WorldWideScience

Sample records for barriers to entry competition

  1. Finance as a Barrier to Entry: Bank Competition and Industry Structure in Local U.S. Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli; Philip E. Strahan

    2004-01-01

    This paper tests how competition in local U.S. banking markets affects the market structure of non- financial sectors. Theory offers competing hypotheses about how competition ought to influence firm entry and access to bank credit by mature firms. Using data on U.S. local markets for banking and non-financial sectors, we find that more vigorous banking competition – that is, lower concentration and looser restrictions on geographical expansion -- is associated with more firms in operation an...

  2. Sunk Costs and Antitrust Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMALENSEE, Richard

    2004-01-01

    US antitrust policy takes as its objective consumer welfare, not total economic welfare. With that objective, Joe Bain's definition of entry barriers is more useful than George Stigler's or definitions based on economic welfare. It follows that economies of scale that involve sunk costs may create antitrust barriers to entry. A simple model shows that sunk costs without scale economies may discourage entry without creating an antitrust entry barrier.

  3. Barriers to entry : abolishing the barriers to understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Keppler, Jan Horst

    2009-01-01

    BARRIERS TO ENTRY: ABOLISHING THE BARRIERS TO UNDERSTANDING by Jan-Horst Keppler Professor of economics Université Paris – Dauphine, LEDa, and Université Paris I Panthéon-Sorbonne, PHARE Port.: (+33 6) 77 81 37 46; Email: . Abstract The concept of a barrier to entry has been discussed least since Bain (1956) with important contributions by Spence (1977), Dixit (1980) or Milgrom and Roberts (1982). The more recent discussion is synth...

  4. Sunk Costs and Risk-Based Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Robert S. Pindyck

    2009-01-01

    In merger analysis and other antitrust settings, risk is often cited as a potential barrier to entry. But there is little consensus as to the kinds of risk that matter - systematic versus non-systematic and industry-wide versus firm-specific - and the mechanisms through which they affect entry. I show how and to what extent different kinds of risk magnify the deterrent effect of exogenous sunk costs of entry, and thereby affect industry dynamics, concentration, and equilibrium market prices. ...

  5. Export Discoveries, Diversification and Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Bailey; Lederman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between economic diversification and development established that diversification rises with development up to a point. Some have argued that market failures reduce private investments that are necessary to find out whether a new product can be exported profitably, thus implying that the threat of entry can reduce export discoveries and consequently hamper diversification. In parallel, the trade literature on the "extensive margin" of trade has focused on th...

  6. Duopoly Dynamics with a Barrier to Entry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; Campbell, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for a potential competitor on infinite-horizon Markov-perfect duopoly dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibri

  7. Export Discoveries, Diversification and Barriers to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Klinger, Bailey; Lederman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The literature on the relationship between economic diversification and development has grown rapidly in recent years, partly due to the surprising finding that diversification rises with gross domestic product per capita up to a certain point. Export diversification along the extensive margin is inextricable from the introduction of new export products. The authors test the hypothesis tha...

  8. From nascent to actual entrepreneurship: the effect of entry barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Stel, André; Storey, David; Wennekers, Sander; Thurik, Roy

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis exploratory study focuses on the conversion from nascent to actual entrepreneurship and the role of entry barriers in this process. Using data for a sample of countries participating in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor between 2002 and 2004, we estimate a twoequation model explaining the nascent entrepreneurship rate and the young business entrepreneurship rate, while taking into account the interrelationship between the two variables (i.e. the conversion). Furthermore var...

  9. Competitive Entry and Pricing Responses to Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Barry Bayus; Pradeep Chintagunta

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we study competitive response to a product innovation. We consider the dynamic interaction between a “Defender†(a firm with a first generation product) and an “Attacker†(a firm with a second generation product). The second generation product entry decision of the Defender, as well as the pricing decisions of both firms, are analyzed. Analytical results are derived by developing a 3-period pricing game, and studying closed-loop policies for a Nash equilibrium. These resu...

  10. Overcoming inadvertent barriers to entry in large infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vincent Livesey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The history behind the award of Brisbane City Council’s Legacy Way project is discussed and the possible impact of cognitive bias in the Expression of Interest  (EOI process together with the steps that were taken during the EOI development and evaluation phase to reduce the impact that this may have had on the selection of Contractors from their EOI submissions.  The paper concludes that Cognitive Bias may have created a greater barrier to entry to Contractors attempting to enter the Australian PPP market than has been previously realised and makes suggestions as to how this effect could be minimised in the future. 

  11. Overcoming inadvertent barriers to entry in large infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Vincent Livesey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The history behind the award of Brisbane City Council’s Legacy Way project is discussed and the possible impact of cognitive bias in the Expression of Interest  (EOI process together with the steps that were taken during the EOI development and evaluation phase to reduce the impact that this may have had on the selection of Contractors from their EOI submissions.  The paper concludes that Cognitive Bias may have created a greater barrier to entry to Contractors attempting to enter the Australian PPP market than has been previously realised and makes suggestions as to how this effect could be minimised in the future.

  12. The Perceptions of the Automotive Supply Industry Related to Information Technology Utilization and Creating Barriers to Competitive Market Entry: A Case Study of the Implications for Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargal, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine information technology/systems strategy related factors in the automotive supply industry based on responses to the Strategic Planning and Business Performance Survey provided to automotive suppliers. This population produces supplies to the automotive industry with products valued at hundreds of billions…

  13. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into "Mainstream" Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufford, David J; Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important- and controversial-philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer "Complementary and Integrative Medicine" (CIM) where integrative implies "bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way."(1) Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality. PMID:26665046

  14. Stackelberg competition with endogenous entry

    OpenAIRE

    Etro, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes market structures where leaders have a first mover advantage and entry by the followers is endogenous. The strategy of the leaders is always more aggressive than the strategy of the followers independently from strategic substitutability or complementarity. Under quantity competition, the leader produces more than any other firm and I determine the conditions for entry deterrence to be optimal (high substitutability and constant or decreasing marginal costs). Under price c...

  15. Network Competition and Entry Deterrence

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada, Joan; Valletti, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    We develop a model of logit demand that extends to a multi-firm industry the traditional duopoly framework of network competition with access charges. Firstly, we show that, when incumbents do not face the threat of entry and compete in prices, they inefficiently establish the reciprocal access charge below cost. This inefficiency disappears if incumbents compete in utilities instead of prices. Secondly, we study how incumbents change their choices under the threat of entry when they determin...

  16. Review Article: Barriers to Academic Re-Entry Women and How to Overcome Them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Esther

    A literature review of barriers to women who re-enter higher education studies is presented. Several factors are thought to influence the experience of re-entry women: the type of institution she attends, the type of program that she finds there, and her personal and social situation. Re-entry women are discussed in terms of inner city women, low…

  17. A Simulation Analysis of Barriers to Entry in China Refined Oil Market

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Zhou; Shuai Qi; Jianbing Liang; Yixian Liu

    2013-01-01

    The oil and gas industry is a high investment, high risk, high reward and high-tech industry with a need for highly qualified labour. China's oil and gas market has attracted more and more investors to join. However, due to oil and gas industry in all aspects of specificity, there are some Chinese oil and gas markets have barriers to entry. In this study, the Chinese oil and gas industry for effective market entry barriers based on the analysis, the use of ...

  18. Clinician-Scientists in Canada: Barriers to Career Entry and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Lander, Bryn; Gillian E Hanley; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. Methods Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from Can...

  19. Clinician-Scientists in Canada: Barriers to Career Entry and Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Bryn Lander; Hanley, Gillian E.; Janet Atkinson-Grosjean

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. METHODS: Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from C...

  20. Perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens H. M.; Kemp, Ron G. M.; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2010-01-01

    This article uses factor analysis to identify the underlying dimensions of strategic and structural entry barriers. We find that, in the perception of firms, both types of barriers are important and that the effectiveness of strategic barriers depends on attributes of the market structure. Based on

  1. Pioneers' Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry in Different Competitive Game Structures: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh Shankar

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers' marketing mix reactions to new entries are recognized as important determinants of the outcome of pioneerlate mover competition, particularly in price-inelastic markets such as those for pharmaceuticals, cigarettes, and luxury goods. Managers in such markets are interested in better understanding when to accommodate (i.e., decrease marketing spending) or retaliate (i.e., increase spending) in nonprice marketing variables such as advertising and salesforce. In addition, the reallocat...

  2. Real and Imagined Barriers to College Entry: Perceptions of Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Grodsky, Eric; Jones, Melanie

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of postsecondary attendance in the United States continue to be stratified by socioeconomic background and race/ethnicity. We suggest that inequalities in knowledge of the costs of going to college contribute to persistent patterns of stratification. We hypothesize that disadvantaged parents who believe their child will attend college are less certain of the costs of college attendance. As a result, they are less able or willing to provide an estimate of the costs of college attendan...

  3. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into “Mainstream” Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Hufford, David J.; Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important— and controversial—philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communitie...

  4. RNase L Interacts with Filamin A To Regulate Actin Dynamics and Barrier Function for Viral Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammad Adnan; Dayal, Shubham; Naji, Merna; Ezelle, Heather J.; Zeng, Chun; Zhou, Aimin; Hassel, Bret A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The actin cytoskeleton and its network of associated proteins constitute a physical barrier that viruses must circumvent to gain entry into cells for productive infection. The mechanisms by which the physical signals of infection are sensed by the host to activate an innate immune response are not well understood. The antiviral endoribonuclease RNase L is ubiquitously expressed in a latent form and activated upon binding 2-5A, a unique oligoadenylate produced during viral infections. We provide evidence that RNase L in its inactive form interacts with the actin-binding protein Filamin A to modulate the actin cytoskeleton and inhibit virus entry. Cells lacking either RNase L or Filamin A displayed increased virus entry which was exacerbated in cells lacking both proteins. RNase L deletion mutants that reduced Filamin A interaction displayed a compromised ability to restrict virus entry, supporting the idea of an important role for the RNase L-Filamin A complex in barrier function. Remarkably, both the wild type and a catalytically inactive RNase L mutant were competent to reduce virus entry when transfected into RNase L-deficient cells, indicating that this novel function of RNase L is independent of its enzymatic activity. Virus infection and RNase L activation disrupt its association with Filamin A and release RNase L to mediate its canonical nuclease-dependent antiviral activities. The dual functions of RNase L as a constitutive component of the actin cytoskeleton and as an induced mediator of antiviral signaling and effector functions provide insights into its mechanisms of antiviral activity and opportunities for the development of novel antiviral agents. PMID:25352621

  5. Overcoming SME barriers to gaining competitive advantage through social media

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lillian; Calli, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Large scale enterprises (LSEs) successfully adopt social media to gain competitive advantage through creation of brand awareness, promotion of customer satisfaction and loyalty, and increased website traffic and sales. SMEs, on the other hand, are often hampered by financial and other resource constraints, which potentially limits their ability to gain competitive advantage though social media. Despite these limitations, research has shown that SMEs do have the potential to successfully integ...

  6. Barriers to competition in Croatia : the role of government regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa, Donato; Madzarevic-Sujster, Sanja; Boromisa, Ana-Maria; Sonje, Velimir

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines product market policies in Croatia by benchmarking them to OECD countries and highlighting how policies that are more conducive to competition would stimulate a more efficient allocation of resources and, in consequence, facilitate convergence to higher income levels. OECD indicators of overall regulation in product markets indicate that Croatias policies in 2007 were g...

  7. Clinician-scientists in Canada: barriers to career entry and progress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryn Lander

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinician-scientists play an important role in translating between research and clinical practice. Significant concerns about a decline in their numbers have been raised. Potential barriers for career entry and progress are explored in this study. METHODS: Case-study research methods were used to identify barriers perceived by clinician-scientists and their research teams in two Canadian laboratories. These perceptions were then compared against statistical analysis of data from Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR databases on grant and award performance of clinician-scientists and non-clinical PhDs for fiscal years 2000 to 2008. RESULTS: Three main barriers were identified through qualitative analysis: research training, research salaries, and research grants. We then looked for evidence of these barriers in the Canada-wide statistical dataset for our study period. Clinician-scientists had a small but statistically significant higher mean number of degrees (3.3 than non-clinical scientists (3.2, potentially confirming the perception of longer training times. But evidence of the other two barriers was equivocal. For example, while overall growth in salary awards was minimal, awards to clinician-scientists increased by 45% compared to 6.3% for non-clinical PhDs. Similarly, in terms of research funding, awards to clinician-scientists increased by more than 25% compared with 5% for non-clinical PhDs. However, clinician-scientist-led grants funded under CIHR's Clinical thematic area decreased significantly from 61% to 51% (p-value<0.001 suggesting that clinician-scientists may be shifting their attention to other research domains. CONCLUSION: While clinician-scientists continue to perceive barriers to career entry and progress, quantitative results suggest improvements over the last decade. Clinician-scientists are awarded an increasing proportion of CIHR research grants and salary awards. Given the translational importance of

  8. Deregulation of Bank Entry and Branching: Impact on Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Milo, Melanie S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper looks at public policy towards bank entry and branching in the Philippines and its impact on the sector’s structure, conduct and performance. In particular, it argues that regulatory restrictions on bank entry and branching have had adverse effects on competition, while the liberalization of these restrictions have led to a more competitive banking sector. The paper has two main sections. Section II presents the history of regulation of bank entry and branching in the Philippines. ...

  9. Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into “Mainstream” Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengel, Meredith; Ives, John A.; Jonas, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important— and controversial—philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called “complementary and alternative medicine” (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer “Complementary and Integrative Medicine” (CIM) where integrative implies “bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way.”1 Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality. PMID:26665046

  10. Can Social Capital Networks Assist Re-entry Felons to Overcome Barriers to Re-entry and Reduce Recidivism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earl Smith

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on interviews with 25 reentry felons, this article examines the impact that social capital plays in successful reentry; specifically with securing stable housing and employment. We found that access to social capital allowed those with the lowest probability for success—African American men with felony convictions—to secure both stable employment and housing and thus avoid engaging in illegitimate behavior that leads to recidivism. The findings suggest that even for those individuals reentering society with the most strikes against them (as noted by researchers such as Pager and Travis, access to the resource rich social capital networks provided by reentry programs can allow these individuals to overcome the barriers to reentry and find stable jobs and secure housing. Our findings suggest that more research be done on the impact of social capital embedded in reentry programs and that referrals be made to these types of programs and funding be provided for those that demonstrate the ability to significantly reduce recidivism. As Putman has noted, "Just as a screwdriver (physical capital or a college education (human capital can increase productivity (both individual and collective, so do social contacts affect the productivity of individuals and groups."

  11. 广告壁垒的结构性效应研究%Research on the Effects of Structural Barriers to Entry of Advertising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田野

    2014-01-01

    Advertising can be seen as a type of barrier to entry , which helps the firm within the industry to prevent an-other firm from entering the market .A model of two-firm price competition with differential products is introduced to an-alyze different key parameters in order to explain how different effects of barriers to entry of advertising prevent another firm entry into the market.In the end, the industry of everyday chemicals is briefly analyzed in application of the model , hoping that this paper is able to provide a brand new way of thinking and theoretical basis for the future research .%广告可以被视作一种市场进入壁垒,能够帮助在位企业阻止潜在厂商的进入。本文通过建立两厂商的差异产品价格竞争模型、对不同关键参数进行分析,研究了广告的各种市场进入壁垒效应如何有效阻止潜在厂商进入,并以日化行业为例,说明了模型在具体行业分析中的作用,旨在为日后研究提供一种新的分析思路和理论参考。

  12. SME's perceptions regarding strategic and structural entry barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, Clemens; Kemp, Ron; Dijkstra, S. Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Extant literature discusses a large number of different entry barriers that may hamper market efficiency or entrepreneurial activity. In practice several of these barriers cohere and stem from the same root. Factor analysis is used to identify the underlying dimensions of these barriers. 7

  13. Europe's revolving doors: Import competition and endogenous firm entry institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lastauskas, Povilas

    2013-01-01

    The close relationship between politics and enterprises made the revolving door wide open and reinforced business influence on political decisions. This paper analyses the relationship between firm entry institutions and import competition inside the EU. Though there is a clear tendency for entry and startup costs to decrease over time and particularly in space, I challenge the view that greater openness to trade automatically leads to improved firm entry institutions. My model enables calcul...

  14. Barriers of access to care in a managed competition model: lessons from Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogollón-Pérez Amparo Susana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health sector reform in Colombia, initiated by Law 100 (1993 that introduced a managed competition model, is generally presented as a successful experience of improving access to care through a health insurance regulated market. The study's objective is to improve our understanding of the factors influencing access to the continuum of care in the Colombian managed competition model, from the social actors' point of view. Methods An exploratory, descriptive-interpretative qualitative study was carried out, based on case studies of four healthcare networks in rural and urban areas. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted to a three stage theoretical sample: I cases, II providers and III informants: insured and uninsured users (35, health professionals (51, administrative personnel (20, and providers' (18 and insurers' (10 managers. Narrative content analysis was conducted; segmented by cases, informant's groups and themes. Results Access, particularly to secondary care, is perceived as complex due to four groups of obstacles with synergetic effects: segmented insurance design with insufficient services covered; insurers' managed care and purchasing mechanisms; providers' networks structural and organizational limitations; and, poor living conditions. Insurers' and providers' values based on economic profit permeate all factors. Variations became apparent between the two geographical areas and insurance schemes. In the urban areas barriers related to market functioning predominate, whereas in the rural areas structural deficiencies in health services are linked to insufficient public funding. While financial obstacles are dominant in the subsidized regime, in the contributory scheme supply shortage prevails, related to insufficient private investment. Conclusions The results show how in the Colombian healthcare system structural and organizational barriers to care access, that are common in developing countries

  15. The Heterochromatic Barrier to DNA Double Strand Break Repair: How to Get the Entry Visa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A. Goodarzi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, a deep understanding of pathways that repair DNA double strand breaks (DSB has been gained from biochemical, structural, biophysical and cellular studies. DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ and homologous recombination (HR represent the two major DSB repair pathways, and both processes are now well understood. Recent work has demonstrated that the chromatin environment at a DSB significantly impacts upon DSB repair and that, moreover, dramatic modifications arise in the chromatin surrounding a DSB. Chromatin is broadly divided into open, transcriptionally active, euchromatin (EC and highly compacted, transcriptionally inert, heterochromatin (HC, although these represent extremes of a spectrum. The HC superstructure restricts both DSB repair and damage response signaling. Moreover, DSBs within HC (HC-DSBs are rapidly relocalized to the EC-HC interface. The damage response protein kinase, ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM, is required for HC-DSB repair but is dispensable for the relocalization of HC-DSBs. It has been proposed that ATM signaling enhances HC relaxation in the DSB vicinity and that this is a prerequisite for HC-DSB repair. Hence, ATM is essential for repair of HC-DSBs. Here, we discuss how HC impacts upon the response to DSBs and how ATM overcomes the barrier that HC poses to repair.

  16. Spatial Competition with Entry Deterrence considering Horizontal Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-nong Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial competition plays important roles in economics, which attracts extensive research. This paper addresses spatial competitions along with horizontal product differentiations and entry deterrence. By the dynamic game theory model about one firm and a potential entrant with different cost in a linear city, this paper finds that both the higher fixed setup cost and the higher transportation cost deter entrants. To efficiently deter the entrants, the establisher is inclined to locating at the middle point of the linear city.

  17. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, Marcel; Dekimpe, Marnik G.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players mayjust be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisi

  18. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisio

  19. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.

  20. A Choice Prediction Competition for Market Entry Games: An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Erev

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A choice prediction competition is organized that focuses on decisions from experience in market entry games (http://sites.google.com/site/gpredcomp/ and http://www.mdpi.com/si/games/predict-behavior/. The competition is based on two experiments: An estimation experiment, and a competition experiment. The two experiments use the same methods and subject pool, and examine games randomly selected from the same distribution. The current introductory paper presents the results of the estimation experiment, and clarifies the descriptive value of several baseline models. The experimental results reveal the robustness of eight behavioral tendencies that were documented in previous studies of market entry games and individual decisions from experience. The best baseline model (I-SAW assumes reliance on small samples of experiences, and strong inertia when the recent results are not surprising. The competition experiment will be run in May 2010 (after the completion of this introduction, but they will not be revealed until September. To participate in the competition, researchers are asked to E-mail the organizers models (implemented in computer programs that read the incentive structure as input, and derive the predicted behavior as an output. The submitted models will be ranked based on their prediction error. The winners of the competition will be invited to publish a paper that describes their model.

  1. Competition, syndication, and entry in the venture capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Suting

    2013-01-01

    There are two ways for a venture capital (VC) firm to enter a new market: initiate a new deal or form a syndicate with an incumbent. Both types of entry are extensively observed in the data. In this paper, I examine (i) the causes of syndication between entrant and incumbent VC firms, (ii) the impact of entry on VC contract terms and survival rates of VC-backed start-up companies, and (iii) the effect of syndication between entrant and incumbent VC firms on the competition in the VC market an...

  2. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics?

    OpenAIRE

    Kornelis, M.; Dekimpe, de, M.G.; Leeflang, P.S.H.

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in keymarketingmetrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisions. Similarly, the addition of a new marketing channel could permanently shift shopping preferences, or could just create a short-lived migration from existing channels. The steady-state impact of ...

  3. Does competitive entry structurally change key marketing metrics.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    To what extent does competitive entry create a structural change in key marketing metrics? New players may just be a temporal nuisance to incumbents, but could also fundamentally change the latter's performance evolution, or induce them to permanently alter their spending levels and/or pricing decisions. Similarly, the addition of a new marketing channel could permanently shift shopping preferences, or could just create a short-lived migration from existing channels. The steady-state impact o...

  4. Entry, Investment and Competition in Telecommunications and Media Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis builds on the new empirical industrial organization (NEIO) literature trying to use market data to determine fundamental market drivers such as demand parameters, entry and investment thresholds or the level and development of competition in the market. The thesis addresses two sectors: telecommunications (high-speed internet as well as fixed telephony) and media (newspaper sellers). It is divided in three articles 1) Geographic regulation and cooperative investme...

  5. Bringing More Competition to Real Estate Brokerage

    OpenAIRE

    Gurman, Jesse; Hahn, Robert W.; Litan, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides an economic analysis of the residential real estate brokerage industry. We find that the traditional model for residential real estate brokerage services may be dated, and could be improved substantially with some public policy interventions that spur innovation. We believe that there are numerous barriers to entry that are slowing the emergence of new models for serving consumers. Some of these barriers are likely to be anti-competitive. Examples include discrimination ag...

  6. Market Entry, Product Quality And Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Sameer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We study an entrant firm’s product quality choice and the price competition arising between the entrant and the incumbent firm. We show that the entrant firm should introduce a relatively higher (lower quality than the incumbent firm when the consumers’ valuation for quality is sufficiently large (small. We also study how the incumbent firm modifies its price in response to the ensuing price competition. We find that the incumbent firm should decrease its price. We also profile how the incumbent firm’s price non-linearly depends on consumers’ valuation for quality.

  7. Breaking the barriers of resistance to electronic journal entry: Experiences of BlToday

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, G.; S. Polovina; G. Rourke; Tyrell, T.

    1997-01-01

    There are a number of socio-econoniicissues that are generally understood in the area of electronic publishing. Primary among these is an apparent reluctance within the academic community to accept a replacement to paper-based journals. This sits incongruously with the fact that the WWW was born at CERN primarily as a vehicle for the effective dissemination of scientific research papers. This paper focuses on research, problems and issues encountered at South Bank University in attempting to ...

  8. Fish wars on the high seas : erecting economic barriers to entry

    OpenAIRE

    McKelvey, Robert W.; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Steinshamn, Stein Ivar

    2000-01-01

    The 1993 U.N. Straddling Stock Agreement prescribes a multi-national organizational structure for management of an exploited marine fish stock, one whose range straddles both “Extended Economic Zones” (EEZs) and high seas waters. However, the Agreement provides to the Regional Organization no coercive enforcement powers. In this connections two problems in particular have been cited: The first, called the “interloper problem” concerns the difficulty of controlling the harvesting by non-member...

  9. Breaking the barriers of resistance to electronic journal entry: Experiences of BIToday

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, G.; S. Polovina; G. Rourke; Tyrell, T.

    1997-01-01

    There are a number of socio-economic issues that are generally understood in the area of electronic publishing. Primary among these is an apparent reluctance within the academic community to accept a replacement for paper-based journals. This sits incongruously with the fact that the WWW was born at CERN primarily as a vehicle for the effective dissemination of scientific research papers. The present paper focuses on research, problems and issues encountered at South Bank University in attemp...

  10. Entries for the UK Business Plan Competition 2003

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    PPARC is supporting the Research Councils' Business Plan Competition 2003, for which outline (one page) entries should be submitted by 31.1.03. The competition is open to CERN staff and visiting academics from UK establishments. The main condition on entry for CERN staff is that there should be intent to commercialise the technology in the UK. Postgraduates, postdocs and academic staff who have a business idea arising from their research and want to develop this further are encouraged to participate. There is a £25,000 first prize and advice and training along the way. The first step is simple - just prepare a one page summary of your business idea - without giving away any potential business secrets and fill in your details on the short application form. The training element will provide a comprehensive coverage on the issues you need to know about with case studies and special sessions on specific issues of relevance to different research areas. Staff from CERN EP division submitted an entry last year, w...

  11. Analysis of Entry Modes and Competitive Strategies for Foreign Banks in Post-WTO China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yuwei

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation aims to study and analyze the entry modes and competitive strategies for foreign banks in post-WTO China. Firstly China's banking system and China's WTO commitments to open up its banking sectors are generally reviewed. Then use the PEST and SWOT analysis methods to examine the external and internal factors which have influences on foreign banks' strategies. Combined the theories with the practical situations of the chosen entry modes and competitive strategies by foreign ba...

  12. Maximizing competition : reducing barriers for new players

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This session included highlights from four guest speakers who commented on ways to reduce barriers to competition in Ontario's electric power industry. Topics of discussion included intertie transaction failures, the lack of overall investment in the market, the government's inaction which is preventing investment, the continued underwriting of Ontario Power Generation's activities by the government which discourages investment in the private sector, and indecisiveness regarding policy on coal plants. It was emphasized that investors need to know for certain that they can get a reasonable rate of return on their investments, that the market will be transparent and there will be no shift in policy. The need to promote new, efficient power generation by means of nuclear, coal, natural gas, and hydro energy was also emphasized. Charts depicting total energy production by source were presented for 2001 with projections to 2012. figs

  13. Entry and competition in highly concentrated banking markets

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Cetorelli

    2002-01-01

    This article studies conditions of entry and competitive conduct in highly concentrated banking markets. The author estimates the minimum market size at which a second bank, a third, a fourth, and so on, can enter and maintain long-run profitability. The results suggest no evidence of cartel-like behavior, where banks collude and maximize joint monopoly profits, even in markets with only two or three banks. The results are more consistent with the competitive conduct predicted by models of ol...

  14. Regulated competition in health care: Switching and barriers to switching in the Dutch health insurance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijken Mieke

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, a number of changes in the Dutch health insurance system came into effect. In this new system mobility of insured is important. The idea is that insured switch insurers because they are not satisfied with quality of care and the premium of their insurance. As a result, insurers will in theory strive for a better balance between price and quality. The Dutch changes have caught the attention, internationally, of both policy makers and researchers. In our study we examined switching behaviour over three years (2007-2009. We tested if there are differences in the numbers of switchers between groups defined by socio-demographic and health characteristics and between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. We also looked at reasons for (not-switching and at perceived barriers to switching. Methods Switching behaviour and reasons for (not-switching were measured over three years (2007-2009 by sending postal questionnaires to members of the Dutch Health Care Consumer Panel and of the National Panel of people with Chronic illness or Disability. Data were available for each year and for each panel for at least 1896 respondents - a response of between 71% and 88%. Results The percentages of switchers are low; 6% in 2007, 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. Younger and higher educated people switch more often than older and lower educated people and women switch more often than men. There is no difference in the percentage of switchers between the general population and people with chronic illness or disability. People with a bad self-perceived health, and chronically ill and disabled, perceive more barriers to switching than others. Conclusion The percentages of switchers are comparable to the old system. Switching is not based on quality of care and thus it can be questioned whether it will lead to a better balance between price and quality. Although there is no difference in the frequency of switching

  15. Entry time effects and follow-on drug competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Luiz Flavio; Sermet, Catherine; Pichetti, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical firms have been criticized for concentrating efforts of R&D on the so-called me-too or follow-on drugs. There have been many comments for and against the dissemination of these incremental innovations but few papers have broached the subject from an econometric point of view, possibly because identification of me-too or follow-on drugs is not so obvious. This paper focuses on the impact of entry order on follow-on drug competition in the French market between the years 2001 and 2007. More precisely, this study examines the effects on market share of first entrants in the follow-on drug market and how this possible competitive advantage changes over time. First results are coherent with theoretical microeconomic issues concerning the importance of being first. We find evidence that first movers in the follow-on drug market have the ability to capture and maintain greater market share for a long period of time. The hierarchical market position of follow-on drugs does not seem to be affected by generic drug emergence. From a dynamic perspective, our analysis shows that market share is positively correlated with the ability of follow-on drugs to set prices higher than the average follow-on drug prices in a specific therapeutic class, which means that market power remains considerably important for first movers. Moreover, we found that the optimum level of innovation to maximize market share is the highest one. PMID:25501258

  16. Entry into the electricity market: Uncertainty, competition, and mothballing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper analyzes the entry strategies into the electricity market of two firms that have power plants under price uncertainty and competition. We consider the symmetric and asymmetric two firms, which have either a thermal power plant or a nuclear power plant. The differences between the thermal power plant and the nuclear power plant, such as the cost structure and operational flexibility are modeled. The threshold values of market entry are calculated for each firm with either the thermal power plant or the nuclear power plant as the leader or the follower. We show the dependence of cost structures on entry thresholds of the leader and the follower into the electricity market. For various market and cost conditions, the diagrams of the leader are also shown

  17. The competitive advantage of nations and choice of entry strategies : a three scenario case study

    OpenAIRE

    Helvik, Marianne; Harnecker, Maria Luisa Garrido

    2005-01-01

    Michael E. Porter’s Diamond framework has been used as an analysis tool the last 15 years to define the competitive advantage of nations, but few researchers have discussed if there is a link between the Diamond framework and how international firms can pursue the best entry mode. Different variables will be presented linking the Diamond framework to entry strategies, designing an extended framework. Three case scenarios are used for analysis purposes; the first two originating in Porter’s Di...

  18. Optimal R&D investment strategies with quantity competition under the threat of superior entry

    OpenAIRE

    Lukach, R.; Kort, P.M.; Plasmans, J.E.J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies R&D investment decisions of a firm facing the threat of new technology entry and subject to technical uncertainty. We distinguish four scenarios: inevitable entry, entry deterrence, entry blockade, and non-credible entry threat. The entry threat stimulates the incumbent to innovate in case entry prevention is possible, but discourages R&D if entry is inevitable. In the case of entry deterrence the incumbent successfully prevents entry by innovating. Greater technical uncert...

  19. The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Bitzer, Jürgen

    2006-01-01

    This chapter presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS...... entry by examining a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The chapter identifies a pro-innovative effect of OSS competition....

  20. Polycentrism: Boon or barrier to metropolitan competitiveness? The case of the Randstad Holland [publication in Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Lambregts, B.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the ways Dutch planners try to come to terms with some of the more problematic aspects related to the polycentric make-up of the Randstad. As such, it aims to provide some counterweight to the sometimes overly enthusiastic belief among policy-makers that polycentricity or polycentric spatial development offers a solution to a wide array of urban and regional problems. In addition, the article draws attention to the fact that in order better to understand both the poten...

  1. STIM1 Controls Endothelial Barrier Function Independently of Orai1 and Ca2+ Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Arti V.; Motiani, Rajender K.; Zhang, Xuexin; Abdullaev, Iskandar F.; Adam, Alejandro P.; González-Cobos, José C.; Zhang, Wei; Matrougui, Khalid; Vincent, Peter A.; Trebak, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is critical for tissue fluid homeostasis and its disruption contributes to various pathologies, including inflammation and sepsis. Thrombin is an endogenous agonist that impairs endothelial barrier function. Here, we showed that the thrombin-induced decrease in transendothelial electric resistance of cultured human endothelial cells required the endoplasmic reticulum-localized, calcium-sensing protein STIM1, but was independent of Ca2+ entry across the plasma memb...

  2. Identifying and Tackling Entry Barriers in Canada : A study for the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laan, Jari

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to retain Dutch prominence in the global maritime cluster by enabling the Dutch shipbuilding and marine equipment industry to respond to Canada’s National Shipbuilding Procurement Strategy opportunities through identifying and proposing solutions to the market entry barriers existing in the Canadian shipbuilding industry. The reviewed literature focuses on internationalizing theories, market entry barriers and various tools to assess the attractiveness of international ma...

  3. Entrepreneurs' Percieved Factors of Success and Barriers-to-Entry for Small Business and Farm Operations in Rural Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Braden J.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture and commerce activities make up a significant part of Paraguay’s economy. The success of these sectors is important for Paraguay’s continued development in rural areas where agriculture activities are most prevalent and nonagriculture activities are increasing in demand. Current literature indicates many factors that contribute to success in both business and farming operations; however, little information is available regarding the perception of young entrepreneurs and farmers. P...

  4. Dynamic Arrest in Polymer Melts: Competition between Packing and Intramolecular Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabei, Marco; Moreno, Ángel J.; Colmenero, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of a simple model for polymer melts with intramolecular barriers. We investigate structural relaxation as a function of the barrier strength. Dynamic correlators can be consistently analyzed within the framework of the mode coupling theory of the glass transition. Control parameters are tuned in order to induce a competition between general packing effects and polymer-specific intramolecular barriers as mechanisms for dynamic arrest. This competition ...

  5. Strategic Clustering and Competition by Alcohol Retailers: An Emperical Anlysis of Entry and Location Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Deng; Gabriel Picone

    2013-01-01

    We develop and estimate a spatial game-theoretic model of entry and location choices to examine firms’ strategic clustering decisions. The model identifies two contradictory effects that determine firms’ geographical location choices: a competition effect and a clustering effect. We also separate firms’ strategic clustering incentives from the observed clustering behavior due to exogenous factors such as population and topographic desirability or constraints. In particular, we examine two clo...

  6. 进入壁垒的七种基本定义及其意蕴比较%Comparison of Seven Basic Definitions of Barriers to Entry and Their Implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广生; 孙瑞华

    2012-01-01

    进入壁垒是研究市场定义和市场势力的核心概念。自从贝恩提出这一概念以来,进入壁垒主要有七种基本定义,其定义有不同的缺点及其效率含义。经济学家围绕进入壁垒的含义进行了大量深入分析,但是对进入壁垒的基本含义、判定标准和主要形式等方面还存在实质性的分歧。%Barriers to entry is the core concept in the study of market definition and market power. Since Bain introduced the concept, a lot of analyses have been made on the meaning of barriers to entry and seven major basic definitions have been developed. However, there are still substantial differences on the basic meaning, judgment standard, and major forms of barriers to entry.

  7. The Impact of Entry and Competition by Open Source Software on Innovation Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Bitzer; Philipp J. H. Schröder

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the stylized facts of open source software innovation and provides empirical evidence on the impact of increased competition by OSS on the innovative activity in the software industry. Furthermore, we introduce a simple formal model that captures the innovation impact of OSS entry by examining a change in market structure from monopoly to duopoly under the assumption that software producers compete in technology rather than price or quantities. The paper identifies a pro-i...

  8. Effect of multiple-source entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Suh***, D.C.; Manning, W G; Schondelmeyer, S; Hadsall, R S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of multiple-source drug entry on price competition after patent expiration in the pharmaceutical industry. DATA SOURCES: Originators and their multiple-source drugs selected from the 35 chemical entities whose patents expired from 1984 through 1987. Data were obtained from various primary and secondary sources for the patents' expiration dates, sales volume and units sold, and characteristics of drugs in the sample markets. STUDY DESIGN: The study was designed...

  9. Are there barriers to competition on the market for energy services?; Finns det konkurrenshinder paa marknaden foer energitjaenster?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Under orders from the Government, offices of Swedish Energy Authority conduct an in-depth analysis of the competitive conditions in various segments of the energy services market. In particular, the competitive relationship between energy suppliers and on the other hand, other companies providing energy services. Also the relationship between municipal-owned companies and other companies providing energy services should be analyzed. The institutional framework is already known, as well as much of the activity in the market. However, there still seems to be perspective on actors' own perceptions of market conditions that should be clarified. For this reason, the starting point for this investigation was the companies' own statements and comments, which were obtained partly through a questionnaire and interviews. A basic assumption has been that the opinions and beliefs also guide companies actions. This means that the actors' own voices form a kind of recurring theme in the study and contributes to a deeper understanding of the actors' motivations. It should be noted that Energy Agency does not necessarily share the views that emerge in this context.

