAC), a full day workshop was conducted at the annual HWAC meeting in June 1995 to solve barriers to innovative technology implementation. Three barriers were identified as widespread throughout the DOE complex and industry. Identified barriers included a lack of verified or certified cost and performance data for innovative technologies; risk of failure to reach cleanup goals using innovative technologies; and communication barriers that are present at virtually every stage of the characterization/remediation process from development through implementation.

  2. Images as Barriers to Intercultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuo

    Images that nations have of each other become barriers to effective intercultural communication if they are overgeneralized, oversimplified, or unfairly exaggerated. The communication difficulties between Japan and the United States, for example, exemplify how images negatively influence the political and economic relations between two countries.…

  3. On Emotional Barriers to Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qin

    2012-01-01

    Language learning is a very complex process, which is related to many factors, either internal or external. Affective factors plays an important role in a second language learning. If only we realize such affective factors, we can overcome the emotional barriers effectively and have a successful learning.

  4. Language barriers to learning science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ridge

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article draws on a study done in 1996 by Jordaan and Mangu which sought to determine how well pupils understand concepts which appear frequently in their textbooks and also to establish whether support material would facilitate learning. This article is not as much interested in the performance level of the students as the underlying reasons for the poor performance. The article explores some of the responses made by students in order to define their difficulties more precisely and concludes by making recommendations for learning and teaching. Hierdie artikel bou voort op 'n studie wat in 1996 deur Jordaan en Mangu gedoen is wat probeer het om te bepaal hoe goed leerders konsepte wat gereeld in hulle handboeke voorkom, verstaan en ook om vas te stel of ondersteunende materiaal die leerproses fasiliteer.Hierdie artikel is nie soseer gerig op die prestasievlakke van die leerders nie, maar eerder op die onderliggende redes vir hulle swak prestasie. Die artikel ondersoek sekere van die response van die leerders en poog daardeur om van die struikelblokke wat wetenskaplike diskoers aan die leerders hied me er presies te omskryf Die artikel sluit af met voorstelle vir verbeterings aan die leerproses en aan onderriglewering.

  5. Structural analysis of nucleosomal barrier to transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaykalova, Daria A; Kulaeva, Olga I; Volokh, Olesya; Shaytan, Alexey K; Hsieh, Fu-Kai; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Sokolova, Olga S; Studitsky, Vasily M

    2015-10-27

    Thousands of human and Drosophila genes are regulated at the level of transcript elongation and nucleosomes are likely targets for this regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms of formation of the nucleosomal barrier to transcribing RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and nucleosome survival during/after transcription remain unknown. Here we show that both DNA-histone interactions and Pol II backtracking contribute to formation of the barrier and that nucleosome survival during transcription likely occurs through allosterically stabilized histone-histone interactions. Structural analysis indicates that after Pol II encounters the barrier, the enzyme backtracks and nucleosomal DNA recoils on the octamer, locking Pol II in the arrested state. DNA is displaced from one of the H2A/H2B dimers that remains associated with the octamer. The data reveal the importance of intranucleosomal DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions during conformational changes in the nucleosome structure on transcription. Mechanisms of nucleosomal barrier formation and nucleosome survival during transcription are proposed.

  6. 77 FR 59932 - Single Source Award; Exception to Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Competition AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), HHS. ACTION: Notice of Exception to Competition--Single Source Award to Texas Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) East--University of...

  7. A Factor Analysis of Barriers to Effective Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven

    1990-01-01

    Conducts a factor analysis to determine listening barriers perceived as most frequently affecting the listening effectiveness among business college students. Finds the presence of six listening barriers, with the barrier "listen primarily for details or facts" as the most frequently encountered barrier perceived by students. (MM)

  8. Transition from monopoly pricing to competitive pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, L. [Eastern Energy Ltd., Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian Government has embarked on a program to restructure the State electricity supply industry, that will be the precursor to reform throughout the whole of Australia. The Government is depending on competition to drive efficiency improvements to both generation and distribution businesses. Retail pricing will be the key determinant to a future assessment of the success or failure of these reforms. The paper examines electricity pricing before and after the restructuring from the viewpoint of a practitioner at the cutting edge of the reform process. Economic rationale is put forward why the Value Proposition will replace the Cost Recovery basis previously used in electricity pricing. It is concluded that limitations of interstate links will temper intestate competition unless innovative solution can be found. The current method of setting market prices based on a `Pool System` is only efficient if the generators bid their marginal price on a regular basis. In essence the pool replaces the `merit order` previously used to load generators and is basically a scheduling mechanism. Serious consideration needs to be given to the question whether this mechanism should be also setting the price of electricity. (author). 5 tabs.

  9. The spirit of competition: to win or not to win.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Szczepinska

    Full Text Available A competition is a contest between individuals or groups. The gain is often an award or recognition, which serves as a catalyst to motivate individuals to put forth their very best. Such events for recognition and success are part of many International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB Student Council Regional Student Groups (RSGs activities. These include a popular science article contest, a Wikipedia article competition, travel grants, poster and oral presentation awards during conferences, and quizzes at social events. Organizing competitions is no different than any other event; they require a lot of hard work to be successful. Each event gives remarkable organizational and social experience for students running it, while at the same time the participants of the competitions are rewarded by prizes and recognition. It gives everybody involved an opportunity to demonstrate their extraordinary talents and skills. Competitions are unique because they bring out both the best and worst in people.

  10. The Spirit of Competition: To Win or Not To Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepinska, Teresa; Iwasaki, Wataru; Abeel, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A competition is a contest between individuals or groups. The gain is often an award or recognition, which serves as a catalyst to motivate individuals to put forth their very best. Such events for recognition and success are part of many International Society for Computational Biology (ISCB) Student Council Regional Student Groups (RSGs) activities. These include a popular science article contest, a Wikipedia article competition, travel grants, poster and oral presentation awards during conferences, and quizzes at social events. Organizing competitions is no different than any other event; they require a lot of hard work to be successful. Each event gives remarkable organizational and social experience for students running it, while at the same time the participants of the competitions are rewarded by prizes and recognition. It gives everybody involved an opportunity to demonstrate their extraordinary talents and skills. Competitions are unique because they bring out both the best and worst in people. PMID:24385894

  11. Cooperative resources lead to sustainable competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vieira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze how organizational resources contribute to cooperatives achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. The theoretical approach of this study is the Resource Based View and VRIO model advocated by Barney and Hesterly (2007. The research was characterized as descriptive and quantitative, through data collection from secondary sources and a survey. The data collection tool was a questionnaire devised by Peacock, Sehnem and Hoffmann (2011. Data collection took place between the months of September 2014 and March 2015. The study sample was composed of a total of 215 cooperatives from across the country, divided into 13 segments. Secondary data was subjected to content analysis. The primary data was analyzed using statistical inference, namely: descriptive statistics, mean, Pearson correlation, Varimax rotation and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The main results showed that human resources are seen as important to achieving a sustainable competitive advantage. This research contributed to and enables new studies concerning the growth of cooperatives taking into account the use of internal resources.

  12. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  13. Retail distribution channel barriers to international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    With the referral of the Kodak - Fuji market access dispute to the World Trade Organization, the role of retail distribution channel control by incumbent firms as a barrier to imports has drawn much interest. This paper reviews the issues from an historical perspective and analyzes the difficulties facing firms attempting to sell their products in other nations' automobile and photo supplies markets. There has been a natural evolution of retail distribution channels from mom and pop stores to...

  14. The analysis of barriers to knowledge management

    OpenAIRE

    Ujwary-Gil, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this article is to highlight the need for cooperation and exchange of knowledge among communities of the organization to develop and achieve competitive advantage in the market. On the other hand, research indicates that cooperation is not always the case, so it is worth considering why this is happening. An important part of this article is to present the latest results of research carried out under the EU project entitled Knowledge Management System M...

  15. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  16. The prequalified competition - how are architects appointed to invited architectural competitions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Rönn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results from a study of prequalification in architectural competitions. The aim is to develop knowledge of how the organizer appoints candidates to invited competitions. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identifysuitable candidates for the following design phase. Usually three to six teams are invited to develop design proposals. The overall research question in the study is about how organizers identify architects / design teams for competitions with limited participation. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. Ten municipal and governmental competitions have been examined in the study. There are 375 applications from design teams in the competitions. 43 architect firms/teams (11 % have been invited. In five of the ten competitions 19 informants have reported their experiences of prequalification. The informants responded to an interview guide with questions on the background of the competition, development of the invitation, and the need for information about the candidates, assessment process and experience from the selection of architects / design teams. The invitation emerges during negotiation at the organizing body, which includes discussion with the Swedish Association of Architects.General conditions, submission requirements and criteria for the evaluation of applications by architect firms are part of an established practice. All clients have an assessment procedure made up of two distinct stages. First they check whether applications meet the specific “must requirements” in the invitation. Thereafter follows an evaluative assessment of the candidate’s professional profile, which is based on the criteria in the invitation. Reference projects and information from the referees are important sources of information in this stage. Decisivein the final assessment is the organizer

  17. Barriers to Critical Thinking Across Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Geertsen, Reed

    2013-01-01

    The transfer of critical thinking across domains presents both a significant challenge and meaningful opportunity for college education as well as programs of continuing education and · efforts to encourage lifelong learning. After examining different approaches to teaching critical thinking, this paper examines some of the barriers to transfer across domains using an interactionist perspective. This perspective underscores the fact that developing and using critical thinking i...

  18. There are many barriers to species' migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J Feeley

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Temperature-change trajectories are being used to identify the geographic barriers and thermal ‘cul-de-sacs’ that will limit the ability of many species to track climate change by migrating. We argue that there are many other potential barriers to species’ migrations. These include stable ecotones, discordant shifts in climatic variables, human land use, and species’ limited dispersal abilities. To illustrate our argument, for each 0.5° latitude/longitude grid cell of the Earth’s land surface, we mapped and tallied the number of cells for which future (2060–2080 climate represents an analog of the focal cell’s current climate. We compared results when only considering temperature with those for which both temperature and total annual precipitation were considered in concert. We also compared results when accounting for only geographic barriers (no cross-continental migration with those involving both geographic and potential ecological barriers (no cross-biome migration. As expected, the number of future climate analogs available to each pixel decreased markedly with each added layer of complexity (e.g. the proportion of the Earth’s land surface without any available future climate analogs increased from 3% to more than 36% with the inclusion of precipitation and ecological boundaries. While including additional variables can increase model complexity and uncertainty, we must strive to incorporate the factors that we know will limit species’ ranges and migrations if we hope to predict the effects of climate change at a high-enough degree of accuracy to guide management decisions.

  19. Barriers to Teaching Introductory Physical Geography Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. RITTER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an introductory physical geography course has a diverse population of students with disparate educational needs and goals that impacts its ability to be delivered online. Online learning is further complicated when lab courses require specialized laboratory equipment and fieldwork. A survey of geography departments in the United States was conducted to determine barriers to the deployment of introductory physical geography lab courses. Lack of faculty interest, faculty resources, and pedagogical concerns were found to be the most important barriers to deploying online physical geography lab courses. Knowing the challenges faced by geography departments offering online courses provides insight into where valuable support services and resources can best be used to address them. Recent advances in blogging, podcasting, lecture capture, web conferencing, and augmented reality are offered as solutions to the concerns expressed by survey respondents.

  20. Local competition increases people’s willingness to harm others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Barclay, Pat

    2016-01-01

    evidence supporting the prediction that people are more willing to harm others under local versus global competition. We illustrate this prediction with a game theoretic model, and then test it in a series of economic games. In these experiments, players could spend money to make others lose more. We...... manipulated the scale of competition by awarding cash prizes to the players with the highest payoffs per set of social partners (local competition) or in all the participants in a session (global competition). We found that, as predicted, people were more harmful to others when competition was local (study 1...

  1. STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

  2. 1976 Energy Resource Alternatives II Competition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R.A.; Iannucilli, M.; Marshal, J.; Sununu, J.H.; Eschbach, J.E.; Anson, J.; Wark, D.; Stock, D.E.

    1977-10-01

    Descriptions of all the entries in the competition are presented. Competition rules and judging procedures are described. Entries consisted of team efforts from colleges and universities. The competition called for the student teams to develop means for producing electrical power sufficient to meet the needs of a single family home, using an energy source other than oil or natural gas. The electric power produced had to be economically realistic when compared to present energy sources.

  3. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-08

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  4. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  5. Contribution of microbiota to the intestinal physicochemical barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malago, J J

    2015-01-01

    The large number of intestinal microorganisms, which exceeds the total number of human cells by ten folds, alludes to a significant contribution to human health. This is vivid in enteric and some systemic diseases emanating from disruption of the microbiota. As life style keeps shifting towards disruption of the microbiota in most societies worldwide, interest in the contribution of the microbiota to gut health has grown enormously. Many studies have been conducted to elucidate the exact contribution of the microbiota to human health. The knowledge gained from these studies indicates that the microbiota interacts with the intestinal milieu to maintain gut health. In this review, the crosstalk of microbiota with the intestinal physicochemical barrier pivotal to the gut innate immunity is highlighted. In particular, the review focuses on the role of the microbiota on competitive exclusion of pathogens, intestinal pH, epithelial mechanical barrier integrity, apical actin cytoskeleton, antimicrobial peptides, and the mucus layer. Understanding this microbe-host relationship will provide useful insight into overcoming some diseases related to the disruption of the host microbiota.

  6. THE ROLE OF SUNK COSTS IN ENTRY PROCESS INTO A FOREIGN MARKET: THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nadtochii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The category of sunk costs is studied along with specific features of entry barriers. Different scientific approaches in defining a category are compared to make author's own. The study elucidates a role of sunk costs, including its influence on researching a market, evaluating an efficiency of entering into market and evaluating its risk. The paper highlights three main components of sunk costs, that are: investments to reduce production costs of incumbents relative to newcomers, investments to change a structure of rival's costs and investments to positive change of a demand on a product. Author proposes to consider sunk costs as a strategic barrier, due to a huge influence of incumbents' activities. A need to invest these costs also determines a high competitiveness of a new firm.

  7. Foreign competition and disintermediation: no threat to the German banking system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Buch

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The German financial system is characterized by low degrees of penetration by foreign commercial banks and of (bank disintermediation compared to, for instance, the United States. This could be attributed to the fact that universal banking in Germany creates implicit barriers to entry. Yet, regulatory and informational differences which are unrelated to universal banking could be responsible for the observed difference. This paper provides a stylized theoretical model of the banking industry, which suggests that market segmentation and limited market entry can be due to a number of factors, including information costs. Preliminary empirical evidence does not provide clear evidence for the hypothesis that universal banking is the reason for the observed differences in financial systems.

  8. BRAND AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rutecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition companies enterprises in every sector of the economy. In the age of twenty-first century all parties compete with each other for recognition and trust of cus-tomers. It is a tough challenge especially in the banking services sector. These institutions are not able to stand out in the market offer, because this is similar to competitors. High barriers to entry and a large number of entities that provide services similar to banks threaten these organizations. Currently on the market of banking services is proving to be an important brand. Distinguishing itself from the competition image and brand loyalty is a source of advantage for Polish banks. The building of a strong brand plays an important role such factors as internal communication-on company, advertising, business processes, quality, relations with investors and customers. Its construction is a challenge for many banks, because around it must focus on the whole strategy of the company.

  9. A Brief Introduction to Competition and Play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This introduction sets the stage for a NANO special issue on how competition and play revolutionized Victorian work, how these ideas operate in endurance sports, and how they might get remade in digital spaces.

  10. Gender Differences Disappear with Exposure to Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Cotton; Frank McIntyre; Joseph Price

    2009-01-01

    Past research nds that males outperform females in competitive situations. Using data from multiple-round math tournaments, we verify this nding during the initial round of competition. The performance gap between males and females, however, disappears after the rst round. In later rounds, only math ability (not gender) serves as a signi cant predictor of performance. Several possible explanations are discussed. The results suggest that we should be cautious about using data from one-round ex...

  11. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  12. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  13. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Most research on market orientation has dealt with assessing how market orientation behaviour is related to business performance. This work has established an intense market-oriented activity as significantly and positively related to business performance under most circumstances. In a maturing...... and related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  14. Anomalous peak-effect in type-II superconductors: A competition between bulk pinning and a surface barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksimov, I.L. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Ainbinder, R.M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Nizhny Novgorod University, Gagarin Avenue 23, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: romain@inbox.ru; Vodolazov, D.Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructures, GSP-105, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2007-01-15

    In this work, the joint influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning on the magnetic-field dependence of the critical current I {sub c} for bulk type-II superconductors is investigated. It is shown that in the weak magnetic field H {sub 0}, there is a section in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) in which I {sub c} increases with the growth of H {sub 0}; this increase results in a pronounced peak in the dependence I {sub c}(H {sub 0}) - the anomalous peak-effect. This effect is explained by the combined influence of the surface barrier and bulk pinning. Two well-known models - the Bean model and the Kim-Anderson model - of the critical state were analysed in order to describe the anomalous peak-effect quantitatively.

  15. A Rigid Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Approach to Human Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerimele, Christopher J.; Robertson, Edward A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Campbell, Charles H.; Robinson, Phil; Matz, Daniel A.; Johnson, Breanna J.; Stachowiak, Susan J.; Garcia, Joseph A.; Bowles, Jeffrey V.; Kinney, David J.; Theisinger, John E.

    2017-01-01

    Current NASA Human Mars architectures require delivery of approximately 20 metric tons of cargo to the surface in a single landing. A proposed vehicle type for performing the entry, descent, and landing at Mars associated with this architecture is a rigid, enclosed, elongated lifting body shape that provides a higher lift-to-drag ratio (L/D) than a typical entry capsule, but lower than a typical winged entry vehicle (such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter). A rigid Mid-L/D shape has advantages for large mass Mars EDL, including loads management, range capability during entry, and human spaceflight heritage. Previous large mass Mars studies have focused more on symmetric and/or circular cross-section Mid-L/D shapes such as the ellipsled. More recent work has shown performance advantages for non-circular cross section shapes. This paper will describe efforts to design a rigid Mid-L/D entry vehicle for Mars which shows mass and performance improvements over previous Mid-L/D studies. The proposed concept, work to date and evolution, forward path, and suggested future strategy are described.

  16. Barriers to Asthma Management as Identified by School Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Judith E.; Spencer, Gale A.

    2016-01-01

    Asthma rates are increasing in children. School nurses have opportunities to care for children with asthma but need to overcome barriers impacting their ability to manage asthma in the school setting. This study (a) assessed barriers present in the school setting, (b) determined the impact of barriers on performance of asthma management behaviors,…

  17. Barriers to and Facilitators of Health for Latina Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Latina undergraduate students' barriers and facilitators of health are examined: Barriers to psychological health--separating from family, pressure to succeed, and racism; Barriers to physical health--lacking health insurance, and discomfort using campus sports facilities; and Facilitators of psychological health--membership in Latina student…

  18. Navigating the Road to Success: A Systematic Approach to Preparing Competitive Grant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Mackenzie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Difficulty in securing research funding has been cited as one barrier to the involvement of more librarians and information professionals in conducting original research. This article seeks to support the work of librarians who wish to secure research funding by describing a systematic approach to the creation of successful grant applications.Approach The authors draw on more than fifteen years collective experience in supporting the development of successful research grant proposals. Eleven grant‐writing best practicesor ‘key approaches’ are described, and a planning timeline is suggested.Conclusions: Use of these best practices can assist researchers in creating successful research grant proposals that will also help streamline the research process once it is underway. It is important to recognize the competitive nature of research grant competitions, obtain feedback from an internal review panel, and use feedback from funding agencies to strengthen future grant applications.

  19. Explaining and overcoming barriers to climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisenack, K.; Moser, S.C.; Hoffmann, E.; Klein, R.J.T.; Oberlack, C.; Pechan, A.; Rotter, M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of barriers is increasingly used to describe the obstacles that hinder the planning and implementation of climate change adaptation. The growing literature on barriers to adaptation reveals not only commonly reported barriers, but also conflicting evidence, and few explanations of why ba

  20. MARKET ENTRY STRATEGIES TO EMERGING MARKETS: A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF TURNKEY PROJECT DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bistra Vassileva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is to analyse the international market entry strategies in the light of globalisation processes and to propose a conceptual model of turnkey projects as market entry mode. The specific research objectives are as follows: 1. to develop an integrated framework of the turnkey marketing process as a conceptual model; 2. to analyse BRICS countries as potential host countries for turnkey projects implementation; 3. to assess potential implications of proposed conceptual model for global market entry decisions.

  1. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.

  2. A model for competitiveness level analysis in sports competitions: Application to basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saá Guerra, Y.; Martín González, J. M.; Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S.; Rodríguez Ruiz, D.; García-Rodríguez, A.; García-Manso, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    The degree of overall competitiveness of a sport league is a complex phenomenon. It is difficult to assess and quantify all elements that yield the final standing. In this paper, we analyze the general behavior of the result matrices of each season and we use the corresponding results as a probably density. Thus, the results of previous seasons are a way to investigate the probability that each team has to reach a certain number of victories. We developed a model based on Shannon entropy using two extreme competitive structures (a hierarchical structure and a random structure), and applied this model to investigate the competitiveness of two of the best professional basketball leagues: the NBA (USA) and the ACB (Spain). Both leagues’ entropy levels are high (NBA mean 0.983; ACB mean 0.980), indicating high competitiveness, although the entropy of the ACB (from 0.986 to 0.972) demonstrated more seasonal variability than that of the NBA (from 0.985 to 0.990), a possible result of greater sporting gradients in the ACB. The use of this methodology has proven useful for investigating the competitiveness of sports leagues as well as their underlying variability across time.

  3. GLOBALIZATION, TECHNOLOGY AND COMPETITIVENESS: FROM INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION TO KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Marginean

    2009-01-01

    The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...

  4. Curveball strategies to fool the competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalk, George

    2006-09-01

    In this follow-on piece to his article "Hardball: Five Killer Strategies for Trouncing the Competition" (HBR April 2004), George Stalk of the Boston Consulting Group offers another approach for prevailing over rivals. Strategic hardball is about playing rough and tough with competitors; strategic curveball is about outfoxing them. It involves getting rivals to do something dumb that they otherwise wouldn't (that is, swing at a pitch that appears to be in the strike zone but isn't) or not do something smart that they otherwise would (that is, fail to swing at a pitch that's in the strike zone but appears not to be). Stalk describes four types of curveball: Draw your rival out of the profit zone. Lure competitors into disadvantageous areas--for example, by competing for, but intentionally failing to win, the business of less profitable customers. Borrow techniques from unexpected places. Using the hardball tactic of plagiarizing good ideas, put rivals off balance by importing techniques from other industries--for example, employing the retailer's hard sell in the stodgy world of retail financial services. Disguise how you attain your success. Veil your methods by achieving an advantage through unlikely means--for example, generating product sales through your service operations. Let rivals misinterpret the reasons for your success. Allow them to act on conventional but incomplete explanations for your success--for example, squeezing costs rather than aggressively utilizing assets. The author provides extended examples of these curveball strategies in action, at companies such as the industrial-cleaning chemical supplier Ecolab and the Australian airline Jetstar.

  5. Delivering a competitive Australian power system Part 3: A Better Way to Competitive Power in 2035

    OpenAIRE

    John Foster; Craig Froome; Chris Greig; Ove Hoegh-Guldberg; Paul Meredith; Lynette Molyneaux; Tapan Saha; Liam Wagner; Barry Ball

    2013-01-01

    This paper, the final in a three part series examining the competitiveness of Australia’s power system, seeks to identify a pragmatic strategy to transition Australia to a resilient power economy at reasonable cost and in an age of uncertainty. The resilience of a country’s power economy refers to its ability to meet power requirements while withstanding supply shocks and environmental constraints. For a country’spower economy to be competitive, it must be both affordable and resilient.This s...

  6. Summary and frequency of barriers to adoption of CPOE in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scot; Goetz, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Medical errors are common, costly, and can potentially be life threatening to patients. Recent studies have established that Computer Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems reduce medical errors as well as improve safety, quality, and value of patient care. However, research regarding adoption factors associated with CPOE systems is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to determine adoption factors by identifying the frequency of barriers through the analysis of literature and research. A systematic literature review was conducted from EBSCO Host and Google Scholar. The search criteria focused on publication date, keywords, and peer reviewed articles. The final set established for evaluation was ten articles. The authors summarized each article and then identified common barriers. Throughout the ten articles, 31 barriers were identified; 15 of which were unique. The three most frequent barriers identified were: process changes (23%), training (13%), and efficacy (10%). The results of this review identify to policy makers levers to incentivize to encourage adoption. The results also illustrate to vendors the importance of factors to include in both marketing and development. The leadership of healthcare organizations should be encouraged to see such results and know that their concerns are heard. If policy makers and vendors help healthcare organizations overcome barriers to adoption, the organization has a better chance of successful CPOE implementation. If successfully implemented, a CPOE system can improve the process of care, quality of care, and patient outcomes; all of which address issues of Meaningful Use.

  7. Molecular barriers to zoonotic transmission of prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barria, Marcelo A; Balachandran, Aru; Morita, Masanori; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Barron, Rona; Manson, Jean; Knight, Richard; Ironside, James W; Head, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.

  8. Market barriers and success factors in the competition between gas suppliers; Marktbarrieren und Erfolgsfaktoren im Gas-zu-Gas-Wettbewerb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Credo, Franziska; Kranzusch, Sabrina; Lueers, Thomas [Prof. Homburg und Partner Managementberatung, Mannheim (Germany). Kompetenzzentrum Energy and Utilities

    2010-06-15

    Over the past years customers have heightened their awareness of matters relating to gas. Moreover, as a result of increasing market transparency, the removal of regulatory barriers and the growing number of suppliers, customers are finding themselves more and more in the focus of energy suppliers. Established suppliers now face the challenge of strengthening their market position in order to solidify their position in a restless energy market. A new market study examines the current status of the gas market and gives an outlook on future developments.

  9. 78 FR 48706 - Expansion of Global Entry Eligibility to Certain Citizens of the Republic Of Korea, the Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... apply for Global Entry at this time allows for the development of the program's infrastructure. CBP... of the State of Qatar to apply for Global Entry at this time to allow for the development of the... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Expansion of Global Entry Eligibility to Certain Citizens...

  10. Physician variation in perceived barriers to personal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubenfire M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam RB Kosteva1, Brian M Salata1, Sangeetha Mahadevan Krishnan2, Michael Howe3, Alissa Weber3, Melvyn Rubenfire2,3, Elizabeth A Jackson2,31Michigan Cardiovascular Research and Reporting Program, 2Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, 3Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USAObjective: Physicians’ personal health habits are associated with their counseling habits regarding physical activity. We sought to examine physicians’ own barriers to a healthy lifestyle by level of training and gender.Methods: Physicians at a major teaching hospital were surveyed regarding their lifestyle habits and barriers to healthy habits. The frequency of reported barriers was examined by years in practice (trainees vs staff physicians and gender.Results: 183 total responses were received. Over 20% of respondents were overweight. Work schedule was cited as the greatest barrier to regular exercise in 70.5% of respondents. Trainees were more likely to cite time constraints or cost as a barrier to a healthy diet compared to staff physicians. Staff physicians were more likely to report the time to prepare healthy foods as a barrier. For both trainees and staff physicians, time was a barrier to regular exercise. For trainees work schedule was a barrier, while both work schedule and family commitments were top barriers cited by staff physicians. Women were more likely to report family commitments as a barrier than men. Respondents suggested healthier options in vending machines and the hospital cafeteria, healthy recipes, and time and/or facilities for exercise at work as options to help overcome these barriers.Conclusion: Work schedules and family commitments are frequently reported by providers as barriers to healthy lifestyle. Efforts to reduce such barriers may lead to improved health habits among providers.Keywords: diet, exercise, counseling, prevention, gender, barriers, health

  11. ASSEMBLED PRODUCTS: THE KEY TO MORE EFFECTIVE COMPETITION AND ANTITRUST OVERSIGHT IN HEALTH CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M

    2016-01-01

    This Article argues that recent calls for antitrust enforcement to protect health insurers from hospital and physician consolidation are incomplete. The principal obstacle to effective competition in health care is not that one or the other party has too much bargaining power, but that they have been buying and selling the wrong things. Vigorous antitrust enforcement will benefit health care consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. Because of regulation, what pass for products in health care are typically small process steps and isolated components that can be assigned a billing code, even if they do little to help patients. Instead of further entrenching weakly competitive parties engaged in artificial commerce, antitrust enforcers and regulators should work together to promote the sale of fully assembled products and services that can be warranted to consumers for performance and safety. As better products emerge through innovation and market entry, competition may finally succeed at lowering medical costs, increasing access to treatment, and improving quality of care.