  10. Barriers to SCM implementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Rosli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper explores the barriers faced by Malaysian manufacturing companies in successfullyimplementing the Supply Chain Management (SCM. The study has highlighted some pertinent factorsperforming the barriers that are most frequently reported by the studied companies. Sixteen companies, fromservice and manufacturing companies were studied over a period of two years to assess their SCM practicesthrough survey and interview processes.Design/methodology/approach: This part discusses the research design and methodological issues upon whichthe research is based. The explanation includes two types of research methods, short survey and follow-upinterviews that were identified as being suitable to achieve the aims of this study, which is to identify the currentproblem of SCM practices within the Malaysian SMEs. Research design is a framework or plan for researchused as a guide in collecting and analysing data.Findings: The results showed that the barriers are depending on the types or group of companies business; suchas either it is an SME or a big company. The barriers inhibiting the practice of SCM can be summarized inthe following factors: partnership with suppliers, limited expertise, management commitment, understanding ofSCM, supported technologies and customer satisfaction. The findings are also compared with the results of asimilar study on SCM in other country.Practical implications: Some suggestions are also offered, which is believed to be a good strategy to the companiesto manage the SCM that will lead to sustainable competitive advantage and hence improve their market share.Originality/value: There are interesting barriers between the companies in Malaysia and other country in therespect of SCM implementation. These findings can be used by both Malaysian and other companies to worktogether or review the SCM strategies that will lead to sustainable competitive advantage and hence improvetheir business performance.

  11. The entry price threshold in EU agriculture: deterrent or barrier?

    OpenAIRE

    Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano; Cioffi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of the entry price scheme for fresh fruit and vegetables. The analysis is conducted on the European prices of tomatoes, lemons and apples for some of the main competing countries on the European domestic markets: Morocco, Argentina, Turkey and China. The econometric analysis is based on testing and estimating a switching vector autoregressive model with endogenous threshold entry price level. The model shows the isolation effects and the accumulation of Sta...

  12. Foreign Direct Investment Theories, Entry Barriers and Reverse Investments in U.S Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Wi Saeng Kim; Esmeralda O Lyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper investigates empirically whether industrial organization-oriented FDI theories explain the recent phenomenon of reverse foreign direct investment in the U.S. Based on the distribution of FDI in two-digit SIC manufacturing industries, we find that capital and advertising intensities act as entry barriers to foreign investments in the U.S. We also observe that foreign multinationals are attracted by the U.S. market size, and that they invest heavily in industries with intensive R&D c...

  13. Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William T.

    1988-01-01

    Initial product, distribution, marketing expenditure, and price reactions by incumbents are examined for 115 entrants into oligopolistic markets. The most common reaction pattern is either no reaction or only a single reaction. It is very unusual for entrants to face reactions across the entire marketing mix. Reactions in the first two years after entry are explained as a function of the entrant's strategy, incumbent characteristics, and industry characteristics. The explanation provides insi...

  14. Market barriers to welfare product innovations

    OpenAIRE

    Binnekamp, M.H.A.; Ingenbleek, P. T. M.

    2006-01-01

    New products that are based on higher animal welfare standards encounter several barriers on the road to market acceptance. The authors focus on the Dutch poultry sector and distinguish between retailer and consumer barriers. Retailer barriers include the powerful position of retailers, the price competition, and the price-orientation of decision-makers. At the consumer level, potential barriers are: involving the consumer in animal welfare, making him understand the welfare benefits, convinc...

  15. Export Barriers and its Impact on Export Competitiveness of Leather Footwear Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturing firms was conducted in Ethiopian, Addis Ababa. Out of 100 sampled...

  16. Winning and short-listed entries from the 2007 Feminist and Woman's Studies Association annual student essay competition

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Yvette; Waters, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of International Women’s Studies showcases the winning and short-listed entries from the 2007 Feminist and Women's Studies Association (FWSA) annual student essay competition. A cornerstone of academic feminism in the UK and Ireland since its inception in 1987, the FWSA is dedicated to the development of feminist research and pedagogy across the disciplines. As feminism broadens and diversifies in response to changing social, political, and cultural circumsta...

  17. News Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Particle Physics: ATLAS unveils mural at CERN Prize: Corti Trust invites essay entries Astrophysics: CERN holds cosmic-ray conference Researchers in Residence: Lord Winston returns to school Music: ATLAS scientists record physics music Conference: Champagne flows at Reims event Competition: Students triumph at physics olympiad Teaching: Physics proves popular in Japanese schools Forthcoming Events

  18. SMEs, Competition and Entry - A developing country perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla

    The paper develops a simple model for a developing country with a dual economic structure. The model is a further theoretical extension and empirical work to an earlier published book chapter on the same topic. The abstract was updated after presentation at the conference in Gold Coast, Australia...

  19. Zero entry barriers in an NP-complete world: Transaction streams and the complexity of electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Subirana, Brian

    1999-01-01

    The adoption of electronic markets in an industry has a disintermediation potential because it can create a direct link between the producer and the consumer (without the need for the intermediation role of distributors). Electronic markets lower the search cost, allowing customers to choose among more providers (which ultimately reduces both the costs for the customer and the profits for the producer). Electronic markets on the Internet have the opposite effect: they lower some entry barrier...

  20. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Noel, Michael; Basker, Emek

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response...

  1. The Evolving Food Chain: Competitive Effects of Wal-Mart's Entry Into The Supermarket Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emek Basker; Michael Noel

    2007-01-01

    We analyze the effect of Wal-Mart's entry into the grocery market using a unique stor-level price panel data set. We use OLS and two IV specifications to estimate the effect of Wal-Mart's entry on competitors' prices of 24 grocery items across several categories. Wal-Mart's price advantage over competitors for these products averages approximately 10%. On average, competitors' response to Wal-Mart's entry is a price reduction of 1-1.2%, mostly due to smaller-scale competitors: the response of...

  2. Where is Merlin When I Need Him? The Barriers to Higher Education are Still in Place: Recent Re-Entry Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Benie B.

    2013-01-01

    While the GI bill after WWII encouraged education for the older students, the combination of baby boomers and the rise of feminism have prompted a new wave of returning students to academia. The nontraditional student since the 1970s has often been an older female returning for a graduate degree. Making the decision to return has not been easy,…

  3. Corporate Social Responsibility and Competitive Advantage: Overcoming the Trust Barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Shuili; C.B. Bhattacharya; Sen, Sankar

    2011-01-01

    This research builds on the complementary corporate social responsibility (CSR) literatures in strategy and marketing to provide insight into the efficacy of CSR as a challenger's competitive weapon against a market leader. Through an investigation of a real-world CSR initiative, we show that the challenger can reap superior business returns (i.e., more positive attitudinal and behavioral outcomes) among consumers who had participated in its CSR initiative, relative to those who were merely a...

  4. Competition between surface barriers and bulk pinning in a Nd2-xCexCuO4-y single crystal down to T/Tc=0.02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isothermal dc magnetization measurements with the magnetic field applied parallel to the tetragonal c axis were made on an overdoped Nd2-xCexCuO4-y single crystal with a superconducting critical temperature Tc∼19 K down to a reduced temperature T/Tc∼0.02, an order of magnitude lower than values reported to date. The measurements revealed a pronounced 'peak effect' anomaly in the irreversible part of the magnetization loop in which the magnetic field at which the peak occurs increases linearly with decreasing temperature down to T/Tc∼0.05. The field where flux initially penetrates the sample increases exponentially as T→0 due to surface barriers, obscuring the features of the peak anomaly at low temperatures. The irreversibility field follows a power law down to T/Tc∼0.2 and deviates from the power law at low temperatures, again indicative of surface barriers. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  5. Barriers to SCM implementing

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Rosli; B. Md Dero; A.R. Ismail; M.N. Ab Rahman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper explores the barriers faced by Malaysian manufacturing companies in successfullyimplementing the Supply Chain Management (SCM). The study has highlighted some pertinent factorsperforming the barriers that are most frequently reported by the studied companies. Sixteen companies, fromservice and manufacturing companies were studied over a period of two years to assess their SCM practicesthrough survey and interview processes.Design/methodology/approach: This part discusses t...

  6. Pharmaceutical patents and generic entry competition: the role of marketing exclusivity

    OpenAIRE

    MIYAGIWA Kaz; WAN, Yunyun

    2015-01-01

    Extensive tests required by FDA severely curtail effective patent length for innovation drugs, raising concern that incentives to develop new drugs are insufficient in the U.S. The Hatch-Waxman Act addresses this issue with a five-year patent extension. At the same time, Hatch-Waxman promotes generic entry by reducing the entry cost for generics and by granting 180-day marketing exclusivity to a first challenger of the patent. While these two objectives seem at odds with other, we show that i...

  7. Cournot competition, contestability, and hit-and-run entry and exit in a teaching experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gächter, Simon; Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2006-01-01

    Instructors can use a computerized experiment to introduce students to imperfect competition in courses on introductory economics, industrial organization, game theory, and strategy and management. In addition to introducing students to strategic thinking in general, the experiment serves to...

  8. Integrated Approach to Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Edita Ragelskaja; Renata Korsakienė

    2011-01-01

    Environmental changes and globalization of markets make an impact on intense competition in almost all business sectors. Evolutionary changes influence companies to learn, adequately react, adapt to environmental changes and to change themselves. Such a situation has revealed the problems of competitive advan­tage of industry companies. Therefore the focus to the factors impacting competitive advantage is seen as timely and relevant. The authors of the paper analyze approaches to competitive ...

  9. Restructuring and Barriers: Cross-Country Evidence on the Competitiveness of Exporters in Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Bezic

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of exporters attracts the attention of researchers andpolicy makers interested in the competitiveness of their economies.Through participation on the international market, domestic firms cangenerate foreign exchange needed to pay for imports and learn aboutnew technologies which can be used at home to improve the overallcompetitiveness of their industries. The paper develops a model inwhich the ability of firms from transition economies to compete on theinternational market is defined as a function of their activities, characteristicsand features of their environment. The results of our researchindicate that sunk costs of entry, technology transfer, innovations andcompetition play an important role for the decision of firms to export,while once they are on the international market cost advantages becomemore important.

  10. Competitive, but too small - productivity and entry-exit determinants in European business services

    OpenAIRE

    Kox, Henk L.M.; Leeuwen, George van; van der Wiel, Henry

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates whether scale effects, market structure, and regulation determine the poor productivity performance of the European business services industry. We apply parametric and nonparametric methods to estimate the productivity frontier and subsequently explain the distance of firms to the productivity frontier by market characteristics, entry- and exit dynamics and national regulation. The frontier is assessed using detailed industry data panel for 13 EU countries. Our estimate...

  11. The effects of financial liberalization and new bank entry on market structure and competition in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Denizer, Cevdet

    1997-01-01

    Until 1980 Turkey's financial system was shaped to support state-oriented development. After the 1960s the financial system, dominated by commercial banks, became an instrument of planned industrialization. Turkey had an uncompetitive financial market and an inefficient banking system. Controlled interest rates, directed credit, high reserve requirements and other restrictions on financial intermediation, and restricted entry of new banks -plus the exit of many banks between 1960 and 1980- cr...

  12. Business Strategy and Perceived Benefits of Internet Banking: Their Impact on Banks' Strategic Responses to China's Entry to WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春红; 江静; 李杰

    2003-01-01

    With the entry to WRO and development of IT, banks in China are adjusting their competitive strategies to meet the competition. Internet banking has become a kind of strategic choice to response to the entry to WTO. Based on relevantly selective reviews of literature of strategy theory and research, a model is developed to study banks' strategic response to entry to WTO. According to a survey of 192 sets of questionnaires, this study finds that external pressure, business strategy and perceived benefits of Internet banking would influence banks' perceived increase in Internet banking investment. And banks'perceived increase in Internet banking investment has no difference between big banks and small banks.

  13. Extending the Competition Commission’s findings on entry and exit of small stores in British high streets: implications for competition and planning policy

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Wrigley; Julia Branson; Andrew Murdock; Graham Clarke

    2009-01-01

    The Competition Commission’s analysis in 2007 of entry and exit conditions among small stores across more than one thousand British high streets provided a landmark piece of research on a topic in which debate and policy recommendations had moved significantly, and arguably dangerously, ahead of the available evidence base. Within a general context of a continuing long-term decline of specialist small stores in British town centres and high streets, it cast considerable doubt on the popularly...

  14. A Loser Can Be a Winner: Comparison of Two Instance-based Learning Models in a Market Entry Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Lejarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case of parsimony and generalization in model comparisons. We submitted two versions of the same cognitive model to the Market Entry Competition (MEC, which involved four-person and two-alternative (enter or stay out games. Our model was designed according to the Instance-Based Learning Theory (IBLT. The two versions of the model assumed the same cognitive principles of decision making and learning in the MEC. The only difference between the two models was the assumption of homogeneity among the four participants: one model assumed homogeneous participants (IBL-same while the other model assumed heterogeneous participants (IBL-different. The IBL-same model involved three free parameters in total while the IBL-different involved 12 free parameters, i.e., three free parameters for each of the four participants. The IBL-different model outperformed the IBL-same model in the competition, but after exposing the models to a more challenging generalization test (the Technion Prediction Tournament, the IBL-same model outperformed the IBL-different model. Thus, a loser can be a winner depending on the generalization conditions used to compare models. We describe the models and the process by which we reach these conclusions.

  15. Cournot Competition and Hit-and-Run Entry and Exit in a Teaching Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachter, Simon; Thoni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2006-01-01

    Instructors can use a computerized experiment to introduce students to imperfect competition in courses on introductory economics, industrial organization, game theory, and strategy and management. In addition to introducing students to strategic thinking in general, the experiment serves to demonstrate that profits of a firm fall as the number of…

  16. How to use competitive intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan. PMID:10291747

  17. Exploring limits to market-based reform: managed competition and rehabilitation home care services in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Glen E; Williams, A Paul

    2006-04-01

    The rise of neo-liberalism, which suggests that only markets can deliver maximum economic efficiency, has been a driving force behind the trend towards using market-based solutions to correct health care problems. However, the broad application of market-based reforms has tended to assume the presence of fully functioning markets. When there are barriers to markets functioning effectively, such as the absence of adequate competition, recourse to market-based solutions can be expected to produce less than satisfactory, if not paradoxical results. One such case is rehabilitation homecare in Ontario, Canada. In 1996, a "managed competition" model was introduced as part of a province-wide reform of home care in an attempt to encourage high quality at competitive prices. However, in the case of rehabilitation home care services, significant obstacles to achieving effective competition existed. Notably, there were few private provider agencies to bid on contracts due to the low volume and specialized nature of services. There were also structural barriers such as the presence of unionized employees and obstacles to the entry of new providers. This paper evaluates the impact of Ontario's managed competition reform on community-based rehabilitation services. It draws on data obtained through 49 in-depth key informant interviews and a telephone survey of home care coordinating agencies and private rehabilitation provider agencies. Instead of reducing costs and improving quality, as the political rhetoric promised, the analysis suggests that providing rehabilitation homecare services under managed competition resulted in higher per-visit costs and reduced access to services. These findings support the contention that there are limits to market-based reforms. PMID:16198035

  18. Direct access tariffs and barriers to choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current situation of the power market in Alberta was reviewed. Based on this review is was concluded that the province is a long way from being a competitive, liquid power market. Further, it was predicted that unless large power purchasers get actively involved in managing their options, identify realistic and competitive supply options and actively campaign for the removal of barriers to choice, they will experience significant cost increases in the year 2001 and beyond, due in large measure to the market power exercised by the four major utilities (TAU, EPCOR, APL and Powerex). Barriers to new supply such as the high cost of standby, uncertainties about transmission and natural gas prices, the delays to cogeneration caused by low oil prices, and the design of direct access tariffs by utilities, were also explored. The cumulative contribution of these factors to uncertainties in pool price, fixed price and transmission and distribution costs were outlined

  19. Cournot Competition and Hit-and-Run Entry and Exit in a Teaching Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaechter, Simon; Thoeni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2006-01-01

    We describe a computerized experiment which can be used to introduce students to imperfect competition in courses on introductory economics, industrial organization, game theory, and strategy & management. In addition to introducing students to strategic thinking in general, the experiment serves to demonstrate that firm profits fall as the number of competitors is increased in a market, and that firms enter profitable markets. The authors have used the experiment in undergraduate classes on ...

  20. The Entry of Low-Cost Airlines: Price Competition in the European Airline Market

    OpenAIRE

    Alderighi, M.; Cento, A.; P. Nijkamp; Rietveld, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the response of full service carriers (FSCs) to theentry of low-cost carriers (LCCs). We develop a model of airlinecompetition, which accommodates various market structures, some ofwhich include low-cost players. Using data on published airfares ofLufthansa, British Airways, Alitalia and KLM for the main city-pairs fromItaly to the rest of Europe, our statistical modelling resu1ts confirm theconclusions of the theoretical model. Competition among FSCs appears toaffect ...

  1. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza rezvani

    2011-12-01

    Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are often inconsistent. Hence, this study intends to identify the factors affecting selection of foreign market entry strategies and their influences on the selection. For this purpose, the content and types of foreign market entry strategies have been introduced by studying relevant literature. These strategies have been then divided into three main categories of export strategies, non-export strategies, and intermediate strategies. Then, the factors that make effect on selection of these strategies have been identified and classified. Finally, all factors are used to form two separate structural equation models (SEMs based on the theory of Strategic Reference Points and respectively it has been explained that how foreign entry strategies are chosen according to these reference points. To support this explanation empirically, 42 export companies of food industry have been studied in Mazandaran. SPSS18, MINITAB15, and AMOS18 have been used for analyzing and testing the research hypotheses. Findings imply that uncertainty of host country, uncertainty of product market, competitive uncertainty, uncertainty of partner behavior, international experience, technical knowledge, marketing skills, total investment, competitive intensity, nature of foreign activity, attractiveness of location and business relatedness affect selecting foreign market entry strategies. Moreover, with our SEMs, Attractiveness of location, language diversity and uncertainty of the host country are proved to be good manifests of

  2. 31 CFR 337.6 - Conversions to book-entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conversions to book-entry. 337.6... HOUSING ADMINISTRATION DEBENTURES Certificated Debentures § 337.6 Conversions to book-entry. Upon implementation of the book-entry debenture system, to be announced in advance by separate public notice, all...

  3. 78 FR 38069 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Register on February 6, 2012 (77 FR 5681), promulgated the regulation to establish Global Entry as an... FR 17492.) Travelers who wish to participate in Global Entry must apply via the CBP Global Entry Web..., New York (JFK); George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, Texas (IAH); Washington...

  4. Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All parametrizations of competition, considered here, have two features in common.First, the reallocation effect: a rise in competition raises the profits of a firm relative to the profits of a less efficie...

  5. Selection of Product Line Qualities and Prices to Signal Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Subramanian Balachander; Kannan Srinivasan

    1994-01-01

    We investigate a firm's choice of prices and qualities of a product line to signal competitive advantage to potential entrants and to discourage entry. The market consists of customer segments with different valuations for product quality. We demonstrate that a higher quality and a higher price of each product in the line convey the firm's advantage to potential competition and prevents entry. We discuss implications for optimal product line selection when customers 'self-select' a product fr...

  6. Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the entry decision of a multinational enterprise into a foreign market. Two alternative entry modes for a foreign direct investment are considered: Greenfield investment versus acquisition. In contrast to existing approaches, the acquisition price and the profits under both entry modes are endogenously determined. Interestingly, we find that the optimal entry mode decision is a ected by the competition intensity in the market in a non-monotonic way. When markets are very mu...

  7. Second update The Gordon Bell Competition entry gb110s2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the update to our entry of October 20th we have just made a significant improvement. We understand that this is past the deadline for updates and very close to the conference date. However, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has just updated the BG/L system software on their full 64 BG/L supercomputer to IBM-BGL Release 3. As we discussed in our update of October 20 this release includes our custom L1 and SRAM access functions that allow us to achieve higher sustained performance. Just a few hours ago we got access to the full system and obtained the fastest sustained performance point. In the full 131,072 CPU-cores system QCD sustains 70.9 Teraflops for the Dirac operator and 67.9 teraflops for the full Conjugate Gradient inverter. This is about 20% faster than our last update. We attach the corresponding speedup figure. As you can tell the speedup is perfect. This figure is the same as Figure 1 of our October 20th update except that it now includes the 131,072 CPU-cores point

  8. Mobility Barriers and the Socially Differentiated Effects of Food Marketing Liberalization in Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Christopher B.

    1996-01-01

    Decontrol of commercial food marketing channels was widely expected to induce massive trader entry and engender more competitive, efficient markets in Africa. Despite strong empirical evidence of trader entry, enterprise expansion is proving difficult and many market observers and participants claim market power continues, ifperhaps exercised now by private traders instead of public enterprises. This paper uses the industrial organization concept of mobility barriers to confront this puzzle o...

  9. Dental hygienists' perceptions of barriers to graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Linda D; Bailey, Angela

    2011-08-01

    To advance the profession of dental hygiene, graduate education is necessary to support growth in research, education, administration, and practice in the discipline and to sustain credibility in a climate in which other health professions require entry-level master's and doctoral degrees. The purpose of this study was to explore what dental hygienists perceive as barriers to pursuing a graduate degree. A survey was developed based on the literature and other national surveys. Data were collected from 160 respondents to the survey: 50 percent held an entry-level baccalaureate degree in dental hygiene, while the rest held an entry-level associate degree (48 percent) or certificate (2 percent) in dental hygiene. All respondents had completed a bachelor's degree. The top five barriers these respondents identified in pursuing graduate education were as follows: 1) cost of graduate education, 2) family responsibilities are too great, 3) concerns about personal funding to pay for graduate education, 4) finding time for graduate school while working, and 5) fear of thesis research. Dental hygiene is one of the few health professions that still have entry-level degrees at the associate and baccalaureate levels. The profession needs to reduce such barriers to enable dental hygienists to pursue graduate education and thus ensure an adequate supply of future leaders, educators, and researchers. PMID:21828296

  10. RENEWABLE ENERGY, A KEY TO INTEGRATING COMPETITIVE POLICIES WITH ADVANCED ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinade Lucian Ovidiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of competitive policies and improvement of environment protection strategies are two basic trends of the development of the European Unique Market. Energy, also known as 'industry bread', is basic product and strategic resource, where energy industry plays an obvious role in the economic and social development of any community. Traditional energy production is marred by three major drawbacks: it generates negative externalities by polluting; it is totally in the hands of the producers; hence, prices rise at their will, of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. Present study focuses on electric energy industry, yet bearing over the whole length of the chain producer-to-end-consumer, thus revealed as particularly complex. The question is do alternative energy sources meet the prerequisite of market being competitive meanwhile environment protection being highly observed. We identify limits in point, of the energy market; effects of market liberalization; entry barriers; interchangeability level of energy sources; active forces on the energy market. Competitive rivalry has been expressed as per market micro-economic analysis, based on Michael Porter's 5-forces model. It will thus be noticed that, morphologically, competition evolution depends firstly on the market type. For the time being, the consumer on the energy market stays captive, for various reasons such as: legislation; limits of energy transfer infrastructure; scarcity of resources; resources availability imbalance; no integrative strategy available, of renewable energy resources usage. Energy availability is vital for human society to function. Comparative advantages of renewable energy resources are twofold, as manifested: in terms of economics, i.e. improving competition by substitute products entered at the same time as new producers enter market; and in terms of ecology, by reducing CO2 emissions. As to energy production technology and transfer, the complementary nature will

  11. Phobetor: Princeton University's entry in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Joshua; Zhu, Han; Partridge, Brenton A.; Szocs, Laszlo J.; Abiola, Solomon O.; Corey, Ryan M.; Suresh, Srinivasan A.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present Phobetor, an autonomous outdoor vehicle originally designed for the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). We describe new vision and navigation systems that have yielded 3x increase in obstacle detection speed using parallel processing and robust lane detection results. Phobetor also uses probabilistic local mapping to learn about its environment and Anytime Dynamic A* (AD*) to plan paths to reach its goals. Our vision software is based on color stereo images and uses robust, RANSAC-based algorithms while running fast enough to support real-time autonomous navigation on uneven terrain. AD* allows Phobetor to respond quickly in all situations even when optimal planning takes more time, and uses incremental replanning to increase search efficiency. We augment the cost map of the environment with a potential field which addresses the problem of "wall-hugging" and smoothes generated paths to allow safe and reliable path-following. In summary, we present innovations on Phobetor that are relevant to real-world robotics platforms in uncertain environments.

  12. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    solution for these demands, while also offering the opportunity for very financially competitive solutions, it is of interest to determine their appropriateness in the design phase of a building. Through a study carried out by means of a review of the current state of the-art literature on straw...... construction, and a series of qualitative interviews with a variety of stakeholders from previous straw build housing projects, results were gathered to find the most influential motives, barriers and considerations for straw build housing construction. Based on this empirical data, a design guide has been...... dealt with and thus perceived as a barrier to straw build, rather than simply a problem of a general character....

  13. Kratos: Princeton University's entry in the 2008 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassano, Christopher A.; Franken, Gordon H.; Mayer, Jonathan R.; Saxe, Andrew M.; Yu, Derrick D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present Kratos, an autonomous ground robot capable of static obstacle field navigation and lane following. A sole color stereo camera provides all environmental data. We detect obstacles by generating a 3D point cloud and then searching for nearby points of differing heights, and represent the results as a cost map of the environment. For lane detection we merge the output of a custom set of filters and iterate the RANSAC algorithm to fit parabolas to lane markings. Kratos' state estimation is built on a square root central difference Kalman filter, incorporating input from wheel odometry, a digital compass, and a GPS receiver. A 2D A* search plans the straightest optimal path between Kratos' position and a target waypoint, taking vehicle geometry into account. A novel C++ wrapper for Carnegie Mellon's IPC framework provides flexible communication between all services. Testing showed that obstacle detection and path planning were highly effective at generating safe paths through complicated obstacle fields, but that Kratos tended to brush obstacles due to the proportional law control algorithm cutting turns. In addition, the lane detection algorithm made significant errors when only a short stretch of a lane line was visible or when lighting conditions changed. Kratos ultimately earned first place in the Design category of the Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition, and third place overall.

  14. Barriers to Effective Strategic Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Latif

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the best intentions and a lot of hard work, strategic planning most predictably fails. It’s not that strategic planning is a bad idea but there are some barriers which involve in its failure. This paper explores how and where strategic planning goes awry and what executives can do about it. The study finds some of the most common barriers in effective strategic planning like, strict time limits, identical procedures, lack of accountability, power and influence which organizations frequently face in strategy formulation and implementation. It is concluded that, in order to achieve the goal of effective strategic planning, effective change management and leadership are indispensable. On the one hand, it is mandatory for the leadership to involve employees in decision making process, along with the explicit description of their roles within the organization, and on the other hand, full mechanism of employees’ accountability and regular checks are required to remove these barriers.

  15. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cevdet Kızıl; Valorie Eddy; Laura Clary; Katrina Crowell

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition...

  16. Entry Threat and Entry Deterrence: The Timing of Broadband Rollout

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Xiao; Orazem, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    Past empirical literature provides strong evidence that competition increases when new firms enter a market. However, rarely have economists been able to examine how competition changes with the threat of entry. This paper uses the evolution of the zip code level market structure of facilities-based broadband providers from 1999 to 2004 to investigate how a firm adjusts its entry strategy when facing the threat of additional entrants. We identify the potential entrant into a local market as t...

  17. The Solution to Green Barrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cui Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The recovery process of world economy is rough and full of twists and turns.Especially the trade protectionism,having reemerged under the mask of"green barrier",is making a great impact on the slowly recovering world economy and trade.Then,what are the characteristics of trade barriers in the post-crisis era?Where is the outlet of Chinese manufacturing industry?With these questions,ourreporter interviewed Professor Zhou Shijian,Standing Director to China Association of International Trade and Senior Researcher to SINO-US Relationship Research Centre of Tsinghua University.

  18. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Rezvani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are often inconsistent. Hence, this study intends to identify the factors affecting selection of foreign market entry strategies and their influences on the selection. For this purpose, the content and types of foreign market entry strategies have been introduced by studying relevant literature. These strategies have been then divided into three main categories of export strategies, non-export strategies, and intermediate strategies. Then, the factors that make effect on selection of these strategies have been identified and classified. Finally, all factors are used to form two separate structural equation models (SEMs based on the theory of Strategic Reference Points and respectively it has been explained that how foreign entry strategies are chosen according to these reference points. To support this explanation empirically, 42 export companies of food industry have been studied in Mazandaran. SPSS18, MINITAB15, and AMOS18 have been used for analyzing and testing the research hypotheses. Findings imply that uncertainty of host country, uncertainty of product market, competitive uncertainty, uncertainty of partner behavior, international experience, technical knowledge, marketing skills, total investment, competitive intensity, nature of foreign activity, attractiveness of location and business relatedness affect selecting foreign market entry strategies. Moreover, with our SEMs, Attractiveness of location, language diversity and uncertainty of the host country are proved to

  19. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  20. Barriers to Innovation among Iranian SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminreza Kamalian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of innovation in organizations' competitiveness is an undeniable fact. Innovations reflect a critical way in which organizations respond to either technological or market challenges. Small and Medium sized enterprises (SMEs constitute 94% of Iranian firms. According to Iran statistic website the value added of 94% of Iranian firms is just about 10% of the whole value added in country. This study assumes the lag of innovation is the reason of uncompetitive nature of Iranian SMEs. This study reports on the results of a study that examined barriers to firms’ innovation among a sample of 86 managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Iran. Findings of the study show that the most significant barriers are associated with costs, whereas the least significant are associated with lag of information. The survey results show that Iranian SMSs are not collaborating with universities and higher education institutions; they do not see university as a main source of information. Then it is not a surprising point that 29.0% unemployment rate is reported in 2009 however 50% of studied SMEs reported lack of skilled labour as a barrier to innovation.

  1. Lobbying on Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, E.C.; Volpin, P.

    2004-01-01

    We develop a model of endogenous lobby formation in which wealth inequality and political accountability undermine entry and financial development. Incumbents seek a low level of effective investor protection to prevent potential entrants from raising capital. They succeed because they can promise larger political contributions than the entrants due to the higher rents earned with less competition. Entry and investor protection improve when wealth distribution becomes less unequal, and the po...

  2. Federal Barriers to Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Raegen; Lake, Robin

    2012-01-01

    With educational outcomes inadequate, resources tight, and students' academic needs growing more complex, America's education system is certainly ready for technological innovation. And technology itself is ripe to be exploited. Devices harnessing cheap computing power have become smart and connected. Voice recognition, artificial intelligence,…

  3. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    below -½ (at stationary equilibrium). Market power on the labor markets may have the effect that imperfectly competitive cycles are in accordance with certain empirical regularities (some well known, some reported in the paper) concerning fluctuations in output and involuntary unemployment. Since......We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized by...... monopolistic competition. An implicit assumption of barriers to entry justifies that the number of firms is fixed even when positive profits occur. It turns out that both market power of firms on the product markets and market power of unions on the labor markets make the occurrence of cycles more likely. In...

  4. Graduate entry to medicine in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidian Arash

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds In Iran medical students are selected from high school graduates via a very competitive national university entrance exam. New proposals have been seriously considered for admitting students from those with bachelor degrees. We assessed the opinions of different stakeholders on the current situation of admission into medicine in Iran, and their views on positive and negative aspects of admitting graduates into medicine. Methods We conducted five focus group discussions and seven in-depth interviews with stakeholders including medical students, science students, university professors of basic sciences, medical education experts, and policy makers. Main themes were identified from the data and analyzed using content analysis approach. Results Medical students believed "graduate admission" may lead to a more informed choice of medicine. They thought it could result in admission of students with lower levels of academic aptitude. The science students were in favor of "graduate admission". The education experts and the professors of basic science all mentioned the shortcomings of the current system of admission and considered "graduate admission" as an appropriate opportunity for correcting some of the shortcomings. The policy makers pointed out the potential positive influences of "graduate admission" on strengthening basic science research. They thought, however, that "graduate admission" may result in lengthening the overall duration of medical education, which is already long in Iran (over 7 years. On the whole, the participants thought that "graduate admission" is a step in the right direction for improving quality of medical education. Conclusion "Graduate admission" has the potential to correct some of shortcomings of medical education. Unlike other countries where "graduate admission" is used mainly to admit students who are mentally mature, in Iran the main objective seems to be strengthening basic sciences.

  5. Overcome barriers to career success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudsepp, E.

    1983-04-01

    A test is given to determine if an engineer suffers from one of the three barriers to technical success: fear of success, fear of failure, or perfectionism. As in most such tests, the middle way is best. Successful engineers know that perfection cannot be attained, that they don't have time to worry about failure or success, and that by aiming and perservering in doing things well, success can be achieved.

  6. Removing Barriers to Interdisciplinary Research

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    A significant amount of high-impact contemporary scientific research occurs where biology, computer science, engineering and chemistry converge. Although programmes have been put in place to support such work, the complex dynamics of interdisciplinarity are still poorly understood. In this paper we interrogate the nature of interdisciplinary research and how we might measure its "success", identify potential barriers to its implementation, and suggest possible mechanisms for removing these impediments.

  7. Innovation: a strategy that leads to competitiveness in SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, Ana; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio

    2012-01-01

    This study took place in Portugal and focuses on the importance of the innovative attitude towards the sustainability of companies. The aim is to define how Research, Development & Innovation (RDI) must to be followed by companies to attain competitiveness, which will allow them to remain and survive in the market. Once confirmed this belief it becomes interesting to acknowledge why innovation does not occur and what kind of barriers to innovation face the Small and Medium Ente...

  8. 基于多期信贷竞争的外资银行进入模式研究%Entry modes of foreign banks in the multi-phase credit competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬; 曾勇; 李强

    2012-01-01

    With the full opening-up of the banking industry, foreign banks are allowed to enter the Chinese credit market either through Greenfield investment or by cooperating with the Chinese banks as strategic investors. Under the assumption that the foreign bank has the cost advantage and the domestic bank has the information advantage from old customers and screening, this paper first extends the single-phase credit competition model to the multi-phase, and then studies the entry modes of foreign banks in the multi-phase credit competition. The results show that, unlike that both the information advantage from old customers and screening can affect the equilibrium in the single-phase competition, only the information advantage from screening can affect the multi-phase competition equilibrium. With regard to the entry modes of foreign banks, the results suggest that the information advantage from screening is a barrier to Greenfield investment. Under the policy that foreign banks can only become minority shareholders of domestic banks, a foreign bank will tend to buy the share of the domestic bank with screening in order to eliminate the information disadvantage, and thus the policy can protect the weaker domestic bank from merging.%银行业全面开放后,外资银行可以绿地投资或作为本地银行的战略投资者两种模式进入.本文考虑本地银行具有老客户和甄别能力带来的信息优势,外资银行具有信贷成本优势,首先在银行不损失优质老客户利润的竞争规则下,将单期信贷模型扩展到多期,然后利用多期竞争的结论对两种进入模式进行了研究.结论表明:与单期信贷竞争中本地银行信息优势来源于老客户和甄别能力两方面不同,在多期信贷竞争中,本地银行信息优势主要来源于甄别能力,并成为外资银行绿地投资的进入壁垒;在少数股权政策的限制下,为了消除信息劣势,外资银行倾向于入股因拥

  9. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA. PMID:25643585

  10. Overcoming Barriers to Shared Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... team to break it down. Barriers to shared decision making and solutions to overcome them include: Barrier: Fear, anger, stress or other emotions Solution: Strong emotions can interfere with your ability ...

  11. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  12. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  13. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  14. Analysis of interactions among the barriers to JIT production: interpretive structural modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, J. R.; Mantha, S. S.; Rane, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    `Survival of the fittest' is the reality in modern global competition. Organizations around the globe are adopting or willing to embrace just-in-time (JIT) production to reinforce the competitiveness. Even though JIT is the most powerful inventory management methodologies it is not free from barriers. Barriers derail the implementation of JIT production system. One of the most significant tasks of top management is to identify and understand the relationship between the barriers to JIT production for alleviating its bad effects. The aims of this paper are to study the barriers hampering the implementation of successful JIT production and analysing the interactions among the barriers using interpretive structural modelling technique. Twelve barriers have been identified after reviewing literature. This paper offers a roadmap for preparing an action plan to tackle the barriers in successful implementation of JIT production.

  15. Overcoming cultural barriers to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S; McNulty, D

    1998-01-01

    This article is a case study which focuses on organisational and cultural change associated with the incorporation of a college which provided pre- and post-registration nursing and midwifery education into a much larger institution within the university sector. Among the issues addressed is whether transformational change, such as that represented by incorporation or merger, can be used by managers to successfully refashion the culture of the organisation, making more effective than traditional or discipline-based management structures. It examines the barriers to change and the various considerations that arose in determining the fit of managerial styles and assesses the outcomes of the process of change. PMID:10346302

  16. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ? THE KEY TO SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    MARGARETA RUSU

    2011-01-01

    Competitive intelligence as part of knowledge management is still in its infancy. This paper aims to identify the critical success factors and best practices of competitive intelligence through analyzing the experiences of several organizations. The paper starts by defining what is knowledge can bring, and follows on by over viewing the competitive intelligence used in order to identifying best practices. The second part is concerned with presenting a set of examples that underline certain as...

  17. Entry, Competition, and Regulation in Cognitive Radio Scenarios: A Simple Game Theory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guijarro

    2012-01-01

    operators and the subscription decision by users is proposed. We conclude that an entrant operator adopting an innovative technology is better off entering the market, and that a regulatory authority should intervene first allowing the entrant operator to enter the market and then setting a maximum amount of spectrum leased. This regulatory intervention is justified in terms of users utility and social welfare.

  18. Barriers to medical error reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Poorolajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to explore the prevalence of medical error underreporting and associated barriers. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed from September to December 2012. Five hospitals, affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, in Hamedan,Iran were investigated. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Participants consisted of physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, interns, and staffs of radiology and laboratory departments. Results: Overall, 50.26% of subjects had committed but not reported medical errors. The main reasons mentioned for underreporting were lack of effective medical error reporting system (60.0%, lack of proper reporting form (51.8%, lack of peer supporting a person who has committed an error (56.0%, and lack of personal attention to the importance of medical errors (62.9%. The rate of committing medical errors was higher in men (71.4%, age of 50-40 years (67.6%, less-experienced personnel (58.7%, educational level of MSc (87.5%, and staff of radiology department (88.9%. Conclusions: This study outlined the main barriers to reporting medical errors and associated factors that may be helpful for healthcare organizations in improving medical error reporting as an essential component for patient safety enhancement.

  19. Barriers to Mammography among Inadequately Screened Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Carolyn R. T.; Roberts, Summer; Cheng, Meng-Ru; Crayton, Eloise V.; Jackson, Sherrill; Politi, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Mammography use has increased over the past 20 years, yet more than 30% of women remain inadequately screened. Structural barriers can deter individuals from screening, however, cognitive, emotional, and communication barriers may also prevent mammography use. This study sought to identify the impact of number and type of barriers on mammography…

  20. Thresholds to access the market for small-scale energy consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entry of and options for expansion are import aspects for a well-functioning free market. The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa)/The Office of Energy Regulation (DTe/Energiekamer) received signals that there are barriers for entering or further growth on the small consumer market. The regulator has asked SEO Economic Research to examine which entry barriers are significant and require further monitoring. For this purpose, more than 20 interviews were held with market parties and stakeholders. [mk

  1. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Sivertsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach is used in the study. Agriculture business consultants were interviewed. In a focus group led by the researchers, farmers discussed business model innovation, including the exogenous and endogenous barriers to such innovation. The paper concludes many barriers exist when farmers consider innovation of agricultural business models. Some barriers are caused by human factors, such as individuals’ attitudes, histories, and traditions. Other barriers are more contextual in nature and relate to a particular industry or company setting. Still other barriers, such as government regulations, value chain position, and weather, are more abstract. All barriers, however, merit attention when Swedish agricultural companies develop new business models.

  2. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Raditya Anggoro; Widyastutik Widyastutik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the ca...

  3. Regulatory and Non-Regulatory Barriers which Limit the Entry of International Telecommunication Service Companies into Asian Markets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the development of telecom regulation andderegulation between some typical Asian countries, and analyzes the telecom regulatory systems and industrial organizations of China. This paper also investigates the approaches and strategies of Asian countries to reduce the regulation, reinforce the competition and establish efficient telecom industries. Having examined the Asian telecommunication markets, the paper attempts to apply the lessons learned from the opening of the telecoms markets of the developed economies. Finally the paper contends that if Asian economies wish to have nationally based companies, state or private enterprises, in a competitive postion, the format of the implementation of the WTO/GATS basic telecoms agreement should be carefully examined.

  4. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2000-01-01

    Competition has been modelled in the literature in a number of ways.What do these different parametrizations of competition have in common?For instance, it turns out that it is not always the case that a rise in competition reduces price cost margins, industry wide profits or concentration.All param

  5. Diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in manufacturing business units

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadali Shah Housseini; Sina Asgari

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, due to the transition from the old economic model to the global village constituting patterns, different functional requirements are needed. In other words, for success in the modern production management, strategic decisions must create the conditions for taking new systems for enterprises and create conditions for the competitiveness of manufacturing firms. This paper presents a survey on diagnosing barriers to make strategic decisions in a manufacturing firm named Pakshoo company...

  6. Contribution to evaluation methodology of regional competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Josef F. Palán; Tomáš Cílek

    2006-01-01

    Basic methodological approach to regional competitiveness evaluation applies system situational analysis. Its results are usually structured into four lists, i.e. strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats of SWOT matrix. Strategic goals and objectives including appropriate interventions are then formulated within this basis. Author suggests complete current methodological framework by graphic onion model of regional competitive advantage and disadvantage.

  7. China to Hold Third International Piano Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYan

    2004-01-01

    The third China InternationalPiano Competition will be held inMay at the Beijing Sun Yat-SenConcert Hall. Since its inceptionin 1994, the competition hasgarnered attention from aroundthe globe for its high standards,world-class panel of judges, andtalented candidates. Prior to the

  8. Introducing the competitive dimension to corporate foresight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartz, Jan Oliver; Rohrbeck, René

    While the competitive dimension plays an important role in strategy, the aspect of competitors seems to be rather neglected in corporate foresight. In this paper we want to shed some more light on this underexplored field of corporate foresight. The literature review discusses approaches in...... corporate foresight, in particular scenario planning and business wargaming, which address competitive dynamics. Further, literature on competitive strategy is discussed to assess approaches towards the identification of new rivals. One can conclude that there is an absence of structured approaches or...... frameworks towards the competitive dimension in corporate foresight. In the paper an illustrative case study is discussed, with a first attempt to provide a framework for structuring the competitive dimension in corporate foresight....

  9. Barriers to Business Model Innovation in Swedish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Olof Sivertsson; Joakim Tell

    2015-01-01

    Swedish agricultural companies, especially small farms, are struggling to be profitable in difficult economic times. It is a challenge for Swedish farmers to compete with imported products on prices. The agricultural industry, however, supports the view that through business model innovation, farms can increase their competitive advantage. This paper identifies and describes some of the barriers Swedish small farms encounter when they consider business model innovation. A qualitative approach...

  10. The Formation of Wenzhou Footwear Clusters: How Were the Entry Barriers Overcome?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zuhui; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhu, Yunwei

    2006-01-01

    Wenzhou used to be one of the poorest regions in eastern China. With limited arable land, poor road access to major cities, and little support from the government, it seemed to lack all the necessary conditions for economic growth according to the standard textbook. However, over the past several decades, Wenzhou has achieved one of the fastest growing rates and owned the most dynamic private sector in China. The footwear industry in particular has grown from a negligible place to the largest...

  11. Using natural language processing to analyze physician modifications to data entry templates.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilcox, Adam B.; Narus, Scott P; Bowes, Watson A.

    2002-01-01

    Efficient data entry by clinicians remains a significant challenge for electronic medical records. Current approaches have largely focused on either structured data entry, which can be limiting in expressive power, or free-text entry, which restricts the use of the data for automated decision support. Text-based templates are a semi-structured data entry method that has been used to assist physicians in manually entering clinical notes, by allowing them to edit predefined example notes. We an...

  12. Lowering barriers to engage in innovation: evidence from the Spanish innovation Survey

    OpenAIRE

    D'Este Cukierman, Pablo; Rentocchini, Francesco; Vega Jurado, Jaider

    2010-01-01

    The literature on innovation studies has extensively examined the main drivers of innovation activity, while putting less attention on factors that are crucial in order to foster competition dynamics, as well as to attenuate systemic failures to innovation. This paper aims to filling this gap by distinguishing between firms facing deterring barriers to innovation (i.e. those barriers that deter firms from engaging in innovation activities) and firms confronting revealed barriers (i.e. those b...

  13. COMPARATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF STRATEGIES ON ENTRY TO FOREIGN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Morozova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A company must have distinctly described alternatives for taking strategically correct decisions. For this reason the purpose of the paper is to provide comparative characteristics and systematize strategies on entry to foreign market. It is necessary to select the required criteria and carry out multi-criterion analysis in order to arrange systematization and comparative characteristics of  numerous institutional forms being established within the framework of export, cooperation or integration, main strategies on entry to foreign market. The paper contains an analysis and systematization prepared in accordance with the following criteria: strategic purpose of entry to foreign market, time factor in respect of entry to foreign market, distribution of  company’s business-cycle stages among countries, level of investments, form of investments, distribution of investment and management level among countries, risk level, market involvement, legal grounds for foreign activity, status of a subject entering foreign market. The paper makes it possible to give comparative characteristics of the analyzed strategies.

  14. Barriers to Effective Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal Latif

    2012-01-01

    Despite the best intentions and a lot of hard work, strategic planning most predictably fails. It’s not that strategic planning is a bad idea but there are some barriers which involve in its failure. This paper explores how and where strategic planning goes awry and what executives can do about it. The study finds some of the most common barriers in effective strategic planning like, strict time limits, identical procedures, lack of accountability, power and influence which organizations freq...

  15. Social barriers to pathogen transmission in wild animal populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.

    1995-03-01

    Diseases and pathogens are receiving increasing recognition as sources of mortality in animal populations. Immune system strength is clearly important in fending off pathogen attack. Physical barriers to pathogen entry are also important. Various individual behaviors are efficacious in reducing contact with diseases and pests. This paper focuses on a fourth mode of defense: social barriers to transmission. Various social behaviors have pathogen transmission consequences. Selective pressures on these social behaviors may therefore exist. Effects on pathogen transmission of mating strategies, social avoidance, group size, group isolation, and other behaviors are explored. It is concluded that many of these behaviors may have been affected by selection pressures to reduce transmission of pathogens. 84 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Competitive Pressure: Competitive Dynamics as Reactions to Multiple Rivals

    OpenAIRE

    Zucchini, Leon; Kretschmer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Competitive dynamics research has focused primarily on interactions between dyads of firms. Drawing on the awareness-motivation-capability framework and strategic group theory we extend this by proposing that firms? actions are influenced by perceived competitive pressure resulting from actions by several rivals. We predict that firms? action magnitude is influenced by the total number of rival actions accumulating in the market, and that this effect is moderated by strategic group membership...

  17. Barriers to nursing care in emergency wards

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi, Hosein; Mohmmadi, Eesa; Abbas EBADI

    2013-01-01

    Background: Caring is the essence of nursing. Since care is influenced by cultural, economic, and social factors, various diverse barriers exist in the realization of care. The aim of the study was to clarify barriers to caring in emergency patients based on experiences of nurses and patients and their relatives. Materials and Methods: A qualitative design of content analysis was used to identify the barriers to caring in emergency patients. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 Iranian ...

  18. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    This paper investigates whether the likelihood of entrepreneurial activity is associated with the competitive pressures for promotion within a firm. We argue that competitive pressures increase the relative attractiveness of entrepreneurship as a career option. We test our prediction using a...... comprehensive matched employer-employee longitudinal data set from Denmark. To mitigate endogeneity concerns, we exploit variation in the gender composition of established firms as women are systematically found to be less competitive than man. We find that workers are more likely to become entrepreneurs if...... entrepreneurship has a positive non-linear effect. Our results have strong implications for managers, prospect entrepreneurs and policy makers....

  19. Graduate entry to medicine: widening psychological diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munro Don

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At Nottingham University more than 95% of entrants to the traditional 5-year medical course are school leavers. Since 2003 we have admitted graduate entrants (GEM to a shortened (4-year course to 'widen access to students from more disadvantaged backgrounds'. We have recently shown that the GEM course widens academic and socio-demographic diversity of the medical student population. This study explored whether GEM students also bring psychological diversity and whether this could be beneficial. Methods We studied: a 217 and 96 applicants to the Nottingham 5- and 4-year courses respectively, applying in the 2002-3 UCAS cycle, and, b 246 school leavers starting the 5-year course and 39 graduate entrants to the 4-year course in October 2003. The psychological profiles of the two groups of applicants and two groups of entrants were compared using their performance in the Goldberg 'Big 5' Personality test, the Personal Qualities Assessment (PQA; measuring interpersonal traits and interpersonal values, and the Lovibond and Lovibond measure of depression, anxiety and stress. For the comparison of the Entrants we excluded the 33 school leavers and seven graduates who took the tests as Applicants. Statistical analyses were undertaken using SPSS software (version 16.0. Results Graduate applicants compared to school leaver applicants were significantly more conscientious, more confident, more self controlled, more communitarian in moral orientation and less anxious. Only one of these differences was preserved in the entrants with graduates being less anxious. However, the graduate entrants were significantly less empathetic and conscientious than the school leavers. Conclusion This study has shown that school leaver and graduate entrants to medical school differ in some psychological characteristics. However, if confirmed in other studies and if they were manifest in the extreme, not all the traits brought by graduates would be

  20. Linking net entry to regional economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.F.G. Dejardin (Marcus)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRegional growth differentials could be explained by how intensively and dynamically new firms of a particular region enter expanding industries. Although the direct contribution of new firms to value creation and growth may be regarded as tautological, the aggregate impacts are largely e

  1. Get Taiwanized! : Swedish Firms' Change of Entry Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Karin; Olofsson, Elisabet; Sennevik, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Expanding to foreign markets is increasingly popular for companies. The company has to decide which organisational structure, entry mode, to use in the new market. Factors affecting the change from one entry mode to another have obtained little attention. This thesis concerns Swedish companies’ changes of entry mode in Taiwan. The purpose is to investigate which factors that serve as triggers respectively barriers for the change of entry modes, to be able to examine which theories that can be...

  2. Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕思思

    2007-01-01

    <正> The term competition reminds me of asoul-stirring fight between a mother monkeyand a crocodile,The crocodile caught her babywhen the baby was drinking water in a pool,Inthe end,the mother got her baby,but herbaby’s body only,She lost her child forever,just for a mouthful of water.Such is competition,cruel and merciless,But if we see the other side of the coin,we’ll

  3. Factors Affecting Market Entry Mode of Retailer to Enter Developing Country Markets: The Case of Tesco Supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Rattanakomut, Rapeephan

    2013-01-01

    Intense market competition, market saturation and high rates of globalization have influenced businesses to seek foreign markets for factor endowment, increased sales and sustenance of long-term profits. Developing countries provide foreign markets with high potential owing to increasing incomes, high population and low production costs. This study attempts to apply the Dunning Eclectic Theory on the selection of modes of entry into foreign market in developing countries by Tesco Supermarket....

  4. Barriers to adherence in cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Schiøtz, Peter Oluf

    2012-01-01

    Danish patients with cystic fibrosis aged 14 to 25 years and their parents. Conclusions: The present study showed that the majority of adolescents with CF and their parents experienced barriers to treatment adherence. Patients and parents agreed that the three most common barriers encountered lack of...

  5. Addressing Regulatory Software Barriers to Business Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kularatne, Chandana; Lopez-Calix, Jose

    2012-01-01

    This policy paper explores the relative importance of the software regulatory barriers to growth in Pakistan. Such software barriers have been identified as part of the major constraint in the Framework for Economic Growth of the Government of Pakistan. Indeed, adequate software is needed to provide an environment in which the hardware of growth (physical infrastructure) could be expanded ...

  6. Hepatic tight junctions:From viral entry to cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikki; P; Lee; John; M; Luk

    2010-01-01

    The tight junction (TJ) is a critical cellular component for maintenance of tissue integrity, cellular interactions and cell-cell communications, and physiologically functions as the "great wall" against external agents and the surrounding hostile environment. During the host-pathogen evolution, viruses somehow found the key to unlock the gate for their entry into cells and to exploit and exhaust the host cells. In the liver, an array of TJ molecules is localized along the bile canaliculi forming the blood-...

  7. Technical Barriers to Trade: Evidence from the Republic of Korea's Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Horj; Mariya Pekarskaya; Adam Heal

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief, issued as part of the Trade Insights series, reviews the recent usage of non-tariff measures (NTMs) in the automotive sector in the Republic of Korea, with a specific focus on technical barriers to trade (TBTs). It finds that, despite provisions to reduce TBTs in recent trade agreements with the US and EU, TBTs and other non-tariff barriers remain a substantial barrier to entry in the Korean automotive market. The Trade Insights series summarizes current trade related issue...

  8. Alternative approach to study fusion barrier distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusion reactions induced by heavy-ions (HIs) at around barrier energies, play an important role in nuclear physics since they enable to study the nuclei away from the valley of stability. On the other hand, heavy-ion collisions, at below and near barrier energies, provide an ideal opportunity to study quantum tunneling phenomena in systems with many degrees of freedom. In a simple model, a potential barrier for the relative motion between the interacting nuclei is created by the strong interplay of the repulsive Coulomb and the attractive nuclear force. It has, now, been well recognized that heavy-ion collisions at energies around the Coulomb barrier are strongly affected by the internal structure of interacting nuclei. The couplings of the relative motion to the intrinsic degrees of freedom (such as collective inelastic excitations of the colliding nuclei and/or transfer processes) replaced a single potential barrier to a number of distributed barriers, leading to the enhancement in heavy ion fusion cross sections at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier than those expected from single one-dimensional barrier

  9. Franchising as the entry mode to the market

    OpenAIRE

    Bláha, Petr

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with franchising as a form of entry to the market. The thesis is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part contains basics of franchising, its situation in the world and in the Czech Republic and advantages and disadvantages of franchising for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in general. The practical part of the thesis compares advantages and disadvantages of franchising on existing travel agencies.

  10. Strategic Advantage and the Optimal Exercise of Entry Options

    OpenAIRE

    Perotti, Enrico C; Rossetto, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the timing and the valuation of strategic investment aimed at enhancing entry opportunities in related market segments. As demand is uncertain, entry options should be exercised at the optimal time, trading off the market share gain against the option to wait until more information is revealed, while anticipating competitors' entry behaviour. When the strategic investment grants a strong competitive advantage, the innovator can optimally choose the timing of entry; in case of w...

  11. Analyzing Modes of Foreign Entry. Greenfield Investment versus Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the entry decision of a multinational enterprise into a foreign market. Two alternative entry modes for a foreign direct investment are considered: Greenfield investment versus acquisition. In contrast to existing approaches, the acquisition price and the profits under both entry modes are endogenously determined. Interestingly, we find that the optimal entry mode decision is a ected by the competition intensity in the market in a non-monotonic way. When markets are very mu...

  12. Examination of the influences of the industrial attributes on the entry mode selection: case studies of the Coca-Cola Company from U.S entering the Chinese beverage industry and the BT Group plc from U.K entering the Chinese telecommunication industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Lingyu

    2015-01-01

    The study has the purpose of examining the influences of industrial attributes, such as market structure and industrial policies, on the choice of entry mode for MNEs. It adopts the case study approach with two firms entering China, one is the Coca-Cola Company from the U.S and the other is the BT Group plc from the U.K, which enable us to see how the market structure, competition conditions, entry barriers and policies of these two different industries can influent the entry mode selection o...

  13. Sourcing Strategies to Keep up with Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. The case study incorporates competition, and views sourcing strategies as a means to impro...... are reflexive and over time develop competitive hysteresis which allows them to become stronger competitors. In the case of SAP AG, various sourcing arrangements were selected over its 40-year history to respond to technological and market changes....... the firm’s viability to survive competition in the marketplace. The study begins by positioning the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies have changed over time in response to the logic...

  14. Corruption, Entry and Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Eleni Stathopoulou; Dimitrios Varvarigos

    2013-01-01

    We model an economy where imperfectly competitive firms choose whether to employ a dirty technology and pay an emission tax or employ a clean technology and incur the cost of its adoption. Bureaucrats who are entrusted with the task of monitoring the emissions of each firm, are corruptible in the sense that they may accept bribes in order to mislead authorities on the firms’ actual emissions. Market entry is an important element in the relation between corruption and pollution. Particularly, ...

  15. Trajectory And A Competitive Company Internacionalization Perdigão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderlei José Sereia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world economy has required new configurations of global companies to support their positions and result in earnings of its assets. The company Perdigao sought to direct their efforts as market orientation and respond to new stimuli with the adequacy of its structure to the highly competitive international markets. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolutionary process of the company Perdigão S/A Brazil until the formation of Foods, a result of the merger with Sadia S/A, the company’s track record, set in a competitive environment characterized by barriers to market entry international, protected by tariff barriers and sanitary. The company’s shares resulted in increased sales and opening new markets abroad. The brand, creating new products, operational efficiency and commercial aggressiveness have been responsible for expanding sales and net revenues in the period 2004-2009.

  16. Indonesia: Innovation strategies and competitive forces to enter the European seafood market

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Aims – This thesis examines the capabilities of the Indonesian seafood export industry to enter the European market, which is the world’s largest seafood importer. The aim is to offer a knowledge-based competitive marketing strategy which is analysed in four parts: Paper I: Competitive framework; Paper II: Legal barriers; Paper III: Demand for seafood trade innovation in Europe; Paper IV: The Indonesian supply advantage. Focus of study – Fisheries has the potential to become a leading co...

  17. Cultural Barriers to International Business Negotiations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘竹林; 王俊

    2013-01-01

    Studies in international business negotiation acquire unprecedented significance, as globalization closely connects vari⁃ous business fields into a dynamic whole. Cultural factors play a vital role in international business negotiation. This paper begins with a brief introduction to business negotiation, international business negotiation and significance of cultural barriers to interna⁃tional business negotiation. It then explores two fundamental cultural differences of China and western countries:value differenc⁃es and thinking-pattern differences, which pose cultural barriers. The author then puts forward three strategies to help remove the cultural barriers and achieve successful negotiations.

  18. Evaluation and Analysis of the Strategies of Food Products Entry to Foreign Markets

    OpenAIRE

    hamidreza rezvani; fatemeh golalizadeh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Over the last decade, foreign market entry has continued to play a critical role in global economic development. Because of dynamics and complexity of entry modes and the influences of many variables, decision making on selection of international market entry strategies is a difficult task. Therefore, it is necessary to identify the strategic variables determining foreign market entry strategies. In every study, a different set of variables and findings has entered, which are ofte...

  19. Breaching barriers to collaboration in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb

    2014-01-01

    Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses to a...... life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....

  20. Competition within Physical Education: Using Sport Education and Other Recommendations to Create a Productive, Competitive Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Sport Education by physical education teachers to implement developmentally appropriate competitive activities is explored. The potential positive and negative consequences of competitive activities are discussed along with suggestions for teachers on how they can foster an appropriate competitive environment in physical education.

  1. Strengthening SMEs to make export competitive

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Bhagaban; Shil, Nikhil Chandra; Pramanik, Alok Kumar

    2007-01-01

    The importance of SMEs in any economy cannot be overlooked as they form a major chunk in the economic activity of nations. India has nearly three million SMEs, which account for almost 50 per cent of industrial output. However, SMEs which form the backbone of industrial development in India are not export competitive and contribute only about 34 percent of exports. It is this feature of the SMEs that make it an ideal target to realize its potential export competitive. Drawing from the experie...

  2. Barriers To Communication In Distance Education

    OpenAIRE

    BERGE, Zane L.

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a distance. There are various opportunities and barriers to effective communication. An exhaustive review of literature regarding communication barriers to d...

  3. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  4. Leading to Learning and Competitive Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Trong Tuan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine whether there is the chain effect from corporate social responsibility (CSR) and emotional intelligence (EI) to organizational learning and competitive intelligence in chemical companies in a Vietnam business setting. Design/methodology/approach: Structural equation modeling (SEM) approach was used to analyze…

  5. Mucus as a Barrier to Drug Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2015-01-01

    Viscoelastic mucus lines all mucosal surfaces of the body and forms a potential barrier to mucosal drug delivery. Mucus is mainly composed of water and mucins; high-molecular weight glycoproteins forming an entangled network. Consequently, mucus forms a steric barrier and due to its negative charge...... complex gel barrier to drug delivery. Current knowledge of mucus characteristics and barrier properties, as achieved by state-of-the-art methodologies, is the topic of this MiniReview emphasizing the gastrointestinal mucus and an overall focus on oral drug delivery. Cell culture-based in vitro models are...... well-established as essential tools in drug research and development, but traditionally, mucus-containing models have only rarely been applied. However, a number of mucus-containing in vitro models have recently been described in the literature and their properties and applications will be reviewed and...

  6. Design for logistics to gain competitive advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Biskoptsø, Rogvi

    2015-01-01

    . Considering logistical requirements in design of a product which is heavy and bulky and involves significant logistics costs enabled to firm to gain competitiveness. The exercise underscored the importance of understanding logistical requirements, freight costs and dimensional constraints early in the design...

  7. STRATEGY FROM CONCEPTUALIZATION TO COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurgiu Catalin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to show how important the process of defining strategy can be for a company in the economical context that we all face now days. This study shows that although the results after a company has defined its strategy can be seen in a longer or shorter period of time, the process is complex and needs managers that can foresee the future. And at the end of every strategy defining the final result should be competitive advantage, this competitive advantage that can bring a company in front of its main competitors, and if the company manages to stay in front of those competitors it can gain sustainable competitive advantage. In fact this should be the goal of every company: to try by all means, off course legal means, to do things better than other companies using the right strategy. Companies can use their capabilities and knowledge in these fields, a constant innovation process can help the society to undergo powerful changes. These changes can be firstly seen in the mentality, the behaviour and the process of knowledge. It is important for a company to understand its role in the modern society. Managers of important companies do their best to keep those respective companies at a level that can secure profit, but profit is not always the entire issue. It takes time in order for those innovations to reach the whole society, because companies are not willing to give information about their products, and keep this information to be able to have future profit. The role of competitive advantage can be seen in any field of activity, it provides the values that keep our society moving forward. Competitive advantage is needed in fields like: medicine, education or environmental protection. Companies have to innovate constantly in order to obtain this competitive advantage, but this competitive advantage can be present today and gone tomorrow, because the conditions on the market are changing at a very fast rate.In the past years

  8. Phonic Attenuation due to Screen-Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Bacria; Nicolae Herişanu

    2011-01-01

    The technique of noise decreasing admits two basic approaches: an active approach and a passive one. In the frame of passive method one can count the employment of screen-barriers. In this paper we present some considerations on sound attenuation due to screen-barriers emphasizing the elements which influence it. The elucidation of these elements is made by measurements. The obtained results can be applied in every other practical situation concerning the protection against ...

  9. Dynamic Peer-to-Peer Competition

    CERN Document Server

    Caram, L F; Proto, A N; Ausloos, M

    2010-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of a multiagent system in which the agent size $s_{i}$ is variable it is studied along a Lotka-Volterra approach. The agent size has hereby for meaning the fraction of a given market that an agent is able to capture (market share). A Lotka-Volterra system of equations for prey-predator problems is considered, the competition factor being related to the difference in size between the agents in a one-on-one competition. This mechanism introduces a natural self-organized dynamic competition among agents. In the competition factor, a parameter $\\sigma$ is introduced for scaling the intensity of agent size similarity, which varies in each iteration cycle. The fixed points of this system are analytically found and their stability analyzed for small systems (with $n=5$ agents). We have found that different scenarios are possible, from chaotic to non-chaotic motion with cluster formation as function of the $\\sigma$ parameter and depending on the initial conditions imposed to the system. The prese...

  10. How can natural gas markets be competitively organized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it will be discussed how to most effectively give room to competitive forces in natural gas markets, given the traditional merchant pipeline as point of departure. Alternative models of organizing the market will be reviewed: we first consider decreasing barriers to entry and then analyse advantages and drawbacks of a third party access system. In this context different forms of implementing a competitive market for transportation capacity and coordinating it with gas trade are discussed, among them a simultaneous auction of gas and transmission capacity. Finally a hub system of point markets will be suggested to improve the currently implemented third party access system and to allow for competitive markets for gas and transportation service. 33 refs., 6 figs

  11. Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture

    OpenAIRE

    Bashiruddin, Muhammad; Basit, Abdul; Naeem, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Title: Barriers to the implementation of E-learning system with focus on organizational culture Introduction: Nowadays, Information Technology has become a necessity for businesses not only to gain competitive advantage but also to survive. Strategic use of new educational technologies can enhance learning and teaching process. In order to stay viable in this intense competitive environment, providers of education and trainings have developed efficient and effective learning environment, call...

  12. Overcoming barriers to Clean Development Mechanism projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J. [OECD, Paris (France); Kamel, S. [UNEP Risoe Centre on Energy, Climate and Sustainable Development URC, Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The market for Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects is continuing to grow rapidly, with the current portfolio expecting to deliver 2 billion tons of CO2-eq greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions by 2012, equivalent to 17% of Annex I Parties' base year GHG emissions. In total, governments and companies have earmarked over USD11 billion for CDM funding to 2012. This study analyses the various barriers to CDM market expansion in developing countries, and makes recommendations on how some of them can be removed or reduced. It also examines the distribution of CDM projects amongst regions and sectors. Different types of barriers can impede the development of CDM projects. These include: National-level barriers not related specifically to the CDM such as the policy or legislative framework within which a CDM project operates, e.g. electricity-related regulations that constrain generation by independent power producers; National-level CDM-related barriers such as institutional capability/effectiveness or lack of awareness about CDM potential. For example, delays in host country approval of CDM projects can dampen interest in CDM project development; Project-related issues including availability (or not) of underlying project finance, or other country or project-related risks that render the performance of the project uncertain; International-level barriers such as constraints on project eligibility (e.g. on land use and forestry projects), available guidance and decisions (e.g. with respect to the inclusion of carbon capture and storage projects), etc. Thus, barriers to CDM development can arise at different parts of the CDM project cycle. The relative importance of particular barriers varies between countries as well as over time. A combination of factors is needed to drive growth in a country's CDM activity. This includes the presence of attractive CDM opportunities, a positive investment climate, and an enabling policy and legislative framework (in

  13. How can natural gas markets be competitively organized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it will be discussed how to most effectively give room to competitive forces in natural gas markets, given the traditional merchant pipeline as point of departure. Alternative models of organizing the market will be reviewed: we first consider decreasing barriers to entry and then analyze advantages and drawbacks of a third party access system. In this context different forms of implementing a competitive market for transportation capacity and coordinating it with gas trade are discussed, among them a simultaneous auction of gas and transmission capacity. Finally a hub system of point markets in conjunction with third party access will be suggested to allow for competitive markets for gas and transportation service. 33 refs

  14. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AS A SOLUTION TO AGRICULTURAL COMPETITIVENESS: THE CASE OF GREECE IN THE ERA OF EUROPEAN INTEGRATION

    OpenAIRE

    PAPAGEORGIOU, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of international trade, due to the elimination of market barriers between countries within the context of economic unions, like the European Union (EU) and the expansion of globalization have caused increased competitiveness, at both geographical and sector level. European Commission documents state competitiveness as a continuous rise in the standards of living of a nation or region, a definition which combines competitiveness with sustainability and social goals. Although...

  15. BARRIERS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SME GROWTH IN TRANSITION: THE CASE OF KOSOVA

    OpenAIRE

    BESNIK A. KRASNIQI

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the barriers to growth of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Kosova. It is based on a SME survey conducted by Riinvest Institute at the end of 2002 which identified critical business environment barriers perceived by entrepreneurs such as legal environment, administrative burden, external financing, tax burden and unfair competition. First, based on this SME survey, the econometric model is constructed in order to test empirically the validity of Gibrat's La...

  16. Guide to Alberta's competitive electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A crucial point was reached at the beginning of 2001 in the process of competitive electricity market in Alberta, when record high prices were reached in both the natural gas and electricity markets. In this document, the intent was to present, in a non-technical way, the new electricity market. It was designed to cover issues as they flow, from generator to consumer. Therefore, it began with a market model illustration going through each step of the process. Frequently asked questions, developed using the input from 160,000 Albertans, were answered in each section. The first section of the document dealt with a competitive market. In section 2, the electricity supply was discussed, followed by section 3 and the wholesale electricity market. In section, 4, the reader was invited to explore customer choice, and consumer information was provided in section 5. tabs., figs

  17. Foreign Market Entry - The strategic decision of an entry mode to China by an environmental technology firm

    OpenAIRE

    Monerris Virkki, Jyri

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis was executed for Wind Power Finland Ltd and it concentrates on the strategic decision of a foreign market entry mode to China, especially to the environmental technology markets. The commissioning company, Wind Power Finland Ltd, is a micro-company with four employees that operates in the environmental technology sector. The company was established in 2013. Now Wind Power Finland Ltd wants to expand its business to China, and is therefore looking for the best market ent...

  18. Barriers To Successful Implementation of STEM Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Ejiwale

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of STEM education in schools across the globe is to prepare the future workforce with strong scientific and mathematical backgrounds to enhance skills development across STEM disciplines. However, for STEM education to achieve its goals and objectives, addressing the barriers to STEM education should start by fixing the problems at the elementary, junior and senior high school levels; the grassroots and potential feeders to colleges and universities. Since many nations including the United States of America is in dire need of the workforce with adequate preparation in science and mathematics to help address the nation’s economy that is in shambles, the barriers to its successful implementation should be identified and addressed. In this paper, (a the definition of STEM education and (b some barriers to successful implementation of STEM education are discussed and elaborated.

  19. Identify and Rank Barriers to Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parchekani Choozaki Parvaneh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey study and is practical and in nature is analytical descriptive. This is an analytical study because samples were used to collect data and it is descriptive because its variables are studied and reported as there are in the real world. In this study we study the barriers to tourism development and will rank the barriers for the use planners. In this study, to determine the validity the content validity was determined and to determine reliability the Cronbach's alpha method has been used. Also to check the normality of questions’ answers the Kolmogorov - Smirnov test is used. The sample population has also been determined by computational methods. In conclusion, according to the results of questionnaires and fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy process method, results were presented in two parts: result analysis for ranking the barriers to the development of tourism and suggestions.

  20. Dissociative recombination in reactive flows related to planetary atmospheric entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bultel Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dissociative Recombination (DR processes play a significant role in plasma chemistry. This article illustrates this role from the modeling point of view in the case of reactive flows related to atmospheric entry plasmas. Two situations are investigated, for which the studied plasma is nitrogen. The first configuration corresponds to the relaxation process behind a strong shock wave moving at high Mach number in a shock tube, the second one to the recombination taking place in an expanding plasma flowing in a diverging nozzle. In both cases, the collisional-radiative model CoRaM-N2, involving N2, N, N2+, N+ and electrons, is implemented in an Eulerian 1D code able to compute the aerodynamic fields; calculations are performed in standard conditions. We show that, according to the rate coefficients used for the DR processes, the population density of the charged species especially N2+ is strongly modified only for the post-shock flow.

  1. Acquisition versus greenfield: The impact of the mode of foreign bank entry on information and bank lending rates

    OpenAIRE

    Claeys, Sophie; Hainz, Christa

    2006-01-01

    Policy makers often decide to liberalize foreign bank entry but put limitations on the mode of entry. We study how different entry modes affect the lending rate set by foreign and domestic banks. Our model captures two essential features of banking competition in emerging markets: Domestic banks possess private information about their incumbent clients and foreign banks have better screening skills. Our model predicts that competition is stronger if foreign entry occurs through a greenfield i...

  2. Hershey’s Entry to the Australian Market with a New Brand: An Accounting and Marketing Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet Kızıl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the entry of Hershey’s Chocolates Company tothe Australian market with a new brand. For this purpose, background information and key performance indicators about the firm are presented. Also target customers and market summary, market demographics and target customer profile of the firm are mentioned in the context of situational analysis. Then,Hershey’s entry to the Australian market with a new product is proposed by providing and commenting on SWOT analysis, competition environment, accounting-finance indicators, marketing strategy and marketing mix (4P factors. Thus, a deeper focus on the organization is realized and shared. As aresult, firm’s entry to the Australian market is discussed with a new product by suggesting recent and altered target customer base, customer profile,marketing strategy and marketing mix. Our study evaluates the potential disadvantages and advantages in detail and argues that there is a need for Hershey’s to enter the Australian market with a new product. In general, this article discusses and defends the entry of Hershey’s to Australian market witha new product by logical reasoning and draws a strategic roadmad to reach this goal.