  12. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  13. Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) for Missions to Saturn and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, D.; Blosser, M.; Chinnapongse, R.; Fowler, M.; Gasch, M.; Hamm, K.; Kazemba, C.; Ma, J.; Milos, F.; Nishioka, O.; Poteet, C.; Splinter, S.; Stackpoole, M.; Venkatapathy, E.; Young, Z.; Gasch, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    This poster provides an overview of the requirements, design, development and testing of the 3D Woven TPS being developed under NASAs Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project. Under this current program, NASA is working to develop a Thermal Protection System (TPS) capable of surviving entry into Saturn. A primary goal of the project is to build and test an Engineering Test Unit (ETU) to establish a Technical Readiness Level (TRL) of 6 for this technology by 2017.

  14. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  15. Is Education the Key to Global Economic Competitiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary test-based reforms are often grounded in the claim that test performance is the key to international economic competitiveness. However, this oft-repeated assertion lacks empirical support. According to the World Economic Forum, the United States' recent loss of economic competitiveness standing is due to macroeconomic instability…

  16. The entry-level occupational therapy clinical doctorate: advantages, challenges, and international issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe

    2015-04-01

    Internationally, occupational therapy education has gone through several paradigm shifts during the last few decades, moving from certificate to diploma to bachelors to masters and now in some instances to clinical doctorate as the entry-level professional credential to practice. In the United States there is a recommendation under consideration by the American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) that by 2025, all occupational therapy university programs will move to the clinical doctorate level. It should be noted, however, that the AOTA Board can only make recommendations and it is the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education (ACOTE) who has regulatory authority to approve such a change. What are the potential implications for the profession, our clients, and funders of occupational therapy services? What are the primary drivers for the move towards the clinical doctorate being the educational entry point? Is the next step in the evolution of occupational therapy education globally a shift to the entry-level clinical doctorate? This article reviews current literature and discusses issues about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate. The published evidence available about the occupational therapy entry-level clinical doctorate is summarized and the perceived or frequently cited pros and cons of moving to the clinical doctorate as the singular entry point to occupational therapy practice are considered. The potential impacts of the introduction of the clinical doctorate as the entry-to-practice qualification across the United States on the occupational therapy community internationally will be briefly discussed. If the United States moves toward the entry-level clinical doctorate as the only educational starting point for the profession, will other jurisdictions follow suit? Further discourse and investigation of this issue both inside and outside of the United States is needed so that informed decisions can be made.

  17. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    solution for these demands, while also offering the opportunity for very financially competitive solutions, it is of interest to determine their appropriateness in the design phase of a building. Through a study carried out by means of a review of the current state of the-art literature on straw...... and techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...

  18. Organizational barriers to effective communication and how to overcome them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一民

    2013-01-01

    Effective communication has long been credited as a prime factor in achieving high levels of organizational effective-ness. In this essay, the author will discuss the five barriers to or-ganizational communication and the resolutions to overcome them. the author concludes that the overall ways to overcome communication barriers are communication audits and establish differentiated communication cultures to ensure two-way com-munication.

  19. Mission Sizing and Trade Studies for Low Ballistic Coefficient Entry Systems to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Smith, Brandon; Prabhu, Dinesh; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The U.S and the U.S.S.R. have sent seventeen successful atmospheric entry missions to Venus. Past missions to Venus have utilized rigid aeroshell systems for entry. This rigid aeroshell paradigm sets performance limitations since the size of the entry vehicle is constrained by the fairing diameter of the launch vehicle. This has limited ballistic coefficients (beta) to well above 100 kg/m2 for the entry vehicles. In order to maximize the science payload and minimize the Thermal Protection System (TPS) mass, these missions have entered at very steep entry flight path angles (gamma). Due to Venus thick atmosphere and the steep-gamma, high- conditions, these entry vehicles have been exposed to very high heat flux, very high pressures and extreme decelerations (upwards of 100 g's). Deployable aeroshells avoid the launch vehicle fairing diameter constraint by expanding to a larger diameter after the launch. Due to the potentially larger wetted area, deployable aeroshells achieve lower ballistic coefficients (well below 100 kg/m2), and if they are flown at shallower flight path angles, the entry vehicle can access trajectories with far lower decelerations (50-60 g's), peak heat fluxes (400 W/cm2) and peak pressures. The structural and TPS mass of the shallow-gamma, low-beta deployables are lower than their steep-gamma, high-beta rigid aeroshell counterparts at larger diameters, contributing to lower areal densities and potentially higher payload mass fractions. For example, at large diameters, deployables may attain aeroshell areal densities of 10 kg/m2 as opposed to 50 kg/m2 for rigid aeroshells. However, the low-beta, shallow-gamma paradigm also raises issues, such as the possibility of skip-out during entry. The shallow-gamma could also increase the landing footprint of the vehicle. Furthermore, the deployable entry systems may be flexible, so there could be fluid-structure interaction, especially in the high altitude, low-density regimes. The need for precision in

  20. Conceptual shape optimization of entry vehicles applied to capsules and winged fuselage vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Dirkx, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the parameterization of entry capsules, including Apollo capsules and planetary probes, and winged entry vehicles such as the Space Shuttle and lifting bodies. The aerodynamic modelling is based on a variety of panel methods that take shadowing into account, and it has been validated with flight and wind tunnel data of Apollo and the Space Shuttle. The shape optimization is combined with constrained trajectory analysis, and the multi-objective approach provides the engineer with a Pareto front of optimal shapes. The method detailed in Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles is straightforward, and the output gives the engineer insight in the effect of shape variations on trajectory performance. All applied models and algorithms used are explained in detail, allowing for reconstructing the design tool to the researcher’s requirements. Conceptual Shape Optimization of Entry Vehicles will be of interest to both researchers and graduate students in the field of aerospace engineering, an...

  1. The competition 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y.; Żuberek, R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants.

  2. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  4. Analysis on Effective Competition Barrier and Measures of Weapons Equipment Procurement Market%影响武器装备采购市场有效竞争的障碍和对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒绍干; 李晓松; 陈庆华

    2013-01-01

    有效竞争理论是解决武器装备采购市场规模经济与竞争活力之间矛盾的有效理论与方法.首先对武器装备采购市场有效竞争进行了分析;研究了制约武器装备采购市场有效竞争障碍;最后提出了促进我国武器装备采购市场实现有效竞争的建议.%Effective competition theory is effective theory and method to solve the conflict between economies of scale and competition in weapons and equipment procurement market. First of all for weapon and equipment procurement market effective competition is analyzed. The restriction of weapons and equipment procurement market effective competition barrier is studied. Finally some advice to promote our country's weapons and equipment procurement market effective competition is suggested.

  5. Baseline cortisol moderates testosterone reactivity to women's intercollegiate athletic competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, David A; Casto, Kathleen V

    2015-04-01

    Recent research suggests that cortisol (C) level moderates testosterone (T) reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in men. The extent to which C moderates T reactivity in other circumstances and in women is not known. In this retrospective study, before- and after-competition salivary levels of C and T from 97 intercollegiate women athletes competing in one of four different sports (soccer, volleyball, softball, tennis) were used to evaluate the influence of before-competition C level on T reactivity in women's athletic competition. Athletic competition was associated with a substantial increase in salivary levels of C and T in the vast majority of athletes. Before-competition level of C significantly moderated testosterone reactivity to athletic competition - women with relatively low levels of C showed larger increases in T to competition than women with higher levels of C. Clearly, the moderating effect of C on T reactivity is not limited to laboratory settings intended to increase social stress, but is also seen in (as we show here) the context of athletic competition.

  6. Entry screening to delay local transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Helen WC

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After the WHO issued the global alert for 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1, many national health agencies began to screen travelers on entry in airports, ports and border crossings to try to delay local transmission. Methods We reviewed entry screening policies adopted by different nations and ascertained dates of official report of the first laboratory-confirmed imported H1N1 case and the first laboratory-confirmed untraceable or 'local' H1N1 case. Results Implementation of entry screening policies was associated with on average additional 7-12 day delays in local transmission compared to nations that did not implement entry screening, with lower bounds of 95% confidence intervals consistent with no additional delays and upper bounds extending to 20-30 day additional delays. Conclusions Entry screening may lead to short-term delays in local transmission of a novel strain of influenza virus. The resources required for implementation should be balanced against the expected benefits of entry screening.

  7. ENTRYSAT: A 3U Cubesat to Study the Re-Entry Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. F.; Chaix, J.; Mimoun, D.; EntrySat student Team

    2014-04-01

    The EntrySat is a 3U CubeSat designed to study the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. The project, developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA, is funded by CNES and is intended to be launched in January 2016, in the context of the QB50 network. The scientific goal is to relate the kinematics of the satellite with the aerothermodynamic environment during re-entry. In particular, data will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. According to these requirements, the satellite will measure the temperature, pressure, heat flux, and drag force during re-entry, as well as the trajectory and attitude of the satellite. One of the major technological challenges is the retrieval of data during the re-entry phase, which will be based on the Iridium satellite network. The system design is based on the use of commercial COTS components, and is mostly developed by students from ISAE. As such, the EntrySat has an important educational value in the formation of young engineers.

  8. Robotics Competitions: The Choice Is up to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard T.; Londt, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Competitive robotics as an interactive experience can increase the level of student participation in technology education, inspire students to consider careers in technical fields, and enhance the visibility of technology education programs. Implemented correctly, a competitive robotics program can provide a stimulating learning environment for…

  9. Domain Ⅲ of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Envelope:Expression at High Levels in Escherichia coli and Competitive Inhibition of Virus Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Obejective The domainⅢof dengue virus type 2 envelope was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the inhibited effects of recombinant protein on virus was detected. Methods In this study, the domainⅢ(DⅢ) protein of the dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) envelope (E) antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with a carrier protein. The protein was puriifed using enzymatic cleavage and afifnity puriifcation. Rabbit immunization and antibody detection was carried out. Inhibition of DENV-2 infection was observed by DENV-2 EDⅢprotein and its immunity rabbits serum. Results The recombinant expression DENV-2 EDⅢ protein plasmid was constructed successfully. After isopropyl thiogalactoside induction, a speciifc soluble 29 kD protein was obtained, and the expression product accounted for 68.87%of the total protein of the cell lysate. Western blot demonstrated the reactivity of the recombinant protein with his-tag and DENV (Ⅰ-Ⅳ) monoclonal antibodies. The protein was puriifed using enzymatic cleavage and affinity purification. The purified recombinant EDⅢ protein inhibited the entry of DENV-2 into BHK-21 cells. DENV-2 plaque neutralization assays were carried out using serially diluted antibodies against EDⅢprotein. At a 1︰16 dilution, the antibodies produced at least 90%neutralization of the DENV-2 virus. Furthermore, the antibodies continued to exhibit high neutralization effects (approximately 80%) until the anti-EDⅢantibody titer reached 1︰1 024. Conclusions DENV-2 EDⅢwas cloned and expressed successfully. DENV-2 EDⅢprotein could be useful in the development of inexpensive dengue vaccine. The data also suggested that DENV-2 employed an attachment molecule or receptor for its entry into C6/36 mosquito cells.

  10. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  11. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  12. WAYS TO INCREASE COMPETITIVENESS OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT IN MODERN CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Bech

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In this paper it is necessary to analyze the types of competition in the transport market in order to find ways to improve the competitiveness of railway transport and to determine the ensuring equal conditions for all market participants by eliminating discrimination in competition. Methodology. Analysis of recent research and publications on the subject was held by the authors. The question of the development of competition, increased competitiveness in railway transport was investigated. Attention is drawn to the fact that due to the decline in traffic volumes on all modes of transport competition may significantly change the usual sphere the effective use of different modes of transport. Every mode of transport occupies a particular segment of the transport market, taking into account its technical and economic features, weakly competing, and in some cases do not compete with each other (except the road transport. However, it is entirely possible competition inside these segments.Findings. The problems of management of competitiveness, including the transport market, which required extensive analysis and serious scientific study, were identified. Originality. As a result of this work the features of transport and production of transport in modern conditions were structured. The dependences of passenger turnover and freight turnover by mode of transport over the past decade were shown. The question of additional profits by providing the cargo owners a range of service was examined. The optimal combination of cost and quality of such services at each transportation company promotes increasing its competitive status. Practical value. Competition between enterprises of the industry put the aim of improving the competitiveness of not only railway subsystems directly involved in technology movement of cargoes and the movement of passengers, but also the organization of infrastructure in the first place – subsystems to expand services

  13. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  14. The Effect of Counter-trading on Competition in the Dutch Electricity Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Willems, Bert

    2009-01-01

    In a competitive market, market splitting (nodal pricing) is the most efficient way to deal with congestion. Counter-trading is inefficient as it gives the wrong long term signals for entry and exit of power plants, and hence, causes over-entry in the market. However, in a non-competitive market, en

  15. Pollen competition as a reproductive isolation barrier represses transgene flow between compatible and co-flowering citrus genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Pons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Despite potential benefits granted by genetically modified (GM fruit trees, their release and commercialization raises concerns about their potential environmental impact, and the transfer via pollen of transgenes to cross-compatible cultivars is deemed to be the greatest source for environmental exposure. Information compiled from field trials on GM trees is essential to propose measures to minimize the transgene dispersal. We have conducted a field trial of seven consecutive years to investigate the maximum frequency of pollen-mediated crop-to-crop transgene flow in a citrus orchard, and its relation to the genetic, phenological and environmental factors involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three different citrus genotypes carrying the uidA (GUS tracer marker gene (pollen donors and a non-GM self-incompatible contiguous citrus genotype (recipient were used in conditions allowing natural entomophilous pollination to occur. The examination of 603 to 2990 seeds per year showed unexpectedly low frequencies (0.17-2.86% of transgene flow. Paternity analyses of the progeny of subsets of recipient plants using 10 microsatellite (SSR loci demonstrated a higher mating competence of trees from another non-GM pollen source population that greatly limited the mating chance of the contiguous cross-compatible and flowering-synchronized transgenic pollen source. This mating superiority could be explained by a much higher pollen competition capacity of the non-GM genotypes, as was confirmed through mixed-hand pollinations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pollen competition strongly contributed to transgene confinement. Based on this finding, suitable isolation measures are proposed for the first time to prevent transgene outflow between contiguous plantings of citrus types that may be extendible to other entomophilous transgenic fruit tree species.

  16. Barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity and threaten societal collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusup, Marko; Matsuo, Tadasu; Iwasa, Yoh

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the factors that promote, disrupt, or shape the nature of cooperation is one of the main tasks of evolutionary biology. Here, we focus on attitudes and beliefs supportive of in-group favoritism and strict adherence to moral consensus, collectively known as ideological rigidity, that have been linked with both ends of the political spectrum. The presence among the political right and the left is likely to make ideological rigidity a major determinant of the political discourse with an important social function. To better understand this function, we equip the indirect reciprocity framework--widely used to explain evaluation-mediated social cooperation--with multiple stylized value systems, each corresponding to the different degree of ideological rigidity. By running game theoretical simulations, we observe the competitive evolution of these systems, map conditions that lead to more ideologically rigid societies, and identify potentially disastrous outcomes. In particular, we uncover that barriers to cooperation aid ideological rigidity. The society may even polarize to the extent where social parasites overrun the population and cause the complete collapse of the social structure. These results have implications for lawmakers globally, warning against restrictive or protectionist policies.

  17. 9 CFR 381.208 - Poultry products offered for entry and entered to be handled and transported as domestic; entry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry products offered for entry and... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Imported Poultry Products §...

  18. From coexistence to competitive exclusion: can overfishing change the outcome of competition in skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia L Ruocco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition for food could be a major force driving changes in the community structure of skates (Rajidae subjected to fishing exploitation. Under this hypothesis, small skates are released from competition with larger skates after fishing has depleted the larger species. Here, we compare the abundance patterns of two sympatric skates with similar niches but different life histories, Bathyraja albomaculata (larger and slow-reproducing and Bathyraja macloviana (smaller and faster-reproducing, before (1971, 1978 and after (1998-2004 a 108% increase in industrial bottom trawling on the southeastern South American shelf in order to test the prediction that B. macloviana should competitively exclude B. albomaculata after the increase in fishing mortality. In 1971 and 1978, there was no relationship between the abundance of both species, indicating that they coexisted over large scales. In 1998-2004, the relationship between the abundances of these skates was bell-shaped, indicating that both species increased in abundance at low densities until peaking, after which B. albomaculata decreased when B. macloviana became more abundant, consistent with resource competition. We tested whether food may be a potential limiting resource by comparing the diet of both species. The two species consumed mostly polychaetes, differing only in the consumption of polychaetes from the family Nephthyidae, which was much higher for B. macloviana. Bathyraja macloviana could replace B. albomaculata at high densities when food resources may become scarce. These results support the hypothesis that competition release is an important factor explaining the changes in skate communities in overexploited areas.

  19. Barriers to participation in vocational orientation programmes among prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien Brosens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the barriers to prisoners’ participation in vocational education, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N=468 provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational barriers are most common. Based on the different kinds of barriers, various types of non-participants can be distinguished and multinomial logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify in what way participants of vocational education differ from various types of non-participants. For instance, prisoners with a poor understanding of the Dutch language and those who never/rarely receive visitors participate less in vocational education as they are more likely to be confronted with informational barriers. We conclude this article by discussing paths for future research and implications for policy and practice to anticipate the barriers for those who want to participate in vocational education.

  20. Is Computational Complexity a Barrier to Manipulation?

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Toby

    2010-01-01

    When agents are acting together, they may need a simple mechanism to decide on joint actions. One possibility is to have the agents express their preferences in the form of a ballot and use a voting rule to decide the winning action(s). Unfortunately, agents may try to manipulate such an election by misreporting their preferences. Fortunately, it has been shown that it is NP-hard to compute how to manipulate a number of different voting rules. However, NP-hardness only bounds the worst-case complexity. Recent theoretical results suggest that manipulation may often be easy in practice. To address this issue, I suggest studying empirically if computational complexity is in practice a barrier to manipulation. The basic tool used in my investigations is the identification of computational "phase transitions". Such an approach has been fruitful in identifying hard instances of propositional satisfiability and other NP-hard problems. I show that phase transition behaviour gives insight into the hardness of manipula...

  1. Perceived barriers to physical activity in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzu, Daskapan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Eker, Levent

    2006-01-01

    Many studies which were published in other countries identified certain benefits and barriers to physical activity among young people. But there is no data about the subject pertaining to Turkish adolescents. This study tries to rectify this with a study of Turkish university students. Undergraduate university students (n = 303) were recruited to the study. Current exercise habits and perceived barriers to physical activity were assessed in the sample. Using a Likert Type scale, participants responded an instrument with 12 items representing barriers to physical activity. Mean scores were computed. External barriers were more important than internal barriers. "Lack of time due to busy lesson schedule", "My parents give academic success priority over exercise. "and "lack of time due to responsibilities related to the family and social environment "were most cited items for physical activity barriers. There is a need for future research, which will be carried out with larger sample groups to develop national standardized instrument. It will be helpful for accurately identify perceived barriers and then recommend changes to enhance physical activity among young people. Key PointsThe purpose of this study was to analyze perceived barriers to physical activity in the university students.The results showed that not having enough time was the most important barrier for not participating in physical activity among our samples.This study with relatively small sample must be considered as pilot study for related studies in the future.

  2. Barriers to student success in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wills

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.

  3. Barriers to Research and Evidence (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Brettle

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available I often find attending conferences or workshops a source of reflection or inspiration for editorials, and today I attended an event that proved to be no exception. The HEALER network is a UK grouping of professionals interested in health library research. It brings together those working in health information at an academic, practitioner or strategic capacity as well as those working in higher education, research and the NHS. (http://www.libraryservices.nhs.uk/healer/minutes.htmlThere were a number of interesting presentations, but one (and the subsequent interactive discussions left me with some worrying thoughts. Hannah Spring (2013 presented some of the findings from her PhD that found when health librarians were asked about their barriers to research they reported that they didn't know what research questions to ask! Alternatively if they had research questions they didn't think to engage with the literature or believed that there was no evidence to answer them! If we really don't have any research questions, and we really don't think to look at the literature or there really is no evidence, this is worrying indeed for the future of EBLIP. It's also a situation I don't recognize from being involved in the EBLIP journal and was left wondering whether it was the health librarians perceptions of “research” and “evidence” that was the issue; questions which are being examined in the LIRG Scan which was described in another presentation. The scan is a review of the evidence on: What practitioners understand by research; what kind of research is relevant to LIS practitioners? How do they use research and what are the barriers and facilitators to using research in practice? (https://sites.google.com/site/lirgweb/home/awards/lirg-scan-award The results will be used to help inform the Chartered Institute for Library and Information Professionals’ policy on research.The barrier which I’m much more familiar in terms of engaging with

  4. Competition can lead to unexpected patterns in tropical ant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwood, M. D. Farnon; Blüthgen, Nico; Fayle, Tom M.; Foster, William A.; Menzel, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Ecological communities are structured by competitive, predatory, mutualistic and parasitic interactions combined with chance events. Separating deterministic from stochastic processes is possible, but finding statistical evidence for specific biological interactions is challenging. We attempt to solve this problem for ant communities nesting in epiphytic bird's nest ferns (Asplenium nidus) in Borneo's lowland rainforest. By recording the frequencies with which each and every single ant species occurred together, we were able to test statistically for patterns associated with interspecific competition. We found evidence for competition, but the resulting co-occurrence pattern was the opposite of what we expected. Rather than detecting species segregation-the classical hallmark of competition-we found species aggregation. Moreover, our approach of testing individual pairwise interactions mostly revealed spatially positive rather than negative associations. Significant negative interactions were only detected among large ants, and among species of the subfamily Ponerinae. Remarkably, the results from this study, and from a corroborating analysis of ant communities known to be structured by competition, suggest that competition within the ants leads to species aggregation rather than segregation. We believe this unexpected result is linked with the displacement of species following asymmetric competition. We conclude that analysing co-occurrence frequencies across complete species assemblages, separately for each species, and for each unique pairwise combination of species, represents a subtle yet powerful way of detecting structure and compartmentalisation in ecological communities.

  5. PARADIGMS REGARDING CONCERTED PRACTICES OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of completing the single market requires the application of appropriate measures also in competition field. Rather, it is a truism that, once are removed the non-tariff barriers (physical, technical, fiscal of hindering trade, companies and governments will seek new ways to limit the restrictions so that competition laws to protect domestic industries. This study is a reflection on competitive practices regarding the theoretical and practical aspects in the phenomenon of economic competition.

  6. Competition, predation and species responses to environmental change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lin; Kulczychi, A. [Rutgers Univ., Cook College, Dept. of Ecology, Evolution and Natural Resources, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Despite much effort over the past decade on the ecological consequences of global warming, ecologists still have little understanding of the importance of interspecific interactions in species responses to environmental change. Models predict that predation should mitigate species responses to environmental change, and that interspecific competition should aggravate species responses to environmental change. To test this prediction, we studied how predation and competition affected the responses of two ciliates, Colpidiumstriatum and Parameciumtetraurelia, to temperature change in laboratory microcosms. We found that neither predation nor competition altered the responses of Colpidiumstratum to temperature change, and that competition but not predation altered the responses of Paramecium tetraurelia to temperature change. Asymmetric interactions and temperature-dependent interactions may have contributed to the disparity between model predictions and experimental results. Our results suggest that models ignoring inherent complexities in ecological communities may be inadequate in forecasting species responses to environmental change. (au)

  7. Convergence to equilibrium in competitive Lotka-Volterra equations

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Raoul, Gael

    2010-01-01

    We study a generalized system of ODE's modeling a finite number of biological populations in a competitive interaction. We adapt the techniques in two previous articles to prove the convergence to a unique stable equilibrium.

  8. Does inter-market competition lead to less regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model to analyze the consequences of competition in order-flow between a profit maximizing stock exchange and an alternative trading platform on the decisions concerning trading fees and listing requirements. Listing requirements, set by the exchange, provide public information on listed firms and contribute to a better liquidity on all trading venues. It is sometimes asserted that competition induces the exchange to lower its level of listing standards compared to a sit...

  9. Prezygotic barriers to gene flow between Taraxacum ceratophorum and the invasive Taraxacum officinale (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Marcus T

    2009-08-01

    Prezygotic reproductive barriers limit interspecific gene flow between congeners. Here, I examine the strength of floral isolation and interspecific pollen-pistil barriers between an invasive apomictic, Taraxacum officinale, and the indigenous sexual alpine dandelion, Taraxacum ceratophorum. Experimental arrays of either native inflorescences or a mixture of native and exotic inflorescences were used to examine insect preference and to track movement of a pollen analog. Using hand-pollinations, conspecific and heterospecific pollen germination success on native stigmas was compared. To additionally test for interspecific pollen competition, T. ceratophorum plants received one of three possible hand-pollinations: control conspecific pollination, concomitant conspecific and heterospecific pollination (mixed), or conspecific pollen followed by heterospecific pollen 15 min later (staggered). Floral isolation was negligible as no insect preference was detected. On a presence/absence basis, florets on native inflorescences received slightly less pollen analog from heterospecific donors than from conspecific donors; however, the amount of dye particles transferred from either Taraxacum species to stigmas on recipient T. ceratophorum inflorescences was equivalent. In contrast to weak floral isolation, strong pollen germination and pollen competition barriers should reduce the potential for hybridization. Heterospecific T. officinale pollen exhibited reduced germination success on T. ceratophorum stigmas in comparison to conspecific pollen. Furthermore, a significant pollen-competition effect on the percentage of hybrid offspring was detected only when T. officinale preceded T. ceratophorum pollen by 15 min. This result indicates that conspecific pollen out-competes heterospecific pollen but further suggests that biotic and abiotic factors reducing pollen accrual rates may partially remove barriers to natural hybridization.

  10. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagiannas, A.G.; Askounis, D.T.; Psarras, J. [National Technical University of Athens (Greece). Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Decision Support Systems Lab

    2004-07-01

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  11. NTCP and Beyond: Opening the Door to Unveil Hepatitis B Virus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Watashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, affecting approximately 240 million people worldwide, is a major public health problem that elevates the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that current anti-HBV drugs are limited to interferon-based regimens and nucleos(tide analogs, the development of new anti-HBV agents is urgently needed. The viral entry process is generally an attractive target implicated in antiviral strategies. Using primary cells from humans and Tupaia belangeri, as well as HepaRG cells, important determinants of viral entry have been achieved. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP was identified as an HBV entry receptor and enabled the establishment of a susceptible cell line that can efficiently support HBV infection. This finding will allow a deeper understanding of the requirements for efficient HBV infection, including the elucidation of the molecular entry mechanism. In addition, pharmacological studies suggest that NTCP is able to serve as a therapeutic target. This article summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV entry and the role of NTCP in this process.