  3. Using the Competitive Dimensions to Achieve Competitive Advantage A Study on Jordanian Private Hospitals

    OpenAIRE

    Salah M. Diab

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to know, if the Jordanian private hospitals using the competitive dimensions to achieve competitive advantage, the Study populations consists of all managers at the Jordanian private hospital, were as the sample consisting of (200) managers. The simple statistical methods were used like repetitions, percentages, means, standard deviations, and multiple liner regression .The results showed that the Jordanian private hospitals used all the competition dimensions to achieve compe...

  4. Barrier qualities of the mouse eye to topically applied drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Stone, Richard A; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2007-07-01

    The mouse eye displays unusually rapid intraocular pressure (IOP) responses to topically applied drugs as measured by the invasive servo-null micropipette system (SNMS). To learn if the time course reflected rapid drug transfer across the thin mouse cornea and sclera, we monitored a different parameter, pupillary size, following topical application of droplets containing 40 microM (0.073 microg) carbachol. No miosis developed from this low carbachol concentration unless the cornea was impaled with an exploring micropipette as used in the SNMS. We also compared the mouse IOP response to several purinergic drugs, measured by the invasive SNMS and non-invasive pneumotonometry. Responses to the previously studied non-selective adenosine-receptor (AR) agonist adenosine, the A(3)-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA and the A(3)-selective antagonist MRS 1191 were all enhanced to varying degrees, in time and magnitude, by corneal impalement. We conclude that the thin ocular coats of the mouse eye actually present a substantial barrier to drug penetration. Corneal impalement with even fine-tipped micropipettes can significantly enhance entry of topically-applied drugs into the mouse aqueous humor, reflecting either direct diffusion around the tip or a more complex impalement-triggered change in ocular barrier properties. Comparison of invasive and non-invasive measurement methods can document drug efficacy at intraocular target sites even if topical drug penetration is too slow to manifest convincing physiologic effects in intact eyes. PMID:17490649

  5. Transformation from Comparative Advantage to Competitive Advantage——A Way to Improve Regional Agricultural Competitiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Primarily this paper analyses the internal correlation between comparative advantage and competitive advantage,and holds that there are no conflict and contradiction between the two,the industries with comparative advantage often easily to have strong competitive advantage.Then this paper analyses the factors influencing regional agricultural competitiveness,including resources endowment,ecological environment,quality of labour forces,infrastructure,technology innovation and transformation capacity,industrialization degree,relevant support industries,market demand structure,government management and policy and so on.Finally,based on the analysis of conversion mechanism of regional agriculture from comparative advantage to competitive advantage,this paper puts forward the countermeasures for promoting regional agricultural competitiveness as follows:vigorously develop agricultural industrialization,and foster the leading enterprises;improve the national policy system for supporting agriculture,and increase the inputs into infrastructure and scientific research innovation;promote the development of related industries and support industries,and promote agricultural competitiveness;increase consumers’ demand for the quality of agricultural products,and propel business investment and innovation.

  6. ON AFFECTIVE BARRIERS TO LANGUAGE LEARNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiangMaoying

    2004-01-01

    Affective factors play a significant role in languagelearning. This paper argues that positive emotions can facilitatethe language learning process and improve learners' languageperformance, while negative emotions will bring barriers tolanguage learning and reduce learners learning capacity. Withtwo true stories as an introduction and some relevant answersobtained from my questionnaire, this paper mainly discusses theinfluences of negative emotional factors on language learning.such as anxiety, low self-esteem, insecure classroomatmosphere, lack of rapport between teachers and students, etc.Some suggestions about how to overcome affective barriers areput forward.

  7. Methods to increase the competitiveness in industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ion STANCU; Lazarescu, Adriana

    2006-01-01

    Industrial firms are different between them for their economical characteristics, competitive situations and their prospects. Industry and competitive analysis use a lot of concepts and methods for obtaining a clear image concerning the variable conditions from industry and competitive strong forces. Economical characteristics of industry are important for their strategic implications.

  8. Barriers to Distance Education in Rural Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Hannum, Wallace H.; Varre, Claire de la; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of the current study was to examine barriers to the use of distance education and explore related factors in small and low-income rural schools. Data were collected via a telephone survey with administrators or other qualified personnel. The sample involved 417 randomly selected small and low-income rural school districts…

  9. Barriers to increased market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    1999-01-01

    related activities still seem to attract relatively few resources is not answered by supplying another checklist or package of facilitators. Based on published conceptual writings and empirical studies this article makes an account of what the intra-organizational barriers may be to increased market...

  10. BARRIERS TO GOVERNMENT CLOUD ADOPTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweneboah-Koduah, Samuel; Tsetse, Anthony; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Besides the benefits are there possible challenges government agencies are likely to encounter should they decide to adopt cloud computing? What strategies should be deployed to overcome the inhibitors of cloud computing? These are but few questions this paper aims to investigate. Studies have...... shown that, cloud computing has become a strategic direction for many government agencies and is already being deployed in many critical areas of the government's cyber infrastructure. The benefits and the challenges of cloud adoption have heightened interest of academic research in recent times. We are...... greater problems from government information management. This study is based on unstructured interviews from selected government agencies in Ghana. The study is grounded on the theory of technology, organization and environment (TOE) framework. Major inhibiting factors identified include lack of basic...

  11. Implement Obligations Seriously, Enjoy Rights Fully Make Active Countermeasure to the Barrier of Foreign Technology Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Changjiang

    2007-01-01

    @@ December 11th, 2006 is the fifth anniversary of China's entry into WTO. Over the past five years, what AQSIQ has done in implementing the obligations and enjoying the rights as a member of WTO? How's the performance? Facing with the current complicated barrier of technology trade worldwide, how will China reply to it? For these questions, reporters have made a special interview with Li Changjiang, Minister of AQSIQ.

  12. Barriers To Supply Network Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Harland, C; Knight, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on an on-going action research project on supply network strategy. Supply network strategy is a concept integrating operations management, purchasing and supply management, logistics, service management and value chain management (Harland, 1996a). Findings of an interim review of efforts to promote change in the English National Health Service's inter-organizational supply networks are presented.

  13. Barriers to medical device innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. Keyword: implantable, FDA, regulation, CE-mark, innovation

  14. 28 CFR 36.305 - Alternatives to barrier removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives to barrier removal. 36.305... barrier removal. (a) General. Where a public accommodation can demonstrate that barrier removal is not... achievable. (b) Examples. Examples of alternatives to barrier removal include, but are not limited to,...

  15. On Emotional Barriers to Second Language Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Qin

    2012-01-01

    Language learning is a very complex process, which is related to many factors, either internal or external. Affective factors plays an important role in a second language learning. If only we realize such affective factors, we can overcome the emotional barriers effectively and have a successful learning.

  16. Barriers to increasing market-oriented activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisp, Søren

    Introduction: The Danish food processing industry faces a situation in which intensified competition in its primary markets and product categories forces several companies to rethink their relative focus in terms of marketing rather than production, or, in other words, in terms of value adding...

  17. Re-Entry of Women to the Labour Market After an Interruption in Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seear, B. N.

    The problems involved in the re-entry of women into employment were studied, and the extent to which there exists a demand for employment for re-entry women was examined. A growing number of women are seeking re-entry in a wide range of income levels. The demand for part-time work appears to exceed supply. Official machinery for assisting re-entry…

  18. Competitive Reactions to Advertising and Promotion Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Jan-Benedict E. M. Steenkamp; Vincent R. Nijs; Dominique M. Hanssens; Dekimpe, Marnik G.

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  19. Competitive reactions to advertising and promotion attacks.

    OpenAIRE

    Steenkamp, Jan-Benedict E.M.; Vincent R. Nijs; Hanssens, Dominique M; Dekimpe, Marnik G.

    2005-01-01

    How do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising attacks? What are the reasons for the observed reaction behavior? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study on the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising shocks in over 400 consumer product categories over a four-year time span. Our results clearly show that the most predominant form of competitive response is passive in nature. When a reaction does occur, it is usually ...

  20. The transition to automated practitioner order entry in a teaching hospital: the VA Puget Sound experience.

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    We recently installed an automated practitioner order entry system on our busiest inpatient wards and critical care units. The installation followed 20 months preparation in which we created the workstation, network, and host infrastructure, developed requisite policies, recruited personnel to support the system, and installed the software in areas where the pace of order entry was less intense. Since implementing automated order entry, we have experienced problems such as an increase in time...

  1. Traveling Towards Disease: Transportation Barriers to Health Care Access

    OpenAIRE

    Syed, Samina T.; Gerber, Ben S.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation barriers are often cited as barriers to healthcare access. Transportation barriers lead to rescheduled or missed appointments, delayed care, and missed or delayed medication use. These consequences may lead to poorer management of chronic illness and thus poorer health outcomes. However, the significance of these barriers is uncertain based on existing literature due to wide variability in both study populations and transportation barrier measures. The authors sought to synthes...

  2. What Competitive Strategies Way forward the Regional Competitiveness? A Comparative Economic Approach to Sri Lankan Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imali N. Fernando

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In present dynamic era, Tourism considered as one of the key service sector industry as the competitive advantage is not a natural phenomenon but an innovation driven competitive strategies combined with the aspirations of visitors. Destination’s enriched resources not determining the share of tourism, but the way they manage and integrate with other competencies to create the competitive advantage. Hence the main research question developed as, what competitive strategies way forward the regional competitiveness in Sri Lankan tourism and primary objective developed as to ascertain the elements of a new paradigm that would help Sri Lanka to become a competitive tourism destination within regional tourism market. For a panel of seven destinations, Econometric modeling employed to identify the variables that impact on tourism destination competitiveness with selected set of rival destinations. Model based on a utility function embedded in rational choice theory has developed and to discern whether the panel data set was stationary, panel unit root test has performed. Two variables, development and investment was not stationary, model slightly revised to log values and Generalized Leased Squares (GLS have used to test the model. Results indicate, after removal of lagged value, all the variables were significant except for the investment. Results signals the vital role of the government policies to enhance the ability on overcoming distortions and enabling price to send signals to potential markets as with restoring price informative power of particular tourism destinations. The destinations could attract “tourism product’ by considering more to preferences and tastes in a creative and innovative approach and consistent way as by adjusting and implementing strategies on non-price competition. Three competitive strategies have proposed (a to shift management policies and strategies on real spending per arrival or tourism spending per tourist

  3. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Brazeau, Anne-Sophie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Strychar, Irene; Mircescu, Hortensia

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine, in an adult population with type 1 diabetes, barriers to regular physical activity using a diabetes-specific barriers measure (the Barriers to Physical Activity in Diabetes [type 1] [BAPAD1] scale) and factors associated with these barriers. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—One hundred adults with type 1 diabetes answered a questionnaire assessing perceived barriers to physical activity and related factors. A1C was obtained from the medical chart of each individual. RESULTS...

  4. Introduction to CPI Special Issue on ASEAN Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ian McEwin

    2015-01-01

    While there are many differences between the competition laws, increasing regional integration is likely to lead to greater uniformity and the development of institutional mechanisms to deal with cross-border competition disputes—but these developments are highly unlikely to lead to an ASEAN competition law regulator with supranational powers.R. Ian McEwin (University of Malaya)

  5. Significance of Creative Competitions to Lithuanian Art of Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Linartas, Darius

    2012-01-01

    The subject matter of the research is architectural competitions in Lithuania to begin with their origin (end of the 18th century) up to the present times (2010). The dissertation aims at disclosing the significance of architectural competitions to art of architecture in Lithuania, improvement of architects’ professional excellence and public meaning of competitive selection, as well as analyzing the preconditions for improvement of the competition system. The following tasks have been raised...

  6. Barriers To Successful Implementation of STEM Education

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Ejiwale

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of STEM education in schools across the globe is to prepare the future workforce with strong scientific and mathematical backgrounds to enhance skills development across STEM disciplines. However, for STEM education to achieve its goals and objectives, addressing the barriers to STEM education should start by fixing the problems at the elementary, junior and senior high school levels; the grassroots and potential feeders to colleges and universities. Since many nations incl...

  7. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh; Mehdi Ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential ques...

  8. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    OpenAIRE

    rasoul ghollamzadeh; mahdi ghanavati

    2011-01-01

    Abstract One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the es...

  9. Technological Asymmetry Among Foreign Investors and Mode of Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Javorcik, Beata S.; Saggi, Kamal

    2004-01-01

    How does the preferred entry mode of foreign investors depend on their technological capability relative to that of their rivals? The authors develop a simple model of entry mode choice and evaluate its main testable implication using data on foreign investors in Eastern European countries and the successor states of the former Soviet Union. The model considers competition between two asy...

  10. Barriers to learning from incidents and accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Dechy, N.; Dien, Y.; Drupsteen, L.; Felicio, A.; Cunha, C; Roed-Larsen, S.; Marsden, E.; Tulonen, T.; Stoop, J.; Strucic, M.; Vetere Arellano, A.L.; Vorm, J.K.J. van der; Benner, L.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides an overview of knowledge concerning barriers to learning from incidents and accidents. It focuses on learning from accident investigations, public inquiries and operational experience feedback, in industrial sectors that are exposed to major accident hazards. The document discusses learning at organizational, cross-organizational and societal levels (impact on regulations and standards). From an operational standpoint, the document aims to help practitioners to identify...

  11. Retail distribution channel barriers to international trade

    OpenAIRE

    Scherer, Frederic Michael

    1996-01-01

    With the referral of the Kodak - Fuji market access dispute to the World Trade Organization, the role of retail distribution channel control by incumbent firms as a barrier to imports has drawn much interest. This paper reviews the issues from an historical perspective and analyzes the difficulties facing firms attempting to sell their products in other nations' automobile and photo supplies markets. There has been a natural evolution of retail distribution channels from mom and pop stores to...

  12. Competition between the barrier and injection mechanisms of nonlinearity of the current-voltage characteristic in Mott-barrier detector diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkin, V. I.; Vostokov, N. V.

    2009-08-01

    We obtain an analytical solution to the problem of transverse injection current in an undoped semiconductor i layer of arbitrary thickness with account of self-consistent boundary conditions. Charge transfer in the semiconductor bulk is described in the drift-diffusion approximation. Current transfer through the boundaries of an undoped layer is described in terms of the thermoelectron emission theory. Thus, the generalized thermoemission-diffusion approach applies for semiconductors with both low and high mobilities of charge carriers. On the basis of the obtained solution, we analyze the characteristics of the current nonlinearity of the Mott-barrier diodes. The generalized approach is used for describing current transfer in low-barrier diodes based on Mott contacts with near-surface δ-doping. Characteristics of detection of low-barrier diodes are analyzed. Limiting values of the volt-watt and threshold sensitivities of the detectors based on these diodes in the subterahertz frequency range (up to 1 THz) are determined.

  13. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  14. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sense and respond, and sustainable competitive advantage models. These models help to describe, evaluate, and optimize resource allocation to meet the performance requirements in dynamic decision making. Furthermore, these models evaluate operational competitiveness for manufacturing strategies according to the multi-criteria priority. The results show that the adjustments of competitive priorities in manufacturing strategies by implementing the proposed holistic analytical models are helpful in strategically managing business operations. The discussion derives the most critical attributes in business operations while alignment of resource allocation with competitive priorities help to strategically focus those attributes. In conclusion, we argue that resource allocation and manufacturing strategies have become the most important capabilities in a business environment where companies focus to get a sustainable competitive advantage.

  15. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude question...

  16. How to use Competitive Intelligence in nonprofit organizations.

    OpenAIRE

    Dufek, Josef

    2014-01-01

    This work analyzes the possibilities of using of Competitive Intelligence in nonprofit organizations and suggests a method of implementation of Competitive Intelligence in the existing nonprofit organization. In the theoretical part I write about the nonprofit sector in the Czech Republic and selected countries of the European Union and I briefly describe the term Competitive Intelligence. In the practical part I use a questionnaire to analyze the possibilities of using of Competitive Intelli...

  17. To Develop Nanostructured Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Zhao, Weixun; Wang, Ping; Wei, Zheng

    Advanced turbine engines require the application of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) to provide still higher reliability, thermal insulation effect and longer lifetime under harsh operating conditions. TBCs with nanostructure proved to be promising to deliver the desired property and performance. To exploit full potentials of the current widely used yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), nano-sized YSZ powders were developed and used as the ceramic source material. By controlling the deposition processes, novel TBCs with outstanding nanostructure such as nano-sized grains and pores were produced by atmospheric plasma spray (APS) and electron beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD), respectively. The incorporated nanostructure in TBCs resulted in substantial increase in thermal barrier effect and their lifetime. The long-term microstructure stability of the nanocoating was also investigated.

  18. Barriers to Teaching Introductory Physical Geography Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. RITTER

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Learning geography online is becoming an option for more students but not without controversy. Issues of faculty resources, logistics, professional recognition, and pedagogical concerns are cited as barriers to teaching online. Offering introductory physical geography online presents special challenges. As a general education course, an introductory physical geography course has a diverse population of students with disparate educational needs and goals that impacts its ability to be delivered online. Online learning is further complicated when lab courses require specialized laboratory equipment and fieldwork. A survey of geography departments in the United States was conducted to determine barriers to the deployment of introductory physical geography lab courses. Lack of faculty interest, faculty resources, and pedagogical concerns were found to be the most important barriers to deploying online physical geography lab courses. Knowing the challenges faced by geography departments offering online courses provides insight into where valuable support services and resources can best be used to address them. Recent advances in blogging, podcasting, lecture capture, web conferencing, and augmented reality are offered as solutions to the concerns expressed by survey respondents.

  19. Overcoming internal barriers to implement strategy effectively

    OpenAIRE

    Dutka, Arturs

    2013-01-01

    Degree programme: International Business Administration Writer(s): Arturs Dutka Thesis title: Overcoming internal barriers to implement strategy effectively Pages (of which appendices): 102 (46) Date: May 27, 2013 Thesis instructor(s): Esa Jauhola A changing environment is a fact today and organisations shall cope with changes, no matter if the organisation is a business unit, educational or social unit. To be successful in changing business environment it is mandatory for ...

  20. Taking learning seriously: From competition to collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several nuclear power operations have adopted the strategic goal of acquiring and maintaining the best qualified workforce possible - no small task in the face of recent work-force studies. Many utilities also believe that creating opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge beyond what is required to do their job will increase the level of professionalism of workers. One approach that attests to one's ability to grow beyond and strive for more knowledge is the earning of an accredited college credential. Regents College of the University of the State of New York is illustrative of the nature and success of collaboration between campus-based and external degree programs for adults. A combination of eliminating competition among educational providers, sharing the collective knowledge of training and educational resources, and working with utilities to optimize the fiscal resources available for education is a method that is helping to meet the needs of today's and tomorrow's workforce which works

  1. From Higher Education to Work Patterns of Labor Market Entry in Germany and the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita; Weiss, Felix

    2010-01-01

    Comparative studies describing the transition from higher education to work have often simplified the complex transition processes involved. In this paper we extend previous research by taking into account several steps that comprise labor market entry, e.g., recurrent education leading to more than one instance of labor market entry. By comparing…

  2. STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE FARM COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Sgroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Italy’s wine-growing production structure is highly pulverized. So, for many wine-growing farms lowering the production cost represents the only way of gaining a competitive advantage. Production at average unit costs lower than competitors allows to improve profitability. Among farming operations, winter pruning and tying of productive vine-branches require a high human labor. For this reason the paper presents the results of research conducted on a sample of Sicilian wine-producing farms in order to study the cost-effectiveness to make the pruning and the subsequent ligation of productive branches with tools that facilitate the work. The economic analysis, after the determination of minimum optimum size, shows that the investment is suitable for both large or small farms. This denotes how the process innovation could represent a way to achieve a cost leadership and improve profit margin.

  3. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. E. Franz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts.

  4. Tissue Barriers to Arbovirus Infection in Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexander W E; Kantor, Asher M; Passarelli, A Lorena; Clem, Rollie J

    2015-07-01

    Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) circulate in nature between arthropod vectors and vertebrate hosts. Arboviruses often cause devastating diseases in vertebrate hosts, but they typically do not cause significant pathology in their arthropod vectors. Following oral acquisition of a viremic bloodmeal from a vertebrate host, the arbovirus disease cycle requires replication in the cellular environment of the arthropod vector. Once the vector has become systemically and persistently infected, the vector is able to transmit the virus to an uninfected vertebrate host. In order to systemically infect the vector, the virus must cope with innate immune responses and overcome several tissue barriers associated with the midgut and the salivary glands. In this review we describe, in detail, the typical arbovirus infection route in competent mosquito vectors. Based on what is known from the literature, we explain the nature of the tissue barriers that arboviruses are confronted with in a mosquito vector and how arboviruses might surmount these barriers. We also point out controversial findings to highlight particular areas that are not well understood and require further research efforts. PMID:26184281

  5. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  6. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions.

  7. Foreign competition and disintermediation: no threat to the German banking system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M. Buch

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The German financial system is characterized by low degrees of penetration by foreign commercial banks and of (bank disintermediation compared to, for instance, the United States. This could be attributed to the fact that universal banking in Germany creates implicit barriers to entry. Yet, regulatory and informational differences which are unrelated to universal banking could be responsible for the observed difference. This paper provides a stylized theoretical model of the banking industry, which suggests that market segmentation and limited market entry can be due to a number of factors, including information costs. Preliminary empirical evidence does not provide clear evidence for the hypothesis that universal banking is the reason for the observed differences in financial systems.

  8. 1976 Energy Resource Alternatives II Competition. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGill, R.A.; Iannucilli, M.; Marshal, J.; Sununu, J.H.; Eschbach, J.E.; Anson, J.; Wark, D.; Stock, D.E.

    1977-10-01

    Descriptions of all the entries in the competition are presented. Competition rules and judging procedures are described. Entries consisted of team efforts from colleges and universities. The competition called for the student teams to develop means for producing electrical power sufficient to meet the needs of a single family home, using an energy source other than oil or natural gas. The electric power produced had to be economically realistic when compared to present energy sources.

  9. Entry Regulation under Asymmetric Information about Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Sarmento

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how an incumbent firm can use the regulatory policy about entry and the informational advantage to protect his market position. This question is studied through the construction of a signalling game where we assume that the regulator has less information about demand than the firms. We conclude that there is a pooling equilibrium and partially separating equilibria in which entry is deterred and, if demand is high, there will be insufficient entry. The final effect on welfare depends on the tradeoff between short-run benefits (lower price and long-run losses (weaker competition.

  10. Feasibility of integrating a clinical decision support tool into an existing computerized physician order entry system to increase seasonal influenza vaccination in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Arvind; Chan-Tompkins, Noreen H; Hegde, Gajanan G; Chuirazzi, David M; Hunter, Roger; Szczesiul, Jillian M

    2010-08-23

    While emergency department (ED) seasonal influenza vaccination programs are feasible, reported implementation barriers include added staffing requirements to identify eligible patients and getting busy ED personnel to order and provide vaccination. We present a prospective, observational trial of integrating a clinical decision support tool into an existing ED computerized physician order entry (CPOE) system to increase ED seasonal influenza vaccination without added staffing resources, the operational barriers identified to program implementation, the revenue generated and data on opportunities for future quality improvement. Compared to the comparable pre-protocol period, ED influenza vaccination rose by 17.5% with a resultant profit margin of 34.5%. PMID:20620167

  11. Analyzing Sustainable Competitive Advantage: Strategically Managing Resource Allocations to Achieve Operational Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2015-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  12. THE ROLE OF SUNK COSTS IN ENTRY PROCESS INTO A FOREIGN MARKET: THEORETICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nadtochii

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The category of sunk costs is studied along with specific features of entry barriers. Different scientific approaches in defining a category are compared to make author's own. The study elucidates a role of sunk costs, including its influence on researching a market, evaluating an efficiency of entering into market and evaluating its risk. The paper highlights three main components of sunk costs, that are: investments to reduce production costs of incumbents relative to newcomers, investments to change a structure of rival's costs and investments to positive change of a demand on a product. Author proposes to consider sunk costs as a strategic barrier, due to a huge influence of incumbents' activities. A need to invest these costs also determines a high competitiveness of a new firm.

  13. A Brief Introduction to Competition and Play

    OpenAIRE

    Sean Scanlan

    2014-01-01

    This introduction sets the stage for a NANO special issue on how competition and play revolutionized Victorian work, how these ideas operate in endurance sports, and how they might get remade in digital spaces.

  14. Overcoming Barriers to Wind Development in Appalachian Coal Country

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brent Bailey; Evan Hansen

    2012-10-09

    This research project synthesizes existing data and communication from experts to assess barriers to wind development in Pennsylvania, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, and Kentucky, and makes recommendations where feasible to reduce or eliminate those barriers.

  15. BRAND AS A SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE BANKS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Rutecka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Competition companies enterprises in every sector of the economy. In the age of twenty-first century all parties compete with each other for recognition and trust of cus-tomers. It is a tough challenge especially in the banking services sector. These institutions are not able to stand out in the market offer, because this is similar to competitors. High barriers to entry and a large number of entities that provide services similar to banks threaten these organizations. Currently on the market of banking services is proving to be an important brand. Distinguishing itself from the competition image and brand loyalty is a source of advantage for Polish banks. The building of a strong brand plays an important role such factors as internal communication-on company, advertising, business processes, quality, relations with investors and customers. Its construction is a challenge for many banks, because around it must focus on the whole strategy of the company.

  16. Competitive Intelligence in Perspective to be a Source of Competitive Advantage and Strategic Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Gama Buzzerio; Reynaldo Cavalheiro Marcondes

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the prospect of Competitive Intelligence (CI) constitute a source of competitive advantage in light of the Resource Based View and its contribution to the strategic management of the company. Relies on exploratory and descriptive research using the qualitative method. Six managers responsible for CI activities institutionalized in large different business companies were interviewed. Data were processed and analyzed with the application of content analysis. It was conclud...

  17. Brazil's competitiveness in the soybean sector: will Brazil lose its competitiveness due to its patchy infrastructure ?

    OpenAIRE

    Blaich, Eli Elisa; PIller, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the competitiveness of Brazil within the soybean sector based on certain criteria. In particular it will assess one of Brazil’s main bottlenecks, its infrastructure, as well as expose what Brazil’s key competitive advantages toward its main competitor, the United States, are. Brazil has a long export history and its main exports have always been in the agricultural sector. Soybeans gained on importance in Brazil in the mid seventies and introduced a socioeconomic a...

  18. Does it Pay to do Well in Competitions? The case of the Queen Elizabeth Piano Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsburgh, V.; van Ours, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Pianists who achieve high scores in the Queen Elizabeth musical competition are rewarded by subsequent success.It is not clear whether this is caused by the score itself or because those who have high scores are better pianists anyway. Since the timing and the order of appearance are good instrumental variables for the nal ranking, our data on eleven subsequent competitions make it possible to distinguish between the two alternative explanations.We find that high scores have an impact on late...

  19. Differential rollover risk in vehicle-to-traffic barrier collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabauer, Douglas J; Gabler, Hampton C

    2009-10-01

    In the roadside safety community, there has been debate over the influence of vehicle and barrier type on rollover rates in traffic barrier crashes. This study investigated rollover rates between sport utility vehicles (SUVs), pickup trucks, and cars in vehicle-traffic barrier crashes and has examined the effect of barrier type on rollover risk for concrete barrier and metal barrier impacts. The analysis included 955 barrier impact cases that were selected from 11-years of in-depth crash data available through the National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) / Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). In real world tow-away level longitudinal barrier collisions, the most important predictors of vehicle rollover were found to be vehicle type and whether the vehicle was tracking prior to barrier impact. Based on binary logistic regression, SUVs were found to have 8 times the risk of rollover as cars in barrier impacts. Although pickups were found to have an increased risk of rollover compared to cars, the risk was not as pronounced as that found for SUVs. This finding has direct implications for the full scale crash testing of longitudinal barriers as the testing procedures have been predicated on the assumption that the pickup truck provides a critical or worst case impact scenario. In towaway crashes, our study does not support the notion that concrete barriers have a higher risk of vehicle rollover than metal beam barriers. PMID:20184839

  20. Analyzing of Trade Barriers to Timber Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Rabiul Islam; Shaharuddin M. Ismail; Chamhuri Siwar

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: This study investigated the issues of trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. In recent years, there has been decreasing the trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. Approach: Trade barriers to timber trade are an important role in the forest economics sector and take a major player in Malaysias economic growth. There is a growing concern that trade barriers to timber trade are creating both direct and indirect opportunities to environmental trade issues. Results: We...

  1. Spectrum licensing, policy instruments and market entry

    OpenAIRE

    Madden, Gary; Bohlin, Erik; Tran, Thien; Morey, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Competition policy attempts to address the potential for market failure by encouraging competition in service markets. Often, in wireless communication service markets, national regulatory authorities seek to encourage entry via the spectrum assignment process. Instruments used include the assignment mode (auction or beauty contest), setting aside licenses and providing bidding (price and quantity) credits for potential entrants, and making more licenses (spectrum blocks) available than incum...

  2. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  3. Stem cell gene therapy for HIV: strategies to inhibit viral entry and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiusto, David L

    2015-03-01

    Since the demonstration of a cure of an HIV+ patient with an allogeneic stem cell transplant using naturally HIV-resistant cells, significant interest in creating similar autologous products has fueled the development of a variety of "cell engineering" approaches to stem cell therapy for HIV. Among the more well-studied strategies is the inhibition of viral entry through disruption of expression of viral co-receptors or through competitive inhibitors of viral fusion with the cell membrane. Preclinical evaluation of these approaches often starts in vitro but ultimately is tested in animal models prior to clinical implementation. In this review, we trace the development of several key approaches (meganucleases, short hairpin RNA (shRNA), and fusion inhibitors) to modification of hematopoietic stem cells designed to impart resistance to HIV to their T-cell and monocytic progeny. The basic evolution of technologies through in vitro and in vivo testing is discussed as well as the pros and cons of each approach and how the addition of postentry inhibitors may enhance the overall antiviral efficacy of these approaches. PMID:25578054

  4. Opportunities and barriers to straw construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Caroline Meyer; Howard, Thomas J.; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2012-01-01

    techniques of construction are considered. At the same time the request for a living environment free from toxins and allergenic substances, providing the basis for stress-free living and working conditions is increasingly demanded by clients for newly built homes. Since straw built houses supply a possible...... produced to support communication between clients and the consultants and facilitate the straw build design and decision making process. The intended audiences for the design guide are clients of small scale construction projects, architects, engineers, builders of straw construction, homeowner...... dealt with and thus perceived as a barrier to straw build, rather than simply a problem of a general character....

  5. 品牌市场竞争壁垒评价模型在蜂行业的应用研究%Application Research of Bee Industry Based on Brand Market Competitive Barriers Evaluation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭必丽; 罗正公

    2015-01-01

    品牌是竞争日趋激烈的商品市场上一个熟悉的热名词,打造一流品牌并能够建立起厚实有力的品牌防线是当前企业突破重围的关键。品牌市场竞争壁垒是企业维护其品牌优势的核心力量,对其准确的评价是维护品牌持续永久发展的重要工作之一。通过建立品牌市场竞争壁垒评价模型,说明品牌市场竞争壁垒由符合市场需求、满足情感需求、消费者习惯的建立、产品品质的独特性、品类创新能力等五个主要元素构成,根据品牌竞争壁垒的指标体系,运用模糊综合评价法对品牌的竞争壁垒强弱做出一定的判断。为了验证品牌竞争壁垒评价模型,选取蜂行业中具有代表性的蜂品牌作为实证研究对象,分析了蜂行业品牌市场竞争壁垒现状,为蜂企业营销策略的制定提供了参考依据。%Brand is a familiar heat term to the increasingly competitive commodity market, it is the key to be able to break the siege for enterprise to create first-class brand and build brand of defense. Brand market competitive barriers is the core force of enterprise to maintain its brand advantage, accurating evaluation for it is one of the important work of maintain sustained permanent brand development. In this paper, through establishing the brand market competitive barriers evaluation model, introduced the brand market barriers to competition consists of five main elements were as follows, to line with market demand, to meet the emotional needs, to establish the consumer habits, the unique quality of products and the category innovation ability. According to the index system brand barriers to competition, using fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to make certain judgments of strong or weak of the brand barriers to competition. In order to verify the brand market competitive barriers evaluation model, select the representative bee brand of bee industry as the research object

  6. Social Barriers to Effective Communication in Old Age

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Sanecka

    2014-01-01

    Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated ...

  7. Territorial Competitiveness Index applied to Heredia cantons in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fonseca Hernández

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Territorial Competitiveness Index in Heredia cantons is assessed in this paper using a weighted index including five basic components: economic-business, socio-demographic, infrastructure, local governance, and environmental. Results help identify competitive strengths and weaknesses of each canton, which provides valuable information to entrepreneurial investors in order to assess the permanence or opening of a productive activity in the territory and to local authorities in order to identify variables to improve.  The Territorial Competitiveness Index classifies cantons by the level of competitiveness associated and identifies the variables that explain such competitiveness and the location of SMEs.  Results are compared with other methodologies used in the country to measure socio-economic aspects, human, and local government development, allowing for a broad view of the particular competitive aspects related to each canton.

  8. Navigating the Road to Success: A Systematic Approach to Preparing Competitive Grant Proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Mackenzie

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Difficulty in securing research funding has been cited as one barrier to the involvement of more librarians and information professionals in conducting original research. This article seeks to support the work of librarians who wish to secure research funding by describing a systematic approach to the creation of successful grant applications.Approach The authors draw on more than fifteen years collective experience in supporting the development of successful research grant proposals. Eleven grant‐writing best practicesor ‘key approaches’ are described, and a planning timeline is suggested.Conclusions: Use of these best practices can assist researchers in creating successful research grant proposals that will also help streamline the research process once it is underway. It is important to recognize the competitive nature of research grant competitions, obtain feedback from an internal review panel, and use feedback from funding agencies to strengthen future grant applications.

  9. Nurses' Psychosocial Barriers to Suicide Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Valente

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide remains a serious health care problem and a sentinel event tracked by The Joint Commission. Nurses are pivotal in evaluating risk and preventing suicide. Analysis of nurses' barriers to risk management may lead to interventions to improve management of suicidal patients. These data emerged from a random survey of 454 oncology nurses' attitudes, knowledge of suicide, and justifications for euthanasia. Instruments included a vignette of a suicidal patient and a suicide attitude questionnaire. Results. Psychological factors (emotions, unresolved grief, communication, and negative judgments about suicide complicate the nurse's assessment and treatment of suicidal patients. Some nurses (=122 indicated that euthanasia was never justified and 11 were unsure of justifications and evaluated each case on its merits. Justifications for euthanasia included poor symptom control, poor quality of life, incurable illness or permanent disability, terminal illness, and terminal illness with inadequate symptom control or impending death, patient autonomy, and clinical organ death. The nurses indicated some confusion and misconceptions about definitions and examples of euthanasia, assisted suicide, and double effect. Strategies for interdisciplinary clinical intervention are suggested to identify and resolve these psychosocial barriers.

  10. Use of technology to provide competitive advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of technology in plotting a new paradigm is explored by means of reviewing NOVA Chemicals' technology strategy for feedstocks, petrochemicals and polymers. As part of this transformation of technology from that of a servant to a key contributor to the success of the company, the expansion (in a 50/50 joint venture with DOW/Union Carbide) of a mammoth 2.8 billion pound ethylene plant at Joffre, Alberta is 'the jewel in the crown'. This plant, with the two ethylene units already on site will make Joffre in the year 2000 the world's largest single site for the manufacture of ethylene. An 800 million pound Advanced SCLAIRTECHTM polystyrene plant, (a proprietary process for the manufacture of high performance polymers initially developed, but considered 'non-strategic' to their own needs, by DuPont and sold to NOVA Chemicals for $ 45 million in 1994), the largest single train of its kind in the world, is also under construction. Also in the early stages of construction on the site is a large linear alpha olefin plant owned by BP-Amoco to supply co-monomer to the polyethylene plant, To back up these facilities, there is a 400 MW cogeneration unit to supply power and steam. NOVA Chemicals Research and Technology Laboratory is a focused world class research facility with an annual budget of $ 37 million, combined with the active collaboration with all major Canadian universities, and targeted projects with other universities around the world , are all necessary components of creating and acquiring the technology that is required to achieve the corporate goals of the company. The high level of investment in research and technology is seen as the pathway to fundamentally change the business and create value which can be realized in the marketplace. Research and technology also help the company to advance the competitiveness of their own processes, keep the company on the cutting edge of technology, and assure its survival among the leaders of the industry

  11. Entry and incumbent innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Weinschenk, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We explore how the threat of entry influences the innovation activity of an incumbent. We show that the incumbent’s investment is hump-shaped in the entry threat. When the entry threat is small and increases, the incumbent invests more to deter entry, or to make it unlikely. This is due to the entry deterrence effect. However, when the threat becomes huge, entry can no longer profitably be deterred or made unlikely and the investment becomes small. Then the Schumpeterian effect dominates. The...

  12. Barriers to the exchange of hydrometeorological data in Europe: Results from a survey and implications for data policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viglione, A.; Borga, M.; Balabanis, P.; Blöschl, G.

    2010-11-01

    SummaryA survey has been conducted to understand what are the perceived barriers to the free exchange of hydrometeorological data in Europe. A total of 127 questionnaires were received of which 61 were completed by data providers and 66 by data users in 32 European countries with a total 631 entries (i.e. assessments of barriers affecting one data type) in the questionnaires. The responses have been analysed in terms of what barriers are perceived to exist, whether there are differences between research, industry and administration, between the West and East of Europe, and between different data types. The responses suggest that the most important barriers are of economic nature. The majority of the data users think there exist economic barriers to the free exchange of the data (significant at the 0.01% level) while the data providers give mixed results. Out of the types of institutions, the research institutions give the most significant response of the existence of economic barriers, followed by industry and administration. For the East European countries economic barriers are considered a much more serious problem than for the West. Out of the data types surveyed, precipitation and geospatial data are considered to be the most critical in terms of costs. The differences between the perceptions of data providers and data users depend strongly on the type of barrier. The differences are smallest for legal barriers (such as licensing of data), followed by the economic barriers and are largest for the practical barriers. Conflict of interest is another potential barrier examined in the survey. Suggestions are given on how to address the economic barriers in a European context.

  13. A model for competitiveness level analysis in sports competitions: Application to basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saá Guerra, Y.; Martín González, J. M.; Sarmiento Montesdeoca, S.; Rodríguez Ruiz, D.; García-Rodríguez, A.; García-Manso, J. M.

    2012-05-01

    The degree of overall competitiveness of a sport league is a complex phenomenon. It is difficult to assess and quantify all elements that yield the final standing. In this paper, we analyze the general behavior of the result matrices of each season and we use the corresponding results as a probably density. Thus, the results of previous seasons are a way to investigate the probability that each team has to reach a certain number of victories. We developed a model based on Shannon entropy using two extreme competitive structures (a hierarchical structure and a random structure), and applied this model to investigate the competitiveness of two of the best professional basketball leagues: the NBA (USA) and the ACB (Spain). Both leagues’ entropy levels are high (NBA mean 0.983; ACB mean 0.980), indicating high competitiveness, although the entropy of the ACB (from 0.986 to 0.972) demonstrated more seasonal variability than that of the NBA (from 0.985 to 0.990), a possible result of greater sporting gradients in the ACB. The use of this methodology has proven useful for investigating the competitiveness of sports leagues as well as their underlying variability across time.

  14. METHODS TO INCREASE THE COMPETITIVENESS IN INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STANCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial firms are different between them for their economicalcharacteristics, competitive situations and their prospects. Industry andcompetitive analysis use a lot of concepts and methods for obtaining a clearimage concerning the variable conditions from industry and competitivestrong forces. Economical characteristics of industry are important for theirstrategic implications.

  15. Curveball strategies to fool the competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalk, George

    2006-09-01

    In this follow-on piece to his article "Hardball: Five Killer Strategies for Trouncing the Competition" (HBR April 2004), George Stalk of the Boston Consulting Group offers another approach for prevailing over rivals. Strategic hardball is about playing rough and tough with competitors; strategic curveball is about outfoxing them. It involves getting rivals to do something dumb that they otherwise wouldn't (that is, swing at a pitch that appears to be in the strike zone but isn't) or not do something smart that they otherwise would (that is, fail to swing at a pitch that's in the strike zone but appears not to be). Stalk describes four types of curveball: Draw your rival out of the profit zone. Lure competitors into disadvantageous areas--for example, by competing for, but intentionally failing to win, the business of less profitable customers. Borrow techniques from unexpected places. Using the hardball tactic of plagiarizing good ideas, put rivals off balance by importing techniques from other industries--for example, employing the retailer's hard sell in the stodgy world of retail financial services. Disguise how you attain your success. Veil your methods by achieving an advantage through unlikely means--for example, generating product sales through your service operations. Let rivals misinterpret the reasons for your success. Allow them to act on conventional but incomplete explanations for your success--for example, squeezing costs rather than aggressively utilizing assets. The author provides extended examples of these curveball strategies in action, at companies such as the industrial-cleaning chemical supplier Ecolab and the Australian airline Jetstar. PMID:16967625

  16. Summary and frequency of barriers to adoption of CPOE in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scot; Goetz, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Medical errors are common, costly, and can potentially be life threatening to patients. Recent studies have established that Computer Provider Order Entry (CPOE) systems reduce medical errors as well as improve safety, quality, and value of patient care. However, research regarding adoption factors associated with CPOE systems is limited. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to determine adoption factors by identifying the frequency of barriers through the analysis of literature and research. A systematic literature review was conducted from EBSCO Host and Google Scholar. The search criteria focused on publication date, keywords, and peer reviewed articles. The final set established for evaluation was ten articles. The authors summarized each article and then identified common barriers. Throughout the ten articles, 31 barriers were identified; 15 of which were unique. The three most frequent barriers identified were: process changes (23%), training (13%), and efficacy (10%). The results of this review identify to policy makers levers to incentivize to encourage adoption. The results also illustrate to vendors the importance of factors to include in both marketing and development. The leadership of healthcare organizations should be encouraged to see such results and know that their concerns are heard. If policy makers and vendors help healthcare organizations overcome barriers to adoption, the organization has a better chance of successful CPOE implementation. If successfully implemented, a CPOE system can improve the process of care, quality of care, and patient outcomes; all of which address issues of Meaningful Use. PMID:25638719

  17. Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Rohdin, Patrik; Thollander, Patrik

    2006-01-01

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing...

  18. Analyzing of Trade Barriers to Timber Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study investigated the issues of trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. In recent years, there has been decreasing the trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia. Approach: Trade barriers to timber trade are an important role in the forest economics sector and take a major player in Malaysia’s economic growth. There is a growing concern that trade barriers to timber trade are creating both direct and indirect opportunities to environmental trade issues. Results: We analyzed the role of trade barriers to timber trade and the barriers of timber trade policy in Malaysia. Conclusion: We explained tariff removals of timber trade in Malaysia. The purpose of this study is to highlight and clarify the impacts on trade barriers to timber trade in Malaysia.

  19. Barriers to emergency obstetric care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echoka, Elizabeth; Makokha, Anselimo; Dubourg, Dominique;

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnancy-related mortality and morbidity in most low and middle income countries can be reduced through early recognition of complications, prompt access to care and appropriate medical interventions following obstetric emergencies. We used the three delays framework to explore...... barriers to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) services by women who experienced life threatening obstetric complications in Malindi District, Kenya. Methods: A facility-based qualitative study was conducted between November and December 2010. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 women who experienced...... the hospital, contribute to ineffective treatment upon arrival at the hospital. Interventions to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity must adequately consider the pre-hospital challenges faced by pregnant women in order to influence decision making towards addressing the three delays....

  20. Competitive Intelligence in Perspective to be a Source of Competitive Advantage and Strategic Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gama Buzzerio

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the prospect of Competitive Intelligence (CI constitute a source of competitive advantage in light of the Resource Based View and its contribution to the strategic management of the company. Relies on exploratory and descriptive research using the qualitative method. Six managers responsible for CI activities institutionalized in large different business companies were interviewed. Data were processed and analyzed with the application of content analysis. It was concluded that the CI is unable to be a source of competitive advantage but rather as an effective support to decision making process in the surveyed companies. Apparently CI products meet the specific needs of internal customers, facilitate the integration of CI with marketing and operations, help in the identification of risks through the analysis of strategic information, which is a differentiator compared to other types of intelligences.

  1. Advanced bibliometric to model the relationship between entry behaviour and networking emerging technological communities

    OpenAIRE

    Debackere, Koenraad; B. CLARYSSE

    1997-01-01

    Organisational ecology and social network theory are used to explain entries in technological communities. Using bibliometric data on 411 organisations in the field of plant biotechnology, we test several hypotheses that entry is not only influenced by the density of the field, but also by the structure of the R&D network within the community. The empirical findings point to the usefulness of bibliometric data in mapping change and evolution in technological communities as well as to the ef...

  2. Strategic Entry Deterrence and the Behavior of Pharmaceutical Incumbents Prior to Patent Expiration

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn Ellison; Sara Fisher Ellison

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops a new approach to testing for strategic entry deterrence and applies it to the behavior of pharmaceutical incumbents just before they lose patent protection. The approach involves looking at a cross-section of markets and examining whether behavior is nonmonotonic in the size of the market. Under certain conditions, investment levels will be monotone in market size if firms are not influenced by a desire to deter entry. Strategic investments, however, may be nonmonotone be...

  3. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of `knowledge work' and Westley's 2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers—`managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics—scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the `doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice.

  4. Rethinking Social Barriers to Effective Adaptive Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Simon; Schultz, Lisen; Bekessy, Sarah

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive management is an approach to environmental management based on learning-by-doing, where complexity, uncertainty, and incomplete knowledge are acknowledged and management actions are treated as experiments. However, while adaptive management has received significant uptake in theory, it remains elusively difficult to enact in practice. Proponents have blamed social barriers and have called for social science contributions. We address this gap by adopting a qualitative approach to explore the development of an ecological monitoring program within an adaptive management framework in a public land management organization in Australia. We ask what practices are used to enact the monitoring program and how do they shape learning? We elicit a rich narrative through extensive interviews with a key individual, and analyze the narrative using thematic analysis. We discuss our results in relation to the concept of 'knowledge work' and Westley's (2002) framework for interpreting the strategies of adaptive managers-'managing through, in, out and up.' We find that enacting the program is conditioned by distinct and sometimes competing logics-scientific logics prioritizing experimentation and learning, public logics emphasizing accountability and legitimacy, and corporate logics demanding efficiency and effectiveness. In this context, implementing adaptive management entails practices of translation to negotiate tensions between objective and situated knowledge, external experts and organizational staff, and collegiate and hierarchical norms. Our contribution embraces the 'doing' of learning-by-doing and marks a shift from conceptualizing the social as an external barrier to adaptive management to be removed to an approach that situates adaptive management as social knowledge practice. PMID:27351578

  5. Mission Sizing and Trade Studies for Low Ballistic Coefficient Entry Systems to Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Smith, Brandon; Prabhu, Dinesh; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The U.S and the U.S.S.R. have sent seventeen successful atmospheric entry missions to Venus. Past missions to Venus have utilized rigid aeroshell systems for entry. This rigid aeroshell paradigm sets performance limitations since the size of the entry vehicle is constrained by the fairing diameter of the launch vehicle. This has limited ballistic coefficients (beta) to well above 100 kg/m2 for the entry vehicles. In order to maximize the science payload and minimize the Thermal Protection System (TPS) mass, these missions have entered at very steep entry flight path angles (gamma). Due to Venus thick atmosphere and the steep-gamma, high- conditions, these entry vehicles have been exposed to very high heat flux, very high pressures and extreme decelerations (upwards of 100 g's). Deployable aeroshells avoid the launch vehicle fairing diameter constraint by expanding to a larger diameter after the launch. Due to the potentially larger wetted area, deployable aeroshells achieve lower ballistic coefficients (well below 100 kg/m2), and if they are flown at shallower flight path angles, the entry vehicle can access trajectories with far lower decelerations (50-60 g's), peak heat fluxes (400 W/cm2) and peak pressures. The structural and TPS mass of the shallow-gamma, low-beta deployables are lower than their steep-gamma, high-beta rigid aeroshell counterparts at larger diameters, contributing to lower areal densities and potentially higher payload mass fractions. For example, at large diameters, deployables may attain aeroshell areal densities of 10 kg/m2 as opposed to 50 kg/m2 for rigid aeroshells. However, the low-beta, shallow-gamma paradigm also raises issues, such as the possibility of skip-out during entry. The shallow-gamma could also increase the landing footprint of the vehicle. Furthermore, the deployable entry systems may be flexible, so there could be fluid-structure interaction, especially in the high altitude, low-density regimes. The need for precision in

  6. ASSEMBLED PRODUCTS: THE KEY TO MORE EFFECTIVE COMPETITION AND ANTITRUST OVERSIGHT IN HEALTH CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, William M

    2016-01-01

    This Article argues that recent calls for antitrust enforcement to protect health insurers from hospital and physician consolidation are incomplete. The principal obstacle to effective competition in health care is not that one or the other party has too much bargaining power, but that they have been buying and selling the wrong things. Vigorous antitrust enforcement will benefit health care consumers only if it accounts for the competitive distortions caused by the sector's long history of government regulation. Because of regulation, what pass for products in health care are typically small process steps and isolated components that can be assigned a billing code, even if they do little to help patients. Instead of further entrenching weakly competitive parties engaged in artificial commerce, antitrust enforcers and regulators should work together to promote the sale of fully assembled products and services that can be warranted to consumers for performance and safety. As better products emerge through innovation and market entry, competition may finally succeed at lowering medical costs, increasing access to treatment, and improving quality of care. PMID:27062731

  7. Organizational barriers to effective communication and how to overcome them

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何一民

    2013-01-01

    Effective communication has long been credited as a prime factor in achieving high levels of organizational effective-ness. In this essay, the author will discuss the five barriers to or-ganizational communication and the resolutions to overcome them. the author concludes that the overall ways to overcome communication barriers are communication audits and establish differentiated communication cultures to ensure two-way com-munication.

  8. 外资银行进入对我国银行业竞争度的影响--基于Panzar-Rosse模型的实证研究%The Effects of Foreign Banks Entry on the Competition Degree in Banking Industry of China---Based on Empirical Research of Panzar-Rosse Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立; 王涛; 赵玮

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the authors apply the Panzar-Rosse model to assess the degree of market competition in the banking industry of China between 1997 and 2011, and then analyze the relationship between foreign bank penetration and the degree of market competition empirically. The empirical results suggest that the banks China are operation under monopo-listic competition and the competition in banking industry is U-shaped curve, and the degree of competition dropped signifi-cantly after the financial crisis in 2008. The asset share of foreign banks is negatively correlated with the degree of market competition, while the number of foreign banks is not relevant to the degree of market competition, so foreign banks entry can not promote the market competition in China banking industry. Chinese banking market gradually developed is the root reason of the change of the degree of market competition.%1997~2011年这15年间我国银行业处于垄断竞争状态,市场竞争度呈现先减后增的U型变化趋势,而2008年国际金融危机后我国银行业市场竞争度下降。外资银行资产份额与市场竞争程度存在负相关关系,而机构数量与竞争度不相关,外资银行进入未能促进我国银行业的竞争,中国银行业市场逐步发展完善是市场竞争度变化的根本原因。

  9. Transitions to Entrepreneurship and Industry-Specific Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Lofstrom, Magnus; Bates, Timothy; Parker, Simon C.

    2011-01-01

    Drivers of entrepreneurial entry are investigated in this study by examining how entry into small-business ownership is shaped by industry-specific constraints. The human- and financial-capital endowments of potential entrepreneurs entering firms in various industries are shown to differ profoundly, depending on the type of venture entered. The educational credentials of highly educated potential entrepreneurs, in particular, predict avoidance of small-firm ownership in some industries as wel...

  10. Feasibility of Orion Crew Module Entry on Half of Available Propellant Due to Tank Isolation Fault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Marina M.

    2011-01-01

    The fuel tank isolation as a result of leak or rupture can leave an Orion Crew Module with only half of the loaded propellant for ISS return atmospheric entry. To assess the feasibility of returning under this condition, an analysis of various entry control options with deliberate degradation of control performance was performed. The study determined that a ballistic entry without a raise burn, a steeper flight path trajectory, relaxed atmospheric pitch/yaw rate damping, and degraded touchdown control could achieve 2-sigma requirements compliance with a 2-sigma fuel usage that is less than half of the liftoff propellant loading. The results of this analysis indicate that an entry with only half the nominal propellant load is feasible following a tank isolation fault.

  11. Educating Students to Give Them a Sustainable Competitive Advantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Christopher D.; Raymond, Mary Anne; Carlson, Les

    2011-01-01

    With an increasingly competitive job market, this study focuses on what marketing educators can do to help students develop a sustainable competitive advantage. The authors conducted a survey of students, faculty, and recruiters to develop a better understanding of what skills and characteristics might be of value to each group of respondents and…

  12. ENTRYSAT: A 3U Cubesat to Study the Re-Entry Atmospheric Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, R. F.; Chaix, J.; Mimoun, D.; EntrySat student Team

    2014-04-01

    The EntrySat is a 3U CubeSat designed to study the uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. The project, developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA, is funded by CNES and is intended to be launched in January 2016, in the context of the QB50 network. The scientific goal is to relate the kinematics of the satellite with the aerothermodynamic environment during re-entry. In particular, data will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. According to these requirements, the satellite will measure the temperature, pressure, heat flux, and drag force during re-entry, as well as the trajectory and attitude of the satellite. One of the major technological challenges is the retrieval of data during the re-entry phase, which will be based on the Iridium satellite network. The system design is based on the use of commercial COTS components, and is mostly developed by students from ISAE. As such, the EntrySat has an important educational value in the formation of young engineers.

  13. The Effects of Entry in Bilateral Oligopoly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dickson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of entry into the market for a single commodity in which both sellers and buyers are permitted to interact strategically. With the inclusion of an additional seller, the market is quasi-competitive: the price falls and volume of trade increases, as expected. However, contrary to the conventional wisdom, existing sellers’ payoffs may increase. The conditions under which entry by new sellers raises the equilibrium payoffs of existing sellers are derived. These depend in an intuitive way on the elasticity of a strategic analog of demand and the market share of existing sellers, and encompass entirely standard economic environments. Similar results are derived relating to the entry of additional buyers and the effects of entry on both sides of the market are investigated.

  14. Entry Modes of Starbucks

    OpenAIRE

    Santamaría Sotillo, Beatriz; Ni, Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Topic:When an MNC seeks to enter a foreign country, it must choose the most appropriate entry mode for that specific market, such as exporting, licensing, a turnkey project, franchising, joint ventures or wholly-owned subsidiaries. There are many factors which affect the choice of entry modes. Influential factors contributing to the entry mode decision can have different degrees of impact for each particular country. As a consequence, an MNC has to use different entry modes in order to adapt ...

  15. The Competition "First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y; Zuberek, R

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants. (Contains 1 table.)

  16. The competition 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorzkowski, W.; Surya, Y.; Żuberek, R.

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants.

  17. The competition 'First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the history of the competition First Step to Nobel Prize in Physics organized by Poland, its development from a national workshop in 1991/92 to an international competition nowadays and its organization, as well as the results obtained by the participants.

  18. Competition, the Global Crisis, and Alternatives to Neoliberal Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    explanatory critique of capitalist competition and the atomistic and reductionist social scientific precepts that serve to legitimize the neoliberal type of competition regulation. By critically engaging with principles and values central to anarchism, such as equity, solidarity, cooperation, mutual aid, and...

  19. Barriers to the exchange of hydrometeorological data across Europe - results from a survey and implications for data policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöschl, Günter; Viglione, Alberto; Balabanis, Panos; Borga, Marco

    2010-05-01

    A survey has been conducted to understand what are the perceived barriers to the free exchange of hydrometeorological data across Europe. A total of 127 questionnaires were received of which 61 were completed by data providers and 66 by data users in 32 European countries with a total 631 entries (i.e. assessments of barriers affecting one data type) in the questionnaires. The responses have been analysed in terms of what barriers are perceived to exist, whether there are differences between research, industry and administration, between the West and East of Europe, and between different data types. The responses suggest that the most important barriers are of economic nature. The majority of the data users think there exist economic barriers to the free exchange of the data (significant at the 0.01% level) while the data providers give mixed results. Out of the types of institutions, the research institutions give the most significant response of the existence of economic barriers, followed by industry and administration. For the East European countries economic barriers are considered a much more serious problem than for the West. Out of the data types surveyed, precipitation and geospatial data are considered to be the most critical in terms of costs. The differences between the perceptions of data providers and data users depend strongly on the type of barrier. The differences are smallest for legal barriers (such as licensing of data), followed by the economic barriers and are largest for the practical barriers. Conflict of interest is another potential barrier examined in the survey.

  20. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  1. Domain Ⅲ of Dengue Virus Serotype 2 Envelope:Expression at High Levels in Escherichia coli and Competitive Inhibition of Virus Entry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Obejective The domainⅢof dengue virus type 2 envelope was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the inhibited effects of recombinant protein on virus was detected. Methods In this study, the domainⅢ(DⅢ) protein of the dengue virus type-2 (DENV-2) envelope (E) antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli by fusion with a carrier protein. The protein was puriifed using enzymatic cleavage and afifnity puriifcation. Rabbit immunization and antibody detection was carried out. Inhibition of DENV-2 infection was observed by DENV-2 EDⅢprotein and its immunity rabbits serum. Results The recombinant expression DENV-2 EDⅢ protein plasmid was constructed successfully. After isopropyl thiogalactoside induction, a speciifc soluble 29 kD protein was obtained, and the expression product accounted for 68.87%of the total protein of the cell lysate. Western blot demonstrated the reactivity of the recombinant protein with his-tag and DENV (Ⅰ-Ⅳ) monoclonal antibodies. The protein was puriifed using enzymatic cleavage and affinity purification. The purified recombinant EDⅢ protein inhibited the entry of DENV-2 into BHK-21 cells. DENV-2 plaque neutralization assays were carried out using serially diluted antibodies against EDⅢprotein. At a 1︰16 dilution, the antibodies produced at least 90%neutralization of the DENV-2 virus. Furthermore, the antibodies continued to exhibit high neutralization effects (approximately 80%) until the anti-EDⅢantibody titer reached 1︰1 024. Conclusions DENV-2 EDⅢwas cloned and expressed successfully. DENV-2 EDⅢprotein could be useful in the development of inexpensive dengue vaccine. The data also suggested that DENV-2 employed an attachment molecule or receptor for its entry into C6/36 mosquito cells.

  2. Crop competitive ability contributes to herbicide performance in sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop variety effect on herbicide performance is not well characterized, particularly for sweet corn, a crop that varies greatly among hybrids in competitive ability with weeds. Field studies were used to determine the effect of crop competitive ability on season-long herbicide performance in sweet c...

  3. Robotics Competitions: The Choice Is up to You!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard T.; Londt, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Competitive robotics as an interactive experience can increase the level of student participation in technology education, inspire students to consider careers in technical fields, and enhance the visibility of technology education programs. Implemented correctly, a competitive robotics program can provide a stimulating learning environment for…

  4. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  5. Competitive Advantaje Anatomy: from Methodological Holism to State Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmin Marinescu

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the orthodox theory of international trade, the argument of selective industrial policy means the state capability of identifying competitive advantages and to exploit them. In this approach, I want to emphasize the necessity of a critical reconsideration of the “competitive advantage” and “national competitiveness”, and also of the implications deriving from these concepts over public policy. First of all, I analyzed the scientifically basis of competitiveness: on the free market, the competitive advantage is given by the entrepreneurial ability, which so becomes the real source of the economic success. Being given any other conditions, meaning here a market affected by state’s interventionism, reaching “competitive advantages” derives from rent-seeking activities which attend to capture public policy.

  6. Analysis on Effective Competition Barrier and Measures of Weapons Equipment Procurement Market%影响武器装备采购市场有效竞争的障碍和对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒绍干; 李晓松; 陈庆华

    2013-01-01

    有效竞争理论是解决武器装备采购市场规模经济与竞争活力之间矛盾的有效理论与方法.首先对武器装备采购市场有效竞争进行了分析;研究了制约武器装备采购市场有效竞争障碍;最后提出了促进我国武器装备采购市场实现有效竞争的建议.%Effective competition theory is effective theory and method to solve the conflict between economies of scale and competition in weapons and equipment procurement market. First of all for weapon and equipment procurement market effective competition is analyzed. The restriction of weapons and equipment procurement market effective competition barrier is studied. Finally some advice to promote our country's weapons and equipment procurement market effective competition is suggested.

  7. Advertising Dynamics and Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Doraszelski; Sarit Markovich

    2004-01-01

    Can advertising lead to a sustainable competitive advantage? To answer this question, we propose a dynamic model of advertising competition where firms repeatedly advertise, compete in the product market, and make entry as well as exit decisions. Within this dynamic framework, we study two different models of advertising: In the first model, advertising influences the goodwill consumers extend towards a firm ("goodwill advertising"), whereas in the second model it influences the share of cons...

  8. How to Get Entry-Level Employment at the Top 100 Advertising Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a survey which quantifies the entry-level market in top advertising agencies. Discusses employment projections, entry-level job distribution, source of entry-level employment, college degree of entry-level employees, academic major of entry-level employees, and entry-level assignments by major. Concludes that an advertising major is far…

  9. FAQ and Recommendations of Amateur Piano Competition Entries%业余钢琴比赛参赛的常见问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨云

    2014-01-01

    近年来业余学习钢琴的人数不断增多,各种形式的钢琴比赛也逐渐丰富起来。要想在比赛中取得好的成绩,曲目的的选择十分重要。不论日常的学琴、练琴还是比赛,重要的音乐的表达,而不是演奏技术的表现。音乐是根本,技术是手段。演奏的过程中音乐性和完整性是取得好成绩的两个至关重要的方面。还有注意临场发挥的问题,逐步积累经验,抱着表达内心音乐的心态去参赛。%In recent years, the number of part-time study piano growing, various forms of piano competitions is gradually en-riched. To achieve good results in the race, the track selection is very important. Whether everyday piano, the piano or compe-tition, the expression of important music playing technique rather than performance. Music is the fundamental technology is the means. Playing music and integrity of the process is to achieve good results in two crucial respects. Also note that the problem spot to play, the gradual accumulation of experience, holding the mind to express inner music competition.

  10. Pollen competition as a reproductive isolation barrier represses transgene flow between compatible and co-flowering citrus genotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Pons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Despite potential benefits granted by genetically modified (GM fruit trees, their release and commercialization raises concerns about their potential environmental impact, and the transfer via pollen of transgenes to cross-compatible cultivars is deemed to be the greatest source for environmental exposure. Information compiled from field trials on GM trees is essential to propose measures to minimize the transgene dispersal. We have conducted a field trial of seven consecutive years to investigate the maximum frequency of pollen-mediated crop-to-crop transgene flow in a citrus orchard, and its relation to the genetic, phenological and environmental factors involved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three different citrus genotypes carrying the uidA (GUS tracer marker gene (pollen donors and a non-GM self-incompatible contiguous citrus genotype (recipient were used in conditions allowing natural entomophilous pollination to occur. The examination of 603 to 2990 seeds per year showed unexpectedly low frequencies (0.17-2.86% of transgene flow. Paternity analyses of the progeny of subsets of recipient plants using 10 microsatellite (SSR loci demonstrated a higher mating competence of trees from another non-GM pollen source population that greatly limited the mating chance of the contiguous cross-compatible and flowering-synchronized transgenic pollen source. This mating superiority could be explained by a much higher pollen competition capacity of the non-GM genotypes, as was confirmed through mixed-hand pollinations. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Pollen competition strongly contributed to transgene confinement. Based on this finding, suitable isolation measures are proposed for the first time to prevent transgene outflow between contiguous plantings of citrus types that may be extendible to other entomophilous transgenic fruit tree species.

  11. Reducing Patient Barriers to Pain and Fatigue Management

    OpenAIRE

    Borneman, Tami; Koczywas, Marianna; Sun, Virginia; Piper, Barbara F.; Uman, Gwen; Ferrell, Betty

    2010-01-01

    Pain and fatigue are recognized as critical symptoms that impact quality of life (QOL) for cancer patients. The barriers to pain and fatigue relief have been classified into three categories: patient, professional and system barriers. The overall objective of this trial is to test the effects of the “Passport to Comfort” intervention on reducing barriers to pain and fatigue management for ambulatory care cancer patients. This intervention demonstrates innovation by translating the evidence-ba...

  12. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  13. Barriers to student success in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail R. Wills

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various indicators suggest that many students in developing countries are not learning in school. Using Madagascar as a case study, we aimed to: (1 evaluate the effectiveness of education among those enrolled in science and math programs of primary, secondary, and university institutions; and (2 understand barriers to student progression through the education system. To address these aims, we conducted 63 semi-structured interviews in June and August 2012 with science and math teachers in five population centers, across all three levels of the public and private school system. We found that crowded classes, limited resources (pedagogical and infrastructural, an average student age range of seven years per classroom (suggestive of grade repetition and/or late school starting age, and discontinuities in the language of instruction explain why teachers estimated that almost 25% of their students would not finish school. Although most secondary and university teachers taught the sciences only in French, they estimated that just one-third of students could fully understand the language. There were also urban-rural and public-private disparities. Teachers in urban areas were significantly more likely to teach using French than their rural counterparts, while public schools housed significantly larger classes than private institutions. While resource equalisation will help to resolve many of these disparities, improved early training in professional languages and increased local autonomy in designing appropriate curriculums will be necessary to tackle other shortfalls.

  14. Barriers to international supply chain management in Iranian flower industry

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Riasi

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the major barriers to international supply chain management in Iranian flower industry. The results of the research revealed that the most important barrier is lack of investment in Iranian flower distribution sector. The results also indicated that the second most important barrier to international supply chain management in Iranian flower industry might be the rules that limit the presence of international distributors in the country’s flower ...

  15. Modularization as an avenue to economic competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many features of the emerging next generation of nuclear power which impact the competitiveness of the facilities. We will focus on the equipment fabrication and erection phase of the work. Utility plants, like other complex facilities, require comprehensive program management skills. While any project is sensitive to cost, schedule and quality control, nuclear plants have strict and regulated requirements associated with quality control, and its associated materials source and record keeping. The industry has developed an increasing interest in the adaptation of prefabrication, or modularization, to the design, engineering and construction of power plants. Avondale Industries has been actively involved for the past several years with the DOE/EPRI sponsored Westinghouse design for an advanced passive 600 MWe PWR nuclear power plant (the AP-600). The Westinghouse team is currently working on the detailed design and NRC licensing/design certification phase. This program is a part of the current industry advanced light water (ALWR) efforts aimed at re-establishing the nuclear power option to meet U.S. electric generation needs in the 1990s and beyond. The Westinghouse program has the objective of developing the conceptual design of a greatly simplified 600 MWe pressurized water reactor plant with major improvements in safety, licensing certainty, life cycle cost, and construction schedule. One of the major tasks of the program is the development of an optimized plant arrangement and construction approach using modular construction to assist in achieving a short construction schedule and cost-effective plant configuration. Although the finite effect of modularization has yet to be tested in the dynamics of the erection of a commercial nuclear power plant, we feel that there is sufficient evidence from experience in other major manufacturing areas to warrant its application to future construction programs. In order to focus on the potential for modular

  16. Barriers to participation in mental health research: are there specific gender, ethnicity and age related barriers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Louise

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well established that the incidence, prevalence and presentation of mental disorders differ by gender, ethnicity and age, and there is evidence that there is also differential representation in mental health research by these characteristics. The aim of this paper is to a review the current literature on the nature of barriers to participation in mental health research, with particular reference to gender, age and ethnicity; b review the evidence on the effectiveness of strategies used to overcome these barriers. Method Studies published up to December 2008 were identified using MEDLINE, PsycINFO and EMBASE using relevant mesh headings and keywords. Results Forty-nine papers were identified. There was evidence of a wide range of barriers including transportation difficulties, distrust and suspicion of researchers, and the stigma attached to mental illness. Strategies to overcome these barriers included the use of bilingual staff, assistance with travel, avoiding the use of stigmatising language in marketing material and a focus on education about the disorder under investigation. There were very few evaluations of such strategies, but there was evidence that ethnically matching recruiters to potential participants did not improve recruitment rates. Educational strategies were helpful and increased recruitment. Conclusion Mental health researchers should consider including caregivers in recruitment procedures where possible, provide clear descriptions of study aims and describe the representativeness of their sample when reporting study results. Studies that systematically investigate strategies to overcome barriers to recruitment are needed.

  17. The UK gas market in transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtually every aspect of the UK gas market is currently experiencing rapid change and major uncertainties. The fast-track to full competition in 1998 requires a new customer-handling infrastructure, new rules and new marketing strategies.The introduction of competition in the UK is proving more complex than most of its architects assumed. The UK provides considerable evidence not only on market design but also the management of the transitional process. The path from a state-owned monopoly through privatisation to competition is overviewed, and some of the lessons are considered which other countries (and the European Commission) contemplating reforms may glean from the UK experience. (R.P.)

  18. Convergence to equilibrium in competitive Lotka-Volterra equations

    CERN Document Server

    Champagnat, Nicolas; Raoul, Gael

    2010-01-01

    We study a generalized system of ODE's modeling a finite number of biological populations in a competitive interaction. We adapt the techniques in two previous articles to prove the convergence to a unique stable equilibrium.

  19. Trade Barriers in Services and Competitive Strengths in the Austrian Service Sector - An Analysis at the Detailed Sector Level

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfmayr, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    This study provides a thourough and detailed analysis of the competitiveness of the Austrian service sectors. It combines several industry classifications reflecting different structural features and international regulatory regimes that might be relevant for a sector?s export potential and international competitiveness. These features are the skill and factor intensity, the intrinsic tradability and different regulatory regimes in international trade. For the first time this study applies a ...

  20. NTCP and Beyond: Opening the Door to Unveil Hepatitis B Virus Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Watashi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, affecting approximately 240 million people worldwide, is a major public health problem that elevates the risk of developing liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Given that current anti-HBV drugs are limited to interferon-based regimens and nucleos(tide analogs, the development of new anti-HBV agents is urgently needed. The viral entry process is generally an attractive target implicated in antiviral strategies. Using primary cells from humans and Tupaia belangeri, as well as HepaRG cells, important determinants of viral entry have been achieved. Recently, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP was identified as an HBV entry receptor and enabled the establishment of a susceptible cell line that can efficiently support HBV infection. This finding will allow a deeper understanding of the requirements for efficient HBV infection, including the elucidation of the molecular entry mechanism. In addition, pharmacological studies suggest that NTCP is able to serve as a therapeutic target. This article summarizes our current knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV entry and the role of NTCP in this process.

  1. All's Fair in Sport and Competition? The Application of EC Competition Rules to Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Vermeersch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The commercialisation and internationalisation of sporting activities alongside ongoing European integration has put the relationship between the European Union and the sports world under strain. The Bosman case marked the start of an intense debate on an appropriate regulatory framework for this evolving relationship. Whereas the Community judges in previous sport related cases had consistently opted for settling the dispute on the basis of free movement provisions, the Piau and the Meca-Medina & Majcen cases entail the first rulings on the application of EC competition law to sport. This paper tackles the difficulty of separating the economic aspects from the sporting aspects of a sport and the consequences of anti-trust law for sporting associations. Whether the Court of Justice provided satisfactory guidelines to deal with upcoming legal actions and more generally, whether these guidelines on the application of competition law might influence the governance of sport in Europe, is also considered.

  2. PARADIGMS REGARDING CONCERTED PRACTICES OF COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of completing the single market requires the application of appropriate measures also in competition field. Rather, it is a truism that, once are removed the non-tariff barriers (physical, technical, fiscal of hindering trade, companies and governments will seek new ways to limit the restrictions so that competition laws to protect domestic industries. This study is a reflection on competitive practices regarding the theoretical and practical aspects in the phenomenon of economic competition.

  3. Determinants of Entry Mode Decision: A Discussion on Firm-specific and Country-specific Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Weiwei

    2013-01-01

    In today’s dynamic global economy and competitive environment, it is crucially important for firms to expand their production and services in multiple markets. As many firms attempts to develop and sustain competitive advantages, it has academic and practical value to examine the decision of entry mode choice. This dissertation aims to investigate the determinants of multinational enterprises’ entry mode choice in emerging economics by using China as our empirical setting. Based on four main...

  4. HYBRID MODELING APPROACH TO COMPETITIVENESS THROUGH FAST STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    SAMULI KORTELAINEN; LAURI LÄTTILÄ

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the sources of sustained competitive advantage is the fundamental task of strategic management research. An interesting concept of fast strategy has emerged, which builds a firm's competitiveness from its ability to react to change more rapidly than its competitors. We approach this concept with a simulation model based on a hybrid modeling technique. The simulation model is used to test the profitability of the fast strategy concept in different business environment conditions....