  12. SMEs and Barriers to Skill Development: A Scottish Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Thomas; Ottens, Melanie; Taylor, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of Scottish small and medium-sized enterprises reveals that small business culture is a significant barrier to skill development. Other barriers include awareness, finance, and access to training. A welter of recent policy initiatives has added to a state of confusion about the role of training. (SK)

  13. The Propensity to Tax Competition: The Case of Implementation Local Tax Policy by Polish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Walasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to identify the main factors determining the propensity of local authorities to compete for the access to the limited as well as mobile sources of local tax revenue. The success of such an activity should be discussed in relation to the stabilization of local budget revenues; hence it seems that the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction could be better index to evaluate of the efficiency of local tax policy. The theoretical approach is based on the assumption that, if central government provides limitations of the right to improve local tax policy means (the scope of local tax jurisdiction, the local governments should focus on both the efficient acquiring the sources of tax revenues, and the stabilization of tax revenues in the future, in particular by the implementation of the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction. The paper suggests studying a propensity to tax competition. The article formulates desideratum of the efficiency of spending on acquiring the sources of tax revenue, in particular, the need to identify the barriers to leave tax jurisdiction is suggested. The first and foremost way to build the barrier to leave tax jurisdiction could be reducing tax liabilities by local tax authorities, in particular by introducing local tax reliefs and local tax exemptions, as well as lowering local tax rates. Hence, the model of local authorities’ competition for local tax resources could be proposed. The empirical studies are dedicated to identify the actual propensity of Polish local government to execute the legal ability to impose tax policy instruments. The inquiry is based on comparing the fiscal consequences of implementing local tax policy within two groups of local authorities: small towns and countries (gminas and medium-size towns and big cities (cities with powiat status. The period under investigation contains 14 fiscal years, started 2000 and finished in 2013. The method is based on the analysis of the

  14. Computerized physician order entry with clinical decision support in long-term care facilities: costs and benefits to stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sujha; Hoover, Sonja; Gilman, Boyd; Field, Terry S; Mutter, Ryan; Gurwitz, Jerry H

    2007-09-01

    Nursing homes are the setting of care for growing numbers of our nation's older people, and adverse drug events are an increasingly recognized safety and quality concern in this population. Health information technology, including computerized physician/provider order entry (CPOE) with clinical decision support (CDS), has been proposed as an important systems-based approach for reducing medication errors and preventable drug-related injuries. This article describes the costs and benefits of CPOE with CDS for the various stakeholders involved in long-term care (LTC), including nurses, physicians, the pharmacy, the laboratory, the payer (e.g., the insurer), nursing home residents, and the LTC facility. Critical barriers to adoption of these systems are discussed, primarily from an economic perspective. The analysis suggests that multiple stakeholders will incur the costs related to implementation of CPOE with CDS in the LTC setting, but the costs incurred by each may not be aligned with the benefits, which may present a major barrier to broad adoption. Physicians and LTC facilities are likely to bear a large burden of the costs, whereas residents and payers will enjoy a large portion of the benefits. Consideration of these costs and benefits suggests that financial incentives to physicians and facilities may be necessary to encourage and accelerate widespread use of these systems in the LTC setting.

  15. Preferential entry of botulinum neurotoxin A Hc domain through intestinal crypt cells and targeting to cholinergic neurons of the mouse intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélie Couesnon

    Full Text Available Botulism, characterized by flaccid paralysis, commonly results from botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT absorption across the epithelial barrier from the digestive tract and then dissemination through the blood circulation to target autonomic and motor nerve terminals. The trafficking pathway of BoNT/A passage through the intestinal barrier is not yet fully understood. We report that intralumenal administration of purified BoNT/A into mouse ileum segment impaired spontaneous muscle contractions and abolished the smooth muscle contractions evoked by electric field stimulation. Entry of BoNT/A into the mouse upper small intestine was monitored with fluorescent HcA (half C-terminal domain of heavy chain which interacts with cell surface receptor(s. We show that HcA preferentially recognizes a subset of neuroendocrine intestinal crypt cells, which probably represent the entry site of the toxin through the intestinal barrier, then targets specific neurons in the submucosa and later (90-120 min in the musculosa. HcA mainly binds to certain cholinergic neurons of both submucosal and myenteric plexuses, but also recognizes, although to a lower extent, other neuronal cells including glutamatergic and serotoninergic neurons in the submucosa. Intestinal cholinergic neuron targeting by HcA could account for the inhibition of intestinal peristaltism and secretion observed in botulism, but the consequences of the targeting to non-cholinergic neurons remains to be determined.

  16. New approaches to the marine transport hub competitive growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Botnaryuk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of marine transport hub competitive growth in the context of new economic conditions are considered in the paper. Analyzing the present tools of the transport hub competitive growth, the author emphasizes their production-logistics orientation. However, when rendering services to cargo and ship owners, members of the MTH establish official (contractual and informal relationship and exchange information on a permanent basis. The research into the nature of such a relationship brought the author to the conclusion that generation and further development of the partnership is a basis for new ways of the transport hub competitive growth. Considering the MTH as an institution, the author suggests that a general marketing information system intended for improvement of the services rendered, which will undeniably enhance competitive advantage.

  17. Psychophysiological responses to competition and the big five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binboga, Erdal; Guven, Senol; Catıkkaş, Fatih; Bayazıt, Onur; Tok, Serdar

    2012-06-01

    This study examines the relationship between psychophysiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and personality traits in young taekwondo athletes. A total of 20 male and 10 female taekwondo athletes (mean age = 18.6 years; ± 1.8) volunteered for the study. The Five Factor Personality Inventory and the state scale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) were used to measure personality and cognitive state anxiety. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was measured twice, one day and approximately one hour prior to the competition, to determine psychophysiological arousal. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and stepwise regression were used to analyze the data. Several "Big Five" facets were related to the EDA delta scores that were measured both one day and one hour before the competition. Two stepwise regressions were conducted to examine whether personality traits could significantly predict both EDA delta scores. The final model, containing only neuroticism from the Big Five factors, can significantly explain the variations in the EDA delta scores measured one day before the competition. Agreeableness can significantly explain variations in the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. No relationship was found between cognitive anxiety and the EDA delta scores measured one hour before the competition. In conclusion, personality traits, especially agreeableness and neuroticism, might be useful in understanding arousal responses to competition.

  18. On the nature of barriers to climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable barriers can emerge in developing and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. Understanding the nature of barriers to adaptation is important so as to find strategic ways of dealing with them. However, our current understanding is limited and highly fragmented across the acad

  19. Restructuring the Chilean electric industry: from monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, R.; Rudnick, H. [Catholic University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    1998-09-01

    Chile has been amongst the pioneers of restructuring and liberalization of electricity. As far back as 1982, it introduced reform legislation aimed at bringing competition and private investment into the sector, which has brought about the expansion of capacity necessary to meet growing demand in this developing economy. Reform in Chile has also brought competition in installing transmission lines and gas pipelines as well as power plants. (author)

  20. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  1. How Much Can a Forensic Laboratory Do to Discriminate Questioned Ink Entries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiran; Luo, Yiwen; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Xu; Xu, Che

    2016-07-01

    Questioned document examiners are frequently required to determine whether the questioned ink entries on a document are written with the same ink, either for forged document identification or relative ink dating. How many methods are sufficient to discriminate potentially different inks? In this paper, 18 blue ballpoint inks were first nondestructively examined with a video spectral comparator. The ink entries were subsequently extracted with organic solvents for analysis of the volatile solvents and dyes by GC/MS, TLC, and LC-MS/MS. The 18 ink samples were divided into 10, 9, 12, and 14 categories by these four methods, respectively. With the combined results, there were only two inks that remained indistinguishable, but they were further differentiated by microscopy. Therefore, to achieve effective discrimination of ballpoint ink entries, the authors suggest that a complete examination should include an analysis of their optical features, volatile solvents, and dyes as well as the ink quality.

  2. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  3. Telerobotic Excavator Designed to Compete in NASA's Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Rodney; Santin, Cara; Yousef, Ahmed; Nguyen, Thien; Helferty, John; Pillapakkam, Shriram

    2011-01-01

    The second annual NASA Lunabotics Mining competition is to be held in May 23-28, 2011. The goal of the competition is for teams of university level students to design, build, test and compete with a fully integrated lunar excavator on a simulated lunar surface. Our team, named Lunar Solutions I, will be representing Temple University's College of Engineering in the competition. The team's main goal was to build a robot which is able to compete with other teams, and ultimately win the competition. The main challenge of the competition was to build a wireless robot that can excavate and collect a minimum of 10 kilograms of the regolith material within 15 minutes. The robot must also be designed to operate in conditions similar to those found on the lunar surface. The design of the lunar excavator is constrained by a set of requirements determined by NASA and detailed in the competition's rulebook. The excavator must have the ability to communicate with the "main base" wirelessly, and over a Wi-Fi network. Human operators are located at a remote site approximately 60 meters away from the simulated lunar surface upon which the robot must excavate the lunar regolith surface. During the competition, the robot will operate in a separate area from the control room in an area referred to as the "Lunarena." From the control room, the operators will have to control the robot using visual feedback from cameras placed both within the arena and on the robot. Using this visual feedback the human operators control the robots movement using both keyboard and joystick commands. In order to place in the competition, a minimum of 10 kg of regolith material has to be excavated, collected, and dumped into a specific location. For that reason, the robot must be provided with an effective and powerful excavation system. Our excavator uses tracks for the drive system. After performing extensive research and trade studies, we concluded that tracks would be the most effective method for

  4. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S.K.; Morris, J.K.; Sanders, J.S.; Wiley, E.N.; Brooks, M.; Bennetts, R.E.; Percival, H.F.; Marynowski, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  5. Linguistic and Cultural Barriers to Intercultural Communication in Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltokorpi, Vesa; Clausen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causes and consequences of linguistic and cultural barriers to inter-cultural communication in Nordic subsidiaries in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden) expatriates and 29 Japanese employees show that the main linguistic barriers...... to intercultural communication were lack of a shared language and low motivation to improve foreign-language proficiency. The main cultural barriers were collectivism, and status and power differences. Combined, the consequences of these barriers were extensive reliance on language intermediaries, information...... filtering, in-group/out-group categorization, receiver-centred communication and incongruent supervisor-subordinate expectations. The interviews suggest that linguistic and cultural barriers have a differentiated impact on intercultural communication....

  6. EntrySat: A 3U CubeStat to study the reentry atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix

    2016-04-01

    ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France Raphael.GARCIA@isae.fr +33 5 61 33 81 14

  7. Market and policy barriers to energy storage deployment :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Currier, Aileen B.; Hernandez, Jacquelynne; Ma, Ookie; Kirby, Brendan

    2013-09-01

    Electric energy storage technologies have recently been in the spotlight, discussed as essential grid assets that can provide services to increase the reliability and resiliency of the grid, including furthering the integration of variable renewable energy resources. Though they can provide numerous grid services, there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, crosscutting barriers and technology barriers. This report, through interviews with stakeholders and review of regulatory filings in four regions roughly representative of the United States, identifies the key barriers restricting further energy storage development in the country. The report also includes a discussion of possible solutions to address these barriers and a review of initiatives around the country at the federal, regional and state levels that are addressing some of these issues. Energy storage could have a key role to play in the future grid, but market and regulatory issues have to be addressed to allow storage resources open market access and compensation for the services they are capable of providing. Progress has been made in this effort, but much remains to be done and will require continued engagement from regulators, policy makers, market operators, utilities, developers and manufacturers.

  8. Understanding barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janes R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to study the experiences of 15 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Participants each gave a semi-structured interview of their experiences of living with diabetes. Interviews were transcribed, and themes extracted and organised using a patientcentred framework. FINDINGS: Participants' stories confirmed many of the barriers in the literature, particularly those related to context, such as family, finances, work. Barriers also related to negative emotional reactions to diabetes: fear of new events (diagnosis, starting pills/insulin; guilt about getting diabetes and not controlling it; and shame about having diabetes. Barriers also related to unscientific beliefs and personal beliefs. There were additional barriers related to poor clinician-patient relationships. Overall, participants had a poor understanding of diabetes, and complained that their clinician simply 'told them what to do'. CONCLUSION: Using a patient-centred approach, this study identified many barriers to glycaemic control. We suggest that a key barrier is clinician ignorance of their patients' fears, beliefs, expectations, context; of what constitutes a positive therapeutic relationship; and of the limitations of a biomedical approach to patient non-adherence. Faced with both a worsening diabetes epidemic and increasing health care workforce shortages, clinicians urgently need to understand that it is they, not their patients, who must change their approach if diabetes care is to be improved.

  9. Genetic Barriers to Resistance and Impact on Clinical Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber Andrew D

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of drug resistance and cross-resistance continues to pose a challenge to successful long-term antiretroviral therapy despite the availability of new antiretroviral agents. The genetic barrier to resistance of a regimen does not directly correlate with its effectiveness. For some regimens with a low genetic barrier to resistance, however, the emergence of only 1 or 2 key resistance mutations may confer drug resistance not only to that regimen but also to other agents, thereby limiting subsequent treatment options. In addition to the genetic barrier to resistance, factors such as efficacy, safety, tolerability, convenience, and adherence must be considered when choosing a regimen.

  10. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Daskapan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies which were published in other countries identified certain benefits and barriers to physical activity among young people. But there is no data about the subject pertaining to Turkish adolescents. This study tries to rectify this with a study of Turkish university students. Undergraduate university students (n = 303 were recruited to the study. Current exercise habits and perceived barriers to physical activity were assessed in the sample. Using a Likert Type scale, participants responded an instrument with 12 items representing barriers to physical activity. Mean scores were computed. External barriers were more important than internal barriers. "Lack of time due to busy lesson schedule", "My parents give academic success priority over exercise." and "lack of time due to responsibilities related to the family and social environment" were most cited items for physical activity barriers. There is a need for future research, which will be carried out with larger sample groups to develop national standardized instrument. It will be helpful for accurately identify perceived barriers and then recommend changes to enhance physical activity among young people.

  11. Nested barriers to low-carbon infrastructure investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, J. Ryan; Miller, Alan

    2016-12-01

    Low-carbon, 'green' economic growth is necessary to simultaneously improve human welfare and avoid the worst impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Infrastructure choices underpin both the growth and the carbon intensity of the economy. This Perspective explores the barriers to investing in low-carbon infrastructure and some of the policy levers available to overcome them. The barriers to decarbonizing infrastructure 'nest' within a set of barriers to infrastructure development more generally that cause spending on infrastructure--low-carbon or not--to fall more than 70% short of optimal levels. Developing countries face additional barriers such as currency and political risks that increase the investment gap. Low-carbon alternatives face further barriers, such as commercialization risk and financial and public institutions designed for different investment needs. While the broader barriers to infrastructure investment are discussed in other streams of literature, they are often disregarded in literature on renewable energy diffusion or climate finance, which tends to focus narrowly on the project costs of low- versus high-carbon options. We discuss how to overcome the barriers specific to low-carbon infrastructure within the context of the broader infrastructure gap.

  12. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice prod

  13. Barriers to cataract surgery in Africa: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheer Aboobaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms "barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC, and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB." The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa.

  14. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  15. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  16. From glue to gasoline: how competition turns perspective takers unethical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jason R; Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D; Sivanathan, Niro

    2013-10-01

    Perspective taking is often the glue that binds people together. However, we propose that in competitive contexts, perspective taking is akin to adding gasoline to a fire: It inflames already-aroused competitive impulses and leads people to protect themselves from the potentially insidious actions of their competitors. Overall, we suggest that perspective taking functions as a relational amplifier. In cooperative contexts, it creates the foundation for prosocial impulses, but in competitive contexts, it triggers hypercompetition, leading people to prophylactically engage in unethical behavior to prevent themselves from being exploited. The experiments reported here establish that perspective taking interacts with the relational context--cooperative or competitive--to predict unethical behavior, from using insidious negotiation tactics to materially deceiving one's partner to cheating on an anagram task. In the context of competition, perspective taking can pervert the age-old axiom "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" into "do unto others as you think they will try to do unto you."

  17. The Impact of China's WTO Entry on the Industrial Structure of the Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-qiong; WANG Wei-gong; LI Zheng; SHAO Shi-huang

    2002-01-01

    In the areas of China access into WTO Agreements,Chinese government has made lots of promises in reducing tariffs of some industrial products. While industrial products make up a very large share of import and export, so nearly all kinds of them will be influenced, especially those which are protected by means of national tariffs and taxes and non-tariffs barriers on import-sand, to a lesser extent, on exports.Meanwhile we have noticed that most of these industries are the pillar ones of Yangtze Delta. As it is well known that Yangtze Delta has become the most developed area in Yangtze valley or even in China and had an important effect on China economy. Thus entry to the WTO requires reform to be accelerated in this district so as to put the industry of this region in a position to be able to cope with the greater foreign competition that will follow accession to the trade body.

  18. Perceived barriers to guideline adherence: A survey among general practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besters Casper F

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite considerable efforts to promote and support guideline use, adherence is often suboptimal. Barriers to adherence vary not only across guidelines but also across recommendations within guidelines. The aim of this study was to assess the perceived barriers to guideline adherence among GPs by focusing on key recommendations within guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey among 703 GPs in the Netherlands. Sixteen key recommendations were derived from four national guidelines. Six statements were included to address the attitudes towards guidelines in general. In addition, GPs were asked to rate their perceived adherence (one statement and the perceived barriers (fourteen statements for each of the key recommendations, based on an existing framework. Results 264 GPs (38% completed the questionnaire. Although 35% of the GPs reported difficulties in changing routines and habits to follow guidelines, 89% believed that following guidelines leads to improved patient care. Perceived adherence varied between 52 and 95% across recommendations (mean: 77%. The most perceived barriers were related to external factors, in particular patient ability and behaviour (mean: 30% and patient preferences (mean: 23%. Lack of applicability of recommendations in general (mean: 22% and more specifically to individual patients (mean: 25% were also frequently perceived as barriers. The scores on perceived barriers differed largely between recommendations [minimum range 14%; maximum range 67%]. Conclusions Dutch GPs have a positive attitude towards the NHG guidelines, report high adherence rates and low levels of perceived barriers. However, the perceived adherence and perceived barriers varied largely across recommendations. The most perceived barriers across recommendations are patient related, suggesting that current guidelines do not always adequately incorporate patient preferences, needs and abilities. It may be

  19. Contributions of Male and Female Guests and Hosts to Peer Group Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja-Alvarez, Teresita; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Second and third grade guests were observed while they tried to join peer hosts who were playing a game. Females guests were less obtrusive than male guests in their entries, and males guests were more assertive. Guests were less constrained when approaching same-sex than opposite-sex hosts. Female hosts were more attentive to guests than were…

  20. Effects of modifications to the space shuttle entry guidance and control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, R. W.; Stone, H. W.; Rowell, L. F.

    1976-01-01

    A nonlinear six degree of freedom entry simulation study was conducted to identify space shuttle guidance and control system software modifications which reduce the control system sensitivity to the guidance system sampling frequency. Several modifications which eliminated the control system sensitivity and associated control limit cycling were examined. The result of the modifications was a reduction in required reaction control system fuel.

  1. An Application of Fuzzy Theory to Technical Competency Analysis for the Entry-Level Electronic Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Te; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop the electronic technical competencies of duty and task analysis by using a revised DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) method, a questionnaire survey, and a fuzzy synthesis operation. The revised DACUM process relied on inviting electronics trade professionals to analyze electronic technology for entry-level…

  2. CinéGlobe invites you to participate in a poster design competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Neal David Hartman

    2013-01-01

    For its 2014 publicity campaign, CinéGlobe invites CERN people to participate in a poster design competition.  The entries are now on display on the Pas Perdus in the main building, and the CERNois are invited to vote for their favourites.    CinéGlobe is the international festival of short films inspired by science that takes place every two years at CERN, in the Globe of Science and Innovation. From 18 to 23 March 2014, CERN will host the fourth edition of the festival. The mission of the CinéGlobe Film Festival is to challenge the commonly perceived divisions between science and art by demonstrating that they are both essential to interpreting our world. Open to short film creators from around the world, the CinéGlobe festival is truly international, the first three editions having attracted more than 4,000 entries from more than 100 countries around the globe.  In addition to screening...

  3. DIUx Commercial Solutions Opening: How to Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    business practices have promoted competition amongst traditional vendors and created high barriers to entry and long timelines that discourage...work to be accomplished for a particular price . At the conclusion of that work, the government may decide to fund (or not fund) the next tranche...often “tranche” a contract into discrete buckets of work and individually fund them. These tranches can be outlined and priced out at the initial award

  4. Barriers to disaster preparedness among medical special needs populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie eMeyer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A medical special needs (MSN assessment was conducted among 3088 respondents in a hurricane prone area. The sample was female (51.7%, Hispanic (92.9%, aged > 45 years (51%, not insured for health (59.2%, and with an MSN (33.2%. Barriers to preparedness were characterized for all households, including those with inhabitants reporting MSN ranging from level 0 (mild to level 4 (most severe. Multivariable logistic regression tested associations between hurricane preparedness and barriers to evacuation by level of MSN. A significant interaction effect between number of evacuation barriers and MSN was found. Among households that reported individuals with level 0 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 18% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.18, 95% CI (1.08, 1.30]. Among households that reported individuals with level 1 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 29% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.29, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51]. Among households that reported individuals with level 3 MSN, the odds of being unprepared increased 68% for each additional evacuation barrier [OR=1.68, 95% CI (1.21, 1.32]. MSN alone did not explain the probability of unpreparedness, but rather MSN in the presence of barriers helped explain unpreparedness.

  5. 7 CFR 319.24a - Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions relating to entry of corn into Guam. 319.24a Section 319.24a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Corn Diseases Quarantine § 319.24a...

  6. Changes in Estonian General Education from the Collapse of the Soviet Union to EU Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Edgar; Trasberg, Karmen

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces and discusses the nature and development of Estonian system of general education in the period of last thirty years. The main focus is paid on the changes resulting from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the period of integration leading up to EU entry. Also changes in other spheres of education and social life are…

  7. The Inside, Out: Diaries as Entry Points to Historical Perspective-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemisko, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Diaries can serve as meaningful entry points for advancing historical consciousness and develop historical thinking (Seixas, 2002) because they can connect readers/learners with the diverse emotions, thoughts and motivations of the people who wrote them in particular times and particular places. According to philosopher and historian, R.G.…

  8. Thermophysics Issues Relevant to High-Speed Earth Entry of Large Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, D.; Saunders, D.; Agrawal, P.; Allen, G.; Bauschlicher, C.; Brandis, A.; Chen, Y.-K.; Jaffe, R.; Schulz, J.; Stern, E.; Tauber, M.; White, S.

    2016-01-01

    Physics of atmospheric entry of meteoroids was an active area of research at NASA ARC up to the early 1970s (e.g., the oft-cited work of Baldwin and Sheaffer). However, research in the area seems to have ended with the Apollo program, and any ties with an active international meteor physics community seem to have significantly diminished thereafter. In the decades following the 1970s, the focus of entry physics at NASA ARC has been on improvement of the math models of shock-layer physics (especially in chemical kinetics and radiation) and thermal response of ablative materials used for capsule heatshields. With the overarching objectives of understanding energy deposition into the atmosphere and fragmentation, could these modern analysis tools and processes be applied to the problem of atmospheric entry of meteoroids as well? In the presentation we will explore: (i) the physics of atmospheric entries of meteoroids using our current state-of-the-art tools and processes, (ii) how multiple bodies interact, and (iii) the influence of wall blowing on flow dynamics.

  9. Advanced Bibliometric Methods To Model the Relationship between Entry Behavior and Networking in Emerging Technological Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debackere, Koenraad; Clarysse, Bart

    1998-01-01

    Technological communities used bibliometric data on 411 plant biotechnology organizations to study the effect of field density and structure of the research and development network. Findings indicate the usefulness of bibliometric data in mapping change in technological communities and in the effects of networking on entry behavior. (PEN)

  10. The Impact of Pre-School on Young Children's Cognitive Attainments at Entry to Reception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammons, Pam; Elliot, Karen; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Siraj-Blatchford, Iram; Taggart, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the impact of pre-school experience on young children's cognitive attainments at entry to primary school and analyses data collected as part of a wider longitudinal study, the Effective Provision of Pre-school Education (EPPE) project, which followed a large sample of young children attending 141 pre-school centres drawn from…

  11. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV) to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieringer, Maria; Han, Jung Woo; Kendl, Sabine; Khosravi, Mojtaba; Plattet, Philippe; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a close relative of measles virus (MV), is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM) and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red) adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F) genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2) pfu/ml) in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM). After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5) pfu/ml). Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G) was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L) and Gly to Glu (G71E), and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  12. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  13. Maintenance Treatment with Opium Tincture: A Preliminary Qualitative Study of the Factors Related to Treatment entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshmand

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The current preliminary study aimed to explore the reasons that a group of opiate-dependent patients reported for entry into opium tincture treatment (OTT.Through examinations of 52 qualitative focus group interviews with patients from six OTT centers and 10 health providers (in key informant interviews in Tehran, this study highlights the factors that participants reported as the reasons associated with entry into OTT. Quantitative data including demographic data and details of drug use were analyzed by using SPSS.v.18.0. Qualitative data was analyzed by using Atlas-ti software.86.5% of patients were male and 13.5% were female. The median age of patients was 39 yr. The most frequently reasons associated with entry into OTT included methadone misconceptions including dissatisfaction with taking methadone as a chemical medication, methadone dependence, and long duration of MMT. The other reasons included the recommendation of other people in treatment and OT-related characteristics and expectations including the herbal compound of OT, treating opiate craving and withdrawal symptoms, and improving general health.The study findings preliminarily showed the reasons associated with entry into OTT in a sample of treatment seekers. Longitudinal studies with more representative samples and follow-up stages are required to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of OTT as a maintenance treatment in comparison with methadone and buprenorphine. Patient-centered program and policy implications are discussed.

  14. Barriers to the adoption of green operational practices at Brazilian companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; De Sousa Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes; Govindan, Kannan;

    2016-01-01

    companies. A conceptual framework with 8 hypotheses is proposed and tested at 75 companies using Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) with WarpPLS 4.0. The main results show that (a) the proposed framework obtained an adequate statistical adjustment, (b) the internal barriers (IBs...... by showing that companies which are looking for green competitive advantages should try to reduce their IBs. Also, policy-makers should pay attention not only to legislation that promotes ecological modernisation, but also to create a strong set of initiatives to overcome IBs, regardless of the size...

  15. Optimization of Observation Strategy to Improve Re-entry Prediction of Objects in HEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasotto, M.; Di Mauro, G.; Massari, M.; Di Lizia, P.; Armellin, R.; Funke, Q.; Flohrer, T.

    2016-09-01

    During the last decade the number of space debris moving on high elliptical orbit (HEO) has grown fast. Many of these resident space objects (RSO) consist of medium and large spent upper stages of launch vehicles, whose atmosphere re-entry might violate on-ground casualty risk constraints. Increasing the accuracy of re-entry predictions for this class of RSO is therefore a key issue to limit the hazards on the Earth assets. Traditional computational methods are mainly based on the exploitation of Two Line Elements (TLEs), provided by the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and currently the only public data source available for these kind of analyses. TLE data however, are characterized by low accuracies, and in general come without any uncertainty information, thus limiting the achievable precision of the re-entry estimates. Better results on the other hand, can be obtained through the exploitation of observational data provided by one or more Earth sensors. Despite the benefits, this approach introduces a whole new set of complexities, mainly related with the design of proper observation campaigns. This paper presents a method based on evolutionary algorithms, for the optimization of observation strategies. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through dedicated examples, in which re-entry predictions, attainable with existing and ideal sensor architectures, are compared with corresponding results derived from TLE data.

  16. Entry at Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Smith, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    This is lecture to be given at the IPPW 2016, as part of the 2 day course on Short Course on Destination Venus: Science, Technology and Mission Architectures. The attached presentation material is intended to be introduction to entry aspects of Venus in-situ robotic missions. The presentation introduces the audience to the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects as well as the loads, both aero and thermal, generated during entry. The course touches upon the system design aspects such as TPS design and both high and low ballistic coefficient entry system concepts that allow the science payload to be protected from the extreme entry environment and yet meet the mission objectives.

  17. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first......-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  18. From monopoly to competition; Marketing natural gas in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heal, D.W. (University Coll. of Wales, Aberystwyth (UK))

    1990-10-01

    Natural gas was introduced from 1964 into an expanding UK energy market by the state-owned British Gas Corporation, a statutory monopsonists to the gas producers, and a monopoly supplier to the final users. This unified structure was the dominant influence on a marketing strategy that led to the successful introduction of this third fossil fuel. The 1988 recommendations of the Monopolies and Mergers Commission were designed to promote direct competition for a now privatized British Gas operating in a static energy market with competition between fuels. Lower gas prices are available for some, but not for all consumers. (author).

  19. THE ROMANIAN BANKING COMPETITION AND THE ACCESSION TO EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Capraru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we try to assess banking competition in the Romania for 2001 – 2008, taking into account the evolution of market share of the top five, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI, performances indicators like ROA and ROE and evolutions of deposit and loans rates. We observed that the competition in the Romanian banking system increases continuously in the last years. The main factors which have influenced this process were: the privatization of the majority of state capital banks and the perspective of accession of our country in the EU. In the period assessed, there are two approaches: in the first period banks have had very good performances due to their market share in a low competitive banking environment and after the privatization of some state capital banks, the leader of the market lost market share in the favor of other bank with greater performances.