  5. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  6. Student Athletes' Perceived Barriers to and Preferences for Seeking Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Renee L.; Levy, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes of intercollegiate student athletes regarding their use of counseling services. The authors assessed student athletes' perceived barriers to seeking counseling services and their preferred characteristics of a helping professional. Several barriers to counseling were identified. Results…

  7. Free to Move: Migration, Tax Competition and Redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    We study a model of tax competition between two countries when both skilled and unskilled workers make their migration decisions simultaneously and wages are endogenously determined. If both factors of production are allowed to migrate freely and when the demand for skilled labor is not so elastic, the problem typically predicted in the literature of tax competition that increased mobility of production factors will pose a severe threat to redistribution possibility is less acute than it migh...

  8. Ethiopia's Tourism Sector : Strategic Paths to Competitiveness and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes strategic intervention options that can inform the implementation process of Ethiopia s national tourism development policy in an effort to make the sector globally competitive. It also outlines the analytical foundations for technical assistance that will be provided to Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) by the World Bank-funded Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Development Program (ESTDP). This study uses the world economic forum tourism and travel competitiveness index ...

  9. Balancing Competition And Cooperation, The Key To Successful Marketing Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Nyström, H

    1986-01-01

    Based on a theoretical framework of alternative marketing strategies, empirical data from a study of the major Swedish Paper Companies will be presented. The approach emphasises that it is the balance between competition and cooperation that is most important for market success. This is in contrast to most other approaches to marketing strategy that usually emphasize either competition or cooperation, rather than the combined effect of these two marketing factors, the relative importance of w...

  10. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the presence of isolating mechanisms that limit or prevent competitive imitation. Isolating mechanisms increase the desirability of early entry by lengthening the time horizon over which the firm can earn...

  11. On the nature of barriers to climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesbroek, G.R.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable barriers can emerge in developing and implementing climate change adaptation strategies. Understanding the nature of barriers to adaptation is important so as to find strategic ways of dealing with them. However, our current understanding is limited and highly fragmented across the acad

  12. Cementitious Barriers Partnership Scm Paste Samples Exposed To Aggressive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-01

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) Project is a multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration supported by the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP project is to develop a set of tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers used in nuclear applications.

  13. Linguistic and Cultural Barriers to Intercultural Communication in Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltokorpi, Vesa; Clausen, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causes and consequences of linguistic and cultural barriers to inter-cultural communication in Nordic subsidiaries in Japan. Interviews with 30 Nordic (Finland, Denmark, Norway and Sweden) expatriates and 29 Japanese employees show that the main linguistic barriers to...

  14. The Propensity to Tax Competition: The Case of Implementation Local Tax Policy by Polish Local Governments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Walasik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to identify the main factors determining the propensity of local authorities to compete for the access to the limited as well as mobile sources of local tax revenue. The success of such an activity should be discussed in relation to the stabilization of local budget revenues; hence it seems that the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction could be better index to evaluate of the efficiency of local tax policy. The theoretical approach is based on the assumption that, if central government provides limitations of the right to improve local tax policy means (the scope of local tax jurisdiction, the local governments should focus on both the efficient acquiring the sources of tax revenues, and the stabilization of tax revenues in the future, in particular by the implementation of the barriers of leaving tax jurisdiction. The paper suggests studying a propensity to tax competition. The article formulates desideratum of the efficiency of spending on acquiring the sources of tax revenue, in particular, the need to identify the barriers to leave tax jurisdiction is suggested. The first and foremost way to build the barrier to leave tax jurisdiction could be reducing tax liabilities by local tax authorities, in particular by introducing local tax reliefs and local tax exemptions, as well as lowering local tax rates. Hence, the model of local authorities’ competition for local tax resources could be proposed. The empirical studies are dedicated to identify the actual propensity of Polish local government to execute the legal ability to impose tax policy instruments. The inquiry is based on comparing the fiscal consequences of implementing local tax policy within two groups of local authorities: small towns and countries (gminas and medium-size towns and big cities (cities with powiat status. The period under investigation contains 14 fiscal years, started 2000 and finished in 2013. The method is based on the analysis of the

  15. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  16. Scale Scale Economies in Nonprofit Provision, Technology Adoption and Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Scharf, Kimberley

    2011-01-01

    We study competition between nonprofit providers that supply a collective service through increasing-returns-to-scale technologies under conditions of free entry. When providers adopt a not-for-profit mission, the absence of a residual claimant can impede entry, protecting the position of an inefficient incumbent. Moreover, when providers supply goods that are at least partly public in nature, they may be unable to sustain the adoption of more efficient technologies that feature fixed costs, ...

  17. Sandberg : Key Strategic Decisions in Regards to Entry on the Japanese Market -

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Anna; Wennberg, Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    Problem: What key strategic decisions are required when choosing the right entry mode for a small Swedish firm, with a high-end jewellery brand, on the complex Japanese market? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to investigate different strategic choices in regards to the entry mode and the introduction of an exclusive brand on the Japanese market. The research will be supported by analysing the current situation of Sandberg and its aim to enter new markets. The authors of this thesis a...

  18. Use of computer modeling to aid in hydraulic barrier design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Releases of No. 6 and No. 4 fuel oil were discovered at a private boarding school. The releases impact a nearby pond with non-aqueous phase liquid hydrocarbon (NAPL), and threaten to impact an adjacent wetland. Prior to implementation of a permanent remedial solution, such as surfactant treatment and bioremediation, immediate containment of the NAPL was proposed via a barrier-gate containment system. The proposed barrier-gate containment system consisted of a high-density polyethylene barrier, horizontal wells, three flow-through gates, and downgradient infiltration galleries. Computer modeling of groundwater and NAPL flow was conducted utilizing a finite element multiphase model to evaluate the impacts to local hydrogeology associated with the barrier. These impacts included upgradient groundwater mounding and restriction of groundwater flux to the wetland. Model simulations aided in the identification of improvements to the initial barrier design and guided subsequent design modifications. Results of the simulations indicate the usefulness of computer modeling in containment system design

  19. Applying mathematical finance tools to the competitive Nordic electricity market

    OpenAIRE

    Vehviläinen, Iivo

    2004-01-01

    This thesis models competitive electricity markets using the methods of mathematical finance. Fundamental problems of finance are market price modelling, derivative pricing, and optimal portfolio selection. The same questions arise in competitive electricity markets. The thesis presents an electricity spot price model based on the fundamental stochastic factors that affect electricity prices. The resulting price model has sound economic foundations, is able to explain spot market price mo...

  20. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  1. Casino Law in Macau: From Competition to Consumer Protection?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Alexandre Libório Dias

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of competition in the casino marketplace in Macau may improve consumer welfare in the gaming sector, according to the rationale of traditional theories that justify the supremacy of free competition over monopoly in terms of promoting consumer welfare. However, the sensitive nature of casino gambling, regarding the status of consumer irrational choice, could perhaps justify a more protective legal environment from a viewpoint of consumer protection. This is particularly sensi...

  2. Intraspecific genetic variation and competition interact to influence niche expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Agashe, Deepa; Bolnick, Daniel I

    2010-01-01

    Theory and empirical evidence show that intraspecific competition can drive selection favouring the use of novel resources (i.e. niche expansion). The evolutionary response to such selection depends on genetic variation for resource use. However, while genetic variation might facilitate niche expansion, genetically diverse groups may also experience weaker competition, reducing density-dependent selection on resource use. Therefore, genetic variation for fitness on different resources could d...

  3. How Gaussian competition leads to lumpy or uniform species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lopez, Cristóbal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio;

    2010-01-01

    A central model in theoretical ecology considers the competition of a range of species for a broad spectrum of resources. Recent studies have shown that essentially two different outcomes are possible. Either the species surviving competition are more or less uniformly distributed over the resource...... spectrum, or their distribution is “lumped” (or “clumped”), consisting of clusters of species with similar resource use that are separated by gaps in resource space. Which of these outcomes will occur crucially depends on the competition kernel, which reflects the shape of the resource utilization pattern...... to either uniform or lumped species distributions. Here, we illustrate the non-robustness of the Gaussian assumption by simulating different implementations of the standard competition model with constant carrying capacity. In this scenario, lumped species distributions can come about by secondary...

  4. How Gaussian competition leads to lumpy or uniform species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigolotti, Simone; Lopez, Cristóbal; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Andersen, Ken Haste

    2010-01-01

    spectrum, or their distribution is “lumped” (or “clumped”), consisting of clusters of species with similar resource use that are separated by gaps in resource space. Which of these outcomes will occur crucially depends on the competition kernel, which reflects the shape of the resource utilization pattern......A central model in theoretical ecology considers the competition of a range of species for a broad spectrum of resources. Recent studies have shown that essentially two different outcomes are possible. Either the species surviving competition are more or less uniformly distributed over the resource...... to either uniform or lumped species distributions. Here, we illustrate the non-robustness of the Gaussian assumption by simulating different implementations of the standard competition model with constant carrying capacity. In this scenario, lumped species distributions can come about by secondary...

  5. War games: using MRP (material requirements planning) audits to pinpoint problems and keep the competitive edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, S H; Yocus, T E

    1994-05-01

    In today's world, it is a challenge just to stay in business, let alone remain competitive in a specific industry. We will show you how to pinpoint MRP II problems and attack them through self-assessment audits. You will discover the secrets of breaking down barriers between Master Schedulers, Material Planners, Production Control Planners, and the Manufacturing Line. Self-assessment audits are one way to take care of your planning functions before outside auditors take care of them for you. PMID:10134158

  6. EntrySat: A 3U CubeStat to study the reentry atmospheric environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Sournac; Raphael, Garcia; David, Mimoun; Jeremie, Chaix

    2016-04-01

    ISAE France Entrysat has for main scientific objective the study of uncontrolled atmospheric re-entry. This project, is developed by ISAE in collaboration with ONERA and University of Toulouse, is funded by CNES, in the overall frame of the QB50 project. This nano-satellite is a 3U Cubesat measuring 34*10*10 cm3, similar to secondary debris produced during the break up of a spacecraft. EntrySat will collect the external and internal temperatures, pressure, heat flux, attitude variations and drag force of the satellite between ≈150 and 90 km before its destruction in the atmosphere, and transmit them during the re-entry using the IRIDIUM satellite network. The result will be compared with the computations of MUSIC/FAST, a new 6-degree of freedom code developed by ONERA to predict the trajectory of space debris. In order to fulfil the scientific objectives, the satellite will acquire 18 re-entry sensors signals, convert them and compress them, thanks to an electronic board developed by ISAE students in cooperation with EREMS. In order to transmit these data every second during the re-entry phase, the satellite will use an IRIDIUM connection. In order to keep a stable enough attitudes during this phase, a simple attitude orbit and control system using magnetotorquers and an inertial measurement unit (IMU) is developed at ISAE by students. A commercial GPS board is also integrated in the satellite into Entry Sat to determine its position and velocity which are necessary during the re-entry phase. This GPS will also be used to synchronize the on-board clock with the real-time UTC data. During the orbital phase (≈2 year) EntrySat measurements will be recorded transmitted through a more classical "UHF/VHF" connection. Preference for presentation: Poster Most suitable session: Author for correspondence: Dr Raphael F. Garcia ISAE 10, ave E. Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France Raphael.GARCIA@isae.fr +33 5 61 33 81 14

  7. Tentative Techniques against Barriers to Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石玉

    2014-01-01

    跨文化交际时通常有四大障碍:民族优越感、刻板印象、言语及非言语因素、压力。如果能建立一个模式,选择一些技巧和练习来帮助学生克服跨文化交际障碍,让他们勇于和外国人交谈,对外语教师是大有益处的。此模式涉及一个定量和定性的教学实验研究。教学实验证明:实验组在经过克服跨文化交际障碍培训之后,在与外国人交流时表现得更好。一些经历性的练习,比如听读目标文化者的自传,是有利于减小民族优越感的;模拟角色扮演,比如像目标文化者那样表现自己,对克服刻板印象有益;做一些因为非言语因素引起的跨文化冲突对话会让学生了解更多的非言语因素;而压力是一个情感因素,只能通过更多的跨文化交际来减小了。%This paper seeks to describe a model for selecting techniques and exercises by experimenting both quantitatively and qualitatively to help students break barriers to intercultural communication.The results indicate that Exercises such as listening to or reading autobiography of people from the target culture contribute to reducing ethnocentrism;simulation role-play, i.e.to behave like a native of the target culture, is useful to the breakthrough of stereotype;dialogues about intercultural conflicts caused by non-verbal language can be made to acquaint students with some non-verbal language.

  8. A resource-based approach to performance and competition : An overview of the connections between resources and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bridoux, Flore

    2004-01-01

    This paper extends the resource-based view of the firm to give an overview of the connections between resources and competition. Specifically, it develops a conceptual framework explaining competitive advantage and performance that incorporate the resource-based view of the firm and Porter?s approach to competitive environment. On the basis of this framework, it shows how firms compete for resources and may use their resources to compete.

  9. Understanding barriers to implementation of an adaptive land management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Susan K; Morris, Julie K; Sanders, J Scott; Wiley, Eugene N; Brooks, Michael; Bennetts, Robert E; Percival, H Franklin; Marynowski, Susan

    2006-10-01

    The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission manages over 650,000 ha, including 26 wildlife management and environmental areas. To improve management, they developed an objective-based vegetation management (OBVM) process that focuses on desired conditions of plant communities through an adaptive management framework. Our goals were to understand potential barriers to implementing OBVM and to recommend strategies to overcome barriers. A literature review identified 47 potential barriers in six categories to implementation of adaptive and ecosystem management: logistical, communication, attitudinal, institutional, conceptual, and educational. We explored these barriers through a bureau-wide survey of 90 staff involved in OBVM and personal interviews with area managers, scientists, and administrators. The survey incorporated an organizational culture assessment instrument to gauge how institutional factors might influence OBVM implementation. The survey response rate was 69%. Logistics and communications were the greatest barriers to implementing OBVM. Respondents perceived that the agency had inadequate resources for implementing OBVM and provided inadequate information. About one-third of the respondents believed OBVM would decrease their job flexibility and perceived greater institutional barriers to the approach. The 43% of respondents who believed they would have more responsibility under OBVM also had greater attitudinal barriers. A similar percentage of respondents reported OBVM would not give enough priority to wildlife. Staff believed that current agency culture was hierarchical but preferred a culture that would provide more flexibility for adaptive management and would foster learning from land management activities. In light of the barriers to OBVM, we recommend the following: (1) mitigation of logistical barriers by addressing real and perceived constraints of staff, funds, and other resources in a participatory manner; (2) mitigation of

  10. Perceptions and Responses of High- and Low-Competitive Trait-Anxious Males to Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Tara K.

    1978-01-01

    The findings tentatively suggest that highly competitive trait-anxious individuals generally will seek out competitive sports activities and will structure the situation so that the full impact of the competition is felt regardless of how personally threatening the situation might be. (MM)

  11. How Does Foreign Bank Entry Affect Financial Inclusion in Emerging and Developing Economies?

    OpenAIRE

    Sasidaran Gopalan; Ramikishen S. Rajan

    2015-01-01

    An important dimension of the effects of foreign bank entry on financial sector development relates to that of financial inclusion. Despite its policy significance, the empirical literature offers little evidence on the impact of bank competition generally or foreign bank entry specifically on financial inclusion. This paper examines the relationship between foreign bank entry and financial inclusion for a panel of 57 emerging and developing economies over the period 2004-2009. The empirical ...

  12. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  13. Barriers to and enablers for European rail freight transport for integrated door-to-door logistics service. Part 1: Barriers to multimodal rail freight transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewan Md Zahurul ISLAM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine and identify barriers to and enablers for the European rail freight transport services as a transport chain partner along the supply chains in the changing market scenario. The changing market scenario includes, among others, requiring 'door-to-door' rather than 'terminal to terminal' and integrated service, competitive ability to attract non-rail cargo type, changes in the customer requirements (e.g. reliable service and changes in the operational requirements and practices. Using a literature review method, the paper is presented in two parts. The part 1 focuses on the identification of barriers to the European rail freight service by reviewing freight logistics services for global supply chains followed by the current performance of European rail freight transport followed by a discussion on the rail freight market liberalisation in Europe. Then rail freight transport in the Unites States (U.S. is discussed. The research notes that although the background, scope and necessity for reform measures in Europe differ from those of the U.S., some lessons can be learned and the main lesson is that an appropriate reform measure can enhance rail sector competitive ability in Europe. Examining and identifying the barriers in the part 1 (with the pan-Pacific examples of rail freight transports, the part 2 of the paper focuses on recommending clear actions and steps as enablers for the rail freight industry in general and operators in particular. The research in part 1 of the paper finds that: •\tIn many European countries, the rail freight market is not fully liberalised. In such market segment, infrastructure managers do act independently for incumbents and new entrant operators that hamper the progress of building a competitive market; •\tThe rail operators have not yet achieved the service quality (e.g. customer tailored service needed for the modern supply chains; •\tThey operate ‘terminal-to

  14. Role of Dickeya dadantii 3937 chemoreceptors in the entry to Arabidopsis leaves through wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Río-Álvarez, Isabel; Muñoz-Gómez, Cristina; Navas-Vásquez, Mariela; Martínez-García, Pedro M; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis enables bacteria to move towards an optimal environment in response to chemical signals. In the case of plant-pathogenic bacteria, chemotaxis allows pathogens to explore the plant surface for potential entry sites with the ultimate aim to prosper inside plant tissues and to cause disease. Chemoreceptors, which constitute the sensory core of the chemotaxis system, are usually transmembrane proteins which change their conformation when sensing chemicals in the periplasm and transduce the signal through a kinase pathway to the flagellar motor. In the particular case of the soft-rot pathogen Dickeya dadantii 3937, jasmonic acid released in a plant wound has been found to be a strong chemoattractant which drives pathogen entry into the plant apoplast. In order to identify candidate chemoreceptors sensing wound-derived plant compounds, we carried out a bioinformatics search of candidate chemoreceptors in the genome of Dickeya dadantii 3937. The study of the chemotactic response to several compounds and the analysis of the entry process to Arabidopsis leaves of 10 selected mutants in chemoreceptors allowed us to determine the implications of at least two of them (ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680) in the chemotaxis-driven entry process through plant wounds. Our data suggest that ABF-0020167 and ABF-0046680 may be candidate receptors of jasmonic acid and xylose, respectively. PMID:25487519

  15. 基于博弈论的我国竞争情报产业组织研究——市场进入策略分析%Research on Industrial Organization of Competitive Intelligence Based on Game Theory:Analysis onMarket Entry Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张圣明

    2012-01-01

    Whether at home or abroad, many consulting companies are offering competitive intelligence service. Although it is difficult to separate competitive intelligence from business activities totally to establish a special department, the intelligence industry will emerge as the utility of competitive intelligence increasingly. Based on the market status and the routine of other industry, monopoly will prevent it from fast development. Hence, the paper analyzes and discusses the three possible conditions of market entry through game theory, and puts forward three market entry strategies for the industrial organization of competitive intelligence.%无论在国内还是在国外,许多咨询公司都开展竞争情报服务.虽然要将竞争情报完全从企业的经营活动中分离出来,成为一个专门的社会化服务的产业部门似乎是困难的,但随着情报在知识经济中效用日益彰显,情报产业势必应运而生.结合市场实际和其他产业行规惯例,定会出现垄断,从而阻碍该产业发展.就此,笔者运用博弈论对三种可能的情况进行了分析探讨,并提出我国竞争情报产业组织市场进入策略.

  16. Barriers to accessing radiation therapy in Canada: a systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation therapy (RT) is effective treatment for curing and palliating cancer, yet concern exists that not all Canadians for whom RT is indicated receive it. Many factors may contribute to suboptimal use of RT. A review of recent Canadian literature was undertaken to identify such barriers. MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBase databases were used to search keywords relating to barriers to accessing or utilizing RT in Canada. Collected abstracts were reviewed independently. Barriers identified in relevant articles were categorized as relating to the health systems, patient socio-demographic, patient factors, or provider factors contexts and thematic analysis performed for each context. 535 unique abstracts were collected. 75 met inclusion criteria. 46 (61.3%) addressed multiple themes. The most cited barriers to accessing RT when indicated were patient age (n = 26, 34.7%), distance to treatment centre (n = 23, 30.7%), wait times (n = 22, 29.3%), and lack of physician understanding about the use of RT (n = 16, 21.6%). Barriers to RT are reported in many areas. The role of provider factors and the lack of attention to patient fears and mistrust as potential barriers were unexpected findings demanding further attention. Solutions should be sought to overcome identified barriers facilitating more effective cancer care for Canadians

  17. 50 CFR 26.23 - Exception for entry to the headquarters office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... office. 26.23 Section 26.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Exception for entry to the headquarters office. The headquarters office of any national wildlife refuge is open to public access and admission during regularly established business hours....

  18. An Application of Fuzzy Theory to Technical Competency Analysis for the Entry-Level Electronic Technician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liang-Te; And Others

    A study was conducted to develop the electronic technical competencies of duty and task analysis by using a revised DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) method, a questionnaire survey, and a fuzzy synthesis operation. The revised DACUM process relied on inviting electronics trade professionals to analyze electronic technology for entry-level…

  19. Barriers to cataract surgery in Africa: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheer Aboobaker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract remains the leading cause of blindness in Africa. We performed a systematic literature search of articles reporting barriers to cataract surgery in Africa. PubMed and Google Scholar databases were searched with the terms "barriers, cataract, Africa, cataract surgery, cataract surgical coverage (CSC, and rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB." The review covered from 1999 to 2014. In RAAB studies, barriers related to awareness and access were more commonly reported than acceptance. Other type of studies reported cost as the most common barrier. Some qualitative studies tended to report community and family dynamics as barriers to cataract surgery. CSC was lower in females in 88.2% of the studies. The variability in outcomes of studies of barriers to cataract surgery could be due to context and the type of data collection. It is likely that qualitative data will provide a deeper understanding of the complex social, family, community, financial and gender issues relating to barriers to uptake of cataract surgery in Africa.

  20. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rasoul ghollamzadeh

    2011-12-01

    One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  1. Strategic Orientation and Order of Market Entry of Food Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasoul Ghollamzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the strategic launch decisions is the order of market entry. Adoption of a suitable competitive strategy is dependent on firm's decision on market entry earlier or later than competitors. This research aims to analyze the relationship between order of market entry and firms’ strategic orientation. For this purpose, three strategies have been defined as cost leadership strategy, innovation differentiation strategy and marketing differentiation strategy. In this study, the essential question is whether firms use a different strategy based on their order of market entry? The proposed model has been examined on a sample of 102 manufacturing companies in the food industry using Structural Equation Modeling based on the methodology of Partial Least Squares (PLS. Findings indicate a direct influence of order of market entry on adopting a particular strategy by the firms, so that pioneer companies tend more to use differentiation strategy at two levels of marketing and innovation, while cost leadership is more common among followers.

  2. Barriers and perceived limitations to early treatment of hemophilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Kapil Saxena Boston Hemophilia Center, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Early treatment of bleeds in hemophilia patients, both with and without inhibitors, has been shown to be of immense benefit in the overall clinical outcome. Despite the advantages of treating the bleeding episodes early, significant barriers and limitations remain. The aim of this review is to highlight the various barriers and perceived limitations to early therapy of bleeding episodes, especially in patients who have developed inhibitors to factor VIII. The peer-reviewed literature was searched for articles on hemophilia patients, with and without inhibitors, and early treatment, to identify the barriers to early treatment and potential impact on patient outcomes. The most important barrier is the educational barrier, which involves lack of awareness among patients regarding the signs of a bleed, as well as importance of early therapy. It is also common for parents or caregivers of school-age children to exhibit inconvenience and scheduling barriers. Distance to the treatment center can also play a role here. Some patients experience financial barriers related to cost of clotting factor products, insurance coverage, or insurance caps and out-of-pocket costs. Rarely, there can also be problems related to venous access or home infusion. Lastly, multiple psychosocial barriers can prevent adherence to treatment regimens. Identification and addressing these individual barriers will result in improved compliance rates, prevent joint damage, be more cost-effective, and lead to better overall health of these patients. Keywords: hemophilia A, hemophilia B, inhibitors, outcomes, quality of life, cost of care

  3. CinéGlobe invites you to participate in a poster design competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Neal David Hartman

    2013-01-01

    For its 2014 publicity campaign, CinéGlobe invites CERN people to participate in a poster design competition.  The entries are now on display on the Pas Perdus in the main building, and the CERNois are invited to vote for their favourites.    CinéGlobe is the international festival of short films inspired by science that takes place every two years at CERN, in the Globe of Science and Innovation. From 18 to 23 March 2014, CERN will host the fourth edition of the festival. The mission of the CinéGlobe Film Festival is to challenge the commonly perceived divisions between science and art by demonstrating that they are both essential to interpreting our world. Open to short film creators from around the world, the CinéGlobe festival is truly international, the first three editions having attracted more than 4,000 entries from more than 100 countries around the globe.  In addition to screening...

  4. Collaborative Competition? A Great Way to Teach and Motivate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanello, Tony

    2005-02-01

    In my physics classes, I strive to motivate my students to do their very best work and inspire them to work harder than they have ever been asked to before. To reach that level, I find that my students need an outside motivation. They need to have someone from outside of their education community judge their skills and efforts. I have found that participation in team competitions provides students with the motivation to excel and also has the benefits of teaching students to work in a team setting. Thanks to several science-oriented organizations, there are a number of what I like to call "collaborative competitions" just begging for our students to enter, compete, and yes, even win! In this paper, I will describe some of the competitions my students have participated in and provide some tips for other teachers who may want to do likewise.

  5. THE STUDY OF BARRIERS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN MEN AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Gorji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the barriers to individual entrepreneurship as well as comparing them in men and women population. This study was applied, correlation-survey method. Using field method, the data are collected from 113 men entrepreneurs and 65 women entrepreneurs. One questionnaire whose validity and reliability is verified by content and Cranach’s  methods is also used to collect the research data. To analyze the data, T-test and ANOVA are used. The results indicated that there is a meaningful difference between individual and environmental barriers to entrepreneurship and order of effectiveness of barriers in men and women.

  6. Thermophysics Issues Relevant to High-Speed Earth Entry of Large Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, D.; Saunders, D.; Agrawal, P.; Allen, G.; Bauschlicher, C.; Brandis, A.; Chen, Y.-K.; Jaffe, R.; Schulz, J.; Stern, E.; Tauber, M.; White, S.

    2016-01-01

    Physics of atmospheric entry of meteoroids was an active area of research at NASA ARC up to the early 1970s (e.g., the oft-cited work of Baldwin and Sheaffer). However, research in the area seems to have ended with the Apollo program, and any ties with an active international meteor physics community seem to have significantly diminished thereafter. In the decades following the 1970s, the focus of entry physics at NASA ARC has been on improvement of the math models of shock-layer physics (especially in chemical kinetics and radiation) and thermal response of ablative materials used for capsule heatshields. With the overarching objectives of understanding energy deposition into the atmosphere and fragmentation, could these modern analysis tools and processes be applied to the problem of atmospheric entry of meteoroids as well? In the presentation we will explore: (i) the physics of atmospheric entries of meteoroids using our current state-of-the-art tools and processes, (ii) how multiple bodies interact, and (iii) the influence of wall blowing on flow dynamics.

  7. Identifying the Literacy Skills Needed by Entry-Level and Mid-to-Executive Level Secretaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norback, Judith Shaul; And Others

    A project described the literacy skills, tasks, and materials of the entry-level and the mid-to-executive level secretary jobs. It tested Job Literacy Analysis (JLA), a six-step methodology resulting in a job literacy description that includes a representative collection of the most important materials required for competent performance of the job…

  8. Entry and release of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus are restricted to apical surfaces of polarized epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossen, J W; Bekker, C P; Voorhout, W F; Strous, G J; van der Ende, A; Rottier, P J

    1994-01-01

    The transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) infects the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract of pigs, resulting in a high mortality rate in piglets. This study shows the interaction of TGEV with a porcine epithelial cell line. To determine the site of viral entry, LLC-PK1 cells were gro

  9. Chfr acts with the p38 stress kinases to block entry to mitosis in mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Matsusaka, Takahiro; Pines, Jonathon

    2004-01-01

    Entry into mitosis in vertebrate cells is guarded by a checkpoint that can be activated by a variety of insults, including chromosomal damage and disrupting microtubules (Rieder, C.L., and R.W. Cole. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 142:1013–1022; Rieder, C.L., and R.W. Cole. 2000. Curr. Biol. 10:1067–1070). This checkpoint acts at the end of interphase to delay cells from entering mitosis, causing cells in prophase to decondense their chromosomes and return to G2 phase. Here, we show that in response to ...

  10. Architectural Barriers Removal: Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Human Development (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office for Handicapped Individuals.

    The guide presents information on resources for eliminating architectural barriers for handicapped persons. Entries are grouped according to information resources, funding sources, and publications available from the federal government. Seven organizations are described in terms of agency goals, publications, and materials. Federal programs…

  11. Experimental adaptation of wild-type canine distemper virus (CDV to the human entry receptor CD150.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bieringer

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV, a close relative of measles virus (MV, is widespread and well known for its broad host range. When the goal of measles eradication may be achieved, and when measles vaccination will be stopped, CDV might eventually cross the species barrier to humans and emerge as a new human pathogen. In order to get an impression how fast such alterations may occur, we characterized required adaptive mutations to the human entry receptors CD150 (SLAM and nectin-4 as first step to infect human target cells. Recombinant wild-type CDV-A75/17(red adapted quickly to growth in human H358 epithelial cells expressing human nectin-4. Sequencing of the viral attachment proteins (hemagglutinin, H, and fusion protein, F genes revealed that no adaptive alteration was required to utilize human nectin-4. In contrast, the virus replicated only to low titres (10(2 pfu/ml in Vero cells expressing human CD150 (Vero-hSLAM. After three passages using these cells virus was adapted to human CD150 and replicated to high titres (10(5 pfu/ml. Sequence analyses revealed that only one amino acid exchange in the H-protein at position 540 Asp→Gly (D540G was required for functional adaptation to human CD150. Structural modelling suggests that the adaptive mutation D540G in H reflects the sequence alteration from canine to human CD150 at position 70 and 71 from Pro to Leu (P70L and Gly to Glu (G71E, and compensates for the gain of a negative charge in the human CD150 molecule. Using this model system our data indicate that only a minimal alteration, in this case one adaptive mutation, is required for adaptation of CDV to the human entry receptors, and help to understand the molecular basis why this adaptive mutation occurs.

  12. Perceived Barriers to Innovation in Small to Mediume Enterprises (SMEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Cooney, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Innovation is crucial to the successful development of small to medium-sized enterprises- and SMEs themselves are key to the continuing growth of the economy. Yet the owner/managers of many SMEs perceive the existence of many barriers to innovation. Whether such obstacles are real or merely perceived makes little difference to the strategic management and marketing practice of these firms. To illustrate this problem, this article reports both quantitative and qualitative research about barrie...

  13. 31 CFR 370.20 - What requirements apply if I want to authorize a debit entry to my deposit account?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... your deposit account. For a purchase of a book-entry security to be held in an investor account maintained by us, you must be named on the investor account. The authorization must be accomplished...

  14. Plastic responses of Abies pinsapo xylogenesis to drought and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Juan Carlos; Camarero, J Julio; Carreira, José Antonio

    2009-12-01

    Radial growth and xylogenesis were studied to investigate the influence of climate variability and intraspecific competition on secondary growth in Abies pinsapo Boiss., a relic Mediterranean fir. We monitored the responses to three thinning treatments (unthinned control -C-, 30% -T30- and 60% -T60- of basal area removed) to test the hypothesis that they may improve the adaptation capacity of tree growth to climatic stress. We also assessed whether xylogenesis was differentially affected by tree-to-tree competition. Secondary growth was assessed using manual band dendrometers from 2005 to 2007. In 2006, xylogenesis (phases of tracheid formation) was also investigated by taking microcores and performing histological analyses. Seasonal dynamics of radial increment were modeled using Gompertz functions and correlations with microclimate and radiation were performed. Histological analyses revealed it as fundamental to calibrate the dendrometer estimates of radial increment and to establish the actual onset and end dates of tracheid production. The lower radial-increment rates and number of produced tracheids were observed in the trees subjected to high competition in the unthinned plots. The growing season differed among the plots, and its duration ranged from an average of 78 days in unthinned plots to 115 days in thinned ones (T60). Variations in the beginning of the growing season (13 April to 22 May) and earlywood-latewood transition (early August) were mainly determined by the temperature pattern, while the onset and the end of the growing season were related to both annual precipitation and tree-to-tree competition. The tracheid-formation phases of radial enlargement and cell-wall thickening showed similar patterns in the trees from thinned and unthinned plots subjected to low and high competition, respectively, but the mean number of tracheids in each phase was always higher in the trees from the thinned plots. The reduction of competition through thinning

  15. HOW TO MAKE A DESTINATION MORE COMPETITIVE IN TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL SANDA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to make an overview on the concept of destination competitiveness, starting with the importance of tourism in the economy and ending with what actually means the concept, taking into consideration also the importance of developing quality tourism products.Powerful destinations manage to attract millions of tourists annually. The key of establishing proper strategies for tourism destinations is to determine the competitiveness of a tourism destination. This subject has been researched by many important researchers from the tourism area and the findings obtained can help marketers. It must also be taken into discussion the fact that competitiveness may not only relate to factors of related to the destination

  16. Barrier Busting: Leapfrogging Zombie Science Arguments to Get to Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassol, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate literacy certainly requires a basic understanding of the causes and impacts of climate change, and this has motivated our community to focus on ever better ways to communicate this knowledge. This has been very worthwhile. But continuing to dwell on refuting climate myths that seem impossible to put to rest has often kept us mired in the framing of those who reject the science and seek to stall action. Moving past misconceptions and barriers may require added emphasis on responses to climate change. Research focused on the American public has revealed a broader acceptance of the reality of climate change than many people think. In particular, there is broad support for solutions, such as clean energy, even among those who say they do not accept that human activity is the primary driver of climate change. This presents an opportunity to open a side door to understanding that avoids unproductive confrontation with ideological barriers. Research is also revealing effective models for behavioral change that tap into social norms. Leapfrogging basic science arguments and going straight to solutions that most agree on can help us clear some of the barriers to understanding and the hurdles to action.

  17. Revisiting Barriers to Trade: Do Foregone Health Benefits Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sidi; Kerr, William A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examins the question of revisiting the imposition of existing trade barriers in one case of an evolving marketplace – when a traditional food product is altered to provide, or discovered to have, human health benefits that increases their value to consumers. In other words, the food becomes a functional food. A functional food has the potential provide direct benefits to consumers as well as indirect benefits to society in the form of health care cost savings. If the trade barrier ...

  18. Barriers to Mammography Screening: How to Overcome Them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Hassoun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Screening mammography is an established intervention that leads to early breast cancer detection and reduced mortality. The Lebanese Ministry of Health has initiated yearly awareness campaigns and provided free mammography in multiple centers around the country. Methods: The study took place in two major areas of Lebanon - Beirut and South Lebanon. This cross-sectional survey aimed to assess knowledge about breast cancer screening and screening behaviors in the Lebanese population. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the reasons that prevented women from performing screening mammography based on our categories of questions: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, lack of access to screening facilities, failure of primary care physician to encourage screening behavior, and other reasons. Results: The major barriers to seek screening that had statistically significant P-values, in order of prevalence, included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer, followed by social reasons and lack of access. Conclusion: Given the prevalence of breast cancer in our population, it is important to understand the pitfalls that we experience in promoting awareness. Our study is the first study to reach out to the community to assess perceived barriers against screening and provide solutions for such barriers.

  19. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon;

    2008-01-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first......-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest...... that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome...

  20. Better to be red than blue in virtual competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Andrei; Ioan, Silvia; Zagrean, Leon; Moldovan, Mihai

    2008-06-01

    In the 2004 Olympic Games, opponents wearing red athletic uniforms were more likely to win against opponents wearing blue uniforms. To investigate whether this color bias extends to the world of virtual competition, we compared the performance of red and blue teams in a popular multiplayer first-person-shooter (FPS) computer game. For 3 consecutive months, we collected data from a publicly available global statistics server. Outcomes from 1,347 matches played by the top 10 players on the same virtual arena were included. Red teams won 54.9% of matches, and this effect was highly significant. Our data suggest that joining the red team may offer a slight advantage over the blue team in virtual competition, and this should be accounted for when designing FPS games. It is likely that "seeing red" may trigger a powerful psychological distractor signal in human aggressive competition that can affect the outcome of sports and virtual contests alike. PMID:18537513

  1. Using Competencies to Assess Entry-Level Knowledge of Students Graduating from Parks and Recreation Academic Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Amy R.; Elkins, Daniel J.; Beggs, Brent A.