  20. Barriers to Mammography Screening: How to Overcome Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Hassoun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Screening mammography is an established intervention that leads to early breast cancer detection and reduced mortality. The Lebanese Ministry of Health has initiated yearly awareness campaigns and provided free mammography in multiple centers around the country. Methods: The study took place in two major areas of Lebanon - Beirut and South Lebanon. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess knowledge about breast cancer screening and screening behaviors in the Lebanese population. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the reasons that prevented women from performing screening mammography based on our categories of questions: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, lack of access to screening facilities, failure of primary care physician to encourage screening behavior, and other reasons. Results: The major barriers to seek screening that had statistically significant P-values, in order of prevalence, included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, followed by social reasons and lack of access. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of breast cancer in our population, it is important to understand the pitfalls that we experience in promoting awareness. Our study is the first study to reach out to the community to assess perceived barriers against screening and provide solutions for such barriers.

  1. Barriers to women engaging in collective action to overcome sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Helena R M; Hornsey, Matthew J; Barlow, Fiona Kate

    2016-12-01

    Over centuries women have fought hard to obtain increasing gender equality, but despite these successes absolute equality remains an elusive goal. Theoretically, women's numerical strength makes them well-placed to take effective collective action, and millions of women engage in feminist collective action every day. In this article, however, we argue that women also face barriers to engaging in feminist collective action; barriers that are associated with the social construction and experience of what it means to be a woman. Our review synthesizes sexism research under a contemporary collective action framework to clarify our current understanding of the literature and to offer novel theoretical explanations for why women might be discouraged from engaging in feminist collective action. Using the antecedents of collective action identified by van Zomeren, Postmes, and Spears' (2008) meta-analysis, we critically review the sexism literature to argue that women face challenges when it comes to (a) identifying with other women and feminists, (b) perceiving sexism and expressing group-based anger, and (c) recognizing the efficacy of collective action. We then outline a research agenda with a view to investigating ways of overcoming these barriers. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  3. The entry to Kolarac foundation: Cultural activity and music audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadžibulić Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Foundation of Ilija Milosavljević Kolarac (also known as Kolarac Foundation; in Serbian: Kolarčeva zadužbina was established simultaneously with the development of the most important modern cultural institutions in Serbia in the 19th century. The quality and diversity of the program, the ability to recognize important topics in the current time, as well as preservation of the old and encouragement of new ideas in almost all domains of art and science have contributed to its unquestionable reputation throughout the region. However, there have been no significant academic attempts to approach its work analytically and, in particular, its audience. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the work of Kolarac Foundation by presenting the origin and history of the institution, followed by an analysis of the program of all its activities in the first ten seasons of the new millennium. The central part of the paper is an analysis of its cultural activity in the given period. Finally, by using empirical data, the music audence of Great Hall (Velika Dvorana of Kolarac Foundation is profiled through its basic socio-demographic characteristics and music practices. The music audience mainly consisted of women, highly educated professionals with a high material standard. The share of the oldest and those from 21 to 30 years old is the highest and, at the same time, equal. This audience is authentically fond of music, with no exceptions at all. Its members listen to music on everyday basis, and they were attending concerts in the year before the investigation. They find music to be an inevitable part of their lives, and cannot imagine emotional expression or making friendships without it. Finally, they sincerely like coming to Kolarac Foundation since they find it to be a place that has all the positive treats of a good cultural institution.

  4. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  5. Particulars of Leasing Contracts Entries According to IAS 17

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta ISAI

    2006-01-01

    Leasing operations are today an efficient means for the leasing companies to sell long-term use goods under advantageous conditions of price and delivery terms while third companies become owners without outstanding financial efforts.

  6. Competitive intelligence: An antidote to downsizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, G.E.; Spiers, J.P.

    1996-03-15

    This article is a review of the efforts of a number of utilities to use state-of-the-art information systems to improve their operations. Of note is: (1) BellSouth Telecommunications` plans to automate its manual outside-plant engineering and design process, (2) West Ohio Gas Company`s plans to develope software packages for DOT reporting and analysis, pressure control and analysis, customer complaint tracking, and emergency response, and (3) Kentucky Utilities Company`s use of information technology to improve its trouble-outage management capability, contain the operational costs of growth by increasing labor efficiency, and provide more accurate and timely information to enhance customer service.

  7. From R.T. to entry-level manager: how to climb the clinical ladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, B

    2001-01-01

    Modern healthcare institutions are faced with an environment that is rapidly changing. Many imposed changes have repercussions that affect lower-level radiology managers. According to one expert, radiology administrators face two dilemmas in preparing for the future: upgrading skills of those currently employed and ensuring that future employees are prepared to succeed. This paper examines the knowledge, skills and abilities needed for entry-level managers in radiology to succeed in healthcare. In order to gain current information on processes used in promoting staff technologists to management positions, the authors developed and mailed a questionnaire to 35 radiology administrators across the country. In addition to promoting employees, organizations should take a role in the maintenance and growth of an employee's career by creating realistic career paths for advancement, including programs in mentoring, assessment centers or formal training in the art of interviewing candidates. In order for entry-level radiology managers to succeed in a complex healthcare environment, mere technical expertise is not sufficient. The responsibility for identifying and providing appropriate education and training lies with employers, educational programs, professional groups and the employee.

  8. Immunoreagents and competitive assays to fludioxonil

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Fuentes, Antonio; Agulló, Consuelo; Esteve Turrillas, Francesc Albert; Abad Somovilla, Antonio; Mercader Badia, Josep Vicent

    2014-01-01

    Fludioxonil is a new-generation fungicide widely used for postharvest fruit protection. The aim of this study was to produce hitherto unreported immunoreagents for Fludioxonil analysis by immunoassay. Derivatives of this agrochemical were synthesized with different linker tethering sites. Those functionalized haptens were activated, and the purified active esters were efficiently conjugated to different carrier proteins for immunogen and assay antigen preparation. Antibodies to Fludioxonil we...

  9. Entry to medical school: an audit of traditional selection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, J P; White, G R; Kennedy, J A

    1995-01-01

    The major focus in the selection of entrants for medical school has traditionally been on academic achievement in school-leaving examinations in which certain science subjects are a requirement. A longitudinal study of 413 successful applicants was undertaken to determine the relationship of these admission criteria to subsequent performance. The findings support a correlation between overall marks in the school-leaving examination and the annual Grade Point Averages. Those students in the top quartile for marks showed a significant advantage in terms of achievement but only in the preclinical years. Despite the significant correlations no predictions could be made on the basis of overall marks. No correlation was found with levels of clinical competence during the ward clerkships or with the interdisciplinary objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the final examination. Marks in individual school-leaving examination subjects correlated with performance during different parts of the course but only those entrants in the top quartile for marks in physics and biology showed an advantage through to the clinical years. English marks were the least correlated and failed to confer an advantage in any year of the course. None of the correlations between school-leaving marks and grades in medical school exceeded 0.4. The predictive value of school-leaving examination marks therefore accounted for only 16% of the variance in subsequent examinations. Selection of medical students on the basis of academic criteria alone is inadequate and should be accompanied by assessment of personal qualities. This School no longer uses school-leaving marks as the primary selection instrument.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Cost based interconnection charges as a way to induce competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the relationship between regulation of interconnection charges and the level of competition. One of the most important issues in the debate on interconnect regulation has been use of forward looking costs for setting of interconnection charges. This debate...... has been ongoing within the EU as well as in US. This paper discusses the European experiences and in particular the Danish experiences with use of cost based interconnection charges, and their impact on competition in the telecom market....

  11. An activation-repolarization time metric to predict localized regions of high susceptibility to re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Bishop, Martin J.; Hanson, Ben; Coronel, Ruben; Opthof, Tobias; Bourkens, Bastiaan; Walton, Richard; Efimov, Igor; Bostock, Julian; Hill, Yolanda; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Initiation of re-entrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) involves complex interactions between activation and repolarization wavefronts. Recent experimental work has identified the time interval between S2 repolarization proximal to a line of functional block and the activation at the adjacent distal side, as a critical determinant of re-entry. Objective We hypothesized: (1) an algorithm could be developed which would generate a spatial map of this interval (designated the “re-entry vulnerability index”-RVI); (2) that this would accurately identify a pathway of re-entry as well as rotor formation in animal experiments and in a computational model; and, (3) that it would be possible to generate an RVI map in humans during routine clinical procedures and co-register with anatomical and electrophysiological features. Methods and Results An algorithm was developed which sampled all points on a multielectrode grid and calculated RVI between all pairs of electrodes within a given radius. The algorithm successfully identified the spatial region with increased susceptibility to re-entry in an established Langendorff pig heart model and the site of re-entry and rotor formation in an optically mapped sheep heart model and corresponding computational simulations. The feasibility of RVI mapping was evaluated during a clinical procedure by co-registering with the anatomy and physiology in a patient undergoing a VT ablation. Conclusions We developed an algorithm to calculate a re-entry vulnerability index from intervals between local repolarization and activation times at all adjacent points over a multielectrode grid. The algorithm accurately identified the region of re-entry in two animal models of functional re-entry. The possibility of clinical application was demonstrated in a patient with VT. PMID:25863160

  12. Dominican NGOs move from competition to collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, the seven nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working to prevent HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic received most of their funding and technical assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In September 1992, however, USAID's AIDSTECH project asked the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project to prepare the NGOs for the time when USAID would no longer be their main source of support. To that end, AIDSCAP worked with NGO staff to assess their technical, managerial, and administrative needs, and identified a lack of administrative and managerial experience among many NGO staff. AIDSCAP therefore developed an institutional strengthening plan, including a series of capacity building workshops, in 1993. Many NGOs, however, foreseeing the impending need to compete with other NGOs for limited funds, were not interested in sharing ideas and working together. This article describes how Coordinadora de Animacion Socio-Cultural (CASCO) and the Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral (IDDI) competed in the context of uncertainty over continued donor funding, but now meet regularly to coordinate HIV/AIDS prevention projects for youth in the Dominican Republic.

  13. Cooperation for competition : linking Ethiopian farmers to markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, rural smallholders have formed various forms of associations to confront access-barriers to the market. It is estimated that 250 million farmers participate in agricultural cooperatives in developing countries. Agricultural cooperatives are considered to be a fundamental pillar o

  14. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  15. Improved Barriers to Turbine Engine Fragments: Final Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    failure behavior in the vicinity of a pegged hole. A series of these fabric corner failure tests in both Zylon and Kevlar fabrics determined that...barrier) upon the ballistic efficiency of the barrier. In some cases, Keviar could be as effective as (or more effective than) Zylon , due to the larger...fraction of impact energy consumed in producing comer tearing. A considerable database of large-scale fragment impact tests into Zylon and Kevlar fabric

  16. Equation of Energy Injection to a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuiliang; Weng, Shan; Jin, Qi; Han, Jingyi; Jiang, Boqiong; Wu, Zuliang

    2016-08-01

    The electric energy injection from a pulsed power supply to a planar type of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at atmospheric pressure was studied. Relations of the energy injection with barrier materials, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, electrode area, and operation temperature were experimentally investigated. The energy injection is a function of relative permittivity, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, and electrode area. The influence of operation temperature on energy injection is slight in the range of 27-300 °C but becomes obvious in the range of 300-500 °C. A model was established using which the energy injection can be easily predicted. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11575159), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY13B070004), Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of S&T Innovation (No. 2013TD07), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51206146)

  17. CRITICAL PERIOD OF MUNGBEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS L. TO WEED COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.H. UTOMO*

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the critical period of weed control on the crop of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.. The studies were done in the field of BIOTROP Experimental Station with the natural existing weed population. It was found that the critical period of mungbean to weed competition was from 3-6 weeks after planting.

  18. CRITICAL PERIOD OF MUNGBEAN (PHASEOLUS RADIATUS L.) TO WEED COMPETITION

    OpenAIRE

    I.H. UTOMO*

    1989-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the critical period of weed control on the crop of mungbean (Phaseolus radiatus L.). The studies were done in the field of BIOTROP Experimental Station with the natural existing weed population. It was found that the critical period of mungbean to weed competition was from 3-6 weeks after planting.

  19. 31 CFR 306.117 - Withdrawal of eligible book-entry Treasury securities for conversion to registered form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PUBLIC DEBT GENERAL REGULATIONS GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Book-Entry Procedure § 306.117 Withdrawal of...) Public Debt shall, upon receipt of appropriate instructions to withdraw eligible book-entry Treasury... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Withdrawal of eligible...

  20. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  1. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences.

  2. An early view of the barriers to entry and career development in Building Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Infante-Perea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El sector de la construcción desempeña un importante rol en la economía mundial, ya que genera alrededor del 10% del PIB y da trabajo en torno al 7% de las personas empleadas. Se investigan las salidas profesionales de los ingenieros(as de edificación y las barreras de carrera que pueden encontrar en su acceso al mercado de trabajo y en su desarrollo profesional en el sector. A partir de la identificación de variables como barreras relevantes, se adopta un enfoque descriptivo e inferencial de carácter exploratorio para analizar la influencia del género en la percepción de dichas barreras en dos universidades españolas. Los resultados muestran un escenario laboral más difícil para ellas y nos permiten reflexionar sobre las repercusiones que estas percepciones tempranas pueden tener en el desarrollo profesional de la próxima generación de ingenieros(as de la edificación.

  3. An early view of the barriers to entry and career development in Building Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Infante-Perea; Marisa Román-Onsalo; Elena Navarro-Astor

    2015-01-01

    El sector de la construcción desempeña un importante rol en la economía mundial, ya que genera alrededor del 10% del PIB y da trabajo en torno al 7% de las personas empleadas. Se investigan las salidas profesionales de los ingenieros(as) de edificación y las barreras de carrera que pueden encontrar en su acceso al mercado de trabajo y en su desarrollo profesional en el sector. A partir de la identificación de variables como barreras relevantes, se adopta un enfoque descriptivo e inferencial d...

  4. Variation in clinical coding lists in UK general practice: a barrier to consistent data entry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Waize

    2007-09-01

    Conclusions Current systems for clinical coding promote diversity rather than consistency of clinical coding. As the UK moves towards an integrated health IT system consistency of coding will become more important. A standardised, limited list of codes for primary care might help address this need.

  5. Molecular markers to study competition and diversity of Rhizobium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sessitsch, A.

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed to the development of molecular identification and detection techniques for studying the ecology of Rhizobium, a nitrogen- fixing bacterium of agricultural importance. Competition of inoculant strains with indigenous microbes is a serious problem in

  6. Corn Response to Competition: Growth Alteration vs. Yield Limiting Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding competition mechanisms among adjacent plants can improve site-specific management recommendations. This 2-yr study compared two hypotheses, yield limiting factors vs. behavior modification, to explain plant interactions. Corn was grown under different levels of stress by varying light ...

  7. Relaxing competition through speculation : Committing to a negative supply slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, Par; Willems, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how commodity producers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, producers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete in supply functions. In equilibrium, producers sell forward contracts and

  8. Relaxing Competition through Speculation : Committing to a Negative Supply Slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, P.; Willems, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate how suppliers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, suppliers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete with supply functions. In equilibrium firms sell forward contracts and buy

  9. The Shift to Competition in the Prisoner's Dilemma Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Ayala

    1976-01-01

    The relative power of cooperative and trusting patterns of behavior versus those of exploitation and distrust in affecting the results of group decision-making processes was investigated. The outcome of a study using the Prisoner's Dilemma Game seems to suggest the disproportionate influence of competitive people in these settings. (Author)

  10. The Evolution of Industrial Development Strategy up to China's Entry into the WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoKesha

    2005-01-01

    Changes in China's industrial development strategy undertaken prior to its entry into the WTO centered on strategies for foreign trade, foreign capital utilization, and industry structure. The foreign trade strategy tended to involve a shift from the importsubstitution strategy adopted before the reforms of 1978 to an export-oriented strategy, mainly still one of preferential export promotion. Strategy with regard to foreign capital utilization changed from restricting foreign capital to encouraging foreign capital.

  11. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  13. Susceptibility of human iris stromal cells to herpes simplex virus 1 entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, John; Park, Paul J; Zanotti, Brian; Maus, Erika; Volin, Michael V; Shukla, Deepak; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2013-04-01

    Ocular herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection can lead to multiple complications, including iritis, an inflammation of the iris. Here, we use human iris stroma cells as a novel in vitro model to demonstrate HSV-1 entry and the inflammatory mediators that can damage the iris. The upregulated cytokines observed in this study provide a new understanding of the intrinsic immune mechanisms that can contribute to the onset of iritis.

  14. Expert Opinion to Identify High-Risk Entry Routes of Canine Rabies into Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, V J; Ward, M P

    2017-03-01

    The proximity of Papua New Guinea (PNG) to canine rabies-endemic countries in South-East Asia presents a risk of incursion of this disease into PNG and the rest of the Oceanic region. The objective of this study was to identify the highest risk routes for entry of dogs - associated with movement of people - into PNG from canine rabies-endemic countries. A structured, in-country expert-elicitation workshop was used, and 20 entry routes were identified. The highest risk routes were three land routes from Papua, Indonesia (hunters, traditional border crossers and unregulated, unchecked 'shopper-crossers') and two sea routes (fishing and logging). These results will be used to direct more detailed risk assessments to develop surveillance strategies and incursion response plans.

  15. Challenges to Computational Aerothermodynamic Simulation and Validation for Planetary Entry Vehicle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Johnston, Christopher O.; Kleb, Bil

    2010-01-01

    Challenges to computational aerothermodynamic (CA) simulation and validation of hypersonic flow over planetary entry vehicles are discussed. Entry, descent, and landing (EDL) of high mass to Mars is a significant driver of new simulation requirements. These requirements include simulation of large deployable, flexible structures and interactions with reaction control system (RCS) and retro-thruster jets. Simulation of radiation and ablation coupled to the flow solver continues to be a high priority for planetary entry analyses, especially for return to Earth and outer planet missions. Three research areas addressing these challenges are emphasized. The first addresses the need to obtain accurate heating on unstructured tetrahedral grid systems to take advantage of flexibility in grid generation and grid adaptation. A multi-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithm is defined that is oriented with local flow topology as opposed to grid. The second addresses coupling of radiation and ablation to the hypersonic flow solver--flight- and ground-based data are used to provide limited validation of these multi-physics simulations. The third addresses the challenges of retro-propulsion simulation and the criticality of grid adaptation in this application. The evolution of CA to become a tool for innovation of EDL systems requires a successful resolution of these challenges.

  16. Acupuncture decreases competitive anxiety prior to a competition in young athletes: a randomized controlled trial pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sahar; Shayestehfar, Monir; Memari, Amir-Hossein; SeifBarghi, Tohid; Sobhani, Vahid

    2017-03-01

    Background Although a certain level of competitive anxiety may increase performance, many athletes with anxiety experience uncontrolled negative feelings and cognition that in turn can have overwhelming effects on their performance. Methods We aimed to assess the effect of acupuncture on competitive anxiety of the adolescent football players prior to the competition using psychological and physiological markers. A total of 30 athletes were randomly and equally allocated to either acupuncture or sham control group. Results The results of t-test on posttest scores showed that acupuncture had a significant effect on cognitive anxiety (p=0.001) and somatic anxiety (p0.05). Furthermore, the results showed that acupuncture significantly decreased the skin conductance in acupuncture group compared to sham group (p=0.006) (p<0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, the results suggested that acupuncture has the capacity to decrease cognitive and somatic anxiety prior to competition in adolescent athletes while this was accompanied by significant physiological changes.

  17. Self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Karissa; Bhattacharya, Syamal D; Maloney, Megan J; Figueroa, Ligia; Taicher, Brad M; Ross, Sherry; Rice, Henry E

    2013-09-01

    Access to pediatric surgical care is limited in low- and middle-income countries. Barriers must be identified before improvements can be made. This pilot study aimed to identify self-reported barriers to pediatric surgical care in Guatemala. We surveyed 78 families of Guatemalan children with surgical conditions who were seen at a pediatric surgical clinic in Guatemala City. Spanish translators were used to complete questionnaires regarding perceived barriers to surgical care. Surgical conditions included hernias, rectal prolapse, anorectal malformations, congenital heart defects, cryptorchidism, soft tissue masses, and vestibulourethral reflux. Average patient age was 8.2 years (range, 1 month to 17 years) with male predominance (62%). Families reported an average symptom duration of 3.7 years before clinic evaluation. Families traveled a variety of distances to obtain surgical care: 36 per cent were local (less than 10 km), 17 per cent traveled 10 to 50 km, and 47 per cent traveled greater than 50 km. Other barriers to surgery included financial (58.9%), excessive wait time in the national healthcare system (10. 2%), distrust of local surgeons (37.2%), and geographic inaccessibility to surgical care (10.2%). The majority of study patients required outpatient procedures, which could improve their quality of life. Many barriers to pediatric surgical care exist in Guatemala. Interventions to remove these obstacles may enhance access to surgery and benefit children in low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation that includes, for each compute node in the set: initializing a barrier counter with no counter underflow interrupt; configuring, upon entering the barrier operation, the barrier counter with a value in dependence upon a number of compute nodes in the set; broadcasting, by a DMA engine on the compute node to each of the other compute nodes upon entering the barrier operation, a barrier control packet; receiving, by the DMA engine from each of the other compute nodes, a barrier control packet; modifying, by the DMA engine, the value for the barrier counter in dependence upon each of the received barrier control packets; exiting the barrier operation if the value for the barrier counter matches the exit value.

  19. Assessment of elderly people on entry to residential homes and continuing care arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad-Reddick, G

    1992-08-01

    Increasing numbers of elderly people are entering private residential homes in the UK. Results of surveys show poor oral health in this group. A survey was therefore conducted of 50 residential homes (housing 1337 residents) to determine assessment on entry and continuing care provision. In 38 per cent of homes no written notes were made of the initial assessment. Topics of dental interests were infrequently assessed on entry (only 16 per cent of carers examined the oral cavity, 52 per cent assessed the subject's ability to care for their dentures). Medical topics (mobility, incontinence, eyesight, etc) were all assessed in more than 80 per cent of subjects. Suggestions are made for utilization of an easy assessment questionnaire and improved denture naming arrangements. The importance of regular check-ups, education and publicity for this group is stressed.

  20. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  1. Environmental Assessment:Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Security and Safety Upgrades to Entry Control Facilities 1-1 Vandenberg Air Force Base, California Chapter 1. Introduction : Purpose of and Need for the...woodland/Burton Mesa chaparral community. Dominant scrub species include California sagebrush and black sage (Salvia mellifera). The non-native...Grant, Campbell 1978a Chumash: Introduction . In California , edited by Robert F. Heizer, pp. 505–508. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8

  2. Longitudinal control effectiveness and entry dynamics of a single-stage-to-orbit vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Lin, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    The classical theory of flight dynamics for airplane longitudinal stability and control analysis was extended to the case of a hypervelocity reentry vehicle. This includes the elements inherent in supersonic and hypersonic flight such as the influence of the Mach number on aerodynamic characteristics, and the effect of the reaction control system and aerodynamic controls on the trim condition through a wide range of speed. Phugoid motion and angle of attack oscillation for typical cases of cruising flight, ballistic entry, and glide entry are investigated. In each case, closed form solutions for the variations in altitude, flight path angle, speed and angle of attack are obtained. The solutions explicitly display the influence of different regions design parameters and trajectory variables on the stability of the motion.

  3. Phosphate-Activated Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Stabilizes G1 Cyclin To Trigger Cell Cycle Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menoyo, S.; Ricco, N.; Bru, S.; Hernández-Ortega, S.; Escoté, X.; Aldea, M.

    2013-01-01

    G1 cyclins, in association with a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK), are universal activators of the transcriptional G1-S machinery during entry into the cell cycle. Regulation of cyclin degradation is crucial for coordinating progression through the cell cycle, but the mechanisms that modulate cyclin stability to control cell cycle entry are still unknown. Here, we show that a lack of phosphate downregulates Cln3 cyclin and leads to G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The stability of Cln3 protein is diminished in strains with low activity of Pho85, a phosphate-sensing CDK. Cln3 is an in vitro substrate of Pho85, and both proteins interact in vivo. More interestingly, cells that carry a CLN3 allele encoding aspartic acid substitutions at the sites of Pho85 phosphorylation maintain high levels of Cln3 independently of Pho85 activity. Moreover, these cells do not properly arrest in G1 in the absence of phosphate and they die prematurely. Finally, the activity of Pho85 is essential for accumulating Cln3 and for reentering the cell cycle after phosphate refeeding. Taken together, our data indicate that Cln3 is a molecular target of the Pho85 kinase that is required to modulate cell cycle entry in response to environmental changes in nutrient availability. PMID:23339867

  4. Clinoptilolite as an in-situ permeable barrier to strontium migration in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, K.J.; Martin, P.F.; Szecsody, J.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Batch adsorption experiments were conducted with three zeolites (clinoptilolite, chabazite, and A-51) to determine their potential applicability as in-situ permeable barriers to ground water strontium migration in the 100-N Area of the Hanford Site. Each of the zeolites was an effective adsorbent for strontium, even in competition with calcium at concentrations typical of Hanford ground water, and the authors determined that clinoptilolite would be the most cost-effective. The strontium adsorption data for calcium-saturated clinoptilolite were fitted to a Langmuir isotherm, which is linear at solution concentrations of less than 10{sup {minus}5} mol/L. In this region, the adsorption coefficient (K{sub d}) was 956 L/kg. Because strontium concentrations in hanford ground water are typically 3 x 10{sup {minus}6} mol/L, assuming linear adsorption (K{sub d} = 956 L/kg) for modeling purposes is appropriate. These data were used to design an effective barrier and were incorporated into a transport model to assess its performance. Calculations indicated that a barrier 1.3 m thick would prevent strontium-90 migration to the Columbia river at 100-N Area for over 50 yr. Because of radioactive decay and adsorption, the maximum breakthrough of strontium-90, approximately 5% of the initial input, would occur at 100 yr. Preliminary experimental work was conducted to determine the adsorption kinetics of strontium on clinoptilolite. A comparison of the adsorption rate of strontium with its residence time (within the barrier) indicates that adsorption kinetics are sufficiently fast that the barrier performance will not be significantly affected.

  5. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  6. Computerized logistics information systems - a key to competitiveness:

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Part of an organization's ability to use logistics as a competitive weapon is based on its ability to assess and adjust actual logistics performance real time. This means the ability to monitor customer demands and inventory levels as they occur, to act in timely manner to prevent stockouts, and communicate potential problems to customers. This requires excellent, integrated logistics systems which impact all of the logistics activities. In this paper we examined how computer and information ...

  7. MEK1 inactivates Myt1 to regulate Golgi membrane fragmentation and mitotic entry in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Julien; Scarpa, Margherita; Ortega-Bellido, Maria; Malhotra, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    The pericentriolar stacks of Golgi cisternae are separated from each other in G2 and fragmented extensively during mitosis. MEK1 is required for Golgi fragmentation in G2 and for the entry of cells into mitosis. We now report that Myt1 mediates MEK1's effects on the Golgi complex. Knockdown of Myt1 by siRNA increased the efficiency of Golgi complex fragmentation by mitotic cytosol in permeabilized and intact HeLa cells. Myt1 knockdown eliminated the requirement of MEK1 in Golgi fragmentation and alleviated the delay in mitotic entry due to MEK1 inhibition. The phosphorylation of Myt1 by MEK1 requires another kinase but is independent of RSK, Plk, and CDK1. Altogether our findings reveal that Myt1 is inactivated by MEK1 mediated phosphorylation to fragment the Golgi complex in G2 and for the entry of cells into mitosis. It is known that Myt1 inactivation is required for CDK1 activation. Myt1 therefore is an important link by which MEK1 dependent fragmentation of the Golgi complex in G2 is connected to the CDK1 mediated breakdown of Golgi into tubules and vesicles in mitosis.

  8. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Palucci

    Full Text Available PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33 in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3, indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  9. PE_PGRS33 Contributes to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Entry in Macrophages through Interaction with TLR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palucci, Ivana; Camassa, Serena; Cascioferro, Alessandro; Sali, Michela; Anoosheh, Saber; Zumbo, Antonella; Minerva, Mariachiara; Iantomasi, Raffaella; De Maio, Flavio; Di Sante, Gabriele; Ria, Francesco; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Palù, Giorgio; Brennan, Michael J; Manganelli, Riccardo; Delogu, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    PE_PGRS represent a large family of proteins typical of pathogenic mycobacteria whose members are characterized by an N-terminal PE domain followed by a large Gly-Ala repeat-rich C-terminal domain. Despite the abundance of PE_PGRS-coding genes in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) genome their role and function in the biology and pathogenesis still remains elusive. In this study, we generated and characterized an Mtb H37Rv mutant (MtbΔ33) in which the structural gene of PE_PGRS33, a prototypical member of the protein family, was inactivated. We showed that this mutant entered macrophages with an efficiency up to ten times lower than parental or complemented strains, while its efficiency in infecting pneumocytes remained unaffected. Interestingly, the lack of PE_PGRS33 did not affect the intracellular growth of this mutant in macrophages. Using a series of functional deletion mutants of the PE_PGRS33 gene to complement the MtbΔ33 strain, we demonstrated that the PGRS domain is required to mediate cell entry into macrophages, with the key domain encompassing position 140-260 amino acids of PE_PGRS33. PE_PGRS33-mediated entry into macrophages was abolished in TLR2-deficient mice, as well as following treatment with wortmannin or an antibody against the complement receptor 3 (CR3), indicating that PE_PGRS33-mediated entry of Mtb in macrophages occurs through interaction with TLR2.

  10. Perceived need and barriers to continuing professional development among doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenwilo, Divine; Skåtun, Diane

    2014-08-01

    There is growing need for continuing professional development (CPD) among doctors, especially following the recent introduction of compulsory revalidation for all doctors in the United Kingdom (UK). We use unique datasets from two national surveys of non-training grade doctors working in the National Health Service in Scotland to evaluate doctors' perceptions of need and barriers to CPD. We test for differences over time and also examine differences between doctor grades and for other characteristics such as gender, age, contract type and specialty. Doctors expressed the greatest need for CPD in clinical training, management, and information technology. In terms of perceived barriers to CPD, lack of time was expressed as a barrier by the largest proportion of doctors, as was insufficient clinical cover, lack of funding, and remoteness from main education centres. The strength of perceived need for particular CPD activities and the perceived barriers to CPD varied significantly by doctors' job and personal characteristics. An understanding of the perceived needs and barriers to CPD among doctors is an important precursor to developing effective educational and training programmes that cover their professional practice and also in supporting doctors towards successful revalidation.

  11. Provider barriers to telemental health: obstacles overcome, obstacles remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Elizabeth; Turvey, Carolyn; Augusterfer, Eugene F

    2013-06-01

    Many providers are hesitant to use telemental health technologies. When providers are queried, various barriers are presented, such as the clinician's skepticism about the effectiveness of telemental health (TMH), viewing telehealth technologies as inconvenient, or reporting difficulties with medical reimbursement. Provider support for TMH is critical to its diffusion because clinicians often serve as the initial gatekeepers to telehealth implementation and program success. In this article, we address provider concerns in three broad domains: (1) personal barriers, (2) clinical workflow and technology barriers, and (3) licensure, credentialing, and reimbursement barriers. We found evidence that, although many barriers have been discussed in the literature for years, advancements in TMH have rapidly reduced obstacles for its use. Improvements include extensive opportunities for training, a growing evidence base supporting positive TMH outcomes, and transformations in technologies that improve provider convenience and transmission quality. Recommendations for further change are discussed within each domain. In particular, it is important to grow and disseminate data underscoring the promise and effectiveness of TMH, integrate videoconferencing capabilities into electronic medical record platforms, expand TMH reimbursement, and modify licensure standards.

  12. Barrier isolators as an alternative to a cleanroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillett, L

    1999-07-15

    The use of barrier isolators as an alternative to a cleanroom for the preparation of sterile products at ASHP-defined risk levels 2 and 3 and cytotoxic and hazardous drugs is described. The two isolators selected provide enclosed microenvironments. The isolator used for preparing products of risk level 2 has white acrylic and polycarbonate rigid walls that isolate the sterile product from the operator. The isolator used for preparing level 3 products and cytotoxic and hazardous drugs has epoxy-painted steel walls, a front window, and a pair of glove ports; its design theoretically prevents cross contamination between the operator and the product under preparation and between the product and the external environment. An independent contractor familiar with barrier isolators certifies the equipment every six months. A random microbiological sampling is periodically compared with a control. The isolators have been in operation since July 1998 without microbial growth in any sample tested. The barrier isolators cost more than traditional laminar-airflow hoods, but the hospital considers the barrier isolators to be more cost-effective than a cleanroom. A cost saving in supplies for cytotoxic and hazardous drug preparation as a result of a reduction in overall gown and glove use was observed. Barrier isolators offer an alternative to a cleanroom for the preparation of products at risk levels 2 and 3 and offer an aseptic, safe environment for preparing cytotoxic and hazardous agents.

  13. Barriers to diabetes management: patient and provider factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Chesla, Catherine; Stotts, Nancy A; Kroon, Lisa; Janson, Susan L

    2011-07-01

    Despite significant advances in diagnosis and treatment, the persistence of inadequate metabolic control continues. Poor glycemic control may be reflected by both the failure of diabetes self-management by patients as well as inadequate intervention strategies by clinicians. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize existing knowledge regarding various barriers of diabetes management from the perspectives of both patients and clinicians. A search of PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO identified 1454 articles in English published between 1990 and 2009, addressing type 2 diabetes, patient's barriers, clinician's barriers, and self-management. Patients' adherence, attitude, beliefs, and knowledge about diabetes may affect diabetes self-management. Culture and language capabilities influence the patient's health beliefs, attitudes, health literacy, thereby affecting diabetes self-management. Other influential factors include the patient's financial resources, co-morbidities, and social support. Clinician's attitude, beliefs and knowledge about diabetes also influence diabetes management. Clinicians may further influence the patient's perception through effective communication skills and by having a well-integrated health care system. Identifying barriers to diabetes management is necessary to improve the quality of diabetes care, including the improvement of metabolic control, and diabetes self-management. Further research that considers these barriers is necessary for developing interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Midwives unable to overcome language barriers in prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam P. Fransen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the present study aims to explore to what extent midwives experience barriers in providing information about prenatal screening for Down syndrome to women from diverse ethnic backgrounds, and to assess their competences to overcome these barriers.

    Methods: midwives from 24 Dutch midwifery practices in Rotterdam completed a structured webbased questionnaire (n=57. Data were obtained on perceived ethnic-related differences and barriers in providing information on prenatal screening, preparedness to provide cultural competent care, and the use of translated materials and professional translators. A group interview was conducted to further explore the results emerging from the questionnaire (n=23.

    Results: almost all midwives (95% experienced barriers in informing women from non-Western ethnic backgrounds about prenatal screening. Midwives especially felt incompetent to provide information to pregnant women that hardly speak and understand Dutch. In total 58% of the midwives reported that they never used translated information materials and 88% never used professional interpreters in providing information on prenatal screening. The main reasons for this underutilization were unawareness of the availability of translated materials and unfamiliarity with the use of professional interpreters.

    Conclusions: although language barriers were reported to be the main difficulty in providing cultural competent care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds, only a minority of the midwives used translated materials or professional interpreters. In order to enable all pregnant women to make an informed decision whether or not to participate in prenatal screening, midwives’ competences to address language barriers should be increased.

  15. Herbicides: a new threat to the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen E; Brodie, Jon E; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Maughan, Mirjam; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Schaffelke, Britta

    2009-01-01

    The runoff of pesticides (insecticides, herbicides and fungicides) from agricultural lands is a key concern for the health of the iconic Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Relatively low levels of herbicide residues can reduce the productivity of marine plants and corals. However, the risk of these residues to Great Barrier Reef ecosystems has been poorly quantified due to a lack of large-scale datasets. Here we present results of a study tracing pesticide residues from rivers and creeks in three catchment regions to the adjacent marine environment. Several pesticides (mainly herbicides) were detected in both freshwater and coastal marine waters and were attributed to specific land uses in the catchment. Elevated herbicide concentrations were particularly associated with sugar cane cultivation in the adjacent catchment. We demonstrate that herbicides reach the Great Barrier Reef lagoon and may disturb sensitive marine ecosystems already affected by other pressures such as climate change.

  16. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  17. WAVE TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION DUE TO A THIN VERTICAL BARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method, the boundary fitted coordinate method (BFC),was used to investigate the transmission and reflection of water waves due to a rigid thin vertical barrier descending from the water surface to a depth, i. e. , a curtain-wall type breakwater. A comparison between the present computed results and previous experimental and analytical results was carried out which verifies the prediction of the BFC method. Wave transmission and reflection due to the barrier were computed, and the transmission and refiection coefficients were given in a figure.

  18. Applying Foreign Entry Market Strategies to UK Higher Education Transnational Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Victoria; Antoniou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We take a multidisciplinary approach mapping the models used by UK higher education (HE) institutions against established international business foreign market entry strategies. We review the conditions in host markets that facilitate market entry and consider how these will determine foreign market entry strategy. We specifically consider four…

  19. Development of competitive immunoassays to hydroxyl containing fungicide metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Kevin C; Jarvis, Shila; Maddison, Ben C

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of monoclonal antibodies and the development of competitive immunoassays to pesticide metabolites of the fungicides imazalil, carbendazim and thiabendazole. The metabolite specific hydroxyl residues were used as the reactive group with which to link the metabolite to the carrier proteins Keyhole Limpet Haemocyanin (KLH) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA). In each case immune responses in mice were raised and monoclonal antibodies were produced. Antibodies were developed into competitive ELISAs to the appropriate metabolite. The antibody raised to a metabolite of imazalil was optimised into a competitive ELISA format which had an assay IC50 of 7.5 μg/L and a limit of detection (LOD) of 1.1 μg/L. A single antibody isolated against the metabolite of carbendazim had assay IC50s of 3.2 and 2.7 μg/L for the metabolites of carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively with an LOD of 0.38 μg/L for both. These sensitive immunoassays may have application in the monitoring of human exposure to these fungicide residues either by occupational or non-occupational routes.

  20. Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    pmodigliani@mitre.org May 2015 Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD MITRE Defense Agile Acquisition Guide Naval Postgraduate School’s...COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Addressing the Barriers to Agile Development in DoD 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  1. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise...... show quite different responses to sea-level rise. The southernmost island Rømø has survived 17 m of sea-level rise at the same position illustrating the control from sediment supply; whereas the northernmost island Skallingen has shifted its position several times during the same period indicating...... a much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  2. Biosimilar competition in the United States: statutory incentives, payers, and pharmacy benefit managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falit, Benjamin P; Singh, Surya C; Brennan, Troyen A

    2015-02-01

    Widespread adoption of generic medications, made possible by the Hatch-Waxman Act of 1984, has contained the cost of small-molecule drugs in the United States. Biologics, however, have yet to face competition from follow-on products and represent the fastest-growing sector of the US pharmaceutical market. We compare the legislative framework governing small-molecule generics to that which regulates follow-on biologics, and we examine management tools that are likely to be most successful in promoting biosimilars' adoption. The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act established an abbreviated pathway for follow-on biologics, but weak statutory incentives create barriers to entry. Many authors have raised concerns that competition under the biologics act may be weaker than that posed by small-molecule generics under Hatch-Waxman, in part because of legislative choices such as the absence of market exclusivity for the first biosimilar approved and a requirement that follow-on manufacturers disclose their manufacturing processes to the manufacturer of the reference product. Provider skepticism and limited competition from biosimilars will challenge payers and pharmacy benefit managers to reduce prices and maximize uptake of follow-on biologics. Successful payers and pharmacy benefit managers will employ various strategies, including tiered formularies and innovative fee schedules, that can control spending by promoting uptake of biosimilars across both the pharmacy and medical benefits.

  3. Educational Opportunity: El Salvador's Barriers to Achieving Equality Persist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosekrans, Kristin

    This paper analyzes barriers to educational equality in El Salvador, using a multi-layered framework of educational opportunity. To improve educational opportunity and give the most marginalized sectors of society the possibility of changing their life circumstances requires policies that go beyond mere access to formal schooling. The model…

  4. Diagnosing foodborne illness: A behavioral analysis of barriers to testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptan, G.; Fischhoff, B.

    2011-01-01

    Public health authorities rely on the timely flow of laboratory results to detect and control food-borne illnesses. At times, social and economic barriers limit individuals’ ability to get needed tests. We demonstrate a simple behavioral approach to assess the cost-effectiveness of interventions des

  5. Overcoming Barriers to Generalism in Medicine: The Residents' Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Elizabeth; Stoken, Jacqueline M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents medical residents' opinions regarding barriers to producing more generalist physicians, such as lack of appropriate training in ambulatory generalist practice and the increased prestige given to specialists. Recommendations are offered to medical schools, residency programs, the community, and the culture of medicine to…

  6. “Bureaucracy & Beliefs”: Assessing the Barriers to Accessing Opioid Substitution Therapy by People Who Inject Drugs in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojko, Martha J.; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Makarenko, Iuliia; Marcus, Ruthanne; Dvoriak, Sergii; Islam, Zahedul; Altice, Frederick L.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Opioid substitution therapy (OST) is an evidence-based HIV prevention strategy for people who inject drugs (PWIDs). Yet, only 2.7% of Ukraine’s estimated 310,000 PWIDs receive it despite free treatment since 2004. The multi-level barriers to entering OST among opioid dependent PWIDs have not been examined in Ukraine. Methods A multi-year mixed methods implementation science project included focus group discussions with 199 PWIDs in 5 major Ukrainian cities in 2013 covering drug treatment attitudes and beliefs and knowledge of and experiences with OST. Data were transcribed, translated into English and coded. Coded segments related to OST access, entry, knowledge, beliefs and attitudes were analyzed among 41 PWIDs who were eligible for but had never received OST. Findings A number of programmatic and structural barriers were mentioned by participants as barriers to entry to OST, including compulsory drug user registration, waiting lists, and limited number of treatment slots. Participants also voiced strong negative attitudes and beliefs about OST, especially methadone. Their perceptions about methadone’s side effects as well as the stigma of being a methadone client were expressed as obstacles to treatment. Conclusions Despite expressed interest in treatment, Ukrainian OST-naïve PWIDs evade OST for reasons that can be addressed through changes in program-level and governmental policies and social-marketing campaigns. Voiced OST barriers can effectively inform public health and policy directives related to HIV prevention and treatment in Ukraine to improve evidence-based treatment access and availability. PMID:27087758

  7. BARRIER DESIGN STRATEGIES TO CONTROL NOISE INGRESS INTO DOMESTIC BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E. Mediastika

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise source for buildings adjacent to streets is traffic-generated predominantly. Where people are mostly spend their time indoors, it is important for buildings to have screening or blocking to control noise intrusion into living spaces. But this blocking should also permit airflow. This is important for middle to low-cost domestic buildings, which do not employ conditioned ventilation. A common feature of Indonesian buildings, fence, is studied to perform noise barrier. The fence -a barrier to be- should obey three factors: position, dimension, and material. All these three factors were studied to seek compromised design for acoustic performance and natural ventilation purpose. Domestic building situated in the urban area of Yogyakarta was studying to see the most possible design of the barrier to be. There are two calculation methods employed to investigate the proposed design. The study shows that it is possible to gain minimum of 10 dB noise reduction by placing windows within the shadow effect of approximately 1.5 height fence-barrier.

  8. Using a Bayesian network to predict barrier island geomorphologic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ben; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thieler, E. Robert; Turecek, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying geomorphic variability of coastal environments is important for understanding and describing the vulnerability of coastal topography, infrastructure, and ecosystems to future storms and sea level rise. Here we use a Bayesian network (BN) to test the importance of multiple interactions between barrier island geomorphic variables. This approach models complex interactions and handles uncertainty, which is intrinsic to future sea level rise, storminess, or anthropogenic processes (e.g., beach nourishment and other forms of coastal management). The BN was developed and tested at Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, USA, a barrier island with sufficient geomorphic and temporal variability to evaluate our approach. We tested the ability to predict dune height, beach width, and beach height variables using inputs that included longer-term, larger-scale, or external variables (historical shoreline change rates, distances to inlets, barrier width, mean barrier elevation, and anthropogenic modification). Data sets from three different years spanning nearly a decade sampled substantial temporal variability and serve as a proxy for analysis of future conditions. We show that distinct geomorphic conditions are associated with different long-term shoreline change rates and that the most skillful predictions of dune height, beach width, and beach height depend on including multiple input variables simultaneously. The predictive relationships are robust to variations in the amount of input data and to variations in model complexity. The resulting model can be used to evaluate scenarios related to coastal management plans and/or future scenarios where shoreline change rates may differ from those observed historically.

  9. Documentation of GEMASS entry to touchdown simulation. [space shuttle orbiter capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waibel, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    The entry-to-touchdown space shuttle orbiter simulation capability incorporated into the GEMASS subprogram 33 (3-DOF) is documented. A digital autopilot interfaces between GEMASS and the guidance. Vehicle attitude is determined by use of the ability of GEMASS to integrate differential equations in addition to the equations of motion. Vehicle aerodynamic characteristics are obtained from an aerodynamic data tape and control surface deflections required to trim the vehicle, and trimmed aerodynamic coefficients are determined internally. Several indicators to allow evaluation of subsystem performance are included; as is the ability of the user to activate any of several error dispersion sources. The performance of the simulation compares well with more sophisticated simulations.

  10. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo; Dubourg, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in most low and middle income countries can be reduced through early recognition of complications, prompt access to care and appropriate medical interventions following obstetric emergencies. We used the three delays framework to explore...... decision to seek care and in reaching an appropriate care facility. The "first" delay was due to lack of birth preparedness, including failure to identify a health facility for delivery services regardless of antenatal care and to seek care promptly despite recognition of danger signs. The "second" delay...... was influenced by long distance and inconvenient transport to hospital. These two delays resulted in some women arriving at the hospital too late to save the life of the unborn baby. Conclusion: Delays in making the decision to seek care when obstetric complications occur, combined with delays in reaching...

  11. Typical diffusion behaviour in packaging polymers - Application to functional barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dole, P.; Feigenbaum, A.E.; Cruz, C. de la; Pastorelli, S.; Paseiro, P.; Hankemeier, T.; Voulzatis, Y.; Aucejo, S.; Saillard, P.; Papaspyrides, C.

    2006-01-01

    When plastics are collected for recycling, possibly contaminated articles might be recycled into food packaging, and thus the contaminants might subsequently migrate into the food. Multilayer functional barriers may be used to delay and to reduce such migration. The contribution of the work reported

  12. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  13. Identifying Barriers to the Remix of Translated Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Tel

    2013-01-01

    Remix is touted as one of the most important practices within the field of open educational resources (OER). But remixing is still not mainstream practice in education and the barriers and limitations to remix are not well known. In this article we discuss the design and development of a print and web-based booklet created to introduce the topic…

  14. Knowledge and barriers relating to fish consumption in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Jessica A; Miller, Michelle; Cobiac, Lynne

    2012-10-01

    Among 854 Australians ≥ 51 years of age, this cross-sectional survey explored knowledge regarding finfish consumption, sources of information on fish and omega 3 fatty acids, what barriers limit finfish consumption and what factors predict its consumption. The survey consisted of a validated quantitative fish frequency questionnaire with additional questions on barriers and knowledge relating to finfish. Twelve percent of respondents consumed oily fish ≥ 2 times per week. Cost was the most frequently (37%) reported barrier for fresh finfish consumption. In multiple regression analysis, respondents' exposure to multiple sources of information (odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.135 (1.01, 1.28), who correctly identified the current recommendations for fish consumption; 1.87 (1.13, 3.07), agreed that fish improves general health; 3.57 (1.13, 11.30), and reported fewer barriers towards canned fish consumption; 0.59 (0.41, 0.84) were more likely to consume ≥ 2 servings of fresh finfish per week. Education and health programs need to be readily available highlighting current recommendations for fish consumption and how targets can be achieved. Meal plans with various finfish/seafood and amounts of omega 3 fatty acids required to achieve recommendations, and within a suitable budget, is likely to be an important strategy to target older consumers to increase consumption.

  15. Structural Barriers: Redesigning Schools to Create Learning Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randeree, Ebrahim

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to focus on schools and address the structural dimensions of the organization as well as the hierarchical design of information flows between stakeholders. The paper highlights current structural barriers to creating learning organizations. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes a conceptual model.…

  16. Diffusion Barriers to Increase the Oxidative Life of Overlay Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, James A.; Lei, Jih-Fen

    1999-01-01

    Currently, most blades and vanes in the hottest section of aero gas turbine engines require some type of coating for oxidation protection. Newly developed single crystal superalloys have the mechanical potential to operate at increasingly higher component temperatures. However, at these elevated temperatures, coating/substrate interdiffusion can shorten the protective life of the coating. Diffusion barriers between overlay coatings and substrates are being examined to extend the protective life of the coating. A previously- developed finite-difference diffusion model has been modified to predict the oxidative life enhancement due to use of a diffusion barrier. The original diffusion model, designated COSIM, simulates Al diffusion in the coating to the growing oxide scale as well as Al diffusion into the substrate. The COSIM model incorporates an oxide growth and spalling model to provide the rate of Al consumption during cyclic oxidation. Coating failure is predicted when the Al concentration at the coating surface drops to a defined critical level. The modified COSIM model predicts the oxidative life of an overlay coating when a diffusion barrier is present eliminating diffusion of Al from the coating into the substrate. Both the original and the modified diffusion models have been used to predict the effectiveness of a diffusion barrier in extending the protective life of a NiCrAl overlay coating undergoing cyclic oxidation at 1100 C.

  17. Barriers to Dance Training for Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen J.; Redding, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Dance is a viable and enjoyable activity -- and potential career -- for young people with disabilities, yet they face several barriers to participation and training. The aim of this article, by Imogen J. Aujla of the University of Bedfordshire and Emma Redding of Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, is to review the literature on…

  18. Reported barriers to evaluation in chronic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knai, Cécile; Nolte, Ellen; Brunn, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The growing movement of innovative approaches to chronic disease management in Europe has not been matched by a corresponding effort to evaluate them. This paper discusses challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management as reported by experts in six European countries....

  19. Semantic barriers to family and professional collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, A B

    1986-01-01

    Mental health professionals have begun to show interest in working collaboratively with families of mentally ill people in the interest of the patient's well-being. Many professionals are aware, however, that considerable alienation exists. One source of difficulty may be the language used to describe families. Drawing from the field of general semantics, the author examines recent writings for examples of language that may appear confusing or offensive to families. It was found that difficulties result from professionals' tendencies to confuse fact with inference, to stereotype families by placing them in either/or categories, to use judgmental language, and to use language of control that contradicts their goals of collaboration or partnership.

  20. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacker K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karen Hacker,1,2 Maria Anies,2 Barbara L Folb,2,3 Leah Zallman4–6 1Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Graduate School of Public Health, 3Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Institute for Community Health, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA; 6Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase

  1. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  2. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  3. Barriers to Communication in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Zane L.

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a…

  4. Using Inquiry to Break the Language Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The more than five million English language learners (ELLs) in the United States represent over 10% of students enrolled in public schools--and this number is growing rapidly. From 1997 to 2007, growth of ELL enrollment exceeded that of overall enrollment by more than six to one. Regardless of where they teach, science educators will undoubtedly…

  5. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to

  6. Physician and patient barriers to adherence with cholesterol guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Lynne J; Bailony, Fadi; Khattak, Asim J; Gress, Todd W

    2006-01-01

    Several national studies have shown poor compliance with National Cholesterol Education Program II (NCEP) goals. A study we conducted of patients in the General Internal Medicine Clinic at the Marshall University Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine in Huntington showed that 46% of them were not at NCEP goals. We hypothesized that both patient and physician barriers were responsible for these findings so we administered two surveys about barriers to cholesterol management to 261 random patients identified with hypercholesterolemia and to all 50 residents and faculty at the clinic. We identified insufficient knowledge of low cholesterol foods as a patient barrier (31.6% of patients), and inadequate time to review NCEP guidelines as a physician barrier (45.5% of physicians). We conclude that many patients in our practice lack the knowledge of what foods are low in cholesterol and that our physicians may not use the NCEP guidelines because they are inconvenient to access in our clinic. Future research should explore ways to improve patient knowledge of low cholesterol foods and accessibility of guidelines for use during patient visits.

  7. Barriers to E-Commerce Adoption in Egyptian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Nasser H. Zaied

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has been predicted to be a new driver of economic growth for developing countries. The SME sector plays a significant role in its contribution to the national economy in terms of the wealth created and the number of people employed. Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Egypt represent the greatest share of the productive units of the Egyptian economy and the current national policy directions address ways and means of developing the capacities of SMEs. Many factors could be responsible for the low usage of e-commerce among the SMEs in Egypt. In order to determine the factors that promote the adoption of e-commerce, SMEs adopters and non-adopters of e-commerce were asked to indicate the factors inhibiting the adoption of e-commerce. The results show that technical barriers are the most important barriers followed by legal and regulatory barriers, whereas lack of Internet security is the highest barrier that inhibit the implementation of e-commerce in SMEs in Egypt followed by limited use of Internet banking and web portals by SMEs. Also, findings implied that more efforts are needed to help and encourage SMEs in Egypt to speed up e-commerce adoption, particularly the more advanced applications.

  8. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash

  9. Market Barriers to Solar in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, E.; Nobler, E.; Wolf, C.; Doris, E.

    2012-08-01

    The solar industry in the United States is at a turning point; the cost of PV hardware has declined substantially in recent years, placing new attention on reducing the balance of system (BOS) costs of solar that now contribute to a growing percentage of installation expenses. How states address these costs through the creation of a favorable policy and regulatory environment is proving to be a critical determinant of a thriving statewide solar market. This report addresses the permitting and tax issues that may stimulate the solar market growth in Michigan. By making PV installations easier to complete through reduced BOS costs, Michigan would become a more attractive location for manufacturers and installers. As PV module costs decline and BOS costs make up a greater share of the cost of solar, action taken today on these issues will prove beneficial in the long term, providing Michigan an opportunity to establish a leadership position in the solar industry.

  10. Barriers to combating human trafficking in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Daniel Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Despite international and domestic policies and programs intended to combat human trafficking, Colombia remains one of the countries with the highest instances of human trafficking in the Western Hemisphere. Factors contributing to human trafficking in Colombia, such as internal violence and displacement, drug trafficking, a weak central government, and widespread corruption, have overpowered what energies the government marshaled agai...

  11. Barriers to adaptive reasoning in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Athol J; Ladle, Richard J

    2011-08-01

    Recent high-profile calls for a more trait-focused approach to community ecology have the potential to open up novel research areas, generate new insights and to transform community ecology into a more predictive science. However, a renewed emphasis on function and phenotype also requires a fundamental shift in approach and research philosophy within community ecology to more fully embrace evolutionary reasoning. Such a subject-wise transformation will be difficult due to at least four factors: (1) the historical development of the academic discipline of ecology and its roots as a descriptive science; (2) the dominating role of the ecosystem concept in the driving of contemporary ecological thought; (3) the practical difficulties associated with defining and identifying (phenotypic) adaptations, and; (4) scaling effects in ecology; the difficulty of teasing apart the overlapping and shifting hierarchical processes that generate the observed environment-trait correlations in nature. We argue that the ability to predict future ecological conditions through a sufficient understanding of ecological processes will not be achieved without the placement of the concept of adaptation at the centre of ecology, with influence radiating outwards through all the related (and rapidly specializing) sub-disciplines.

  12. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay R. Gunderson; Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-05-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early with biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the boiler, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value, which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior.

  13. Barriers in green lean six sigma product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Luthra, Sunil; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    are identified as driver barriers, nine as dependent, five barriers as linkage and no barrier as autonomous. An analysis of interdependence and interactions among these barriers may help supply chain managers reach a better understanding of barriers. Thus, managers may be helped in prioritising and managing......In today’s competitive globalised business environment, production cost cutting is a primary issue before operation managers. As a research area, green lean six sigma (GLS) is proposed to have strategic importance in product development towards cutting costs, contributing to optimisation......, which shows ‘Competition and Uncertainty’ as the topmost output of the model and ‘Lack of Total Top Management Commitment’ as the bottom-level input to other barriers of the model. Further, MICMAC analysis has been also done to classify these barriers for better understanding; seven barriers...

  14. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.