    2014-01-01

    To address the Council on Accreditation of Parks, Recreation, Tourism, and Related Professions accreditation standard 7.01.01, the Entry Level Competency Assessment was developed to measure 46 competencies in four categories needed by entry level professionals. Students rated their competence prior to beginning their senior internship. The results…

  2. 76 FR 66862 - Opening of Boquillas Border Crossing and Update to the Class B Port of Entry Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ..., effective on January 23, 2007, that implemented WHTI at U.S. air ports of entry. See 71 FR 68412. On April 3... U.S. land and sea ports of entry. See 73 FR 18384. Prior to the implementation of WHTI, nationals of... may grow over time as NPS continues to work with the Mexican government to develop ecotourism...

  3. International Expansion and the Choice of Foreign Entry Mode: An Analysis of Western European Banks Entry to Baltic and Polish Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Vaher, Henri

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation thesis focuses on the issues of internationalization and foreign expansion. As increasing globalization has made the internationalization more widespread all over the world, the issues of internationalization have found more attention in academic literature. This dissertation tried to test the factors considered to be important in influencing the decision to foreign expansion as well as the choice of foreign entry mode in the banking industry following the process how banks ...

  4. A synthetic entry to pladienolide B and FD-895

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, Alexander L.; Jones, Brian D.; La Clair, James J.; Burkart, Michael D

    2007-01-01

    Presented within are syntheses of the pladienolide B and FD-895 side-chains, as well as models of the essential ring-closing metathesis and Stille coupling that will be used to complete the total synthesis of both products. Several analogs of the pladienolide B side-chain were also prepared in order to evaluate the scope of the methodology and to create a library of structures that could be used for stereochemical and SAR analyses.

  5. Entry Strategies to Indonesian Market Case: MoveaRoll

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Zahedul

    2013-01-01

    MoveRoll Oy, an internationally growing and expanding Finnish company located in Porvoo, has invented a unique technology to produce a paper roll conveyor which the company believes will revolutionise the paper roll handling industry. Moreover, after establishing itself in the Finnish market, the company has started expanding its business to countries like Sweden, USA, and China. Likewise, the process of expanding to the Russian market is currently underway and the company has recently launch...

  6. Nuclear dynamics around the barrier: from fusion to evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is devoted to aspects of nuclear dynamics around the barrier. It is shown that for fusion reactions, the Coulomb field couples relative motion of nuclei to rotation of a deformed projectile independently of the energy and the charge of the nuclei. An experimental study of the reaction 6He + 190Os via gamma spectroscopy of product nuclei has shown that the break up of the 6He is coupled to the relative motion too, a strong hindrance resulting in the fusion around and above the fusion barrier. The path to fusion after overcoming the barrier, especially the charge equilibration, have been studied in the framework of the TDHF theory via the preequilibrium GDR excited in N/Z asymmetric reactions. An application to formation of the super-heavy elements has been proposed. Finally, couplings between protons and neutrons have been shown up in mean field calculations. Their main expected effect is an emission of protons under the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  7. Patient barriers to insulin use in multi-ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visram, Hasina

    2013-06-01

    Insulin administration is often required in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus for optimal glycemic control. Despite this, however, many patients are reluctant to initiate insulin treatment. In the general population, there are multiple factors leading to this reluctance including fear of hypoglycemia, needle phobia and weight gain. These barriers are also present in multi-ethnic populations. However, there are several patient barriers that are more prevalent in various ethnic backgrounds that need to be addressed. These barriers include language barriers, poor health literacy, social factors and religious implications. The awareness of these factors as well as potential strategies to help overcome them can lead to the improved management of patients with diabetes from multi-ethnic populations. PMID:24070844

  8. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits, than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It is shown, through examples, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy. Experience in the United Kingdom indicates that free market forces and inter-energy competition not only help improve the regional and therefore national economy, but they offer a very effective way of introducing improvements in energy efficiency and the environment. Governments should establish the framework for competition and regulation but not attempt to manage an industry, which is invariably done more effectively by those who run them. (author)

  9. THE ROMANIAN BANKING COMPETITION AND THE ACCESSION TO EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Capraru

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we try to assess banking competition in the Romania for 2001 – 2008, taking into account the evolution of market share of the top five, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI, performances indicators like ROA and ROE and evolutions of deposit and loans rates. We observed that the competition in the Romanian banking system increases continuously in the last years. The main factors which have influenced this process were: the privatization of the majority of state capital banks and the perspective of accession of our country in the EU. In the period assessed, there are two approaches: in the first period banks have had very good performances due to their market share in a low competitive banking environment and after the privatization of some state capital banks, the leader of the market lost market share in the favor of other bank with greater performances.

  10. 77 FR 17492 - Expansion of Global Entry to Additional Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... selection process, and the initial airport locations. See 77 FR 5681 and 8 CFR 235.12. Travelers who wish to... (CLT); Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport, Phoenix, Arizona (PHX); and Denver...

  11. Survivorship care plans: Prevalence and barriers to use

    OpenAIRE

    Birken, Sarah A.; Mayer, Deborah K.; Weiner, Bryan J.

    2013-01-01

    Survivorship care plans (SCPs) are intended to educate survivors and providers about survivors’ transition from cancer treatment to follow-up care. Using a survey of 23 cancer programs in the South Atlantic United States, we (1) describe the prevalence and barriers to SCP use and (2) assess relationships between SCP use and (a) barriers and (b) cancer program characteristics. Most cancer programs (86%) reported some SCP use; however, less than a quarter of cancer programs’ providers had ever ...

  12. Competitive intelligence: An antidote to downsizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, G.E.; Spiers, J.P.

    1996-03-15

    This article is a review of the efforts of a number of utilities to use state-of-the-art information systems to improve their operations. Of note is: (1) BellSouth Telecommunications` plans to automate its manual outside-plant engineering and design process, (2) West Ohio Gas Company`s plans to develope software packages for DOT reporting and analysis, pressure control and analysis, customer complaint tracking, and emergency response, and (3) Kentucky Utilities Company`s use of information technology to improve its trouble-outage management capability, contain the operational costs of growth by increasing labor efficiency, and provide more accurate and timely information to enhance customer service.

  13. An activation-repolarization time metric to predict localized regions of high susceptibility to re-entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas; Bishop, Martin J.; Hanson, Ben; Coronel, Ruben; Opthof, Tobias; Bourkens, Bastiaan; Walton, Richard; Efimov, Igor; Bostock, Julian; Hill, Yolanda; Rinaldi, Christopher A; Razavi, Reza; Gill, Jaswinder; Taggart, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Initiation of re-entrant ventricular tachycardia (VT) involves complex interactions between activation and repolarization wavefronts. Recent experimental work has identified the time interval between S2 repolarization proximal to a line of functional block and the activation at the adjacent distal side, as a critical determinant of re-entry. Objective We hypothesized: (1) an algorithm could be developed which would generate a spatial map of this interval (designated the “re-entry vulnerability index”-RVI); (2) that this would accurately identify a pathway of re-entry as well as rotor formation in animal experiments and in a computational model; and, (3) that it would be possible to generate an RVI map in humans during routine clinical procedures and co-register with anatomical and electrophysiological features. Methods and Results An algorithm was developed which sampled all points on a multielectrode grid and calculated RVI between all pairs of electrodes within a given radius. The algorithm successfully identified the spatial region with increased susceptibility to re-entry in an established Langendorff pig heart model and the site of re-entry and rotor formation in an optically mapped sheep heart model and corresponding computational simulations. The feasibility of RVI mapping was evaluated during a clinical procedure by co-registering with the anatomy and physiology in a patient undergoing a VT ablation. Conclusions We developed an algorithm to calculate a re-entry vulnerability index from intervals between local repolarization and activation times at all adjacent points over a multielectrode grid. The algorithm accurately identified the region of re-entry in two animal models of functional re-entry. The possibility of clinical application was demonstrated in a patient with VT. PMID:25863160

  14. Nontechnical Barriers to Solar Energy Use: Review of Recent Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolis, R.; Zuboy, J.

    2006-09-01

    This paper reviews the nontechnical barriers to solar energy use, drawing on recent literature to help identify key barriers that must be addressed as part of the Technology Acceptance efforts under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solar America Initiative. A broad literature search yielded more than 400 references, which were narrowed to 19 recent documents on nontechnical barriers to the use of solar energy and other energy efficiency and renewable energy (EE/RE) technologies. Some of the most frequently identified barriers included lack of government policy supporting EE/RE, lack of information dissemination and consumer awareness about energy and EE/RE, high cost of solar and other EE/RE technologies compared with conventional energy, and inadequate financing options for EE/RE projects.

  15. Adjusted barrier management to improve glass eel migration at an estuarine barrier

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mouton; Buysse, D.; STEVENS, M.; Van den Neucker, T.; Coeck, J.

    2013-01-01

    European eel Anguilla Anguilla (L.) populations have declined dramatically during the last decades and are now among the most critically endangered fish populations in Europe. The limitation of upstream migration of glass eels is considered to be one of the key factors reducing eel populations. The migration of eels in their juvenile stage (glass eels) was studied, and options to improve eel passage at a tidal barrier complex at the mouth of the Yser River, Flanders, Belgium, were assessed. G...

  16. One-year transitional programme increases knowledge to level sufficient for entry into the fourth year of the medical curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Schönrock-Adema, Johanna; Bouwkamp-Timmer, Tineke; van Scheltinga, Gerard R. Terwisscha; Kuks, Jan B. M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: To cope with a lack of doctors and in anticipation of the Bachelor-Master structure for Medicine, several Dutch universities offer graduate entry programmes for students with degrees in areas related to Medicine. The graduate entry programme is a four-year programme: after a transition p

  17. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  18. BVA members wow judges in photo competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Earlier this year, BVA ran its inaugural photo competition, giving members the opportunity to showcase the work of the veterinary profession and the animals and wildlife they encounter. Standing out from over 400 high-quality entries, judges picked the images reproduced in this month's BVA News as the winning and highly commended photos. To see all the entries and hear from the winners, visit www.bva.co.uk/vet-photos-2016/. There will be another photo competition in 2017 with more categories to be announced. PMID:27585899

  19. Digital Competition Game to Improve Programming Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Julian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a digital game with an educational purpose in the subject of computer programming, which enables students to reinforce and improve their abilities on the concepts of sequencing, defined iteration and nesting. For its design, a problem solving approach was followed and a score comparing mechanism was implemented…

  20. Barrier to adoption of biogas technology in south sulawesi

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, Syahdar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify factors that barrier to adoption of biogas technology by cattle farmer in South Sulawesi. The population was all of beef cattle farmers who have implemented biogas technology in Barru, Bulukumba, Enrekang and Sinjai Regency. The type of digester has implemented was fixed dome with different digester material i.e plastic, fiber and concrete. The first stage of the research using delbecq methode. The key question was what is the barrier of bi...

  1. Administrative Barriers to Foreign Investment : Reducing Red Tape in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, James J.; Spence, Melvin T., Jr.; Louis T Wells; Timothy S. Buehrer

    2000-01-01

    The book consists of two papers which provide an overview of administrative barriers in Africa, and a very in-depth look at how one country, Mozambique, used a very large foreign investment as a mechanism to begin to tear them down. The first paper is based on a series of country-specific studies on administrative barriers done by Foreign Investment Advisory Service (FIAS) and the United S...

  2. Competitive Approach To Information System Risk Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Ryba

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the method of IT risk assessment from human behaviour perspective, developed by the author. It is an alternative for the commonly used approaches to risk assessment, based on vulnerability and threat identification and the probability estimation of their occurrence. The authors method applies to risk calculation factors such as administrators or users skills, attackers knowledge and determination, or attack method used. The key element of the proposed risk analysis compe...

  3. Competition to provide heat in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacing political nominees at state-owned companies after each change of the cabinet has become a standard. The consequences are all too well-known. In the best case, the company gets a manager that is an expert in the given area and in the worst case the new manager is a person who does not have the vaguest idea of the business and the only reason he has taken the position is to collect the salary. And in addition to this they might harm the company due to a lack of experience and expertise. These post-election changes often remove capable people from company management that do not have friends in the new cabinet but do not wish to leave the business. Over the years, they gained experience so why not start up a new company in the same business area. And heat supply in Kosice is a good example. For many years, there was only one heat supplier in Kosice, the state-owned joint stock company Teplaren Kosice (TEKO). It uses natural gas and coal from Russia. But at the end of last year, a new private limited liability company, Teplarenska spolocnost, was established. And it plans to build a new heating plant using wooden bio-mass for about 300 mil. Sk (8.82 mil. EUR) to compete with TEKO. The owners and managers of the company include former employees of the state-owned heating plant. (author)

  4. Dominican NGOs move from competition to collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, H

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, the seven nongovernmental organizations (NGO) working to prevent HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic received most of their funding and technical assistance from the US Agency for International Development (USAID). In September 1992, however, USAID's AIDSTECH project asked the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project to prepare the NGOs for the time when USAID would no longer be their main source of support. To that end, AIDSCAP worked with NGO staff to assess their technical, managerial, and administrative needs, and identified a lack of administrative and managerial experience among many NGO staff. AIDSCAP therefore developed an institutional strengthening plan, including a series of capacity building workshops, in 1993. Many NGOs, however, foreseeing the impending need to compete with other NGOs for limited funds, were not interested in sharing ideas and working together. This article describes how Coordinadora de Animacion Socio-Cultural (CASCO) and the Instituto Dominicano de Desarrollo Integral (IDDI) competed in the context of uncertainty over continued donor funding, but now meet regularly to coordinate HIV/AIDS prevention projects for youth in the Dominican Republic. PMID:12291823

  5. Barriers to the Development of SME's in the Australian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Mills

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium sized companies (SMEs operating in the construction industry in regionalareas of Australia often struggle to compete against city-based companies for constructionwork. This paper identifies the barriers that confront SMEs in areas outsidemajor cities, specifically in regional areas of Victoria (Australia where local firms oftencompete unsuccessfully against large Melbourne-based organisations. The authors alsolook at the possibility of using e-commerce solutions to give regional SMEs greater competitivenessas well as considering possible policy initiatives that may assist these companiesto be more successful in tendering against city-based competition.

  6. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  7. A Users Guide to Implementing City Competitiveness Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Gashi, Drilon; Watkins, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    This paper is framed as a User’s Guide to help city officials and city competitiveness practitioners in implementing interventions. This guide aims to support cities in identifying collaborative configurations of actors from the public and private sector along with the management approaches that can help leadership implement interventions to support the city economy.

  8. Equation of Energy Injection to a Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuiliang; Weng, Shan; Jin, Qi; Han, Jingyi; Jiang, Boqiong; Wu, Zuliang

    2016-08-01

    The electric energy injection from a pulsed power supply to a planar type of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor at atmospheric pressure was studied. Relations of the energy injection with barrier materials, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, electrode area, and operation temperature were experimentally investigated. The energy injection is a function of relative permittivity, barrier thickness, peak voltage, gap distance, and electrode area. The influence of operation temperature on energy injection is slight in the range of 27–300 °C but becomes obvious in the range of 300–500 °C. A model was established using which the energy injection can be easily predicted. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11575159), Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. LY13B070004), Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of S&T Innovation (No. 2013TD07), and National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51206146)

  9. Trek1 contributes to maintaining nasal epithelial barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Li, Jing; Li, Meng; Chen, Hong-Bin; Yan, Hao; Mo, Li-Hua; Qiu, Shu-Qi; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial barrier integrity is critical to maintain the homeostasis in the body. The regulatory mechanism of the epithelial barrier function has not been fully understood. This study aims to elucidate the role of the TWIK-related potassium channel-1 (Trek1) in the regulation of the epithelial barrier function of the nasal mucosa. In this study, the levels of Trek1 were assessed by real time RT-PCR and Western blotting. The epithelial barrier function of the rat nasal epithelia was evaluated by the Ussing chamber system. The results showed that Trek1 was detected in the human and rat nasal epithelia, which were significantly lower in patients and rats with allergic rhinitis than that in healthy controls. Exposure to the signature T helper 2 cytokine, interleukin (IL)-4, markedly suppressed the expression of Trek1 in the nasal mucosa via up regulating the expression of the histone deacetylase (HDAC)1. The IL-4-induced rat nasal epithelial barrier dysfunction could be blocked by HDAC1 inhibitor (Trichostatin A), or sodium butyrate, or administration of Clostridium Butyricum. We conclude that Trek1 is critical to maintain the nasal epithelial barrier function. PMID:25778785

  10. 'FLYING UNDER RADAR': SOUTHWEST AIRLINES AND INCUMBENTS¡¯ RESPONSE TO ENTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Byoung Oh

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the competitive effect of Southwest Airlines, considering the factors affecting its decision to offer service in particular city-pairs and the effect of Southwest¡¯s presence on overall fares and the fare distribution of major airlines. Southwest is a formidable, apparently low-cost competitor when it is present it often garners a large share and creates significant fare pressure on major airlines. Despite this competitive success Southwest¡¯s network does not include ...

  11. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  12. Experience using a programmable rules engine to implement a complex medical protocol during order entry.

    OpenAIRE

    Starmer, J. M.; Talbert, D. A.; Miller, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    WizOrder, Vanderbilt University Medical Center's (VUMC) clinician order entry system, is an excellent platform for delivering high-quality decision support to clinical end-users. A scripting language designed to make it easy for non-programmer domain experts to enter rules helps distribute the generation and maintenance of the knowledge-base necessary to drive effective decision support. Domain-experts have used this system to successfully implement relatively simple protocols. The VUMC Care ...

  13. The Evolution of Industrial Development Strategy up to China's Entry into the WTO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoKesha

    2005-01-01

    Changes in China's industrial development strategy undertaken prior to its entry into the WTO centered on strategies for foreign trade, foreign capital utilization, and industry structure. The foreign trade strategy tended to involve a shift from the importsubstitution strategy adopted before the reforms of 1978 to an export-oriented strategy, mainly still one of preferential export promotion. Strategy with regard to foreign capital utilization changed from restricting foreign capital to encouraging foreign capital.

  14. Female chimpanzees use copulation calls flexibly to prevent social competition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon W Townsend

    Full Text Available The adaptive function of copulation calls in female primates has been debated for years. One influential idea is that copulation calls are a sexually selected trait, which enables females to advertise their receptive state to males. Male-male competition ensues and females benefit by getting better mating partners and higher quality offspring. We analysed the copulation calling behaviour of wild female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii at Budongo Forest, Uganda, but found no support for the male-male competition hypothesis. Hormone analysis showed that the calling behaviour of copulating females was unrelated to their fertile period and likelihood of conception. Instead, females called significantly more while with high-ranking males, but suppressed their calls if high-ranking females were nearby. Copulation calling may therefore be one potential strategy employed by female chimpanzees to advertise receptivity to high-ranked males, confuse paternity and secure future support from these socially important individuals. Competition between females can be dangerously high in wild chimpanzees, and our results indicate that females use their copulation calls strategically to minimise the risks associated with such competition.

  15. An early view of the barriers to entry and career development in Building Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Infante-Perea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El sector de la construcción desempeña un importante rol en la economía mundial, ya que genera alrededor del 10% del PIB y da trabajo en torno al 7% de las personas empleadas. Se investigan las salidas profesionales de los ingenieros(as de edificación y las barreras de carrera que pueden encontrar en su acceso al mercado de trabajo y en su desarrollo profesional en el sector. A partir de la identificación de variables como barreras relevantes, se adopta un enfoque descriptivo e inferencial de carácter exploratorio para analizar la influencia del género en la percepción de dichas barreras en dos universidades españolas. Los resultados muestran un escenario laboral más difícil para ellas y nos permiten reflexionar sobre las repercusiones que estas percepciones tempranas pueden tener en el desarrollo profesional de la próxima generación de ingenieros(as de la edificación.

  16. An early view of the barriers to entry and career development in Building Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Margarita Infante-Perea; Marisa Román-Onsalo; Elena Navarro-Astor

    2015-01-01

    El sector de la construcción desempeña un importante rol en la economía mundial, ya que genera alrededor del 10% del PIB y da trabajo en torno al 7% de las personas empleadas. Se investigan las salidas profesionales de los ingenieros(as) de edificación y las barreras de carrera que pueden encontrar en su acceso al mercado de trabajo y en su desarrollo profesional en el sector. A partir de la identificación de variables como barreras relevantes, se adopta un enfoque descriptivo e inferencial d...

  17. Market entry and exit by biotech and device companies funded by venture capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lawton R; Housman, Michael G; Robinson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    Start-up companies in the biotechnology and medical device sectors are important sources of health care innovation. This paper describes the role of venture capital in supporting these companies and charts the growth in venture capital financial support. The paper then uses longitudinal data to describe market entry and exit by these companies. Similar factors are associated with entry and exit in the two sectors. Entries and exits in one sector also appear to influence entry in the other. These findings have important implications for developing innovative technologies and ensuring competitive markets in the life sciences. PMID:19049998

  18. International Competition, Slim Firms and Wage Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Wälde; Pia Weiss

    2004-01-01

    A country with Cournot competition and free entry experiences an increase of its market size either due to economic growth or international integration of goods markets. The implied increase in competition leads to shrinking mark-ups and forces firms to reduce overhead costs relative to output. This implies a reallocation at the aggregate level from administrative to productive activities. Relative factor rewards change and wage inequality increases. The factor losing in relative terms can ev...

  19. International competition, slim firms and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Waelde, Klaus; Weiss, Pia

    2004-01-01

    A country with Cournot competition and free entry experiences an increase of its market size either due to economic growth or international integration of goods markets. The implied increase in competition leads to shrinking mark-ups and forces firms to reduce overhead costs relative to output. This implies a reallocation at the aggregate level from administrative to productive activities. Relative factor rewards change and wage inequality increases. The factor losing in relative terms can ev...

  20. Gated entry into the ciliary compartment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Daisuke; Verhey, Kristen J

    2016-01-01

    Cilia and flagella play important roles in cell motility and cell signaling. These functions require that the cilium establishes and maintains a unique lipid and protein composition. Recent work indicates that a specialized region at the base of the cilium, the transition zone, serves as both a barrier to entry and a gate for passage of select components. For at least some cytosolic proteins, the barrier and gate functions are provided by a ciliary pore complex (CPC) that shares molecular and mechanistic properties with nuclear gating. Specifically, nucleoporins of the CPC limit the diffusional entry of cytosolic proteins in a size-dependent manner and enable the active transport of large molecules and complexes via targeting signals, importins, and the small G protein Ran. For membrane proteins, the septin protein SEPT2 is part of the barrier to entry whereas the gating function is carried out and/or regulated by proteins associated with ciliary diseases (ciliopathies) such as nephronophthisis, Meckel–Gruber syndrome and Joubert syndrome. Here, we discuss the evidence behind these models of ciliary gating as well as the similarities to and differences from nuclear gating. PMID:26472341

  1. Geothermal(Ground-Source)Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [ORNL

    2008-12-01

    More effective stewardship of our resources contributes to the security, environmental sustainability, and economic well-being of the nation. Buildings present one of the best opportunities to economically reduce energy consumption and limit greenhouse gas emissions. Geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), sometimes called ground-source heat pumps, have been proven capable of producing large reductions in energy use and peak demand in buildings. However, GHPs have received little attention at the policy level as an important component of a national strategy. Have policymakers mistakenly overlooked GHPs, or are GHPs simply unable to make a major contribution to the national goals for various reasons? This brief study was undertaken at DOE's request to address this conundrum. The scope of the study includes determining the status of global GHP markets and the status of the GHP industry and technology in the United States, assembling previous estimates of GHP energy savings potential, identifying key barriers to application of GHPs, and identifying actions that could accelerate market adoption of GHPs. The findings are documented in this report along with conclusions and recommendations.

  2. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US1=R2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. (author)

  3. Standards: The Keys to Domestic and International Competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates the importance of standards for the competitiveness of U.S. companies and for international trade. The value of standards in research and development, marketing, design, purchasing, manufacturing, installation, and service is explained. Examples of specific standards and their application to the computer industry are included. (10…

  4. Relaxing Competition through Speculation : Committing to a Negative Supply Slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, P.; Willems, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We demonstrate how suppliers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, suppliers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete with supply functions. In equilibrium firms sell forward contracts and buy

  5. Relaxing competition through speculation : Committing to a negative supply slope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmberg, Par; Willems, Bert

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how commodity producers can take strategic speculative positions in derivatives markets to soften competition in the spot market. In our game, producers first choose a portfolio of call options and then compete in supply functions. In equilibrium, producers sell forward contracts and

  6. International joint venturing : understanding entry to Chinese market area through cultural dimension analysis and network theory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Boyang

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this thesis is to analyze how Joint Venture Company survives in China with special policy and environment. With China implemented reform and opening to outside world, China has developed at a supernormal speed in absorbing foreign investment and has made great achievements attracting the world attention. Many foreign companies want to expand business into Chinese market. As one form of market entry, Joint Venture companies have more advantages for further dev...

  7. Binding of Adenovirus Capsid to Dipalmitoyl Phosphatidylcholine Provides a Novel Pathway for Virus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Balakireva, Larissa; Schoehn, Guy; Thouvenin, Eric; Chroboczek, Jadwiga

    2003-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) is an airborne, nonenveloped virus infecting respiratory epithelium. To study the mechanism of Ad entry, we used alveolar adenocarcinoma A549 cells, which have retained the ability of alveolar epithelial type II cells to synthesize the major component of pulmonary surfactant, disaturated phosphatidylcholine. Stimulation of phosphatidylcholine secretion by calcium ionophore or phorbol ester augmented the susceptibility of these cells to Ad. Both Ad infection and recombinant-Ad-...

  8. Evaluation of Data Entry Errors and Data Changes to an Electronic Data Capture Clinical Trial Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, Jules T; Kim, Yong Joong; Choi, Joonhyuk; Park, Glen; Cappi, Silvana; Horn, David; Kist, Morgan; D Agostino, Ralph B

    2011-07-01

    Monitoring of clinical trials includes several disciplines, stakeholders, and skill sets. The aim of the present study was to identify database changes and data entry errors to an electronic data capture (EDC) clinical trial database, and to access the impact of the changes. To accomblish the aim, Target e*CRF was used as the EDC tool for a multinational, dose-finding, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel, placebo-controlled trial to investigate efficacy and safety of a new treatment in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. The main errors observed were simple transcription errors from the paper source documents to the EDC database. This observation was to be expected, since every transaction has an inherant error rate. What and how to monitor must be assessed within the risk-based monitoring section of the comprehensive data monitoring plan. With the advent of direct data entry, and the elimination of the requirement to transcribe from a paper source record to an EDC system, error rates should go down dramatically. In addition, protocol violations and data outside the normal range can be identified at the time of data entry and not days, weeks, and months after the fact. PMID:24058221

  9. An Automated Method to Compute Orbital Re-entry Trajectories with Heating Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Curtis; Dukeman, Greg; Hanson, John; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Determining how to properly manipulate the controls of a re-entering re-usable launch vehicle (RLV) so that it is able to safely return to Earth and land involves the solution of a two-point boundary value problem (TPBVP). This problem, which can be quite difficult, is traditionally solved on the ground prior to flight. If necessary, a nearly unlimited amount of time is available to find the 'best' solution using a variety of trajectory design and optimization tools. The role of entry guidance during flight is to follow the pre- determined reference solution while correcting for any errors encountered along the way. This guidance method is both highly reliable and very efficient in terms of onboard computer resources. There is a growing interest in a style of entry guidance that places the responsibility of solving the TPBVP in the actual entry guidance flight software. Here there is very limited computer time. The powerful, but finicky, mathematical tools used by trajectory designers on the ground cannot in general be converted to do the job. Non-convergence or slow convergence can result in disaster. The challenges of designing such an algorithm are numerous and difficult. Yet the payoff (in the form of decreased operational costs and increased safety) can be substantiaL This paper presents an algorithm that incorporates features of both types of guidance strategies. It takes an initial RLV orbital re-entry state and finds a trajectory that will safely transport the vehicle to Earth. During actual flight, the computed trajectory is used as the reference to be flown by a more traditional guidance method.

  10. Mammalian cell entry genes in Streptomyces may provide clues to the evolution of bacterial virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Laura C.; Seipke, Ryan F; Pilar Prieto; Joost Willemse; van Wezel, Gilles P; Hutchings, Matthew I; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolution of virulence is key to appreciating the role specific loci play in pathogenicity. Streptomyces species are generally non-pathogenic soil saprophytes, yet within their genome we can find homologues of virulence loci. One example of this is the mammalian cell entry (mce) locus, which has been characterised in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. To investigate the role in Streptomyces we deleted the mce locus and studied its impact on cell survival, morphology and interaction...

  11. Government`s response to the competitiveness problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.; Carayannis, E.

    1997-11-01

    This paper presents an analysis of how the US government responded to the concern in the 1980`s that US companies were experiencing problems of competitiveness in international markets. By the mid 1980`s there was great and growing concern throughout the US that US companies were experiencing difficulties in international competition. Pressure on Congress to take action came from constituents seeking jobs and companies that would directly benefit (this usually means receive public money) from programs that Congress might initiate. The fact that most constituent calls to Congress were about job creation was lost in the on-rush of R&D performers seeking funds for their favorite R&D project. In response, Congress created the Advanced Technology Program, the Technology Transfer Initiative, and the Technology Reinvestment Project, expanded the responsibilities of ARPA/DARPA, increased funding for the Small Business Initiative, expanded the Manufacturing Extension Partnership, funded SEMATECH, and increased NSF funding for basic research at universities. Many of these programs were later criticized for being industrial welfare and several were cut-back or stopped. Retrospective analysis shows that few of these programs addressed the root cause of competitiveness difficulties. In fact, by the time most of these programs were in place, US companies were well on their way to correcting their competitiveness problems. In addition, few were relevant to companies` often expressed concerns about workforce training, regulatory costs, and access to foreign markets. Twenty percent reductions in health care costs, regulatory costs, and education costs could annually pump $500 billion into the US economy and make companies operating in the US much more competitive in international markets.

  12. Children's social/emotional characteristics at entry to school: implications for school nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Helen; Kendall, Garth; Shields, Linda

    2013-09-01

    Children entering school need to build healthy peer relationships; school, however, is the central place for bullying. School nurses have a growing focus on providing care for students with social, emotional and behavioural problems. We examined the relational development of children at school entry in regard to aggression and empathy, showing that teacher-reported aggression decreased between Pre-primary and Year One, while empathy increased between Year One and Year Two classes. No gender difference was found in teacher-reported total, or covert aggression. Understanding how development of empathy can be supported in children at school entry is important, thereby supporting development of pro-social behaviour and decreasing bullying. School nurses must understand the importance of surrounding children with safety in relationships as they begin school. PMID:23455873

  13. Direct-to-Earth Communications with Mars Science Laboratory During Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Melissa; Finley, Susan; Fort, David; Schratz, Brian; Ilott, Peter; Mukai, Ryan; Estabrook, Polly; Oudrhiri, Kamal; Kahan, Daniel; Satorius, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) undergoes extreme heating and acceleration during Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) on Mars. Unknown dynamics lead to large Doppler shifts, making communication challenging. During EDL, a special form of Multiple Frequency Shift Keying (MFSK) communication is used for Direct-To-Earth (DTE) communication. The X-band signal is received by the Deep Space Network (DSN) at the Canberra Deep Space Communication complex, then down-converted, digitized, and recorded by open-loop Radio Science Receivers (RSR), and decoded in real-time by the EDL Data Analysis (EDA) System. The EDA uses lock states with configurable Fast Fourier Transforms to acquire and track the signal. RSR configuration and channel allocation is shown. Testing prior to EDL is discussed including software simulations, test bed runs with MSL flight hardware, and the in-flight end-to-end test. EDA configuration parameters and signal dynamics during pre-entry, entry, and parachute deployment are analyzed. RSR and EDA performance during MSL EDL is evaluated, including performance using a single 70-meter DSN antenna and an array of two 34-meter DSN antennas as a back up to the 70-meter antenna.

  14. Barriers to tacit knowledge retention: An understanding of the perceptions of the knowledge management of people inside and outside the organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Jacky Bessick; Visvanathan Naicker

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge loss causes challenges for organisations that wish to remain competitive. These organisations must identify the risks that could lead to knowledge loss and become aware of issues that affect knowledge retention.Objectives: The objective of this research was to identify tacit knowledge retention barriers that could cause knowledge loss in an organisation. The paper presents a framework for the assessment of the impact of these barriers and discusses the research finding...

  15. New criteria to select foreign entry mode choice of global franchise chains into emerging markets

    OpenAIRE

    Baena Graciá, Verónica; Cerviño Fernández, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Despite emerging markets are some of the fastest growing economies in the world and represent countries that are experiencing a substantial economic transformation, little is known about the factors influencing choices of foreign entry mode in those markets. Especially, regarding companies that franchise overseas. In an attempt to expand our knowledge of this topic, this paper presents an empirical assessment of the relationship between a set of different variables with the four poss...

  16. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R. J.; Edwards, M. C.; Curran, P. J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Thro...

  17. Atmospheric entry of Mars-return nuclear-powered vehicles due to accidental termination of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Gene P.; Park, Chul

    1993-06-01

    The entry of nuclear reactors into Earth's atmosphere resulting from an accidental or inadvertent abort of a space vehicle powered by nuclear-thermal rockets is investigated. The study is made for a typical piloted Mars mission vehicle incapacitated by an accident or malfunction during the Earth-arrival phase of the Mars-return journey due to simultaneous, multiple failures of its component systems. A single accident/abort scenario resulting in three entry possibilities is considered for a nominal hyperbolic in-bound approach velocity of 8 km/sec. The most severe case involving a direct entry is then analyzed over a broad range of approach velocities extending to 12 km/sec to include sprint-type missions. The results indicate that the severe surface heating, stagnation pressures, and g-loads are greater than 150 kW/sq cm, 300 atm, and 800-g, respectively. The wall heat transfer rate exceeds the value that can be accommodated by a carbon heatshield through radiation equilibrium prior to sublimation at 5500 K. These conditions are beyond our previous experience in crew safety, structural design, and thermal protection.

  18. Determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-12-20

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for determining when a set of compute nodes participating in a barrier operation on a parallel computer are ready to exit the barrier operation that includes, for each compute node in the set: initializing a barrier counter with no counter underflow interrupt; configuring, upon entering the barrier operation, the barrier counter with a value in dependence upon a number of compute nodes in the set; broadcasting, by a DMA engine on the compute node to each of the other compute nodes upon entering the barrier operation, a barrier control packet; receiving, by the DMA engine from each of the other compute nodes, a barrier control packet; modifying, by the DMA engine, the value for the barrier counter in dependence upon each of the received barrier control packets; exiting the barrier operation if the value for the barrier counter matches the exit value.

  19. 75 FR 65005 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    ... Statement (SEIS), Mississippi Barrier Island Restoration, Mississippi Coastal Improvements Program (MsCIP... comprehensive restoration of the Mississippi barrier islands. These actions are related to the consequences of... and wildlife, prevention of erosion, barrier island restoration, and other related water...

  20. A user-oriented laboratory data entry computer system designed to reduce errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data entry computer programs that focus on the user-system interface can reduce error, save time, and optimize personnel resources. Feed-back from the potential users during the task analysis and throughout the development stage should direct the formation of the computer code. Checking and verification of data, reduction of keystrokes, and in-place instructions are some of the techniques that should be utilized. These design principles and techniques were used during the development of ENTRY, a data entry computer program used to record data (e.g., sample weights, radiochemical analyses) for a long-term field and laboratory study. Extensive data must be collected each year from each of the more than 350 experimental plots used in the study. The data is entered on a MINC-11/sup(b)/ microcomputer with two disk drives and less than eight kilobytes of usable memory. Despite the memory restriction, the program demonstrates a wide range of techniques which make it easy to use and consequently reduces the occurrence of errors

  1. Roll-to-roll vacuum deposition of barrier coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    It is intended that the book will be a practical guide to provide any reader with the basic information to help them understand what is necessary in order to produce a good barrier coated web or to improve the quality of any existing barrier product. After providing an introduction, where the terminology is outlined and some of the science is given (keeping the mathematics to a minimum), including barrier testing methods, the vacuum deposition process will be described. In theory a thin layer of metal or glass-like material should be enough to convert any polymer film into a perfect barrier material. The reality is that all barrier coatings have their performance limited by the defects in the coating. This book looks at the whole process from the source materials through to the post deposition handling of the coated material. This holistic view of the vacuum coating process provides a description of the common sources of defects and includes the possible methods of limiting the defects. This enables readers...