  15. Reducing barriers to ethics in neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Illes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethics is a growing interest for neuroscientists, but rather than signifying a commitment to the protection of human subjects, care of animals, and public understanding to which the professional community is engaged in a fundamental way, interest has been consumed by administrative overhead and the mission creep of institutional ethics reviews. Faculty, trainees, and staff (N=605 whose work involves brain imaging and brain stimulation completed an online survey about ethics in their research. Using factor analysis and linear regression, we found significant effects for invasiveness of imaging technique, professional position, gender, and local presence of bioethics centers. We propose strategies for improving communication between the neuroscience community and ethics review boards, collaborations between neuroscientists and biomedical ethicists, and ethics training in graduate neuroscience programs to revitalize mutual goals and interests.

  16. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    characterized by complex 3D geometry and variable hydration. To approach these questions we take advantage of the Porous Surface Model (PSM) a unique experimental platform that allows direct monitoring of microbial motion under precisely controlled matric potential. Using gfp-tagged Pseudomonas strains...

  17. Challenging Behavior: A Barrier to Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Glynis

    2009-01-01

    Arguably, the most important outcome measure for services to people with intellectual disabilities is quality of life. Quality of life has been defined in numerous ways and may consist of many aspects, including physical, material, and emotional well-being, as well as interpersonal relationships, personal development, self-determination, social…

  18. Barriers to Discourse: Tautologies in Student Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Richard

    Tautologies in student essays, arguments that most commonly assume the truth or self-evidence of themselves without relationship to something other than themselves, can be identified whenever an essay contains a series of nonsuccessive, noncumulative discourse units. Three kinds of tautologies in student papers are tautologies of redundancy,…

  19. Barriers to Achieving Mentally Agile Junior Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-21

    Myers Briggs Personality Type Indicator ( MBTI ) of Introvert, Sensing, Thinking, and Judging, (ISTJ).15 The ISTJs four preferences are found...preferences that provide the foundation of the MBTI assist in explaining why different types of people function differently. The MBTI helps to understand

  20. A Well-Clear Volume Based on Time to Entry Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Upchurch, Jason M.; Chamberlain, James P.; Consiglio, Maria C.

    2014-01-01

    A well-clear volume is a key component of NASA's Separation Assurance concept for the integration of UAS in the NAS. This paper proposes a mathematical definition of the well-clear volume that uses, in addition to distance thresholds, a time threshold based on time to entry point (TEP). The mathematical model that results from this definition is more conservative than other candidate definitions of the wellclear volume that are based on range over closure rate and time to closest point of approach.

  1. Categories for Barriers to Adoption of Instructional Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Although higher education has spent millions of dollars on instructional technologies, often higher education administration complains that instructors are not adopting them. Without a full understanding of possible barriers, higher education institutes are hard-pressed to develop either appropriate goals or sound strategies for the adoption of…

  2. Barriers to Adopting Technology for Teaching and Learning in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Senaidi, Said; Lin, Lin; Poirot, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the perceived barriers to adopting information and communication technologies (ICT) in Omani higher education. One hundred faculty members from four different departments at the College of Applied Sciences in Oman participated in the study. The participants took a survey, which was developed based on the Western literature.…

  3. A Matter of Trust: Patient Barriers to Primary Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polinski, J. M.; Kesselheim, A. S.; Frolkis, J. P.; Wescott, P.; Allen-Coleman, C.; Fischer, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Primary medication adherence occurs when a patient properly fills the first prescription for a new medication. Primary adherence only occurs about three-quarters of the time for antihypertensive medications. We assessed patients' barriers to primary adherence and attributes of patient-provider discussions that might improve primary adherence…

  4. No genome barriers to promiscuous DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, R.

    1984-06-01

    Farrelly and Butow (1983) used the term 'promiscuous DNA' in their report of the apparent natural transfer of yeast mitochondrial DNA sequences into the nuclear genome. Ellis (1982) applied the same term in an editorial comment. It is pointed out since that time the subject of DNA's promiscuity has exploded with a series of reports. According to a report by Stern (1984), movement of DNA sequences between chloroplasts and mitochondria is not just a rare event but is a rampant process. It was recently concluded that 'the widespread presence of ctDNA sequences in plant mtDNA is best regarded as a dramatic demonstration of the dynamo nature of interactions between the chloroplast and the mitochondrion, similar to the ongoing process of interorganellar DNA transfer already documented between mitochondrion and nucleus and between chloroplast and nucleus'.

  5. Barriers to infectious disease care among lesbians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    2004-11-01

    Despite the considerable number of women in the United States who identify as lesbian, few data exist that address lesbians' health needs. The Institute of Medicine emphasized that data on sexually transmitted infections, Pap smear screening, and cervical dysplasia among lesbians were needed to guide clinical practice, policy development, and patient education. Use of surveillance data for this purpose is limited because risk classifications exclude same-gender sex among women or subsume it under behavior considered as higher risk. However, sexual transmission of human papillomavirus, HIV, Treponema pallidum, and Trichomonas vaginalis between women has been reported. Data indicate that lesbians receive routine Pap smear screening less frequently than is optimal. Moreover, lesbians commonly report previous pregnancy, induced abortion, and hormonal contraceptive use. Education of lesbians and their care providers should counter assumptions that sex between women confers no risk for transmission of sexually transmitted infections, and lesbians should receive Pap smears according to current guidelines.

  6. Barriers to Combating Human Trafficking in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    second reader. Second, I am sincerely grateful to all of the excellent NPS staff from whom I have had the pleasure of taking classes , who contributed...2012), 1, http://www2.ohchr.org/ english /bodies/cedaw/docs/ngos/HumanRightsWatch_Submission_Colombia56_PS WG_en.pdf. 40...investment in their criminal portfolio that they feel comfortable adding because of its synergistic overlaps with the drug trade. G. DRUG TRAFFICKING

  7. Barriers to creating a secure MPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brightwell, R.; Greenberg, D.S.; Matt, B.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Davida, G.I. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Computer Sciences

    1997-08-01

    This paper explores some of the many issues in developing security enhanced MPI for embedded real-time systems supporting the Department of Defense`s Multi-level Security policy (DoD MLS) are presented along with the preliminary design for such an MPI variant. In addition some of the many issues that need to be addressed in creating security enhanced versions of MPI for other domains are discussed. 19 refs.

  8. 41 CFR 102-76.60 - To which facilities does the Architectural Barriers Act apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 76-DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION Architectural Barriers Act § 102-76.60 To which facilities does the Architectural Barriers Act apply? (a) The Architectural Barriers Act applies to any facility that is intended... the Architectural Barriers Act apply? 102-76.60 Section 102-76.60 Public Contracts and...

  9. Thresholds to access the market for small-scale energy consumers; Toetredingsdrempels kleinverbruikersmarkt energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baarsma, B.; Bremer, S.; De Nooij, M.; Poort, J.

    2007-10-15

    Entry of and options for expansion are import aspects for a well-functioning free market. The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa)/The Office of Energy Regulation (DTe/Energiekamer) received signals that there are barriers for entering or further growth on the small consumer market. The regulator has asked SEO Economic Research to examine which entry barriers are significant and require further monitoring. For this purpose, more than 20 interviews were held with market parties and stakeholders. [mk]. [Dutch] Toetreding en de mogelijkheid om te groeien zijn belangrijk voor goede marktwerking. NMa/DTe heeft signalen ontvangen dat er barrieres zijn om toe te treden dan wel om door te groeien op de kleinverbruikersmarkt energie. De toezichthouder heeft SEO gevraagd te onderzoeken welke toetredingsdrempels van belang zijn en om nadere toezichtactiviteit vragen. In het kader hiervan zijn meer dan 20 gesprekken met marktpartijen en stakeholders gehouden.

  10. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads)...

  11. Application of Extended Kalman Filter to Tactical Ballistic Missile Re-entry Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Subrata

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to investigate the advantages and performance of Extended Kalman Filter for the estimation of non-linear system where linearization takes place about a trajectory that was continually updated with the state estimates resulting from the measurement. Here tactile ballistic missile Re-entry problem is taken as a nonlinear system model and Extended Kalman Filter technique is used to estimate the positions and velocities at the X and Y direction at different values of ballistic coefficients. The result shows that the method gives better estimation with the increase of ballistic coefficient.

  12. Immune cell entry to the CNS--a focus for immunoregulation of EAE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, T; Tran, E; Hassan-Zahraee, M;

    1999-01-01

    -requirement then to prove such a role. The point that emerges is that cytokine production in the CNS parenchyma is itself dependent on the prior infiltration of immune cells, and that without immune cell entry, EAE does not occur. This identifies events at the BBB, and in particular in the perivascular space, as critical......T-cell-derived cytokines are therefore individually unnecessary and collectively insufficient for microglial response. This somewhat provocative interpretation does not exclude a role for T-cell cytokines in induction of a microglial response in EAE, but it may be easier to show a non...

  13. Forest Strategy in Republic of Macedonia: Barriers to Effective Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Baumgartner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In recent years, implementation of forest strategies and programs has been acknowledged as an important phase of the forest policy process. Forest policies such as conflict management concepts between deferent interests of stakeholders, are a dynamic route that needs to be managed carefully to achieve its goals. Creation of the forest policy document entitled “Strategy for sustainable development of forestry in Republic of Macedonia” was introduced for the first time in 2005 as cooperation between the Government and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. Action Plan was brought in the same year including the strategy and validity until the end of the year 2009 now is out of date for undetermined reasons, due to lack of analysis of the level of implementation, monitoring and evaluation. Materials and Methods: Through exploratory qualitative method using a case study, this paper attempts to explore different stakeholders perception of the most common barriers for implementation of the Strategy for sustainable development of forests in Republic of Macedonia and ascertain if implementation variables are identified as barriers in the implementation stage. Results: The research showed that environmental and organisational barriers such as legal restrictions, political willingness, social change, control, leadership and clear responsibility are the most common barriers impeding forest strategy implementation in Macedonia. Conclusions: The paper concluded that the three year action plan was too ambitious, given the existing human and technical capacities in the forestry sector, recommending participation of all included stakeholders in the implementation as an important fact in overcoming the current barriers and moving forward the process.

  14. Better to give and to compete? Prosocial and competitive motives as interactive predictors of citizenship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M Teresa; Wrzesniewski, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Research has returned mixed results concerning the relationship between prosocial motivation and citizenship behavior. Building from research suggesting that mixed motives might explain these equivocal findings, we conducted two field studies examining the interaction between prosocial and competitive motives and two types of citizenship behavior. Prosocial motivation, but not competitive motivation, was positively related to citizenship behavior directed at others, though this relationship was weakened when prosocial motives were accompanied by competitive motives. Prosocial motives compensated for weak competitive motives to predict citizenship behavior directed toward the organization. Our studies expand research on prosocial and competitive motivation, mixed-motives, and citizenship behavior. Further, they carry personnel implications given that many organizations seek to hire employees high on both competitive and prosocial motivation.

  15. Mapping institution-specific study descriptions to RadLex Playbook entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabotuwana, Thusitha; Lee, Michael C; Cohen-Solal, Eric V; Chang, Paul

    2014-06-01

    The naming of imaging procedures is currently not standardized across institutions. As a result, it is a challenge to establish national registries, for instance, a national registry of dose to facilitate comparisons among different types of CT procedures. RSNA's RadLex Playbook is an effort towards addressing this gap (by introducing a unique Playbook identifier called an RPID for each procedure), and the current research focuses on semi-automatically mapping institution-specific procedure descriptions to Playbook entries to assist with this standardization effort. We discuss an algorithm we have developed to facilitate the mapping process which first extracts RadLex codes from the procedure description and then uses the definition of an RPID to determine the most suitable RPID(s) for the extracted set of RadLex codes. We also developed a tool that has three modes of operations-a single procedure mapping mode that allows a user to map a single institution-specific procedure description to a Playbook entry, a bulk mode to process large number of descriptions, and an exploratory mode that assists a user to better understand how the selection of values for various Playbook attributes affects the resulting RPID. We validate our algorithms using 166 production CT procedure descriptions and discuss how the tool can be used by administrators to map institution-specific procedure descriptions to RPIDs.

  16. Barriers to the adoption of ergonomic innovations to control musculoskeletal disorders and improve performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Ben-Tzion; Newenhouse, Astrid C; Chapman, Larry J

    2013-01-01

    Despite a growing number of published articles describing studies of ergonomic interventions, little is known about the barriers potential adopters face when deciding whether or not to adopt such innovations. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to examine the barriers identified by potential adopters of ergonomic innovations and compare barriers identified by individuals not interested in adopting to those identified by individuals planning to adopt. Eight hundred forty-eight fresh market vegetable farmers were mailed surveys measuring the adoption of and barriers to the adoption of several ergonomic innovations as part of a multi-year intervention study. Barriers such as cost, lack of information, never having seen the innovation used and not being able to try out the innovation were among the barriers identified. The barriers identified were moderated by whether or not the respondents were likely to adopt. Implications for diffusing ergonomic and safety innovations are discussed.

  17. A solar furnace coupled to a microwave induced plasma for the simulation of the space vehicles entry (atomic recombination)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M.; Badie, J.M.; Duqueroie, F.; Sauvage, S. [Institut de Science et de Genie des Materiaux et Procedes, IMP CNRS, UPR8521, 66 - Font Romeu (France)

    1999-03-01

    During the atmospheric entry phase, the surface temperature of the protective heat shield of hypersonic vehicles increases with the atom recombination from the dissociated gas plasma. The excess of heating coming from the oxygen and/or nitrogen recombinations (Earth entry) or carbon monoxide and/or oxygen (Mars entry) on the surface of the material depends on the entry environment (pressure, temperature, gas flow velocity) and on the protective coating material catalycity. A ground simulation has been realized to evaluate the catalycity of such materials using direct atom loss (chemical approach) and heat transfer (thermal approach) measurements. The set-up associates a solar radiation concentrator (for high temperature) and a microwave generator (for gas dissociation) to partially reproduce the atmospheric entry conditions. The catalytic activity of several ceramic materials (carbides, nitrides, oxides) under different pressure and temperature conditions is measured, using the two previous approaches. Finally, the experimental results obtained with both the approaches lead to the determination of a catalycity scale and the evaluation of the physico-chemical behaviour of ceramics under atmospheric entry conditions. (authors)

  18. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  19. Barriers to renewable energy penetration. A framework for analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, Jyoti P.

    2001-01-01

    Renewable energy has the potential to play an important role in providing energy with sustainability to the vast populations in developing countries who as yet have no access to clean energy. Although economically viable fur several applications, renewable energy has not been able to realise its ...... potential due to several barriers to its penetration. A framework has been developed in this paper to identify the barriers to renewable energy penetration acid to suggest measures to overcome them. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......Renewable energy has the potential to play an important role in providing energy with sustainability to the vast populations in developing countries who as yet have no access to clean energy. Although economically viable fur several applications, renewable energy has not been able to realise its...

  20. Progressive Kaizen The Key to Gaining a Global Competitive Advantage

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, John W

    2011-01-01

    All Kaizen is not one and the same. There are four distinctly different types, each with its own purpose and results. Companies that understand these differences harness Kaizen's ultimate power and influence and achieve amazing success in a global manufacturing environment. Companies must, however, restructure the major objectives of certain key players in the process and institute various management initiatives that drive Kaizen down to an individual job level. Written by recognized Lean Manufacturing professional John Davis, Progressive Kaizen: The Key to Gaining a Global Competitive Advanta

  1. Qualidade como função de tecnologia industrial básica e a inserção competitiva do Brasil no comércio internacional Quality as a function of basic industrial technology and the competitive entry of Brazil in international trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Dias Ferraz de Souza

    1998-12-01

    though they could be extended to encompass new demands. This move has its origins in the process of the internationalization of the economy and of global trade, supported by the WTO - (World Trade Organization with its Technical Barriers on Trade Agreement. Extremely vigorous management systems have a strong metrological and standardization basis in all the models discussed in this article. In addition, such a basis has become non-trivial due to the replacement of metrological standards by fundamental chemical and physical constants. The standardization activity is also strongly affected by time reduction between the invention of the product and its entry in the market, which contributes to the obsolescence of the technical standards. In order to reconcile the different management approaches (Quality, Environment, Occupational Health and Industrial Safety, Technology, Marketing, Design, Knowledge, etc. organizations must make an effort to find a Total Management model that represents their business strategies and boosts their competitive advantage.

  2. Is graduate entry education a solution to increasing numbers of men in nursing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Lisa; Vanderheide, Rebecca; Brooks, Ingrid

    2016-03-01

    Males have traditionally constituted a very small proportion of the nursing workforce in many countries, including Australia. Together with a need to address the gender imbalance, nursing workforce shortages require strategies for recruiting new nurses, including males. This study examined characteristics of males entering one accelerated graduate entry masters pre-registration nursing program in Victoria, Australia. A quantitative survey gathered a variety of demographic data and factors relating to participants' decisions to undertake nursing. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics including frequencies and distributions. Forty-three male nursing students from four cohorts of the Master of Nursing Practice (MNP) course from 2009 to 2011 completed the survey. The proportion of males (30%) was considerably greater than traditional nursing courses and the profession generally. Participants demonstrated wide distributions in age ranges, professional backgrounds and previous years in the workforce. Graduate entry appears attractive to males of varying ages, personal and professional backgrounds. More research is needed to examine this phenomenon on a larger scale.

  3. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  4. Preparation for football competition at moderate to high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, C J; McSharry, P E; Hewitt, A J; Saunders, P U

    2008-08-01

    Analysis of approximately 100 years of home-and-away South American World Cup matches illustrate that football competition at moderate/high altitude (>2000 m) favors the home team, although this is more than compensated by the likelihood of sea-level teams winning at home against the same opponents who have descended from altitude. Nevertheless, the home team advantage at altitudes above approximately 2000 m may reflect that traditionally, teams from sea level or low altitude have not spent 1-2 weeks acclimatizing at altitude. Despite large differences between individuals, in the first few days at high altitude (e.g. La Paz, 3600 m) some players experience symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS) such as headache and disrupted sleep, and their maximum aerobic power (VO2max) is approximately 25% reduced while their ventilation, heart rate and blood lactate during submaximal exercise are elevated. Simulated altitude for a few weeks before competition at altitude can be used to attain partial ventilatory acclimation and ameliorated symptoms of AMS. The variety of simulated altitude exposures usually created with enriched nitrogen mixtures of air include resting or exercising for a few hours per day or sleeping approximately 8 h/night in hypoxia. Preparation for competition at moderate/high altitude by training at altitude is probably superior to simulated exposure; however, the optimal duration at moderate/high altitude is unclear. Preparing for 1-2 weeks at moderate/high altitude is a reasonable compromise between the benefits associated with overcoming AMS and partial restoration of VO2max vs the likelihood of detraining.

  5. Using XBRL Technology to Extract Competitive Information from Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Ditter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eXtensible Business Reporting Language, or XBRL, is a reporting format for the automatic and electronic exchange of business and financial data. In XBRL every single reported fact is marked with a unique tag, enabling a full computer-based readout of financial data. It has the potential to improve the collection and analysis of financial data for Competitive Intelligence (e.g., the profiling of publicly available financial statements. The article describes how easily information from XBRL reports can be extracted.

  6. Minimising barriers to dental care in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Jennifer E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people are increasingly retaining their natural teeth but at higher risk of oral disease with resultant impact on their quality of life. Socially deprived people are more at risk of oral disease and yet less likely to take up care. Health organisations in England and Wales are exploring new ways to commission and provide dental care services in general and for vulnerable groups in particular. This study was undertaken to investigate barriers to dental care perceived by older people in socially deprived inner city area where uptake of care was low and identify methods for minimising barriers in older people in support of oral health. Methods A qualitative dual-methodological approach, utilising both focus groups and individual interviews, was used in this research. Participants, older people and carers of older people, were recruited using purposive sampling through day centres and community groups in the inner city boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham in South London. A topic guide was utilised to guide qualitative data collection. Informants' views were recorded on tape and in field notes. The data were transcribed and analysed using Framework Methodology. Results Thirty-nine older people and/or their carers participated in focus groups. Active barriers to dental care in older people fell into five main categories: cost, fear, availability, accessibility and characteristics of the dentist. Lack of perception of a need for dental care was a common 'passive barrier' amongst denture wearers in particular. The cost of dental treatment, fear of care and perceived availability of dental services emerged to influence significantly dental attendance. Minimising barriers involves three levels of action to be taken: individual actions (such as persistence in finding available care following identification of need, system changes (including reducing costs, improving information, ensuring appropriate timing and location of

  7. The transition to practice of Direct Entry Clinical Nurse Leader graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatto, Bobbi; Meyer, Geralyn; Delicath, Timothy A

    2016-07-01

    This study looks at Direct Entry Clinical Nurse Leader graduates and how their transition to practice experiences develops over time as well as factors influencing their transition. Graduates were surveyed at graduation, three, six and 12 months. Seventeen participated; eight completed all surveys. Most were from the Millennial generation. The survey consisted of two parts: school satisfaction and the Casey-Fink Graduate Nurse Experience Scale. The results showed the Casey-Fink total score at 12 months was 0.75 points higher than at three months; suggesting a positive transition. The highest score occurred at six months which conversely had the lowest levels of satisfaction with both educational experience and intent to stay in their current role. Despite having 850 precepted/mentored clinical hours, 57.1% of these graduates stated they felt unprepared for the reality of nursing after 12 months. Regardless of feeling unprepared, the results suggest these students displayed a positive transition to practice. At 12 months, 88.2% were still with their first employers which contrasted the results of Casey-Fink and other studies of Millennial gradate nurses, which showed higher actual and intent to leave results. This study suggests that Direct Entry Clinical Nurse Leader students do indeed transition to practice more positively than traditional nursing graduates.

  8. The future of competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bates, Gary; Jensen, Boris Brorman; Miessen, Markus

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to explore the potential of the competition. The question we asked ourselves was if the competition can generate new, relevant and critical ideas within architecture? We organized an idea competition about the architectural competition....

  9. Electricity and Water Conservation on College and University Campuses in Response to National Competitions among Dormitories: Quantifying Relationships between Behavior, Conservation Strategies and Psychological Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John E; Frantz, Cynthia M; Shammin, Md Rumi; Yanisch, Tess M; Tincknell, Evan; Myers, Noel

    2015-01-01

    "Campus Conservation Nationals" (CCN) is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition's effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively). In 2010, overall reductions during the competition were 4% for electricity and 6% for water. The top 10% of dorms achieved 28% and 36% reductions in electricity and water respectively. Participation was larger in 2012 and reductions were slightly smaller (i.e. 3% electricity). The fact that no seasonal pattern in electricity use was evident during non-competition periods suggests that results are attributable to the competition. Post competition resource use data collected in 2012 indicates that conservation behavior was sustained beyond the competition. Surveys were used to assess psychological and behavioral responses (n = 2,900 and 2,600 in 2010 and 2012 respectively). Electricity reductions were significantly correlated with: web visitation, specific conservation behaviors, awareness of the competition, motivation and sense of empowerment. However, participants were significantly more motivated than empowered. Perceived benefits of conservation were skewed towards global and future concerns while perceived barriers tended to be local. Results also suggest that competitions may be useful for "preaching beyond the choir"-engaging those who might lack prior intrinsic or political motivation. Although college life is distinct, certain conclusions related to competitions, self-efficacy, and motivation and social norms likely extend to other residential settings.

  10. Electricity and Water Conservation on College and University Campuses in Response to National Competitions among Dormitories: Quantifying Relationships between Behavior, Conservation Strategies and Psychological Metrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E Petersen

    Full Text Available "Campus Conservation Nationals" (CCN is a recurring, nation-wide electricity and water-use reduction competition among dormitories on college campuses. We conducted a two year empirical study of the competition's effects on resource consumption and the relationship between conservation, use of web technology and various psychological measures. Significant reductions in electricity and water use occurred during the two CCN competitions examined (n = 105,000 and 197,000 participating dorm residents respectively. In 2010, overall reductions during the competition were 4% for electricity and 6% for water. The top 10% of dorms achieved 28% and 36% reductions in electricity and water respectively. Participation was larger in 2012 and reductions were slightly smaller (i.e. 3% electricity. The fact that no seasonal pattern in electricity use was evident during non-competition periods suggests that results are attributable to the competition. Post competition resource use data collected in 2012 indicates that conservation behavior was sustained beyond the competition. Surveys were used to assess psychological and behavioral responses (n = 2,900 and 2,600 in 2010 and 2012 respectively. Electricity reductions were significantly correlated with: web visitation, specific conservation behaviors, awareness of the competition, motivation and sense of empowerment. However, participants were significantly more motivated than empowered. Perceived benefits of conservation were skewed towards global and future concerns while perceived barriers tended to be local. Results also suggest that competitions may be useful for "preaching beyond the choir"-engaging those who might lack prior intrinsic or political motivation. Although college life is distinct, certain conclusions related to competitions, self-efficacy, and motivation and social norms likely extend to other residential settings.

  11. MAPs to Success: Improving the First Year Experience of alternative entry mature age students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Christensen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Successfully supporting wider participation in higher education requires a coherent blend of administrative, social and academic support.  Access is a necessary but insufficient element of equitable participation.  This is a vital distinction given the outcomes of the Bradley Report and the expectation that higher education institutions will significantly increase the enrolment and participation of equity target groups.  Our project, MAPs to Success, was designed to achieve the best possible outcomes for underprepared mature age students who have been granted alternative entry to the University of Western Australia through the Mature age Access Pathway (MAP.  This alternative entry pathway was first offered in July 2008.  In late 2009 we secured a Learning Teaching Performance Fund Grant to provide support for the original and subsequent cohorts. This paper outlines the theoretical perspectives underpinning this project's social and academic components, and evaluates the impact this project has achieved after its first year of operation. 

  12. A Dual Microscopy-Based Assay To Assess Listeria monocytogenes Cellular Entry and Vacuolar Escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quereda, Juan J; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Balestrino, Damien; Bobard, Alexandre; Danckaert, Anne; Aulner, Nathalie; Shorte, Spencer; Enninga, Jost; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-10-23

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium and a facultative intracellular pathogen that invades mammalian cells, disrupts its internalization vacuole, and proliferates in the host cell cytoplasm. Here, we describe a novel image-based microscopy assay that allows discrimination between cellular entry and vacuolar escape, enabling high-content screening to identify factors specifically involved in these two steps. We first generated L. monocytogenes and Listeria innocua strains expressing a β-lactamase covalently attached to the bacterial cell wall. These strains were then incubated with HeLa cells containing the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) probe CCF4 in their cytoplasm. The CCF4 probe was cleaved by the bacterial surface β-lactamase only in cells inoculated with L. monocytogenes but not those inoculated with L. innocua, thereby demonstrating bacterial access to the host cytoplasm. Subsequently, we performed differential immunofluorescence staining to distinguish extracellular versus total bacterial populations in samples that were also analyzed by the FRET-based assay. With this two-step analysis, bacterial entry can be distinguished from vacuolar rupture in a single experiment. Our novel approach represents a powerful tool for identifying factors that determine the intracellular niche of L. monocytogenes.

  13. Intellectual property rights, market competition and access to affordable antiretrovirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The number of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased from around half a million in 2003 to almost 10 million in only 10 years, and will continue to increase in the coming years. Over 16 million more are eligible to start ART according to the last World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. The demand is also switching from the less expensive antiretrovirals (ARVs) that allowed such scale-up to newer more expensive ones with fewer side effects or those that can be used by people who have developed resistance to first-line treatment. However, patents on these new drugs can delay robust generic competition and, consequently, price reduction made possible by economies of scale. Various ways to address this issue have been envisaged or implemented, including the use of the flexibilities available under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), systematic widespread voluntary licensing, of which the Medicines Patent Pool (MPP) is an example, and the application of different prices in different countries, called tiered pricing. This paper helps explain the impact of patents on market competition for ARVs and analyses various approaches available today to minimize this impact.