  2. Computerized logistics information systems - a key to competitiveness:

    OpenAIRE

    Čižman, Anton

    2001-01-01

    Part of an organization's ability to use logistics as a competitive weapon is based on its ability to assess and adjust actual logistics performance real time. This means the ability to monitor customer demands and inventory levels as they occur, to act in timely manner to prevent stockouts, and communicate potential problems to customers. This requires excellent, integrated logistics systems which impact all of the logistics activities. In this paper we examined how computer and information ...

  3. Eave Screening and Push-Pull Tactics to Reduce House Entry by Vectors of Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, David J; Omusula, Philemon; Wouters, Karlijn; Oketch, Charles; Carreira, Ana S; Durka, Maxime; Derycke, Jean-Luc; Loy, Dorothy E; Hahn, Beatrice H; Mukabana, Wolfgang R; Mweresa, Collins K; van Loon, Joop J A; Takken, Willem; Hiscox, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying have contributed to a decline in malaria over the last decade, but progress is threatened by the development of physiological and behavioral resistance of mosquitoes against insecticides. Acknowledging the need for alternative vector control tools, we quantified the effects of eave screening in combination with a push-pull system based on the simultaneous use of a repellent (push) and attractant-baited traps (pull). Field experiments in western Kenya showed that eave screening, whether used in combination with an attractant-baited trap or not, was highly effective in reducing house entry by malaria mosquitoes. The magnitude of the effect varied for different mosquito species and between two experiments, but the reduction in house entry was always considerable (between 61% and 99%). The use of outdoor, attractant-baited traps alone did not have a significant impact on mosquito house entry but the high number of mosquitoes trapped outdoors indicates that attractant-baited traps could be used for removal trapping, which would enhance outdoor as well as indoor protection against mosquito bites. As eave screening was effective by itself, addition of a repellent was of limited value. Nevertheless, repellents may play a role in reducing outdoor malaria transmission in the peridomestic area. PMID:26834195

  4. A survey to identify barriers of implementing an antibiotic checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Daalen, F V; Geerlings, S E; Prins, J M; Hulscher, M E J L

    2016-04-01

    A checklist is an effective implementation tool, but addressing barriers that might impact on the effectiveness of its use is crucial. In this paper, we explore barriers to the uptake of an antibiotic checklist that aims to improve antibiotic use in daily hospital care. We performed an online questionnaire survey among medical specialists and residents with various professional backgrounds from nine Dutch hospitals. The questionnaire consisted of 23 statements on anticipated barriers hindering the uptake of the checklist. Furthermore, it gave the possibility to add comments. We included 219 completed questionnaires (122 medical specialists and 97 residents) in our descriptive analysis. The top six anticipated barriers included: (1) lack of expectation of improvement of antibiotic use, (2) lack of expected patients' satisfaction by checklist use, (3) lack of feasibility of the checklist, (4) negative previous experiences with other checklists, (5) the complexity of the antibiotic checklist and (6) lack of nurses' expectation of checklist use. Remarkably, 553 comments were made, mostly (436) about the content of the checklist. These insights can be used to improve the specific content of the checklist and to develop an implementation strategy that addresses the identified barriers. PMID:26810059

  5. The Sport League's Dilemma: Competitive Balance versus Incentives to Win

    OpenAIRE

    Palomino, F.A.; Rigotti, L.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze a dynamic model of strategic interaction between a professional sport league that organizes a tournament, the teams competing to win it, and the broadcasters paying for the rights to televise it. Teams and broadcasters maximize expected profits, while the league's objective may be either to maximize the demand for the sport or to maximize the teams' joint profits. Demand depends positively on symmetry among teams (competitive balance) and how aggressively teams try to win (incenti...

  6. Approaches to Assess Competitiveness of Small and Medium Sized Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is continuing interest in Member States concerning the development and application of small and medium sized reactors (SMRs), i.e., reactors with the equivalent electric power of less than 700 MW. Currently, developed SMRs are in most cases intended for markets different than those in which large nuclear power plants operate. Such markets have essentially different investment requirements, siting flexibility, grid connections and infrastructure restrictions. Therefore, economic factors affecting the competitiveness or competition of SMRs in such markets would also be different from those observed in established markets for electricity production. For example, investment capability may be limited, which would favour capacity addition in smaller increments; grids may be small or weak, which would favour capacities exactly matching the demand; infrastructure and human resource may be insufficient, which would favour less complex operation and maintenance requirements; and non-electrical energy products, such as potable water, may be in demand, which would favour reasonably close plant location to the customer. In practice it is futile to compare a single SMR needs to a single larger capacity plant on an economy of scale basis because SMRs are suitable for those locations that might not be appropriate for larger plants. However, a series of SMRs could be considered comparable to fewer larger plants to achieve the same overall power station capacity. In this case, SMRs have a potential to be competitive by employing alternative design strategies, taking advantage of smaller reactor size, offering a less complex design and operation and maintenance, relying on deployment-in-series approaches, taking an advantage of the accelerated learning, multiple unit factors and shorter construction duration. Reflecting on developments in member states, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is finalizing the preparation of a report highlighting the economics and

  7. Overcoming barriers to seedling regeneration during forest restoration on tropical pasture land and the potential value of woody weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia eElgar; Kylie eFreebody; Catherine ePohlman; Luke Paul Shoo; Carla eCatterall

    2014-01-01

    Combating the legacy of deforestation on tropical biodiversity requires the conversion to forest of large areas of established pasture, where barriers to native plant regeneration include competition with pasture grasses and poor propagule supply (seed availability). In addition, initial woody plants that colonise pasture are often invasive non-native species whose ecological roles and management in the context of forest regeneration are contested. In a restoration experiment at two 0.64 ha s...

  8. Midwives unable to overcome language barriers in prenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam P. Fransen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the present study aims to explore to what extent midwives experience barriers in providing information about prenatal screening for Down syndrome to women from diverse ethnic backgrounds, and to assess their competences to overcome these barriers.

    Methods: midwives from 24 Dutch midwifery practices in Rotterdam completed a structured webbased questionnaire (n=57. Data were obtained on perceived ethnic-related differences and barriers in providing information on prenatal screening, preparedness to provide cultural competent care, and the use of translated materials and professional translators. A group interview was conducted to further explore the results emerging from the questionnaire (n=23.

    Results: almost all midwives (95% experienced barriers in informing women from non-Western ethnic backgrounds about prenatal screening. Midwives especially felt incompetent to provide information to pregnant women that hardly speak and understand Dutch. In total 58% of the midwives reported that they never used translated information materials and 88% never used professional interpreters in providing information on prenatal screening. The main reasons for this underutilization were unawareness of the availability of translated materials and unfamiliarity with the use of professional interpreters.

    Conclusions: although language barriers were reported to be the main difficulty in providing cultural competent care to patients from diverse ethnic backgrounds, only a minority of the midwives used translated materials or professional interpreters. In order to enable all pregnant women to make an informed decision whether or not to participate in prenatal screening, midwives’ competences to address language barriers should be increased.

  9. On the barrier to crystal nucleation in lunar glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinnon, H.; Roshko, A.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes an analytical method for calculating in detail the size distributions of small crystallites and nuclei in supercooled liquids as they are being quenched to form a glass and subsequently reheated above the glass transition to produce crystallization. This method is applied to experiments performed using differential thermal analysis (DTA) to estimate the barriers to crystal nucleation and the cooling rates required to form glasses or bodies with various degrees of crystallinity. DTA data and derived nucleation barriers are reported for anorthite and for the following lunar compositions: 15498, 15418, matrix and intrusion compositions of breccia 15286, Apollo 15 green glass, Luna 24 highland basalt, and 65016.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE EVOLUTION OF THE COMPETITIVE ENVIRONMENT IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR, THE 2010-2014 PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÂLDAN FLORENTINA CRISTINA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paper “Analysis of the evolution of the competitive environment in the Romanian banking sector, the 2010- 2014 period” takes into account the fact that in the analysed period, the number of the active credit institutions in the Romanian market remained relatively constant. Thus, at the end of the first semester of 2014, the Romanian banking system comprised 40 credit institutions, out of which nine are branches of foreign banks, while after 2010 42 banks operated in the market (out of which nine were branches of foreign banks. The main factors that determine the dynamics of the number of competitors in the banking sector are: relatively high barriers to the entry on the market; high barriers to the exit from the market; the macroeconomic environment, more particularly, the uncertainties related to the main indicators and on the public policies with impact on the business environment. The comparative analysis of the evolution of interests with the situation of the bank charges for banking services covering the highest number of clients, indicates a market power clearly higher of the banks in relation to the clients holding debit cards and a relatively low competition level generated by the even level of the charges. An important cause of this situation consists of high barriers for consumers in relation to changing the supplier banking service (switching costs (especially debit cards. Under such circumstances, the initiatives aimed at increasing the pro-competitive nature of the regulations, especially by eliminating the barriers to changing the supplier (such as the bank account portability, are particularly important from the perspective of the national competition authority

  11. Quality Health Care in the European Union Thanks to Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Fornaciari

    2009-01-01

    There are many biases concerning the application of competition law in health care. Quality concerns can however be integrated into competition law analysis. The aim of this paper is to identify the links between the application of competition law in the European Union and the right to quality health care and to point out the problems that arise when integrating quality concerns in competition law analysis. Guidelines must be issued and competition authorities must work together with institut...

  12. Applying Foreign Entry Market Strategies to UK Higher Education Transnational Education Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Victoria; Antoniou, Christos

    2016-01-01

    We take a multidisciplinary approach mapping the models used by UK higher education (HE) institutions against established international business foreign market entry strategies. We review the conditions in host markets that facilitate market entry and consider how these will determine foreign market entry strategy. We specifically consider four…

  13. Using Competitions to Engage the Public: Lessons Learnt from Rosetta

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, K. S.; Baldwin, E.; Mignone, C.; Homfeld, A. M.; Scuka, D.; Schepers, A.; Braun, M.; Croci, F.; Giacomini, L.; Journo, N.; Bauer, M.; McCaughrean, M.

    2016-03-01

    The year 2014 was an historic and challenging time for the Rosetta mission. On 20 January the spacecraft awoke from a 957-day hibernation; by August, it had arrived at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko; and in November, the lander Philae was deployed to the comet's surface. These milestones were communicated by traditional outreach channels -- on websites and via press events -- as well as through the extensive use of social media. To provide an opportunity for the public to participate actively in these milestones, the European Space Agency and its partners ran three competitions. In this article we outline how these competitions provided a means for the public to engage with what was to become one of the most exciting space science missions in decades.

  14. Competitive energy markets. The effective route to improving the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate how market forces, operating in an increasingly competitive energy market, are a preferred route to achieving environmental and energy efficiency benefits than those which can be achieved through a managed approach adopted by many governments. It shows, through UK examples such as shifting to electricity in several industrial processes, how electricity is a catalyst for change at several levels in business, the community and the general economy

  15. Ambient Returns: Creative Capital's Contribution to Local Manufacturing Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Wojan, Timothy R.; McGranahan, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the possibility that competitive rural manufacturing is increasingly driven by quality-of-life factors required to attract highly skilled and creative workers. Recent findings that highly creative workers are drawn to amenity-rich rural areas provide the empirical leverage for testing anecdotal claims that these areas tend to contain small manufacturing bases that are more reliant on innovation. This contrasts with the cost advantage rationale of traditional rural manufac...

  16. Opportunities to Improve the Competitiveness of Romanian Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe, Gabriela; Ioana LUPASC

    2013-01-01

    Competitive organizations are permanently prepared to identify the cutting-edge technologies which will change the future in business by using the concept of Business Intelligence. Moore's paradigm was a visionary model to predict the future and to make the correct business decisions, inspiring business solutions in many fields. Many businesses believe that predictions based on an exponential improvement of the technology have successfully bet that the technological limitations can be overcom...

  17. Osteitis pubis: can early return to elite competition be contemplated?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In elite athletes, osteitis pubis is a common painful degenerative process of the pubic symphysis and surrounding soft tissues and tendons. We report the diagnostic pathway and the rehabilitation protocol of six elite athletes with osteitis pubis in three different sports, and compare protocol stages and time to return to competition. Methods 6 athletes (2 soccer, 2 basketball, 2 rugby players) were diagnosed with osteitis pubis stage III and IV according to Rodri...

  18. Technological innovation as a mean to increase economic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela VASILE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporations must be able to adapt and evolve if they wish to survive. Businesses operate with the knowledge that their competitors will inevitably come to the market with a product that changes the basis of competition. The ability to change and adapt is essential to survival.(1 European Union and its member states set several frameworks to support companies to acquire knowledge and strengthen their competitiveness, as follows:- National Programs for R & D funding which support national actors;- Sectorial Operational Programs (either at national or regional level, in full compliance with national rules;- EU programs (e.g. Competitiveness and Innovation Program – CIP, R&D Framework Programs – FP;- Pan-European programs (e.g. EUREKA.Romania is participating to all programs and pan-European R & D frameworks. Furthermore, its innovation program within the National Plan for research facilitates company participation to knowledge development and technology development. Nevertheless Romania’s Innovation performance is still at one of the lowest level in Europe(2. The followings present how companies are considering their participation to R & D programs and the impact of an R & D project in a company.

  19. Building Entry Loss and Delay Spread Measurements on a Simulated HAP-to-Indoor Link at S-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado-Penín JA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from a measurement campaign emulating the high altitude platform (HAP-to-indoor communication channel at S-band are presented in this paper. A link was established between a transmitter carried by a helicopter, representing the HAP, and a receiver placed at several locations in different building types including an airport, an office building, a shopping mall, a residential house, and a skyscraper. A wideband, directive channel sounder was used to measure building entry loss and time delay spread. Results of the building entry loss are presented as a function of building type, elevation, and building entry angle. Results of delay spread for each building are also provided.

  20. Building Entry Loss and Delay Spread Measurements on a Simulated HAP-to-Indoor Link at S-Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Valtr

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Results from a measurement campaign emulating the high altitude platform (HAP-to-indoor communication channel at S-band are presented in this paper. A link was established between a transmitter carried by a helicopter, representing the HAP, and a receiver placed at several locations in different building types including an airport, an office building, a shopping mall, a residential house, and a skyscraper. A wideband, directive channel sounder was used to measure building entry loss and time delay spread. Results of the building entry loss are presented as a function of building type, elevation, and building entry angle. Results of delay spread for each building are also provided.

  1. GLOBALIZATION- FACTOR THAT INFLUENCE THE COMPETITION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    RALUCA PODAªC?

    2012-01-01

    The concept of globalization has become a reality, reaching economic, social and political environment. Globalization is reflected in the increasingly interdependence of largest national economies, as determined by reducing or eliminating barriers of all sorts of way of international flows of capital, labor, goods and services. Between globalization and competitiveness undoubtedly there are many connections. Globalization cause pressure to change and competition. Global competitiveness of nat...

  2. WAVE TRANSMISSION AND REFLECTION DUE TO A THIN VERTICAL BARRIER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A numerical method, the boundary fitted coordinate method (BFC),was used to investigate the transmission and reflection of water waves due to a rigid thin vertical barrier descending from the water surface to a depth, i. e. , a curtain-wall type breakwater. A comparison between the present computed results and previous experimental and analytical results was carried out which verifies the prediction of the BFC method. Wave transmission and reflection due to the barrier were computed, and the transmission and refiection coefficients were given in a figure.

  3. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...... representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: ‘Fear...... hinder: ‘Autonomy and purpose’, ‘Solidarity and fellowship’ and ‘Forget and move on’. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in...

  4. Organizational, interface, and financial barriers to the commercial development of community energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schladale, R.; Ritschard, R.

    1979-12-01

    The scope of this analysis was limited to systems producing electricity - the output of a community energy system typically falling in the range 10 kW to 150 MW. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers that groups and individuals will face when attempting to commercialize community energy systems. Three particular classes of barriers were investigated: those within the organization attempting the commercialization, those that arise from attempts to link the community system with an electric utility, and those that impede the flow of investment capital into community energy systems. In summary, three general observations regarding community energy systems may be distilled from this study. First, although many barriers exist to the commercialization of the systems, few if any appear unresolvable. Perhaps most challenginng will be the problem of expanding the use of cogeneration and municipal sold waste while at the same time maintaining or improving ambient air quality. Second, the financial subsidies required to make community systems competitive are not extraordinary. Indeed, with the exception of photovoltaics they should not amount to more than about 10% of capital cost of the new systems, and mass production may eliminate the need for subsidies altogether at some point in the future. Third, the administrative and regulatory procedures required to make community energy systems viable appear to be taking shape in a positive and timely fashion.

  5. Reliability risks during the transition to competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) is a U.S. association representing industrial consumers of electricity, and is a long-standing advocate of competition in the electric power industry. However, because a reliable grid is necessary to support competitive wholesale markets, ELCON believes that the transmission system is an essential facility that must remain regulated. The initiatives discussed in this white paper represent significant steps that the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the industry have taken to improve reliability in a competitive and restructured electric industry. Strategic manoeuvres of incumbent utilities to maintain market share were evaluated, as well as discrimination against potential competitors. It was suggested that, occasionally, indecisive federal policies have been taken advantage of by utilities. The unintended consequences of state restructuring policies that allow utilities to over-earn their revenue requirements were reviewed. NERC reliability standards will remain unenforceable until a new Electricity Reliability Organization has been certified. Flawed market designs and inadequate market power mitigation, as well as the financial distress of merchant generators, pose considerable risks. It was suggested that these risks could trigger transmission loading relief incidents, local outages or widespread outages. In the absence of mandatory reliability standards with penalties, and complementary market rules for mitigating generation and transmission market power, economic incentives will encourage other forms of opportunistic behavior that may be the root cause of other outages. Public concern regarding these risks to grid reliability may result in lost public support for competitive electricity markets. Proposed solutions include the certification of a new Electric Reliability Organization to establish and enforce mandatory reliability standards, and granting the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

  6. Design approaches to achieve competitive LMFBR capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through analysis of the essential functional elements of an LMFBR, numerous ways were found to simplify system design, reduce the size of components and equipment, and eliminate some components and systems. The projected capital cost per net kW of this design is competitive with that of current PWRs. RandD programs and the construction and operation of CRBRP now are needed to prove out the features of this new design

  7. The Competitiveness of Croatian Export to EU Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Buturac, Goran; Gržinić, Jasmina

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the competitiveness of Croatian export to EU market. At the very beginning of the paper, by analyzing the results of regression model the basic differences among the value of Croatian exports in EU countries are to be explained. The differences in the size of Croatian export among EU countries could be well explained by the geographical distance between Croatia and individual EU countries, as well as, by the GDP of the EU countries. Croatia has positive trade balance with ...

  8. Molecular markers to study competition and diversity of Rhizobium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sessitsch, A

    1997-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was directed to the development of molecular identification and detection techniques for studying the ecology of Rhizobium, a nitrogen- fixing bacterium of agricultural importance. Competition of inoculant strains with indigenous microbes is a serious problem in agricultural practice and was therefore addressed in this work using the developed tools. Furthermore, various molecular techniques have been applied to analyse rhizobial populations nodulating co...

  9. China's Competitive Performance: A Threat to East Asian Manufactured Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Lall, Sanjaya; Albaladejo, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    We examine China's competitive threat to East Asian neighbors in the 1990s, benchmarking performance by technology and market. Market share losses are mainly in low-technology products; Japan is the most vulnerable market. China and its neighbors are raising high-technology exports in tandem: international production systems here are leading to complementarity rather than confrontation. In direct trade with its neighbors, China is acting as an engine of export growth, with imports outpacing e...

  10. Competition comes to the long-term gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that among the electric power projects being wholly or jointly developed by Long Lake Energy Corporation are two large gas-fired, combined-cycle facilities; one in Ontario, the other in New York. At 220 MW and 300 MW, they will consume large quantities of natural gas. Time limitations to put gas supplies in place to meet transportation queue deadlines and to support power contract requirements suggested that an alternate approach be used to procure gas supplies for these projects. Long Lake's solution was to issue a competitive request for gas supply proposals similar to the long-term capacity solicitations now common in the electric industry. The authors believe that this was the first time that a competitive request for proposals was used to secure long-term gas supplies for a cogeneration project. The primary result was the receipt of numerous competitive responses. What may be a secondary result is a change in the way such long-term gas supplies are procured in the future

  11. Competitiveness of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol compared to US corn ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world's leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil and together with the cost competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of cost competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of corn ethanol and sugarcane ethanol delivered to US ports. We find that while the cost of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil is lower than that of corn ethanol in the US, the inclusion of transportation costs for the former and co-product credits for the latter changes their relative competitiveness. We also find that the relative cost of ethanol in the US and Brazil is highly sensitive to the prevailing exchange rate and prices of feedstocks. At an exchange rate of US$1=R$2.15 the cost of corn ethanol is 15% lower than the delivered cost of sugarcane ethanol at a US port. Sugarcane ethanol has lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol but a price of over $113 per ton of CO2 is needed to affect competitiveness. - Research highlights: →The relative cost of ethanol produced in the US and imported from Brazil is shown to depend on currency exchange rate, feedstock costs, and co-product credits. →In 2006-2008, the cost of corn ethanol is estimated to be 15% lower than the cost of imported sugarcane ethanol at US ports. →A carbon pricing policy could affect relative costs in favor of sugarcane ethanol, but only at a high carbon price.

  12. Barriers to the development of fuel-cell electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is structured as follows: Fuel cells (with focus on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC)); Fuel cell electric vehicles; Barriers to commercial use of fuel cell vehicles in the following areas: price; hydrogen production; hydrogen infrastructure; hydrogen storage; other barriers (safety; lifetime; use in extreme conditions; control system errors). The major barriers include too high price and problems with a stable and sustainable hydrogen source. Also, the following must be ensured for a wider use of FCEVs: reduction in the weight and volume of the drive unit; improved lifetime of the PEMFC system; usability within wide weather conditions; existence of an adequate infrastructure (a dense hydrogen service station network and their hydrogen supply); and implementation of related legislation including safety standards. (P.A.)

  13. Barrier response to Holocene sea-level rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejrup, Morten; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N;

    Normally it is believed that sea-level rise causes coastal barrier retreat. However, sea-level is only one of the parameters determining the long term coastal development of barrier coasts. Sediment supply is an equally important determinant and may overshadow the effects of sea-level rise...... show quite different responses to sea-level rise. The southernmost island Rømø has survived 17 m of sea-level rise at the same position illustrating the control from sediment supply; whereas the northernmost island Skallingen has shifted its position several times during the same period indicating a...... much stronger component of sea-level control. The distance between the islands is only 50 km, and therefore our study shows that prediction of barrier development during a period of rising sea level may be more complicated than formerly believed....

  14. Trading and risk management during the transition to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This power point presentation outlined the risks facing companies active in competitive energy markets. It reviewed and explained various types of risks including physical, market, credit, liquidity, volumetric and operational risks. The management of price risks includes trading and risk management strategies aimed at exploiting the alternatives associated with highly volatile power and fuel markets. The presentation also reviewed financial energy management in terms of the fuel markets and wholesale markets. Approaches to trading were also presented. tabs., figs

  15. Using XBRL Technology to Extract Competitive Information from Financial Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik Ditter; Klaus Henselmann; Elisabeth Scherr

    2011-01-01

    The eXtensible Business Reporting Language, or XBRL, is a reporting format for the automatic and electronic exchange of business and financial data. In XBRL every single reported fact is marked with a unique tag, enabling a full computer-based readout of financial data. It has the potential to improve the collection and analysis of financial data for Competitive Intelligence (e.g., the profiling of publicly available financial statements). The article describes how easily information from XBR...

  16. A Competitive Approach to Leadership in Public Good Games

    OpenAIRE

    Centorrino, Samuele; Concina, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We show that introducing a competitive preliminary stage in a sequential public good game helps select one of the more cooperative leaders in the group. Using a modified second price auction, we find that bids have a strong positive predictive power on individual contributions. Moreover, evidence is provided that trust can explain voluntary and cooperative leadership. However, followers reaction to voluntary leaders may rise free riding behaviour, with uncertain effect on total...

  17. Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Improving Safety in Small Construction Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunindijo R.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of organisations in the construction industry are small organisations, how ever their safety performance is still far behind their larger counterparts. Therefore, it is important to focus on improving safety performance of small organisations so that the overall industry performance may be improved. Using a questionnaire survey, this research collected data from construction organisations based in New South Wales, Australia. Data analysis results have identified key barriers faced by small organisations when implementing safety. These barriers include the use of lowest bid price to evaluate tender submissions, lack of safety commitment from construction clients, and fierce competition. The analysis results have also revealed potential strategies for overcoming the barriers, such as including safety as an indicator in tender evaluation, more effective safety regulation enforcement by inspection and linking safety performance with insurance premium and licencing system, and subsidising safety training for small organisations. Improving safety performance in this sector cannot be done in isolation. The government, clients, and large organisations have important roles to play to change the norms and culture in the industry so that small organisations are supported in their effort to improve their safety performance.

  18. Determinants of immigrants’ entry to homeownership in three Nordic capital city regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauppinen, Timo; Andersen, Hans Skifter; Hedman, Lina

    2015-01-01

    not only a function of differences in economic resources. These studies have largely focused on Anglo-American contexts, using mostly cross-sectional data. We apply survival analysis methods to analyse the determinants of entry to homeownership in the capital regions of three Nordic countries...... uncertainty about the future affects also middle-income immigrants. Differences between the three contexts in housing markets and policies do not seem to matter much, although the results indicate that difficult access to private rental sector may push immigrants to homeownership....

  19. Advanced Aero-Propulsive Mid-Lift-to-Drag Ratio Entry Vehicle for Future Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C. H.; Stosaric, R. R; Cerimele, C. J.; Wong, K. A.; Valle, G. D.; Garcia, J. A.; Melton, J. E.; Munk, M. M.; Blades, E.; Kuruvila, G.; Picetti, D. J.; Hassan, B.; Kniskern, M. W.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is currently looking well into the future toward realizing Exploration mission possibilities to destinations including the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, Near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the Moon. These are stepping stones to our ultimate destination Mars. New ideas will be required to conquer the significant challenges that await us, some just conceptions and others beginning to be realized. Bringing these ideas to fruition and enabling further expansion into space will require varying degrees of change, from engineering and integration approaches used in spacecraft design and operations, to high-level architectural capabilities bounded only by the limits of our ideas. The most profound change will be realized by paradigm change, thus enabling our ultimate goals to be achieved. Inherent to achieving these goals, higher entry, descent, and landing (EDL) performance has been identified as a high priority. Increased EDL performance will be enabled by highly-capable thermal protection systems (TPS), the ability to deliver larger and heavier payloads, increased surface access, and tighter landing footprints to accommodate multiple asset, single-site staging. In addition, realizing reduced cost access to space will demand more efficient approaches and reusable launch vehicle systems. Current operational spacecraft and launch vehicles do not incorporate the technologies required for these far-reaching missions and goals, nor what is needed to achieve the desired launch vehicle cost savings. To facilitate these missions and provide for safe and more reliable capabilities, NASA and its partners will need to make ideas reality by gaining knowledge through the design, development, manufacturing, implementation and flight testing of robotic and human spacecraft. To accomplish these goals, an approach is recommended for integrated development and implementation of three paradigm-shifting capabilities into an advanced entry vehicle system with additional application to launch

  20. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  1. Reported barriers to evaluation in chronic care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knai, Cécile; Nolte, Ellen; Brunn, Matthias; Elissen, Arianne; Conklin, Annalijn; Pedersen, Janice Pedersen; Brereton, Laura; Erler, Antje; Frølich, Anne; Flamm, Maria; Fullerton, Birgitte; Jacobsen, Ramune; Krohn, Robert; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Vrijhoef, Bert; Chevreul, Karine; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Farsi, Fadila; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio; Soennichsen, Andreas

    The growing movement of innovative approaches to chronic disease management in Europe has not been matched by a corresponding effort to evaluate them. This paper discusses challenges to evaluation of chronic disease management as reported by experts in six European countries....

  2. Attributional Biases: More Barriers to Women's Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni; And Others

    This paper presents three studies dealing with the use of attribution theory in the study of sex differences in achievement. These sex differences are measured in terms of task difficulty, ability, effort, and luck according to the model developed by Weiner, et al (1971). The studies attempt to expand the Weiner model to demonstrate that males and…

  3. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-05-01

    In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.

  4. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of the spatial organization and spatial dynamics of microbial populations in soil at a scale close to that of the microorganisms is scarce. While passive dispersal via water ow or soil biota is probably a major dispersal route, it is reasonable to consider that active dispersal also contributes to microbial spatial dynamics. In bacteria, active dispersal is enabled by a diversity of appendages and, in the case of swarming motility, by the secretion of surface active biomolecules...

  5. Distance is not a barrier to health

    OpenAIRE

    Poikela, Paula

    2015-01-01

    We live in a society that cherishes and upholds welfare. This is no longer done strictly with ”elbow grease”, but rather using a variety of innovations – welfare technology innovations. The purpose of technology is to help not only those who need help, but also employees in their daily work. We have grown accustomed to the idea that technology is not needed until some part of our bodies starts to give out. That is when the latest welfare technology solutions come to the rescue. In the fie...

  6. The Continuity of Barrier Function with Respect to the Parameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinxiang LI; Jun YAN

    2009-01-01

    The authors study the continuity of barrier function Be(x) with respect to the parameter.A sufficient condition which makes Bc(x) be continuous with respect to c is obtained,and an example of discontinuity when the condition is not satisfied is also constructed.

  7. Typical diffusion behaviour in packaging polymers - Application to functional barriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dole, P.; Feigenbaum, A.E.; Cruz, C. de la; Pastorelli, S.; Paseiro, P.; Hankemeier, T.; Voulzatis, Y.; Aucejo, S.; Saillard, P.; Papaspyrides, C.

    2006-01-01

    When plastics are collected for recycling, possibly contaminated articles might be recycled into food packaging, and thus the contaminants might subsequently migrate into the food. Multilayer functional barriers may be used to delay and to reduce such migration. The contribution of the work reported

  8. How Barriers to Collaboration Prevent Progress in Demand for Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the challenging collaboration between small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and knowledge institutions. The aim of the article is to shed light on the barriers, which hinder collaboration, and to investigate the particular role of research and technology organizations (R...

  9. Barriers to Asthma Management for School Nurses: An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley Nadeau, Ellen; Toronto, Coleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a growing health concern. Asthma is the most common chronic illness of childhood and a leading cause of emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and school absenteeism. School nurses play a valuable role in asthma management. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine barriers to asthma management for school nurses in…

  10. Identifying Barriers to the Remix of Translated Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Tel

    2013-01-01

    Remix is touted as one of the most important practices within the field of open educational resources (OER). But remixing is still not mainstream practice in education and the barriers and limitations to remix are not well known. In this article we discuss the design and development of a print and web-based booklet created to introduce the topic…

  11. Barriers and Biases toward Women: Impediments to Administrative Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobbs, Joan.

    Barriers to administrative advancement for women in academe are discussed. A study of perceived managerial style and leadership skill of women two-year college presidents was designed to fill a gap in research during an era of significant advancement opportunities for women. Leadership in higher education in the United States is gradually…

  12. Barriers to Dance Training for Young People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aujla, Imogen J.; Redding, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Dance is a viable and enjoyable activity -- and potential career -- for young people with disabilities, yet they face several barriers to participation and training. The aim of this article, by Imogen J. Aujla of the University of Bedfordshire and Emma Redding of Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance, is to review the literature on…

  13. Overcoming Barriers to Classroom Technology Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Technology-savvy teachers are often the "go to" staff members in schools for their colleagues' technology issues. These teachers are seen as leaders within their schools with respect to technology and often do not understand their peers' difficulties when bringing technology into the classroom. Understanding both the reasons teachers may…

  14. Barriers to Communication in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Zane L.

    2013-01-01

    To a large extent education can be thought of as a communication process among the participants. This article focuses on distance education, which has both the general communication processes that in-person education venues possess, and also communication specific to the technologies that mediate the teaching and learning taking place at a…

  15. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Jay R. Gunderson; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2002-09-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has completed a project to examine fundamental issues that could limit the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC attempted to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low-volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience problematic fouling when switched to higher-volatile and more reactive coal-biomass blends. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause increased clinkering or slagging at the grate due to higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start much earlier for biomass fuels compared to design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates, various chlorides, and phosphates. These species in combination with different flue gas temperatures, because of changes in fuel heating value, can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project was to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project were: (1) Modification of an existing pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system. (2) Verification testing of the simulator. (3) Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to

  16. Barriers to bacterial motility on unsaturated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.

    2013-01-01

    characterized by complex 3D geometry and variable hydration. To approach these questions we take advantage of the Porous Surface Model (PSM) a unique experimental platform that allows direct monitoring of microbial motion under precisely controlled matric potential. Using gfp-tagged Pseudomonas strains and......Our knowledge of the spatial organization and spatial dynamics of microbial populations in soil at a scale close to that of the microorganisms is scarce. While passive dispersal via water ow or soil biota is probably a major dispersal route, it is reasonable to consider that active dispersal also...... contributes to microbial spatial dynamics. In bacteria, active dispersal is enabled by a diversity of appendages and, in the case of swarming motility, by the secretion of surface active biomolecules. It is however unclear to which degree di_erent types of motility can take place in the soil pores, a habitat...

  17. BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Darren D. Schmidt; Greg F. Weber; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    2001-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) is conducting a project to examine the fundamental issues limiting the use of biomass in small industrial steam/power systems in order to increase the future use of this valuable domestic resource. Specifically, the EERC is attempting to elucidate the ash-related problems--grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling--associated with cofiring coal and biomass in grate-fired systems. Utilization of biomass in stoker boilers designed for coal can be a cause of concern for boiler operators. Boilers that were designed for low volatile fuels with lower reactivities can experience damaging fouling when switched to higher volatile and more reactive lower-rank fuels, such as when cofiring biomass. Higher heat release rates at the grate can cause more clinkering or slagging at the grate because of higher temperatures. Combustion and loss of volatile matter can start too early for biomass fuels compared to the design fuel, vaporizing alkali and chlorides which then condense on rear walls and heat exchange tube banks in the convective pass of the stoker, causing noticeable increases in fouling. In addition, stoker-fired boilers that switch to biomass blends may encounter new chemical species such as potassium sulfates and various chlorides, in combination with different flue gas temperatures because of changes in fuel heating value which can adversely affect ash deposition behavior. The goal of this project is to identify the primary ash mechanisms related to grate clinkering and heat exchange surface fouling associated with cofiring coal and biomass--specifically wood and agricultural residuals--in grate-fired systems, leading to future mitigation of these problems. The specific technical objectives of the project are: Modification of an existing EERC pilot-scale combustion system to simulate a grate-fired system; Verification testing of the simulator; Laboratory-scale testing and fuel characterization to determine ash

  18. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacker K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karen Hacker,1,2 Maria Anies,2 Barbara L Folb,2,3 Leah Zallman4–6 1Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Graduate School of Public Health, 3Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Institute for Community Health, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA; 6Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase

  19. Clay as a barrier to radionuclide migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of their low permeability, high sorption capacity and plasticity clay bodies are potentially suitable repositories for radioactive waste. This paper discusses the factors that influence radionuclide mobility in natural clay materials. Methods for determining radionuclide migration rates are described and compared. Data requirements necessary to establish whether or not a particular site is suitable for waste disposal are discussed. Suggestions are made as to the most important generic research that needs to be carried out. In the appendix, some of the most relevant published sorption and diffusion data are summarized and compared. (author)

  20. Family practice nurse views on barriers to immunising children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petousis-Harris, Helen; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Turner, Nikki; Soe, Ben

    2005-04-15

    New Zealand (NZ) has low immunisation coverage for infants and children compared to many other westernised countries. Barriers to improving uptake are multifactorial, with health professional knowledge and attitudes identified as important modifiable factors. In NZ practice nurses give most childhood vaccinations in the primary health care setting. This study explored aspects of 150 family practice nurse views, knowledge and experience about immunisation. Qualitative and quantitative text data were obtained through randomised computer assisted telephone surveys and converged using a triangulated multi-method approach. Response rate was 89.3% nurses identified parents' fear as the greatest barrier to achieving better immunisation uptake and disagreed that health professional knowledge was a barrier. However, findings showed lack of knowledge among many participants, despite many feeling confident about their knowledge base. Factors associated with lower practice coverage of infants under 2 years were poorer knowledge of contraindications to vaccination and lack of completion of vaccinator training, especially an update course. A high level of confidence, more years in practice, dedicated time to follow-ups were not associated with better coverage rates. Practice nurses may be unaware that their knowledge in some areas needs improving. A trained practice nurse appears to play a significant role in overcoming fears and maintaining high coverage rates in their practice. We conclude that strategies that focus on primary health care provider support and education are more likely to gain high coverage than those that are purely directed at overcoming access barriers. PMID:15780719