  14. Ets-1 facilitates nuclear entry of NFAT proteins and their recruitment to the IL-2 promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Hsiao-Wei; Tai, Tzong-Shyuan; Tseng, William; Chang, Hui-Hsin; Grenningloh, Roland; Miaw, Shi-Chuen; Ho, I-Cheng

    2013-09-24

    E26 transformation-specific sequence 1 (Ets-1), the prototype of the ETS family of transcription factors, is critical for the expression of IL-2 by murine Th cells; however, its mechanism of action is still unclear. Here we show that Ets-1 is also essential for optimal production of IL-2 by primary human Th cells. Although Ets-1 negatively regulates the expression of Blimp1, a known suppressor of IL-2 expression, ablation of B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp1) does not rescue the expression of IL-2 by Ets-1-deficient Th cells. Instead, Ets-1 physically and functionally interacts with the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and is required for the recruitment of NFAT to the IL-2 promoter. In addition, Ets-1 is located in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of resting Th cells. Nuclear Ets-1 quickly exits the nucleus in response to calcium-dependent signals and competes with NFAT proteins for binding to protein components of noncoding RNA repressor of NFAT complex (NRON), which serves as a cytoplasmic trap for phosphorylated NFAT proteins. This nuclear exit of Ets-1 precedes rapid nuclear entry of NFAT and Ets-1 deficiency results in impaired nuclear entry, but not dephosphorylation, of NFAT proteins. Thus, Ets-1 promotes the expression of IL-2 by modulating the activity of NFAT.

  15. Barriers to Psychosocial Services among Homeless Women Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Poza, Ines; Hines, Vivian; Washington, Donna L

    2012-01-01

    Veterans comprise a disproportionate fraction of the nation's homeless population, with women veterans up to four times more likely to be homeless than non-veteran women. This paper provides a grounded description of barriers to psychosocial services among homeless women veterans. Three focus groups were held in Los Angeles, CA, with a total of 29 homeless women veterans. These women described three primary, proximal (current) barriers: lack of information about services, limited access to services, and lack of coordination across services. Compared to non-veteran homeless women, women veterans potentially face additional challenges of trauma exposure during military service, post-military readjustment issues, and few services specific to women veterans. Understanding their service needs and experiences is critical to the development of relevant and appropriate services that move homeless women veterans away from vulnerability, into safety.

  16. 2010-2011 Inventors Competition--Winners of the "Gimme Shelter" Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of entries to this year's "Tech Directions" Inventors Competition exceeded even the record set by the 2009-2010 contest--and gave engineer/inventor Harry T. Roman quite a judging challenge. This year's challenge called on students to propose designs for inexpensive, portable shelters that could be used by people made homeless by natural…

  17. Innovation – source to obtain the competitive advantage in the global economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Lucia SIPOS

    2008-01-01

    A strong motivation to replace the comparative advantage theory with the competitive advantage theory is given by the significant change of the present economic conditions comparing with the old conditions that inspired the competitive advantage issues. The dynamic character of the market competition and the fact that, in the present, the competitiveness is located to enterprise’s level and not to the level of the national economy are some important argues that sustain the necessity and the o...

  18. The biological significance of brain barrier mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Norman R; Habgood, Mark D; Møllgård, Kjeld;

    2016-01-01

    that prevent the entry of many drugs of therapeutic potential into the brain. We outline those that have been tried and discuss why they may so far have been largely unsuccessful. Currently, a promising approach appears to be focal, reversible disruption of the blood-brain barrier using focused ultrasound...

  19. 39 CFR 3060.43 - Annual transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual transfer from competitive products fund to... transfer from competitive products fund to Postal Service fund. (a) The Postal Service must on an annual... Products Fund to the Postal Service Fund. (b) If the assumed taxable income from competitive products for...

  20. Effectuation in the undergraduate classroom: Three barriers to entrepreneurial learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel-Jensen, Franziska; Robinson, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    at exploring how students, who are novice entrepreneurs, react to working effectually and which barriers they face when applying effectual decision making logics in a university course. Design/methodology/approach: A student-centered process course in entrepreneurship with 142 students provides an unique...... opportunity to explore the phenomena. Participant/teacher observations, written and oral work from the students and finally formal and informal written evaluations of the course by the students provide comprehensive data. Findings: We find that students experience three barriers to using effectuation...... entrepreneurs in the classroom, second, to articulate the factors that hinder entrepreneurial learning when effectuation is used in a process course and third, to shed light on the importance of contextual factors for individual learning....

  1. Does the absence of competition in the market foster competition for the market ? A dynamic approach to aftermarkets

    OpenAIRE

    Laussel, Didier; Resende, Joana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate dynamic price competition when firms strategically interact in two distinct but interrelated markets : a primary market and an aftermarket, where indirect network effects arise. We set up a differential game of two-dimensional price competition and we conclude that the absence of price competition in the aftermarket (competition in the market) fosters dynamic price competition in the primary market (competition for the market). We also investigate the impact of n...

  2. Psychosocial and Cultural Barriers to Prostate Cancer Screening: Racial Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    group to run smoothly, we ask that we all follow some ground rules [Show on flip chart ]: To be polite and respect each others’ opinions Not to...a digital rectal exam (DRE). [Show this information on flip chart . Moderator will briefly describe what a PSA test and DRE consist of, and what...Show this information on flip chart .] 9/25/06 1 PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING BARRIERS STUDY (HULL) FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE MODERATOR: Main

  3. Molecular Aspects of HTLV-1 Entry: Functional Domains of the HTLV-1 Surface Subunit (SU and Their Relationships to the Entry Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lambert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial step in retroviral infection involves specific interactions between viral envelope proteins (Env and specific receptors on the surface of target cells. For many years, little was known about the entry receptors for HTLV-1. During this time, however, functional domains of the HTLV-1 Env were identified by analyzing the effects of neutralizing antibodies and specific mutations in Env on HTLV-1 infectivity. More recent studies have revealed that HTLV-1 infectivity involves interactions with three different molecules: heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, the VEGF-165 receptor Neuropilin 1 (NRP-1 and glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1. Here, we revisit previously published data on the functional domains of Env in regard to the recent knowledge acquired about this multi-receptor complex. We also discuss the similarities and differences between HTLV-1 and other deltaretroviruses in regards to receptor usage.

  4. A Bayesian Network to Predict Barrier Island Geomorphologic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, B.; Plant, N. G.; Thieler, E. R.; Turecek, A.; Stippa, S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding how barrier islands along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States respond to storms and sea-level rise is an important management concern. Although these threats are well recognized, quantifying the integrated vulnerability is challenging due to the range of time and space scalesover which these processes act. Developing datasets and methods to identify the physical vulnerabilities of coastal environments due to storms and sea-level rise thus is an important scientific focus that supports land management decision making. Here we employ a Bayesian Network (BN) to model the interactions between geomorphic variables sampled from existing datasets that capture both storm-and sea-level rise related coastal evolution. The BN provides a means of estimating probabilities of changes in specific geomorphic characteristics such as foredune crest height, beach width, beach height, given knowledge of barrier island width, maximum barrier island elevation, distance from an inlet, the presence of anthropogenic modifications, and long-term shoreline change rates, which we assume to be directly related to sea-level rise. We evaluate BN skill and explore how different constraints, such as shoreline change characteristics (eroding, stable, accreting), distance to nearby inlets and island width, affect the probability distributions of future morphological characteristics. Our work demonstrates that a skillful BN can be constructed and that factors such as distance to inlet, shoreline change rate, and the presence of human alterations have the strongest influences on network performance. For Assateague Island, Maryland/Virginia, USA, we find that different shoreline change behaviors affect the probabilities of specific geomorphic characteristics, such as dune height, which allows us to identify vulnerable locations on the barrier island where habitat or infrastructure may be vulnerable to storms and sea-level rise.

  5. COMPETITIVENESS OF LEADING COMMODITIES TO SUPPORT DEVELOPING REGION OF AGROTOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murwatiningsih Murwatiningsih

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of the research is to seek the competitiveness of the leading commodity in Semarang city which supports the development of centre commodity in agrotourism area. The method of analysis is leading sector, scoring analysis and capacity asessment through FGD. The result of the research reveals that leading commodities are Durian, Longan, Water Apple, and Rambutan. It is found that subdistrict Gunungpati and Mangunsari are ready to be the centre of horticulture commodity because its strategic location. It is located nearby Jatibarang reservoir (potential to be a tourism village, its cultivation is relatively successful, accessable transportation, and good management. Hence, it can be the pilot project area.Key words: competitiveness, centre, commodity, horticultureJEL Classification: O20, Q10AbstrakKesejahteraan petani tidak meningkat karena daya saingnya rendah dan pengelolannya tidak optimal. Tujuan penelitian, untuk melihat daya saing komoditas unggulan Kota Semarang untuk mendukung pengembangan sentra komoditas di kawasan agrowisata. Metode analisis yaitu sektor basis, analisis scoring serta capacity assessment melalui FGD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan komoditas yang diunggulkan di Gunungpati adalah durian, klengkeng, jambu air dan rambutan. Kelurahan Gunungpati dan Mangunsari siap dijadikan sentra komoditas hortikultura di Kecamatan Gunungpati karena letaknya strategis- dekat dengan waduk Jatibarang (dapat menjadi desa wisata, budidaya relatif lebih berhasil, transportasi dan akseptibilitas lebih mudah, pengelolaannya bagus sehingga sudah menjadi daerah percontohan.Kata Kunci: daya saing, sentra, komoditas, hortikulturJEL Classification: O20, Q10

  6. Approach to Quantum Kramers' Equation and Barrier Crossing Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Dhruba; Banik, S K; Ray, D S; Banerjee, Dhruba; Bag, Bidhan Chandra; Banik, Suman Kumar; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2002-01-01

    We have presented a simple approach to quantum theory of Brownian motion and barrier crossing dynamics. Based on an initial coherent state representation of bath oscillators and an equilibrium canonical distribution of quantum mechanical mean values of their co-ordinates and momenta we have derived a $c$-number generalized quantum Langevin equation. The approach allows us to implement the method of classical non-Markovian Brownian motion to realize an exact generalized non-Markovian quantum Kramers' equation. The equation is valid for arbitrary temperature and friction. We have solved this equation in the spatial diffusion-limited regime to derive quantum Kramers' rate of barrier crossing and analyze its variation as a function of temperature and friction. While almost all the earlier theories rest on quasi-probability distribution functions (like Wigner function) and path integral methods, the present work is based on {\\it true probability distribution functions} and is independent of path integral technique...

  7. Blue Ocean Strategy: A Study Over A Strategy Which Help The Firm To Survive From Competitive Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Javadian Dehkordi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this conceptual paper is to introduce one of the controversial issues in the business world which is labeled blue ocean strategy, this study also highlight blue ocean`s barriers like imitation and emulation. Brief comparison between competitive environment (Red Oceans strategy and blue ocean strategy and also importance of role of management in using blue ocean strategy to increase return for the firms are issues that explained. The review of the research contains role of innovation and its value for this strategy to help the firms survive in competitive market. First movers and second fast imitators also are the issues that in this study explain about their advantages and disadvantages in brief comparison.

  8. COMPETITIVE STRATEGY OF A FOREIGN MULTINATIONAL IN BRAZILIAN POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Barros de Azevedo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the question of the strategies involved in the import process of cages for laying hens, directed at the multinational enterprise distribution center. Identifies the reasons why a multinational company invests in Brazil, specifically in the city of Araraquara, São Paulo, where it is implementing a distribution center (DC. Developing the study of the strategies involved in the process, according to the main issue of the work, it took place through the exploratory analysis of the current logistics process of the Company, identifying the strategies adopted and the advantages of the new process. In order to achieve the objectives, the study is based on the theoretical study of Porter's five competitive forces, SWOT analysis, generic strategies adopted to achieve return on investment and, based on issues such as import , logistics, warehousing and distribution center. The survey shows that deployment of the DC, the strategy involves the insertion in the national market, specifically in São Paulo that is the biggest market of laying hens in the country to gain competitive advantage, and the multinational also adopts the strategy generic differentiation, with regard to technology and product quality. Despite the high costs of construction and maintenance of the DC, they represent a barrier to market entry, have no financial risk for the multinational enterprise, since this deployment will also increase the demand for the product, allowing the return on invested capital.

  9. Barriers to the Development of the Kepler Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J.; Batalha, N. M.; Dunham, E. W.; Jenkins, J. M.; Kepler Science Team

    2014-01-01

    No one had ever proposed nor flown a spacecraft mission that could do automated photometry of many thousands of stars simultaneously with the 10 ppm photometric precision necessary to detect the transits of Earth-size planets. Consequently, several barriers needed to be overcome before the Kepler Mission concept was accepted by the Discovery Program review panel. To overcome these barriers it was necessary to; 1) demonstrate that an appropriate combination of detectors and data analysis techniques was available that had the precision necessary to detect transits of Earth-size planets, 2) prove that the variability of solar-like stars was likely to be sufficiently low that SNR of transits from Earth-size planets could be detected with high reliability, 3) demonstrate the automated observations of thousands of stars simultaneously and the automated analysis of the observations, 4) develop a lab test facility to demonstrate the 10ppm photometric precision necessary to find Earth-sized planets orbiting solar-like stars and do it in the presence of the noise expected from on-orbit operation including thermal variations, the presence of nearby stars, and the impact of energetic particles, 5) form a team of experienced, technically qualified people who agreed that the technique would work and that they would support the mission development, operation, and the analysis of the results. The approaches used to overcome these barriers will be presented.

  10. Oncology nurse communication barriers to patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Ferrell, Betty

    2013-04-01

    Although quality communication has been identified as a necessary component to cancer care, communication skills training programs have yet to focus on the unique role of nurses. This study explored communication barriers as reported by seven nurse managers to better identify communication skills needed for oncology nurses to practice patient-centered care. Thematic analysis of transcripts was used to identify barriers to patient and family communication and desirable patient-centered nursing communication skills. Overall, the nurse managers reported that nurses experience patient and family communication difficulties as a result of inconsistent messages to patients and family from other healthcare staff. Physician assumptions about nursing left nurses feeling uncomfortable asking for clarification, creating a barrier to team communication processes. Patient-centered communication and care cannot be actualized for nurses unless team roles are clarified and nurses receive training in how to communicate with physicians, patients, and family. Therefore, the authors of this article created the COMFORT communication training protocol, and key concepts and resources for nurse communication training through COMFORT are detailed in this article.

  11. 10 CFR 603.875 - Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness... Foreign access to technology and U.S. competitiveness provisions. (a) Consistent with the objective of enhancing national security and United States competitiveness by increasing the public's reliance on...

  12. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Omp29 is associated with bacterial entry to gingival epithelial cells by F-actin rearrangement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikihito Kajiya

    Full Text Available The onset and progressive pathogenesis of periodontal disease is thought to be initiated by the entry of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa into periodontal tissue, especially gingival epithelium. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying such bacterial entry remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible role of Aa outer membrane protein 29 kD (Omp29, a homologue of E. coli OmpA, in promoting bacterial entry into gingival epithelial cells. To accomplish this, Omp29 expression vector was incorporated in an OmpA-deficient mutant of E. coli. Omp29(+/OmpA(- E. coli demonstrated 22-fold higher entry into human gingival epithelial line cells (OBA9 than Omp29(-/OmpA(- E. coli. While the entry of Aa and Omp29(+/OmpA(- E. coli into OBA9 cells were inhibited by anti-Omp29 antibody, their adherence to OBA9 cells was not inhibited. Stimulation of OBA9 cells with purified Omp29 increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK, a pivotal cell-signaling molecule that can up-regulate actin rearrangement. Furthermore, Omp29 increased the formation of F-actin in OBA9 cells. The internalization of Omp29-coated beads and the entry of Aa into OBA9 were partially inhibited by treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor (Wortmannin and Rho GTPases inhibitor (EDIN, both known to convey FAK-signaling to actin-rearrangement. These results suggest that Omp29 is associated with the entry of Aa into gingival epithelial cells by up-regulating F-actin rearrangement via the FAK signaling pathway.

  13. Barriers to Robust and Effective Human-Agent Teamwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Barriers to Robust and Effective Human-Agent Teamwork Fei Gao, M. L. Cummings Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA 02139, USA...done by an individual. Although teamwork may im- pose extra workload related to coordination and communi- cation, teams have the potential of offering...greater adapta- bility, productivity, and creativity than any one individual can offer (Gladstein, 1984). However, the benefits of teamwork do not

  14. Perceived barriers to consumption of fish among Norwegian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondsen, Torbjørn; Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize constraints on consumption of fish perceived by consumers in Norway. A random sample of Norwegian women aged 45-69 years answered a self-administered mail questionnaire in 1996 about eating habits, perceived barriers to fish consumption, socioeconomic status, and ...... products that satisfy (a) children's wishes, (b) health-oriented family members, and (c) convenience-oriented consumers, will significantly increase at-home consumption of fish. Udgivelsesdato: DEC...

  15. Barriers to participation in a worksite wellness program

    OpenAIRE

    Person, Ashley Lynne; Colby, Sarah Elizabeth; Bulova, Jessica Ann; Eubanks, Janie Whitehurst

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine barriers that prevent participation in an employee wellness program, Wellness Wednesdays: "Eat & Meet" About Healthy Living, conducted at East Carolina University (ECU) in Greenville, North Carolina. All ECU ARAMARK employees (n = 481) over the age of 18 were eligible to participate in the wellness program. Weekly 30 minute classes, taught by a Registered Dietitian, on various nutrition- and health-related topics were conducted for 10-weeks. Five ...

  16. Threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, P.

    2013-12-01

    Whilst the scientific case for current climate change is compelling, the consequences of climate change have largely failed to permeate through to individuals. This lack of public awareness of the science and the potential impacts could be considered a key obstacle to action. The possible reasons for such limited success centre on the issue that climate change is a complex subject, and that a wide ranging academic, political and social research literature on the science and wider implications of climate change has failed to communicate the key issues in an accessible way. These failures to adequately communicate both the science and the social science of climate change at a number of levels results in ';communication gaps' that act as fundamental barriers to both understanding and engagement with the issue. Meyer and Land (2003) suggest that learners can find certain ideas and concepts within a discipline difficult to understand and these act as a barrier to deeper understanding of a subject. To move beyond these threshold concepts, they suggest that the expert needs to support the learner through a range of learning experiences that allows the development of learning strategies particular to the individual. Meyer and Land's research into these threshold concepts has been situated within Economics, but has been suggested to be more widely applicable though there has been no attempt to either define or evaluate threshold concepts to climate change science. By identifying whether common threshold concepts exist specifically in climate science for cohorts of either formal or informal learners, scientists will be better able to support the public in understanding these concepts by changing how the knowledge is communicated to help overcome these barriers to learning. This paper reports on the findings of a study that examined the role of threshold concepts as barriers to understanding climate science in a UK University and considers its implications for wider

  17. Barriers to innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment: A causal analysis of insights from key opinion leaders and literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Burgwal, L H M; Neevel, A M G; Pittens, C A C M; Osterhaus, A D M E; Rupprecht, C E; Claassen, E

    2017-03-20

    Rabies is an essentially 100% fatal, zoonotic disease, caused by Lyssaviruses. Currently, the disease is vaccine-preventable with pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP). Still, rabies virus is estimated to cause up to 60,000 human deaths annually, of which the vast majority occurs in rural Asia and Africa, due to the inaccessibility of prophylaxis and non-existence of treatment. Despite these unmet clinical needs, rabies control mainly focuses on the sylvatic reservoir and drug innovation receives relatively little attention compared to other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). As such, the lag of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment cannot be explained by limited return on investment alone. Strategies countering rabies-specific innovation barriers are important for the acceleration of innovation in human rabies prophylaxis and treatment. Barriers throughout society, science, business development and market domains were identified through literature review and 23 semi-structured interviews with key opinion leaders worldwide. A subsequent root cause analysis revealed causal relations between innovation barriers and a limited set of root causes. Finally, prioritization by experts indicated their relative importance. Root causes, which are fundamental to barriers, were aggregated into four types: market and commercial, stakeholder collaboration, public health and awareness, and disease trajectory. These were found in all domains of the innovation process and thus are relevant for all stakeholders. This study identifies barriers that were not previously described in this specific context, for example the competition for funding between medical and veterinary approaches. The results stress the existence of barriers beyond the limited return on investment and thereby explain why innovation in human rabies medication is lagging behind NTDs with a lower burden of disease. A re-orientation on the full spectrum of barriers that hinder innovation in

  18. Exploring barriers to payer utilization of genetic counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Nan; Cirino, Allison; Trivedi, Amber; Flynn, Maureen

    2015-02-01

    Access to genetic counselors' services is neither universal nor automatic, due in part to the gatekeeper role of healthcare payers--the companies and agencies that purchase healthcare services on patients' behalf and control the bulk of healthcare spending. This pilot study surveyed and analyzed the relative importance of barriers to expanded payer coverage of genetic counselors' services. Surveys were mailed to 263 medical directors and quality assurance directors at health insurance carriers throughout the United States. Respondents provided demographic information and indicated the importance of nine possible barriers, plus an optional write-in "other." Twenty-two surveys were analyzed. "Evidence that use of genetic counselors improves health outcomes" led the list of factors having a significant/very significant influence on coverage policy. Sixteen respondents (73 %) rated this factor "4" or "5" on a Likert scale; it also received the most #1 rankings and the highest score using a weighted-mean analysis. Provider practice guidelines, CMS/Medicare regulations, and genetic counselor licensure-all of which are outside of payers' direct control-also ranked highly. The research demonstrates that although the potential barriers to expanded reimbursement for genetic counselors are numerous and complex, some are more consistently identified as important and therefore more deserving of legislative and advocacy resources to effect change. Future research should endeavor to increase survey response and include providers as well as payers.

  19. A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Holdridge, Erica M.; Cuellar‐Gempeler, Catalina; terHorst, Casey P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of ...

  20. Barriers to qualitative dementia research: the elephant in the room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, John; Traynor, Victoria; Marchetti, Elena

    2015-07-01

    As our population is aging, the global prevalence of dementia is rising. Recent extensive reviews of the dementia literature highlight a clear need for additional qualitative research to address the experiences of people with dementia and their carers. To date, the vast majority of published dementia research is quantitative in nature and, perhaps not surprisingly, attracts the bulk of government funding. In contrast, qualitative dementia research is poorly resourced and less frequently published. Although a myriad of factors are responsible for this dichotomy, we propose that inadequate funding represents the "elephant in the room" of dementia research. In this article, we describe and emphasize the need for qualitative dementia research, highlight existing barriers, and outline potential solutions. Examples of barriers are provided and theoretical underpinnings are proposed.

  1. Adapting wood hydrolysate barriers to high humidity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaich, Anas Ibn; Edlund, Ulrica; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-01-16

    The incorporation of layered silicates in bio-based barrier films resulted in lower water vapor permeability, and significantly lowered oxygen permeability at a relative humidity (RH) as high as 80%, with reduced moisture sensitivity of the wood hydrolysate (WH) based films. The applicability of WH based films was accordingly extended over a wider relative humidity condition range. Crude aqueous process liquor, the WH, was extracted from hardwood and utilized as a feed-stock for films without any upgrading pretreatment, yet producing superior oxygen barrier performance compared to partially upgraded WH and highly purified hemicelluloses. Films composed of crude WH and either one of two types of naturally occurring layered silicates, montmorillonite (MMT) or talc, as mineral additives, were evaluated with respect to oxygen and water vapor permeability, morphological, tensile and dynamic thermo-mechanical properties. Films with an oxygen permeability as low as 1.5 (cm(3)μm)/(m(2)daykPa) at 80% RH was achieved.

  2. A study to determine important barriers in using managerial accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatollah Mohammadipour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Managerial accounting plays an important role for making prompt and efficient decisions to reduce troubles in the market. However, there are many circumstances where management team cannot make appropriate, fast and reliable managerial decisions. In this paper, we present a survey in cement industry and look to find out important factors as major barriers of managerial accounting implementation. The proposed model of this paper designs and distributes questionnaire among management teams who work for cement industry in Iran. The results of the survey indicate that lack of familiarity of managers with managerial accounting techniques, existence of unprofessional people in financial and accounting affairs and lack of having globally acceptable standards are major barriers in this industry for implementation of managerial accounting skills. However, our survey does not find any relationship between market turbulence and efficiency and implementation of managerial accounting skills.

  3. Students' Understanding of Dictionary Entries: A Study with Respect to Four Learners' Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Abhra; Amritavalli, Vijaya; Amritavalli, R.

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the effects of definitional information in the form of dictionary entries, on second language learners' vocabulary learning in an instructed setting. Indian students (Native Hindi speakers) of English received monolingual English dictionary entries of five previously unknown words from four different learner's dictionaries. Results…

  4. Claudin-1 required for HCV virus entry has high potential for phosphorylation and O-glycosylation

    OpenAIRE

    Fouzia Kiran; Kausar Humera; Gull Sana; Sarwar Muhammad T; Asad Sultan; Ijaz Bushra; Shabbiri Khadija; Ahmad Waqar; Shahid Imran; Hassan Sajida

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HCV is a leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis all over the world. Claudins belong to family of tight junction's proteins that are responsible for establishing barriers for controlling the flow of molecules around cells. For therapeutic strategies, regulation of viral entry into the host cells holds a lot of promise. During HCV infection claudin-1 is highly expressed in liver and believed to be associated with HCV virus entry after HCV binding with or without co-rec...

  5. Barriers to modern contraceptive use in rural areas in DRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muanda, Mbadu Fidèle; Ndongo, Gahungu Parfait; Messina, Lauren J; Bertrand, Jane T

    2017-03-03

    Recent research in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has shown that over a quarter of women have an unmet need for family planning and that modern contraceptive use is three times higher among urban than rural women. This study focuses on the reasons behind the choices of married men and women to use contraception or not. What are the barriers that have led to low levels of modern contraceptive use among women and men in DRC rural areas? The research team conducted 24 focus groups among women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods and users of modern methods) and husbands (of non-users or users of traditional methods) in six health zones of three geographically dispersed provinces. The key barriers that emerged were poor spousal communication, sociocultural norms (especially the husband's role as primary decision-maker and the desire for a large family), fear of side-effects and a lack of knowledge. Despite these barriers, many women in the study indicated that they were open to adopting a modern family planning method in the future. These findings imply that programming must address mutual comprehension and decision-making among rural men and women alike in order to trigger positive changes in behaviour and perceptions relating to contraceptive use.

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Heparan Sulfate: from attachment to entry inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridgette Janine Connell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available By targeting cells that provide protection against infection, HIV-1 causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Infection starts when gp120, the viral envelope glycoprotein, binds to CD4 and to a chemokine receptor usually CCR5 or CXCR4. As many microorganisms, HIV-1 also interacts with heparan sulfate (HS, a complex group of cell surface associated anionic polysaccharides. It has been thought that this binding, occurring at a step prior to CD4 recognition, increases infectivity by pre-concentrating the virion particles at the cell surface. Early work, dating from before the identification of CCR5 and CXCR4, showed that a variety of HS mimetics bind to the gp120 V3 loop through electrostatic interactions, compete with cell surface associated HS to bind the virus and consequently, neutralize the infectivity of a number of T cell line-adapted HIV-1 strains.However, progress made to better understand HIV-1 attachment and entry, coupled with the recent identification of additional gp120 regions mediating HS recognition, have considerably modified this view. Firstly, the V3 loop from CXCR4-using viruses is much more positively charged compared to those using CCR5. HS inhibition of cell attachment is thus restricted to CXCR4 using viruses (such as T cell line-adapted HIV-1. Secondly, studies aiming at characterizing the gp120/HS complex revealed that HS binding was far more complex than previously thought: in addition to the V3 loop of CXCR4 tropic gp120, HS interacts with several other cryptic areas of the protein, which can be induced upon CD4 binding, and are conserved amongst CCR5 and CXCR4 viruses. In view of these data, this review will detail the present knowledge on HS binding to HIV-1, with regards to attachment and entry processes. It will discuss the perspective of targeting the gp120 coreceptor binding site with HS mimetic compounds, a strategy that recently gave rise to entry inhibitors that work in the low nM range, independently of

  7. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui F Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed in the literature that the Testosterone (T response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables.In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the Testosterone (T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (twenty dyads were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, Cortisol (C and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA were measured before and twenty minutes after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans.

  8. Testosterone response to competition in males is unrelated to opponent familiarity or threat appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gonçalo A; Uceda, Sara; Oliveira, Tânia F; Fernandes, Alexandre C; Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed in the literature that the testosterone (T) response to competition in humans may be modulated by cognitive variables. In a previous experiment with a female sample we have reported that opponent familiarity and threat appraisal moderated the T response to competition in women. With this experiment we aim to investigate if these variables have the same impact on males T response to competition, extending the previous findings in our lab. Forty male participants (20 dyads) were recruited to engage in a same sex, face to face competition using the Number Tracking Test as a competitive task. Levels of T, cortisol (C) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were measured before and 20 min after the competition. Results show that losers report higher levels of threat than winners and increased their T levels after the competition, however this T change was not predicted by opponent familiarity or threat appraisal. No variation was detected for C and DHEA levels. These findings suggest that there could be sex differences for the moderators/mediators of the T response to competition in humans.

  9. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details on the asp......The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...... on the aspects of the problem, the data, and a summary of the methods used by selected top entries. We also discuss the lessons learned from this competition from the organizers’ perspective. The complete data set, including the solution data, is published along with this paper, in an effort to establish...

  10. An exploration study to detect important barriers for knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ghafourian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to find the important factors influencing implementation of knowledge management in revenue agencies in Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among some experts and, using principal component analysis, the study detects important barriers for knowledge management implications. The study selects 170 people from 880 regular employees who work for revenue agency and distributes the questionnaire designed in Likert scale. Cronbach alpha has been determined as 0.70, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. In terms of knowledge management, the study determines six factors including support for creativity and innovation, knowledge sharing, trust, employee promotion plan, mission and training programs and they represent 66.57% of the described factors. In addition, in terms of barriers, job security, cultural issues, individual differences, infrastructure, organizational structure and lack of vision are the most important issues representing 61.98% of the factors.

  11. Exploiting Receptor Competition to Enhance Nanoparticle Binding Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Nanoparticles functionalized with multiple ligands can be programed to bind biological targets depending on the receptors they express, providing a general mechanism exploited in various technologies, from selective drug delivery to biosensing. For binding to be highly selective, ligands should exclusively interact with specific targeted receptors, because the formation of bonds with other, untargeted ones would lead to nonspecific binding and potentially harmful behavior. This poses a particular problem for multivalent nanoparticles, because even very weak bonds can collectively lead to strong binding. A statistical mechanical model is used here to describe how competition between different receptors together with multivalent effects can be harnessed to design ligand-functionalized nanoparticles insensitive to the presence of untargeted receptors, preventing nonspecific binding.

  12. Comparative institutional response to economic policy managed competition and governmentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, D W

    2001-04-01

    This article provides a comparative conceptual framework for understanding why so many governments found economic policies based on managed competition attractive and yet dangerous to implement. The framework conceptualizes governments as a kind of organizational complex and thus governments as an international population of organizations, each embedded in a state that tries to harness and direct behaviour through what Foucault called "governmentality". This nascent concept is made more robust here and joined with Fligstein's historical research on the response of leading organizations when fundamental change threatens a population of organizations, by embracing a new conception of control that allows them to re-establish their control and pre-eminence. Fligstein studied corporations, but his model can be fruitfully extended to governments. Economic sociology has not to date been able to do much comparative research on institutional responses to economic policy; but this set of case studies and conceptual framework provide such an opportunity.

  13. Monitoring of Labour Mobility as a Way to Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vnoučková Lucie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic situation is forcing organisations to keep their best, talented employees, because employees are a critical and the most valuable asset. The paper reveals, based on the primary research, unsuitable practices of organisations in human resources and personnel relations and suggests improvements and recommendations how to keep knowledgeable employees. An induction method revealed main factors causing employee turnover (remuneration, futurecertainty, relationships, recognition, communication, corporate culture and expectations. Attributes of identified factors which influence organisational disaffection and fluctuation were searched and interpreted based on a quantitative survey. The paper describes inadequate behaviour inside organisations together with highlighting of the determinants which are the most common reason for a decision to leave. The aim is to point-out critical variables in order to lowerdisaffection and layoffs in organisations. It is essential for a modern knowledge-based organisation to be aware of the main causes and consequences of employee fluctuation to maintain competitiveness.

  14. A shift from exploitation to interference competition with increasing density affects population and community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdridge, Erica M; Cuellar-Gempeler, Catalina; terHorst, Casey P

    2016-08-01

    Intraspecific competition influences population and community dynamics and occurs via two mechanisms. Exploitative competition is an indirect effect that occurs through use of a shared resource and depends on resource availability. Interference competition occurs by obstructing access to a resource and may not depend on resource availability. Our study tested whether the strength of interference competition changes with protozoa population density. We grew experimental microcosms of protozoa and bacteria under different combinations of protozoan density and basal resource availability. We then solved a dynamic predator-prey model for parameters of the functional response using population growth rates measured in our experiment. As population density increased, competition shifted from exploitation to interference, and competition was less dependent on resource levels. Surprisingly, the effect of resources was weakest when competition was the most intense. We found that at low population densities, competition was largely exploitative and resource availability had a large effect on population growth rates, but the effect of resources was much weaker at high densities. This shift in competitive mechanism could have implications for interspecific competition, trophic interactions, community diversity, and natural selection. We also tested whether this shift in the mechanism of competition with protozoa density affected the structure of the bacterial prey community. We found that both resources and protozoa density affected the structure of the bacterial prey community, suggesting that competitive mechanism may also affect trophic interactions.

  15. Development Challenges of Game-Changing Entry System Technologies From Concept to Mission Infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beck, Robin; Ellerby, Don; Feldman, Jay; Gage, Peter; Munk, Michelle; Wercinski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Realization within the US and NASA that future exploration both Human and Robotic will require innovative new technologies led to the creation of the Space Technology Mission Directorate and investment in game changing technologies with high pay-off. Some of these investments will see success and others, due to many of the constraints, will not attain their goal. The co-authors of this proposed presentation have been involved from concept to mission infusion aspects of entry technologies that are game changing. The four example technologies used to describe the challenges experienced along the pathways to success are at different levels of maturity. They are Conformal, 3-D MAT, HEEET and ADEPT. The four examples in many ways capture broad aspects of the challenges of maturation and illustrate what led some to be exceptionally successful and how others had to be altered in order remain viable game changing technologies.

  16. Competition, the Global Crisis, and Alternatives to Neoliberal Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    regulation and other regulatory provisions, excessive competition (over-competition) in the process of capital accumulation has become a major global force with highly detrimental social and environmental downsides. From the vantage point of a historical materialist perspective, the article provides...

  17. Creating sustainable local health information exchanges: can barriers to stakeholder participation be overcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joy M; Kushner, Kathryn L; November, Elizabeth A

    2008-02-01

    Local health information exchanges (HIEs) hold the promise of collecting patient clinical data across sites of care to provide more complete and timely information for treatment, as well as supporting quality improvement and reporting, public health activities, and clinical research. Findings from a study of stakeholder perspectives on participation in four HIEs by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC) and the National Institute for Health Care Management (NIHCM) Foundation suggest, however, that barriers to achieving data exchange remain high. Concerns about loss of competitive advantage and data misuse impede provider and health plan willingness to contribute patient data. Additionally, uncertainty about who benefits from HIEs is affecting stakeholder willingness to fund the exchanges. The more mature exchanges--Cincinnati-based HealthBridge and the Indiana Health Information Exchange (IHIE)--have achieved some viability by meeting a specific business need--more efficient delivery of hospital test results to physicians. The newer exchanges--CareSpark, serving northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia, and the Tampa Bay Regional Health Information Organization (RHIO)--have struggled to identify and finance initial services without a similar critical mass of hospital participation. While narrow data exchange efforts that improve transaction efficiency may be a pragmatic first step to overcome barriers to stakeholder participation, expanding HIEs to achieve the broad-based data exchange necessary for quality reporting and pay-for-performance (P4P) activities raises more challenges.

  18. Double entry bookkeeping vs single entry bookkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Andreica

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A financial management eficiently begin, primarily, with an accounting record kept in the best possible conditions, this being conditioned on the adoption of a uniform forms, rational, clear and simple accounting. Throughout history, there have been known two forms of accounting: the simple and double entry. Romanian society after 1990 underwent a substantial change in social structure, the sector on which put a great emphasis being private, that of small manufacturers, peddler, freelance, who work independently and authorized or as associative form (family enterprises, various associations (owners, tenants, etc., liberal professions, etc.. They are obliged to keep a simple bookkeeping, because they have no juridical personality. Companies with legal personality are required to keep double entry bookkeeping; therefore, knowledge and border demarcation between the two forms of organisation of accounting is an essential. The material used for this work is mainly represented by the financial and accounting documents, by the analysis of the economic, by legislative updated sources, and as the method was used the comparison method, using hypothetical data, in case of an authorized individual and a legal entity. Based on the chosen material, an authorized individual (who perform single entry accounting system and a juridical entity (who perform double entry accounting system were selected comparative case studies, using hypothetical data, were analysed advantages and disadvantages in term of fiscal, if using two accounting systems, then were highlighted some conclusion that result.

  19. The Swedish electricity market. From monopoly to competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lublin, Z.G.; Swartling, K.; Fritz, P.

    1992-12-31

    The possibilities to open the Swedish electricity market for competition have been investigated in a study commissioned by the government. The study is the first one to penetrate most aspects of the Swedish power market. However, the report does not give an actual program for the reformations. The main conclusion of the study is that the electric power transmission lines must be kept open for all producers, not only the owners. A possible system of rules for the operation of such open networks are presented in the report. The main transmission lines should be owned and operated by a government public utility to assure openess and impartiality. Several changes to Swedish law must be made to accomodate for the suggested new structures. The changes are reviewed in the report. (Original swedish language report indexed as database item 92-87352) (8 figs., 35 tabs.).

  20. Barriers to leadership positions for Indian women in academic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Shobha; Kohli, Anil; Bhalla, Sumati

    2007-10-01

    Indian women, have come up a long way during the past 50 years. Gone are the days when the leadership positions in dentistry and health care professions were occupied solely by males and the women in-charge were looked down upon as anomalies. The staff rooms in dental and medical schools, the research laboratories in India today are employing women, who have quietly begun challenging the conventional male ideas that had shaped the policies earlier on. Women have advanced considerably in academic dentistry but like every coin, this story too, has two sides. In spite of the considerable gain in equity of status, women in research and academic careers related to health care professions still face innumerable barriers to their careers. This study was conducted with an aim to highlight the various barriers being faced by women in leadership positions in academic dentistry in India and this paper also suggests issues which require global concern for unbiased advancement of women. This was a questionnaire-based study in which the subjects were women in leadership positions in the various dental colleges in India. The questions are related to the various barriers like family commitments, attitude of the society, sexual harassment, gender bias and lack of cooperation from spouse which hinders the development of the careers of such women with tremendous potential. The results show that 67% of the subjects feel there are more barriers to their careers as women than men and health care professions definitely need more women leaders for improvement in women's health status globally. 63.5% of women in dentistry feel their family commitments are barriers to rising in their careers and 64.7% report that a marriage is happier if the husband's career graph is better than wife's. The survey results indicate that the same salary is paid to 93.5% women as their male colleagues. The results of the study show that there certainly has been a change in outlook of Indian women as they have

  1. Build to order and entry/exit strategies under exchange rate uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Tsai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under uncertainty of exchange rate, we extend the build to order production model of Lin et al. (2002 by considering the export-oriented manufacturer to make decisions to switch production location freely between domestic and foreign ones. The export-oriented manufacturer is risk neutral and has rational expectations. When we transfer the production location from domestic (foreign to foreign (domestic, and the production location transferring cost and the drift of real exchange rate are both equal to zero, then the optimal entry and exit threshold value of Cobb-Douglas production function are equal, no matter whether we use real options or net present value method. Thus export-oriented manufacturer can make decisions at the optimal transfer threshold value for transferable locations wherever the production locations are. It provides the export-oriented manufacturer with another way of thinking.

  2. Dynamics of ambulatory surgery centers and hospitals market entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housman, Michael; Al-Amin, Mona

    2013-08-01

    In this article, we investigate the diversity of healthcare delivery organizations by comparing the market determinants of hospitals entry rates with those of ambulatory surgery centers (ASCs). Unlike hospitals, ASCs is one of the growing populations of specialized healthcare delivery organizations. There are reasons to believe that firm entry patterns differ within growing organizational populations since these markets are characterized by different levels of organizational legitimacy, technological uncertainty, and information asymmetry. We compare the entry patterns of firms in a mature population of hospitals to those of firms within a growing population of ASCs. By using patient-level datasets from the state of Florida, we break down our explanatory variables by facility type (ASC vs. hospital) and utilize negative binomial regression models to evaluate the impact of niche density on ASC and hospital entry. Our results indicate that ASCs entry rates is higher in markets with overlapping ASCs while hospitals entry rates are less in markets with overlapping hospitals and ASCs. These results are consistent with the notion that firms in growing populations tend to seek out crowded markets as they compete to occupy the most desirable market segments while firms in mature populations such as general hospitals avoid direct competition.

  3. Geoengineering Responses to Climate Change Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    Failure by the international community to make substantive progress in reducing CO2 emissions, coupled with recent evidence of accelerating climate change, has brought increasing urgency to the search for additional remediation approaches.  This book presents a selection of state-of-the-art geoengineering methods for deliberately reducing the effects of anthropogenic climate change, either by actively removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere or by decreasing the amount of sunlight absorbed at the Earth’s surface.  These methods contrast with more conventional mitigation approaches which focus on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide. Geoengineering technologies could become a key tool to be used in conjunction with emissions reduction to limit the magnitude of climate change.  Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, this book presents a wide range of climate change remediation technologies. Examines th...

  4. Modulation of facial reactions to avatar emotional faces by nonconscious competition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, Peter; Mühlberger, Andreas; Kund, Anja; Hess, Ursula; Pauli, Paul

    2009-03-01

    To investigate whether subliminally priming for competition influences facial reactions to facial emotional displays, 49 participants were either subliminally competition primed or neutrally primed. Thereafter, they viewed computer generated avatar faces with happy, neutral, and sad expressions while Corrugator supercilii and Zygomaticus major reactions were recorded. Results revealed facial mimicry to happy and sad faces in the neutrally primed group but not the competition primed group. Furthermore, subliminal competition priming enhanced Corrugator supercilii activity after an initial relaxation while viewing happy faces. An impression formation task revealed counter empathic effects confirming successful competition priming. Overall, results indicate that nonconscious processes influence a presumably nonconscious behavior.

  5. Benchmark Shock Tube Experiments for Radiative Heating Relevant to Earth Re-Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Cruden, B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Detailed spectrally and spatially resolved radiance has been measured in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility for conditions relevant to high speed entry into a variety of atmospheres, including Earth, Venus, Titan, Mars and the Outer Planets. The tests that measured radiation relevant for Earth re-entry are the focus of this work and are taken from campaigns 47, 50, 52 and 57. These tests covered conditions from 8 km/s to 15.5 km/s at initial pressures ranging from 0.05 Torr to 1 Torr, of which shots at 0.1 and 0.2 Torr are analyzed in this paper. These conditions cover a range of points of interest for potential fight missions, including return from Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and Mars. The large volume of testing available from EAST is useful for statistical analysis of radiation data, but is problematic for identifying representative experiments for performing detailed analysis. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to select a subset of benchmark test data that can be considered for further detailed study. These benchmark shots are intended to provide more accessible data sets for future code validation studies and facility-to-facility comparisons. The shots that have been selected as benchmark data are the ones in closest agreement to a line of best fit through all of the EAST results, whilst also showing the best experimental characteristics, such as test time and convergence to equilibrium. The EAST data are presented in different formats for analysis. These data include the spectral radiance at equilibrium, the spatial dependence of radiance over defined wavelength ranges and the mean non-equilibrium spectral radiance (so-called 'spectral non-equilibrium metric'). All the information needed to simulate each experimental trace, including free-stream conditions, shock time of arrival (i.e. x-t) relation, and the spectral and spatial resolution functions, are provided.

  6. Waste Package Outer Barrier Stress Due to Thermal Expansion with Various Barrier Gap Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. M. Lewis

    2001-11-27

    The objective of this activity is to determine the tangential stresses of the outer shell, due to uneven thermal expansion of the inner and outer shells of the current waste package (WP) designs. Based on the results of the calculation ''Waste Package Barrier Stresses Due to Thermal Expansion'', CAL-EBS-ME-000008 (ref. 10), only tangential stresses are considered for this calculation. The tangential stresses are significantly larger than the radial stresses associated with thermal expansion, and at the WP outer surface the radial stresses are equal to zero. The scope of this activity is limited to determining the tangential stresses the waste package outer shell is subject to due to the interference fit, produced by having two different shell coefficients of thermal expansions. The inner shell has a greater coefficient of thermal expansion than the outer shell, producing a pressure between the two shells. This calculation is associated with Waste Package Project. The calculations are performed for the 21-PWR (pressurized water reactor), 44-BWR (boiling water reactor), 24-BWR, 12-PWR Long, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF - Short (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel), 2-MCO/2-DHLW (multi-canister overpack), and Naval SNF Long WP designs. The information provided by the sketches attached to this calculation is that of the potential design for the types of WPs considered in this calculation. This calculation is performed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for SR (Ref.7). The calculation is documented, reviewed, and approved in accordance with AP-3.12Q, Calculations (Ref.1).

  7. Simulation to assess the efficacy of US airport entry scrreening of passengers for pandemic influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmahon, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    We present our methodology and stochastic discrete-event simulation developed to model the screening of passengers for pandemic influenza at the US port-of-entry airports. Our model uniquely combines epidemiology modelling, evolving infected states and conditions of passengers over time, and operational considerations of screening in a single simulation. The simulation begins with international aircraft arrivals to the US. Passengers are then randomly assigned to one of three states -- not infected, infected with pandemic influenza and infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers then pass through various screening layers (i.e. pre-departure screening, en route screening, primary screening and secondary screening) and ultimately exit the system. We track the status of each passenger over time, with a special emphasis on false negatives (i.e. passengers infected with pandemic influenza, but are not identified as such) as these passengers pose a significant threat as they could unknowingly spread the pandemic influenza virus throughout our nation.

  8. Palladium-Copper Catalyzed Alkyne Activation as an Entry to Multicomponent Syntheses of Heterocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas J. J.

    Alkynones and chalcones are of paramount importance in heterocyclic chemistry as three-carbon building blocks. In a very efficient manner, they can be easily generated by palladium-copper catalyzed reactions: ynones are formed from acid chlorides and terminal alkynes, and chalcones are synthesized in the sense of a coupling-isomerization (CI) sequence from (hetero)aryl halides and propargyl alcohols. Mild reaction conditions now open entries to sequential and consecutive transformations to heterocycles, such as furans, 3-halo furans, pyrroles, pyrazoles, substituted and annelated pyridines, annelated thiopyranones, pyridimines, meridianins, benzoheteroazepines and tetrahydro-β-carbolines, by consecutive coupling-cyclocondensation or CI-cyclocondensation sequences, as new diversity oriented routes to heterocycles. Domino reactions based upon the coupling-isomerization reaction (CIR) have been probed in the synthesis of antiparasital 2-substituted quinoline derivatives and highly luminescent spiro-benzofuranones and spiro-indolones.

  9. Treatment utilization and barriers to treatment: Results of a survey of dependent methamphetamine users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Nicole K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Australia has one of the highest rates of methamphetamine use in the world; however, treatment access for methamphetamine is comparatively low. This descriptive study aimed to identify patterns of treatment utilization and perceived barriers to accessing treatment among dependent methamphetamine users in the hope that such information will enable services to more appropriately respond to this group. Methods One hundred and twenty-six methamphetamine users who had a current or past history of methamphetamine dependence were interviewed about their experiences of, and perceived barriers to, treatment. Results Treatment utilization among methamphetamine users was reportedly low. One of the main reasons cited for not accessing treatment was that methamphetamine users did not perceive their drug use to be a problem (despite apparent levels of dependence. Self-detoxification with the use of other licit and illicit drugs was high among this group. Participants identified a lack of confidence in the ability of treatment services to address methamphetamine dependence and the 'opiate-centric' nature of treatment services as significant blocks to treatment entry. Suggestions for improvement by participants included operating specialist services for methamphetamine users, placing an emphasis on responsiveness and routinely involving case management services for this group. Discussion and Conclusions To improve service delivery, treatment services should reorient their services to better address the needs of methamphetamine users by making small changes such as specific opening times for methamphetamine users or using a dedicated space for methamphetamine treatment. Alternative options such as online treatments and specialist methamphetamine clinics should be considered for methamphetamine users.

  10. Gas regulation in Europe. From monopoly to competition. V. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, P. [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    The regulatory systems which promoted gas expansion for several decades are being challenged from various sources, but - with the exception of the United Kingdom - this is largely from aspiring new market players rather than legislative initiatives. Despite much variation across Europe, the trend is one of growing pressures for competition. The relationship between the state and the principal gas utility in several countries is characterised by a search for ways in which the utility can be made to operate on a more commercial and cost transparent basis. In some cases, like Belgium, Italy and Spain, this may also include or potential privatisation of the utility. The privatisation of gas companies, in whole or in part, is increasingly common in countries which had previously been attached to the idea of a national champion in the gas business. It is accompanied by a search for mechanisms of control by the state over these strategic enterprises which are immune from the normal market constraints and capable of manipulating price levels in socially unacceptable ways. The limits of such restructuring is illustrated by, for example, the emerging pattern of retention of state control through a `golden share` in one form or another. The question of access rights remains an important and sensitive one. In the UK, Germany and Italy a form of access regime for third parties is already in place, although the inadequacies of the German one are highly apparent. There have been challenges to the lack of access in France. In each case, the operation of such regimes is a matter of acute interest to several parties on the domestic scene. The liberalisation trend is being accompanied by a concern to secure a balance between obtaining the benefits of competition and retaining the public service aspects of the gas supply. The terms of the draft British licence to supply gas present some interesting ideas in this respect. (Author)

  11. Nursing medication administration and workflow using computerized physician order entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschannen, Dana; Talsma, Akkeneel; Reinemeyer, Nicholas; Belt, Christine; Schoville, Rhonda

    2011-07-01

    The benefits of computerized physician order entry systems have been described widely; however, the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow and its potential for error are unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of a computerized physician order entry system on nursing workflow. Using an exploratory design, nurses employed on an adult ICU (n = 36) and a general pediatric unit (n = 50) involved in computerized physician order entry-based medication delivery were observed. Nurses were also asked questions regarding the impact of computerized physician order entry on nursing workflow. Observations revealed total time required for administering medications averaged 8.45 minutes in the ICU and 9.93 minutes in the pediatric unit. Several additional steps were required in the process for pediatric patients, including preparing the medications and communicating with patients and family, which resulted in greater time associated with the delivery of medications. Frequent barriers to workflow were noted by nurses across settings, including system issues (ie, inefficient medication reconciliation processes, long order sets requiring more time to determine medication dosage), less frequent interaction between the healthcare team, and greater use of informal communication modes. Areas for nursing workflow improvement include (1) medication reconciliation/order duplication, (2) strategies to improve communication, and (3) evaluation of the impact of computerized physician order entry on practice standards.

  12. The Next Paradigm Shift in Occupational Therapy Education: The Move to the Entry-Level Clinical Doctorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Crabtree, Jeffrey L; Mu, Keli; Wells, Joe

    2015-01-01

    The occupational therapy profession in the United States is considering another shift in the level of entry-to-practice education. Currently, all accredited U.S. occupational therapy education programs offer graduate-entry master's degrees or clinical doctorates. In 2014, the American Occupational Therapy Association Board of Directors published a position statement supporting the idea of moving all entry-level occupational therapy education programs to the clinical doctorate level by 2025. This article provides an overview of the proposed reasons for doing so and the potential impact of this move on future students, education providers, clients and families, employers, and third-party payers and funding bodies along with the implications for the occupational therapy profession internationally. An open, informed, transparent, multiperspective, comprehensive debate about this education paradigm shift is recommended. In August 2015 the Accreditation Council for Occupational Therapy Education decided that the entry-level qualification will remain at both the master's and the doctoral degree; it is anticipated, however, that the move toward the entry-level clinical doctorate will continue.

  13. 19 CFR 191.143 - Drawback entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Foreign-Built Jet Aircraft Engines Processed in the United States § 191.143 Drawback entry. (a) Filing of entry. Drawback entries covering these foreign-built jet aircraft engines shall be filed on Customs Form 7551, modified to show that the entry covers jet aircraft engines processed...

  14. To Act or Not to Act? A Short Exposal of a Dispute between Theory and Fiction: Free Competition vs. Perfect Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Stamate-Ştefan Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The present work intends to bring few clarifications, hopefully useful, in the general problem of economic competition. As it is probably already known by the reader, most of the XXth century studies on this subject are almost mysteriously dominated by the neoclassical writers\\\\\\'s (leaders would be one like Paul Samuelson and William Baumol) construction of perfect competition.

  15. The comparison between ad valorem and unit taxes under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    This paper shows that the welfare dominance of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition, extends to a Dixit-Stiglitz-type monopolistic competition framework with differentiated products, increasing returns to scale, entry/exit and love of variety. This result is obtained, even thoug...

  16. Rho GTPases regulate PRK2/PKN2 to control entry into mitosis and exit from cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anja; Durgan, Joanne; Magalhaes, Ana; Hall, Alan

    2007-03-21

    Rho GTPases regulate multiple signal transduction pathways that influence many aspects of cell behaviour, including migration, morphology, polarity and cell cycle. Through their ability to control the assembly and organization of the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons, Rho and Cdc42 make several key contributions during the mitotic phase of the cell cycle, including spindle assembly, spindle positioning, cleavage furrow contraction and abscission. We now report that PRK2/PKN2, a Ser/Thr kinase and Rho/Rac effector protein, is an essential regulator of both entry into mitosis and exit from cytokinesis in HeLa S3 cells. PRK2 is required for abscission of the midbody at the end of the cell division cycle and for phosphorylation and activation of Cdc25B, the phosphatase required for activation of mitotic cyclin/Cdk1 complexes at the G2/M transition. This reveals an additional step in the mammalian cell cycle controlled by Rho GTPases.

  17. HIV-1 uncoating: connection to nuclear entry and regulation by host proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Zandrea, E-mail: zaa4@pitt.edu [Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Aiken, Christopher [Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University, School of Medicine, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2014-04-15

    The RNA genome of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is enclosed by a capsid shell that dissociates within the cell in a multistep process known as uncoating, which influences completion of reverse transcription of the viral genome. Double-stranded viral DNA is imported into the nucleus for integration into the host genome, a hallmark of retroviral infection. Reverse transcription, nuclear entry, and integration are coordinated by a capsid uncoating process that is regulated by cellular proteins. Although uncoating is not well understood, recent studies have revealed insights into the process, particularly with respect to nuclear import pathways and protection of the viral genome from DNA sensors. Understanding uncoating will be valuable toward developing novel antiretroviral therapies for HIV-infected individuals.

  18. How to manage barriers to formation and implementation of policy packages in transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerman, Jonas; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to explore success factors and barriers to the formation and implementation of single policy measures and policy packages in transport, and to identify strategies to manage such barriers. As a first step, we developed a typology of barriers and success factors...... for policy formation and implementation. Secondly, we carried out an empirical analysis of barriers and success factors in four cases of policy packaging: Urban Congestion Charging; National Heavy Vehicle Fees; Aviation in the European Emissions Trading System and The EU’s First Railway Package. The third...

  19. Development and psychometric testing of a barriers to HIV testing scale among individuals with HIV infection in Sweden; The Barriers to HIV testing scale-Karolinska version

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiklander et al. Background: Barriers to HIV testing experienced by individuals at risk for HIV can result in treatment delay and further transmission of the disease. Instruments to systematically measure barriers are scarce, but could contribute to improved strategies for HIV testing. Aims of this study were to develop and test a barriers to HIV testing scale in a Swedish context. Methods: An 18-item scale was developed, based on an existing scale with addition of six new it...

  20. The Design Process of Physical Security as Applied to a U.S. Border Port of Entry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.

    1999-02-22

    This paper details the application of a standard physical security system design process to a US Border Port of Entry (PoE) for vehicle entry/exit. The physical security design methodology is described as well as the physical security similarities to facilities currently at a US Border PoE for vehicles. The physical security design process description includes the various elements that make up the methodologies well as the considerations that must be taken into account when dealing with system integration of those elements. The distinctions between preventing unlawful entry/exit of illegal contraband and personnel are described. The potential to enhance the functions of drug/contraband detection in the Pre-Primary Inspection area through the application of emerging technologies are also addressed.